WorldWideScience

Sample records for alkaline intermediate level

  1. Removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solution : a laboratory investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods were investigated in the laboratory for the removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solutions of reprocessing plant origin. The methods included batch equilibration with different ion exchangers and sorbents, column testing and chemical precipitation. A column method using zinc-activated carbon mixture and a chemical precipitation method using ferrous salt along with sodium sulphite were found to be promising for plant scale application. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Nitrate reducing bacterial activity under alkaline conditions found in intermediate-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the bituminous waste, a mixture of bitumen and insoluble salts, mainly of nitrate and sulphate carrying low and intermediate level radioactivity. The re-saturation of the disposal cells after closure will likely lead to the development of microbial activity. One of the most critical aspects limiting bacterial activity is the high alkalinity prevailing in the barrier concrete system and at the concrete-clay rock interface (pH = 11-13.5). The objective of this work is to evaluate the possible activity of nitrate reducing bacteria under these alkaline conditions, building on knowledge for alkaliphilic bacteria gained from similar conditions. Alkaliphilic bacteria develop optimally at pH values above 9, often between 10 and 12, in some cases above 12. They are likely to be predominant under alkaline conditions, but they will be replaced by neutrophilic bacteria as soon as local zones of near-neutral pH develop. In the case of a waste cell this could be at the interface to the clay rock or in the vicinity of organic matter releasing bituminous waste. Two sets of experiments have been carried out, bringing nitrate in contact with a solution containing organic matter (acetate) and a culture of alkaliphilic microbes, one focuses on the influence of nitrate concentrations, the other on the impact of changes in pH (10.0 and 12.4). The results indicate a low microbial activity at pH 12.4 whereas a significant nitrate reduction is obtained at pH 10.0. Furthermore, nitrite is the main product of nitrate reduction; traces of ammonium have also been measured. (authors)

  3. Biotic and abiotic catalysis of nitrate reduction in alkaline environment of repository storage cell for long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the reactivity of nitrates at the bitumen-concrete interface with the aim of determining redox conditions inside a repository storage cell for long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The first part of the work aimed to identify, under abiotic conditions, the interactions between two components of the system: concrete (introduced as cement pastes in the system) and bitumen (represented by leachates composed of organic acids and nitrates). The second part of the study was conducted under biotic conditions with selected denitrifying heterotrophic bacteria (Pseudomonas stutzeri - Ps and Halomonas desiderata - Hd) and aimed to analyse the microbial reaction of nitrate reduction (kinetics, by-products, role of the organic matter) under neutral to alkaline pH conditions (i.e. imposed by a concrete environment). Results showed that strong interactions occurred between cementitious matrices and acetic and oxalic organic acids, likely reducing the bio-availability of this organic matter (oxalate in particular). Results also confirmed the stability of nitrates under these conditions. Under biotic conditions, nitrates were reduced by both Ps and Hd following an anaerobic denitrification metabolic pathway. Reduction kinetics was higher with Ps but the reaction was inhibited for pH ≥ 9. Hd was capable of denitrification at least up to pH 11. (authors)

  4. Simultaneous separation and consolidation of 137Cs from alkaline intermediate level reprocessing waste using resorcinol formaldehyde polycondensate resin and zeolite sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative process has been adopted for highly efficient separation of 137Cs from alkaline reprocessing waste using cesium-selective resorcinol formaldehyde polycondensate resin (RFPR) in repeated loading-elution cycles

  5. Evidence of the generation of isosaccharinic acids and their subsequent degradation by local microbial consortia within hyper-alkaline contaminated soils, with relevance to intermediate level radioactive waste disposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Rout

    Full Text Available The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0 soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration.

  6. Evidence of the generation of isosaccharinic acids and their subsequent degradation by local microbial consortia within hyper-alkaline contaminated soils, with relevance to intermediate level radioactive waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Simon P; Charles, Christopher J; Garratt, Eva J; Laws, Andrew P; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration. PMID:25748643

  7. Degradation of cellulosic materials under the alkaline conditions of a cementitious repository for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste. Pt. III. Effect of degradation products on the sorption of radionuclides on feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of degradation products of different cellulosic materials on the sorption behaviour of Th(IV), Eu(III) and Ni(II) on feldspar at pH 13.3 was studied. For all three metals, a decrease in sorption could be observed with increasing concentration of organics in solution. For Th(IV), α-ISA is the effective ligand present in the solutions of degraded cellulose, independent on the type of cellulose studied. For Eu(III), α-ISA is the effective ligand in the case of pure cellulose degradation. In the case of other cellulosic materials, unknown ligands cause the sorption reduction. For Ni(II), also unknown ligands cause sorption reduction, independent on the type of cellulose studied. These unknown ligands are not formed during alkaline degradation of cellulose, but are present as impurities in certain cellulosic materials. (orig.)

  8. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.

  9. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety

  10. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive research investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low level and intermediate level waste immobilized in cement. Several topics have been investigated which include: (a) the study of the formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates; (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments; (c) colloid sorption behaviour; (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates; (e) characteristics of near-field materials in EC repository simulation tests; and (f) colloid migration behaviour. These experimental investigations should provide data and a basis for the development of transport models and leaching mechanisms, and thus relate directly to the part of the Task 3 programme concerned with migration and retention of radionuclides in the near field. 114 Figs.; 39 Tabs.; 12 Refs

  11. Acceptance criteria for deposition of low-level and intermediate-level radiation levels radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This norm establishes the criteria for acceptance low and intermediate radiation level for safe deposition in repositories, for assuring the protection of workers, population and environment against the hazardous effects of the ionizing radiations. The criteria of this norm applies to the low and intermediate radiation levels

  12. Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low and intermediate level wastes are produced from radioisotopic application in medicine and industry in Peru. Intermediate level solid waste are collected from Nuclear Research Centre. This wastes are cemented for final disposal. This poster presents description of the bunker used for disposal and future plans for radioactive waste management. 3 refs, 1 fig

  13. Oxygen reduction reaction over nitrogen-doped graphene oxide cathodes in acid and alkaline fuel cells at intermediate temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ORR for nitrogen-doped graphene in acid and alkaline fuel cells at intermediate temperatures. • Nitrogen-doped graphene had higher activity for the ORR than graphene. • The ORR activity was enhanced by an increase in the operating temperature. • The ORR activity was kept for long time in both acid and alkaline fuel cells. - Abstract: Graphene oxides with various nitrogen contents were prepared by annealing them in an NH3 flow between 350 and 850 °C, and their electrocatalytic properties toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acid and alkaline fuel cells at intermediate temperatures were investigated. In both acid and alkaline fuel cells, graphene oxide treated with NH3 at 700 °C for 1 h was the most active cathode at operating temperatures between 75 and 200 °C, where the ORR activity was enhanced by an increase in the operating temperature. This cathode also exhibited high chemical and thermal stability toward the ORR. X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopic measurements of the nitrogen-doped graphene oxides indicated that the pyridinic nitrogen introduced disordered edge planes into the graphene structure. BET analysis also revealed that the surface area of graphene oxide was increased by the exposure of such edge planes. These observations lead to the assumption that the defects introduced by pyridinic nitrogen act as active sites for the ORR. Considering the similarity in ORR activity between the acid and alkaline fuel cells, dissociative adsorption of O2 at the active site is a rate-determining step

  14. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low and intermediate level waste immobilised in cement. Several topics have been investigated using a wide range of advanced physico-chemical and analytical techniques. These include: (a) the study of formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates, (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments, (c) colloid sorption behaviour, (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates, and (e) preliminary assessment of colloid migration behaviour. It has been shown that the generation of colloids in cement leachates can arise from a process of nucleation and growth leading to an amorphous phase which is predominantly calcium silicate hydrate. Such colloidal material has a capacity for association with polyvalent rare earths and actinides and these may be significant in the source term and processes involving radionuclide retention in the near field. It has also been shown that the near-field aqueous chemistry (pH, Ca2+ concentration) has a marked effect on colloid behaviour (deposition and stability). A mechanistic approach to predict colloid sorption affinity has been developed which highlights the importance of colloid characteristics and the nature of the ionic species. (author)

  15. Quantum chemical study of conformational preferences of intermediates and transition states in the alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphate diester is a basic structure in DNA and RNA. The mechanism of phosphate diester hydrolysis is important for understanding the decomposition reactions of nucleic acids. In this study, we have explored the reaction pathway of alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl phosphate, which is the simplest phosphate diester, with a hydroxide ion. Since the conformations of the intermediates and transition states reportedly influence the reaction mechanism of transacylation of methyl acetate with methoxide, we considered the conformational preferences on the alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl phosphate, by using the most stable conformer as a reactant. Upon the reaction with hydroxide, a concerted reaction pathway was obtained in the gas phase, whereas a stepwise reaction pathway was obtained in water. As compared to the earlier study, our computation shows more stable conformations in the hydrolysis reactions than the previous study

  16. Packaging and transport of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an overview of Nirex proposals for the packaging and transport of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste, as well as the regulatory requirements which must be met in such operations. (author)

  17. Operational radiation hazards control experience during treatment of intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing of spent fuel from nuclear reactors leads to the generation of alkaline intermediate level (ILW) wastes along with other types of radioactive waste streams. As a campaign, this IL waste has been treated in a transportable ion exchange facility using the indigenously developed cesium selective Resorcinol Formaldehyde Polycondensate Resin (RFPR). The process has given consistently a decontamination factor of 10,000 for 137Cs and a volume reduction factor of 12.8. This is achieved with low personnel exposure of 2.4 man-rem and without any safety related unusual incident. (author)

  18. Alkaline Earth Core Level Photoemission Spectroscopy of High-Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines photoemission measurements of the alkaline Earth core levels of high-temperature superconductors and related materials, models that seek to explain the large negative shifts observed relative to the corresponding alkaline Earth metals, and the effect of lattice site disorder on the core level spectra and the presence or absence of intrinsic surface peaks.

  19. Soluble ICAM-1 serum levels in patients with intermediate uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Klok, A.M.; Luyendijk, L.; Zaal, M.J.W.; Rothova, A; Kijlstra, A

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To investigate whether serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) can serve as a marker of the presence of systemic disease in intermediate uveitis.
METHODS—In a multicentre study sICAM-1 serum levels were measured in 61 patients with idiopathic intermediate uveitis, controls included 56 uveitis patients with a systemic disease (26 sarcoid associated uveitis and 30 HLA-B27 positive acute anterior uveitis), 58 uveitis patients without systemic disease (30 toxoplasm...

  20. Investigation of Unexpected Reaction Intermediates in the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,5-Dinitrobenzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Clesia C.; Silva, Ricardo O.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An experimental project aimed at identifying stable reaction intermediates is described. Initially, the studied reaction appears to involve the simple hydrolysis, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. On mixing the substrates, however, the reaction mixture unexpectedly turns an intense red in…

  1. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  2. Intermediate level waste management at Sellafield -- A comprehensive strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc is undertaking the retrieval and treatment of its historic Intermediate Level Waste Inventory at Sellafield. The Company has developed technical and managerial capabilities to achieve this task safely and within declared lifetime costs. The paper describes the key aspects of this work, and concludes that its successful completion can help to secure the long term future of the UK Nuclear Industry

  3. Geo-polymers as Candidates for the Immobilisation of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geo-polymers should be serious waste form candidates for intermediate level waste (ILW), insofar as they are more durable than Portland cement and can pass the PCT-B test for high-level waste. Thus an alkaline ILW could be considered to be satisfactorily immobilised in a geo-polymer formulation. However a simulated Hanford tank waste was found to fail the PCT-B criterion even for a waste loading as low as 5 wt%, very probably due to the formation of a soluble sodium phosphate compound(s). This suggests that it could be worth developing a 'mixed' GP waste form in which the amorphous material can immobilize cations and a zeolitic component to immobilize anions. The PCT-B test is demonstrably subject to significant saturation effects, especially for relatively soluble waste forms. (authors)

  4. Containers for packaging of solid and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are generated at all stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and also from the medical, industrial and research applications of radiation. These wastes can potentially present risks to health and the environment if they are not managed adequately. Their effective management will require the wastes to be safely stored, transported and ultimately disposed of. The waste container, which may be defined as any vessel, drum or box, made from metals, concrete, polymers or composite materials, in which the waste form is placed for interim storage, for transport and/or for final disposal, is an integral part of the whole package for the management of low and intermediate level wastes. It has key roles to play in several stages of the waste management process, starting from the storage of raw wastes and ending with the disposal of conditioned wastes. This report provides an overview of the various roles that a container may play and the factors that are important in each of these roles. This report has two main objectives. The first is to review the main requirements for the design of waste containers. The second is to provide advice on the design, fabrication and handling of different types of containers used in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes. Recommendations for design and testing are given, based on the extensive experience available worldwide in waste management. This report is not intended to have any regulatory status or objectives. 56 refs, 16 figs, 10 tabs

  5. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the essential aims in the waste management is to reduce as much as possible the waste volumes to be stored or disposed of, and to concentrate and immobilize as much as possible the radioactivity contained in the waste. This document describes the treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid waste prior to its conditioning for storage and disposal. This report aims primarily at compiling the experience gained in treating low- and intermediate-active solid wastes, one of the major waste sources in nuclear technology. Apart from the description of existing facilities and demonstrated handling schemes, this report provides the reader with the basis for a judgement that facilitates the selection of appropriate solutions for a given solid-waste management problem. It thus aims at providing guidelines in the particular field and indicates new promising approaches that are actually under investigation and development

  6. Relativistic energy levels and oscillator strengths for the ns(n-1)d 1D-ns21S transitions of the alkaline earth atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully relativistic Dirac-Fock method with Breit and QED corrections has been employed to study energy levels and oscillator strengths for the ns(n-1)d 1D-ns21S transitions of the alkaline earth atoms. In calculation, the authors consider significant Breit and QED corrections, the results are in good agreements with recent experimental data and other theoretical values. The results show that it is feasible to obtain the highly Rybderg states of the alkaline earth atoms, especially the autoionization states, by use of quadrupole transitions as an intermediate resonance

  7. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at giving the reader details of the experience gained in the treatment of both low- and intermediate-level radioactive liquid wastes. The treatment comprises those operations to remove radioactivity from the wastes and those that change only its chemical composition, so as to permit its discharge. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the satisfactory treatment of such wastes. Although there are no universally accepted definitions for low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes, the IAEA classification (see section 3.2) is used in this report. The two categories differ from one another in the fact that for low-level liquids the actual radiation does not require shielding during normal handling of the wastes. Liquid wastes which are not considered in this report are those from mining and milling operations and the high-level liquid wastes resulting from fuel reprocessing. These are referred to in separate IAEA reports. Likewise, wastes from decommissioning operations are not within the scope of this report. Apart from the description of existing methods and facilities, this report is intended to provide advice to the reader for the selection of appropriate solutions to waste management problems. In addition, new and promising techniques which are either being investigated or being considered for the future are discussed

  8. Low and intermediate level waste repositories: public involvement aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy acceptance creates several problems, and one of the most important is the disposal of the radioactive waste. International experiences show that not only environmental, radiological and technical questions have to be analyzed, but the public opinion about the project must be considered. The objective of this article is to summarize some public involvement aspects associated with low and intermediate level waste repositories. Experiences from USA, Canada, South Africa, Ukraine and other countries are studied and show the importance of the population in the site selection process for a repository. (author)

  9. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, it is necessary to establish, in a few years, a definitive repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in order to satisfy the necessities of Mexico for the next 50 years. Consequently, it is required to estimate the volumes of the radioactive waste generated annually, the stored volumes to-date and their projection to medium-term. On this subject, the annual average production of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from the electricity production by means of nuclear power reactors is 250 m3/y which consist of humid and dry solid waste from the 2 units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant having a re-use efficiency of effluents of 95%. On the other hand, the applications in medicine, industry and research generate 20 m3/y of solid waste, 280 m3/y of liquid waste and approximately 10 m3/y from 300 spent sealed radioactive sources. The estimation of the total volume of these waste to the year 2035 is 17500 m3 corresponding to the 46% of the volume generated by the operation and maintenance of the 2 units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, 34% to the decommissioning of these 2 units at the end of their useful life and 20% to the waste generated by applications in medicine, industry and research. (author)

  10. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.

  11. Conditioning of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fuel cycle, together with the use of separated radioisotopes, in many endeavours generates a variety of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. These waste materials contain quantities of radionuclides sufficient to present potential health risks to people if the wastes are not adequately managed, but usually insufficient quantities to require heat removal. Adequate management involves a series of steps which lead from the arising of the wastes to their safe disposal, steps which may include collection, segregation, treatment, volume reduction, conditioning, transport, interim storage and disposal. Each step is defined by the need to accommodate to the preceding one and to facilitate the ones that follow. This technical report describes primarily the technologies available for the conditioning steps (i.e., immobilization and packaging) and relates them to the other steps. In broad terms, the purpose of conditioning is to convert the wastes into packages that are suitable for transport, storage and disposal

  12. Experience in managing short lived low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial utilization of radioactive materials in nuclear power production and other beneficial applications in medicine, research and industry generated residual radioactive wastes. Various activities associated with nuclear power production account for the major portion of waste arisings. The wastes differ widely in physical, chemical/radiochemical characteristics, quantities and associated hazard. The International Atomic Energy Agency has addressed this important aspect and latest guidelines have been issued in 1994. No single process or technology can be used for safe management of the wide variety of wastes. Therefore, classification of wastes is essential to adopt optimum management schemes for specific wastes. The approach for management of short lived, low and intermediate level wastes is to concentrate and contain the radiocontaminants. This involves various steps such as waste minimization, segregation, collection, transport, treatment, conditioning, packaging, storage, disposal and surveillance. Options are available for carrying out these steps which are interrelated and selection of one option in a step can influence the option to be adopted in other steps. It is, therefore, essential to plan the waste management scheme in a complete and comprehensive manner for judicious selection of options. Adequate processes, technologies and equipment have been developed worldwide. The experience so far has indicated that these wastes can be managed safely in a manner guaranteed to protect human and the environment. Radioactive waste management is an ever evolving field and research and development is continuing in many countries. Innovations and improvements in the processes, technologies etc. will go on getting introduced to strengthen safety, improve economics and reduce radiation exposures. This paper deals with various aspects pertaining to the management of short lived, low and intermediate level wastes. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Reinforced concrete in the intermediable-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for developing the nuclear waste disposal management programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is a near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers and the model foresees a period of 300 years of institutional post-closure control. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of these concrete structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents laboratory investigations performed on the corrosion susceptibility of steel rebars embedded in two different types of high performance reinforced concretes, recently developed by the National Institute of Industrial Technology (Argentine). Concretes were made with cement with Blast Furnace Slag (CAH) and Silica Fume cement (CAH + SF). The aim of this work is to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. Besides, the diffusion coefficients of aggressive species, such as chloride and carbon dioxide, were also determined. On the other hand, data obtained with corrosion sensors embedded in a vault prototype is also included. These sensors allow on-line measurements of several parameters related to the corrosion process such as rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity; chloride concentration and internal concrete temperature. All the information obtained from both, laboratory tests and sensors will be used for the final design of the container in order to achieve a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of

  14. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Government is committed to establishing two purpose-built facilities for the management of Australia's radioactive waste; the national repository for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level ('low level') waste, and the national store for storage of long-lived intermediate level ('intermediate level') waste. It is strongly in the interests of public security and safety to secure radioactive waste by disposal or storage in facilities specially designed for this purpose. The current arrangements where waste is stored under ad hoc arrangements at hundreds of sites around Australia does not represent international best practice in radioactive waste management. Environmental approval has been obtained for the national repository to be located at Site 40a, 20 km east of Woomera in South Australia, and licences are currently being sought from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to site, construct and operate the facility. The national repository may be operating in 2004 subject to obtaining the required licences. The national store will be located on Australian Government land and house intermediate level waste produced by Australian Government departments and agencies. The national store will not be located in South Australia. Short-listing of potentially suitable sites is expected to be completed soon

  15. Bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results and experiences are summed up from the research and development of the technology of bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates generated in the operation of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. The experiments took place on a pilot plant bituminization line with various model solutions at an evaporator capacity of 70, 100 and 140 litres per hour. The composition of the solutions changed in dependence on the knowledge of the composition of actual concentrates in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The following factors were studied in the concentrate: the effect of its pH, its borate content and content of metal carbonates, the content of organic acid salts, the content of detergents, etc., on the process of bituminization. Physico-chemical conditions are described under which the operation of the evaporator was fail-safe and filling of the bituminization product with salts homogeneous. A low water content of up to 1% was achieved. The properties of the bituminization product were negatively affected by a high level of heavy metal oxides, surfactants, oxalates and citrates. In order to improve the properties of the product it will be necessary to replace bitumen emulsion Silembit-60 used as reinforcement matrix, by a different type of bitumen. (Z.M.)

  16. Partitioning high-level waste from alkaline solution: A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most chemical partitioning procedures are designed for acidic feed solutions. However, the high-level waste solutions in the underground storage tanks at US Department of Energy defense production sites are alkaline. Effective partitioning procedures for alkaline solutions could decrease the need to acidify these solutions and to dissolve the solids in acid, which would simplify subsequent processing and decrease the generation of secondary waste. The author compiles candidate technologies from his review of the chemical literature, experience, and personal contacts. Several of these are recommended for evaluation

  17. Low-alkaline cementitious grout for high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stratum disposal system for high-level nuclear waste mainly involves the use of natural bedrock, called the natural barrier, and over pack and the buffer, those are designated as the artificial barrier. Grouting technology is indispensable for the environment that the crack and the underground water flow of the bedrock bring about mass transport, also ratio active component. However, typical cementitious grout material is strongly alkaline and the alkalinity that it imparts to the barrier material, especially to mineral substances in the bedrock or buffer, is suspected to compromise the performance of the barrier system over the long term. In order to avoid this undesirable alkaline influence, we have developed a procedure for reducing the alkaline state in cementitious materials by employing high volumes of additives such as pozzolanic materials. In this paper, we discuss the basic properties of low-alkaline cementitious grout, and explain how to select and mix appropriate proportions of grout to accomplish the end-objective, i.e., develop an efficient stratum disposal system. We also elaborate on progress achieved in research on this topic over the last two years. (author)

  18. The pretreatment of intermediate level sludge and floc wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of sludge and floc wastes arise in the UK from the storage and reprocessing of spent fuel. These include the products of fuel cladding corrosion and various liquid effluent clean-up processes. Many of these wastes are currently stored without pre-treatment in silos, tanks and ponds. Strategies for conditioning these wastes are being developed. These are based on cement encapsulation with the products being kept in retrievable stores until suitable disposal facilities become available. The solid concentrations in the suldge and floc wastes as they arise are generally quite low. Since the volumes of wastes encapsulated in cement are largely determined by the amounts of free water retained with the wastes there are strong incentives for some form of water removal pretreatment. This would lead to cost savings through reductions in plant size and in the volumes of waste for disposal. Critical appraisals have been undertaken of the potential of a wide range of dewatering options, including thermal and filtration processes, for treating various of these intermediate level wastes. In these appraisals the performance of the total system including feeding, product transfer, process control, plant flexibility, maintenance, secondary effluent generation and treatment etc has been evaluated. This paper describes some of the more favoured processes which have been evaluated experimentally as part of these assessments

  19. Korean working towards low and intermediate level waste volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance. This paper describes the results, efforts, and prospects for the safe management of radioactive wastes having been performed by the Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC) of the Korean Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). Firstly, KEPCO's efforts and results for waste volume reduction are summarized to show how the number of waste drums generated per reactor-year could be reduced by about 60% during the last 10 years. Secondly, a new treatment technology, a technology for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) vitrification, was introduced to prospect how the technology reduces the waste volume and increases the inherent safety for LILW disposal. It is expected that the vitrification technology will contribute not only to reduce LILW volume to around 1/14 ∼ 1/32 but also to change the 'Not In My Back Yard' (NIMBY) syndrome to the 'Please In My Front Yard' (PIMFY) attitude of local communities/residents for LILW disposal. (author)

  20. Acceptability of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting of a radioactive waste repository, even for the waste of low and intermediate level (LILW) radioactivity, presents a great problem in almost every country that produces such waste. The main problem is not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the acceptability of this kind of repository. In general, people are opposed to any such kind of facility in their vicinity (NIMBY). In this study we try to establish the factors that influence people's behavior regarding the construction of a radioactive waste repository in their local community, with the use of Ajzen's model of planned behavior. Two different scenarios about the construction of a radioactive waste repository in their community, together with a set of questions were presented to participants from different schools. Data from the survey were analysed by multivariate methods, and a model of relevant behaviour was proposed. From the results it can be seen that different approaches to local community participation in site selection process slightly influence people's attitudes towards the LILW repository, while significant differences in answers were found in the responses which depend on participants' knowledge. Therefore the RAO Agency will further intensify preparation of the relevant communication plan and start with its implementation to support LILW repository site selection process, which will also include educational programme. (author)

  1. Nonshorthand Impediments to Trascription at the Intermediate and Advanced Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Mary Jane

    1975-01-01

    The basic purpose of the study was to determine the types and frequency of nonshorthand errors on typewritten transcripts of shorthand dictation of 40 intermediate and 34 advanced stenography students at the University of Missouri in 1970-71. (Author)

  2. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few years, significant progress has been made towards siting national, purpose-built facilities for Australian radioactive waste. In 2001, after an eight year search, a preferred site and two alternatives were identified in central-north South Australia for a near-surface repository for Australian low level (low level and short-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste. Site 52a at Everts Field West on the Woomera Prohibited Area was selected as the preferred site as it performs best against the selection criteria, particularly with respect to geology, ground water, transport and security. Two alternative sites, Site 45a and Site 40a, east of the Woomera-Roxby Downs Road, were also found to be highly suitable for the siting of the national repository. A project has commenced to site a national store for intermediate (long-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste on Commonwealth land for waste produced by Commonwealth agencies. Public input has been sought on relevant selection criteria

  3. Development of the Use of Alternative Cements for the Treatment of Intermediate Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes initial development studies undertaken to investigate the potential use of alternative, non ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based encapsulation matrices to treat historic legacy wastes within the UK's Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) inventory. Currently these wastes are encapsulated in composite OPC cement systems based on high replacement with blast furnace slag of pulverised fuel ash. However, the high alkalinity of these cements can lead to high corrosion rates with reactive metals found in some wastes releasing hydrogen and forming expansive corrosion products. This paper therefore details preliminary results from studies on two commercial products, calcium sulfo-aluminate (CSA) and magnesium phosphate (MP) cement which react with a different hydration chemistry, and which may allow wastes containing these metals to be encapsulated with lower reactivity. The results indicate that grouts can be formulated from both cements over a range of water contents and reactant ratios that have significantly improved fluidity in comparison to typical OPC cements. All designed mixes set in 24 hours with zero bleed and the pH values in the plastic state were in the range 10-11 for CSA and 5-7 for MP cements. In addition, a marked reduction in aluminium corrosion rate has been observed in both types of cements compared to a composite OPC system. These results therefore provide encouragement that both cement types can provide a possible alternative to OPC in the immobilisation of reactive wastes, however further investigation is needed. (authors)

  4. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  5. Alternative Assessment: Directed Creative Writing for Intermediate Level Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Reyes I.

    Use of a directed creative writing exercise to assess intermediate language students' skills is discussed. The technique was developed for second-year college Spanish instruction as an alternative to conventional writing tests in which anxiety or lack of motivation may inhibit performance. Differences in the nature of language skills (listening,…

  6. Deep geologic repository for low and intermediate radioactive level waste in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is undergoing a project for the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste (LILW)-a deep geologic repository (DGR) project for low and intermediate level waste. The waste source term disposed, geologic setting, repository layout and operation, and safety assessment are discussed. It is expected to provide reference for disposal of low and intermediate level waste that contain the higher concentration of long-lived radionuclides in China. (authors)

  7. Correlation Between Down Syndrome and the Level of Placental Alkaline Phosphatase in Amniotic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    UÇAR, Canan; Balci, Sevim; TUNÇBİLEK, Ergül; ÜNSAL, İbrahim

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between Down syndrome and the level of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) in amniotic fluid. A total of 279 amniotic fluid samples taken between 14 and 24 gestational weeks were investigated in this study. Karyotype analysis was made in all samples. In 10 samples trisomy 21 was determined, in one sample trisomy 18, in two samples 47,XXY, in six samples various structural chromosomal anomalies and in 260 samples normal karyotype. PLA...

  8. A study on the solid low-intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origins, characteristics and disposal requirements of solid intermediate-low level radioactive wastes are discussed. The actual state of the wastes disposal technology in the world and related experiences are presented. Suggestions concerning the solid low-intermediate level radioactive wastes strategy in China are proposed

  9. Intermediate-Level Crossings of a First-Passage Path

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, Uttam

    2015-01-01

    We investigate some simple and surprising properties of a one-dimensional Brownian trajectory with diffusion coefficient $D$ that starts the the origin and reaches $X$ either: (i) at time $T$ or (ii) for the first time at time $T$. We determine the most likely location of the first-passage trajectory from $(0,0)$ to $(X,T)$ and its distribution at any intermediate time $tintermediate position $x

  10. Relationship between serum heat-stable alkaline phosphatase level and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum heat-stable alkaline phosphatase (HSAP) level in 649 cases of normal pregnancy and 164 cases of high-risk pregnancy is measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results indicate that the HSAP level in normal pregnancy increased proportionally with gestation weeks (r = 0.9843). In 33 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension and 21 cases of intrauterine fetal growth retardation, the HSAP level is significantly low. In 7 cases of neonatal asphyxia and 26 cases of fetal distress, the HSAP level in the mother's serum is also low. In 53 cases of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, the HSAP level is similar to those of normal pregnancy. This study illustrates that HSAP RIA can play an important role in the evaluation of placental function and fetal prognosis for cases of high-risk pregnancy

  11. On the characterization of intermediates in the isodesmic aggregation pathway of hen lysozyme at alkaline pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ravi

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation leading to formation of amyloid fibrils is a symptom of several diseases like Alzheimer's, type 2 diabetes and so on. Elucidating the poorly understood mechanism of such phenomena entails the difficult task of characterizing the species involved at each of the multiple steps in the aggregation pathway. It was previously shown by us that spontaneous aggregation of hen-eggwhite lysozyme (HEWL at room temperature in pH 12.2 is a good model to study aggregation. Here in this paper we investigate the growth kinetics, structure, function and dynamics of multiple intermediate species populating the aggregation pathway of HEWL at pH 12.2. The different intermediates were isolated by varying the HEWL monomer concentration in the 300 nM-0.12 mM range. The intermediates were characterized using techniques like steady-state and nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Growth kinetics of non-fibrillar HEWL aggregates were fitted to the von Bertalanffy equation to yield a HEWL concentration independent rate constant (k = (6.6 ± 0.6 × 10(-5 s(-1. Our results reveal stepwise changes in size, molecular packing and enzymatic activity among growing HEWL aggregates consistent with an isodesmic aggregation model. Formation of disulphide bonds that crosslink the monomers in the aggregate appear as a unique feature of this aggregation. AFM images of multiple amyloid fibrils emanating radially from amorphous aggregates directly confirmed that on-pathway fibril formation was feasible under isodesmic polymerization. The isolated HEWL aggregates are revealed as polycationic protein nanoparticles that are robust at neutral pH with ability to take up non-polar molecules like ANS.

  12. Development and current situation on geological disposal of low and intermediate-level waste on land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author Mainly introduces the development and current situation on geological disposal of low and intermediate-level waste on land all of the world. It also summarizes the problem and countermeasure in this field in some countries

  13. Separation of plutonium from intermediate level liquid waste by precipitation with alkyl-pyridinium nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium as hexanitrato complex can be separated from intermediate level liquid waste by precipitation with various alkylpyridinium nitrates. The residual concentrations of Pu are below 10-6mol/l. (Author)

  14. Salivary alkaline phosphatase levels speak about association of smoking, diabetes and potentially malignant diseases???

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ravi Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP is a hydrolase intracellular enzyme participating in the metabolic processes of cells. Rise in salivary ALP (S-ALP levels reflects inflammation and destruction of healthy tissues suggesting it as a clinical biomarker. S-ALP is used in analyzing the severity of the disease occurrence in smokers and nonsmokers who are diabetic and nondiabetic. S-ALP levels are analyzed using autoanalyzer in 40 patients who visited our department. Aims and Objectives: To determine the levels of S-ALP in diagnosing potentially malignant conditions and debilitating diseases in early stages of inflammation and altered cellular metabolism. Materials and Methods: The study groups include: (1 Group A - 10 smokers who are diabetic. (2 Group B - 10 smokers who are nondiabetic. (3 Group C - 10 nonsmokers who are diabetic. (4 Group D - 10 nonsmokers and nondiabetic as control. Unstimulated saliva samples are collected and run in auto-analyzer with ALP enzyme reagent to analyze ALP levels. Comparison is made between all the four groups. Results: Results were statistically significant with increased activity of ALP levels in saliva from Group A when compared to Group D. The results are Group A > Group B > Group C > Group D. The results also revealed significant raise in levels of ALP levels in saliva from smokers when compared to diabetes. Thus explaining adverse effects of smoking. Conclusion: S-ALP can be considered to be the biomarker for evaluating adverse effects of smoking, diabetes and other debilitating diseases in early stages.

  15. Life prediction of intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is the responsible for developing a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of medium level radioactive wastes (MLRW). The proposed model is the near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of these concrete structures is an important aspect for the facilities integrity. This work introduces a laboratory and field investigation performed on reinforced concrete specimens in order to predict the service life of the MLRW from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. On the other hand, a full scale (1:1) container was constructed and instrumented in order to monitor the evolution of the rebars corrosion rate in time. From the present work, the following conclusions can be drawn: - The concrete made of sulphate resistant cement provides to steel rebars a passive status of corrosion characterised by corrosion rates lower than 0.1 pA.cm-2 (∼ 1 μm.year-1). - The values for the chloride effective diffusion coefficient (Def) and its surface concentration when reinforced concrete is exposed to extreme conditions (in contact with sea water), are low enough and the carbonation ratio is also adequate to comply with the foreseen specifications. - To guarantee a 300 years service life, the rebars corrosion rate on medium level radioactive waste disposal containers, must be lower than 0.01 μA.cm2 (0.1 μm.year-1). The measured data show that this durability criterion is fulfilled. - The electric resistivity of concrete has a tendency to increase with time, which reflects the continuous curing process showed by concrete at an early stage. - In order to fully evaluate the behaviour of concrete

  16. Molecular level mechanisms of quartz dissolution at neutral and alkaline conditions with the presence of electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Zhang, S.

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms of quartz dissolution are intricately affected by pH and electrolyte types. While most of previous studies have focused on mechanisms of quartz dissolution under a single specific condition (e.g., temperature, pH, saturation, or electrolyte type), this study investigates the molecular level mechanisms at combinations of electrolyte and pH conditions, which are more complicated but closer to the reality. Under neutral and alkaline pH conditions, with one of the Ca2+, Mg2+ or Na+ electrolytes in the solution, the dissolution of Q1(Si) and Q2(Si) sites on quartz surface, which represents the most important part of the quartz dissolution story, were investigated by first-principles quantum chemistry calculation methods. Also, large cluster models were used to represent the surface structures of quartz. The M05-2X/6-311+G** level DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations and the STQN (Synchronous Transit-Guided Quasi-Newton) method (i.e., the QST3 method in Gaussian 03) were used to search transition-state structures and calculate energy barriers of the elementary Si-O bond breaking steps. Our results confirm that the dissolution of quartz can be significantly enhanced with the presence of electrolytes under neutral pH conditions, while under alkaline pH conditions, the behaviors of electrolytes are complicated, depending on where and how the electrolytes bond to quartz surfaces. Under neutral conditions, almost all types of electrolytes can directly bond to the bridging oxygen (BO) sites, leading to a weakened Si-Obr bonding and an increase of quartz dissolution. At alkaline conditions, however, electrolytes can no longer link to BO sites but rather link to terminal oxygen sites, leading to different dissolution mechanisms of quartz. The behaviors of specific electrolytes Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ on Q1(Si) and Q2 (Si) sites are also different, leading to more complicated dissolution mechanisms. Finally, the calculated energy barriers of possible hydrolysis

  17. Separation and determination of americium in low-level alkaline waste of NPP origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, B.; Djingova, R.; Nikiforova, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a short and cost-saving procedure for the determination of 241Am in sludge sample of the alkaline low-level radioactive waste (LL LRAW) collected from Nuclear Power Plant “Kozloduy”. The determination of americium was a part of a complex analytical approach, where group actinide separation was achieved. An anion exchange was used for separation of americium from uranium, plutonium and iron. For the separation of americium extraction with diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) was studied. The final radioactive samples were prepared by micro co-precipitation with NdF3, counted by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The procedure takes 2 hours. The recovery yield of the procedure amounts to (95 ± 1.5)% and the detection limit is 53 mBq/kg 241Am (t=150 000 s). The analytical procedure was applied for actual liquid wastes and results were compared to standard procedure.

  18. Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase Levels among Patients with Multiple Myeloma Receiving Various Therapy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Güven; Eşkazan, Ahmet Emre; Ar, M. Cem; Öngören Aydın, Şeniz; Ferhanoğlu, Burhan; Soysal, Teoman; Başlar, Zafer; Aydın, Yıldız

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the impact of the different therapy regimens used in multiple myeloma (MM) on bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) levels. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirteen patients with MM were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to the regimens they received, as follows: group 1, melphalan and prednisolone (MP); group 2, vincristine, adriablastin, and dexamethasone (VAD); group 3, thalidomide plus dexamethasone; and group 4, bortezomib plus dexamethasone. BALP levels were measured before treatment and at the third and sixth months of treatment. A fifth group consisted of patients in the post-treatment remission period at study entry (no-treatment group). Results: The BALP levels at the third and sixth months of the treatment were significantly higher than the pre-treatment levels in the bortezomib and the no-treatment groups, whereas no significant difference was observed in the MP, VAD, and thalidomide groups. Conclusion: Considering that BALP is a surrogate marker of bone formation, our study suggests that bortezomib more efficiently leads to the improvement of bone disease in myeloma than other treatment options. PMID:25541654

  19. Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase Levels among Patients with Multiple Myeloma Receiving Various Therapy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven Çetin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of the different therapy regimens used in multiple myeloma (MM on bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP levels. METHODS: One hundred and thirteen patients with MM were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to the regimens they received, as follows: group 1, melphalan and prednisolone (MP; group 2, vincristine, adriablastin, and dexamethasone (VAD; group 3, thalidomide plus dexamethasone; and group 4, bortezomib plus dexamethasone. BALP levels were measured before treatment and at the third and sixth months of treatment. A fifth group consisted of patients in the post-treatment remission period at study entry (no-treatment group. RESULTS: The BALP levels at the third and sixth months of the treatment were significantly higher than the pre-treatment levels in the bortezomib and the no-treatment groups, whereas no significant difference was observed in the MP, VAD, and thalidomide groups. CONCLUSION: Considering that BALP is a surrogate marker of bone formation, our study suggests that bortezomib more efficiently leads to the improvement of bone disease in myeloma than other treatment options.

  20. AERE contracts with DoE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports work carried out in 1983/84 under 10 contracts between DoE and AERE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes. Individual summaries are provided for each contract report within the document, under the headings: comparative evaluation of α and βγ irradiated medium level waste forms; modelling and characterisation of intermediate level waste forms based on polymers; optimisation of processing parameters for polymer and bitumen modified cements; ceramic waste forms; radionuclide release during leaching; ion exchange processes; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; flowsheeting/systems study. (U.K.)

  1. Combined Alkaline Phosphatase and Phosphorus Levels as a Predictor of Mortality in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Feng; Feng, Ying-Feng; Peng, Yu-Sen; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Chen, Hung-Yuan; Wu, Hon-Yen; Yang, Ju-Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hyperphosphatemia-induced vascular calcification and higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels-related high-turnover bone diseases are linked to mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nonetheless, no large epidemiological study in patients with CKD has been conducted to investigate the interaction and joint effect of hyperphosphatemia and higher ALP levels on mortality. We analyzed 11,912 maintenance hemodialysis patients from January 2005 to December 2010. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of death were calculated for different categories of serum phosphorus and ALP using the Cox regression model. The modification effect between serum phosphorus and ALP on mortality was determined using an interaction product term. Both hypophosphatemia (7.0 mg/dL) were associated with incremental risks of death (aHR: 1.25 [95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.09–1.44], and 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31], respectively) compared to the lowest hazard ratio (HR) group (5 mg/dL ≤ phosphorus  150 U/L). In the stratified analysis, patients with combined higher ALP (>150 U/L) and hyperphosphatemia (>7.0 mg/dL) had the greatest mortality risk (aHR: 2.25 [95% CI: 1.69–2.98] compared to the lowest HR group (ALP ≤ 60 U/L and 4 mg/dL ≤ phosphorus phosphorus levels and mortality was not limited to higher ALP levels. Regardless of serum ALP levels, we may control serum phosphorus levels merely toward the normal range. While considering the joint effect of ALP and hyperphosphatemia on mortality, the optimal phosphorus range should be stricter. PMID:25319440

  2. Two-step Doppler cooling of a three-level ladder system with an intermediate metastable level

    OpenAIRE

    Champenois, Caroline; Hagel, Gaetan; Knoop, Martina; Houssin, Marie; Zumsteg, Cedric; Vedel, Fernande; Drewsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Doppler laser cooling of a three-level ladder system using two near-resonant laser fields is analyzed in the case of the intermediate level being metastable while the upper level is short-lived. Analytical as well as numerical results for e.g. obtainable scattering rates and achievable temperatures are presented. When appropriate, comparisons with two-level single photon Doppler laser cooling is made. These results are relevant to recent experimental Doppler laser cooling investigations addre...

  3. Influence of Hydration Level on Polymer and Water Dynamics in Alkaline Anion Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Jacob; Kim, Jenny; Tyagi, Madhu; Soles, Christopher; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Coughlin, Bryan

    2015-03-01

    Triblock copolymers based on poly(chloromethylstyrene)-b-poly(ethylene)-b-poly(chloromethylstyrene) can be quaternized to different extents to yield anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells. In the absence of moisture, these membranes demonstrate bilayer lamellar morphology. Upon high levels of hydration, however, in-situ small angle neutron scattering reveals the emergence of higher-order diffraction peaks. This phenomena has previously been observed in analogous diblock copolymer-based membranes and has been attributed to the induction of a multilayer lamellar morphology in which selective striping of water occurs in the center of the ion-rich domain. By conducting humidity-resolved quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements using deuterated water, we are able to isolate differences in the pico- to nanosecond timescale dynamics of the hydrogenated membrane upon hydration. QENS measurements in the presence of a hydrogenated water source subsequently permit deconvolution and isolation of the translational and rotational dynamics of water as a function of relative humidity, revealing spatial and temporal changes in polymer and water motion at high levels of hydration.

  4. Application of remote sensing technique to site selection for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the relative criteria of selection of disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the social-economic conditions, landform, morphologic properties, regional geological stability, hydrogeological and engineering geological characters of adjacent area of Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces were investigated. The geological interpretation of thematic mapper images, field reconnaissance and data analysis were conducted during the research work. The results show that three areas in the west part of Zhejiang Province were recommended as potential site for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. They are Bajiaotang area, Tiebanchong area and Changxing-Guangde-Anji nabes

  5. Brazilian low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal and environmental conservation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste should be disposed off in proper disposal facilities. These facilities must include unoccupied areas as protection barriers, also called buffer zone. Besides that, Brazilian environmental laws require that certain enterprises must preserve part of their area for environmental conservation. The future Brazilian low and intermediate level waste repository (RBMN) might be classified as such enterprise. This paper presents and discusses the main Brazilian legal framework concerning different types of conservation areas that are allowed and which of them could be applied to the buffer zones of RBMN. The possibility of creating a plant repository in the buffer zone is also discussed. (author)

  6. Advice concerning the advantages of a reference incinerator for low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, an inventory is presented of new incinerators and flue gas filters used in low and intermediate-level radioactive waste combustion. It is argued that a 'reference equipment' for the combustion of solid and liquid low- and intermediate-level wastes best meets existing Dutch radiation protection standards. A cost-benefit analysis of such an equipment is given including annual costs of investment, capital and exploration. A separate combustion process of organic liquids and carrions is considered finally. (G.J.P.)

  7. Near relativistic study of bound levels in atoms. Application to alkaline atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varade, A.; Delgado-Barrio, G.; Villarreal, P. (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia)

    1985-01-01

    A model is described for the calculation of the atomic binding energies. The Pauli equation has been solved with a local potential. The results for alkaline atoms are reported here and compared with the perturbative calculation and experimental data.

  8. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  9. Norwegian work on establishing a combined storage and disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has, through its Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme (WATRP), evaluated policies and facilities related to management of radioactive waste in Norway. It is concluded that the Himdalen site, in combination with the chosen engineering concept, can be suitable for the storage and disposal of the relatively small amounts of Norwegian low and intermediate level waste

  10. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Waste characterization and activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with waste categories in Finland and methods for determining or estimating the waste content. The study mainly focuses on long-lived low and intermediate level waste. Methods for the determination of activity content and chemical content are discussed. The report presents recommendations for the characterization of waste under treatment as well as recommendations for the characterization of waste packages

  11. A rapid method for decontamination of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes by amalgamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop an integrated workstation for rapid decontamination of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes. The workstation comprises of an electrochemical amalgamator that allows the reduction of different radionuclides cations in the waste and eventually from amalgamate. The de-amalgamation results in purification of mercury and leftover a radioactive waste behind as secondary waste. (author)

  12. Survey of stores for conditioned intermediate and low level wastes in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey has been conducted of eleven waste storage facilities in six countries. Wastes considered are intermediate and low level, conditioned for disposal. Civil engineering, handling facilities, container type, waste activities, doses to the public and to operators are considered. (author)

  13. ESL for Hotel/Hospitality Industry. Level: Advanced Beginner/Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Suffolk County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Northport, NY.

    This document contains 16 lesson plans for an advanced beginning and intermediate course in work-related English for non-English- or limited-English-speaking entry-level employees in the hotel and hospitality industry. Course objectives are as follows: helping participants understand and use job-specific vocabulary; receive and understand…

  14. Discussion on strategies of management and disposal of solid low-intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview on the actual status of solid low-intermediate level radioactive wastes management in China is given. Some of existing main problems are analysed. The strategies of management and disposal of the wastes are discussed in light of systematology

  15. The influence of organic materials on the near field of an intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of organic materials which are present in some intermediate level wastes on the chemistry of the near field of a radioactive waste repository is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possible formation of water soluble complexing agents as a result of the radiation field and chemical conditions. The present state of the research is reviewed. (author)

  16. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 4, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book four, part one, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students is presented. The volume consists of 25 lessons of text material and 50 prerecorded tapes. A typical lesson with its two accompanying tapes is made up of interrogation, military terminology drill, and a comprehension test. The materials of the first…

  17. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 4, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book four, part two, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students is presented. The volume consists of 25 lessons of text material and 50 prerecorded tapes. A typical lesson with its two accompanying tapes is made up of interrogation, military terminology drill, and a comprehension test. The materials of the first…

  18. Facilities for processing and solidification of intermediate- and low-level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For intermediate- and low-level liquid radioactive wastes processing two units are proposed. Technological schemes of both units include primary purification of solutions from solids, waste reagent treatment , preparation of waste concentrated product, evaporation of concentrated product and remainder drying. Difference between unit 1 and 2 is in methods used for preparation of concentrated product: unit 1 - settling, unit 2 - filtration

  19. Assessment of studies and researches on warehousing - High-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This large report first presents the approach adopted for the study and research on the warehousing of high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes. It outlines how reversible storage and warehousing are complementary, discusses the lessons learned from researches performed by the CEA on long duration warehousing, presents the framework of studies and researches performed since 2006, and presents the scientific and technical content of studies and researches (warehousing need analysis, search for technical options providing complementarity with storage, extension or creation of warehousing installations). The second part addresses high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive waste parcels, indicates their origins and quantities. The third part proposes an analysis of warehousing capacities: existing capacities, French industrial experience in waste parcel warehousing, foreign experience in waste warehousing. The fourth part addresses reversible storage in deep geological formation: storage safety functions, storage reversibility, storage parcels, storage architecture, chronicle draft. The fifth part proposes an inventory of warehousing needs in terms of additional capacities for the both types of wastes (high-level, and intermediate-level-long-lived), and discusses warehousing functionalities and safety objectives. The sixth and seventh parts propose a detailed overview of design options for warehousing installations, respectively for high-level and for intermediate-level-long-lived waste parcels: main technical issues, feasibility studies of different concepts or architecture shapes, results of previous studies and introduction to studies performed since 2011, possible evolutions of the HA1, HA2 and MAVL concepts. The eighth chapter reports a phenomenological analysis of warehousing and the optimisation of material selection and construction arrangements. The last part discusses the application of researches to the extension of the

  20. A High Level of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Is Protective Against Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Irrespective of Obesity ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Malo, Madhu S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • Diabetes patients have very low levels of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) in their stool. • Obese people with high IAP do not develop diabetes. • A low level of IAP in a healthy person is indicative of having the incipient (latent) metabolic syndrome (diabetes). • Approximately 65% of the healthy population have the incipient metabolic syndrome including incipient diabetes. • ‘Temporal IAP profiling’ should diagnose the incipient metabolic syndrome (diabetes). Currently, di...

  1. Association between Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Level and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Bin Lee

    Full Text Available Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP is a marker of vascular calcification. A high serum ALP level is associated with an increase in cardiovascular events, and predicts poor functional outcome in patients with stroke. We investigated whether serum ALP was associated with cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD and large cerebral artery stenosis (LCAS.We evaluated vascular risk factors, brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs, and MR angiograms from 1,011 neurologically healthy participants. The presence of silent lacunar infarction (SLI and moderate-to-severe cerebral white matter hyperintensities (MS-cWMH were evaluated as indices of cSVD on brain MRIs. Findings of extracranial arterial stenosis (ECAS or intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS were considered to be indices of LCAS on MR angiograms.Subjects with SLI (odds ratio [OR]: 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-3.42; p = 0.004 and MS-cWMH (OR: 1.48; 95% CI; 1.03-2.13, p = 0.036 were significantly more likely to have ALP levels in the third tertile (ALP ≥ 195 IU/L than the first tertile (ALP ≤ 155 IU/L, after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. The mean serum ALP level was significantly higher in patients with SLI or MS-cWMH compared to patients without those findings. After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariate model found that the statistical significance of serum ALP remained when the presence of SLI (OR: 1.05 per 10 IU/L increase in ALP; 95% CI: 1.02-1.08; p = 0.003 or MS-cWMH (OR: 1.03 per 10 IU/L increase in ALP; 95% CI: 1.00-1.06; p = 0.025 were added to the model. There were no differences in the proportions of patients with LCAS, ICAS, and ECAS across the serum ALP tertiles.Our study of neurologically healthy participants found a positive association between serum ALP level and indicators of cSVD, but no association between serum ALP level and the indicators of LCAS.

  2. Study of radionuclides complexes formation by organic compounds in intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the general framework of the safety of nuclear wastes of low and intermediate activity, we have studied the effects of organic compounds on the solubilization of metallic cations. Organic compounds originate from the degradation of cellulose in concrete interstitial waters. Degradation reactions generate a number of products, among which carboxylic acids. These acids are known for their chelating properties. We have first analysed the degradation of cellulose in alkaline conditions: we have qualitatively and quantitatively determined the degradation products for various reaction progress indices, including a dozen of carboxylic acids. The principal goal of our work was the prediction of the behaviour of metallic cations in such cellulose degradation solutions. Owing the complexity of the system, a priori theoretical calculation are not possible. We have thus decided to choose tetra hydroxy pentanoic acid as a reference compound in order to simulate as accurately as possible the behaviour of more complex acids which contain similar functional groups. We have experimentally determined the complexing properties of this reference acid toward divalent cobalt and copper, and trivalent samarium and europium. Simple and mixed complex (hydroxyl) have been evidenced in alkaline medium. Their stability constants have been determined and extrapolated at zero ionic strength using the SIT theory. These results allowed us to theoretically predict the behaviour of our four reference cations in cellulose degradation products formed in concrete interstitial waters. In parallel, we have measured their solubility in real cellulose degradation solutions. Solubility predictions are correct for transition metals, but not for rare earth cations. In this case the complexes which have been identified with tetra hydroxy pentanoic acid are not stable enough to dissolve metallic hydroxides. In real degradation solutions, other compounds would account for the enhancement of rare earth

  3. Digital low-level RF control system using multi-intermediate frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a superconducting accelerator, an FPGA-based low-level rf system is adopted and a digital feedback control system is utilized to satisfy the requirement of stability in the accelerating field. A digital low-level rf system using multi-intermediate frequencies (IF-Mixture technique) has been developed at STF (Superconducting rf Test Facility) in KEK. A superconducting cavity was operated using this IF-mixture technique and the stability under the feedback operation was measured. (author)

  4. AERE contracts with DoE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports are presented on work on the following topics concerned with the treatment and disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes: comparative evaluation of α and β γ irradiated medium level waste forms; modelling and characterisation of intermediate level waste forms based on polymers; optimisation of processing parameters for polymer and bitumen modified cements; α damage in non-reference waste form matrix materials; leaching mechanisms and modelling; inorganic ion exchange treatment of medium active effluents; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid waste; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; effects of radiation on the properties of cemented MTR waste forms; equilibrium leach testing of cemented MTR waste forms; radiolytic oxidation of radionuclides; immobilisation of liquid organic waste; quality control, non-conformances and corrective action. (U.K.)

  5. Technological demonstrators. Researches and studies on the storage and disposal of long living intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure presents the technological demonstrators made by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) and exhibited at Limay (Yvelines, France). These demonstrators, built at scale 1, have been an essential support to the establishment of the 'Dossier 2005' which demonstrates the feasibility of a reversible disposal of long living-intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite of Meuse-Haute Marne. Two type of demonstrators were built: demonstrators of storage containers for long living-intermediate level wastes and for spent fuels, and dynamic demonstrators for containers handling. This brochure presents these different demonstrators, their characteristics and the results of their tests. (J.S.)

  6. Practices and developments in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Swedish nuclear power program ten reactors are in operation and two more under construction. About 100000 m3 of low and intermediate level radioactive waste will be produced from the operation of these reactors until the year 2010 and about 150000 m3 from their decommissioning. All burnable radioactive wastes are sent to the Studsvik incineration plant for incineration. Spent resins are incorporated into cement or bitumen. The volume of non-combustible solid waste is reduced by compaction where possible. At the Studsvik research centre a substantial program for improved management of accumulated and future radioactive waste is at the beginning of its implementation. This includes advanced treatment and intermediate storage in a rock cavity. An R and D program on volume reduction of spent resins has reached the point of process verification and equipment design. All low and intermediate radioactive waste will be disposed in a rock cavity planned for commissioning by 1988. The paper reviews actual management experience and development efforts for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Sweden. Contribution to the Seminar on the Management of Radioactive Waste, Taipei, Taiwan, 25-26 June, 1983. (Author)

  7. Strategies for management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responsibility for the development of a national strategy for the management of radioactive wastes in the United Kingdom lies with the Secretary of State for the Environment, acting in conjunction with his ministerial colleagues. The current national strategy involves the use and development of a range of disposal facilities and a continuing programme of research and assessment to ensure that each type of waste is disposed of in the most appropriate way. The task of disposing of low and intermediate level wastes rests with United Kingdom Nirex Limited, the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive. The paper outlines the present situation and future strategy in the United Kingdom for the management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Particular emphasis is placed on developments since 1 May 1987, when the Government accepted Nirex's recommendation to halt investigations at four potential shallow disposal sites for low level wastes. Effort is now focusing on the development of a deep disposal facility that will be able to accommodate both low and intermediate level wastes. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  8. The planned collecting site for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An objective valuation of all crucial criteria proved that Mitterteich, compared with other sites that have been examined, is best suited for a new state collecting site as well as for a collecting site of the Bavarian power supply companies for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The collecting facility shall have a storage capacity sufficient for all low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes until the year 1990. The collecting facility shall be built and operated by a subsidiary company still to be founded of the 'Gesellschaft zur Beseitigung von Sondermuell in Bayern mbH' (Company for Special Waste Disposal in Bavaria). The planning works of the collecting facility will start early 1981, and at least the State collecting facility is supposed to be finished by the end of 1982. (orig./HP)

  9. Characterisation of long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Nordic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB, (El Salvador); Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [Forskningscenter Risoe, (Denmark); Carlsson, T.; Viitanen, P. [VVT, (Finland); Walderhaug, T. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute (Iceland); Sneve, M.; Hornkjoel, S. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)

    1997-11-01

    The present report is final report from a study on characterisation of radioactive waters in the Nordic countries. The study has mainly been focused on long-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Methods to measure or estimate the activity content and the general composition are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding characterisation of waste under treatment and characterisation of already produced waste packages. (au).

  10. Characterisation of long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is final report from a study on characterisation of radioactive waters in the Nordic countries. The study has mainly been focused on long-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Methods to measure or estimate the activity content and the general composition are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding characterisation of waste under treatment and characterisation of already produced waste packages. (au)

  11. Gas generation model for OPG's low and intermediate level radioactive waste deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the postclosure safety assessment for Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level waste (L and ILW), gas generation modelling has been undertaken. A variety of microbial and corrosion processes were considered for the generation of gases and the consumption of water within the repository. Four key mechanisms have been identified: microbial degradation of organic waste, methanogenesis, corrosion of metallic wastes, and CO2 enhanced corrosion of metallic wastes. (author)

  12. Some safety aspects of intermediate-level waste disposal in shallow clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of full-scale testing in a shallow disposal facility of cemented, bituminized, and vitrified intermediate-level radwaste from a nuclear power plant with a channel-type reactor; the information obtained is used to make a comparative evaluation of the relative danger of contamination of the environment. Quantitative evidence is presented in support of the use of the vitrification process for waste of this type. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. International co-ordinated research project on low and intermediate level waste package performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of IAEA's mandate to facilitate the transfer and exchange of information amongst Member States, the Agency is currently coordinating an international R and D project, involving 12 developed and developing countries, on Performance of Low and Intermediate Level Waste Packages under Disposal Conditions. This paper will review the current status of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) and summarize the key findings of the work completed to date within the context of the CRP in the participating Member States. (author)

  14. Advances in research on thermal plasma treatment of low intermediate level solid radwastes from NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the disadvantages of existing treatment technologies for low intermediate level solid radwastes (LILSW) from nuclear power plants (NPPs), the mechanism and advantages of thermal plasma treatment of radwastes are introduced. The features and application of some famous systems for radwastes treatment are illustrated. The problems worthy of additional, technology difficulties as well as probable solutions to developing thermal plasma LILSW volume-reduction technology are discussed. (authors)

  15. Development of Retrieving and Conditioning Technologies of Low- and Intermediate- level Solid Waste From Storage Pits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During the past 40 years or so, large volumes of the low- and intermediate-level radioactive solid wastes (LILW) have been generated from different nuclear facilities in China. All these wastes are temporarily stored in pit-type repositories in different sites of China, of which most of the facilities are seriously aged and damaged. Focusing on this situation, we had developed some key technologies and equipment of retrieving, sorting and compaction of LILW, The following

  16. Conceptual designs for waste quality checking facilities for low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises work carried out on the design of facilities for the quality checking of Intermediate and Low Level Radioactive Waste and Hazardous Waste. The procedures used for the quality checking of these categories of waste are summarised. Three building options are considered: a separate LLW facility, a combined facility for LLW and HW and a Waste Quality Checking Facility for the three categories of waste. Budget Cost Estimates for the three facilities are given based on 1991 prices. (author)

  17. Management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes with regard to their chemical toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary overview is provided of management options for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) with regard to its chemical toxicity. In particular, the following issues are identified and described associated with the management and safe disposal of chemically toxic materials in LILW: the origin and characteristics; the regulatory approaches; the pre-disposal management; the disposal; the safety assessment. Also included are: regulatory framework for chemically toxic low level wastes in the USA; pre-disposal processing options for LILW containing chemically toxic components; example treatment technologies for LILW containing chemically toxic components and safety assessment case studies for Germany, Belgium, France and Sweden

  18. Assessment of the serum levels of bone alkaline phosphatase with a new immunoradiometric assay in patients with metabolic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) with a new immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in a large sample of healthy controls comprising 173 women and 180 men, 20-88 yr of age, and in patients with metabolic bone disease. Using serum samples from patients with liver disease and patients with Paget's disease with elevated total alkaline phosphatase (T-ALP) as a source of, respectively, liver and bone isoenyzmes, they determined a liver cross-reactivity of the IRMA of 16% that was confirmed by electrophoresis of the circulating alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. The IRMA was linear for serial sample dilutions, the recovery ranged from 89-110%, and the intra- and interassay variations were below 7% and 9%, respectively. B-ALP increased linearly with age in both sexes, and the mean B-ALP serum levels were not significantly different for women and men (11.3 ± 4.8 ng/mL for women; 11.0 ± 4.0 ng/mL for men). The increase in B-ALP after the menopause was significantly higher than that in T-ALP (+77% vs. +24%; P<0.001). When the values of postmenopausal women were expressed as the SD from the mean of premenopausal women, the mean Z scores were 2.2± 1.8 for B-ALP and 0.9 ± 1.3 for T-ALP (P<0.001 between the two)

  19. Generation, transport and conduct of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological development of the last decades produced an increment in the application of the radiations in different human activities. The effect of it has been it the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, some of the stages of the administration of the waste of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work aspects of the generation, the transport and the administration of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level produced in the non energy applications from the radioactive materials to national level, indicating the generated average quantities, transported and tried annually by the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). The main generators of wastes in Mexico, classified according to the activity in which the radioactive materials are used its are listed. Some of the main processes of treatment of radioactive wastes broadly applied in the world and those that are used at the moment in our country are also presented. (Author)

  20. Prospects for storage and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear activities have been established in Egypt for more than three decades. As in other developing countries, this activity gives rise to an appreciable amount of liquid and solid radioactive wastes and to spent sealed sources from industrial, medical and agricultural applications. The paper discusses the waste management policy and strategy adopted by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority and the prospects for that policy for the next two decades, with special reference to the storage and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The national policy is based on the separation of responsibilities between the operating organization (Waste Management Facility, Waste Management Centre) and the regulatory body (the National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control). Over the past ten years, the Waste Management Centre has begun to build an integrated waste management facility at the Inshas site for the treatment, conditioning and interim storage of various types of waste produced in the course of the above mentioned activities. The facility comprises a treatment plant for low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes, an incinerator for incinerable low level solid wastes, an in-drum compaction unit for low level compatible solid wastes and a cementation facility for conditioning sludges, concentrates, ashes, filter cartridges, compacted solid wastes and spent sealed sources. A near surface disposal site, collocated within the Waste Management Facility premises and designed to accommodate 6000 concrete blocks, is under investigation. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Investigating Elementary & Intermediate Level Students’ Perspectives towards Demotivating Factors In ESP Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Zoghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, attempts were made to investigate and contrast the demotivating factors in English classes from the viewpoint of ESP students at different proficiency levels. To this end, 134 ESP students were chosen from Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch. Based on the scores obtained from Oxford Placement Test, the sample was divided into two groups, i.e. the intermediate level of proficiency students (n=60 and the elementary level of proficiency students (n=74. The data required for the study were collected by means of a demotivating factors questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using the Minitab statistical package version 16. Results revealed that there were no significant differences among the demotivating factors perceived across the groups. From the viewpoint of both groups, teachers’ attitude and personality, their teaching methods, and the weakness of students in English vocabulary were among the highest frequency mentioned demotivating factors.Keywords: ESP, demotivating factors, proficiency levels

  2. Biohydrogen Fermentation from Sucrose and Piggery Waste with High Levels of Bicarbonate Alkalinity

    OpenAIRE

    Jeongdong Choi; Youngho Ahn

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of biohydrogen fermentation under the high bicarbonate alkalinity (BA) and pH to optimize these critical parameters. When sucrose was used as a substrate, hydrogen was produced over a wide range of pH values (5–9) under no BA supplementation; however, BA affected hydrogen yield significantly under different initial pHs (5–10). The actual effect of high BA using raw piggery waste (pH 8.7 and BA 8.9 g CaCO 3 /L) showed no biogas production or propionate/ace...

  3. Optimized waste management for low and intermediate level nuclear waste at the LOVIISA NPP in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Loviisa NPP has two 488 MWe VVER-440 pressurized water reactors. Unit 1 was taken into use in 1977 and unit 2 in 1980. After the life time extension these units will be operating until the year 2027 and 2030, respectively. The Finnish legislation stipulates that the waste producer is totally responsible for the management of all its radioactive waste, including their disposal. According to this principle the utilities are also responsible for making economical reservations for all future activities. The utilities have to put money into a separate waste management fund to cover all the costs of future waste management activities. Existing legislation and regulations have created a situation, which encourages the utilities to carry out all activities on a safe way, and to optimize the management chain for most economical result. Even before the present legislation the Finnish nuclear utilities, Fortum Power and Heat Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), have carried out an intensive R and D program for management of their own nuclear wastes. These utilities have founded a joint company, Posiva Oy, to take care of their spent nuclear fuel. Joining the efforts results in efficient solution for spent nuclear fuel. From start of the operation both nuclear utilities studied different options for management of their low and intermediate level waste. Quite soon the principle was adopted to take care of all low and intermediate level waste at the power plant sites. During these early years of operation a management concept was formed how to handle, treat, store and dispose of both low and intermediate level maintenance waste and decommissioning waste at the power plant site. Since all these steps are managed by the same organization, the whole waste management is optimized from the collection of waste to the final disposal. (orig.)

  4. Verification of groundwater flow calculations for the repository for low and intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, L.; Hoek, J.; Baxter, S.; Woollard, H. [AMEC, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    This study uses hydrogeological discrete fracture network DFN models developed for the Olkiluoto Site Descriptive Model 2011 (SDM 2011) to verify flow and transport calculations performed in support of a safety case for the repository for low and intermediate level waste /Raemae 2012/ using a continuous porous medium model implemented and preliminary site data. Key results for the safety case included flowrates through the repository for low and intermediate level waste and dilution factors at both shallow and deep wells downstream of the repository. Significantly, the DFN model provides a framework for quantifying consequences for the results of several groundwater characteristics recognised in the site description including: heterogeneity (implying a stochastic representation), anisotropy, the discontinuity of the flow system and density-driven flow. Therefore, the current study not only provides comparative results using the latest site description, but also assessments of the robustness of those results to some of the uncertainties recognised in SDM 2011. The SDM 2011 model suggests that the repository for low and intermediate level waste lies in sparsely fractured rock such that few fractures carrying significant flow are likely to intersect it. Therefore, applying a stochastic approach it was found that each realisation of the fracture network yielded flow-rates through the repository less than those in /Raemae 2012/. Likewise, dilution factors calculated for various shallow well and deep abstraction well scenarios are also found to be lower due to the lower source term release, but also because of increased hydrodynamic dispersion through the fracture network. Overall, it is concluded that the dilution factors calculated by /Raemae 2012/ can be considered slightly pessimistic relative to the results obtained here based on the Olkiluoto Hydro-DFN model developed for SDM 2011. (orig.)

  5. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  6. Influence of time dependent effects on the disposal environments of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviews are presented firstly of potential events and processes which may affect the evolution of the disposal environments of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in Britain and secondly of previous studies carried out worldwide in the field of time dependent effects. From the latter review available methodologies for incorporating time dependence into radiological assessments are identified. Finally, proposals are presented for the design and development of a time dependent effects model, based on the existing far field state model (FFSM) developed for ONWI in USA. (author)

  7. A computerised data acquisition system for Quality Assurance in an intermediate level radioactive waste encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Winfrith Radwaste Treatment Complex will process intermediate-level waste in both solid and sludge forms. Waste will be encapsulated within a cement matrix and sealed in 500-litre stainless steel drums in the Radwaste Treatment Plant (RTP); it will then be transferred to the Treated Radwaste Store (TRS) for storage, to await final disposal in a UK NIREX Ltd (NIREX) repository. A database system is required to provide a complete Quality Assurance record for encapsulated waste, in order to satisfy NIREX requirements. This is implemented using the ORACLE relational database management system, running on a MicroVAX 3100 computer. (author)

  8. Selection of geological formations for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1993, the Hungarian Geological Survey began site selection for low- to intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The site selection process consists of three stages: (1) exclusion of unsuitable areas, (2) selection of potential sites, and (3) selection of disposal sites. Completion of the first two stages identified 32 superficial and 100 near-surface potential sites. 96 of the potential near-surface sites are in Pilocene sequences. Selection of disposal sites should be completed by the end of 1995

  9. Modelling of hydrogen production from pore water radiolysis in cemented intermediate level waste

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giandomenico M.-V.; Foct F.; Bouniol P.

    2013-01-01

    In France, some of the intermediate and low level wastes are embedded in hydraulic binder and put into concrete canisters. They contain β and γ emitters which cause an irradiation of water present in the pores of the hydraulic binder. This is responsible for a dihydrogen (H2) production due to radiolysis. EDF R&D and CEA have collaborated since many years in order to understand this phenomenon and develop a model called DO-RE-MI which can predict such a production of dihydrogen in concrete wa...

  10. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out

  11. Management of low and intermediate level waste in Sweden. Experiences and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since some years the necessary facilities are in operation in Sweden for the safe transport and storage for a long time of radioactive waste from nuclear power production. Radioactive waste from paste eras shall also be disposed off in the existing and future repositories. This existing utilities include a final repository, SFR 1, for operational short-lived low- and intermediate level waste, a central interim storage facility, CLAB, for spent fuel which also facilitates some core components, and a sea-based transport system. A new safety performance assessment for SFR 1 was finalised in June 2001 which gave improvements according to earlier safety analyses. At the different nuclear power plants there has been established complementary shallow land burials for very low level waste. The experiences from the operation of these facilities have generally been very good. The next step is the development of disposal systems for decommissioning waste, this type of waste require both a new facility for short lived low and intermediate level waste and a repository for long lived waste. The time schedule to build these repositories are scheduled to approximately 2015 and 2045. (author)

  12. Pre-selecting potential sites for a low and intermediate level waste repository in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage in surface or shallow depths is viable for radioactive waste of low and intermediate level which contains short half life radionuclide that will decay to insignificant radioactive levels in some decades and some long half life radionuclide but at very low concentrations. The site selection process for construction of radioactive waste storage facilities, that presents and adequate stability in long term, and predictable performance in future and the capacity to meet all the operational requirements, is one of the main tasks that challenge the agencies for waste disposition. Different regions of Mexican Republic have been investigated in order to satisfy basic criteria related with some subjects physiographic, geologic, geohydrologic s, tectonics and seismic, as well as other factors as population density. An analysis of the existing information provides reason to expect that the Central region could host a repository for low and intermediate level waste. One of the most promising sites for a surface-type repository is situated in this region. The analysis of the preliminary results from the investigations performed at this site, described in this paper, confirmed its potential suitability: the site has geological and geotechnical features suitable for a repository. (Author)

  13. Technical factors in the site selection for a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage on surface or near surface it is viable for wastes of low and intermediate level which contain radio nuclides of short half life that would decay at insignificant levels of radioactivity in some decades and also radio nuclides of long half life but in very low concentrations. The sites selection, for the construction of radioactive waste storages, that present an appropriate stability at long term, a foreseeable behavior to future and a capacity to fulfill other operational requirements, is one of the great tasks that confront the waste disposal agencies. In the selection of potential sites for the construction of a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level, several basic judgments should be satisfied that concern to physiography, climatology, geologic, geo-hydrology, tectonic and seismic aspects; as well as factors like the population density, socioeconomic develops and existent infrastructure. the necessary technician-scientific investigations for the selection of a site for the construction of radioactive waste storages are presented in this work and they are compared with the pre-selection factors realized in specify areas in previous studies in different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  14. Intermediate Coupling For Core-Level Excited States: Consequences For X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Sassi, Michel JPC; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2015-04-15

    The origin of the complex NEXAFS features of X-Ray Absorption, XAS, spectra in transition metal complexes is analyzed and interpreted in terms of the angular momentum coupling of the open shell electrons. Especially for excited configurations where a core-electron is promoted to an open valence shell, the angular momentum coupling is intermediate between the two limits of Russell- Saunders, RS, coupling where spin-orbit splitting of the electron shells is neglected and j-j coupling where this splitting is taken as dominant. The XAS intensities can be understood in terms of two factors: (1) The dipole selection rules that give the allowed excited RS multiplets and (2) The contributions of these allowed multiplets to the wavefunctions of the intermediate coupled levels. It is shown that the origin of the complex XAS spectra is due to the distribution of the RS allowed multiplets over several different intermediate coupled excited levels. The specific case that is analyzed is the L2,3 edge XAS of an Fe3+ cation, because this cation allows a focus on the angular momentum coupling to the exclusion of other effects; e.g., chemical bonding. Arguments are made that the properties identified for this atomic case are relevant for more complex materials. The analysis is based on the properties of fully relativistic, ab initio, many-body wavefunctions for the initial and final states of the XAS process. The wavefunction properties considered include the composition of the wavefunctions in terms of RS multiplets and the occupations of the spin-orbit split open shells; the latter vividly show whether the coupling is j-j or not.

  15. 49 CFR Figure 2b to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2B Figure 2B to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  16. 49 CFR Figure 2a to Subpart B of... - Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of an Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2A Figure 2A to... Intermediate Level Seating Area of a Multi-Level Car Complying With Window Location Requirements—§§ 238.113...

  17. Corrosion of steel drums containing simulated radioactive waste of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion-exchange resins are frequently used during the operation of nuclear power plants and constitute radioactive waste of low and intermediate level. For the final disposal inside the repository the resins are immobilized by cementation and placed inside steel drums. The eventful contamination of the resins with aggressive species may cause corrosion problems to the drums. In order to assess the incidence of this phenomenon and to estimate the lifespan of the steel drums, in the present work, the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different aggressive species was studied. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The corrosion rate of the steel was monitored over a time period of 900 days and a chemical and morphological analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition was performed. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina), it was found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. (author)

  18. Advances in technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the authorized maximum limits for radioactive discharges into the environment have been reduced considerably, and this, together with the requirement to minimize the volume of waste for storage or disposal and to declassify some wastes from intermediate to low level or to non-radioactive wastes, has initiated studies of ways in which improvements can be made to existing decontamination processes and also to the development of new processes. This work has led to the use of more specific precipitants and to the establishment of ion exchange treatment and evaporation techniques. Additionally, the use of combinations of some existing processes or of an existing process with a new technique such as membrane filtration is becoming current practice. New biotechnological, solvent extraction and electrochemical methods are being examined and have been proven at laboratory scale to be useful for radioactive liquid waste treatment. In this report an attempt has been made to review the current research and development of mature and advanced technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes, both aqueous and non-aqueous. Non-aqueous radioactive liquid wastes or organic liquid wastes typically consist of oils, reprocessing solvents, scintillation liquids and organic cleaning products. A brief state of the art of existing processes and their application is followed by the review of advances in technologies, covering chemical, physical and biological processes. 213 refs, 33 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Holocene Relative Sea-Level Changes from Near-, Intermediate-, and Far-Field Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. S.; Khan, N.; Shaw, T.; Ashe, E.; Vacchi, M.; Peltier, W. R.; Kopp, R. E.; Horton, B.

    2015-12-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records exhibit spatial and temporal variability that arises mainly from the interaction of eustatic (land ice volume and thermal expansion) and isostatic (glacio- and hydro-) factors. We fit RSL histories from near-, intermediate-, and far-field locations with noisy-input Gaussian process models to assess rates of RSL change from selected study areas. Records from near-field regions (e.g., Antarctica, Greenland, Canada, Sweden, and Scotland) reveal a complex pattern of RSL fall from a maximum marine limit due to the net effect of eustatic sea-level rise and glacial-isostatic uplift with rates of RSL fall as great as -69 ± 9 m/ka. Intermediate-field regions (e.g., mid-Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States, Netherlands, Southern France, St. Croix) display variable rates of RSL rise from the cumulative effect of isostatic and eustatic factors. Fast rates of RSL rise (up to 10 ± 1 m/ka) are found in the early Holocene in regions near the center of forebulge collapse. Far-field RSL records exhibit a mid-Holocene highstand, the timing (between 8 and 4 ka) and magnitude (between <1 and 6 m) of which varies across South America, Africa, Asia and Australia regions.

  20. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino, E-mail: silvaf@cdtn.br, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taveira, Gerson L.S., E-mail: gersonluizst@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Producao Civil

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  1. Projection to 2035 for the radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to establish in few years a definitive warehouse for the radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, generated in the country and to satisfy the necessities of their confinement in the next ones 50 to 80 years. Therefore, it is required to be considered those volumes produced annually, those stored at the present and those estimated to medium and long term. The results of the simulation of 4 cases are presented, considering the operation from the 2 nuclear power reactors to 40 and 60 years, the use of the technology of current treatment and the use of super compaction of solids, as well as the importance in the taking of decision of the methodology for the dismantlement of each reactor to the finish of their useful life. At the moment the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde, produces an average of 250 m3/year of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, constituted by solid dry wastes, humid solids and liquids. In the last 3 years, the power plant has reached an effectiveness of re utilization of effluents of 95%. On the other hand, in Mexico the non energetic applications of the radioisotopes, produce annually of the order of 20 m3/year of solid wastes, 280 m3/year of liquid wastes and 300 worn out radioactive sources. (Author)

  2. Licence applications for low and intermediate level waste predisposal facilities: A manual for operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication covers all predisposal waste management facilities and practices for receipt, pretreatment (sorting, segregation, characterization), treatment, conditioning, internal relocation and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, including disused sealed radioactive sources. The publication contains an Annex presenting the example of a safety assessment for a small radioactive waste storage facility. Facilities dealing with both short lived and long lived low and intermediate level waste generated from nuclear applications and from operation of small nuclear research reactors are included in the scope. Processing and storage facilities for high activity disused sealed sources and sealed sources containing long lived radionuclides are also covered. The publication does not cover facilities processing or storing radioactive waste from nuclear power plants or any other industrial scale nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Disposal facilities are excluded from the scope of this publication. Authorization process can be implemented in several stages, which may start at the site planning and the feasibility study stage and will continue through preliminary design, final design, commissioning, operation and decommissioning stages. This publication covers primarily the authorization needed to take the facility into operation

  3. Studies concerning the degradation of concrete vaults for intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is the responsible for developing a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is the near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of this concrete structures is an important aspect for the facilities integrity. This work presents a laboratory and field investigation performed for the last 6 years on reinforced concrete specimens, in order to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. On the other hand, the development of sensors that allow on-line measurements of rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity and chloride concentration is shown. Those sensors, properly embedded in a new full scale vault (nowadays in construction), will allow the monitoring of the corrosion process of the steel rebars embedded in the structure. All the information obtained from the sensors will be used for the final design of the container in order to achieve a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities. (author)

  4. Progress in Low and Intermediate Level Operational Waste Characterization and Preparation for Disposal at Ignalina NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poskas, P.; Adomaitis, J. E.; Ragaisis, V.

    2003-02-25

    In Lithuania about 70-80% of all electricity is generated at a single power station, Ignalina NPP, which has two RBMK-1500 type reactors. Units 1 and 2 will be closed by 2005 and 2010, respectively, taking into account the conditions of the long-term substantial financial assistance rendered by the European Union, G-7 countries and other states as well as international institutions. The Government approved the Strategy on Radioactive Waste Management. Objectives of this strategy are to develop the radioactive waste management infrastructure based on modern technologies and provide for the set of practical actions that shall bring management of radioactive waste in Lithuania in compliance with radioactive waste management principles of IAEA and with good practices in force in European Union Member States. SKB-SWECO International-Westinghouse Atom Joint Venture with participation of Lithuanian Energy Institute has prepared a reference design of a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate level waste. This reference design is applicable to the needs in Lithuania, considering its hydro-geological, climatic and other environmental conditions and is able to cover the expected needs in Lithuania for at least thirty years ahead. Development of waste acceptance criteria is in practice an iterative process concerning characterization of existing waste, repository development, safety and environmental impact assessment etc. This paper describes the position in Lithuania with regard to the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste in the absence of finalized waste acceptance criteria and a near surface repository.

  5. Progress in Low and Intermediate Level Operational Waste Characterization and Preparation for Disposal at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Lithuania about 70-80% of all electricity is generated at a single power station, Ignalina NPP, which has two RBMK-1500 type reactors. Units 1 and 2 will be closed by 2005 and 2010, respectively, taking into account the conditions of the long-term substantial financial assistance rendered by the European Union, G-7 countries and other states as well as international institutions. The Government approved the Strategy on Radioactive Waste Management. Objectives of this strategy are to develop the radioactive waste management infrastructure based on modern technologies and provide for the set of practical actions that shall bring management of radioactive waste in Lithuania in compliance with radioactive waste management principles of IAEA and with good practices in force in European Union Member States. SKB-SWECO International-Westinghouse Atom Joint Venture with participation of Lithuanian Energy Institute has prepared a reference design of a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate level waste. This reference design is applicable to the needs in Lithuania, considering its hydro-geological, climatic and other environmental conditions and is able to cover the expected needs in Lithuania for at least thirty years ahead. Development of waste acceptance criteria is in practice an iterative process concerning characterization of existing waste, repository development, safety and environmental impact assessment etc. This paper describes the position in Lithuania with regard to the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste in the absence of finalized waste acceptance criteria and a near surface repository

  6. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  7. Facilities for processing, packaging and storage of intermediate level radioactive waste at the Winfrith Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK strategy for the management of radioactive waste is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for the Environment. The implementation of that strategy is a function of Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP), a department within the Department of the Environment. Close liaison between HMIP and Her Majesty's Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (HMNII) takes place ensuring that site licenses are only granted for proposals which are consistent with the national waste management strategy. The task of developing national low level solid waste (LLSW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) disposal facilities rests with the UK Nirex, Ltd., a company formed by major national nuclear utilities with independent and government representation. This company is currently investigating the suitability of Sellafield, Cumbria and Dounreay, Caithness for a national repository. Operation of such a facility is unlikely however before the year 2005. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Recent studies on advanced methods for the decontamination of low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the activities of a laboratory which is engaged in the design and development of processes to reduce the radioactivity present in low and intermediate level waste streams to a very low level. Three types of processes are being examined; precipitation, ultrafiltration and ion-exchange using inorganic absorbers. These processes are used singly or in combination depending on the composition of the waste and the extent of decontamination required. The experimental investigation is supported by computer modelling of the chemical speciation and solubility of components of the waste stream at different stages in the treatment. The model is also used to study the effect of variation of process parameters and of changes in waste stream composition such as the addition of complexants

  9. A methodology for assessing social considerations in transport of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is proposed for taking into account non-radiological social aspects of the transport of low and intermediate level radioactive waste when considering the location of disposal facilities and the transport of waste to such facilities from the sites where it arises. As part of a data acquisition programme, an attitudinal survey of a sample of people unconnected with any suggested site or transport route is proposed in order to estimate levels of concern felt by people of different kinds about waste transport. Probabilities of accident occurrence during transport by road and rail are also discussed, and the limited extent of quantified information about consequences of accidents is reviewed. The scope for malicious interference with consignments of waste in transit is considered. (author)

  10. Thermal evaluation of resorcinol formaldehyde resin used for treatment of intermediate level liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) resin is used for treatment of intermediate level liquid radioactive waste. The resin is having high specificity for Cs ion. This resin is under use in level treatment cell of Waste Immobilisation Plant at Tarapur. After the saturation of resin column with Cs, it needs regeneration. Regeneration with nitric acid gives the waste which is compatible with the vitrification process. However, there is probability of degradation and nitration of RF resin and the same may have explosive nature. To find out the parameters for safe regeneration, resin samples treated with different molarity of nitric acid were evaluated with differential thermal analyser (DTA) in air as well as in argon atmosphere. The study indicated that the nitration of resin does not start up to 1.17M nitric acid concentration and therefore is safe for elution of Cs from the resin. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Format and Contents of Safety Analysis Report for Croatian Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of a Croatian near surface repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) may soon appear among national waste management strategy projects. Development of a repository is a complex process in which an adequate level of protection and safety must be designed and documented in accordance with the relevant regulations. The objective of this presentation is to clarify basic requirements on the form and content of a safety analysis report (SAR). In order to do that, we shall first place Croatian legislation into perspective provided by the recent developments in the regulatory approach to safety of LILW disposal world-wide. The scope of this presentation is nominally limited to a preliminary SAR, which is to be drawn up before some key decisions about the prospective repository are made. In conclusion, we propose to briefly outline the form and contents of the safety report in general, bearing in mind preliminary SAR in particular. (author)

  12. The transport implications of regional policies for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims to evaluate transport parameters and logistics associated with the disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL. The assumed power scenario is DoE Scheme 3, which approximates to a moderate power generation scenario, with a 15 GWe PWR programme commissioned between 1991 and 2010, existing Magnox and AGR stations are assumed to have a 30 year lifespan. Three transport options are again assumed, namely; road, rail and a hybrid system, as is consistent with previous studies. These three options will be used in investigating regional policies of disposal, initially at the national level and then progressively disaggregating to a system of three regional depositories serving their respective catchment areas. (author)

  13. AERE contracts with DOE on the treatment and disposal of Intermediate Level Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual summaries are provided for each contract report, under the titles: comparative evaluation of α and βγ irradiated medium level waste forms; modelling and characterisation of intermediate level waste forms based on polymers; optimisation of processing parameters for polymer and bitumen modified cements; α damage in non-reference matrix materials; leaching mechanisms and modelling; inorganic ion exchange treatment of medium active effluents; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid waste; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; effects of radiation on the properties of cemented MTR waste forms; equilibrium leach testing of cemented MTR waste forms; radiolytic oxidation of radionuclides; immobilisation of liquid organic wastes; quality control, non-conformances and corrective action; application of gel processes in the treatment of actinide-containing liquid wastes; the role of colloids in the release of radionuclides from nuclear waste. (author)

  14. Design features of shipping containers for low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immobilization of Intermediate Level Waste and Low Level Waste concentrates in cement matrices has been accepted as a conditioning process and is widely used in India since long. To keep pace with the increasing throughputs from recent solidification plants, shipping casks with improved designs are being adopted to transport single and multiple product drums from plant to storage/disposal sites. A salient feature of the vertical bottom loading shipping containers is the adoption of modular concept incorporating the loading/unloading platforms, the transportation unit and the lifting system as separable modules. Emphasis has been mainly on making the transportation units compact and devoid of any drives, controls and sensors which are prone to damages during transit which have been provided on the stationary loading/unloading platforms. The product entry into the cask is through a single bottom door in place of the split door design practised earlier thereby avoiding bulky compensatory shielding around the opening. THe lifting system accommodates the lifting tackle for the cask as well as the hoisting system for the product drum. The casks are designed to employ a fail safe and load positive pneumatic grapple where pneumatic actuation is utilized for releasing the grapple once the load is stably supported. While the intermediate level shipping container is meant for a single drum, the low level shipping container has been designed to accommodate multiple drums inside the housing with provision of a rugged mechanized conveyor segment for handling the drums within the cask. Limitation of capacity of the design has been only availability of space and handling systems at the existing facilities. The cask designs have been evaluated analytically to determine their compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive materials are transported. (author). 2 refs

  15. An assessment of filter aids and filter cloths in the dewatering of intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers a range of filter cloths and precoat materials intended for use in dewatering intermediate level radioactive wastes, and their interaction when used on a rotary drum vacuum filter. The report outlines the advantages and disadvantages of various grades and types of precoat and shows that grades with permeabilities in the intermediate range, 3 to 4 x 10-12 m2, give satisfactory filtrate quality together with ease of operation. The work on filter cloths shows that: radiation damage is not a limiting factor as regards operational life for any of the cloths examined; polyester-based cloths are unsuitable due to their poor resistance to alkali attack; polyamide cloths are satisfactory; and stainless steel Dutch weave cloths are satisfactory and have the added advantage of high strength. The report also briefly considers the radiation resistance of two elastomeric membranes used on the 'epidermal' filter and shows that the natural latex rubber membrane is considerably more resistant to radiation than the silicone rubber membrane and has an estimated operational life of at least 1200 hours when dewatering Magnox silo sludge or α-contaminated alumino ferric flocs. (author)

  16. Biohydrogen Fermentation from Sucrose and Piggery Waste with High Levels of Bicarbonate Alkalinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongdong Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of biohydrogen fermentation under the high bicarbonate alkalinity (BA and pH to optimize these critical parameters. When sucrose was used as a substrate, hydrogen was produced over a wide range of pH values (5–9 under no BA supplementation; however, BA affected hydrogen yield significantly under different initial pHs (5–10. The actual effect of high BA using raw piggery waste (pH 8.7 and BA 8.9 g CaCO3/L showed no biogas production or propionate/acetate accumulation. The maximum hydrogen production rate (0.32 L H2/g volatile suspended solids (VSS-d was observed at pH 8.95 and 3.18 g CaCO3/L. BA greater than 4 g CaCO3/L also triggered lactate-type fermentation, leading to propionate accumulation, butyrate reduction and homoacetogenesis, potentially halting the hydrogen production rate. These results highlight that the substrate with high BA need to amend adequately to maximize hydrogen production.

  17. PIGO mutations in intractable epilepsy and severe developmental delay with mild elevation of alkaline phosphatase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Osaka, Hitoshi; Murakami, Yoshiko; Anzai, Rie; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Kodera, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Kinoshita, Taroh; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo

    2014-02-01

    Aberrations in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis pathway constitute a subclass of congenital disorders of glycosylation, and mutations in seven genes involved in this pathway have been identified. Among them, mutations in PIGV and PIGO, which are involved in the late stages of GPI-anchor synthesis, and PGAP2, which is involved in fatty-acid GPI-anchor remodeling, are all causative for hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS). Using whole exome sequencing, we identified novel compound heterozygous PIGO mutations (c.389C>A [p.Thr130Asn] and c.1288C>T [p.Gln430*]) in two siblings, one of them having epileptic encephalopathy. GPI-anchored proteins (CD16 and CD24) on blood granulocytes were slightly decreased compared with a control and his mother. Our patients lacked the characteristic features of HPMRS, such as facial dysmorphology (showing only a tented mouth) and hypoplasia of distal phalanges, and had only a mild elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Our findings therefore expand the clinical spectrum of GPI-anchor deficiencies involving PIGO mutations to include epileptic encephalopathy with mild elevation of ALP. PMID:24417746

  18. The occurrence and levels of cyanotoxin nodularin from Nodularia spumigena in the alkaline and salty Lake Burdur, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sahindokuyucu Kocasari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of cyanobacteria species Nodularia spumigena and its toxin nodularin were studied in Burdur Lake, a saline alkaline lake with endemic fauna and a Ramsar site of ornithological importance. The water samples were collected from three different locations of Lake Burdur between May and November of 2011. Abundance of Nodularia spumigena and the nodularin levels peaked at the end of July (112,147 cells mL-1 and 4.82 µg L-1, coinciding with the highest levels of chlorophyll a (Chl a (27.15 µg L-1 and the water temperature (29oC. Although fish or other animal deaths were not detected during the episodes, it is concluded that N. spumigena blooming should be monitored in Burdur Lake for the ecosystem and environmental health. 

  19. HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES - SIA RADON EXPERIENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Kobelev, A.P.; Popkov, V.N.; Polkanov, M.A.; Savkin, A.E.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Karlina, O.K.; Semenov, K.N.

    2003-02-27

    This review describes high temperature methods of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) treatment currently used at SIA Radon. Solid and liquid organic and mixed organic and inorganic wastes are subjected to plasma heating in a shaft furnace with formation of stable leach resistant slag suitable for disposal in near-surface repositories. Liquid inorganic radioactive waste is vitrified in a cold crucible based plant with borosilicate glass productivity up to 75 kg/h. Radioactive silts from settlers are heat-treated at 500-700 0C in electric furnace forming cake following by cake crushing, charging into 200 L barrels and soaking with cement grout. Various thermochemical technologies for decontamination of metallic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces, treatment of organic wastes (spent ion-exchange resins, polymers, medical and biological wastes), batch vitrification of incinerator ashes, calcines, spent inorganic sorbents, contaminated soil, treatment of carbon containing 14C nuclide, reactor graphite, lubricants have been developed and implemented.

  20. Cost Considerations and Financing Mechanisms for the Disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this publication is to provide Member States who are currently planning or preparing new near surface repositories for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW), guidance on cost considerations and funding mechanisms for the repositories' entire life cycle. The report focuses on both technical and non-technical factors affecting repository costs. It considers the major cost elements that comprise a cost evaluation for a disposal facility for LILW and identifies those factors which may result in major uncertainties in an overall cost estimate. In particular, the report lists the basic disposal options and summarizes the legal basis and infrastructure requirements for establishing an effective financing system. It further includes the cost estimation methodology, considers the major cost categories and discusses factors to be considered when planning the financing mechanism, and describes relevant financing schemes

  1. The development of a 'large liner' for the processing and solidification of intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnox Electric have developed a ''Large Liner'' for the processing and solidification of the majority of the slurry from intermediate level wastes which arise on its power station sites (operational or undergoing decommissioning). The Liner comprises a cylindrical vessel of approximate dimensions 1.7 m diameter by 1.2 m high and it has been developed to comply with the requirements of the current Nirex Package Specifications. It is manufactured from stainless steel, being of all welded construction, with a bolted lid, incorporating an ''O'' ring elastomer seal. The Liner can be fitted with a paddle for the ''in drum'' solidification of slurry form wastes. This paper describes the development of the Liner, outlining the main stages from initial concepts to the final testing and receipt of approval from Nirex, who have adopted the Liner as one of its ''Standard'' waste containers. (Author)

  2. Modelling of hydrogen production from pore water radiolysis in cemented intermediate level waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Giandomenico M.-V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In France, some of the intermediate and low level wastes are embedded in hydraulic binder and put into concrete canisters. They contain β and γ emitters which cause an irradiation of water present in the pores of the hydraulic binder. This is responsible for a dihydrogen (H2 production due to radiolysis. EDF R&D and CEA have collaborated since many years in order to understand this phenomenon and develop a model called DO-RE-MI which can predict such a production of dihydrogen in concrete waste packages. A parametric study, using the developed model, was implemented in order to determine the effects of each parameter on H2 production. The main results are presented in this paper.

  3. The disposal of intermediate-level radioactive liquid waste by hydraulic fracturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydraulic fracturing process is characterized by combination of the treatment with the disposal of ILLW (intermediate-level liquid waste). It is of cement solidification in deep geology stratum. First of all, it is necessary to select a suitable disposal site with detailed information on geology and hydrogeology. The process has such advantages as simple, low cost, large capacity of disposal, safe and reliable in technology. It is an attractive process of ILLW. Since 1980's, the research and the concept design of the hydraulic fracturing process have been initiated for disposal of ILLW. It is demonstrated by the field tests. The authors considered that the geological structure near Sichuan Nuclear Fuel Plant fits the disposal of ILLW by the hydraulic fracturing process

  4. Chemical conditions in the repository for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical conditions in the proposed repositories for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste at Haestholmen (IVO) and Olkiluoto (TVO) have been discussed with respect to materials introduced into the repository, their possible long-term changes and interaction with groundwater flowing into the repository. The main possible groundwater-rock interactions have been discussed, as well as the role of micro-organisms, organic acids and colloids in the estimation of the barrier integrity. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed on the basis of the natural groundwater compositions expected at the repository sites. Main emphasis is put on the chemical parameters which might influence the integrity of the different barriers in the repository as well as on the parameters which might effect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository

  5. Modeling of concrete carbonation in deep geological disposal of intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations of atmospheric carbonation of Intermediate-Level Long-lived radioactive Waste (ILLW) concrete packages were conducted to evaluate their possible chemical degradations. Two-phase liquid water-air flow is combined with gas component diffusion processes leading to a progressive drying of the concrete.Complete drying of the 11 cm thick waste disposal package wall occurs over a period ranging from 2 years for the low-performance concrete to 10 years for the high-performance concrete. The drying process slows down when transport characteristics of concretes are enhanced. Carbonation depths in the order of 2 to 3 cm in 100 years are predicted for this cementitious component. However, these values are slightly overestimated compared to experimental data. Also the kinetic model of mineral reactivity requires improvements with respect to the protective effect of secondary carbonates and to thermodynamic data. (authors)

  6. Predisposal Management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established for the predisposal management of low and intermediate level waste. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety considerations; 5. Safety features for the predisposal management of LILW; 6. Record keeping and reporting; 7. Safety assessment; 8. Quality assurance; Annex I: Nature and sources of LILW from nuclear facilities; Annex II: Development of specifications for waste packages; Annex III: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external natural phenomena); Annex IV: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external human induced phenomena); Annex V: Postulated initiating events for consideration in a safety assessment (internal phenomena).

  7. Assessment of the radiological impact of disposal of low and intermediate level wastes on the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes progress in the development of models for use in a radiological assessment of the disposal of low and intermediate level waste on the ocean floor. In particular the report describes the waste package model, the ocean dispersion model and the sedimentation model. Five types of waste package have been identified and models have been developed for them. A flow pattern for the Atlantic Ocean has been derived from the existing distribution of temperature and salinity in the Atlantic Ocean. However a number of discrepancies between the calculated and predicted pattern were found; the model has been extended to include all the world's oceans to correct this. The sedimentation model describes two types of scavenging particles in the water column, a well mixed benthic boundary layer and the top two metres of the bed sediments. Good agreement with the GESAMP ocean model results has been found. (author)

  8. Strategic review on management and disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview on the actual status of solid low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW) management in China is described. Some of the main problems at present are analysed. The strategies on management and disposal of the wastes are discussed in light of systematology. A large amount of solid L/ILW and distilled residual solution to be solidified have been accumulated during the past 30 years development of nuclear industry in China. These wastes, containing fission products, activated products, and uranium and transuranium elements respectively, mainly come from nuclear reactors, spent fuel reprocessing plants, and nuclear fuel fabrication plants. In the century, solid L/ILW and solidified wastes are produced mainly by nuclear industry; but in the next century, solid wastes will be steadily produced mainly from nuclear power plants

  9. OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste - recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a status report on Canada's first project to build a permanent repository for the long-term management of radioactive waste. Ontario Power Generation has initiated a project to construct a deep geologic repository for low- and intermediate-level waste at the Bruce Nuclear Site, at a depth in the range of 600 to 800 m in an Ordovician-age argillaceous limestone formation. The project is currently undergoing an Environmental Assessment and consulting companies in the areas of environmental assessment, geoscientific site characterization, engineering and safety assessment have been hired and technical studies are underway. Seismic surveys and borehole drilling will be initiated in the fall of 2006. The next major milestone for the project is the submission of the Environmental Assessment report, currently scheduled for December 2008. (author)

  10. The management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes arising from reprocessing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel results in the generation of radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, gases and solids. This paper outlines the principles and major elements of the waste management systems currently in use or under development for the category of waste known as intermediate-level wastes. To enable implementation of an optimized waste management system, engineering process evaluations, development and design in the following areas are required: The definition of cost effective options taking account of constraints which may arise from other operations in the overall system, e.g. from transport requirements or from criteria derived from environmental impact assessments of alternative disposal routes; Plant and equipment development to enable acceptable system and active plant operations on an industrial scale; Safety and reliability studies to ensure adequate protection of both the general public and plant operators during all stages of the waste management system including disposal

  11. Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental and Safety Assessment Activities in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of the environment is one of the main concerns in the management of radioactive waste, especially in repository planning. In different stages of repository lifetime the environmental assessment has different functions: it can be used as a decision making process and as a planning, communication and management tool. Safety assessment as a procedure for evaluating the performance of a disposal system, and its potential radiological impact on human health and environment, is also required. Following the international recommendations and Slovene legislation, a presentation is given of the role and importance of the environmental and safety assessment activities in the early stages following concept development and site selection for a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository in Slovenia. As a case study, a short overview is also given of the preliminary safety assessment that has been carried out in the analysis of possibilities for long-lived LILW disposal in Slovenia. (author)

  12. Economic assessment on vitrification facility of low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of vitrification technology of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes was demonstrated due to volume reduction and mechanical and chemical stability of final waste forms. Therefore economic assessment that is considering by the economic propriety and predicted cost is needed at the preliminary of facility operation. Economic assessment of vitrification facility that is expected to construct in Ulchin 5 and 6 is established. In this study, characteristics and yearly generation of radioactive wastes are based on Ulchin 5 and 6 PSAR. The present worth analysis is worked through the cost-benefit when the vitrification facility will be installed. In conclusion, it would be good choices if it treats radioactive wastes from more than 4 nuclear power plants

  13. Modelling of hydrogen production from pore water radiolysis in cemented intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, some of the intermediate and low level wastes are embedded in hydraulic binder and put into concrete canisters. They contain β and γ emitters which cause an irradiation of water present in the pores of the hydraulic binder. This is responsible for a dihydrogen (H2) production due to radiolysis. EDF R and D and CEA have collaborated since many years in order to understand this phenomenon and develop a model called DO-RE-MI which can predict such a production of dihydrogen in concrete waste packages. A parametric study, using the developed model, was implemented in order to determine the effects of each parameter on H2 production. The main results are presented in this paper. (authors)

  14. Management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes 1988. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Symposium on Management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes, organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency with the Commission of the European Communities, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, from 16 to 20 May 1988. All basic stages of management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (treatment, conditioning, waste form characterization and quality control, and disposal options) were addressed at the symposium. For the first time in IAEA practice the subject of treatment and conditioning of mixed radioactive and chemically and biologically hazardous wastes was also included in the programme. The papers presented at the symposium showed that substantial progress is still possible in the further development and improvement of the numerous existing technologies for waste treatment and conditioning. Much effort is being made to minimize the volume of waste, to reduce the total cost of waste management, and to improve the quality of immobilized wastes and the reliability of disposal. A great number of techniques available worldwide for the treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes and several new treatment processes being developed in different countries were reported. The range and the novelty of this work indicate that substantial effort is continually being devoted to the improvement of treatment and conditioning techniques. It was strongly confirmed by many contributions at the symposium that waste product composition and quality should be adjusted to meet the disposal criteria and therefore depend on the disposal option selected. A range of disposal options were discussed at the symposium. Depending on many factors, including the geology and geography of the country concerned, waste composition, availability of appropriate abandoned mines and socio-political factors either deep underground disposal or shallow land burial or a combination of the two is being adopted for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The

  15. Safety documentation in the siting process of low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Slovenian legislation a mandate is given to The Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Arab) to perform various tasks related to safe management of radioactive waste in Slovenia. Part of the activities is siting and construction of a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The process of siting and construction is three-phase, with accompanying safety documentation produced in each step, Special Safety Analysis (SSA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Safety Analysis Report (SAR), respectively. Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) is a regulatory body, whereas ARAO is the licensee. The interaction between the two should follow the scheme: requirements, guidelines, application with documents, review and licensing. The repository project is the first of a kind according to new Slovenian nuclear regulations set in 2002. Compliant with its scope of responsibilities SNSA shall determine requirements regarding the extent and contents of the safety documentation. The paper will present the process of preparation of the guidelines and requirements by SNSA. The latest findings in regulatory role at regard of interaction with licensee were used, taking into consideration recommendations from International Atomic Energy Agency, European Union, Nuclear Energy Agency, and similar examples in other countries. SNSA has already prepared extensive guidelines on how to perform SSA, while guidelines for EIA and SAR are in the drafting phase. Requirements and guidelines are important documents both for licensee, when producing the safety documentation, and for regulator, when reviewing the application, and to great extent contribute to prevention of any unnecessary delays in the licensing process. A national repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste is due to start operation in 2013 with the location known in 2008. (author)

  16. Management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes 1988. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Symposium on Management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes, organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency with the Commission of the European Communities, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, from 16 to 20 May 1988. There were 47 oral presentations of papers, including 4 invited papers on most interesting and important topics, and 45 poster presentations. All basic stages of management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (treatment, conditioning, waste form characterization and quality control, and disposal options) were addressed at the symposium. The subject of treatment and conditioning of mixed radioactive and chemically and biologically hazardous wastes was also included in the programme. A great number of techniques available worldwide for the treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes and several new treatment processes were reported. The range and the novelty of this work indicate that substantial effort is continually being devoted to the improvement of treatment and conditioning techniques. It was strongly confirmed by many contributions at the symposium that waste product composition and quality should be adjusted to meet the disposal criteria and therefore depend on the disposal option selected. Intensive work in this field is being carried out within the European Communities' research programme on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Wastes through co-ordinated actions by large numbers of European laboratories. Depending on many factors, including the geology and geography of the country concerned, waste composition, availability of appropriate abandoned mines and socio-political factors, either deep underground disposal or shallow land burial or a combination of the two is being adopted for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The extensive description of the new Swedish repository for radioactive waste, the SFR, constructed in rock caverns below the sea-bed, was a highlight of the symposium

  17. Requirements and methods for low and intermediate level waste package acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management requires, as any other industrial activity, planned and systematic actions to provide adequate confidence that the entire system, processes and the products involved will satisfy given requirements for quality. At present, efforts to implement such measures are, to a certain extent, concentrated on waste conditioning in order to provide assurance that a waste package produced can comply with waste acceptance criteria developed for a repository and thus the safety of waste disposal is ensured. The present report was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on quality assurance and quality control requirements for radioactive waste packages. It outlines the quality assurance requirements and methods for the processes of conditioning low and intermediate level waste and complements IAEA-TECDOC-680, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Methods for High Level Waste Package Acceptability''. Both publications are relevant to the Technical Reports Series No. 376, ''Quality Assurance for Radioactive Waste Packages'', which provides general guidance on the application of quality assurance to the waste conditioning process irrespectively of the activity level of radioactive waste. Emphasis in the present text is placed on appropriate quality assurance actions to be taken in order to avoid the need to carry out extensive non-destructive examination and, possible, destructive examination of these packages. 17 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Design features of shipping containers for low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immobilisation of Intermediate Level Waste and Low Level Waste concentrates in cement matrices has been accepted as a conditioning process and has been widely used in India for some time. To keep pace with the increasingly throughputs from recent solidification plants, shipping casks with improved designs are being adopted to transport single and multiple product drums from plant to storage/disposal sites. A salient feature of the vertical bottom loading shipping containers is the adoption of a modular concept incorporating the loading/unloading platforms, the transport unit and the lifting system as separable modules. Emphasis has been mainly on making the transport units compact and devoid of any drives, controls and sensors which are prone to damage during transit and which have been provided on the stationary loading/unloading platforms. The product entry into the cask is through a single bottom door in place of the split door design practised earlier, thereby avoiding bulky compensatory shielding around the opening. The cask designs have been evaluated analytically to determine their compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive materials are transported. (author)

  19. Geological environments for deep disposal of intermediate level wastes in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By 2000 the United Kingdom will have produced about 40,000 m3 of intermediate level wastes which, because of their content of long lived radionuclides, will be assigned to a deep geological disposal repository, be it on land or offshore. In the paper the authors develop a novel concept of hydrogeological environments for deep disposal which departs from earlier guidelines for high level waste repository site selection by placing increased emphasis on the regional groundwater regime in the vicinity of the potential host formation, rather than simply considering the properties of the host rock itself. This concept has led to the definition of five types of deep environment thought to be most suitable for disposal, and which are considered to be applicable to geological conditions throughout most of northern and central Europe. The authors develop the rationale for the choice of these environments and define those areas of the United Kingdom where they occur. These areas will be assessed in more detail, with a view to producing a short list of sites for thorough investigation and intercomparison as potential repositories. (author)

  20. Development of the remediation strategy for the Dounreay intermediate level waste shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of Fast Reactor Technology within the United Kingdom began in the mid 1950's and continued until 1994. It was concentrated at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority site at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland. During the construction of the site's low level liquid effluent discharge facility, a vertical access shaft was constructed which, when the discharge facility was completed, was sealed at the seaward end and allowed to fill naturally with water. It was then licensed by the Scottish Office Environmental Department as a disposal facility for what is now categorized as Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). Waste was disposed of to this facility from 1959 until 1977 when a hydrogen explosion in the air space above the shaft took place causing damage to the head works. Since that time UKAEA has maintained the shaft in a state of care and maintenance pending a decision on its long term future. During 1996 and 1997 detailed option studies were carried out which demonstrated that retrieval of the waste from the shaft and its subsequent above ground repackaging, conditioning and storage, represented the Best Practicable Environmental Option and UKAEA made this recommendation to the UK Government in November 1997. This recommendation was accepted by Government and, as a result, the present project to retrieve material has now begun. This paper describes the history of the facility, the options explored and the decision process by which the final strategy was determined. (author)

  1. Siting Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Egypt (Proposal approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste from the surrounding media so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods and suitable criteria. Near surface disposal method has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The site selection process for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility addressed a wide range of public health, safety, environmental, social and economic factors. Establishing site criteria is the first step in the sitting process to identify a site that is capable of protecting public health, safety and the environment. This paper is concerning a proposal approach for the primary criteria for near surface disposal facility that could be applicable in Egypt.

  2. The Korean Final Repository for Low- and Intermediate- Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underground waste repository site is located at Gyeongju and is selected for the disposal of all the Low- and Intermediate- Level Radioactive Waste(LILW). Its operation is scheduled in the beginning of 2009. The repository, with a disposal capacity of 800,000 drums, will be constructed in granite bedrock near the seashore at the Gyeongju site. The repository will be constructed in phases t o reach its final capacity of 800,000 drums. In the first phase of construction, the repository will have a capacity to dispose of 100,000 drums. The first phase of the repository design consists of an access shaft, a construction tunnel, an operating tunnel, an unloading tunnel, and six(6) silos. The silos are located at 80 to 130 meters below Mean Sea Level (MSL), in bedrock. Each silo is 24.8 m in diameter and 52.4 m in height. The silo will be reinforced with shot-crete, rock-bolts and concrete lining for rock supports, and the lining will also act as an engineered barrier to limit radioactive nuclide release after closure. After serving its intended function the repository will be backfilled and sealed. The primary objective of backfilling and sealing is to prevent ground-water flow into the silos through the tunnel system and to prevent inadvertent intrusion into the repository after closure. (authors)

  3. Processing of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from the nuclear power plant Muehleberg at Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between October 1986 and April 1987 two contracts were concluded between the nuclear power plant Muehleberg and the German firm Transnuklear GmbH for the processing of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Muehleberg in the incineration facility at Mol in Belgium. In the contracts, transport of the wastes to Mol and back was included. According to the contracts the maximum admissible surface dose rate of the containers enclosing the wastes was 3000 mR/h. The actual maximum value of the surface dose rate was 1800 mR/h. On January 8, 1988, Swiss press published a statement to the effect that those wastes having a surface dose rate of more than 200 mR/h cannot be processed at Mol and must be transported back to Switzerland. Three representatives of Muehleberg visited Mol to discuss the conflicting information. The result of their inquiries was that the processing and transport of foreign wastes at Mol are currently suspended due to the irregularities associated with Transnuklear. Neither the safety nor the operation of the Muehleberg facility are jeopardized through the incident

  4. The Optimal Level and Disposition of Saving and the Mix of Monetary and Fiscal Policy in Intermediate Macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ian M.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a framework for including the optimal level of national saving and its disposition between investment in the domestic capital stock and the accumulation of overseas assets, in intermediate macroeconomics teaching. Uses the IS-LM model to enhance students' comprehension of the issues involved in the optimal level of saving. (MJP)

  5. Prestudy of final disposal of long-lived low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repository for long-lived low and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5, is foreseen to be located adjacent to the deep repository for spent encapsulated fuel, SFL 2. The SFL 3-5 repository comprises of three repository parts which will be used for the different categories of waste. In this report the work performed within a pre-study of the SFL 3-5 repository concept is summarised. The aim was to make a first preliminary and simplified assessment of the near-field as a barrier to radionuclide dispersion. A major task has been to compile information on the waste foreseen to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The waste comprises of; low and intermediate level waste from Studsvik, operational waste from the central interim storage for spent fuel, CLAB, and the encapsulation plant, decommissioning waste from these facilities, and core components and internal parts from the reactors. The total waste volume has been estimated to about 25000 m3. The total activity content at repository closure is estimated to be about 1 ·1017 Bq in SFL 3-5. At repository closure the short-lived radionuclides, for example Co-60 and Fe-55, have decayed considerably and the activity is dominated by nickel isotopes in the metallic waste from the reactors, to be disposed of in SFL 5. However, other radionuclides may be more or equally important from a safety point of view, e.g cesium-isotopes and actinides which are found in largest amounts in the SFL 3 waste. A first evaluation of the long term performance or the SFL 3-5 repository has been made. A systematic methodology for scenario formulation was tested. The near-field release of contaminants was calculated for a selected number of radionuclides and chemo-toxic elements. The radionuclide release calculations revealed that Cs-137 and Ni-63 would dominate the annual release from all repository parts during the first 1000 years after repository closure and that Ni-59 would dominate at longer times

  6. Reactive transport modelling of organic complexing agents in cement stabilized low and intermediate level waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schenck, Henrik; Källström, Klas

    The Swedish final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR 1) is located at Forsmark in Sweden. It holds low and intermediate-level operational waste from the Swedish nuclear power plants, as well as industrial, research-related, and medical waste. A variety of low molecular weight organic compounds are present in the waste or in its matrix. Such compounds can also be formed by chemical degradation of organic macromolecules. These organics can ligate to metal atoms forming stable complexes and also adsorb to the surface of cement, thereby influencing the net release of radionuclides from the repository. This motivates the study of the concentration distribution of complexing agents in the repository as a function of time. The following paper reports the results of mass transport modelling, describing the transport of complexing agents through the cementitous matrix in the rock vault for intermediate-level waste in the SFR 1 repository. Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and isosaccharinate (ISA) have been investigated, where the former is considered to be non-sorbing and non-reacting, while the latter is produced from cellulose degradation and adsorbs strongly to cement. The 3D model considers advection, diffusion, and sorption of solvated species in cement pore water over a time period of 20,000 years. The model accounts for the spatial distribution of the flow field in the repository structure and also considers changing groundwater flow during the investigated time period. It is found that 99% of the NTA is removed after approximately 4000 years, while 90% of the ISA is retained in the rock vault after 20,000 years. The maximum pore water concentration of ISA is found to be 8.6 mol/m3 after approximately 2300 years, based on the degradation of the deposited amounts of cellulose. Over the investigated time scale, the ligands retained in the repository can redistribute across several waste compartments where the organic compounds were not originally deposited. In

  7. Disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guidebook summarizes the factors to be considered and the activities to be undertaken in the overall planning and development of a disposal system for solid or solidified low- and intermediate-level wastes in rock cavities. Aspects related to repository site selection, design, construction, operation, shutdown, surveillance, regulation and safety assessment are discussed here in general terms. They will be covered in greater technical detail in a separate document. This report considers the emplacement of wastes in categories II, III, IV and V, as defined in Table 3.1, in different kinds of cavities located at various depths from just below the surface to deep continental rock. The choice of the type of cavity and its depth and of the disposal site itself is related to the radiological protection requirements for the wastes concerned. The repositories considered include natural caves and abandoned mines as well as specially excavated cavities in various geological formations. Consideration is also given to hydrogeological, environmental and societal factors. The guidelines given in the report are made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of different circumstances. Consequently, the practical application of these guidelines needs a case-by-case consideration which takes into account the local conditions, e.g. natural circumstances, the characteristics of the wastes and national and international regulations and practices

  8. Prototype of thermal degradation for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, the scientific, academic, industrial and technological activities, generate great quantity of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level (DRNBI). For to assure an appropriate final disposal of these, it is intended their treatment and vitrification by means of thermal plasma. This alternative offers multiple advantages in an only process: elevated energy density (105W/cm3), high enthalpy (1400 kJ/mol), elevated chemical reactivity, quick quenching (106K/s) and operation temperatures of 4000 to 15000K; this allows the treatment of a great diversity of waste. Those reactors are compact and they work to atmospheric pressure and reduced thermal inertia. This technology allows to degrade DRNBI and to contain them in a vitreous matrix by means of a system made up of a reactor, canyon of plasma, of monitoring, of washing of gases and of control. Besides the design and general characteristics of the Prototype of Thermal Degradation of DRNBI, they are reported in this work the advances achieved in the selection of the ceramic material for the vitrification. Their characterization was carried out by means of SEM and XRD. With the preliminary results it can discern that the material but appropriate to be used as vitreous matrix is a ceramic clay. With the development of the proposed technology and the material for the vitreous matrix, it will be to treat DRNBI. (Author)

  9. Study of the impact behaviour of packages containing intermediate level radioactive waste coming from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following describes primarily an experimental study into the benefits, for impact resistance, to be gained by incorporating a welded lid into the design of the cement filled drum type of intermediate level waste package. Tests on packages which were not provided with a lid showed that matrix material began to be expelled from drop heights of about 16m. This damage threshold was similar for packages composed of both high and low strength matrix. Above the damage threshold, however, the rate of increase of expelled mass with drop height was greater for the packages filled with a low strength matrix. Similar tests were conducted with specimens to which a lid had been attached by welding. Even from the greatest drop height available at the test facility (28m) only one package showed a significant amount of drum tearing but even then little matrix was lost. The benefits of incorporating a welded lid into package design were thus clearly established. Simple calculations were performed to predict the local deformations and deceleration/time histories of the packages. By optimisation of the impact resistive stress used in the computer model, final knockback areas were predicted to an accuracy of 30%. The average deceleration predicted for four of the six tests for which deceleration histories were available were also within 30% of measured values

  10. The disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: the Elstow Storage Depot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document explains the role of NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) in planning for the safe disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes and outlines the plans for the investigation and possible development of a new shallow repository at the CEGB's Elstow Storage Depot, Bedfordshire. The site is conveniently located and is situated on a suitable geologic formation, the Oxford Clay. The next step is for NIREX to undertake site investigations and assess in detail the site's suitability. On the basis of this assessment NIREX will either confirm its interest in the site or reject it as unsuitable. If the site proves to be adequate for the development of a shallow repository then NIREX will seek the necessary planning approvals and authorisations for such a development. The development would involve the construction of new buildings and a programme of trench excavation, waste positioning and trench closure. Existing tenants at the Depot will be accommodated as far as possible. The existing road and rail networks would be used for delivering the packaged wastes. In designing and operating any repository the safety of the public and workforce, both now and in the future, will be of paramount importance. (author)

  11. The disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: the Billingham anhydrite mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document explains the role of NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) in planning for the safe disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes and outlines the plans for the investigation and possible development of a deep repository at ICI's disused anhydrite mine, Billingham. The site is conveniently located and the geology is well understood. The existing workings are known to have a long history of stability and of particular importance, very little water is present. The next step is for NIREX to undertake site investigations and assess in detail the site's suitability. On the basis of this assessment NIREX will either confirm its interest in the site or reject it as unsuitable. If the site proves to be adequate for the development of a deep repository then NIREX will seek the necessary planning approvals and authorisations for such a development. Converting the mine into a repository would involve construction of some new buildings at the surface although little or no new excavation work would be necessary. As far as possible existing road and rail networks would be used. In designing and operating any repository the safety of the public and the work-force will be of paramount importance. (author)

  12. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums to be used as containers for intermediate level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different types and concentrations of aggressive species. A special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented ion-exchange resins in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 900 days. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The work was complemented with an analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition, as well as the morphology of the corrosion products. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina), it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. (authors)

  13. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums containing cemented intermediate level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementation processes are used as immobilization techniques for low or intermediate level radioactive waste for economical and safety reasons and for being a simple operation. In particular, ion-exchange resins commonly used for purification of radioactive liquid waste from nuclear reactors are immobilized before being stored to improve the leach resistance of the waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability. Combustible solid radioactive waste can be incinerated and the resulting ashes can also be immobilized before storage. The immobilized resins and ashes are then contained in steel drums that may undergo corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The work described in this paper was aimed at evaluating the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins and incineration ashes containing different concentrations of aggressive species (mostly chloride and sulphate ions). A special type of specimen was designed to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 1 year. The results show the deleterious effect of chloride on the expected lifespan of the waste containers.

  14. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums to be used as containers for intermediate level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, S.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.; Duffó, G.

    2013-07-01

    The present work is a study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different types and concentrations of aggressive species. A special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented ion-exchange resins in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 900 days. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The work was complemented with an analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition, as well as the morphology of the corrosion products. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drumscontaining the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina) , it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums.

  15. Intermediate divergence levels maximize the strength of structure-sequence correlations in enzymes and viral proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eleisha L; Shahmoradi, Amir; Spielman, Stephanie J; Jack, Benjamin R; Wilke, Claus O

    2016-07-01

    Structural properties such as solvent accessibility and contact number predict site-specific sequence variability in many proteins. However, the strength and significance of these structure-sequence relationships vary widely among different proteins, with absolute correlation strengths ranging from 0 to 0.8. In particular, two recent works have made contradictory observations. Yeh et al. (Mol. Biol. Evol. 31:135-139, 2014) found that both relative solvent accessibility (RSA) and weighted contact number (WCN) are good predictors of sitewise evolutionary rate in enzymes, with WCN clearly out-performing RSA. Shahmoradi et al. (J. Mol. Evol. 79:130-142, 2014) considered these same predictors (as well as others) in viral proteins and found much weaker correlations and no clear advantage of WCN over RSA. Because these two studies had substantial methodological differences, however, a direct comparison of their results is not possible. Here, we reanalyze the datasets of the two studies with one uniform analysis pipeline, and we find that many apparent discrepancies between the two analyses can be attributed to the extent of sequence divergence in individual alignments. Specifically, the alignments of the enzyme dataset are much more diverged than those of the virus dataset, and proteins with higher divergence exhibit, on average, stronger structure-sequence correlations. However, the highest structure-sequence correlations are observed at intermediate divergence levels, where both highly conserved and highly variable sites are present in the same alignment. PMID:26971720

  16. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums to be used as containers for intermediate level nuclear waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffó G.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different types and concentrations of aggressive species. A special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented ion-exchange resins in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 900 days. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species of concern and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation. The work was complemented with an analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition, as well as the morphology of the corrosion products. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drumscontaining the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina , it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination, the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums.

  17. The problem of site selection for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation of the preliminary geological assessment of potentially favourable environments in Bulgaria for disposal of low- (LLW) and intermediate level (ILW) radioactive waste is made. The total quantity of the processed LLW and ILW for the whole operating period of the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant will exceed 178 000 m3. The first step in tackling the problem associated with the radioactive waste disposal has been the development of the Concept for National Radioactive Waste Repository in 1991-1993 by an inter-disciplinary team. As a result of the study performed during the development of the Concept, three geological formations and two mines have been identified for further investigations: Neogene clayey deposits, Low Cretaceous marls, loess sediments, Koshava mine (Neogene gypsum sediments) and Smolyanovtsi uranium mine. The sites were analysed using geological, seismotectonical, geomorphological, hydrogeological, engineering, geological and socio-economical criteria. On the basis of the system analysis it was established that the sites can be divided into three groups according to the degree of preference: 1) Low Cretaceous marls; 2) loess sediments; 3) Miocene clays, Koshava and Smolyanovtsi mines. These assessments are based mainly on explorations and research carried out for other purposes, so they are preliminary and need additional argumentation. 1 ref

  18. Environmental impact of radionuclide migration in groundwater from a low-intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The radionuclide migration from a certain Chinese repository withlow-intermediate level radioactive solid waste is studied. The migration in groundwater is analyzed and computed in detail. Under presumption of normal releasing, or the bottom of the repository has been marinated for one month with precipitation reaching 600 mm once and a 6m aerated zone exists, a prediction for 7 radionuclides is conducted. It shows that the aerated zone is the primary barrier for migration. The migration for radionuclides 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr, 63Ni, etc. will be retarded in it within 500 years. The concentration of 239Pu will be decreased by amount of 6 order. Only 3H and 14C can migrate through the aerated zone. The radionuclides that go through the aerated zone and enter the aquifer will exist in spring, stream and sea. Based on this, the intake dose by residents in different age group resulting from drinking contaminated spring water, eating seafood is calculated. The results showed that the impact of the repository to the key resident group is lower than the limit in national repository regulation standard. This complies with the repository management target.

  19. A successful case site selection for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea decided on Gyeongju-si as the site of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility by referendum in November, 2005. Five success factors are considered; 1) the mayor and municipal assembly leaded the public opinion of inhabitants, 2) an invitation group was formed by citizen, social and religious group, 3) Gyeongju-si has operated the nuclear power plant since 20 years ago, and this radioactive waste disposal facility brings large financial support, 4) many kinds of public information means were used for invitation agreement and 5) the preconception, a nuclear facility is danger, was removed by visiting citizen, social group and local inhabitants at the nuclear power plant facility. Promotion process of the project, invitation process of Gyeongju-si and success factors, construction of an invitation promotion group and development of public information activities, publicity of financial effects and safety of radioactive waste disposal facility, increase of general acceptance among inhabitants by many kinds of public information means, and P.R. of safety of nuclear power plant facility by visiting leadership layers are reported. (S.Y.)

  20. Evaluation of low and intermediate level radioactive solidified waste forms and packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste forms and packages with respect to compliance with quality and safety requirements for transport, interim storage and disposal has become a very important part of the radioactive waste management strategy in many countries. The evaluation of waste forms and packages provides precise basic data for regulatory bodies to establish safety requirements, and implement quality control and quality assurance procedures for radioactive waste management programmes. The requirements depend very much upon the disposal option selected, treatment technology used, waste form characteristics, package quality and other factors. The regulatory requirements can also influence the methodology of waste form/package evaluation together with selection and analysis of data for quality control and safety assurance. A coordinated research programme started at the end of 1985 and brought together 12 participants from 11 countries. The results of the programme and each particular project were discussed at three Research Coordination Meetings held in Cairo, Egypt, in May, 1986; in Beijing, China, in April, 1998; and at Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom, in November, 1989. This document summarises the salient features and results achieved during the four year investigation and a recommendation for future work in this area. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Longterm performance of structural component of intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground repository for intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste is to be sealed and closed after operation. Structural components, which are generally made of cement concrete, are designed and accommodated in the repository for the purpose of operational convenience and stability after closure. To forecast the change of long-term integrity of the structural components, experimental verification, using in-situ or near in-situ conditions, is necessary. Domestic and foreign requirements with regard to the selection criteria and the performance criteria for structural components in disposal facility were surveyed. Characteristics of various types of cement were studied. Materials and construction methods of structural components similar to those of disposal facility was investigated and test items and methods for integrity of cement concrete were included. Literature survey for domestic groundwater characteristics was performed together with Ca-type bentonite ore which is a potential backfill material. Causes or factors affecting the durability of the cement structures were summarized. Experiments to figure out the ions leaching out from and migrating into cement soaked in distilled water and synthetic groundwater, respectively, were carried out. And finally, diffusion of chloride ion through cement was experimentally measured

  2. In vitro induction of alkaline phosphatase levels predicts in vivo bone forming capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk-Jan Prins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the applications of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs that are produced by ex vivo expansion is for use in in vivo bone tissue engineering. Cultured stromal cells are a mixture of cells at different stages of commitment and expansion capability, leading to a heterogeneous cell population that each time can differ in the potential to form in vivo bone. A parameter that predicts for in vivo bone forming capacity is thus far lacking. We employed single colony-derived BMSC cultures to identify such predictive parameters. Using limiting dilution, we have produced sixteen single CFU-F derived BMSC cultures from human bone marrow and found that only five of these formed bone in vivo. The single colony-derived BMSC strains were tested for proliferation, osteogenic-, adipogenic- and chondrogenic differentiation capacity and the expression of a variety of associated markers. The only robust predictors of in vivo bone forming capacity were the induction of alkaline phosphatase, (ALP mRNA levels and ALP activity during in vitro osteogenic differentiation. The predictive value of in vitro ALP induction was confirmed by analyzing “bulk-cultured” BMSCs from various bone marrow biopsies. Our findings show that in BMSCs, the additional increase in ALP levels over basal levels during in vitro osteogenic differentiation is predictive of in vivo performance.

  3. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate level radioactive wastes: Safety report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of radioactive waste must delay the return of radionuclides to the biosphere for a long period of time and must maintain the release rates at a sufficiently low level for all time. This is achieved with the aid of a series of safety barriers which consist, on the one hand, of technical barriers in the repository and, on the other hand , of natural geological barriers as they occur at the repository location. In order to assess the efficiency of the barriers, the working methods of the technical barriers and the host rock must be understood. This understanding is transferred into quantitative models in order to calculate the safety of the repository. The individual barriers and the methods used to modelling their functions were described in volume NGB 85-07 of the Project Guarantee 1985 report series and the data necessary for modelling were given. The models and data are used in the safety analysis, the results of which are contained in the present report. Safety considerations show that models are available in Switzerland which allow, in principle, an assessment of the long-term behaviour of a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste. The evaluation of earlier studies and experimental work, suitable laboratory measurements and results from field research enable compilation of a representative data-set so that the requirements for quantitative statements on safety of final disposal are met from this side also. The safety calculations show that the radiation doses calculated for a base case scenario with realistic/conservative parameter values are negligibly low. Also, radiation doses which are clearly under the protection standard of 10 mrem per year result for conservative values and the cumulation of several conservative assumptions. Even assuming exposure of the repository by erosion, a radiotoxicity of the soil formed results which is under natural values

  4. Exploitation of massive deposits by unfilled mine chambers at intermediate levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposits of the uranium mine at the Ecarpiere are in the form of almost vertical veins whose main direction is north 60 deg. west. These veins, which are for the most part irregular are filled by a breccia (Rubble) of granite and syenite high impregnated with fluorine. The points where there is an enrichment in uranium compounds are widely dispersed and take the form of small veins of pitchblende together with pyrites or of plating of pulverulent black oxides. The enclosing rock consists of fractured granite. In spite of the coating of kaolin in the numerous faults and fractures, the walls are fairly good. Some discordant veins but up against the central group of veins. At the meeting points between the discordant veins and the main vein, there is a thickening (up to 20-25 m) in the vein over quite a considerable height. These thickenings are very often impregnated by pitchblende, in which case the phenomena is termed a mass. Borings carried out from ground level have shown the presence of these important ore bearing zones, enclosed in sound granite, and which give grounds for expecting that from the start of exploitation the walls will hold well. It was therefore possible to envisage almost any method of exploitation. For economic reasons only, we have decided to adopt the method of exploitation of intermediate levels using unfilled chambers. Once this method had been adopted, exploratory galleries were opened up so as to determine the boundary of the ore bearing zone. Half of these galleries were excavated in marginal zones so as to find the limits of the zones to exploit. At the present time, the exploitation of one mass is almost terminated, on another the pillars are being removed, and a third is being reconnoitred. (author)

  5. Inquiry-Based Learning in an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Neotectonics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinen, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    Integrating student-conducted research into the curriculum can provide students with many educational benefits. Documented benefits include, among others, increased communication skills, the ability to work as part of a research team, and enhanced self-confidence in individual problem-solving skills (e.g., Kardash, J. Ed. Psych., 2000; Seymour, et al., Science Education, 2004). As part of a larger departmental goal of integrating student- conducted research into all levels of the Pomona College Geology Department curriculum (e.g., Reinen, et al., CUR-Q, 2006), I have recently developed an intermediate-level Neotectonics course with a strong component of inquiry-based learning. This course was offered for the first time during the spring semester 2007, and will continue to be offered each year. In a series of guided inquiries throughout the course, students investigate recent seismicity and tectonic geomorphology in Southern California. With each subsequent assignment, student contributions to the research direction increases (e.g., data used, area studied, question addressed, methods used), culminating in team proposals and research projects investigating specific student-generated questions of regional tectonics. Students collect data for these investigations from several sources: (1) databases available online (e.g., IRIS, Harvard earthquake catalog), (2) desktop experiments (e.g., the "earthquake machine"), (3) topographic maps, and (4) field observations. The objective of this paper is to present initial results from this teaching experiment and examples of the projects which have been executed, including the preparation students received to be able to use the available data. Discussion and suggestions (particularly about effective means of conducting a rigorous long-term assessment) are strongly encouraged.

  6. Factors influencing the choice of processes for the treatment of intermediate-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wastes considered in this paper are the wastes defined by the IAEA as intermediate-level wastes - i.e., those wastes which, because of their radionuclide content, require shielding but need little or no provision for heat dissipation during their handling, transportation and disposal. Thus, the paper covers transuranic wastes, fuel element cladding, miscellaneous sludges and concentrates from the treatment of liquid effluents from reprocessing plants and reactors, miscellaneous items of redundant plant, etc. There are many factors that can affect the choice of waste treatment, conditioning and packaging methods and the ultimate form of disposal. For each type of waste it is necessary to take into consideration every step in the overall system from waste arising to final disposal if an optimum solution is to be achieved in terms of economics and environmental impact. The factors that should be considered include: (1) control of wastes at point of arising (i.e. minimization and segregation); (2) level and nature of activity; (3) physical form of the wastes; (4) waste treatment process options, i.e. removal of activity, secondary effluents, quality of the final waste form, i.e. leach resistance, radiation stability, etc., volume of the final waste form, radiation dose to operators, treatment costs, interim storage costs; (5) transport requirements and costs; (6) disposal system, i.e. site selection (geological barrier to radionuclide migration), design and type of repository engineering (i.e. additional barriers), and costs. The paper discusses these factors, the 'trade-offs' that are possible between the decisions on various stages and examines how much conditioning is necessary. Indeed, closer study of the management of these wastes shows that different options could have different and complementary features which may be judged overall to be of roughly equal merit. Detailed studies are included for fuel element cladding and plutonium-contaminated wastes. (author)

  7. Evaluating the levels of salivary alkaline and acid phosphatase activities as biochemical markers for periodontal disease: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Dabra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the salivary levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acid phosphatase (ACP activities in patients with periodontal disease and to evaluate the use of these enzymes as biochemical markers for periodontal tissue damage. Materials and Methods: In this prospective analytical study, we examined the activities of salivary ALP and ACP in patients with periodontal disease, before and after periodontal treatment. The experimental groups consisted of 20 gingivitis patients and 20 periodontitis patients and the control group had healthy subjects (20 samples. The stimulated saliva of the patient was collected in a sterile test tube and analyzed using Hitachi′s Diagnostic Automatic Analyser. Periodontal disease was determined based on clinical parameters such as gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Patients with periodontal disease were under conventional periodontal treatment. The statistical analysis applied was Student′s t-test. Probabilities less than 0.05 (P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The obtained results showed statistically significant increased activities of ALP and ACP in saliva from patients with periodontal disease in relation to control group. A significant reduction in the enzyme levels was seen after conventional periodontal therapy. Conclusions: Based on these results, salivary ALP and ACP can be considered to be the biomarkers for evaluating periodontal tissue damage.

  8. An Object-Oriented Python Implementation of an Intermediate-Level Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    The Neelin-Zeng Quasi-equilibrium Tropical Circulation Model (QTCM1) is a Fortran-based intermediate-level atmospheric model that includes simplified treatments of several physical processes, including a GCM-like convective scheme and a land-surface scheme with representations of different surface types, evaporation, and soil moisture. This model has been used in studies of the Madden-Julian oscillation, ENSO, and vegetation-atmosphere interaction effects on climate. Through the assumption of convective quasi-equilibrium in the troposphere, the QTCM1 is able to include full nonlinearity, resolve baroclinic disturbances, and generate a reasonable climatology, all at low computational cost. One year of simulation on a PC at 5.625 × 3.75 degree longitude-latitude resolution takes under three minutes of wall-clock time. The Python package qtcm implements the QTCM1 in a mixed-language environment that retains the speed of compiled Fortran while providing the benefits of Python's object-oriented framework and robust suite of utilities and datatypes. We describe key programming constructs used to create this modeling environment: the decomposition of model runs into Python objects, providing methods so visualization tools are attached to model runs, and the use of Python's mutable datatypes (lists and dictionaries) to implement the "run list" entity, which enables total runtime control of subroutine execution order and content. The result is an interactive modeling environment where the traditional sequence of "hypothesis → modeling → visualization and analysis" is opened up and made nonlinear and flexible. In this environment, science tasks such as parameter-space exploration and testing alternative parameterizations can be easily automated, without the need for multiple versions of the model code interacting with a bevy of makefiles and shell scripts. The environment also simplifies interfacing of the atmospheric model to other models (e.g., hydrologic models

  9. Cement Solidification Method For Intermediate-Level Liquid Waste Containing Sodium Sulphate (Na2SO4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new cement solidification method for intermediate-level liquid waste containing large amounts of sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) has been developed. This method involves two safety concepts for disposal sites: reduction in the amount of sulphate ion (SO42-) released from solidified wastes and reduction in the amount of hydrogen gas generated due to radiolysis of the water present in the solidified waste. In order to eliminate SO42- release from solidified wastes, two chemical reactions were important in our solidification method: (1) Barium-compounds (Ba(OH)2.8H2O, etc) were reacted with SO42- to form BaSO4, and (2) using alumina cement material, SO42- was mineralized as ettringite, 3CaO.Al2O3.3CaSO3.2H2O. Based on leaching tests, the amount of SO42- released from the solidified forms into ion exchange water under anaerobic conditions was less than 1 x 10-3 mol/L. Thus, this method should be effective in preventing engineered concrete barrier layers from cracking. In order to evaluate the amount of hydrogen gas generated from cement solids due to radiolysis of hydrated and non-hydrated water in the solid, gamma-ray irradiation experiments on solidified alumina cement (ALC), solidified ordinary portland cement (OPC), solidified ordinary portland cement blended with blast-furnace slag (OPC-BFS), and synthetic ettringite were performed. As a result, the generation rate of hydrogen gas from ALC was less than those from OPC and OPC-BFS and approximately equal to that from ettringite. (authors)

  10. Experimental and modelling investigations of the biogeochemistry of gas production from low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of organic wastes and the corrosion of metallic wastes and steel containers in low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLW/ILW) repositories are important processes that affect repository geochemistry and the speciation and transport of radionuclides. Gas is generated in association with these degradation processes and this has the potential to overpressure the repository, which can promote transport of groundwater and gas, and consequently radionuclide transport. Microbial activity plays an important role in organic degradation, corrosion and gas generation through the mediation of reduction-oxidation reactions. A large-scale gas generation experiment has been established at the LLW/ILW repository, Olkiluoto, Finland to examine gas generation from LLW in waste drums disposed of in the operational VLJ Repository (VLJ is a Finnish acronym which translates to 'reactor operating waste'). The experiment has monitored, for a period of 9 a, the rate and composition of gas generated, and the aqueous geochemistry and microbe populations present at various locations within the experiment. There is considerable heterogeneity within the experiment, such that pH is observed to vary from pH 5.5 to pH 10 between organic-rich waste and water associated with concrete. The heterogeneity results in competing anaerobic processes occurring together in the experiment but within different niches. Microbial activity initially dominant in organic waste has after 7 a reduced the alkalinity of the concrete influenced regions. The experiment has been modelled using a biogeochemical reaction-transport code (GRM) using a blind testing approach. Using independent data, the model was able to reproduce, within a factor of two, the rate of gas production. In addition, the model represented the main anaerobic microbial processes leading to methanogenesis and the observed spatial and temporal variations in aqueous and gaseous species. In order to model the experiment, its

  11. Estimation and Comparison of Salivary Calcium, Phosphorous, Alkaline Phosphatase and pH Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease: A Cross-sectional Biochemical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rufi Murad; Suragimath, Girish; Zope, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In oral diagnostics there is a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and evaluating the disease activity. Biomarkers can also serve as a useful tool to measure the efficacy of the therapy. Aim To evaluate and compare the levels of salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH levels in periodontally healthy subjects and patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Materials and Methods The present study consisted of 150 subjects aged between 20-45 years who were divided into three groups; periodontally healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Prior to the clinical examination the demographic details, relevant information of the subject, gingival index, plaque index, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and pH were recorded. Biochemical assay of saliva i.e., inorganic calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were estimated by colorimetric method. ANOVA and Tukey’s test were applied for statistical analysis. Results The mean levels of biomarkers studied were; inorganic calcium (12.55μg/dl), phosphorous (14.50μg/dl), alkaline phosphatase (49.62μg/dl) and pH (11.65). There was a gradual increase in these levels as the condition progressed from health to gingivitis or periodontitis which was statistically significant at p<0.001. Conclusion Based on these results, it can be concluded that, the biomarkers like salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH can be considered for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal tissues in disease and health.

  12. Assessment of the transport logistic and routing requirements associated with the disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are presented relating to the transport of intermediate level radioactive waste. The data base from which these results were derived is stated together with a description of the computer simulation language used. From these results preliminary conclusions and recommendations are given. (author)

  13. The influence of organic materials on the near field of an intermediate level waste radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of organic materials, which are present in some intermediate level wastes, on the chemistry of the near field of a radioactive waste repository is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possible formation of water soluble complexing agents formed as a result of the radiation field and chemical conditions. The present state of the research is reviewed. (author)

  14. Survey of Global Simulation at the Intersection of Theory and Practice in the Intermediate-Level German Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Glenn S.; Eppelsheimer, Natalie; Kuzay, Franz; Moti, Simona; Wilby, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a format for intermediate, university-level German instruction called "global simulation" (GS) as the curricular manifestation of several recent trends in the literature on instructed second-language acquisition, in particular interactionist and task-based approaches, sociocultural theory, and the acquisition of intercultural…

  15. An intermediate-level physics laboratory: A system of two coupled oscillators with low-cost accelerometers

    CERN Document Server

    Lamont, Mary

    2012-01-01

    We describe an intermediate-level physics experiment beyond the first-year, which uses versatile, low-cost accelerometers (Wiimotes for the Nintendo Wii gaming system) and scientific-computing software for numerical data analysis. It is designed to help students to develop better understanding of a system of coupled oscillators and Fourier transform.

  16. Holistic oil field value management: using system dynamics for 'intermediate level' and 'value-based' modelling in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    System dynamics has been seen primarily as a strategic tool, most effectively used at the highest level of strategy to identify robust policy interventions under a wide range of scenarios. However, an alternative, complementary and powerful role is emerging. This is at an 'intermediate level' in organisations to coordinate and integrate policies across the value chain. It is at this level where business value, as defined by the discounted value of future free cash flow, is both created and destroyed. This paper introduces the need for 'intermediate-level' and 'value-based' modelling and emphasises the natural role of system dynamics in supporting a methodology to fulfil the need. It describes the development of an approach and its application in the oil industry to coordinate the response of people and tools within operational, financial and commercial functions across the value chain to address a variety of problems and issues. (author)

  17. Assessment of the Biodegradability of Containers for Low and Intermediate Level Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete and reinforced concrete are widely used as engineered barriers (containers) for radioactive waste disposal facilities due to their isolating ability, mechanical stability and low cost. Several types of protective reinforced concrete containers for low and intermediate level waste have been designed in Ukraine. Evaluation of these containers for microbial stability is required according to NRC of Ukraine Regulation No.306.608-96. The research was therefore aimed at studying the degradation of the cement material due to microbiological interaction and the possibility of biodegraded cement as an ideal environment for the growth of other microorganisms under waste disposal conditions to satisfy the regulatory requirements. Results from this study indicated that Aspergillus niger induced gluconic and oxalic acids that dissolve portlandite (with a low leaching of calcium) after one year of contact time. This resulted in an increase in porosity, loss in tensile strength biomechanically deteriorated and cracking. XRD analysis identified crystalline precipitates within the biomass on the concrete surface as calcium oxalate dehydrate (weddellite) and calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite). The mechanism regarding of the microbiological interaction on the concrete surface can be summarized as follows: Phase 1: Fungi accumulate on the surface of the concrete, thereby degrading the concrete surface by biochemical and biomechanical interactions. When this effect is in the presence of air with available carbon dioxide, the micro fungi reduces the pH of the concrete from >13 to 8.5. During this phase no accumulation were observed in sections where granite aggregates are present. Phase 2: After reducing the pH of the concrete paste during phase 1, and provided that sufficient nutrients, moisture and oxygen are present sulphur oxidizing bacteria start to accumulate on the concrete surface. The result form this study therefore concluded that fungal biogeochemical activity

  18. Deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. A preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as 36Cl and 93Mo, are important to be taken into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon

  19. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as 36Cl and 93Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon

  20. Alternative systems of covering the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste storage at Sallying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current concept of managing the low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes produced during the operation of Cernavoda NPP provides their final disposal underground in the Sallying repository located within the NPP exclusion area. The safety requirements of the disposal imposed adopting of efficient natural and engineered systems to prevent population and environment exposure for at least 300 years time. Preliminary studies on the Sallying site showed that geological formations can prevent release radioisotopes in Eocene and Baramine aquifers both by their composition and structures. On the other hand investigation of the potential factors which could affect the long term stability of the repository showed that soil erosion due to climatic factors and soil degradation produced by animals burrowing underground drifts could rise the probability of environment contamination. These factors could enhance the escape of 14C and 3H radionuclides in the environment and a rise of water infiltration rate into the repository. A technical solution aiming at diminishing these effects specific to superficial or low-depth repositories appear to be a system of covering technical barriers as well as minimizing the effects of biointrusion. The paper analyses several geo textile membranes (polyesters and rubber) as well as soils compositions (loess, clay, sand, gravel) as technical a natural covering solutions. The studies and the experiments carried out led to the following four conclusions. 1. Without a multilayer covering system the saturation degree of the loess above the repository keeps low values varying between 20% and 25%. Although, the humidity increases considerably at the interface with the repository's concrete, so that within 0.5 m it reaches a saturation degree of 96%. The concrete block having a compact and fine structure directs laterally the water flow what entails a slight increase of humidity. 2. The capillary barriers keep the humidity in the upper part of

  1. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  2. All the Spent Nuclear Wastes to Low and Intermediate Level Wastes: PyroGreen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent nuclear wastes are inevitable issues to use nuclear power as a sustainable energy. Therefore, every country has their fuel cycles which are best for their environmental and/or political circumstances for the use of nuclear energy. These days agreements are made that spent nuclear fuels should be recycled to minimize waste volume and its toxicity all around the world. Republic of Korea also has a plan to recycle the spent nuclear fuels by using Gen-IV concept burner reactors and pyro-process plants. Not many options of national nuclear strategies are exist because Korea has too many people for its limited land space. KAERI already has been proposing a national fuel cycle concept called 'KIEP-21' that encompasses all the requirements of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle such as reduction of volume, toxicity, HLW heat load and so on. Authors suggest non-national fuel cycle concept called 'PyroGreen' for the sustainable nuclear energy system. PyroGreen is also comprised of transmutation reactor and pyro-process plant such as typical advanced fuel cycle system. However, to make all the spent nuclear fuels to low and intermediate level wastes several strategies are provided. Radioactive nuclear wastes are classified into HLW and LILW considering its heat load, concentration, and its migration capabilities into environments. If the concentration limit is satisfied heat load limit is not important. However, migration of radioactive elements from disposed waste forms is not negligible. Therefore, PyroGreen considers deep geological disposal of nuclear wastes to mitigate the effect of concentration limits based on the human intrusion scenario. Ceramic waste forms which has extremely low leach rate of loaded elements can be used as a waste form to solve the migration issues and decrease exclusion area of disposal site. To decrease waste toxicity, decontamination factor of TRUs through whole pyro-process should be as high as possible. To maximize the decontamination factor

  3. Geological factors of disposal site selection for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes, shallow-ground disposal can provide adequate isolation of waste from human for a fairly long period of time. The objective of disposal site selection is to ensure that the natural properties of the site together with the engineered barrier site shall provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the human beings and environment, so the whole disposal system can keep the radiological impact within an acceptable level. Since the early 1980's, complying with the national standards and the expert's conception as well as the related IAEA Criteria, geological selection of disposal sites for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes has been carried out in East China, South China, Northwest China and Southwest China separately. Finally, 5 candidate sites were recommended to the CNNC

  4. Studies on environmental geology of the northwest disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northwest Disposal Site is used for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes in China. There are no poor geological phenomena in the site. The site has favorable engineering geological conditions. There is no phreatic water in the Quaternary sediments. The depth of confined water level in the Tertiary sediments is relatively deep. The groundwater recharge, runoff and discharge conditions are ascertained. Actual flow rate, direction, dispersity and dispersion coefficients of groundwater are achieved by the dispersion tests. The coefficient of unsaturated permeability of the rocks and soils of the site are obtained by research of the aerated zone. Rocks and soils of the site have higher exchangeable Ca2+. They with effectually adsorb and retard the 63Ni and 239Pu. There are many favourable environmental geological conditions at the Northwest Disposal Site. The site will provide effective natural barriers for low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes

  5. Assessment of the alkaline phosphatase level in gingival crevicular fluid, as a biomarker to evaluate the effect of scaling and root planing on chronic periodontitis: An in vivostudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimly James Kunjappu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Clinical evaluation of gingivitis and/or periodontitis does not predict the progression or remission of the disease. Due to this diagnostic constraint, clinicians assume that the pathology has an increased risk of progression and plan treatments, despite the knowledge that all inflamed sites are not necessarily progressing. Extensive research has been carried out on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF components that might serve as potential diagnostic markers for periodontitis. Among them alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in GCF has shown promise as a diagnostic marker. Aim: This study compares the levels of GCF alkaline phosphatase in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after scaling and root planing. Materials and Methods: This study is an in vivo longitudinal study conducted on twenty patients with localized periodontitis. The GCF was collected from the affected site prior to scaling and root planing and ALP level estimated. The probing depth and plaque index at the site were also measured for correlation. Patients were recalled after 7, 30, and 60 days for reassessment. Results: The GCF ALP values showed a sustained, statistically significant decrease after treatment. There was a positive correlation with probing depth but not with plaque index measured at each interval. Conclusion: The assessment of level of periodontal disease and effect of mechanical plaque control on the progression and regression of the disease can be evaluated precisely by the corresponding GCF ALP levels. Thus, alkaline phosphatase level is not only a biomarker for the pathology but also an indicator of prognosis of periodontitis.

  6. Treatment feasibility of the acidic intermediate level radioactive liquid waste - a laboratory scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acidic ILW from PREFRE-2 have higher concentrations of U, Fe, Mn and TBP degraded products. During the pretreatment of this acidic ILW prior to ion exchange process, there was formation of large volumes of precipitate having poor settling characteristics. This was reducing the throughput of the processing plant. Laboratory scale studies were carried out to remove the precipitating constituents by solvent extraction using Di - 2 -Ethyl Hexyl Phosporic acid (D2EHPA). In single contact almost 99 % of U and Fe got extracted in D2EHPA in 0.2 M acidic condition. After making alkaline the aqueous part forms only small quantities of Mn(OH)2 precipitate. Decant of this is amenable for conventional ion exchange treatment. The low active effluent from RF resin column is amenable for chemical co-precipitation treatment. (author)

  7. Durability of a reinforced concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffó, G. S.; Arva, E. A.; Schulz, F. M.; Vazquez, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on a reinforced concrete specifically designed for this purpose, to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from data obtained with several techniques. Results obtained with corrosion sensors embedded in a concrete prototype are also included. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  8. Geological evaluation of spent fuel storage and low-intermediate level radwaste disposal in the site of NPP candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the consideration of techno-economy and environmental safety, the radioactive waste treatment installation (RWI), interim storage of spen fuel (ISSF) and low-intermediate level disposal shall be sited in the surrounding of NPP area. The land suitability of NPP's site candidate at Muria Peninsula as spent fuel storage and low-intermediate level radwaste disposal need to be studied. Site selection was conducted by overlay method and scoring method, and based on safety criteria which include geological and environmental aspects. Land evaluation by overlay method has given result a potential site which have highest suitable land at surrounding of borehole L-15 about 17.5 hectares. Land evaluation by scoring method has given result two land suitability classes, i.e. moderate suitability class (includes 14 borehole) and high suitability class, include borehole L-2, L-14 and L-15 (author)

  9. The evaluation of 25-hydroxy vitamin D, calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase levels in epileptic children under antiepileptic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani doost Z

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Epilepsy is a common disease in the pediatric neurology. There are frequent anti-epileptic drugs which are used in management of epilepsy. Anti-epileptic drugs may have some complications on bone and vitamin-D metabolism. In this study we aimed to evaluate vitamin-D metabolism in epileptic children."n"nMethods: The study was a prospective and cross sectional one. A total 89 epileptic children who were taking anti-epileptic drugs for longer than six months with no underlying disorder in Imam Khomeini and Bahrami Hospitals in Tehran, Iran were enrolled in our study"n"nResults: Forty nine boys and 40 girls were enrolled in this study; mean age of the patients was 7.8±2.1 years. Mean duration of anti-epileptic drug therapy was 2.3 years (SD=0.4, 70 of patients were under monotherapy and 19 were under polytherapy. None of the patients had signs of rickets. Serum calcium and phosphor levels were within normal ranges. Serum alkaline phosphates levels were increased more than two times in 43%. 42% had vitamin-D deficiency (25-OH Vit D<10 ng/ml and another 33% had vitamin-D insufficiency (10<25-oh Vit D<20 ng/ml. 29 patients (32% were taking prophylactic supplemental Vit D (200-400 IU/day. There was significant difference between patients taking supplemental vitamin-D as prophylaxis and patients who did not (p=0.04. There was no significant difference in vitamin-D levels between patients according to age, gender or different drugs."n"nConclusion: Periodic

  10. Low and intermediate level waste repositories: Socioeconomic aspects and public involvement. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste management facilities are needed to protect the environment and improve public health for the long term future. One significant challenge is to inform the public on the relative hazards of radioactive waste compared to other hazards in our modern society and to get the acceptance of the appropriate members of the public for these necessary facilities. Over the entire life cycle of these facilities, the projects must be managed without expending a disproportionate share of the collective resources. Public involvement plays a key role and the sophisticated and extensive public education systems that exist provide a vital service to gain public acceptance. There is a full range of compensation and benefit programmes used as incentives for hosting a LILW facility. Even if exemptions exist the experience in most countries indicate the direct/indirect incentives as a necessary part of gaining public acceptance. The countries, regions and local communities have their own established processes to make public decisions. Each organization developing a site must select and implement the methods that are acceptable within their framework of laws and regulations. A three day workshop on socio-economic issues and public involvement practices and approaches for developing and operating repositories for low and intermediate level waste took place in the IAEA headquarters on 9-11 November 2005. The workshop provided a forum where experts from Member States shared their experiences in non-technical aspects of planning, licensing and operating LILW disposal facilities. Description of both principles and practices applied in particular countries provides a useful overview of potential approaches in application of non-technical issues during a repository lifecycle. Participants presented approaches and practices applied in their countries, established new contacts and were able to take advantage of activities and experiences from abroad. There were 25 interesting presentations

  11. Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste Disposal at Vaalputs, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, M. W.; Beyleveld, C.; Carolissen, A.

    2006-12-01

    The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa ) owns and operates the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site, which is South Africa's designated facility for the disposal of low-and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The bulk of the currently authorized LILW disposal at Vaalputs was generated at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) near Cape Town. However, Necsa has generated wastes associated with research and uranium enrichment that are currently in storage, which are intended for disposal at Vaalputs. In addition, South Africa is currently considering expansion of its nuclear power generating capabilities, both through construction of a second pressurized water reactor (PWR) and through the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design. The proposed change in waste characteristics warrants a safety review of the Vaalputs authorization for the disposal of LILW. As part of the safety review, an updated postclosure safety assessment is being conducted. This current safety assessment is being conducted according to an internationally accepted state-of-the-art safety assessment methodology (IAEA, 2004), and is defensible, transparent, and credible. A formal scenario-generation methodology is being applied, which has led to the identification of a number of site-specific scenarios for further consideration. Specific features of the site, the disposal facility design, and local behavior patterns were used to screen Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) from consideration. Specific FEPs were chosen as initiating FEPs for scenarios to be considered in the safety assessment, based on a combination of reasonable likelihood and high consequence for the analysis. Scenarios identified by this process are A nominal scenario represents the intended design basis for the long-term function of the repository. A late-subsidence scenario is included, in which subsidence occurs after active institutional control measures cease, such that

  12. Review of the microbiological, chemical and radiolytic degradation of organic material likely to be present in intermediate level and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review has been made of the microbiological, chemical and radiolytic degradation of the solid organic materials likely to be present in intermediate-level and low-level radioactive wastes. Possible interactions between the three routes for degradation are also discussed. Attention is focussed on the generation of water-soluble degradation products which may form complexes with radioelements. The effects of complexation on radioelement solubility and sorption are considered. Recommendations are made for areas of further research. (author)

  13. Pyrochemical cleaning of final wastes into low and intermediate level waste: PyroGreen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of spent nuclear wastes are one of important issues for sustainable utilization of nuclear power. These days agreements for fuel cycle is that spent nuclear fuels should be recycled to minimize final waste volume and its toxicity. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been proposing a national back-end fuel cycle strategy, called KIEP-21, that encompass all the requirements of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle such as reduction of waste volume, toxicity and high level waste (HLW) heat load. In addition to KAERI's proposal, the concept of partitioning and waste disposal for back-end fuel cycle is being developed to make all the final wastes from Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) into Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW), named 'PyroGreen' by Nuclear Transmutation Energy Research Center of Korea (NUTRECK). Performance assessments of disposal concepts and partitioning process are necessary to evaluate the possibility of LILW disposal. A parameter to represent the performance of partitioning process is decontamination factor (DF) which is defined as the ratio of total mass of nuclides into the partitioning process to the mass that escapes the partitioning process and get into the waste stream. The required DF for LILW was calculated applying near-surface disposal concept and glass waste form in previous study. It is necessary to obtain the DF of 106 for plutonium in pyroprocessing to meet US 10 CFR 61.55 Class C regulation. It is impossible to achieve such high DF with current pyroprocess methods. Approaches of PyroGreen concept is composed of two parts, decreasing the required DF and increasing the DF of pyrochemical partitioning process to make final wastes into LILW. Deep geological disposal concept and ceramic waste forms (CWF) are introduced to decrease the required decontamination factor for LILW disposal. The risk by human intrusion scenario can be extremely lowered by choosing deep geological disposal concept (∼200 meters underground

  14. Transport parameters of 241 Am from low and intermediate level radioactive waste in disposal surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme on the safety analysis linked to the geological disposal of radioactive wastes is under study at the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti. In relation to the migration of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment following a possible release from the repository, specific experimental studies have been developed in order to provide the necessary input data for the risk assessment models. The paper reports the results of studies performed with 241 Am. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the transport parameters of 241 Am in the geological formations of Saligny site - the potential near-surface repository for low and intermediate radioactive wastes in Romania. (authors)

  15. Can Serum Levels of Alkaline Phosphatase and Phosphate Predict Cardiovascular Diseases and Total Mortality in Individuals with Preserved Renal Function? A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Wei Li; Cui Xu; Ye Fan; Yong Wang; Ying-Bin Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Background It is demonstrated that elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and phosphate indicate a higher risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total mortality in population with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but it remains unclear whether this association exists in people with normal or preserved renal function. Method Clinical trials were searched from Embase and PubMed from inception to 2013 December using the keywords “ALP”, “phosphate”, “CVD”, “mortality” and so on, and ...

  16. Fuzzy multi-objective decision making on a low and intermediate level waste repository safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low and intermediate waste disposal facilities safety assessment is comprised of several steps from site selection , construction and operation to post-closure performance assessment. This is a multidisciplinary and complex task , and can not be analyzed by one expert only. This high complexity can lead to ambiguity and vagueness in information and consequently in the decision making process. In order to make the decision process clear and objective, there is the need to provide the decision makers with a clear and comprehensive picture of the whole process and, at the same time, simple and easily understandable by the public. This paper suggests the development of an inference system based on fuzzy decision making methodology. Fuzzy logic tools are specially suited to deal with ambiguous data by using language expressions. This process would be capable of integrating knowledge from various fields of environmental sciences. It has an advantage of keeping record of reasoning for each intermediate decision that lead to the final results which makes it more dependable and defensible as well. (author)

  17. An evaluation on the activity level of Aspartate aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphatase nzymes in peri-implant sulcus fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknegad M. Assistant Professor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The correlation between the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes in gingival sulcular fluid (GCF with inflammation and periodontal attachment loss has been proved, however there are not adequate studies about dental implants. Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the presence and activity level of AST & ALP and their correlation with pocket depth (PD and bleeding of peri-implant slcular fluid (PISF, and to evaluate the possibility of using these assessments as a diagnostic index in oral implantology. Material and Methods: In this study, 41 implants as test group and 41 contralateral teeth as control group, in 21 patients were evaluated. At first visit, the general information about implants and the values of pocket probing depth (PPD, modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBl and modified plaque index (mPI were recorded. At the second visit, samples of GCF/PISF were collected. AST & ALP activity was determined spectrophotometrically and data were analyzed by "t", "Mann-Whitney" tests and Pearson Spearman correlation coefficient."nResults: The results showed that there was a significant difference in the activity of AST between two study groups (P<0.0001. The average activity of ALP in test group was more than control group but the difference was not significant. After elimination of the confounding variables, the average AST in test group was 54.6 (S£=2.3 and in control groups was 44.8 (SE=2.3 (P=0.004. The average ALP in test group (SE=2.2 and in control (SE=2.2 were 36.6 and 35.4, respectively. Values of AST and ALP were positively correlated with other clinical parameters such as PD and mSBI which was significant in test group."nConclusion: The present study suggests that PISF analysis could be considered as a proper diagnostic strategy in the evaluation of dental implant success.

  18. Vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) from full-dimensional Lanczos, MCTDH, and MULTIMODE calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) were determined on a recently developed ab initio based nine-dimensional potential energy surface using three quantum mechanical methods. The first is the iterative Lanczos method using a conventional basis expansion with an exact Hamiltonian. The second and more efficient method is the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method in which the potential energy surface is refit to conform to the sums-of-products requirement of MCTDH. Finally, the energy levels were computed with a vibrational self-consistent field/virtual configuration interaction method in MULTIMODE. The low-lying levels obtained from the three methods are found to be within a few wave numbers of each other, although some larger discrepancies exist at higher levels. The calculated vibrational levels are very well represented by an anharmonic effective Hamiltonian

  19. Perturbation of cellular proteostasis networks identifies pathways that modulate precursor and intermediate but not mature levels of frataxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhan, Joseph F.; Gooch, Renea L.; Piatnitski Chekler, Eugene L.; Pierce, Betsy; Bulawa, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Friedreich’s Ataxia is a genetic disease caused by expansion of an intronic trinucleotide repeat in the frataxin (FXN) gene yielding diminished FXN expression and consequently disease. Since increasing FXN protein levels is desirable to ameliorate pathology, we explored the role of major cellular proteostasis pathways and mitochondrial proteases in FXN processing and turnover. We targeted p97/VCP, the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP), and autophagy with chemical inhibitors in cell lines and patient-derived cells. p97 inhibition by DBeQ increased precursor FXN levels, while UPP and autophagic flux modulators had variable effects predominantly on intermediate FXN. Our data suggest that these pathways cannot be modulated to influence mature functional FXN levels. We also targeted known mitochondrial proteases by RNA interference and discovered a novel protease PITRM1 that regulates intermediate FXN levels. Treatment with the aforementioned chemical and genetic modulators did not have a differential effect in patient cells containing lower amounts of FXN. Interestingly, a number of treatments caused a change in total amount of FXN protein, without an effect on mature FXN. Our results imply that regulation of FXN protein levels is complex and that total amounts can be modulated chemically and genetically without altering the absolute amount of mature FXN protein. PMID:26671574

  20. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds

  1. Investigation of activity release from bituminized intermediate-level waste forms under thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the consequences of a fire during fabrication, intermediate storage and transport of bituminized NaNO3 waste forms, the fractions of plutonium released from the waste forms were assessed. For this purpose, laboratory tests were made with PuO2-containing specimens as well as a field test with specimens containing Eu2O3. By the evaluation of plutonium release in the laboratory and by the determination of the total sodium release and the relative Eu/Na release in the field tests the plutonium release can be deduced from full-scale specimens. The results show that for bituminized waste forms with high NaNO3 contents (approx. 36 wt%) the average plutonium release obtained in laboratory testing is 15%. In the field tests (IAEA fire test conditions) an average Eu release of 8% was found. These results justify the statement that also for waste forms in open 175 L drum inserts a maximum plutonium release of about 15% can be expected. From the time-dependence of Eu/Na release in the field tests an induction period of 15-20 minutes between the start of testing and the first Na/Eu release can be derived. The maximum differential Na/Eu release occurs after a test period of 45 to 60 minutes duration and after 90 to 105 minutes (tests K2 and K4, respectively); after that time also the highest temperatures in the products are measured. The release values were determined for products in open 175 L drum inserts which in this form are not eligible for intermediate and ultimate storage. For bituminized waste forms in concrete packages (lost concrete shieldings) a delayed increase in temperature to only 70-80 deg. C takes place (4-5 hours after extinction of the fire) if the fire lasts 45 minutes. The concrete package remains intact under test conditions. This means that activity release from bituminized waste forms packaged in this way can be ruled out in the case under consideration. (author)

  2. Technical consideration on a safety assessment methodology for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses some regulatory issues concerning how to interpret and implement detailed technical requirements pertaining to long-term post-closure safety assessment for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The considerations include: (1) general characteristics of the post-closure performance assessment (PA); (2) regulatory framework of the PA; (3) an acceptable approach for demonstrating compliance with the post-closure performance objective; and (4) policy issues regarding the PA. The views presented are based on a consistent concept that the uncertainties inherent in the safety assessment should be treated as clearly as possible to demonstrate, with reasonable assurance, that the performance objective will be met

  3. A comparative study using liquid scintillation counting to determine 63Ni in low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study using liquid scintillation counting was performed to measure 63Ni in low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Three dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-based radiochemical procedures (solvent extraction, precipitation, extraction chromatography) were investigated, the solvent extraction method being considered as the reference method. Theoretical speciation calculations enabled to better understand the chemical reactions involved in the three protocols and to optimize them. In comparison to the method based on DMG precipitation, the method based on extraction chromatography allowed to achieve the best results in one single step in term of recovery yield and accuracy for various samples. (author)

  4. Rapid determination of uranium isotopes in low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and fast method for uranium isotopes determination in low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants using extraction chromatography is described. Following sample preparation, uranium is pre-concentrated by precipitation with iron(III) hydroxide and then separated using Dowex AG 1X8, 100-200mesh, resin. The separated uranium is electrodeposited onto stainless-steel discs and then measured by alpha spectrometry and the results were analyzed using WinALPHA software. The procedure was evaluated using 232U radiotracer. USGS uranium standard and intercomparison program were used as quality tools. (author)

  5. Experimental modelling of thermal hydraulic characteristics of a convection cooled dry store for intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is constructing solid intermediate level waste encapsulation plants and product stores for operation commencing in 1990. Some of the encapsulated waste will be stored in a dry stone which will be force cooled by air. The thermal hydraulics of the store have been experimentally studied by using small scale water-filled models. The experiments have shown that for the operating range of parameters, natural convection will be an important mechanism for removing heat from the waste product. Detailed numerical analysis (still to be validated) indicates that natural convection will have a beneficial effect on the distribution of coolant within the store. (author)

  6. Current issues in the management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear generating stations (NGSs) in Canada are operated by utilities in Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Ontario Hydro, with a committed nuclear program of 13,600 MW(electric) is the major producer of CANDU pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. All radioactive wastes with the exception of irradiated fuel are processed and retrievably stored at a centralized facility at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Solid-waste classifications and annual production levels are given. Solid-waste management practices at the site as well as the physical, chemical, and radiochemical characteristics of the wastes are well documented. The paper summarizes types, current inventory, and estimated annual production rate of liquid waste. Operation of the tritium recovery facility at Darlington NGS, which removes tritium from heavy water and produces tritium gas in the process, gives rise to secondary streams of tritiated solid and liquid wastes, which will receive special treatment and packaging. In addition to the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, there are a number of other important issues in low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste management that Ontario Hydro will be addressing over the next few years. The most pressing of these is the reduction of radioactive wastes through in-station material control, employee awareness, and improved waste characterization and segregation programs. Since Ontario Hydro intends to store retrievable wastes for > 50 yr, it is necessary to determine the behavior of wastes under long-term storage conditions

  7. Markedly increased circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate levels in hypophosphatasia. Alkaline phosphatase acts in vitamin B6 metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, M P; Mahuren, J D; Vrabel, L A; Coburn, S P

    1985-01-01

    Markedly increased circulating concentrations of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) were found in each of 14 patients representing all clinical forms of hypophosphatasia, an inborn error characterized by deficient activity of the tissue nonspecific (bone/liver/kidney) isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (AP). The mean PLP concentration in plasma was 1174 nM (range, 214-3839 nM) in the patients and 57 +/- 26 nM (mean +/- SD) in 38 control subjects. In four affected children, urinary excretion of the P...

  8. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety barrier system for the type B repository for low- and intermediate-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). In the case of low- and intermediate-level waste the technical safety barrier system comprises: waste solidification matrix (cement, bitumen and resin), immobilisation of the waste packages in containers using liquid cement, concrete repository containers, backfilling of remaining vacant storage space with special concrete, concrete lining of the repository caverns, sealing of access tunnels on final closure of the repository. Natural geological safety barriers - host rock and overlying formations - have the following important functions. Because of its stability, the host rock in the repository zone protects the technical safety barrier system from destruction caused by climatic effects and erosion for a sufficient length of time. It also provides for low water flow and favourable chemistry (reducing conditions)

  9. Review of dewatering and drying processes for treatment of low and intermediate-level waste from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of operations in nuclear facilities which generate liquid wastes that require treatment to retain the chemicals and/or the remove the radioactive contaminants. These wastes come from the reactor coolant system, from the cleanup of spent fuel storage pool, and from the maintenance of the nuclear power plant (NPP). The most employed method to treat the liquid wastes from reactor is the ion-exchange process, and it constitutes the major fraction, in volume, of the radioactive wastes of low- and intermediate-level. Another fraction is the waste concentrate from the evaporator that is generated by treatment of the water containing boric acid. To store and dispose these wastes, it is necessary to reduce their volume and to solidify them. Non-nuclear industries treat their wastes using dewatering and drying processes, which remove up to 50% of the residual volume and removes all the water of the waste, respectively. In this paper it is presented a review about the dewatering and drying processes in order to select the most suitable to be tested in the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from NPPs. (author)

  10. Studies concerning the durability of concrete vaults for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal: Electrochemical monitoring and corrosion aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible of the development of a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive waste. The proposed concept is the near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of these concrete structures is an important aspect for the facilities integrity. This work presents a laboratory and field investigation performed for the last 6 years on reinforced concrete specimens, in order to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. On the other hand, the development of sensors that allow on-line measurements of rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity and chloride concentration is shown. Those sensors, properly embedded in a new full scale vault (nowadays in construction), will allow the monitoring of the corrosion process of the steel rebars embedded in the structure. (authors)

  11. Durability of a reinforced concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The concrete studied induce a rebars corrosion rates lower than 1 μm/year. ► The carbonation rate is adequate to comply with the foreseen specifications. ► The use of pre-rusted reinforced bars increases the corrosion rate. ► The cycle of temperature on the electrochemical parameter measured is remarkable. - Abstract: The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on a reinforced concrete specifically designed for this purpose, to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from data obtained with several techniques. Results obtained with corrosion sensors embedded in a concrete prototype are also included. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  12. Studies concerning the durability of concrete vaults for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal: Electrochemical monitoring and corrosion aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Arva, E. A.; Giordano, C. M.; Lafont, C. J.

    2006-11-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible of the development of a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive waste. The proposed concept is the near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of these concrete structures is an important aspect for the facilities integrity. This work presents a laboratory and field investigation performed for the last 6 years on reinforced concrete specimens, in order to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. On the other hand, the development of sensors that allow on-line measurements of rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity and chloride concentration is shown. Those sensors, properly embedded in a new full scale vault (nowadays in construction), will allow the monitoring of the corrosion process of the steel rebars embedded in thestructure.

  13. LOW LEVEL OBJECT ORIENTED LANGUAGE IN CONTEXT OF COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TWO LOW LEVEL LANGUAGES MSIL(MICROSOFT INTERMEDIATE LANGUAGEOR CIL AND JAVA BYTE CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Juyal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the software were developed using high level languages such as Java, C#.NET,VB.NET etc. The main advantages of these languages are object oriented features .Which helps to developer to develop software with graphical user interface, portable, ease of use ,efficient and secure .Low level language like assembly language,machine languages are not user friendly ,hard to program but faster in execution than high level languages..In this paper we have done comparative study between two low level language MSIL(Micro Soft Intermediate languageor CIL and Java Byte Code. Both of these languages have object oriented features. This paper also includes brief introduction about programming languages, and translators.

  14. Persian Achievement Tests for Aural Comprehension, Speaking, Reading and Writing at the Intermediate Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Mehdi

    This volume contains achievement tests designed for American students who have completed second-year Persian. They are constructed on the basis of materials related to course syllabi. The tests are tailored to the needs of the conventional second-year Persian program on the college level, where emphasis is usually placed more on reading,…

  15. Passive Avoidance Training and Recall are Associated With Increased Glutamate Levels in the Intermediate Medial Hyperstriatum Ventrale of the Day-Old Chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan N. Daisley

    1998-01-01

    glutamate levels in the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale accompany pecking at either the water- or the methylanthranylate-bead. The taste of the aversant may be responsible for the greater increases found in methylanthranylate-trained birds.

  16. Reflections of Turkish accounting and financial reporting standards on vocational school students: A research on comparing perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Seldüz Hakan; Seldüz Emine

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to compare the perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates on accounting and financial reporting standards. A significant part of accounting process is carried out by vocational school graduate intermediate and mid-level accounting professionals. However, it can be claimed that adequate education about accounting and financial reporting standards isn’t given in vocational schools although these standards structure the whole accounting proces...

  17. A wafer-level Sn-rich Au–Sn intermediate bonding technique with high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sn-rich Au–Sn solder bonding has been systematically investigated for low temperature wafer-level hermetic packaging of high-end micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices. The AuSn2 phase with the highest Vickers-hardness among the four stable intermetallic compounds of the Au–Sn system makes a major contribution to the high bonding strength. A maximum shear strength of 64 MPa and a leak rate lower than 4.9 × 10−7 atm-cc s−1 have been obtained for Au46Sn54 solder bonded at 310 °C. In addition, several routines have been used to effectively inhibit the solder overflow and preserve a good bonding strength and water resilience: producing dielectric SiO2 structures which do not wet the melting solder to the surrounding bonding region, reducing the bonding pressure, and prolonging the bonding time. This wafer level bonding technique with good hermeticity can be applied to MEMS devices requiring a low temperature package. (paper)

  18. Risks assessment associated with the possibility of intrusion into the low and intermediate level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In post-closure performance assessment of low and intermediate level waste disposal facilities it is necessary to assess the individual risks associated with the possibility of intrusion into repository. Intruder induced disruptive events can potentially compromise the integrity of the disposal unit and result in exhumation of the waste and radionuclides migration into environment. In this way, the main routes of exposure are: -inhalation of radioactive materials by the intruder; - external gamma irradiation of the intruder, - long-term pathways resulting from the transfer of radioactive materials to the surface of the site. This paper describes the evaluation of conditional and absolute risks associated with each route of exposure as a function of time. To evaluate the risks, it is necessary to calculate the time-dependent activities of each nuclide considered. This is achieved by employing an analytic solution to the Bateman equation at specified times of evaluation. Conditional risks by inhalation, external exposure and long-term pathways and different modes of intrusion are evaluated on the basis of an annual probability of intrusion of unity. Absolute risks are calculated by scaling the user-supplied probabilities of intrusion at various times of evaluation. The evaluation of absolute risks by long-term exposure pathways involves an interpolation procedure in time. The calculations have been performed for the most important radionuclides present in low and intermediate wastes. (authors)

  19. Intermediate and high level earthquakes testing at the HDR - overview, objectives, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of these earthquake investigations is the verification of calculation methods relating to structure dynamics which are used for the seismic design of nuclear power plants. Structures analyzed by tests and precalculations were the reactor building, the reactor pressure vessel, two large-diameter piping systems and one of the flood water tanks. Excitation methods used were eccentric mass shakers, snapback devices, explosives and solid propellant rockets. Some of the tests involving excitation of the building by shakers and two of the blast tests were carried out with the reactor pressure vessel and the pipes under operating conditions. The precalculations using both linear and nonlinear methods were made by German industry groups, independent experts groups and international partners. Soil-structure interaction can be determined accurately by means of simplified methods using frequency dependent soil springs. The reduction in the eigenfrequencies of the building when the load was increased by a factor of 25 could be predicted. Comparison of the results obtained for the vibrational behaviour of the building show that a simplification to the rotationally symmetric shell model appears to be a reasonable compromise between simple beam models and sophisticated 3D-shell models. The strong decrease in eigenfrequencies observed in the experiments during the transition from empty to partly filled reactor pressure vessel, and the resultant change of the mode shapes was perfectly reflected if the virtual mass of water was introduced in the calculation. Damping values evaluated from the measurements demonstrate that for some structures damping can remain low, even at levels of response leading to local yielding, while for other structures damping was very high at a rather low level of response. It appears that the use of generalized damping values for the seismic analysis of mechanical and structural systems is not appropriate. (orig./HP)

  20. Predisposal management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    considered in this publication begins with the refining and conversion of uranium concentrates. Recommendations on the management of radioactive waste from the mining and milling of uranium and thorium ores are provided. Some parts of the nuclear fuel cycle generate both high level waste and LLW. The management of high level waste itself generates LLW. The predisposal management of this LLW is included in the scope of this Safety Guide. Recommendations on the predisposal management of high level waste are provided. The recommendations in this Safety Guide primarily concern complex management activities for LLW. The regulatory body should decide which parts of this Safety Guide are relevant and appropriate for particular circumstances, and the extent to which the recommendations and guidance apply. This Safety Guide provides only introductory material on the transport and storage of LLW. Requirements and recommendations are provided in Refs. There may be non-radiological hazards associated with the predisposal management of LLW. Some guidance is given on the safety measures to be taken against non-radiological hazards if they have potential consequences for radiation safety. However, detailed recommendations are beyond the scope of this Safety Guide. The user should seek guidance from the regulatory body in the areas of health and safety and environmental protection

  1. Constructional concepts and site selection procedures for a low and intermediate level waste repository in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss nuclear waste management concept includes a mined cavern system, accessible through a horizontal tunnel, in a suitable geological formation as an LLW/ILW repository. The main open parameters are the type of host rock and the repository site. The paper describes the concepts for design, construction and operation of the repository and the site evaluation and selection procedures applied by Nagra to promising potential sites for detailed characterization. The ultimate aim is to select a suitable site offering the required level of long term safety - no attempt is made to define or to select a 'best' site. Site selection proceeded in several stages. First, a decision was taken with regard to potential host rocks and five rock types were selected (crystalline, marl, anhydrite, clay and shielded formations). Then 100 potential sites located on these host rocks were evaluated using safety and engineering criteria. The results led to selection of 20 potential sites for which additional, non-licensed investigations were undertaken. Following assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of individual sites, the latter were divided into three priority groups. Three sites, one each in anhydrite, marl and Alpine gneisses, are to be characterized with first priority. For this purpose, an extensive geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and rock mechanical exploration programme has been set up. The necessary applications were prepared and submitted to the authorities at the end of 1983. The first stage of the exploration programme was authorized in September 1985. (author)

  2. Hydration products and mechanical properties of hydroceramics solidified waste for simulated Non-alpha low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, simulated non-alpha low and intermediate level radioactive wastes was handled as curing object and that of 'alkali-slag-coal fly ash-metakaolin' hydroceramics waste forms were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method. The hydration products were analyzed by X ray diffraction. The composition of hydrates and the compressive strength of waste forms were determined and measured. The results indicate that the main crystalline phase of hydration products were analcite when the temperature was 150 to 180 degree C and the salt content ratio was 0.10 to 0.30. Analcite diffraction peaks in hydration products is increasing when the temperature was raised and the reaction time prolonged. Strength test results show that the solidified waste forms have superior compressive strength. The compressive strength gradually decreased with the increase in salt content ratio in waste forms. (authors)

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 3. Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Kertinge Mark in the Municipality of Kerteminde, the island Funen. (LN)

  4. A Study on Optimized Management Options for the Wolsong Low- and Intermediate - Level Waste Disposal Center in Korea - 13479

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe and effective management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance in Korea. Currently, for permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW), the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center (WLDC) is under construction. It will accommodate a total of 800,000 drums at the final stage after stepwise expansion. As an implementing strategy for cost-effective development of the WLDC, various disposal options suitable for waste classification schemes would be considered. It is also needed an optimized management of the WLDC by taking a countermeasure of volume reduction treatment. In this study, various management options to be applied to each waste class are analyzed in terms of its inventory and disposal cost. For the volume reduction and stabilization of waste, the vitrification and plasma melting methods are considered for combustible and incombustible waste, respectively. (authors)

  5. Separation and determination of 90Sr in low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes using extraction chromatography and LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for the determination of 90Sr in low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants is presented in this work. It is a part of a methodology developed for the sequential radiochemical separation of radionuclides difficult-to-measure directly by gamma spectrometry in these radioactive wastes. The separation procedure was carried out using precipitation and extraction chromatography with Sr Resin, from Eichrom and the 90Sr was measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Optimum conditions for the pretreatment, separation and LSC measurements were determined using simulated samples, which were prepared using standard solutions and carriers. The procedure showed to be rapid and achieved a good chemical yield, in the range 60-90%, and a detection limit of 6.0 x 10-4 Bq g-1. The method was also tested by participation in a national intercomparison program, with aqueous samples, with good agreement of results. (author)

  6. Development of Models and Computer Codes for Assessing the Safety of Romanian Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the safety assessment methodology developed in Institute for Nuclear Research for low and intermediate level waste Romanian final repository. The methodology will focus on the post-closure assessment of final disposal and has been developed in following steps: 1. Identification and selection of those release pathways that are of primary importance for repository. 2. Selecting and integrating of appropriate models for analyses of important physical and chemical process. 3. Selecting the appropriate codes that include these selected models. 4. Implement and assess computer codes. The most probable pathway of the radionuclide release involves penetration of water into repository, the leaching of the waste form, and radionuclei transport in ground water and surface water. In consideration of Romanian selected site specific conditions (arid climate and very deep unsaturated zone) we consider that the unsaturated zone flow together the term source model are the most important modules of the methodology. (author)

  7. Durability evaluation of low and intermediate level radwaste disposal facility on the basis of national groundwater environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domestic low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facilities will use the burying method, and after that, it would be closed. For the safety of the disposal facility, the cement concrete structure would be used. To accomplish the performance aim of the disposal facility, the structural durability is required and if the disposal facility's structural material could work positively, long-term permanent is essential. So it is necessary to have an objective technical criteria and review, but the duration of long term over hundreds of years is still unknown and out of our experience. Therefore, it is necessary to research the way of evaluating durability on the basis of our knowledge and experience. For the long term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facility's structural material which is a major engineering barrier, we defined the durability and duration evaluation on the basis of national underground water environment of the cement concrete structure

  8. A study on the methodology to ensure long-term durability of low and intermediate level radwaste disposal concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concrete structure is being considered for the main engineered barrier of low and intermediate level radwaste disposal facility. Concrete of low permeability can minimize infiltration of water and effectively prevent release of nuclide to ecosystem. But if concrete degrades, structural stability of disposal structure will decrease while permeability increase, resulting in increased possibility of nuclide release due to water infiltration. Therefore disposal concrete structure degradation shall be minimized to maintain capacity of nuclide isolation. The typical causes of concrete structure degradation are sulfide attack, reinforcement corrosion due to chloride attack, leaching of calcium hydroxide, alkali-aggregate reaction and repeated freezing-thawing. The common cause of these degradation processes is infiltration of water or adverse chemicals into concrete. Based on the study of these degradation characteristics and mechanisms of concrete structure, the methodology of design and service life evaluation of concrete structure as an engineered barrier are reviewed to ensure its long-term durability

  9. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 6. Skive Vest, Skive Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Skive Vest, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  10. Disposal aspects of low and intermediate level decommissioning waste. Results of a coordinated research project 2002-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CD accompanies IAEA-TECDOC-1572, a publication which presents the result of a five-year study performed within the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Disposal Aspects of Low and Intermediate Level Decommissioning Waste, aiming at sharing national approaches in managing radioactive waste arising after termination of the operation of these facilities. Based on data about waste types and inventories, the project objectives were to provide examples of national approaches when outlining appropriate strategies for decommissioning waste disposal, to assess the performance of the typical waste streams relevant to these activities, and to indicate specific aspects of the disposal of waste derived from the decommissioning. Fourteen Member States assessed the link between decommissioning processes and waste disposal issues including: Argentina, Canada, China, Germany, Hungary, India, the Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Sweden, Ukraine and the USA. In addition, the UK has participated as an observer. Their detailed contributions are indexed individually

  11. A preliminary assessment of polymer-modified cements for use in immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of polymer-modified cements has been examined as candidate materials for the immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste. The waste streams studied were inactive simulates of real wastes and included ion-exchange resins, Magnox debris and dilute sludges. Preliminary experiments on the compatibility of the polymer-cement-waste combinations have been carried out and measurements of flexural strength before and after #betta#-irradiation to 109 rad and water immersion have been made. Soxhlet leach tests have been used to compare the leach rates of the different materials. From the results of these preliminary experiments, a limited number of polymer-modified cements have been suggested as suitable for more detailed study. (author)

  12. Socioeconomic issues and public involvement practices for near surface disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste - Indian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there are seven operating Near Surface Disposal Facilities (NSDFs) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in India designed and constructed to address widely varying geological and climatic conditions. It is recognized that a broad range of socioeconomic and environmental issues arise during the repository life cycle. During the various stages of approval, committees representing a range of local community interests and the stakeholders (e.g. local government, schools, business, environmental groups, media etc) are involved. In view of the vastness of the country and the fact that nuclear reactors in India are located all over the country, the logistics for the safe transportation of radioactive waste dictates that the NSDFs are co-located with the reactor sites. In Indian context, the following aspects are considered for public acceptance: association, exhibitions, interaction with educational institutions, media relations, public awareness, printed information, and political influence. The reasons for the successful Indian experience are provided. (author)

  13. Implications of long-term surface or near-surface storage of intermediate and low level wastes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term storage of radioactive wastes prior to disposal has been suggested as a waste management option. This paper examines long-term on-site storage and centralised storage for intermediate and low level wastes. The feasibility of storing some of the wastes in underground facilities that are convertible to repositories is also investigated. It is shown that centralised, surface storage of wastes would be the more economical long-term strategy, although storage options are shown to be more expensive than direct disposal (except if future costs are discounted by more than about 10%). With carefully designed stores and remote handling, the collective dose to operators could be limited to about 20-40 man Sv over the whole period of storage. (author)

  14. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 1. Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholm Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Oestermarie-Paradisbakkerne in the region of Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  15. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 4. Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, in the Municipality of Struer, northern Jutland. (LN)

  16. Ageing management program for the Spanish low and intermediate level waste disposal and spent fuel and high-level waste centralised storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The generic design of the centralised spent fuel storage facility was approved by the Spanish Safety Authority in 2006. The planned operational life is 60 years, while the design service life is 100 years. Durability studies and surveillance of the behaviour have been considered from the initial design steps, taking into account the accessibility limitations and temperatures involved. The paper presents an overview of the ageing management program set in support of the Performance Assessment and Safety Review of El Cabril low and intermediate level waste (LILW disposal facility. Based on the experience gained for LILW, ENRESA has developed a preliminary definition of the Ageing Management Plan for the Centralised Interim Storage Facility of spent Fuel and High Level Waste (HLW, which addresses the behaviour of spent fuel, its retrievability, the confinement system and the reinforced concrete structure. It includes tests plans and surveillance design considerations, based on the El Cabril LILW disposal facility.

  17. Tg levels in differentiated thyroid cancer patients with intermediated or low risk of recurrence after 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the change of serum Tg levels of DTC patients with positive stimulated Tg (Tg ≥ 10.00 μg/L), negative 131I-diagnostic whole body scan(Dx-WBS) and no distant metastasis 6 months after initial 131I therapy. Methods: Fifty-six DTC patients (20 males, 36 females,average age 43.11 (21-70) y) with intermediate or low risk of recurrence according to American Thyroid Association (ATA) guideline were enrolled into the retrospective study. All patients were grouped according to stimulated Tg level after initial 131I therapy:group with positive Tg (Tg+ group, n=19) and group with negative Tg (Tg- group, n=37). Changes of suppressed Tg at 1 year and 2.5 years (Tg1ysup and Tg 2.5ysup) after initial therapy were compared between the two groups.Serum TSH level, TgAb level, neck ultrasound and chest CT results were also evaluated. The two-sample t test and χ2 test were used for statistical analysis with SPSS 17.0. Results: Stimulated Tg and Tg1ysup levels in Tg+ group were remarkably higher than those in Tg- group: (24.27±4.10) μg/L vs (2.73±3.01) μg/L, t=7.191, P<0.05 (6 months after initial 131I therapy); (2.21±0.55) vs (0.48±0.10) μg/L, t=3.102, P<0.05 (1 year after initial 131I therapy), respectively. In Tg+ group, suppressed Tg level decreased with time in 68.4% (13/19) of patients, of whom the Tg 2.5ysup level was much lower than Tg1ysup level ((0.53±0.15) μg/L vs (1.38±0.50) μg/L). Tg 2.5sup level in Tg+ group became comparable to that in Tg- group ((1.44±0.52) μg/L vs (0.38±0.07) μg/L; t=2.001, P>0.05). In each group, one case of recurrence with suppressed Tg of 1.4 μg/L and 0.1 μg/L respectively, was observed using neck ultrasound after 2 years of follow-up. Conclusions: Serum Tg levels decreased with time for Tg+/131I-Dx-WBS-DTC patients with intermediate or low risk of recurrence. It might not be necessary to follow up these patients with Tg and 131I-Dx-WBS after 6 months of initial 131I therapy. (authors)

  18. Rechargeability and economic aspects of alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells for electrical storage and load leveling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingale, ND; Gallaway, JW; Nyce, M; Couzis, A; Banerjee, S

    2015-02-15

    Batteries based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathodes are good candidates for grid-scale electrical energy storage, as MnO2 is low-cost, relatively energy dense, safe, water-compatible, and non-toxic. Alkaline Zn-MnO2 cells, if cycled at reduced depth of discharge (DOD), have been found to achieve substantial cycle life with battery costs projected to be in the range of $100 to 150 per kWh (delivered). Commercialization of rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries has in the past been hampered due to poor cycle life. In view of this, the work reported here focuses on the long-term rechargeability of prismatic MnO2 cathodes at reduced DOD when exposed to the effects of Zn anodes and with no additives or specialty materials. Over 3000 cycles is shown to be obtainable at 10% DOD with energy efficiency >80%. The causes of capacity fade during long-term cycling are also investigated and appear to be mainly due to the formation of irreversible manganese oxides in the cathode. Analysis of the data indicates that capacity loss is rapid in the first 250 cycles, followed by a regime of stability that can last for thousands of cycles. A model has been developed that captures the behavior of the cells investigated using measured state of charge (SOC) data as input. An approximate economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the economic viability of Zn-MnO2 batteries based on the experiments reported here. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rechargeability and economic aspects of alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells for electrical storage and load leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingale, Nilesh D.; Gallaway, Joshua W.; Nyce, Michael; Couzis, Alexander; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2015-02-01

    Batteries based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathodes are good candidates for grid-scale electrical energy storage, as MnO2 is low-cost, relatively energy dense, safe, water-compatible, and non-toxic. Alkaline Zn-MnO2 cells, if cycled at reduced depth of discharge (DOD), have been found to achieve substantial cycle life with battery costs projected to be in the range of 100 to 150 per kWh (delivered). Commercialization of rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries has in the past been hampered due to poor cycle life. In view of this, the work reported here focuses on the long-term rechargeability of prismatic MnO2 cathodes at reduced DOD when exposed to the effects of Zn anodes and with no additives or specialty materials. Over 3000 cycles is shown to be obtainable at 10% DOD with energy efficiency >80%. The causes of capacity fade during long-term cycling are also investigated and appear to be mainly due to the formation of irreversible manganese oxides in the cathode. Analysis of the data indicates that capacity loss is rapid in the first 250 cycles, followed by a regime of stability that can last for thousands of cycles. A model has been developed that captures the behavior of the cells investigated using measured state of charge (SOC) data as input. An approximate economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the economic viability of Zn-MnO2 batteries based on the experiments reported here.

  20. Application of Polymers for the Long-Term Storage and Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada on the effects of mixed fields of radiation on high polymer adhesives and composite materials has shown that some polymers are quite resistant to radiation and could well serve in the fabrication of radioactive-waste disposal containers. A research program was launched to investigate the possibilities of using advanced polymers and polymer-based composites for high-level radioactive waste management on one hand and for intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal on the other hand. Research was thus conducted in parallel on both fronts, and the findings for the later phase are presented. Thermoplastic polymers were studied for this application because they are superior materials, having the advantage over metals of not corroding and of displaying high resistance to chemical aggression. The experimental methods used in this research focused on determining the effects of radiation on the properties of the materials considered: polypropylene, nylon 66, polycarbonate, and polyurethane, with and without glass fiber reinforcement. The method involved submitting injection-molded tensile test bars to the mixed radiation field generated by the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada to accumulate doses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 MGy. The physical, mechanical, and chemical effects of the various radiation doses on the materials were measured from density, tensile, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy tests.For each polymer, the test results evidenced predominant cross-linking of the polymeric chains severed by radiation. This was evident from observed changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of the polymers, typical of cross-linking. The mechanical changes observed included an overall increase in density, an increase in Young's modulus, a decrease in strain at break, and only minor changes in strength. The chemical changes included

  1. Siting history and current construction status of disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korean government decided disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW), which is located at coastal area near the Wolsong nuclear power plants in Gyeong-Ju city in December. 2005, based on the result of votes of residents in four candidate sites. Since then, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP), which is the management company of the LILW disposal facility, has carried out the preparation for construction of disposal facility and its licensing process. At the first phase, 100 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the rock cavern type disposal facility located at the depth from 80m to 130m below the sea level, and finally 800 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the site. This report shows the history of siting for the LILW disposal, the outline of design of disposal facility and current status of its construction, based on the information which was obtained mainly during our visit to the disposal site in Korea. (author)

  2. A solubility-limited-source-term model for the geological disposal of cemented intermediate-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents and illustrates the use of a source-team model for an intermediate-level radioactive-waste repository. The model deals with the behaviour of long-lived nuclides after the initial containment period. The major processes occurring in the near-field are included, namely sorption, elemental solubility limits, chain decay and transport due to groundwater flow. The model is applied to a realistic example of ILW disposal. From this it is clear that some nuclides are present in sufficient quantities to reach their solubility limit even when the assumed sorption coefficients are large. For these nuclides the precise sorption coefficient is unimportant. It is also clear that some daughter products, in particular Pb-210, become significant. The toxicity of the repository porewater is calculated and it is shown that, although this toxicity is high compared to levels acceptable in drinking water, it is much lower than the toxicity of the waste itself. However, the near-field chemical environment is only one of a number of containment barriers. In addition, it has been shown that the rate at which radionuclides enter the rock surrounding the repository is very low. (author)

  3. A solubility-limited source-term model for the geological disposal of cemented intermediate-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents and illustrates the use of a source-term model for an intermediate-level radioactive-waste repository. The model deals with the behaviour of long-lived nuclides after the initial containment period. The major processes occurring in the near field are included, namely sorption, elemental solubility limits, chain decay and transport due to groundwater flow. The model is applied to a realistic example of ILW disposal. From this it is clear that some nuclides are present in sufficient quantities to reach their solubility limit even when the assumed sorption coefficients are large. For these nuclides the precise sorption coefficient is unimportant. It is also clear that some daughter products, in particular Pb-210, become significant. The toxicity of the repository pore water is calculated and it is shown that, although this toxicity is high compared to levels acceptable in drinking water, it is much lower than the toxicity of the waste itself. However, the near-field chemical environment is only one of a number of containment barriers. In addition, it has been shown that the rate at which radionuclides enter the rock surrounding the repository is very low. (author)

  4. A selective separation method for 93Zr in radiochemical analysis of low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zirconium isotope 93Zr is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from 235U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope 92Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, 93Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of 93Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. A radiochemical procedure based on liquid-liquid extraction with 1-(2-thenoyl)-3,3,3-trifluoroacetone in xylene, ion exchange with Dowex resin and selective extraction using TRU resin has to be carried out in order to separate zirconium from the matrix and to analyze it by liquid scintillation spectrometry technique (LSC). To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for 93Zr, a tracer solution of 95Zr was used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the process by γ-ray spectrometry through measurement of the 95Zr. Then, the protocol was applied to low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) from nuclear power plants. The efficiency detection for 63Ni was used to determination of 93Zr activity in the matrices analyzed. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq l-1 was obtained for 63Ni standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for OptiPhase HiSafe 3 cocktail. (author)

  5. Monitoring Programme of Radionuclide Migration Through Food Chains at Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Trgoska Gora Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Basic objective of the paper is to prepare a comprehensive programme of monitoring at the preferred site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository in the region of Trgovska Gora mountain. The programme is based on available information regarding hydrogeology, lithostratigraphy, tectonics, seismotectonics, geomorphology, meteorology, bioecology, demography and other site relevant disciplines. It is supposed to ensure (1) identification of the zero state at the broader region of the Trgovska gora mountain, and (2) to underline activities needed for monitoring of concentrations of expected radionuclides throughout possible pathways (particularly through food chains) that would migrate to the biosphere in the period after start of radioactive waste repository operation. Inventory of radionuclides contained in the radioactive waste to be disposed of at the site is naturally an important element of the programme structure. There should be identified those radionuclides which concentrations require to be monitored. Concentration measuring methods are proposed in the article. In addition, relevant aquatic and terrestrial organisms, serving as bioindicators, are identified. Types, quantities, frequency and methodology of sampling present an important part of the monitoring programme. Determination of monitoring sites for undertaking particular types of sampling (e.g. stream waters, stream sediment, detritus, ichtiofauna, groundwater, terrestrial organisms, honey, etc.), presenting an important aspect of a well-organised monitoring programme, is also included into this presentation. (author)

  6. Public involvement in the establishment and operation of the low and intermediate level waste repository at Vaalputs in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Vaalputs is owned and operated by the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) on behalf of the South African Government. Vaalputs currently only accepts the operational waste from the Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) situated near Cape Town approximately 550 km to the South of Vaalputs. Plans are also underway to dispose of Necsa's low and intermediate level waste at Vaalputs in the future. In this paper a brief overview is given of the impact of repository site selection and operation on public perceptions. The consequences of media coverage of certain historical events relating to the safety of the repository are discussed. The outcome of Necsa's efforts at communicating with its stakeholders at Vaalputs is evaluated in terms of the effect on local, regional and national perceptions. The benefits derived from the creation of a Vaalputs Communication Forum (VCF) are considered against the background of the activities of environmental NGO's aimed at opposing Vaalputs' efforts to establish effective public relations. The VCF was replaced in 2003 by the statutory Public Safety Information Forum (PSIF) established in terms of government regulations. The experience gained over the last 20 years on public communication is briefly assessed using an internationally accepted model for public transparency. (author)

  7. The Effect of Coded and Uncoded Written Corrective Feedback on the Accuracy of Learners Writing in Pre-intermediate Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Salimi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To date, conflict exists in the literature on whether or not and how teachers should react to EFL learners' written grammar errors. Coded versus uncoded corrective feedback has been one of the rarely explored areas of investigation in SLA. To shed light on the factors that may explain such conflicting results, this study investigated the effect of coded and un-coded written corrective feedback with regard to possible improvements in the accuracy in writing of pre-intermediate EFL learners. It, further, sought whether such an effect would last in the long run. In the course of 14 weeks, learners’ errors in 2 groups (i.e., coded and uncoded were reacted. A paired-samples t-test was run to analyze the obtained data. Analysis of the written pieces in the immediate post-test and delayed post test revealed that coded corrective feedback, compared to the uncoded group, had a significantly more positive influence on learners' accuracy improvement both in the short and in the long run. The findings imply that teachers should weigh the learners' abilities and interlanguage, proficiency level, and type of error before applying different feedback types. Moreover, the implications are discussed in terms of effective guidelines for teaching writing in EFL contexts.Keywords: written feedback, accuracy, EFL context

  8. Risk management in the project of implantation of the repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project RBMN is part of the Brazilian solution for the storage of radioactive waste generated by the activities of nuclear energy in Brazil. The aim of RBMN is to implement the National Repository to dispose the low and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Risk is a characteristic of all projects, and it is originated from uncertainties, assumptions and the environment of execution of the project. Risk management is the way to monitor systematically these uncertainties and a guaranty that the goals of the project will be attained. A specific methodology for the risk management of the Project RBMN is under development, which integrates models and processes for identification and analysis of risks, reactions, monitoring, control and planning of risk management. This methodology is fundamental and will be of primordial importance for future generations who will be responsible for the operation at final stages, closure and institutional control during the post-closure of the repository. It will provide greater safety to executed processes and safeguarding risks and specific solutions for this enterprise, guaranteeing the safety of the repository in its life cycle, which has a foreseen duration of at least three hundred years. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary analysis of the opportunities, threats, strong points and weak points identified up to now, that will provide support to implement risk management procedures. The methodology will be based on the PMBOKR - Project Management Board of Knowledge - and will take into consideration the best practices for project management.(author)

  9. Long{sub t}erm performance of structural component of intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, J. H.; Kim, S. S.; Chun, T. H.; Lee, J. M.; Yum, M. O.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. S. [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-15

    Underground repository for intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste is to be sealed and closed after operation. Structural components, which are generally made of cement concrete, are designed and accommodated in the repository for the purpose of operational convenience and stability after closure. To forecast the change of long-term integrity of the structural components, experimental verification, using in-situ or near in-situ conditions, is necessary. Domestic and foreign requirements with regard to the selection criteria and the performance criteria for structural components in disposal facility were surveyed. Characteristics of various types of cement were studied. Materials and construction methods of structural components similar to those of disposal facility was investigated and test items and methods for integrity of cement concrete were included. Literature survey for domestic groundwater characteristics was performed together with Ca-type bentonite ore which is a potential backfill material. Causes or factors affecting the durability of the cement structures were summarized. Experiments to figure out the ions leaching out from and migrating into cement soaked in distilled water and synthetic groundwater, respectively, were carried out. And finally, diffusion of chloride ion through cement was experimentally measured.

  10. The OPG/Kincardine hosting agreement for a deep geologic repository for OPG's low- and intermediate-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Hosting Agreement has been reached between Ontario Power Generation and the Municipality of Kincardine for the purpose of siting a long-term management facility for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste at the Western Waste Management Facility. Following an independent review of the feasibility of three options for a long-term facility at the site, including a review of the safety, geotechnical feasibility, social and economic effects and potential environmental effects, Kincardine passed a resolution indicating their preference for a Deep Geologic Repository. A Host Community Agreement has been negotiated based on this preference, and on information that had been gathered from municipal authorities at other locations that have hosted similar facilities. The Hosting Agreement includes financial compensation, totalling $35.7 million (Canadian 2004) to the Municipality of Kincardine and to four surrounding municipalities. The financial aspects include lump sum payments based on achieving specific project milestones as well as annual payments to each of the municipalities. The payments are indexed to inflation, and are also contingent on the municipalities acting reasonably and in good faith during the licencing process of the proposed facility. In addition to the fees, the Agreement includes provision for a Property Value Protection Plan that would provide residents with compensation in the event that there is depreciation in property value shown to directly result from a release from the proposed facility. New permanent OPG jobs supporting the project would be located at the site. OPG and Kincardine will support a centre of nuclear excellence. (author)

  11. Risk management in the project of implantation of the repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borssatto, Maria de Fatima B.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de; Uemura, George, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br, E-mail: george@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Project RBMN is part of the Brazilian solution for the storage of radioactive waste generated by the activities of nuclear energy in Brazil. The aim of RBMN is to implement the National Repository to dispose the low and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Risk is a characteristic of all projects, and it is originated from uncertainties, assumptions and the environment of execution of the project. Risk management is the way to monitor systematically these uncertainties and a guaranty that the goals of the project will be attained. A specific methodology for the risk management of the Project RBMN is under development, which integrates models and processes for identification and analysis of risks, reactions, monitoring, control and planning of risk management. This methodology is fundamental and will be of primordial importance for future generations who will be responsible for the operation at final stages, closure and institutional control during the post-closure of the repository. It will provide greater safety to executed processes and safeguarding risks and specific solutions for this enterprise, guaranteeing the safety of the repository in its life cycle, which has a foreseen duration of at least three hundred years. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary analysis of the opportunities, threats, strong points and weak points identified up to now, that will provide support to implement risk management procedures. The methodology will be based on the PMBOK{sup R} - Project Management Board of Knowledge - and will take into consideration the best practices for project management.(author)

  12. A Python Implementation of an Intermediate-Level Tropical Circulation Model and Implications for How Modeling Science is Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. W. B.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, climate models have been developed incrementally and in compiled languages like Fortran. While the use of legacy compiledlanguages results in fast, time-tested code, the resulting model is limited in its modularity and cannot take advantage of functionalityavailable with modern computer languages. Here we describe an effort at using the open-source, object-oriented language Pythonto create more flexible climate models: the package qtcm, a Python implementation of the intermediate-level Neelin-Zeng Quasi-Equilibrium Tropical Circulation model (QTCM1) of the atmosphere. The qtcm package retains the core numerics of QTCM1, written in Fortran, to optimize model performance but uses Python structures and utilities to wrap the QTCM1 Fortran routines and manage model execution. The resulting "mixed language" modeling package allows order and choice of subroutine execution to be altered at run time, and model analysis and visualization to be integrated in interactively with model execution at run time. This flexibility facilitates more complex scientific analysis using less complex code than would be possible using traditional languages alone and provides tools to transform the traditional "formulate hypothesis → write and test code → run model → analyze results" sequence into a feedback loop that can be executed automatically by the computer.

  13. Review of the sorption data of the main radionuclides in low and intermediate level nuclear wastes for Finnish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the studies on sorption of radionuclides in Finnish bedrock performed at the Department of Radiochemistry University of Helsinki. Sorption data for backfill and construction material are also included. Samples represent common rocks, minerals, construction and backfill materials at the sites in the prposed repositories for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes at Haestholmen (IVO) and Olkiluoto (TVO). Sample types used for sorption experiments were crushed rock and concrete, mineral and rock thin sections, rock pieces, 'drill core cups' and natural fracture surfaces. The method used for determination of Ksub(d)-values was the batch method. The determination of Ksub(a)-values was performed by the autoradiographic method. The radionuclides discussed in this report are 134Cs, 85Sr, 89Sr, 58Co, 63Ni, 125I, 99Tc and 14C. Recommended sorption data (Ksub(d) and Ksub(a)-values) for use in safety analyses in migration modelling are presented. For conservative evaluation the values selected are minimum values from two or three parallel determinations. When only one Ksub(a)-value of radionuclide was available for a rock species that value was considered as recommended value. (author)

  14. The effect of supplementary pulverized fuel ash on calcium aluminate phosphate cement for intermediate-level waste encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of supplementary pulverized fuel ash on phosphate-modified calcium aluminate cement. These systems are being established as part of a wider project to develop alternative cementing systems for the encapsulation of problematic low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste in the UK. The nuclear industry has established specific processing and property criteria, which must be fulfilled to ensure suitability for industrial application. In a series of studies, pulverized fuel ash was used as a partial replacement for calcium aluminate cement, to improve the fluidity of the system and increase the setting time. Properties such as slurry pH and fluidity, setting time, mechanical properties, and porosity were investigated using Vicat, Colflow, and compressive strength testing equipment and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The hardened cement pastes were also characterised using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. A formulation envelope was identified, which fulfilled the plant acceptance tests defined by industry to ensure suitability for industrial application. It was found that pH of calcium aluminate phosphate cements is lower than that of conventional cementing systems used to encapsulate radioactive waste in the UK. Hence, they have potential to be used as an alternative cementing system for the encapsulation of problematic radioactive metals. (authors)

  15. Elaboration of a questionnaire for establishment of the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2008, Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, has been working in the Project of Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes, (RBMN Project) and the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) is responsible for the technical coordination of this project. Among activities under development, the survey of National radwaste inventory must be firstly concluded since it is a requirement for the project cost estimation. Hence, an electronic questionnaire was created to collect all information necessary to obtain the volume of the treated and non-treated waste, presently stored in Brazil. This questionnaire was elaborated after survey of the possible characteristics of radioactive waste generated in nuclear and radioactive facilities and it will be available online only for registered users. The information gathered with this questionnaire was related only with the amount of radioactive waste and some generic characteristics, the isotopic inventory will be performed in future. The objective of this work is to present this form and its creation process. (author)

  16. Applying multi-criteria analysis to radiation protection optimisation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction of ALARA principles in the field of radioactive waste management implies a definition of the main characteristics of the decisional framework. Specific aspects should be taken into account: long term effects, large uncertainties and/or probabilistic events, with particular attention to the public and the political authorities. Traditional cost-benefit analysis is not qualified to deal with these different dimensions of the risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the principles of multi-criteria analysis applied to low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. Three categories of barriers can be distinguished acting at different protection levels: site characteristics, waste package and disposal system. A set of possible solutions can be identified, but the selection of the 'optimum' is not easy because of the diversity of the factors to be allowed for. For example, the following problem needs to be addressed: is it preferable to limit public radiation exposure several hundred years ahead or to reduce occupational exposure during the monitoring period of the disposal facility? An optimisation study is currently being performed on the various components of the structure, assuming given site and waste package characteristics. Four steps are distinguished: identification and analysis of options for the structure; selection and estimation of the qualitative and quantitative criteria; determination of the 'most interesting' solutions using multi-criteria analysis; sensitivity analysis and discussion on uncertainties related to the various assumptions. Based on the preliminary findings, the paper focuses on practical solutions to address the methodological issues raised in applying the optimisation procedures to radioactive waste management. (au)

  17. Experience of safety assessment for the deep disposal of intermediate-level waste in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Kingdom Nirex Ltd is investigating Sellafield as a potential site for the deep geological disposal of solid intermediate-level waste (ILW) and some low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Attention is currently focused on a potential repository located in volcanic rocks (the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, Bag) at a depth of 650 m below ordinance datum OD. This paper summarises Nirex 95, a preliminary analysis of the groundwater pathway for this repository. Nirex 95 has focused on the calculation of annual individual risk, which is a principal safety requirement as set out by the U.K. regulatory bodies. lt is not a comprehensive safety assessment, which would require the systematic analysis of a wider range of features, events and processes. However, it does illustrate a number of key components of the methodology employed in the Nirex programme. Data and underlying research to support assessments of the repository are provided by the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme (NSARP). The assessment was based on a hydrogeological conceptual model of the site constructed on the basis of the extensive characterisation programme involving a series of deep boreholes, associated testing and geophysical surveys. Based on this conceptual model, effective hydrogeological properties were generated that were used in calculations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. The uncertainties in the values of the parameters used in the assessment models are addressed through the use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). For many parameters, probability density functions (PDFs) that characterise the uncertainty have been obtained in structured data elicitation sessions, which are held with appropriate expert groups [4]. An important component of the assessment is the propagation of these uncertainties through the calculations in a systematic manner. 9 refs

  18. Optimisation and adoption of slag based cement for conditioning of intermediate level alkaline radioactive liquid waste in CLEAR-V campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ILW is normally treated by resorcinol formaldehyde special type of resin. Another method for management of ILW is by conditioning in cement matrix. Various waste to cement ratios have been tried at lab and plant scale by taking slag based cement and ordinary portland cement. The cement waste products were evaluated for various properties. The final selected waste to cement ratio has been successfully adopted on the plant scale for conditioning of 140 m3 of ILW at SWMF. (author)

  19. Remediation of alkaline intermediate level radioactive aqueous liquid waste stored along with organic waste at PREFRE Tarapur for ion exchange process: a laboratory scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibutyl phosphate (DBP) and monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are formed during reprocessing of spent fuel as degradation products of Tributyl phosphate (TBP). To maintain the efficiency of TBP solvent during its repeated use, the degraded products are removed by sodium carbonate washing of the solvent. This radioactive sodium carbonate solution is stored in a separate tank along with the exhausted TBP solvent. The presence of degraded products of TBP and their complexes, ion exchange treatment of this waste is creating problems during alpha decontamination step. The present paper deals with the remediation of the aqueous phase of the above waste. For the treatment of the aqueous phase of waste, first the TBP degraded products are required to be removed so that the normal ion exchange treatment can be adopted. (author)

  20. Effects of post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel, high-level waste and long-lived intermediate level waste sited in opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel and highly radioactive wastes in Opalinus clay strata. This study provides a comprehensive treatment of the issue of gas generation in a repository for spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW), sited in the Opalinus clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland. The issue of how gas generation in and transport from waste repositories may influence disposal system performance has been under study for many years, both at Nagra and internationally. The report consists of three main parts: (i) A synthesis of basic information on the host rock and on details of repository construction; (ii) A discussion on gas transport characteristics of the engineered barrier system and the geosphere; (iii) A discussion on the effects of gas on system performance, based on the available information on gas generation, gas transport properties and gas pathways provided in the previous parts of the report. Simplified model calculations based on a mass balance approach for the gas generated within the repository are presented and discussed

  1. Dynamic assessments on high-level waste and low- and intermediate-level waste generation from open and closed nuclear fuel cycles in Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimated the generation of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) and high-level waste (HLW) from open and closed nuclear fuel cycles. The closed fuel cycle reflects the development and deployment of fast reactors and pyroprocessing from 2013 to 2100, while the open fuel cycle only considers pressurized water reactors. The closed fuel cycle hardly affects short-term spent fuel management but can save nearly 60% space of interim storage compared with the open fuel cycle. Compared with the open fuel cycle, the accumulated volume of HLW can be significantly reduced in the closed fuel cycle up to over 95% in 2100. For this volume reduction, high heat generating fission products should be separated from transuranic waste in pyroprocessing and stored in decay storages for a few hundred years. Mining and milling waste in the closed fuel cycle decreases by about 31%. In contrast, the closed fuel cycle generates 3.0%-4.5% more LILW than the open fuel cycle because fast reactors and pyroprocessing produce more LILW and conversion, enrichment, and fabrication produce less LILW. In the closed fuel cycle, operation and decommissioning wastes from reactor and pyroprocessing, respectively, contribute to 74% and 8% of LILW excluding mining and milling waste. (author)

  2. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  3. Socio-economic issues and public involvement in the development and operation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final ground radioactive waste disposal appears to be the optimal option for low- and intermediate-level activity wastes resulting from operation and decommissioning activities at Cernavoda NPP. Taking into account the international experience in implementing and developing repositories of this type as well as the specific requirements in the stages of planning, ANDRAD approached technical procedures concerning repository extension, safety and environmental impact. Also non-radiologic impact and socio-economic aspects for the life-time span of the facility were analyzed. All the stages from initial planning through, site selection, construction, operation, shutdown and institutional post-shutdown control were considered from the environmental point of view. Different factors of natural environment (land resources, air quality, water resources, etc) as well as economical conditions (local economic status, manpower occupation) and social conditions (dwellings, services, education, utility supply) should be thoroughly analyzed. The financing issues will obviously have an essential bearing on schedule referring to the implementation, development, operation and eventual shutdown of the repository. Finally the paper presents the methods which ANDRAD should approach in order to have the local community familiarized with the nuclear operations at Cernavoda NPP, a factor of paramount importance for localizing the radioactive waste repository within the NPP siting area. This co-location solution was chosen as optimal from the point of view of both the project's cost and the non-radiological impact. The paper has the following contents: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective, scope and structure; 3.Repository concept and life cycle; 4.Policy, public involvement and cost considerations; 5.Potential impacts during the repository life cycle; 6.Impact management; 7.Conclusions

  4. Estimation of expenses for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository project in Croatia up to site license acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expenses needed for development of low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository project in Croatia include: (a) preliminary activities, (b) preparatory activities, and (c) preparing of environmental impact study. The first group of expenses are referring to the project leading activities, project plan updating, build-up of required infrastructure, preparing of licensing documentation, site investigations, data acquisition programme, pre-operational radio-ecological monitoring, modelling, safety analysis (first iteration) and public related activities. Preparatory activities are referring to purchasing of land for repository and preparatory activities for carrying out of on-site investigations, while third group of expenses are related to preparation and validation of Environmental impact study. It was found out that about 50 % of total expenses refer to build-up of infrastructure. Additional 25 % finances are related to radio-ecological monitoring, site investigations and development of calculations and models, while remaining 25 % of total estimated sum is expected to be spent for repository safety assessment, public relations, purchasing and preparing the on-site terrain for construction, etc. It was calculated 607 EUR per m3 of LILW to be needed up to site license acquisition. According to the world-wide practice, by extrapolating of additional expenses necessary for construction of the repository and acquisition of operational license, it comes out the cost of 1.723 EUR per m3 of LILW for shallow-ground and 2.412 EUR per m3 of LILW for tunnel repository. The estimated expenses for Croatia are within the span of expenses for the same purpose in the countries considered. Expected duration of the project performance up to acquisition of the site license is 4 years and 3 months. (author)

  5. Long-Term Performance of Silo Concrete in Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste (LILW) Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete has been considered one of the engineered barriers in the geological disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level wastes (LILW). The concrete plays major role as structural support, groundwater infiltration barrier, and transport barrier of radionuclides dissolved from radioactive wastes. It also works as a chemical barrier due to its high pH condition. However, the performance of the concrete structure decrease over a period of time because of several physical and chemical processes. After a long period of time in the future, the concrete would lose its effectiveness as a barrier against groundwater inflow and the release of radionuclides. An subsurface environment below the frost depth should be favorable for concrete longevity as temperature and moisture variation should be minimal, significantly reducing the potential of cracking due to drying shrinkage and thermal expansion and contraction. Therefore, the concrete structures of LILW disposal facilities below groundwater table are expected to have relatively longer service life than those of near-surface or surface concrete structures. LILW in Korea is considered to be disposed of in the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center which is under construction in geological formation. 100,000 waste packages are expected to be disposed in the 6 concrete silos below EL -80m in the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center as first stage. The concrete silo has been considered the main engineered barrier which plays a role to inhibit water inflow and the release of radionuclides to the environments. Although a number of processes are responsible for the degradation of the silo concrete, it is concluded that a reinforcing steel corrosion cause the failure of the silo concrete. Therefore, a concrete silo failure time is calculated based on a corrosion initiation time which takes for chloride ions to penetrate through the concrete cover, and a corrosion propagation time. This paper aims to analyze the concrete failure time in the

  6. Comparison of three-phase three-level voltage source inverter with intermediate dc–dc boost converter and quasi-Z-source inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panfilov, Dmitry; Husev, Oleksandr; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zakis, Janis; Khandakji, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    This study compares a three-phase three-level voltage source inverter with an intermediate dc-dc boost converter and a quasi-Z-source inverter in terms of passive elements values and dimensions, semiconductor stresses, and overall efficiency. A comparative analysis was conducted with relative...

  7. A Western Blot-based Investigation of the Yeast Secretory Pathway Designed for an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in…

  8. Commentaires et Observations sur l'Enseignement du Recit au Cours Secondaire (Comments and Remarks on the Teaching of the Narrative on the Intermediate Level).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jean-Claude

    1976-01-01

    Traditional ways of teaching French literary narrative have greatly relied on the use of metalanguage. Modern teaching practice, in rejecting this technique, leads to questions about what to substitute for it. An experiment was carried out in which over 20 groups of from 20 to 35 intermediate-level students in French-medium schools were instructed…

  9. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  10. Effectiveness of a Guided Inductive versus a Deductive Approach on the Learning of Grammar in the Intermediate-Level College French Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Severine; Herron, Carol; Cole, Steven P.; York, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how to present grammatical structures to intermediate-level French college students. It compared the effects of a guided inductive and a deductive approach on short- and long-term learning of 10 structures. A mixed-methods design was adopted to assess learning of the structures and to investigate preference of approach.…

  11. C2 photosynthesis generates about 3-fold elevated leaf CO2 levels in the C3–C4 intermediate species Flaveria pubescens

    OpenAIRE

    Keerberg, Olav; Pärnik, Tiit; Ivanova, Hiie; Bassüner, Burgund; Bauwe, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Formation of a photorespiration-based CO2-concentrating mechanism in C3–C4 intermediate plants is seen as a prerequisite for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis, but it is not known how efficient this mechanism is. Here, using in vivo Rubisco carboxylation-to-oxygenation ratios as a proxy to assess relative intraplastidial CO2 levels is suggested. Such ratios were determined for the C3–C4 intermediate species Flaveria pubescens compared with the closely related C3 plant F. cronquistii and the ...

  12. Concentration Limits in the Cement Based Swiss Repository for Long-lived, Intermediate-level Radioactive Wastes (LMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Urs

    1999-12-01

    The Swiss repository concept for long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LMA), in Swiss terminology) foresees cylindrical concrete silos surrounded by a ring of granulated bentonite to deposit the waste. As one of the possible options and similar to the repository for high level wastes, the silos will be located in a deep crystalline host rock. Solidified with concrete in steel drums, the waste is stacked into a silo and the silo is then backfilled with a porous mortar. To characterize the release of radionuclides from the repository, the safety assessment considers first the dissolution into the pore water of the concrete, and then diffusion through the outer bentonite ring into the deep crystalline groundwater. For 19 safety relevant radionuclides (isotopes of U, Th, Pa, Np, Pu, Am, Ni, Zr, Mo, Nb, Se, Sr, Ra, Tc, Sn, I, C, Cs, Cl) the report recommends maximum elemental concentrations to be expected in the cement pore water of the particularly considered repository. These limits will form the parameter base for subsequent release model chains. Concentration limits in a geochemical environment are usually obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations performed with geochemical speciation codes. However, earlier studies revealed that this procedure does not always lead to reliable results. Main reasons for this are the complexity of the systems considered, as well as the lacking completeness of, and the uncertainty associated with the thermodynamic data. To improve the recommended maximum concentrations for a distinct repository design, this work includes additional design- and system-dependent criteria. The following processes, inventories and properties are considered in particular: a) recent experimental investigations, particularly from cement systems, b) thermodynamic model calculations when reliable data are available, c) total inventories of radionuclides, d) sorption- and co-precipitation processes, e) dilution with stable isotopes, f

  13. Partial Enteral Nutrition Preserves Elements of Gut Barrier Function, Including Innate Immunity, Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP Level, and Intestinal Microbiota in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lack of enteral nutrition (EN during parenteral nutrition (PN leads to higher incidence of infection because of gut barrier dysfunction. However, the effects of partial EN on intestina linnate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP and microbiota remain unclear. The mice were randomized into six groups to receive either standard chow or isocaloric and isonitrogenous nutritional support with variable partial EN to PN ratios. Five days later, the mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were collected. Bacterial translocation, the levels of lysozyme, mucin 2 (MUC2, and IAP were analyzed. The composition of intestinal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Compared with chow, total parenteral nutrition (TPN resulted in a dysfunctional mucosal barrier, as evidenced by increased bacterial translocation (p < 0.05, loss of lysozyme, MUC2, and IAP, and changes in the gut microbiota (p < 0.001. Administration of 20% EN supplemented with PN significantly increased the concentrations of lysozyme, MUC2, IAP, and the mRNA levels of lysozyme and MUC2 (p < 0.001. The percentages of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes were significantly lower in the 20% EN group than in the TPN group (p < 0.001. These changes were accompanied by maintained barrier function in bacterial culture (p < 0.05. Supplementation of PN with 20% EN preserves gut barrier function, by way of maintaining innate immunity, IAP and intestinal microbiota.

  14. Radioactive Demonstration of Caustic Recovery from Low-Level Alkaline Nuclear Waste by an Electrochemical Separation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench-scale radioactive tests successfully demonstrated an electrochemical process for the recovery of sodium hydroxide (caustic) from Decontaminated Salt Solution produced from the In-Tank Precipitation and Effluent Treatment Processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This testing evaluated two membranes: an organic-based membrane, Nafion Type 350, manufactured by E. I. duPont de Nemours ampersand Company, Inc. (DuPont) and an inorganic-based membrane, NAS D, being developed by Ceramatec. Both membranes successfully separated caustic from radioactive SRS waste.Key findings of the testing indicate the following attributes and disadvantages of each membrane. The commercially-available Nafion membrane proved highly conductive. Thus, the electrochemical cell can operate at high current density minimizing the number of cells at the desired volumetric processing rate. Testing indicated cesium transported across the Nafion membrane into the caustic product. Therefore, the caustic product will contain low-levels of radioactive cesium due to the presence of 134,137Cs in the waste feed. To meet customer requirements, a post treatment stage may prove necessary to remove radioactive cesium resulting in increased overall process costs and decreased cost savings. In contrast to the Nafion membrane, the NAS D membrane demonstrated the production of caustic with much lower levels of gamma radioactivity (137Cs activity was < 51 dpm/g). Therefore, the caustic product could possibly release for onsite/offsite use without further treatment. The NAS D membrane remains in the development stage and does not exist as a commercial product. Operating costs and long-term membrane durability remain unknown.Caustic recovery has been successfully demonstrated in a bench-scale, 2-compartment electrochemical reactor operated for brief periods of time with simulated and radioactive waste solutions and two different types of membranes. The next phase of testing should be directed at (1

  15. The Effect of Target Language Use in Social Media on Intermediate-Level Chinese Language Learners' Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenggao; Vásquez, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined whether there was any difference in the quantity and quality of the written texts produced by two groups (N = 18) of intermediate Chinese language learners. Over one semester, students in the experimental (E) group wrote weekly updates and comments in Chinese on a designated Facebook group page, while…

  16. Proposed deep geologic repository for low and intermediate-level radioactive waste at the Bruce site, Tiverton, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of operational Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (LLW and ILW) is being proposed by Ontario Power Generation at the 900-ha Bruce Nuclear site. The Bruce Nuclear site is located approximately 225 kilometres northwest of Toronto near Tiverton, Ontario. The project is currently undergoing environmental assessment. This paper describes the current concept for Ontario Power Generation's proposed DGR. The underground repository concept is comprised of horizontally-excavated emplacement rooms arranged in panels with access provided via two vertical concrete-lined shafts. The emplacement rooms would be constructed at a depth of about 680 m within limestone. This limestone formation is laterally extensive and is directly overlain by 200 m of low permeability shale. The low-permeability diffusion-controlled geosphere immediately surrounding the repository will assure long-term isolation of the LLW and ILW. LL W and ILW will be retrieved from nearby above-ground storage structures and then transferred to the DGR. LLW and ILW will also be shipped directly from the nuclear generating stations to the DGR. In this concept, most waste packages are retrieved and transferred 'as is' with shielding added, as necessary, to protect workers. The waste packages are lowered by hoist to the repository horizon and then transferred by forklift or, in the case of large and heavy packages, by rail car to emplacement rooms. Waste packages are stacked within emplacement rooms by forklift or gantry crane and, when full, the rooms are isolated by closure walls. It is expected that the repository will be open for at least 50 years to receive LLW and ILW from the operation of Ontario's nuclear reactors. When filled with waste and after receipt of all necessary regulatory approvals, the repository will be sealed by placing low permeability concrete and clay-based plugs in each shaft. A preliminary safety assessment indicates

  17. Hydrogeologic modelling in support of a proposed deep geologic repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste - 16264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site in Ontario, Canada. The DGR is to be constructed at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation. This paper describes a regional-scale geologic conceptual model for the DGR site and analyzes flow system evolution using the FRAC3DVSOPG flow and transport model. This provides a framework for the assembly and integration of site-specific geo-scientific data that explains and illustrates the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier. In the geologic framework of the Province of Ontario, the Bruce DGR is located at the eastern edge of the Michigan Basin. Borehole logs covering Southern Ontario combined with site specific data have been used to define the structural contours at the regional and site scale of the 31 sedimentary strata that may be present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock. The regional-scale domain encompasses an 18.500 km2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The groundwater zone below the Devonian is characterized by units containing stagnant water having high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/l. The computational sequence involves the calculation of steady-state density independent flow that is used as the initial condition for the determination of pseudo-equilibrium for a density dependent flow system that has an initial TDS distribution developed from observed data. Long-term simulations that consider future glaciation scenarios include the impact of ice thickness and permafrost. The selection of the performance measure used to evaluate a groundwater system is important. The traditional metric of average water particle travel time is inappropriate for geologic units such as the Ordovician where solute transport is

  18. Assessment of the evolution of the redox conditions in a low and intermediate level nuclear waste repository (SFR1, Sweden)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a model of the evolution of the redox conditions in the SFR1 repository. • Steel provides the highest reducing capacity to the system. • The Eh–pH values are framed within [−700, −10] mV and [13.5, 10.5] respectively. • Microbially mediated degradation is a short transient after repository closure. - Abstract: The evaluation of the redox conditions in an intermediate and low level radioactive waste repository such as SFR1 (Sweden) is of high relevance in the assessment of its future performance. The SFR1 repository contains heterogeneous types of wastes, of different activity levels and with very different materials, both in the waste itself and as immobilisation matrices and packaging. The level of complexity also applies to the different reactivity of the materials, so that an assessment of the uncertainties in the study of how the redox conditions would evolve must consider different processes, materials and parameters. This paper provides an assessment of the evolution of the redox conditions in the SFR1. The approach followed is based on the evaluation of the evolution of the redox conditions and the reducing capacity in 15 individual waste package types, selected as being representative of most of the different waste package types present or planned to be deposited in the SFR1. The model considers different geochemical processes of redox relevance in the system. The assessment of the redox evolution of the different vaults of the repository is obtained by combining the results of the modelled individual waste package types. According to the model results, corrosion of the steel-based material present in the repository keeps the system under reducing conditions for long time periods. The simulations have considered both the presence and the absence of microbial activity. In the initial step after the repository closure, the microbial mediated oxidation of organic matter rapidly causes the depletion of oxygen in the system

  19. Ultrasensitive electroanalysis of low-level free microRNAs in blood by maximum signal amplification of catalytic silver deposition using alkaline phosphatase-incorporated gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yanmei; Sun, Zongzhao; Zhang, Ning; Qi, Wei; Li, Shuying; Chen, Lijun; Wang, Hua

    2014-10-21

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type analysis method has been initially developed for probing low-level free microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood by a maximal signal amplification protocol of catalytic silver deposition. Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were first synthesized and in-site incorporated into alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to form the ALP-AuNCs. Unexpectedly, the so incorporated AuNCs could dramatically enhance the catalysis activities of ALP-AuNCs versus native ALP. A sandwiched hybridization protocol was then proposed using ALP-AuNCs as the catalytic labels of the DNA detection probes for targeting miRNAs that were magnetically caught from blood samples by DNA capture probes, followed by the catalytic ligation of two DNA probes complementary to the targets. Herein, the ALP-AuNC labels could act as the bicatalysts separately in the ALP-catalyzed substrate dephosphorylation reaction and the AuNCs-accelerated silver deposition reaction. The signal amplification of ALP-AuNCs-catalyzed silver deposition was thereby maximized to be measured by the electrochemical outputs. The developed electroanalysis strategy could allow for the ultrasensitive detection of free miRNAs in blood with the detection limit as low as 21.5 aM, including the accurate identification of single-base mutant levels in miRNAs. Such a sandwich-type analysis method may circumvent the bottlenecks of the current detection techniques in probing short-chain miRNAs. It would be tailored as an ultrasensitive detection candidate for low-level free miRNAs in blood toward the diagnosis of cancer and the warning or monitoring of cancer metastasis in the clinical laboratory. PMID:25242013

  20. Study on safety assessment methodology for shallow land disposal of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) conducted a five-year (from Jan. 1988 to Jan. 1993) project entitled 'Study on Safety Assessment Methodology for Shallow Land Disposal of Low-and-Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste' in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The project was aimed to develop a set of techniques and methods, including parameters, models and computer codes, for safety assessment of shallow land disposal of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste. The author describes the pattern of nuclide migration in loess aerated zone, study on moisture movement, determination of related parameters and the results. Site characteristics and development of relevant models and codes are also described. In order to carry out the field tracing test and the laboratory simulation test of radionuclide migration, a field test site (CIRP's Field Test Site), a test hall equipped with sprinkler, and an environmental simulation laboratory were established. A direct measurement device used for field radionuclide migration test, laboratory simulation setup for radionuclide migration and an intact soil sampler were developed. The loess aerated zone radionuclide migration test started in May 1989 and finished in August 1991. Tests were carried out under two rainfall conditions, natural rainfall (438 mm/a) and artificial sprinkling (with sprinkling density of 15 mm/d, corresponding to annual rainfall of 5480 mm). The laboratory simulation ran about one year with daily sprinkling density of 0.796 mm for soil column 4 and 0.656 mm for soil column 2. The tracer nuclides are 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs and (or 137Cs). Field moisture movement study and a test using 3H as tracer for moisture movement were performed simultaneously. The major conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) Under the artificial sprinkling condition, peak of 85Sr moved about 13 cm in the loess aerated zone during about two years, while under the natural condition, it moved

  1. Selection by interaction matrix method of Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) required in developing evolution scenarios specific to low and intermediate level radioactive waste final repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper proposes a method which can be used in the safety analyses required during the licensing process of low and intermediate level radioactive waste final repository. According to the recommended methodology of International Atomic Energy Agency (the coordinated research project on Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities - ISAM), the safety analyses specific to a low and intermediate level radioactive waste final repository must contain the assessment of representative evolution scenarios for the repository. Development of these scenarios have to be achieved for whole life time of repository, taking into account both normal and alternative evolution of facility. Scenarios have to be generated in a systematic, transparent, reproducible and auditable manner. Main step of scenario generation process is the development of Features, Events and Processes List - FEPs List, specific to any repository, and the systematic selection of the FEPs important for repository evolution. Authors propose a selection method of FEPs, based on an interaction matrix; the proposed method is applicable to evolution scenarios generation (both normal and alternative scenarios), for Low Level Radioactive Waste Repository Baita Bihor and, also, for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Final Repository in Cernavoda (DFDSMA). (authors)

  2. The diffusion behaviour of hydrogen in a low alloyed carbon steel with respect to the deformation level and to the passivation process in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion behaviour of hydrogen in a low alloyed carbon steel with respect to the deformation level and to the passivation process in alkaline solutions. The influence of plastic strain on the diffusion behaviour of hydrogen in a low alloyed structural steel (FeE 690T) was investigated using the electrochemical permeation technique. The plastic deformation was introduced either by cold rolling or by tensile straining. Specially prepared C(T)-specimen enabled the direct determination of the diffusion coefficient in the highly deformed region ahead of a blunting crack. It was shown, that the apparent diffusion coefficient depends on the plastic strain and on the overall hydrogen concentration, whereas the maximum hydrogen flux remained almost unchanged. These observations are interpreted in terms of variations in the dislocation density, which act as 'sinks' for the diffusable hydrogen atoms. The results are compared with model calculations, that describe the hydrogen transport as a function of the trap density. The comparison of the numerical simulation and the experimental data shows a good agreement over the whole range of plastic strain levels, leading to a trap density of 6.1.1019/d3. Together with the results of a previous study on the fracture toughness of FeE 690T in the presence of hydrogen the permeation data obtained in this work suggest that the observed influence of deformation rates on the fracture mechanism can be attributed to the reduced mobility of hydrogen atoms in the plastic zone. The assumption that the hydrogen transport during monotonic straining is controlled by diffusion was confirmed by investigations concerning the formation of surface films. Using a potentiodynamic method (cyclovoltammetry) a characterisation of the surface reactions involved in permeation experiments was performed. It was shown that the nature of the passive layers forming on the surface depends on the applied potential, affecting mainly the hydrogen absorption

  3. Reflections of Turkish accounting and financial reporting standards on vocational school students: A research on comparing perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seldüz Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to compare the perceptions of intermediate and mid-level accounting professional candidates on accounting and financial reporting standards. A significant part of accounting process is carried out by vocational school graduate intermediate and mid-level accounting professionals. However, it can be claimed that adequate education about accounting and financial reporting standards isn’t given in vocational schools although these standards structure the whole accounting process. A survey is conducted over students of the related vocational school in Aksaray University. The results indicate no significant difference on students’ perceptions in terms of their school year, high school type, job or internship experience and intention to perform the profession after graduation. These results can be traced to inadequacy of present curriculums and internship programs which can’t create a difference. Based on the results, the content of internship applications is rearranged and an optional subject named as “Accounting and Reporting Standards” is established.

  4. Corrosion behaviour of steel rebars embedded in a concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz F.M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on an instrumented reinforced concrete prototype specifically designed for this purpose, to study the behaviour of an intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from the rebar corrosion point of view. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  5. Corrosion behaviour of steel rebars embedded in a concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffó, G. S.; Arva, E. A.; Schulz, F. M.; Vazquez, D. R.

    2013-07-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on an instrumented reinforced concrete prototype specifically designed for this purpose, to study the behaviour of an intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from the rebar corrosion point of view. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  6. Corrosion behaviour of steel rebars embedded in a concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on an instrumented reinforced concrete prototype specifically designed for this purpose, to study the behaviour of an intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from the rebar corrosion point of view. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities. (authors)

  7. Implications of long-term surface or near-surface storage of intermediate and low-level wastes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various options for 200 year-long storage of all Low- and Intermediate-Level wastes generated to the year 2030 are considered. On-site storage and centralised storage have been examined and compared. The feasibility of storing some of the wastes in underground facilities that are convertible to repositories has been demonstrated, but it is shown that centralised, surface storage of wastes would be more economical. There appears to be little merit in storing Intermediate Level wastes in separate facilities that could be converted to repositories. Storage is shown to be more expensive than direct disposal, except if future costs are discounted by more than about 10%. With carefully designed stores and remote handling, the collective dose to operators could be limited to about 20-40 man Sv over the whole period of storage. (author)

  8. Perinatal hypophosphatasia: tissue levels of vitamin B6 are unremarkable despite markedly increased circulating concentrations of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate. Evidence for an ectoenzyme role for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase.

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, M P; Mahuren, J D; Fedde, K. N.; Cole, F. S.; McCabe, E. R.; Coburn, S P

    1988-01-01

    "Perinatal" hypophosphatasia is the most severe form of this inborn error of metabolism, which is characterized by deficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific (liver/bone/kidney) isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (TNSALP). We report that autopsy tissue from three affected subjects, which was profoundly low in ALP activity, had essentially unremarkable levels of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal, and total vitamin B6 content despite markedly elevated plasma PLP levels (5,800, 14,5...

  9. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on ...

  10. ESP AS A CHALLENGE TO CONFRONT – A CASE STUDY OF TECHNICAL ENGLISH IN A PRE-INTERMEDIATE LEVEL UNIVERSITY CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUSTIGOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drowned in explosive amounts of information, new technology developments, globalisation, international job opportunities and large-scale job migration, ESP courses are faced with the increasing requirement of tailoring language-learning to accommodate employer/employee specialisations. This dynamism is currently being transmitted to courses at the university level, along with the accompanying challenges for all involved. This paper reviews these potential barriers to implementation of ESP courses for students with low proficiency of English, taking a pre-intermediate-level Technical English course at the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague as a case study. After analysing various scholarly references aimed at ESP, the classroom-based research for this paper confirms the feasibility and efficacy of implementing ESP and TE, in particular, even into pre-intermediate classrooms. The self-motivating design of 6 TASKS, as well as authentic video sessions, combined with a student survey and teacher observations, all serve to point to ESP introduction on the pre-intermediate level as achievable in terms of application and resourceful regarding future life-career situations in which students will eventually find themselves.

  11. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: A case study in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north–south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38 m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  12. Influence of organic degradation products on the solubilisation of radionuclides in intermediate and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In highly alkaline cement pore waters, the degradation of cellulose and similar organic substances generates a large range of compounds. Some of them have strong complexing properties and might thus affect the confinement of radionuclides. We have identified and quantified the production of these degradation products with temperature and time. We have used conventional potentiometric titrations, HPLC, GC-MS and Capillary Electrophoresis. Among these products, we confirm the importance of isosaccharinic acid (ISA), but many other hydroxyacids, and possibly diketones could also play a role in the complexation of metals. We have experimentally studied the complexation properties of a chemical analogue of ISA, the tetrahydroxypentanoic acid (THPA) towards transition elements (Cu, Co) and rare Earth elements (Sm and Eu), in order to have a basis to derive the behaviour of some long-lived fission products and actinides. We determined the stoichiometries of the complexes and the stability constants at zero-ionic strength. In parallel, we have conducted solubility experiments on real cellulose degradation solutions. The solubility of transition metal cations increases by a factor of 104 to 105, and 106 to 107 for rare Earth elements. These results impose a thorough evaluation of possible failure of the confinement in cement-based waste forms. (orig.)

  13. A study on the establishment of the regulatory guide to the characteristics and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study are the development of regulatory guidance to the establishment of the necessary technology standard of the characteristics and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste for the safe operation of the waste repositories. In followings, the contents of our report will be presented in two parts. Survey of the characteristics of radioactive waste : investigate and analyze the source, types and characteristics of domestic radioactive waste as a basis for this study, radiochemical analysis of radioactive waste based on foreign and domestic data base, determination of the methodology for the application of the characteristic analysis of waste classification technology. Establishment of the classification criteria of the radioactive waste : collection and analysis of foreign and domestic data base on the classification methodology and criteria, development of low and intermediate level waste classification criteria and the set up of the classification methodology through the analysis of waste data, establishment of the systematic classification methodology of the low and intermediate radioactive waste through the careful survey of the current domestic regulation

  14. A study on the establishment of the regulatory guide to the characteristics and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Paek, Min Hoon; Park, Jong Gil; Han, Byeong Seop; Cheong, Jae Hak; Lee, Hae Chan; Yang, Jin Yeong; Hong, Hei Kwan; Park, Jin Baek [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    The objectives of this study are the development of regulatory guidance to the establishment of the necessary technology standard of the characteristics and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste for the safe operation of the waste repositories. In followings, the contents of our report will be presented in two parts. Survey of the characteristics of radioactive waste : investigate and analyze the source, types and characteristics of domestic radioactive waste as a basis for this study, radiochemical analysis of radioactive waste based on foreign and domestic data base, determination of the methodology for the application of the characteristic analysis of waste classification technology. Establishment of the classification criteria of the radioactive waste : collection and analysis of foreign and domestic data base on the classification methodology and criteria, development of low and intermediate level waste classification criteria and the set up of the classification methodology through the analysis of waste data, establishment of the systematic classification methodology of the low and intermediate radioactive waste through the careful survey of the current domestic regulation.

  15. A review of the predictive modelling and data requirements for the long-term safety assessment of the deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers the Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution research and modelling requirements for a robust post-closure radiological risk assessment methodology applicable to the deep disposal of Low-Level Wastes and Intermediate-Level Wastes. Two disposal concepts have been envisaged: horizontal tunnels or galleries in a low permeability stratum of a sedimentary sequence located inland; vertical boreholes or shafts up to 15m diameter lined with concrete and of the order 500m to 1000m deep sunk into the seabed within territorial coastal waters of the United Kingdom. (author)

  16. Environmental impact assessment of siting plan for near surface repository of low and intermediate level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to construct near surface repositories for the safe disposal of low and intermediate solid radioactive wastes (LIRW), because it is an effective way to reduce the environmental risks in managing LIRW as well as its impacts to the public and environment. Planning and siting near surface repositories on a whole county basis contribute to a rational distribution of repositories, good use of resources, and also the impact reduction of the public and environment. To reduce environmental impacts while implementing the siting plan, an environmental impact assessment (EIA) on The Siting Plan of LIRW Near Surface Repositories of China is needed. How to carry out this kind of assessment is discussed in this paper. (authors)

  17. Generation, transport and conduct of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level; Generacion, transporte y gestion de desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D.; Jimenez, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dlc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The technological development of the last decades produced an increment in the application of the radiations in different human activities. The effect of it has been it the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, some of the stages of the administration of the waste of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work aspects of the generation, the transport and the administration of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level produced in the non energy applications from the radioactive materials to national level, indicating the generated average quantities, transported and tried annually by the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). The main generators of wastes in Mexico, classified according to the activity in which the radioactive materials are used its are listed. Some of the main processes of treatment of radioactive wastes broadly applied in the world and those that are used at the moment in our country are also presented. (Author)

  18. Effect of near-field properties on dose to man for a hypothetical repository for intermediate level wastes located at depth in an argillaceous formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degree to which near-field parameters may affect the release of radionuclides from a deep geological repository for intermediate level wastes located in an argillaceous formation is investigated using a sensitivity analysis approach. It is demonstrated that the duration of the physical integrity of waste canisters and vault structure is of little interest, with respect to the groundwater transport pathway. Chemical factors are of more significance and it is not always possible to separate their influence from the effects of geosphere factors. (author)

  19. An overview of research on gas evolution and migration relevant to the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in clays and fractured hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main processes concerned in gas generation in repositories for low and intermediate level wastes following closure are anaerobic corrosion of steels, to give hydrogen, and microbial degradation of cellulose-containing wastes to give carbon dioxide and methane. A range of toxic and radioactive gases could also form in trace amounts. This paper discusses the potential hazards that these gases could give rise to; summarises the research required to support the assessment of these hazards; notes briefly the progress-to-date in research; and examines the priorities for future work. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. The application of a coupled chemical transport model in a trial assessment of deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of trial assessments are being undertaken within the United Kingdom to rehearse procedures for post-closure radiological risk analysis of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal sites. These trial studies draw together workers from a variety of scientific disciplines allowing simultaneous rather than isolated development of assessment procedures. This paper illustrates the use of chemical codes and data within a probabilistic risk assessment framework through a demonstration exercise performed on a hypothetical repository located beneath Harwell, Oxfordshire. The implications for risk assessment practices reliant on the assumption of conservative parameters are highlighted by comparison with a more mechanistic approach which takes into account competitive effects

  1. Partial Enteral Nutrition Preserves Elements of Gut Barrier Function, Including Innate Immunity, Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP) Level, and Intestinal Microbiota in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Wan; Jingcheng Bi; Xuejin Gao; Feng Tian; Xinying Wang; Ning Li; Jieshou Li

    2015-01-01

    Lack of enteral nutrition (EN) during parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to higher incidence of infection because of gut barrier dysfunction. However, the effects of partial EN on intestina linnate immunity, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and microbiota remain unclear. The mice were randomized into six groups to receive either standard chow or isocaloric and isonitrogenous nutritional support with variable partial EN to PN ratios. Five days later, the mice were sacrificed and tissue sampl...

  2. Genotype-phenotype modeling considering intermediate level of biological variation: a case study involving sensory traits, metabolites and QTLs in ripe tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huange; Paulo, Joao; Kruijer, Willem; Boer, Martin; Jansen, Hans; Tikunov, Yury; Usadel, Björn; van Heusden, Sjaak; Bovy, Arnaud; van Eeuwijk, Fred

    2015-11-01

    Modeling genotype-phenotype relationships is a central objective in plant genetics and breeding. Commonly, variations in phenotypic traits are modeled directly in relation to variations at the DNA level, regardless of intermediate levels of biological variation. Here we present an integrative method for the simultaneous modeling of a set of multilevel phenotypic responses to variations at the DNA level. More specifically, for ripe tomato fruits, we use Gaussian graphical models and causal inference techniques to learn the dependencies of 24 sensory traits on 29 metabolites and the dependencies of those sensory and metabolic traits on 21 QTLs. The inferred dependency network which, though not essentially representing biological pathways, suggests how the effects of allele substitutions propagate through multilevel phenotypes. Such simultaneous study of the underlying genetic architecture and multifactorial interactions is expected to enhance the prediction and manipulation of complex traits. PMID:26344654

  3. Radionuclides and radiation protection. Practical guide for radioactive substance handling in laboratories of low and intermediate level radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a practical guide, intended for radionuclide users, working in Industry, Research and Nuclear Medicine, in low and intermediate laboratories. About a hundred data cards about the main radionuclides used in these laboratories are presented (nuclear characteristics, radiotoxicity, external and internal exposure, external contamination of skin, protections from beta, gamma and X radiations, detection and contamination limits and maximum handling activity): TRITIUM, CARBON 11, CARBON 14, FLUORINE 18, SODIUM 22, SODIUM 24, PHOSPHORUS 32, PHOSPHORUS 33, SULFUR 35, CHLORINE 36, POTASSIUM 40, POTASSIUM 42, POTASSIUM 43, CALCIUM 45, SCANDIUM 47, CALCIUM 47, SCANDIUM 46, CHROMIUM 51, MANGANESE 52, MANGANESE 54, MANGANESE 56, IRON 52, IRON 55, IRON 59, COBALT 56, COBALT 57, COBALT 58, COBALT 60, NICKEL 63, NICKEL 65, COPPER 64, COPPER 67, ZINC 65, GALLIUM 66, GALLIUM 67, GALLIUM 68, ARSENIC 76, SELENIUM 75, BROMINE 77, BROMINE 82, KRYPTON 85, RUBIDIUM 86, STRONTIUM 85, STRONTIUM 89, STRONTIUM 90, YTTRIUM 90, ZIRCONIUM 95, MOLYBDENUM 99, TECHNETIUM 99, RUTHENIUM 103, RUTHENIUM 106, RHODIUM 103, RHODIUM 106, SILVER 110, SILVER 111, CADMIUM 109, INDIUM 111, INDIUM 115, TIN 125, ANTIMONY 122, ANTIMONY 124, ANTIMONY 126, TELLURIUM 123, TELLURIUM 132, IODINE 123, IODINE 12,; IODINE 131, CESIUM 131, CESIUM 134, XENON 133, BARIUM 137, BARIUM 140, CESIUM 137, LANTHANUM 140, CERIUM 139, CERIUM 141, CERIUM 143, PRASEODYMIUM 144, PRASEODYMIUM 143, PROMETHIUM 147, SAMARIUM 153, EUROPIUM 152, EUROPIUM 154, EUROPIUM 156, ERBIUM 169, YTTERBIUM 169, RHENIUM 186, RHENIUM 188, IRIDIUM 192, GOLD 198, MERCURY 197, MERCURY 203, THALLIUM 201, THALLIUM 204, LEAD 210, RADIUM 226, URANIUM 235, URANIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, AMERICIUM 241, CURIUM 244, CALIFORNIUM 252

  4. Socioeconomic issues and public involvement practices and approaches for developing and operating repositories for low and intermediate level waste UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Kingdom (UK) currently has one national disposal facility for low level radioactive waste (LLW), which is located 6km south of the Sellafield site in Cumbria. The Low Level Waste Repository has been in operation for over 40 years and is operated by British Nuclear Group. LLW is also disposed of at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) operated Dounreay site in Scotland, but here only waste generated from that particular site is retained. The authorized disposal of intermediate level waste (ILW) took place at Dounreay within a shaft, primarily between the years of 1958 and 1977. The UK does not currently have a national waste repository for ILW, although a siting exercise was conducted by Nirex during the 1990's. This exercise was stopped in 1997 when an application to construct a rock characterization facility was turned down. The successful siting, development and ultimate operation of repositories, whether they be for low or intermediate level waste relies on a sound programme of public involvement and consideration of socioeconomic issues. This paper will focus primarily on the socioeconomic issues and public involvement practices undertaken at the Low Level Waste Repository coupled with the work undertaken by Nirex both during their siting exercise and subsequent to this. Work underpinning the adopted strategies for the LLW and ILW disposal areas at Dounreay will be discussed only briefly since they are not national facilities. Over the last ten years there has been a marked increase in the level of stakeholder engagement and consideration of socioeconomic issues in response to wider societal changes. A wide range of site specific, regional and national dialogues have taken place. The lessons learned from earlier programmes have been incorporated into the more recent and current approaches, especially with an increased emphasis on local benefits. (author)

  5. Changes in fermentation and biohydrogenation intermediates in continuous cultures fed low and high levels of fat with increasing rates of starch degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, G J; Alende, M; Koch, L E; Jenkins, T C

    2016-08-01

    Excessive levels of starch in diets for lactating dairy cattle is a known risk factor for milk fat depression, but little is known about how this risk is affected by differences in rates of starch degradability (Kd) in the rumen. The objective of this study was to compare accumulation of biohydrogenation intermediates causing milk fat depression, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), when corn with low or high Kd were fed to continuous cultures. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 50% forage (alfalfa pellets and grass hay) and 50% concentrate, with either no added fat (LF) or 3.3% added soybean oil (HF). Within both the LF and HF diets, 3 starch degradability treatments were obtained by varying the ratio of processed (heat and pressure treatments) and unprocessed corn sources, giving a total of 6 dietary treatments. Each diet was fed to dual-flow continuous fermenters 3 times a day at 0800, 1600, and 2400h. Diets were fed for four 10-d periods, with 7d for adaptation and 3d for sample collection. Orthogonal contrasts were used in the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS to test the effects of fat, starch degradability, and their interaction. Acetate and acetate:propionate were lower for HF than for LF but daily production of trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA were higher for HF than for LF. Increasing starch Kd from low to high increased culture pH, acetate, and valerate but decreased butyrate and isobutyrate. Changes in biohydrogenation intermediates (expressed as % of total isomers) from low to high starch Kd included reductions in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA but increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA. The results show that increasing the starch Kd in continuous cultures while holding starch level constant causes elevation of biohydrogenation intermediates linked to milk fat depression. PMID:27265165

  6. Pilot-benchmarking of the WENRA safety reference levels for the spent fuel intermediate storage facility Ahaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Western European Nuclear Regulator's Association (WENRA) has 2007 issued the draft of the 'Waste and Spent Fuel Storage Safety Reference Levels'. The objective of WENRA is to strive for a harmonized safety level of nuclear facilities within the European Community and these Reference Levels are a benchmark method to demonstrate the achieved level for the regulatory system and the implementation as well. Safety Reference Levels exist at the moment for Reactor Safety, Waste Storage and Decommissioning in different stages of development. ENISS, the European Nuclear Installations Safety Standards Initiative, a FORATOM based special organisation of nuclear operators, has discussed these Safety Reference Levels very intensively with WENRA and the agreement was to make a implementation benchmark-exercise for the storage facilities before the authorities finally agree on the Reference Levels. This benchmark was scheduled for the year 2008. Because of the special situation in Germany where a large number of storage facilities is in operation the German authorities felt that it would be useful to initiate a Pilot-Benchmark to get first results on the feasibility of the Reference Levels and the burden imposed to authorities and operators by these benchmark-exercises. GNS, a subsidiary company of the utilities, agreed to step into this process on a voluntary basis with its storage facility for spent fuel in Ahaus. The exercise was done in a very efficient way and in good co-operation between the authorities, local and federal, and the operator. The results in terms of safety assessments have been very satisfactory showing the high degree of safety. Although the facility was for the first time licensed already in 1987 the compliance with nearly all Reference Levels from 2007 could be demonstrated. It became also clear that newer facilities would fulfil the desired safety standard too. Nevertheless, in spite of the good results the exercise revealed some weak

  7. Projection to 2035 for the radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level in Mexico; Proyeccion al 2035 de los desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.C. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carr. Mexico-Toluca, 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez U, S. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: lpg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    It is necessary to establish in few years a definitive warehouse for the radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, generated in the country and to satisfy the necessities of their confinement in the next ones 50 to 80 years. Therefore, it is required to be considered those volumes produced annually, those stored at the present and those estimated to medium and long term. The results of the simulation of 4 cases are presented, considering the operation from the 2 nuclear power reactors to 40 and 60 years, the use of the technology of current treatment and the use of super compaction of solids, as well as the importance in the taking of decision of the methodology for the dismantlement of each reactor to the finish of their useful life. At the moment the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde, produces an average of 250 m{sup 3}/year of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, constituted by solid dry wastes, humid solids and liquids. In the last 3 years, the power plant has reached an effectiveness of re utilization of effluents of 95%. On the other hand, in Mexico the non energetic applications of the radioisotopes, produce annually of the order of 20 m{sup 3}/year of solid wastes, 280 m{sup 3}/year of liquid wastes and 300 worn out radioactive sources. (Author)

  8. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  9. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  10. Block dry storage facility for the intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and vitrified high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes a vault-type store for dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power plants or vitrified high-level waste from reprocessing plants. Heat is removed from the storage facility by natural air convection with a passive direct or indirect cooling circuit. (orig.)

  11. Detailed description of a new management system for solid, short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to modify and extend the existing system at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) for handling of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW), short lived Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW-SL and ILW-SL). The ultimate aim is to reduce the risks and the influence on the personnel and the environment. According to the request from INPP, the modified system is based on the existence of an incineration plant. This system description describes treatment of non-combustible VLLW, LLW-SL and ILW-SL at a new waste handling facility (WHF) located in the future buildings 159/2 and 159/3 at the INPP. The new WHF is also handling Exempt Waste (EW), Reusable Material (RM) and Free Release Goods (FRG). The buildings 159/2 and 159/3 are future extensions of the existing building 159. (author)

  12. ESK-stress test for supply and disposal plants and facilities in Germany. Pt. 2. Storage of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, stationary facilities for the conditioning of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Final repository for radioactive waste - statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Fukushima Daiichi accident the ESK (Entsorgungskommission) was charged by the German Government to develop a stress test for supply and disposal plants and facilities in Germany. The report describes the frame of the consultant agreement and the used methodology. The statement is focused on interim storage and conditioning facilities for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes and final repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The wastes include waste from operation shut-down and dismantling of nuclear power plants and research reactors, radioactive materials from federal collecting places from isotope production and nuclear industry and radioactive waste from conditioning facilities. Accident scenarios, potential release from the containers, potential radiation exposure are determined and discussed. The final repositories Schachtanlage Asse II, Morsleben (ERAM) and the Schachtanlage Konrad were evaluated.

  13. Prophylactic treatment with alkaline phosphatase in cardiac surgery induces endogenous alkaline phosphatase release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Seinen, Willem; Schamhorst, Volkher; Wulkan, Raymond W.; Schoenberger, Jacques P.; van Oeveren, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP), an endotoxin detoxifier, on alkaline phosphatase levels

  14. Determination of low ppm levels of dimethyl sulfate in an aqueous soluble API intermediate using liquid-liquid extraction and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Pritts, Wayne A; Zhang, Shuhong; Wittenberger, Steve

    2009-12-01

    Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) is an alkylating reagent commonly used in organic syntheses and pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Due to its potential carcinogenicity, the level of DMS in the API process needs to be carefully monitored. However, in-process testing for DMS is challenging because of its reactivity and polarity as well as complex matrix effects. In this short communication, we report a GC-MS method for determination of DMS in an API intermediate that is a methyl sulfate salt. To overcome the complex matrix interference, DMS and an internal standard, d6-DMS, were extracted from the matrix with methyl tert-butyl ether. GC separation was conducted on a DB-624 column (30 m long, 0.32 mm ID, 1.8 microm film thickness). MS detection was performed on a single-quad Agilent MSD equipped with an electron impact source while the MSD signal was acquired in selected ion monitoring mode. This GC/MS method showed a linear response for DMS equivalent from 1.0 to 60 ppm. The practical quantitation limit for DMS was 1.0 ppm and the practical detection limit was 0.3 ppm. The relative standard derivation for analyte response was found as 0.1% for six injections of a working standard equivalent to 18.6 ppm of DMS. The spike recovery was ranged from 102.1 to 108.5% for a sample of API intermediate spiked with 8.0 ppm of DMS. In summary, the GC/MS method showed adequate specificity, linearity, sensitivity, repeatability and accuracy for determination of DMS in the API intermediate. This method has been successfully applied to study the efficiency of removing DMS from the process. PMID:19576712

  15. Effect of One Period of Aerobic Exercise on Serum Levels of Alkaline Phosphatase and Osteocalcin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein-nezhad; Azarbayjani; Matinhomaee; Khorshidi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a ten week period of aerobic exercise training on serum alkaline phosphates and osteocalsin in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In a quasi-experimental trial study twenty one male patients with type 2 diabetes(40-50 years) were randomly divided into exercise(n=11) and control(n=10) groups. The exercise group underwent a 10-week aerobic exercise program(three sessions per week, 45-60 minutes each session, at 50-65% of ...

  16. LOW LEVEL OBJECT ORIENTED LANGUAGE IN CONTEXT OF COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TWO LOW LEVEL LANGUAGES MSIL(MICROSOFT INTERMEDIATE LANGUAGE)OR CIL AND JAVA BYTE CODE

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Juyal; Ashish Pal; Janmejay Pant

    2012-01-01

    Most of the software were developed using high level languages such as Java, C#.NET,VB.NET etc. The main advantages of these languages are object oriented features .Which helps to developer to develop software with graphical user interface, portable, ease of use ,efficient and secure .Low level language like assembly language,machine languages are not user friendly ,hard to program but faster in execution than high level languages..In this paper we have done comparative study between two low ...

  17. Financial Intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Gorton; Andrew Winton

    2002-01-01

    The savings/investment process in capitalist economies is organized around financial intermediation, making them a central institution of economic growth. Financial intermediaries are firms that borrow from consumer/savers and lend to companies that need resources for investment. In contrast, in capital markets investors contract directly with firms, creating marketable securities. The prices of these securities are observable, while financial intermediaries are opaque. Why do financial inter...

  18. Intermediated Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol; Costinot, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model of international trade with intermediation. We consider an economy with two islands and two types of agents, farmers and traders. Farmers can produce two goods, but in order to sell these goods in centralized (Walrasian) markets, they need to be matched with a trader, and this entails costly search. In the absence of search frictions, our model reduces to a standard Ricardian model of trade. We use this simple model to contrast the implications of changes in...

  19. Does Semi-Rigid Instrumentation Using Both Flexion and Extension Dampening Spacers Truly Provide an Intermediate Level of Stabilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional posterior dynamic stabilization devices demonstrated a tendency towards highly rigid stabilization approximating that of titanium rods in flexion. In extension, they excessively offload the index segment, making the device as the sole load-bearing structure, with concerns of device failure. The goal of this study was to compare the kinematics and intradiscal pressure of monosegmental stabilization utilizing a new device that incorporates both a flexion and extension dampening spacer to that of rigid internal fixation and a conventional posterior dynamic stabilization device. The hypothesis was the new device would minimize the overloading of adjacent levels compared to rigid and conventional devices which can only bend but not stretch. The biomechanics were compared following injury in a human cadaveric lumbosacral spine under simulated physiological loading conditions. The stabilization with the new posterior dynamic stabilization device significantly reduced motion uniformly in all loading directions, but less so than rigid fixation. The evaluation of adjacent level motion and pressure showed some benefit of the new device when compared to rigid fixation. Posterior dynamic stabilization designs which both bend and stretch showed improved kinematic and load-sharing properties when compared to rigid fixation and when indirectly compared to existing conventional devices without a bumper.

  20. Derived emergency reference levels for the introduction of countermeasures in the early and intermediate phases of accidental releases to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an unplanned release of radioactive material to atmosphere is identified or suspected, environmental survey teams under the direction of the operator of the nuclear installation are sent into the anticipated path of the plume of activity to make measurements and take samples. In the case of external dose, measurements can be easily related to projected doses to individual members of the public. However, the radiological interpretation of measurements of airborne activity concentrations, of activity levels on soil, pasture grass and crops, and of radionuclide levels in milk and drinking water requires the use of quantities which relate the appropriate environmental concentration to an implied dose. The derivation of these quantities is not a simple procedure, particularly when they are to be generally applicable. It involves interpretation of the primary dose criteria which have been established for planning the introduction of countermeasures, making assumptions about the habits of the group of people who could receive the highest doses, and using mathematical models to obtain a relationship between dose and activity concentrations in environmental materials. The paper describes recent work by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) to provide guidance on derived quantities for use in the United Kingdom (UK). While some of the numerical values obtained are specific to UK conditions, the methods and models are more generally applicable. (author)

  1. Long term behaviour of low and intermediate level waste packages under repository conditions. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and application of approaches and technologies that provide long term safety is an essential issue in the disposal of radioactive waste. For low and intermediate level radioactive waste, engineered barriers play an important role in the overall safety and performance of near surface repositories. Thus, developing a strong technical basis for understanding the behaviour and performance of engineered barriers is an important consideration in the development and establishment of near surface repositories for radioactive waste. In 1993, a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Performance of Engineered Barrier Materials in Near Surface Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste was initiated by the IAEA with the twin goals of addressing some of the gaps in the database on radionuclide isolation and long term performance of a wide variety of materials and components that constitute the engineered barriers system (IAEA-TECDOC-1255 (2001)). However, during the course of the CRP, it was realized that that the scope of the CRP did not include studies of the behaviour of waste packages over time. Given that a waste package represents an important component of the overall near surface disposal system and the fact that many Member States have active R and D programmes related to waste package testing and evaluation, a new CRP was launched, in 1997, on Long Term Behaviour of Low and Intermediate Level Waste Packages Under Repository Conditions. The CRP was intended to promote research activities on the subject area in Member States, share information on the topic among the participating countries, and contribute to advancing technologies for near surface disposal of radioactive waste. Thus, this CRP complements the afore mentioned CRP on studies of engineered barriers. With the active participation and valuable contributions from twenty scientists and engineers from Argentina, Canada, Czech Republic, Egypt, Finland, India, Republic of Korea, Norway, Romania

  2. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  3. ANDRA's Centre de l'Aube: Design, construction, operation of a state of the art surface disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANDRA's Centre de I'Aube disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste may be considered as a state-of-the-art repository. Since its implementation in the early nineties, the French facility has been used as a model by many countries worldwide for the surface disposal of radioactive waste. The disposal concept developed by ANDRA, the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency, consists of a multiple-barrier system designed to isolate radioactivity and provide protection to the public and to the environment. Waste operations at ANDRA's Centre de I'Aube are largely automated to ensure better protection to site workers. The paper reviews all aspects of the repository implementation: siting, design, construction, operation and future closure, and environmental monitoring. (author)

  4. Contribution to the French program dedicated to cementitious and clayey materials behavior in the context of Intermediate Level Waste management - Hydrogen transfer and materials durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bary, B.; Bouniol, P.; Chomat, L.; Dridi, W.; Gatabin, C.; Imbert, C.; L´Hostis, V.; Le Bescop, P.; Muzeau, B.; Poyet, S.

    2013-07-01

    This article illustrates a contribution of the CEA Laboratory of Concrete and Clay Behavior (“LECBA”s) for the assessment and modeling of the Long-Term behavior of cementitious and clayey materials in the context of nuclear ILW (Intermediate Level Waste) management. In particular, we aim at presenting two main topics that are studied at the Lab. The first one is linked to safety aspects and concern hydrogen transfer within cementitious as well as clayey materials (host rock for French nuclear waste disposal). The second point concerns the assessment of durability properties of reinforced concrete structures in the disposal (pre-closure and post-closure) conditions. Experimental specific tests and phenomenological modelling are presented.

  5. Disposal facilities on land for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: draft principles for the protection of the human environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gives the views of the authorising [United Kingdom] Departments under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 about the principles which those Departments should follow in assessing proposals for land disposal facilities for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. It is based on relevant research findings and reports by international bodies; but has been prepared at this stage as a draft on which outside comments are sought, and is subject to revision in the light of those comments. That process of review will lead to the preparation and publication of a definitive statement of principles, which will be an important background document for public inquiries into proposals to develop sites for land disposal facilities. Headings are: authorisation of disposal; other legislation governing new disposal facilities; basic radiological requirements; general principles; information requirements. (author)

  6. An Electrochemical Study of Lanthanide Elements in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Molten Salt to Convert All The Spent Nuclear Fuel into Low and Intermediate Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An additional unit step for the residual actinide recovery, designated as 'Pyro-Reisodex', was proposed to convert all the spent nuclear waste into low and intermediated level water by achieving high decontamination factor for TRH elements. The measurement of basic material properties of lanthanide elements in LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salt is necessary to evaluate the performance of the step. Thus, standard potential, activity coefficient, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanide elements is being tried to determine using conventional electrochemical methods. The cycle voltammetry was measured for LiCl-KCl-SmCl3 mixture and the standard potential, activity coefficient, and diffusion coefficient of this system was determined from the voltammogram data. The calculated data was well-agreed with reference. Based on this results, another techniques for other lanthanide elements will be applied for better understanding of LiCl-KCl-LnCln system

  7. The effects of radiation on intermediate-level waste forms. Task 3 characterization of radioactive waste forms a series of final reports (1985-89) no. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this programme was to determine the effects of radiation on the properties of intermediate-level waste forms relevant to their storage and disposal. It had two overall aims: to provide immediate data on the effect of radiation on important European ILW waste forms through accelerated laboratory tests; and to develop an understanding of the degradation processes so that long-term, low dose rate effects can be predicted with confidence from short-term, high dose rate experiments. The programme included cement waste forms containing inorganic wastes, organic matrix waste forms, and cement waste forms containing a substantial component of organic waste. Irradiations were carried out by external gamma sources and by the incorporation of alpha emitters, such as 238Pu. Irradiated materials included matrix materials, simulated waste forms and real waste forms. 2 figs.; 3 tabs.; 8 refs

  8. Development of an efficient and economical small scale management scheme for low and intermediate-Level radioactive waste and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the efforts made towards the establishment of a pilot-scale management system for the low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes of the Atomic Research Center. The past and current practices in handling radioactive wastes are discussed and the assessment of their capabilities to meet the projections on the waste production is presented. The future waste management requirements of the Center was evaluated and comparative studies on the Lime-Soda and Phosphate Processes were conducted on simulated and raw liquid wastes with initial activity ranging from 10-4 uCi/ml to 10-2 uCi/ml, to establish the ideal parameters for best attaining maximum removal of radioactivity in liquids. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated in terms of the decontamination factor, DF, obtained

  9. Intermediate Images

    OpenAIRE

    Paech Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a definition of the word ‘picture’ as a real-world object that shows other objects on its surface as a representation of its image, I propose that the intermediality of pictures of all kinds is only possible through their images, after they have been separated from their material basis or foundation (for example, a painting in its physical reality can never be directly connected with a movie). In all technical reproductions of images, such as printing processes, an image is take...

  10. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  11. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  12. Intermediate Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paech Joachim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a definition of the word ‘picture’ as a real-world object that shows other objects on its surface as a representation of its image, I propose that the intermediality of pictures of all kinds is only possible through their images, after they have been separated from their material basis or foundation (for example, a painting in its physical reality can never be directly connected with a movie. In all technical reproductions of images, such as printing processes, an image is taken from a negative matrix in order to realize multiple prints of the same representation. The most effective model of this procedure is photography: photographic images can easily be connected with their media forms to produce other, more complex forms, such as magazines, printed books, or films. Intermediate images in the form of matrices - sometimes transparent (e.g. in the light beam of a film projection, sometimes opaque - are required to transform one pictorial media form into another. Finally, for the digital matrix-image, there is no longer any difference between the matrix and the image: the matrix has become its own image, which can be linked to all other media forms.

  13. Intermediate uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate uveitis (IU is described as inflammation in the anterior vitreous, ciliary body and the peripheral retina. In the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN working group′s international workshop for reporting clinical data the consensus reached was that the term IU should be used for that subset of uveitis where the vitreous is the major site of the inflammation and if there is an associated infection (for example, Lyme disease or systemic disease (for example, sarcoidosis. The diagnostic term pars planitis should be used only for that subset of IU where there is snow bank or snowball formation occurring in the absence of an associated infection or systemic disease (that is, "idiopathic". This article discusses the clinical features, etiology, pathogenesis, investigations and treatment of IU.

  14. Increased endothelin-1 and diminished nitric oxide levels in blister fluids of patients with intermediate cold type complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehof Sjoerd

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1 pro-inflammatory mediators and vascular changes play an important role in the sustained development and outcome of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of vasoactive substances endothelin-1 (ET-1 and nitric oxide (NO during early chronic CRPS1. Methods Included were 29 patients with CRPS 1 who were diagnosed during the acute stage of their disease and observed during follow-up visits. Disease activity and impairment were determined and artificial suction blisters were made on the CRPS1 and the contralateral extremities for measurements of IL-6, TNF-α, ET-1 and nitrate/nitrite (NOx. Results The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and ET-1 in blister fluid in the CRPS1 extremity versus the contralateral extremity were significantly increased and correlated with each other, whereas NOx levels were decreased. Conclusion The NOx/ET-1 ratio appears to be disturbed in the intermediate stage of CRPS, resulting in vasoconstriction and consequently in a diminished tissue blood distribution.

  15. High level extracellular production of a recombinant alkaline catalase in E. coli BL21 under ethanol stress and its application in hydrogen peroxide removal after cotton fabrics bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenxiao; Zheng, Hongchen; Zhao, Xingya; Li, Shufang; Xu, Jianyong; Song, Hui

    2016-08-01

    The effects of induction parameters, osmolytes and ethanol stress on the productivity of the recombinant alkaline catalase (KatA) in Escherichia coli BL21 (pET26b-KatA) were investigated. The yield of soluble KatA was significantly enhanced by 2% ethanol stress. And a certain amount of Triton X-100 supplementation could markedly improved extracellular ratio of KatA. A total soluble catalase activity of 78,762U/mL with the extracellular ratio of 92.5% was achieved by fed-batch fermentation in a 10L fermentor, which was the highest yield so far. The purified KatA showed high stability at 50°C and pH 6-10. Application of KatA for elimination of H2O2 after cotton fabrics bleaching led to less consumption of water, steam and electric power by 25%, 12% and 16.7% respectively without productivity and quality losing of cotton fabrics. Thus, the recombinant KatA is a promising candidate for industrial production and applications. PMID:27151682

  16. Growth of microbial mixed cultures under anaerobic, alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement and concrete are the most important engineered barrier materials in a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste and thus represent the most significant component of the total disposal inventory. Based on the chemical composition of the concrete used in the repository and the groundwater fluxes in the modelled host rock, it is to be expected that the pH in the near vicinity of the repository could exceed a value of 10.5 for more than a million years. The groundwater in the repository environment also has a limited carbon concentration. Since microorganisms will be present in a repository and can even find suitable living conditions within the waste itself, investigations were carried out in order to establish the extent to which microbial activity is possible under the extreme conditions of the repository near-field. For the investigations, alkalophilic cultures were enriched from samples from alkaline habitats and from Valanginian Marl. Anaerobic bacteria with fermentative, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic metabolism were selected. The growth and activity of the mixed cultures were studied under alkaline conditions and the dependence on pH and carbon concentration determined. All the mixed cultures investigated are alkalophilic. The optimum growth range for the cultures is between pH 9.0 and pH 10.0. The activity limit for the fermentative mixed culture is at pH 12, for the sulfate-reducers at pH 11 and for the methanogens at pH 10.5. Given the limited supply of carbon, the mixed cultures can only grow under slightly alkaline conditions. Only the fermentative cultures are capable of surviving with limited carbon supply at pH 13. (author) 24 figs., 18 tabs., 101 refs

  17. CERN Accelerator School & ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory announce a course on "Accelerator Physics" (Intermediate level), at the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Adriatico Guesthouse, Trieste, Italy, 2 - 14 October 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Intermediate level course is clearly conceived as the logical continuation of the Introductory level course for those being active in the field of Accelerator Physics. However, it is also often considered as an excellent opportunity to either discover and receive a basic training in a new field, or for refreshing or keeping up-to-date people's expertise in the field.

  18. An active facility management strategy for containment of intermediate level waste using risk-based service life modelling of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Environmental Services are planning the on-site storage of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) arising from historic operations of the Hunterston 'A' Nuclear Power Station, West Kilbride, Ayrshire UK within a shielded store. This paper proposes a proactive strategy of durability management for reinforced concrete structures used in long-term storage (at least 100 years) of nuclear waste. A critique is presented on the common approach of durability design using Standards compared with an 'active' performance-based risk approach. The active approach is thought to give greater flexibility to the decision-making process for management of concrete structures depending on the balance chosen between acceptable risk and maintenance philosophy. The management proposed uses a reliability-based risk approach to concrete degradation whose behavioural models are updated, with increasing accuracy, as new monitoring results from the structures are generated with time. Hunterston 'A' Nuclear Power Station, is in the process of being decommissioned. Operational wastes from the decommissioning process are to be stored in an on-site Intermediate Level Waste Store (ILWS) built in reinforced concrete and clad externally with aluminium that will create an environment to keep the waste packages in such a condition that they will be acceptable for final disposal. The facility will have a design life of at least 100 years. Probabilistic models have been developed for the durability design of the reinforced concrete structure subject to chloride- or carbonation-induced corrosion of the reinforcement. These have been used to confirm that the design will be durable for longer than the design life even under the most adverse environmental conditions. They have also shown that the recommendations of British Standards could lead to corrosion initiation well within the design service life under extreme conditions and would not provide sufficient margin for such an important structure. An

  19. Hf-Nd isotopic and trace element constraints on the genesis of alkaline and calc-alkaline lamprophyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major and trace element, Nd and for the first time Hf isotopic compositions of Central European Hercynian and Alpine alkaline (nephelinites) and calc-alkaline (minettes) lamprophyres are reported. The alkaline dikes have significantly higher initial εNd values (+3.9 to +5.2) than the calc-alkaline dikes (-1 to -7). Their initial εHf values range between +1.9 and +6.0. Both groups show the typical high level of incompatible-element enrichment. In addition the calc-alkaline lamprophyres are characterized by an overabundance of Cs relative to Rb, high Ba/La and Ba/Sr ratios as well as depletion in Nb, Ti and Ta. Covariations between initial εHf-εNd and trace elements suggest that crust-mantle mixing processes were involved in the formation of the calc-alkaline mafic magmas. These data give way to a general, refined model of lamprophyre genesis and provide information about enrichment processes in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. It is suggested that alkaline and calc-alkaline lamprophyres originate from similar mantle segments. Alkaline lamprophyres can be generated by 10% partial melting of a metasomatically enriched garnet peridotite. Calc-alkaline lamprophyres, however, can be generated in subduction related environments by mixing of 5-15% sedimentary melts, strongly enriched in K, Rb, Zr, Hf, Y and REE, produced by partial melting of subducted oceanic sediments, with a metasomatically enriched mantle source similar to that suggested for the ultramafic alkaline dikes. (orig.)

  20. Masonry. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Moses

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate masonry course. These materials, developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course, are designed to provide the student with the skills and knowledge necessary for entry level employment in the field…

  1. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 4. Characterization and description of areas. Bornholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities and high sorption potentials of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier been focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks, but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 2-3 more precise locations, where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological-hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 1 and 2 on Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  2. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 6. Characterization and description of areas. Sjaelland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 5 and 6 on Zealand. (LN)

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 10. Characterization and description of areas. Nordjylland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the area 22 in Northern Jutland. (LN)

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 9. Characterization and description of areas. Limfjorden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 16,17,18,19,20 and 21 around Limfjorden. (LN)

  5. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 5. Characterization and description of areas. Falster and Lolland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 3 and 4 on Falster and Lolland. (LN)

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 4. Characterization and description of areas. Bornholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities and high sorption potentials of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier been focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks, but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 2-3 more precise locations, where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological-hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 1 and 2 on Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  7. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 9. Characterization and description of areas. Limfjorden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 16,17,18,19,20 and 21 around Limfjorden. (LN)

  8. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 7. Characterization and description of areas. Langeland, Taesinge and Fyn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 7,8,9,10, and 11 on the islands Langeland, Taasinge and Funen. (LN)

  9. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 8. Characterization and description of areas. Oestjylland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 12,13,14 and 15 in Eastern Jutland. (LN)

  10. Analysis of Case Studies on Experimental Research of Gas Generation in Foreign Countries for Low- and Intermediate-level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to acquire a realistic forecast for the lifetime and post-closure period of the LILW (Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste) repository and to establish the overall management plan associated gas issues. it is essential to carry out the long-term experimental research in a similar condition to actual disposal environment. Regarding this, as a part of the following-up actions on a construction and operation license for the first stage of the LILW repository at Gyeongju city, a large-scale in-situ experiment is being planned. For securing basic data on the experiment, the experimental researches related to gas generation previously performed in foreign countries are reviewed in detail. Consequently, it is judged that data on the gas generation experiment in Finland could be practically applied as the benchmark for our large-scale in-situ experiment because the same disposal concept as the Korean repository is adopted and the experiment is performed in a scale large enough to allow the use of regular waste packages

  11. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  12. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 6. Characterization and description of areas. Sjaelland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 5 and 6 on Zealand. (LN)

  13. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 7. Characterization and description of areas. Langeland, Taasinge and Fyn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 7,8,9,10, and 11 on the islands Langeland, Taasinge and Funen. (LN)

  14. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 8. Characterization and description of areas. OEstjylland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 12,13,14 and 15 in Eastern Jutland. (LN)

  15. Treatment technologies for low and intermediate level waste from nuclear applications. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme 1991-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste is generated from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The waste management programmes and activities in many developing Member States have been reviewed through a Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP) implemented by the IAEA in 1987-1995. One of the WAMAP objectives was to assist in practical development and implementation of safe and efficient waste treatment methods. In this context the IAEA has initiated a co-ordinated research programme on treatment technologies for institutional wastes covering the most important recurring problems in developing Member States. The programme was intended to cover the research and development required for reliable waste treatment operations, including the likely variations in institutional waste inputs using simple low cost processes. This co-ordinated research programme was initiated in 1991 and brought together 14 participants from 13 countries. The results of the studies were discussed at three research co-ordination meetings. This report summarizes the salient features and results obtained during five year investigations and provides recommendations for future work in this area. Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides an overview and technical guidelines for considerations and for activities to be undertaken for safety assessment, site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A generalized sequence of investigations is introduced which proceeds through region and site selection to the stage where the site is confirmed by detailed geoscientific investigations as being suitable for a waste repository. The different procedures and somewhat specific investigative needs with respect to existing mines are dealt with separately. General design, as well as specific requirements with respect to the different stages of design and construction, are dealt with. A review of activities related to the operational and post-operational stages of repositories in rock cavities is presented. The report describes in general terms the procedures related to different stages of disposal operation; also the conditions for shutdown together with essential shutdown and sealing activities and the related safety assessment requirements. Guidance is also given on the surveillance programme which will allow for inspection, testing, maintenance and security of a disposal facility during the operational phase, as well as for the post-operational stage for periods determined as necessary by the national authorities

  17. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 5. Characterization and description of areas. Falster and Lolland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 3 and 4 on Falster and Lolland. (LN)

  18. Prototype of thermal degradation for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level; Prototipo de degradacion termica para desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz A, L.V.; Pacheco S, J.O.; Pacheco P, M.; Monroy G, F.; Emeterio H, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: lauradiazarch@yahoo.com.mx

    2005-07-01

    At the present time, the scientific, academic, industrial and technological activities, generate great quantity of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level (DRNBI). For to assure an appropriate final disposal of these, it is intended their treatment and vitrification by means of thermal plasma. This alternative offers multiple advantages in an only process: elevated energy density (105W/cm{sup 3}), high enthalpy (1400 kJ/mol), elevated chemical reactivity, quick quenching (106K/s) and operation temperatures of 4000 to 15000K; this allows the treatment of a great diversity of waste. Those reactors are compact and they work to atmospheric pressure and reduced thermal inertia. This technology allows to degrade DRNBI and to contain them in a vitreous matrix by means of a system made up of a reactor, canyon of plasma, of monitoring, of washing of gases and of control. Besides the design and general characteristics of the Prototype of Thermal Degradation of DRNBI, they are reported in this work the advances achieved in the selection of the ceramic material for the vitrification. Their characterization was carried out by means of SEM and XRD. With the preliminary results it can discern that the material but appropriate to be used as vitreous matrix is a ceramic clay. With the development of the proposed technology and the material for the vitreous matrix, it will be to treat DRNBI. (Author)

  19. Development of an efficient and economic small scale management scheme for low-and intermediate level radioactive waste and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a preliminary report on the evolution of a pilot-scale management system for low-and intermediate level radioactive wastes to provide adequate protection to the public as well as maintain the equilibrium in the human environment. Discussions on the waste management and disposal scheme proposals, assessment of waste treatment requirements of the Atomic Research Center, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, previous experiences in the handling and management of radioactive wastes, current practices and alternatives to meet waste management problems and research studies on waste treatment are presented. In the selection of a chemical treatment process for ARC, comparative studies on the different waste processing methods or combination of processes that will be most suitable for the waste requirements of the Center are now in progress. The decontamination efficiency and economy of the lime-soda, ferrocyanide phosphate and ferric hydroxide methods are being compared. Jar experiments were conducted in the Lime-Soda Process to establish the optima conditions for certain parameter required in order to achieve an efficient and economical treatment system applicable to the local conditions for attaining maximum removal of contamination; maximum settling time - 5 hours after treatment, optimum pH-11, 2:3 ppm ratio of Ca+2 to Co3-2 concentration, concentration of dosing reagents can further be increased beyond 160 ppm Ca+2 and 240 ppm Co3-2. Cobalt contamination can be removed with lime-soda treatment aside from strontium

  20. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Description of areas. Danish and English summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by choosing deposits with low water flow and high sorption potential of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs, salt pillows and salt deposits and deep basement rocks are not included in the present study. These rocks and deposits are situated too deep for the present study and salt deposits seem to be unstable for a disposal (e.g. German salt mines). The regional geologic survey based on existing data was concluded by selecting 22 areas in Denmark. There remains now to reduce the number of potential areas to 1-3 where detailed field studies will be performed in order to select the final location. (LN)

  1. STUDYING GXE INTERACTION UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND YIELD LEVEL USING LINEAR-BILINEAR MODELS: THE CASE OF CIMMYT INTERMEDIATE TO LATE HYBRIDS TRAILS IN EASTERN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma Taye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CIMMYT, with national programs, conducts selection of stress-tolerant genotypes under managed stress conditions; this investigation is expected to add information to the existing knowledge. Data sets used in this study comes from Intermediate to Late Hybrid Trails (ILHT conducted in five Eastern and Central Africa (ECA countries from 2008 to 2011. Trials, ranging from 18 in 2009 to 29 in 2010 were used. Trials are categorized into four management systems and two yield levels. Variance Components, broad sense heritability (H, Site Regression (SREG, Genotypic Regression (GREG, Completely Multiplicative Model (COMM and Factor Analytic (FA models were fitted. Results are discussed and compared with those stated in literature. We argue that it is preferable to first fit the fixed effect models before proceeding to the mixed effect model, as the former shows the level of complexity of the GE component and number of Axis required to explain it. The fixed effect model, SREG2, is preferable for trails targeting to compare hybrids with checks. From the GGE biplots it was noted that the first two PC did not account for sufficient percentage of variation for all years which witnessed complexity in the GE component for this data. Nevertheless, since PC1 accounted for large percentage of variation than PC2, the plot still gives some idea of which hybrids are favored and where. Most importantly, location of genotypes along PC1 can serve for judging yielding potential of the genotypes to guide in selection decision. Equivalence between Finlay – Wilkinson and GREG was established. The few environmental covariables obtained for 2009 was used to fit Partial Least Square (PLS regression. The result indicated complexity in the GE component, as PLS latent factors accounted for small percentage of variation. It was recommended to use information from SREG2, GREG2 and FA(1 models in order to identify stable genotype.

  2. Determination of scaling factors to estimate the radionuclide inventory in waste with low and intermediate-level activity from the IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations regarding transfer and final disposal of radioactive waste require that the inventory of radionuclides for each container enclosing such waste must be estimated and declared. The regulatory limits are established as a function of the annual radiation doses that members of the public could be exposed to from the radioactive waste repository, which mainly depend on the activity concentration of radionuclides, given in Bq/g, found in each waste container. Most of the radionuclides that emit gamma-rays can have their activity concentrations determined straightforwardly by measurements carried out externally to the containers. However, radionuclides that emit exclusively alpha or beta particles, as well as gamma-rays or X-rays with low energy and low absolute emission intensity, or whose activity is very low among the radioactive waste, are generically designated as Difficult to Measure Nuclides (DTMs). The activity concentrations of these DTMs are determined by means of complex radiochemical procedures that involve isolating the chemical species being studied from the interference in the waste matrix. Moreover, samples must be collected from each container in order to perform the analyses inherent to the radiochemical procedures, which exposes operators to high levels of radiation and is very costly because of the large number of radioactive waste containers that need to be characterized at a nuclear facility. An alternative methodology to approach this problem consists in obtaining empirical correlations between some radionuclides that can be measured directly – such as 60Co and 137Cs, therefore designated as Key Nuclides (KNs) – and the DTMs. This methodology, denominated Scaling Factor, was applied in the scope of the present work in order to obtain Scaling Factors or Correlation Functions for the most important radioactive wastes with low and intermediate-activity level from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. (author)

  3. The HILW-LL (high- and intermediate-level waste, long-lived) disposal project: working toward building the Cigeo Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Act of 28 June 2006 identifies reversible disposal in deep geological facilities as the benchmark solution for long-term management of high-level waste (HLW) and for intermediate-level long-lived waste (ILW-LL). The Act tasks ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) with the pursuit of studies and research on the choice of a site and the design of the repository, with a view to examining the licence application in 2015 and, provided that the licence is granted, to make the facility operational by 2025. At the end of 2009, ANDRA submitted to the Government its proposals regarding the site and the design of the Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal, known as CIGEO. With the definition of a possible area for the construction of underground disposal facilities, one of the key stages in the project has been achieved. The choice of a surface site will be validated following the public consultation scheduled for the end of 2012. The project is now on the point of entering the definition stage (preliminary design). CIGEO will be a nuclear facility unlike any other. It will be built and operated for a period of over 100 years. For it to be successful, the project must meet certain requirements related to its integration in the local area, industrial planning, safety and reversibility, while also controlling costs. Reversibility is a very important concept that will be defined by law. It is ANDRA's responsibility to ensure that a reasonable balance is found between these different concerns. (author)

  4. The development of a type B(U) transport container design in cast and forged stainless steel for the transport of immobilised intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Kingdom Nirex Limited (Nirex) is responsible for providing the United Kingdom with safe, environmentally sound and publicly acceptable options for the long-term management of radioactive materials. This includes intermediate level (ILW) and some low level (LLW) wastes. As part of its role Nirex has defined standards and specifications for the conditioning and packaging of these wastes, and carries out assessments of packaging proposals to ensure compatibility with the requirements for future phases of waste management. In order to facilitate this process and to provide a basis for the production of waste package specifications, Nirex has developed the Phased Disposal Concept, and produced a suite of underpinning safety and performance assessments. It has also undertaken work to assess the compatibility of its waste packaging specifications with other waste management options. The Phased Disposal Concept continues to be developed and updated to incorporate issues arising from dialogue with stakeholders, including members of the public; future changes arising from Government policy, legislation and regulations; information from waste producers, and the results from on-going research and development. One of the documents describing the Phased Disposal Concept is the Generic Transport System Design (GTSD). The GTSD outlines the range of waste packages to be transported and disposed of, and describes the design of the transport system needed to transport wastes from their sites of production or storage to a centralised phased disposal facility site. It also describes a range of re-usable transport containers which could be used to transport those waste packages, which require Type B standards for transport, through the public domain. This paper describes the development to date of such a design of reusable transport container, known as the SWTC-285, the Standard Waste Transport Container (SWTC) with 285 mm of shielding

  5. Bioprecipitation of uranium from alkaline waste solutions using recombinant Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Deinococcus radiodurans was genetically engineered to overexpress alkaline phosphatase (PhoK). • Deino-PhoK bioprecipitated U efficiently over a wide range of input U concentration. • A maximal loading of 10.7 g U/g of biomass at 10 mM input U was observed. • Radioresistance and U precipitation by Deino-PhoK remained unaffected by γ radiation. • Immobilization of Deino-PhoK facilitated easy separation of precipitated U. -- Abstract: Bioremediation of uranium (U) from alkaline waste solutions remains inadequately explored. We engineered the phoK gene (encoding a novel alkaline phosphatase, PhoK) from Sphingomonas sp. for overexpression in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. The recombinant strain thus obtained (Deino-PhoK) exhibited remarkably high alkaline phosphatase activity as evidenced by zymographic and enzyme activity assays. Deino-PhoK cells could efficiently precipitate uranium over a wide range of input U concentrations. At low uranyl concentrations (1 mM), the strain precipitated >90% of uranium within 2 h while a high loading capacity of around 10.7 g U/g of dry weight of cells was achieved at 10 mM U concentration. Uranium bioprecipitation by Deino-PhoK cells was not affected in the presence of Cs and Sr, commonly present in intermediate and low level liquid radioactive waste, or after exposure to very high doses of ionizing radiation. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the extracellular nature of bioprecipitated U, while X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis identified the precipitated uranyl phosphate species as chernikovite. When immobilized into calcium alginate beads, Deino-PhoK cells efficiently removed uranium, which remained trapped in beads, thus accomplishing physical separation of precipitated uranyl phosphate from solutions. The data demonstrate superior ability of Deino-PhoK, over earlier reported strains, in removal of uranium from alkaline solutions and its potential use in

  6. Bioprecipitation of uranium from alkaline waste solutions using recombinant Deinococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Sayali; Ballal, Anand; Apte, Shree Kumar, E-mail: aptesk@barc.gov.in

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Deinococcus radiodurans was genetically engineered to overexpress alkaline phosphatase (PhoK). • Deino-PhoK bioprecipitated U efficiently over a wide range of input U concentration. • A maximal loading of 10.7 g U/g of biomass at 10 mM input U was observed. • Radioresistance and U precipitation by Deino-PhoK remained unaffected by γ radiation. • Immobilization of Deino-PhoK facilitated easy separation of precipitated U. -- Abstract: Bioremediation of uranium (U) from alkaline waste solutions remains inadequately explored. We engineered the phoK gene (encoding a novel alkaline phosphatase, PhoK) from Sphingomonas sp. for overexpression in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. The recombinant strain thus obtained (Deino-PhoK) exhibited remarkably high alkaline phosphatase activity as evidenced by zymographic and enzyme activity assays. Deino-PhoK cells could efficiently precipitate uranium over a wide range of input U concentrations. At low uranyl concentrations (1 mM), the strain precipitated >90% of uranium within 2 h while a high loading capacity of around 10.7 g U/g of dry weight of cells was achieved at 10 mM U concentration. Uranium bioprecipitation by Deino-PhoK cells was not affected in the presence of Cs and Sr, commonly present in intermediate and low level liquid radioactive waste, or after exposure to very high doses of ionizing radiation. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the extracellular nature of bioprecipitated U, while X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis identified the precipitated uranyl phosphate species as chernikovite. When immobilized into calcium alginate beads, Deino-PhoK cells efficiently removed uranium, which remained trapped in beads, thus accomplishing physical separation of precipitated uranyl phosphate from solutions. The data demonstrate superior ability of Deino-PhoK, over earlier reported strains, in removal of uranium from alkaline solutions and its potential use in

  7. A study on radiation-resistance of PIC (polymer-impregnated concrete) for container of conditioning and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-resistance of PIC with test piece was evaluated by irradiation of gamma-rays. All the test pieces had JIS mortar size of 4 x 4 x 16 cm. JIS mortar and concrete were used as specimens. The maximum aggregate size of concrete was 10 mm. The specimens impregnated by MMA (methylmethacrylate) monomer and solution of 10% of PSt (polystyrene) in MMA monomer (MMA .PSt) were polymerized by irradiating for 5 hr at the dose rate of 1 MR (1 x 106 Roentgen)/hr. PIC specimens were exposed up to maximum 1000 MR to 60Co gamma-rays in air and under water which simulate shallow land disposal and deep sea dumping conditions, respectively. The lowering of strength of the PIC exposed to gamma-rays under water was larger than that of the PIC in air. The improving effect of the added PSt on the radiation-resistance was observed. It was observed that the 50 MR-irradiated MMA.PSt-PIC under water, which had the residual compressive strength of 85%, was resistant to gamma-rays. When this residual strength was regarded as a limit of radiation-resistance in air, the limit of MMA and MMA.PSt-PIC were approximately 25 MR and 150 MR, respectively. The lowering of strength was mainly due to the deterioration of MMA polymer in PIC. The total exposure dose for PIC-container was estimated by assuming the conditions about the packaged radioactive wastes, dose rate, container and so on. The total exposure dose on PIC-container for 100 years became roughly 1.25 MR. Therefore, it is estimated that the PIC-containers for conditioning and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes have a sufficient resistance to radiation arising from wastes. (author)

  8. Stochastic and deterministic models to evaluate the critical distance of a near surface repository for the disposal of intermediate and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The water infiltration scenario is evaluated for a near surface repository. • The main objective is the determination of the critical distance of the repository. • The column liquid height in the repository is governed by an Ito stochastic equation. • Practical results are obtained for the Abadia de Goiás repository in Brazil. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the stochastic and deterministic models developed for the evaluation of the critical distance of a near surface repository for the disposal of intermediate (ILW) and low level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The critical distance of a repository is defined as the distance between the repository and a well in which the water activity concentration is able to cause a radiological dose to a member of the public equal to the dose limit set by the regulatory body. The mathematical models are developed based on the Richards equation for the liquid flow in the porous media and on the solute transport equation in this medium. The release of radioactive material from the repository to the environment is considered through its base and its flow is determined by Darcy's Law. The deterministic model is obtained from the stochastic approach by neglecting the influence of the Gaussian white noise on the rainfall and the equations are solved analytically with the help of conventional calculus (non-stochastic calculus). The equations of the stochastic model are solved analytically based on the Ito stochastic calculus and numerically by using the Euler–Maruyama method. The impact on the value of the critical distance of the Abadia de Goiás repository is analyzed, taken as a study case, when the deterministic methodology is replaced by the stochastic one, considered more appropriate for modeling rainfall as a stochastic process

  9. An approach to study the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel containers for packaging of intermediate level radioactive waste during atmospheric storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In the UK, intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) arising from the decommissioning of power stations and other nuclear installations is generally encapsulated in cement waste forms and packaged within stainless steel containers. The function of the waste package is to immobilise and physically contain the waste in a stable form and to allow its safe storage, transport, handling and eventual disposal in a geological disposal facility. Given such a function, it is important to ensure that the corrosion resistance of the waste container is sufficient to ensure its integrity for long times. This paper discusses the expected corrosion behaviour of ILW containers manufactured in stainless steel 304L and 316L within the current disposal concept, with specific focus on the behaviour of the material during atmospheric storage. In an indoor atmosphere, localised corrosion and stress corrosion cracking may develop on waste containers only if aggressive hygroscopic salts (e.g. MgCl2) accumulate on the container surfaces in certain quantities and in certain humidity ranges. Experimental observation is being carried out in order to better identify conditions in which corrosion damage develops. This type of analysis, together with laboratory and field observation, is being used to identify suitable storage conditions for the packages. On the other hand, extrapolation of short-term data on pit depth in aggressive environments (e.g. marine atmospheres) suggests that penetration of the container walls by pitting over long-time scales is unlikely. Experimental observation and modelling are progressing in order to better understand the mechanistic aspects of propagation and to evaluate whether container penetration by pitting may occur over long timescales. Outstanding uncertainties (e.g. related to the effect of ionising radiation on the atmospheric corrosion behaviour of the packages) will also be outlined

  10. An approach to study the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel containers for packaging of intermediate level radioactive waste during atmospheric storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, C.G.; Wood, P. [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (United Kingdom); Smart, N.R.; Winsley, R.J. [Serco Technical and Assurance Services (United Kingdom); Charles, A.; Albores-Silva, O. [Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (United Kingdom); Krouse, D. [Industrial Research Limited (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the UK, intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) arising from the decommissioning of power stations and other nuclear installations is generally encapsulated in cement waste forms and packaged within stainless steel containers. The function of the waste package is to immobilise and physically contain the waste in a stable form and to allow its safe storage, transport, handling and eventual disposal in a geological disposal facility. Given such a function, it is important to ensure that the corrosion resistance of the waste container is sufficient to ensure its integrity for long times. This paper discusses the expected corrosion behaviour of ILW containers manufactured in stainless steel 304L and 316L within the current disposal concept, with specific focus on the behaviour of the material during atmospheric storage. In an indoor atmosphere, localised corrosion and stress corrosion cracking may develop on waste containers only if aggressive hygroscopic salts (e.g. MgCl{sub 2}) accumulate on the container surfaces in certain quantities and in certain humidity ranges. Experimental observation is being carried out in order to better identify conditions in which corrosion damage develops. This type of analysis, together with laboratory and field observation, is being used to identify suitable storage conditions for the packages. On the other hand, extrapolation of short-term data on pit depth in aggressive environments (e.g. marine atmospheres) suggests that penetration of the container walls by pitting over long-time scales is unlikely. Experimental observation and modelling are progressing in order to better understand the mechanistic aspects of propagation and to evaluate whether container penetration by pitting may occur over long timescales. Outstanding uncertainties (e.g. related to the effect of ionising radiation on the atmospheric corrosion behaviour of the packages) will also be outlined.

  11. Stochastic and deterministic models to evaluate the critical distance of a near surface repository for the disposal of intermediate and low level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, A.S.M., E-mail: asergi@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear – Eletronuclear S.A. , Rua da Candelária 65, 7° andar, GSN.T, 20091-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e, E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Graduate Program of Nuclear Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Horácio Macedo 2030, Bloco G, sala 206, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Passos, E.M., E-mail: epassos@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear – Eletronuclear S.A. , Rua da Candelária 65, 7° andar, GSN.T, 20091-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fontes, G.S., E-mail: gsfontes@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia – IME, Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The water infiltration scenario is evaluated for a near surface repository. • The main objective is the determination of the critical distance of the repository. • The column liquid height in the repository is governed by an Ito stochastic equation. • Practical results are obtained for the Abadia de Goiás repository in Brazil. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the stochastic and deterministic models developed for the evaluation of the critical distance of a near surface repository for the disposal of intermediate (ILW) and low level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The critical distance of a repository is defined as the distance between the repository and a well in which the water activity concentration is able to cause a radiological dose to a member of the public equal to the dose limit set by the regulatory body. The mathematical models are developed based on the Richards equation for the liquid flow in the porous media and on the solute transport equation in this medium. The release of radioactive material from the repository to the environment is considered through its base and its flow is determined by Darcy's Law. The deterministic model is obtained from the stochastic approach by neglecting the influence of the Gaussian white noise on the rainfall and the equations are solved analytically with the help of conventional calculus (non-stochastic calculus). The equations of the stochastic model are solved analytically based on the Ito stochastic calculus and numerically by using the Euler–Maruyama method. The impact on the value of the critical distance of the Abadia de Goiás repository is analyzed, taken as a study case, when the deterministic methodology is replaced by the stochastic one, considered more appropriate for modeling rainfall as a stochastic process.

  12. High level extracellular production of a truncated alkaline β-mannanase from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. N16-5 in Escherichia coli by the optimization of induction condition and fed-batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongchen; Yu, Zhenxiao; Fu, Xiaoping; Li, Shufang; Xu, Jianyong; Song, Hui; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-07-01

    To improve the extracellular production of alkaline β-mannanase from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. N16-5 in Escherichia coli, two truncated recombinant mannanases (32a-ManAR2 and 22b-ManAR2) were obtained. Compared with the full-length mannanases (32a-ManAR1 and 22b-ManAR1), the truncated mannanases not only showed higher secretion rate, but also exhibited higher thermostability and alkalistability. The K m value (11 mg/mL) of 32a-ManAR2 was higher than that (1.46 mg/mL) of 32a-ManAR1. The specific activity of 22b-ManAR2 was 2.7 times higher than that of 22b-ManAR1. 22b-ManAR2 showed the highest k cat/K m value of 602.7 ml/mg s. The parameters of induction for recombinant mannanase production of E. coli BL21 (pET32a-manAR2) and E. coli BL21 (pET22b-manAR2) were subsequently optimized. The yield of soluble mannanase was found to be enhanced with lower induction temperature (25 °C), lower IPTG concentration (0.01-0.05 mM), and Triton X-100 supplement (0.1 %) in a shake flask. Moreover, a one-time feeding strategy and Triton X-100 supplement were applied in production of 22b-ManAR2 in a 10 L fermentor. The productivity of the total soluble mannanase reached 9284.64 U/mL with the extracellular rate of 74 % at 46 h of fermentation, which was the highest productive level of alkaline β-mannanase in recombinant E. coli to date. PMID:27130461

  13. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  14. Alkaline broadening in Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Kertanguy, A

    2015-01-01

    Giving new insight for line broadening theory for atoms with more structure than hydrogen in most stars. Using symbolic software to build precise wave functions corrected for ds;dp quantum defects. The profiles obtained with that approach, have peculiar trends, narrower than hydrogen, all quantum defects used are taken from atomic database topbase. Illustration of stronger effects of ions and electrons on the alkaline profiles, than neutral-neutral collision mechanism. Keywords : Stars: fundamental parameters - Atomic processes - Line: profiles.

  15. Alkaline quinone flow battery

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise Ann; Valle, Alvaro West; Hardee, D.; Gordon, Roy Gerald; Aziz, Michael J.; Marshak, M

    2015-01-01

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe f...

  16. Design and Testing of a Novel Wide Range - Segmented Gamma Scanner Incorporating Tomographic Gamma Scanning for Measuring Both Low and Intermediate Level Waste in Drums - 13470

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and testing of a novel automated Wide Range Segmented Gamma ray Scanning (WR-SGS) assay instrument that also incorporates Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS). The instrument is designed for the measurement of both Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW and ILW) in 200 litre drums and other waste containers covering a wide range of density. Like earlier ANTECH WR-SGS instruments, the system employs a single shielded and collimated high purity germanium (HPGe) detector to quantify the radionuclide content of the waste and like conventional SGS instruments it is suitable for the measurement of relatively homogeneous waste matrices. Also, like earlier WR-SGS systems the instrument incorporates an automated variable aperture collimator, which allows the vertical segment height to be adjusted in order to measure both high dose-rate and very low activity drums. The instrument employs both conventional discrete SGS vertical segment measurements as well as vertical segment measurement by continuous helical-scanning of the drum as it rotates. This latter method reduces measurement times for SGS measurements. In order to determine the density corrections for both low and high-density drums, a high activity Eu-152 transmission source is employed. When not in use, and in place of a conventional shutter mechanism, the shielded transmission source is moved to a shielded storage position to eliminate background radiation from the source. Due to its novel features, the WR-SGS is applicable to the measurement of both very low and very high activity waste drums as well as waste drums with a wide range of density. If located in a low background position and with the effective shielding of the strong transmission source, the instrument can be used to measure very low level or exempt waste. In order to extend the range of applicability to the measurement of heterogeneous drums, TGS measurement capability has been included in the basic WR-SGS design. This is

  17. Deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. A preliminary safety assessment; Djupfoervar for laanglivat laag- och medelaktivt avfall. Preliminaer saekerhetsanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo, are important to be taken into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  18. Safety relevant aspects of the long-term intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and vitrified high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The currently in Germany pursued concept for management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants provides intermediate dry cask storage at the NPP sites until direct disposal in a deep geologic repository. In addition the earlier commissioned centralized dry storage facilities are being used for storage of high level radioactive waste returned from foreign reprocessing of German spent fuel performed so far. The dry interim storage facilities are licensed for 40 years of operation time. According to the German regulations a full scope periodic safety review is not required so far, neither practical experience on dry storage for this period of time is available. With regard to this background the report at hand is dealing with long term effects, which may affect safety of the interim storage during the 40 years period or beyond if appropriate, and with the question, whether additional analyses or monitoring measures may be required. Therefore relevant publications have been evaluated, calculations have been performed as well as a systematic screening with regard to loads and possible ageing effects has been applied to structures and components important for safety of the storage, in order to identify relevant long term effects, which may not have been considered sufficiently so far and to provide proposals for an improved ageing management. The report firstly provides an overview on the current state of technology describing shortly the national and international practice and experience. In the following chapters safety aspects of interim storage with regard to time dependent effects and variations are being analyzed and discussed. Among this not only technical aspects like the long term behavior of fuel elements, canisters and storage systems are addressed, but also operational long term aspects regarding personnel planning, know how conservation, documentation and quality management are taken into account. A separate chapter is dedicated to developing and describing

  19. Regional and Site-Scale Hydrogeologic Analyses of a Proposed Canadian Deep Geologic Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.; Yin, Y.; Sykes, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the eastern edge of the Michigan Basin at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The DGR is to be constructed within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface. This paper describes a regional-scale and linked site-scale geologic conceptual model for the DGR site and analyzes flow system evolution using the FRAC3DVS-OPG flow and transport model. The work illustrates the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier and provides a framework for the assembly and integration of site-specific geoscientific data. The structural contours at the regional and site scale of the 31 sedimentary strata that may be present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock were defined by the Ontario Petroleum Institute's Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Library borehole logs covering Southern Ontario and by site-specific data. The regional- scale domain encompasses an 18,500 km2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The site- scale spatial domain encompasses an area of approximately 361 km2 with the repository at its centre. Its boundary conditions are determined using both the nested model approach and an embedment approach. The groundwater zone below the Devonian is characterized by units containing pore fluids with high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/l. Site-specific data indicate that the Ordovician is under-pressured relative to the surface elevation while the Cambrian is over-pressured. The computational sequence for the analyses involves the calculation of steady-state density independent flow that is used as the initial condition for the determination of pseudo-equilibrium for a density-dependent flow system that has an initial TDS distribution developed from observed data. Sensitivity

  20. Comparison of modelling approaches to atmospheric carbonation of concrete in the context of deep geological intermediate-low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Simulations of atmospheric carbonation of concrete intermediate-low level waste (ILLW) cell components are conducted in order to evaluate the potential chemical degradation during the operating period (with ventilation up to 100 years). Atmospheric carbonation of concrete in unsaturated conditions is a complex process that involves intricate couplings between transport of water and CO2 in both gas and liquid phases, capillary flow during drying of the concrete and chemical reactions involving cement hydrates with CO2 dissolved in the liquid water phase. In a first approach, the drying process of concrete is simulated with liquid water-air flow and diffusion of gas components. Preliminary results were obtained in 1-dimensional geometry with a reactive-transport numerical tool (ToughReact EOS4). These simulations consider a complex mineralogical composition of cementitious and neo-formed phases, as well as porosity / permeability evolutions due to precipitation / dissolution phenomena. The results show a strong coupling between the carbonation and the drying processes affecting both the extent and the amplitude of the mineral transformations. Carbonation depths in the order of 0.6 to 1.0*10-3 m/y are predicted for cementitious components. However, these values are slightly overestimated compared to experimental data and the computing time is quite long (several months), which call for some improvements of the drying model as well as comparison with other approaches. In this context, a series of simulations have been designed to explore the influence of the coupling between CO2 gaseous/aqueous diffusion and the flow of water. Results are presented which compare the output of different numerical codes associated with different processes: reactive diffusion of CO2 gas in stationary saturation conditions (Crunch), reactive diffusion of aqueous CO2 with water flow governed by Richards' equation (ToughReact EOS9, Hytec). Additional

  1. Groundwater flow reference model of the Meuse/Haute-Marne region: implications on performance analysis of high and intermediate level and long lived radwaste repository in clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An integrated multi-scale hydrogeological conceptual model of the Paris basin and the Meuse/Haute-Marne sector was developed to study the groundwater flow and solute transport behaviour in the multi-layered aquifer system and around the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation as potential host for the French high and intermediate level and long lived radioactive waste. The Paris basin system (200000 km2) consists of 27 aquiferous and semi-permeable (aquitard) hydrogeological units from Trias to Quaternary affected by 80 regional faults. It produces boundary conditions to the refined aquifer system of the 250 km2 Meuse/Haute-Marne site, which includes 27 layers from Trias to Portlandian. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation is located at a mean depth of 500 m, with a minimum thickness of 130 m and hydraulic conductivity values of the order of 10-14 m/s. The numerical steady-state flow solution is calculated on a finite element mesh of about 3 million 2-D and 3-D linear elements (GEOS-CHYN 2009). At the top surface, the mesh refinement (250 m to 50 m) is locally constrained by the fault lineaments and the river network. At depth, it takes into account the 10 m to 500 m throw of the faults and the vertical flow through semi-permeable units. Triangular elements are used to represent a top surface layer that includes the weathered part of the outcropping formations, and quadrangular elements allow for the representation of the faults planes at depth. The layers are discretized into 6-nodded wedge elements, while 4-nodded tetrahedrons and 5-nodded pyramids are used to handle the pinching and the outcrop of the layers. The flow boundary conditions and source-sink terms are: - Specified hydraulic heads (Dirichlet) along the rivers and elsewhere on the top surface inflow fluxes (Neumann) derived from hydrological balance (with a mean inflow of 240 mm/year). - Specified hydraulic heads (Dirichlet) at the Manche coast side. - No

  2. Wealth, Financial Intermediation and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Gaytan, Alejandro; Ranci??re, Romain

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents empirical support for the existence of wealth effects in the contribution of financial intermediation to economic growth, and offers a theoretical explanation for these effects. Using GMM dynamic panel data techniques applied to study the growth-promoting effects of financial intermediation, we show that the exogenous contribution of financial development on economic growth has different effects for different levels of income per capita. We find that this contribution is g...

  3. Germination response to differing salinity levels for 18 grass species from the saline-alkaline grasslands of the songnen plain, china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed germination responses to salinity differ among grass species. The germination of halophytes in saline substrates is a useful criterion for selecting tolerant plants for restoring saline environments. The salt tolerance of germinating seeds from 18 native grass species that grew in the saline-alkali grasslands of the Songnen Plain in Northeastern China. Was studied The effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0-500mM) on the germination of seeds were tested at 28 degree C using a 12-h photoperiod. The 18 species showed different levels of salt tolerance and were classified into 4 groups. Artemisia scoparia was the most tolerant of high salt concentrations, with high germination rates even at 300mM NaCl (91.1%). This species also had the shortest germination time (T50=0.5 d). Echinochloa crusgalli and Cynanchum chinense were moderately salt tolerant, showing high germination rates (84.7%-100%) at 150-200mM NaCl. Medicago sativa, Suaeda salsa, Herba taraxaci, and Plantago asiatica were the next most tolerant, with germination rates of 56.7%-95.0% at 25-150mM NaCl. The remaining 11 species did not tolerate saline conditions or had generally low germination rates regardless of saline concentration. Because of their high salt tolerance, A. scoparia, E. crusgalli, and C. chinense have the greatest potential and can be used in vegetative restoration of saline soils in the arid and semiarid regions of the Songnen Plain. (author)

  4. Alkalinity and trophic state regulate aquatic plant distribution in Danish lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    distinct differences in the distribution of species and growth forms among the lakes. The lakes separated into five groups of characteristic species compositions. Alkalinity was the main factor responsible for the species distribution. Lakes of high alkalinity were dominated by vascular plants......Main distribution patterns of submerged macrophytes in a large number of Danish lakes were determined and relationships to environmental variables evaluated by different multivariate analysis techniques. The lakes varied greatly in location, size, depth, alkalinity and trophic status. There were...... of the elodeid growth form, lakes of intermediate alkalinity contained a variety of elodeids and vascular plants of the isoetid growth form, while lakes of low alkalinity and low pH had several isoetids and bryophytes, but very few elodeids. Alkalinity is a close descriptor of the bicarbonate concentration...

  5. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Štefková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells.

  6. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  7. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from intermediate level waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for U.K. radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Steven J; Rivett, Michael O; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-15

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material--PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package

  8. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Description of areas. Danish and English summary; Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Omraadebeskrivelser - Description of areas. Dansk og engelsk resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by choosing deposits with low water flow and high sorption potential of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs, salt pillows and salt deposits and deep basement rocks are not included in the present study. These rocks and deposits are situated too deep for the present study and salt deposits seem to be unstable for a disposal (e.g. German salt mines). The regional geologic survey based on existing data was concluded by selecting 22 areas in Denmark. There remains now to reduce the number of potential areas to 1-3 where detailed field studies will be performed in order to select the final location. (LN)

  9. ESK-stress test for supply and disposal plants and facilities in Germany. Pt. 2. Storage of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, stationary facilities for the conditioning of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Final repository for radioactive waste - statement; ESK-Stresstest fuer Anlagen und Einrichtungen der Ver- und Entsorgung in Deutschland. T. 2. Lager fuer schwach- und mittelradioaktive Abfaelle, stationaere Einrichtungen zur Konditionierung schwach- und mittelradioaktiver Abfaelle, Endlager fuer radioaktive Abfaelle - Stellungnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-11

    As a consequence of the Fukushima Daiichi accident the ESK (Entsorgungskommission) was charged by the German Government to develop a stress test for supply and disposal plants and facilities in Germany. The report describes the frame of the consultant agreement and the used methodology. The statement is focused on interim storage and conditioning facilities for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes and final repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The wastes include waste from operation shut-down and dismantling of nuclear power plants and research reactors, radioactive materials from federal collecting places from isotope production and nuclear industry and radioactive waste from conditioning facilities. Accident scenarios, potential release from the containers, potential radiation exposure are determined and discussed. The final repositories Schachtanlage Asse II, Morsleben (ERAM) and the Schachtanlage Konrad were evaluated.

  10. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  11. Silica in alkaline brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  12. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste in Sweden (SFL 3-5): An international peer review of SKB 's preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SKB safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repository (the planned deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate level waste) can be read in two contexts: as a preliminary evaluation of the performance and design options for a repository that will not be required for perhaps forty years; or as an evaluation of a repository that might need to be sited together with the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, and whose nature and performance might thus need to be understood to a level that can be used to make wider programmatic decisions during the next five years. These two 'assessment contexts' are quite different, and an overarching issue is the fact that it was not clear to the review team which view to take. Apparently, SKB would tend towards the first context. However, it is not at all apparent to the reviewers why the second context should not be the predominant driver in the near future. The review team notes that the SFL 3-5 repository, as modelled by SKB, gives rise to potentially perceptible radionuclide releases to the environment on a timescale of hundreds of years after closure. This is in contrast to the SR 97 assessment for the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, which base scenario predicts no releases over a million year timescale. It is clear that according to SKB's SR97 and SFL3-5 analyses, for co-located facilities, it is this repository that has the potential for real radiological impacts in the immediate future. An initial recommendation from the review, is that SKB and the regulatory authorities consider which context is appropriate to the current status of the Swedish programme. This is important, because an overall impression of the reviewers is that the analysis would not be 'fit for purpose' if it were needed to assist with decision-making by SKB or the regulatory agencies. There are too many unanswered questions, and the overall impression of the safety concept is one of some fragility. Because there is no real design basis presented, no thorough

  13. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes

  14. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  15. Statement by the Federal Government: Treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants with regard to the irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, K.

    1988-03-02

    The Federal Government sees three major tasks to be done after inquiries have shown that irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear business also include some relating to nuclear safety: (1) Initiate investigation of possible hazards to man or the environment, and into events and scope of events in order to provide full information. (2) Immediate consequences with regard to the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear power plant, and state supervision thereof. (3) Investigate possible consequences with regard to nuclear waste management in the FRG. The Federal Government has taken immediate action on all three levels. (orig./HSCH).

  16. The fate of added alkalinity in model scenarios of ocean alkalinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer González, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The deliberate large-scale manipulation of the Earth's climate (geo-engineering) has been proposed to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst the mitigation potential of these technologies could sound promising, they may also pose many environmental risks. Our research aims at exploring the ocean-based carbon dioxide removal method of alkalinity enhancement. Its mitigation potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 and counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, risks and unintended consequences are studied. In order to tackle these questions, different scenarios are implemented in the state-of-the-art Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The model configuration is based on the 5th phase of the coupled model intercomparison project following a high CO2 future climate change scenario RCP8.5 (in which radiative forcing rises to 8.5 W/m² in 2100). Two different scenarios are performed where the alkalinity is artificially added globally uniformly in the upper ocean. In the first scenario, alkalinity is increased as a pulse by doubling natural values of the first 12 meters. In the second scenario we add alkalinity into the same ocean layer such that the atmospheric CO2 concentration is reduced from RCP8.5 to RCP4.5 levels (with the radiative forcing of 4.5 W/m² in 2100). We investigate the fate of the added alkalinity in these two scenarios and compare the differences in alkalinity budgets. In order to increase oceanic CO2 uptake from the atmosphere, enhanced alkalinity has to stay in the upper ocean. Once the alkalinity is added, it will become part of the biogeochemical cycles and it will be distributed with the ocean currents. Therefore, we are particularly interested in the residence time of the added alkalinity at the surface. Variations in CO2 partial pressure, seawater pH and saturation state of carbonate minerals produced in the implemented scenarios will be presented. Collateral changes in ocean biogeochemistry and

  17. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  18. X-Ray Structure Reveals a New Class and Provides Insight into Evolution of Alkaline Phosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Bihani, Subhash C.; Das, Amit; Nilgiriwala, Kayzad S.; Prashar, Vishal; Pirocchi, Michel; Apte, Shree Kumar; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Hosur, Madhusoodan V.

    2011-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a bi-metalloenzyme of potential applications in biotechnology and bioremediation, in which phosphate monoesters are nonspecifically hydrolysed under alkaline conditions to yield inorganic phosphate. The hydrolysis occurs through an enzyme intermediate in which the catalytic residue is phosphorylated. The reaction, which also requires a third metal ion, is proposed to proceed through a mechanism of in-line displacement involving a trigonal bipyramidal transitio...

  19. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  20. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Methodology: Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels of greater or equal to 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D/sub 3/ < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 +- 68.14I U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Conclusion: Serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  1. Intermediate Ce{sup 3+} defect level induced photoluminescence and third-order nonlinear optical effects in TiO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, S.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Mujeeb, A. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, International School of Photonics, Cochin, Kerala (India)

    2014-02-15

    We report on the linear and nonlinear optical studies of TiO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites. It was found that the band gap of the nanocomposite can be tuned by varying Ce/Ti content. Nonlinear absorption characteristics of these samples were studied by employing open aperture Z-scan technique using an Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 7 ns, 10 Hz). It has been observed that as the CeO{sub 2} amount increases, band gap of the nanocomposites decreases and the reason proposed for the change in band gap is the smudging of localised states of Ce{sup 3+} into the forbidden energy gap, thus acting as the intermediate state. Fluorescence studies confirmed the above argument. Nonlinear investigation revealed that with increase in the CeO{sub 2} amount, the two-photon absorption coefficient increased due to the modification of TiO{sub 2} dipole symmetry. Suitable candidature of the nanocomposites for the fabrication of nonlinear optical devices was proved by determining the optical limiting threshold. (orig.)

  2. Design and Performance Assessment of a Conceptual Cover Cap of Near Surface Repository for Short Lived Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaba, Ruth; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The safety of the overall waste disposal system is determined by the performance of its individual components: waste form, waste container, engineered barrier and the host environment. The design of the cover cap helps in preventing percolation of water, and in retarding radionuclide migration from the disposal facility to the biosphere. The cover of a disposal facility is usually a combination of materials such as sand, gravel, concrete, clay and soil conditioned for vegetation growth. The cover system will be designed using models such as EPA's Hydrological Evaluation of Land fill Performance (HELP) code. This paper describes a conceptual design for a cover cap for a land fill as a preferred disposal facility for low and short lived intermediate radioactive waste in Uganda. Majority of the waste is generated from disused sealed and unsealed radioactive sources arising from medical, industrial applications, and research. Radioactive waste management has raised a lot of concern in both developed and developing countries. Each country has a responsibility to come up with a solution to prevent contamination of the environment and humans from radioactive waste. It is important to have thicker soil layers in cap designs so as to support vegetation growth since some activities such as erosion and settlements are expected. Help simulations in this study will assist to demonstrate that it is possible to design a cover cap which can contain radioactive waste packages for hundreds of years provided the proper institutional and performance monitoring schemes are implemented.

  3. Impact of high-performance work systems on individual- and branch-level performance: test of a multilevel model of intermediate linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryee, Samuel; Walumbwa, Fred O; Seidu, Emmanuel Y M; Otaye, Lilian E

    2012-03-01

    We proposed and tested a multilevel model, underpinned by empowerment theory, that examines the processes linking high-performance work systems (HPWS) and performance outcomes at the individual and organizational levels of analyses. Data were obtained from 37 branches of 2 banking institutions in Ghana. Results of hierarchical regression analysis revealed that branch-level HPWS relates to empowerment climate. Additionally, results of hierarchical linear modeling that examined the hypothesized cross-level relationships revealed 3 salient findings. First, experienced HPWS and empowerment climate partially mediate the influence of branch-level HPWS on psychological empowerment. Second, psychological empowerment partially mediates the influence of empowerment climate and experienced HPWS on service performance. Third, service orientation moderates the psychological empowerment-service performance relationship such that the relationship is stronger for those high rather than low in service orientation. Last, ordinary least squares regression results revealed that branch-level HPWS influences branch-level market performance through cross-level and individual-level influences on service performance that emerges at the branch level as aggregated service performance. PMID:21967297

  4. Treatment of intermediate radioactive liquid waste at WIP Kalpakkam. Contributed Paper PE-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline intermediate level liquid (ILW) waste from Kalpakkam Reprocessing Plant (KARP), is pretreated by precipitation to recover traces of heavy metals and then subjected to ion exchange treatment for removal of cesium and strontium using indigenously developed selective ion exchange resins. ILW is thus converted into a low volume of high level waste (HLW) and large volume of Low Level waste (LLW). The HLW thus generated is vitrified and LLW is transferred to Centralized Waste Management Facility for subsequent treatment and discharge. The settling time was optimized based on the recovery of heavy metals. The performance of the columns was satisfactory and Decontamination Factors of 1000 - 17000 were achieved. The break - through curve of the column was established. Processing rate at this breakthrough is satisfactory for plant operation. (author)

  5. Expertise on the provision of evidence with respect to Nagra's disposal concept for spent fuel assemblies, vitrified high-level radioactive waste as well as for long-living intermediate-level wastes (Opalinus clay project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the high-level waste (HAA) barrels are packed into containers which guarantee absolute enclosure for at least 10,000 years; 3) the FA and HAA containers are stored in a tight Bentonite filling (cement for the low- and intermediate-level wastes, LMA) which at first slows down the access of corrosive substances to the containers and then diminishes the release of wastes; 4) the water- tightness of the surrounding Opalinus clay prevents any contact with water; 5) the rock layers above and below the Opalinus clay protect the host rock and the repository against natural or human influences; 6) the choice of a stable and settled tectonic site guarantees suitable conditions for at last 1 million years. With these characteristics for the repository, the safety analyses show that even for the most conservative conditions the calculated radioactive dose mostly remains below the statutory limit of 1 mSv/a

  6. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  7. Project SAFE. Microbial features, events and processes in the Swedish final repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste disposed of in the Swedish final repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste (SFR) typically contains large amounts of organic substances. This waste thus constitutes a possible source of energy and nutrients for microorganisms. Microbes can degrade the waste to degradation products, which to a varying degree may create problems if the process is significant. The environment for microbial life in the SFR is, however, unique since it cannot be compared to any environment to which microbes have adapted naturally over millions of years. Most similar to the SFR are waste dumps and landfills. In those, microbes degrade the waste and form degradation products. The experience from such 'analogues' and from research performed under repository-like conditions may provide useful clues about the microbial processes which may occur in the repository. Microbes have the ability to degrade bitumen, used to solidify some wastes, but this degradation is very slow under anaerobic conditions. Bitumen degradation will, therefore, not influence the safety of the SFR. However, some microbes can produce acids that could influence concrete stability, particularly in the presence of oxygen. The future SFR environment is anaerobic, which suggests that acid production is a very unlikely problem. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have the ability to produce sulphide, which may act as a corrosive on metals. Under specific conditions, with the local groundwater flow close to a metal surface and with dissolved organic material from the repository, pitting corrosion of metal canisters is a potential threat. This process appears to require conditions fairly atypical of the SFR, however. Large groups of microorganisms can use hydrogen as a source of energy, thereby contributing to the decrease of this gas mainly formed from water during the anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cellulose is an excellent substrate for many microorganisms and it will be the dominating carbon and energy

  8. Hydro-mechanical improvement of the cap cover of a surface landfill for low and intermediate level radioactive waste short life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study related to the Manche storage center (CSM), one of the first landfill in the world dedicated to low and intermediate radioactive waste short-live time. The researches considered in this thesis supported by industrial companies, focus on the hydraulic study of cap cover materials of the site, and their hydro-mechanical improvement. The aim is to improve their impermeability in order to be substituted to the geo-membrane as cap cover liner. A specification imposed by Andra was to consider a solution of the re-use of the in situ material by adding of additive. The initial material is a sandy silt, a material with a significant proportion of fines. In the literature there are many studies on the mechanical improvement of fine materials (applications to road infrastructure) and the treatment of sandy materials by adding a fine fraction (constitution of waterproof barriers). On the other hand there are very few studies on the impermeability improvement of fine soils. A physical tests campaign on treated materials with bentonite was carried out at various treatment rates. The results showed that the addition of additive induces a decrease in optimum dry unit weight for a normal Proctor compaction energy and increases their optimum water content. In addition, the susceptibility to erosion, internal or external, observed during oedo-permeameter test was assessed from various stability criteria available in the literature. Unlike the treatment of soil for road embankments, the increase of the material stiffness is not wanted and flexibility is preferred what is observed with the treatment tested. The comparative hydraulic conductivity of the untreated and treated materials were measured. In this study different devices (oedo-permeameter, permeameters, triaxial device) were used. The influence of the treatment rate of the material on the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity was observed. Four large scale experimentations were designed; they should be monitored

  9. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  10. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  11. Estimated tissue and blood N2 levels and risk of decompression sickness in deep-, intermediate-, and shallow-diving toothed whales during exposure to naval sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvadsheim, P.H.; Miller, P.J.O.; Tyack, P.L.; Sivle, L.D.; Lam, F.P.A.; Fahlman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Naval sonar has been accused of causing whale stranding by a mechanism which increases formation of tissue N2 gas bubbles. Increased tissue and blood N2 levels, and thereby increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS), is thought to result from changes in behavior or physiological responses during

  12. Technological demonstrators. Researches and studies on the storage and disposal of long living intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes; Les demonstrateurs technologiques. Recherches et etudes sur le stockage et l'entreposage des dechets de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This brochure presents the technological demonstrators made by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) and exhibited at Limay (Yvelines, France). These demonstrators, built at scale 1, have been an essential support to the establishment of the 'Dossier 2005' which demonstrates the feasibility of a reversible disposal of long living-intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite of Meuse-Haute Marne. Two type of demonstrators were built: demonstrators of storage containers for long living-intermediate level wastes and for spent fuels, and dynamic demonstrators for containers handling. This brochure presents these different demonstrators, their characteristics and the results of their tests. (J.S.)

  13. Estimated tissue and blood N2 levels and risk of in vivo bubble formation in deep-, intermediate- and shallow diving toothed whales during exposure to naval sonar.

    OpenAIRE

    AndreasFahlman; PetterHKvadsheim; PatrickJ.OMiller; LiseL.D.Sivle; Frans-PeterALam

    2012-01-01

    Naval sonar has been accused of causing whale stranding by a mechanism which increases formation of tissue N2 gas bubbles. Increased tissue and blood N2 levels, and thereby increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS), is thought to result from changes in behavior or physiological responses during diving. Previous theoretical studies have used hypothetical sonar-induced changes in both behavior and physiology to model blood and tissue N2 tension P N 2 , but this is the first attempt to esti...

  14. Improving L2 macro-structural processing in students with elementary or intermediate English levels: an instructional approach focused on global coherence in reading comprehension of science texts.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez López, Ángela; Devís Arbona, Anna M.; Sanjosé López, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that students have difficulties building the macro-structure from expository texts in English (as L2). The usual cause pointed out is a lack of language proficiency. Thus, instructional methods have focused on providing students with the necessary vocabulary and grammar knowledge. This study proposes and validates an instructional approach which improves students" L2 processing on the macro-structural level, focusing on reading strategies rather than on vocabulary ...

  15. Estimated Tissue and Blood N(2) Levels and Risk of Decompression Sickness in Deep-, Intermediate-, and Shallow-Diving Toothed Whales during Exposure to Naval Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvadsheim, P H; Miller, P J O; Tyack, P L; Sivle, L D; Lam, F P A; Fahlman, A

    2012-01-01

    Naval sonar has been accused of causing whale stranding by a mechanism which increases formation of tissue N(2) gas bubbles. Increased tissue and blood N(2) levels, and thereby increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS), is thought to result from changes in behavior or physiological responses during diving. Previous theoretical studies have used hypothetical sonar-induced changes in both behavior and physiology to model blood and tissue N(2) tension [Formula: see text], but this is the first attempt to estimate the changes during actual behavioral responses to sonar. We used an existing mathematical model to estimate blood and tissue N(2) tension [Formula: see text] from dive data recorded from sperm, killer, long-finned pilot, Blainville's beaked, and Cuvier's beaked whales before and during exposure to Low- (1-2 kHz) and Mid- (2-7 kHz) frequency active sonar. Our objectives were: (1) to determine if differences in dive behavior affects risk of bubble formation, and if (2) behavioral- or (3) physiological responses to sonar are plausible risk factors. Our results suggest that all species have natural high N(2) levels, with deep diving generally resulting in higher end-dive [Formula: see text] as compared with shallow diving. Sonar exposure caused some changes in dive behavior in both killer whales, pilot whales and beaked whales, but this did not lead to any increased risk of DCS. However, in three of eight exposure session with sperm whales, the animal changed to shallower diving, and in all these cases this seem to result in an increased risk of DCS, although risk was still within the normal risk range of this species. When a hypothetical removal of the normal dive response (bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction), was added to the behavioral response during model simulations, this led to an increased variance in the estimated end-dive N(2) levels, but no consistent change of risk. In conclusion, we cannot rule out the possibility that a combination

  16. Estimated tissue and blood N2 levels and risk of in vivo bubble formation in deep-, intermediate- and shallow diving toothed whales during exposure to naval sonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndreasFahlman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Naval sonar has been accused of causing whale stranding by a mechanism which involves formation of tissue N2 gas bubbles. Increased tissue and blood N2 levels, and thereby increased decompression sickness (DCS risk, is thought to result from changes in behavior or physiological responses during diving. Previous theoretical studies have used hypothetical sonar-induced changes in both behavior and physiology to model blood and tissue N2 tension (PN2, but this is the first attempt to estimate the changes during actual behavioral responses to sonar. We used an existing mathematical model to estimate blood and tissue PN2 from dive data recorded from sperm, killer, long-finned pilot, Blainville’s beaked and Cuvier’s beaked whales before and during exposure to Low- (1-2 kHz and Mid- (2-7 kHz frequency active sonar. Our objectives were; 1 to determine if differences in dive behavior affects risk of bubble formation, and if 2 behavioral- or 3 physiological responses to sonar are plausible risk factors. Our results suggest that all species have natural high N2 levels, with deep diving generally resulting in higher end-dive PN2 as compared with shallow diving. Sonar exposure caused some changes in dive behavior, but did not lead to any systematic changes in DCS risk beyond the normal risk range of these species. When a hypothetical removal of the normal dive response (bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction, was added to the behavioral response during model simulations, this led to an increased variance in the estimated end-dive N2 levels, but still no consistent change of risk. In conclusion, we cannot rule out the possibility that a combination of behavioral and physiological responses to sonar have the potential to alter the blood and tissue end-dive N2 tension to levels which could cause formation of in vivo bubbles, but the actually observed behavioral responses of cetaceans to sonar in our study, do not imply any significantly increased risk.

  17. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  18. The radiological impact associated with the options available for the transportation of Intermediate Level Wastes with respect to a Minimum Power Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological impact of the options available for the transportation of ILW has been assessed. The radiation exposure from normal transport operations was estimated assuming that all ILW transport containers emit the maximum radiation levels specified in the IAEA Transport Regulations. Regardless of whether road or rail will be used to convey the ILW, the radiation doses to the public are very low. The collective dose to transport personnel has also been found to be low. However, the cautious assumptions adopted in this study indicate that certain individuals could theoretically receive significant doses. The practical significance of these doses will be determined by actual work patterns and the actual levels of radiation penetrating the ILW transport containers. The radiological consequences that might result from a notional release of radioactive material from an ILW transport container conveying Magnox silo sludges through an urban area were evaluated. No consideration was given to the precursors of the release nor to the frequency with which this release might occur. The results suggest that for a 10-6 fractional release, the radiological consequences will be extremely small. In judging these results due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur. (author)

  19. Determination of lead in samples of zooplankton, water, and sediments in a Mexican reservoir: evidence for lead biomagnification in lower/intermediate trophic levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro; Mejía Saavedra, Jesús; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2008-08-01

    We have determined lead concentration of water, sediment, and zooplankton samples of El Niágara, a reservoir in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Our results include the first report of bioconcentration factor (BCF) obtained in an actual ecosystem (as opposed to the experimental setups in the laboratory) for a rotifer species; Asplanchna brigthwellii (BCF ca. 49 300). The BCF of this predatory zooplanktonic species (A. brigthwellii) are up to four times greater than those of two grazing zooplanktonic species (Daphnia similis and Moina micrura). In this contaminated reservoir that lacks fishes, Asplanchna, and Culex sp. together with ducks and other bigger invertebrates might represent the top predators. Our data suggest that biomagnification of lead through at least one trophic level can occur in freshwater systems. Biomagnification in A. brigthwellii might be explained in part by predation of this voracious predator on young of the herbivorous cladoceran, M. micrura. Our findings stand opposite to the current theoretical framework where lead biomagnification occurs only in lower trophic levels. PMID:18214885

  20. Methanol oxidation on Pd/Pt(poly) in alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksic, A.; Rakocevic, Z.; Smiljanic, M.; Nenadovic, M.; Strbac, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic electrodes prepared by Pd nanoislands spontaneously deposited on polycrystalline platinum, Pt(poly), at submonolayer coverage were explored for methanol oxidation in alkaline media. Characterization of obtained Pd/Pt(poly) nanostructures was performed ex situ by AFM imaging, spectroscopic ellipsometry and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In situ characterization of the obtained electrodes and subsequent methanol oxidation measurements were performed by cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M KOH. Platinum surface with 35% Pd coverage exhibited the highest catalytic activity for methanol oxidation in alkaline media, exceeding those of bare Pt and Pd. Both synergistic and electronic effects are responsible for such enhanced catalysis. The origin of the synergistic effect and possible reaction pathways for methanol oxidation were discussed taking into account the activity of obtained bimetallic electrodes for the oxidation of CO and formaldehyde, as the most probable reaction intermediates.

  1. Overview of management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes at the Institute for Nuclear Research for to save management of the waste from decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Bujoreanu, L. [Waste Management Department, Institute for Nuclear Research, Str. Campului no 1, POB 78, Pitesti (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    The national policy of radioactive waste management fully complies with the international requirements established by 'Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management and with the EURATOM treaty, directives, recommendations and policy of radioactive waste management promoted at the level of the European Union. The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR) has its own Radwaste Treatment Plant. The object of activity is to treat and condition radioactive waste resulted from the nuclear facility. According to the National Nuclear Program, the institute is the main support for implementation of the methods and technologies for conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste generated by Cernavoda NPP. For all these, in accordance with the Governmental order no. 11/2003, INR shall must prepare and manage the decommissioning projects of its own facilities and to upgrade the facilities for the management of the radioactive waste resulting from decommissioning activities. (authors)

  2. Has Banks’ Financial Intermediation Improved in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Fungachova, Z.; Solanko, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the increasing importance of banks in the Russian economy over the period following the financial crisis of 1998. We use several measures to assess the role of banks in domestic financial intermediation in Russia. The traditional macro-level view is complemented by the analysis of sectoral financial flows as well as by insights from micro-level studies. All of these confirm that banks are becoming increasingly important in financial intermediation. We find ...

  3. Trichoderma harzianum transformant has high extracellular alkaline proteinase expression during specific mycoparasitic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Maria Helena S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum produces an alkaline proteinase that may be specifically involved in mycoparasitism. We have constructed transformant strains of this fungus that overexpress this alkaline proteinase. Some of the transformants were assessed for alkaline proteinase activity, and those with higher activity than the wild type were selected for further studies. One of these transformant strains produced an elevated and constitutive pbr1 mRNA level during mycoparasitic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani.

  4. Hydrolysis of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate in plasma in conditions with raised alkaline phosphate.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, B B; O'Brien, H.; Griffin, G E; Mollin, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrolysis of pyridoxal phosphate in plasma was demonstrated in patients with liver disease and other conditions with raised alkaline phosphatase, and this usually closely paralleled the alkaline phosphatase level, whether of liver or bone origin. The endogenous plasma pyridoxal phosphate was inversely related to the alkaline phosphatase, and plasma hydrolysis of pyridoxal phosphate may at least in part be responsible. Very large doses of vitamin B6 may be necessary to compensate for this hyd...

  5. 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Lars; Kjartansdóttir, Cecilia Kristin; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Møller, Per; Hilbert, Lisbeth R.; Nielsen, Peter Tommy; Mathiesen, Troels; Jensen, Jørgen; Andersen, Lars; Dierking, Alexander

    This report provides the results of the 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis project which was initiated in 2008. The project has been conducted from 2009-2012 by a consortium comprising Århus University Business and Social Science – Centre for Energy Technologies (CET (former HIRC)), Technical...

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 5. Thise, Skive Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 5. Omraede Thise, Skive Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Thise, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  7. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 6. Skive Vest, Skive Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 6. Omraede Skive Vest, Skive Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Skive Vest, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  8. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 2. Roedbyhavn, Lolland Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 2. Omraede Roedbyhavn, Lolland Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Roedbyhavn in the Municipality of Lolland, southern Denmark. (LN)

  9. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 3. Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 3. Omraede Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Kertinge Mark in the Municipality of Kerteminde, the island Funen. (LN)

  10. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 1. Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholm Region; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 1. Omraede Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholms Regionskommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Oestermarie-Paradisbakkerne in the region of Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  11. Study on the development of an efficient and economical small scale management scheme for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes and its impact on the environment. Part of a coordinated programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts were made towards the establishment of a pilot-scale management system for the low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes of the Atomic Research Center. Practices in handling radioactive wastes are discussed and the assessment of their capabilities to meet the projections on the waste production is presented. The future waste management requirements of the Center was evaluated and comparative studies on the Lime-Soda and Phosphate Processes were conducted on simulated and raw liquid wastes with initial activity ranging from 10-4uCi/ml to 10-2uCi/ml, to establish the ideal parameters for best attaining maximum removal of radioactivity in liquids. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated in terms of the decontamination factor, DF, obtained

  12. Radiological assessment of the impact on human populations and the environment of the 1949 to 1982 dumping of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the deep North-East Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thorough radiological assessment of the impact of the 1949 to 1982 dumping of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste in the deep North-East Atlantic is performed with the numerical compartmental REJMAR model. The calculations include the assessment of the dose equivalent to the individuals of a theoretical critical group through a large set of pathways, and the collective dose to mankind through the ingestion pathways. The complete dumping performed in the deep North-East Atlantic is taken into account. The assumptions of biological short-circuit through marin food chains are tested. The order of magnitude of the dose delivered to marine organisms living near the dumping site is assessed

  13. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 4. Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 4. Omraede Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, in the Municipality of Struer, northern Jutland. (LN)

  14. Intermediation under Trade Restrictions.

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, G Michael

    1989-01-01

    Intermediation is the activity of buying and selling simultaneously in one market. In this paper, intermediation in the market for an arbitrary good is derived from trade restrictions in a general equilibrium exchange model. The trade restrictions are given by a trade feasibility relation defined on the set of households, and they necessitate dropping the one price assumption of standard general equilibrium theory. It is shown that, in this setting, equilibria need not exist in spite of well-...

  15. Intermediate algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex

  16. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  17. Joint SKI and SSI review of SKB preliminary safety assessment of repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKI and SSI find that SKB's first proper safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repositories provides a valuable springboard for continued efforts in this field. Even though the safety assessment is relatively limited in scope, it has numerous merits. The specific problems associated with the chosen repository concept for SFL 3-5 are discussed in a generally transparent manner. On the other hand, the authorities consider that SKB have only partly achieved the expressed goal of studying the significance of the current repository design and the choice of site. The greatest deficiency consists in that neither internal disturbances (such as considerable cracking or degradation of concrete structures) nor external disturbances (such as the effects of climate changes and glaciation) have been addressed in a thorough manner. A coherent report justifying the design choice from a long-term safety perspective is, in large part, not found here. SKI and SSI recommend that SKB provide a comparison with other possible SFL 3-5 repository designs. Depending upon, among other factors, what geospheric and biospheric conditions are assumed, SKB have shown that the calculated dose values could be relatively high for certain cases. More realistic assessments would be needed to draw reasonable comparisons between different sites, and to evaluate the importance of different nuclides in different contexts. Our review of SKBs preliminary safety assessment indicates that a great deal of research and development work remains to be done before the level of knowledge in this field is comparable with that associated with the final repository for spent fuel. This is reflected with unanimity in the international expert committee's review, and in the consultants' reviews. SKI and SSI wish to point out in particular the fact that comparison with SFR is of limited value, since the safety associated with SFL 3- 5 must be assessed on a much longer time scale. SKI and SSI find it remarkable that SKB have

  18. Interpretation and code generation based on intermediate languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Peter; Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of supporting high level languages through intermediate languages to be used for direct interpretation and as intermediate forms in compilers is investigated. An accomplished project in the construction of an interpreter and a code generator using one common intermediate form is...

  19. Mild alkaline pre-treatments loosen fibre structure enhancing methane production from biomass crops and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three ligno-cellulosic substrates representing varying levels of biodegradability (giant reed, GR; fibre sorghum, FS; barley straw, BS) were combined with mild alkaline pre-treatments (NaOH 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 N at 25 °C for 24 h) plus untreated controls, to study pre-treatment effects on physical-chemical structure, anaerobic digestibility and methane output of the three substrates. In a batch anaerobic digestion (AD) assay (58 days; 35 °C; 4 g VS l−1), the most recalcitrant substrate (GR) staged the highest increase in cumulative methane yield: +30% with NaOH 0.15 N over 190 ml CH4 g−1 VS in untreated GR. Conversely, the least recalcitrant substrate (FS) exhibited the lowest gain (+10% over 248 ml CH4 g−1 VS), while an intermediate behaviour was shown by BS (+15% over 232 ml CH4 g−1 VS). Pre-treatments speeded AD kinetics and reduced technical digestion time (i.e., the time needed to achieve 80% methane potential), which are the premises for increased production capacity of full scale AD plants. Fibre components (cellulose, hemicellulose and acid insoluble lignin determined after acid hydrolysis) and substrate structure (Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy) outlined reductions of the three fibre components after pre-treatments, supporting claims of loosened binding of lignin with cellulose and hemicellulose. Hence, mild alkaline pre-treatments were shown to improve the biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic substrates to an extent proportional to their recalcitrance. In turn, this contributes to mitigate the food vs. fuel controversy raised by the use of whole plant cereals (namely, maize) as feedstocks for biogas production. - Highlights: • Three ligno-cellulosic substrates were pre-treated with mild alkaline methods. • Giant reed pre-treated with NaOH 0.15 N showed highest increase in CH4 yield (30%). • Alkaline pre-treatments speeded process kinetics, cutting technical digestion time. • Changes

  20. WHIRL SSA: a New Optimization Infrastructure Based on High-level Intermediate Representation%WHIRL SSA:一种基于高级中间表示的优化结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨克峤; 李健; 胡益斌; 许铝才

    2012-01-01

    中间表示对编译器的性能、效率和可扩展性都起着决定性作用.0pen64编译器采用一种树型结构的中间表示WHIRL,能表示各种高级控制流结构,但不能显式的提供数据流信息.本文基于WHIRL对SSA(Static Single Assignment)进行扩展,提出了一个新的优化结构WHIRL SSA.WHIRL SSA通过将SSA信息标注在WHIRL节点上,显式的为数据流分析提供使用-定义(UD)信息.相比于传统的数据流信息构建方法,WHIRL SSA提供了更精确、有效的数据流信息.本文讨论了WHIRL SSA的设计与实现和基于WHIRL SSA的优化.%Intermediate Representation is a determining factor of the capability, efficiency, and scalability of compiler optimizations. WHIRL, the Intermediate Representation (IR) of Open64 compiler, is a tree-form IR. While capable of describing various high-level control flow structures, WHIRL IR doesn't provide explicit UD information. This paper presents an extension of Static Single Assignment (SSA) infrastructure to WHIRL. Compared to traditional DU manager, the WHIRL SSA provides more efficiently and precisely data flow information. The paper describes the design and implementation of the WHIRL SSA, and discusses its applications and future work.

  1. Wild country level 3 lower intermediate

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Modern, original fiction for learners of English. Tess and Grant are tour leaders for a group walking holiday in France. And they don't get on at all. Tess is an artist and a dreamer, whose father owns the tour company. Grant is experienced, knowledgeable and efficient - and enjoys making Tess appear foolish. As the rain pours down, things go from bad to worse until ...

  2. Analysis of intermediate wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skauge, A.; Vik, B.; Spildo, K.; Ottesen, B. [Bergen Univ., Centre for Integrated Petroleum Research, Bergen (Norway)

    2003-09-01

    The fluid flow of porous media petroleum reservoirs is affected by wettability. In general, North Sea sandstone reservoirs fall into the large group of intermediate wet state reservoirs having end point saturation, capillary pressure, and relative permeability properties. This study examined intermediate the wet state by dividing the wet group into three sub-classes defined as fractionally-wet (FW), mixed-wet large (MWL), and mixed-wet small (MWS). Wettability indices were used to group reservoir data into reservoirs with FW, MWL and MWS behaviour. The analysis of wettability data from several North Sea fields showed that 13 reservoirs have sufficient wettability data to determine the state of intermediate wettability. Five of the reservoirs were classified as MWL, 4 as FW and 4 as MWS. Fractional-wet rock was found to have a more robust wettability and cleaned cores maintained a non-water state, suggesting that wetting sites can be coupled to mineralogy in addition to adsorption/deposition of oil components that change the surface properties of the rock. MWS was found to maintain wettability after cleaning, but MWL cores became water wet after solvent cleaning. This study indicates that the type of intermediate wettability has an impact on the data structure required to develop reservoir models. Wettability was found to influence the share of relative permeability curves and the capillary pressure relations in a variety of intermediate wettability classifications. 23 figs.

  3. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  4. La enseñanza del español coloquial conversacional a través del cine en el aula de ELE intermedio / Conversational colloquial Spanish teaching through cinematographic material in the intermediate level classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Azúar Bonastre

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo, que consta de tres partes, es una investigación didáctica sobre la enseñanza/aprendizaje del español coloquial conversacional a través del material cinematográfico dirigido a estudiantes universitarios de español lengua extranjera en un nivel intermedio. La primera parte establece el problema de partida (la detección de un muy moderado nivel de satisfacción del proceso de aprendizaje del alumnado, y plantea el objetivo del estudio. Asimismo, lleva a cabo una aproximación al concepto de lenguaje coloquial para, más tarde, defender la necesidad de su enseñanza/aprendizaje en este nivel de la enseñanza, con el fin de superar la crisis del nivel de satisfacción. La segunda parte define el cine como lenguaje (como herramienta capaz de estimular todos los sentidos y de transmitir cualquier conocimiento. La tercera parte es la descripción de la experimentación didáctica llevada a cabo en el marco de la Universidad de Varsovia en el curso académico 2012/13, así como el método que se aplicó y los resultados que se obtuvieron (el incremento de la motivación del estudiante y de su nivel de satisfacción, y la adquisición del español coloquial conversacional, a través de un medio como es el cine, contextualizado, lúdico y cercano al alumno. Abstract: This paper, which is divided into three parts, presents didactic research about the teaching and learning of conversational colloquial Spanish through the use of cinematographic material as a didactic tool for students at the intermediate level. In the first part, it determines the starting point (the satisfaction level of the intermediate student, which was just moderate at that moment and the research goals are established. In addition, it defines the colloquial language concept and supports the necessity for its teaching and learning in the Spanish classroom, in order to overcome the crisis of the satisfaction level. In the second part, it defines the

  5. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  6. Fibre optic humidity sensor designed for highly alkaline environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, K; Wollweber, M; Guenther, S.; Werner, G.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T.; Roth, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a sensor packaging for a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) based fibre optic humidity sensor. The evaluation of the developed fibre optic sensor was performed under experimental conditions and verified its capability to withstand highly alkaline environments. Therefore, the sensor can be applied to monitor the concrete humidity level and thus to indicate the maintenance of concrete structures.

  7. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...... communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across...

  8. Firm. An intermediate language for compiler research

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Michael; Boesler, Boris; Geiß, Rubino; Lindenmaier, Götz

    2005-01-01

    State of the art compiler intermediate representations incorporate SSA data dependencies in a graph based manner. We present the intermediate representation Firm, which extends the functional stores of Steensgard and introduces a novel representation of exceptions. Firm offers a high-level representation of the type hierarchy and object-oriented features, which makes it exceptional suitable for analysing and optimizing of strongly typed languages. The co...

  9. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  10. Hispanic American Heritage, Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mike

    This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…

  11. Water oxidation: Intermediate identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Alexander J.

    2016-08-01

    The slow kinetics of light-driven water oxidation on haematite is an important factor limiting the material's efficiency. Now, an intermediate of the water-splitting reaction has been identified offering hope that the full mechanism will soon be resolved.

  12. GLOSSARY TO INTERMEDIATE HINDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Indian Language and Area Center.

    INCLUDED IN THIS GLOSSARY ARE THE VOCABULARY ITEMS FOR THE READINGS IN "INTERMEDIATE HINDI." THE ITEMS ARE ARRANGED BY SELECTION IN SERIAL ORDER. EACH ENTRY INCLUDES NAGARI (DEVANAGARI) SCRIPT SPELLING, A NOTATION OF THE FORM CLASS, AND A SHORT ENGLISH GLOSS. THESE TWO VOLUMES ARE ALSO AVAILABLE AS A SET FOR $7.00 FROM THE COLLEGE PRINTING…

  13. The alkaline and shoshonitic intrusives in the region of the Taquarembo plateau, southern Brazil: are they genetically related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Santo Antonio granitic massif and the Leoes ring complex represent, respectively, the shoshonitic and alkaline magmatic associations in the Taquarembo Plateau, southernmost Brazil. The two associations include cogenetic volcanic rocks, and both represent the late magmatic events of the Brasiliano Cycle (620-540 Ma) in the Sul-riograndense shield. The Santo Antonio granitic massif includes monzogranites and quartz-monzonites, whereas monzodiorites and quartz-syenites are exposed in the Leoes ring complex. The comparison of major and trace elements of the two associations, including also samples from other regions of the shield, reveals that their parental magmas are derived from a slightly enriched lithospheric mantle; the differences among them are due to the genetic particularities and to the evolution in crustal magma chambers at distinct depths. trace-element modeling for upper mantle partial melting is made from the composition of a lithospheric mantle depleted by previous melting events and later enriched in incompatible elements. The results indicate low-degree of melting (2,-3%) of a source with distinct garnet/clinopyroxene ratios for producing parental magmas of the two associations. However, a more diversified origin of the shoshonitic rocks can be also suggested. The behavior of some LILE and HFSE, such as Ba, Rb, Y, Zr, Nb and Ti is not entirely explained by the modeling. In the same way, the observed divergences are hardly adjusted to the influence of subduction, or to the bulk assimilation of lower crustal segments by mantle-derived magmas. The mixing of basaltic magmas with partial melts produced crustal rocks with distinct compositions at different conditions is able to justify the compositional peculiarities between and within the two associations. In the shoshonitic types, the geochemical characteristics are explained by mixing with partial melts derived from basic-to-intermediate compositions, either under more hydrous conditions at lower

  14. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

  15. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

  16. Long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes: defining the context, stakes and perspectives; Dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue: situer le contexte, les enjeux et les perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The French law from December 30, 1991 has defined an ambitious 15 years program of researches in order to explore the different possible paths for the long-term management of long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The law foresees also that at the end of the 15 years research program, a project of law will be prepared by the French government and transmitted to the European parliament in 2006. A public debate has been organized and emceed in 2005 in order dialogue with the general public and to gather its questions, remarks and fears. In the framework of their contribution to this debate, the ministries of industry and environment have prepared this document which answers some key questions about radioactive waste management: where do wastes come from, what are the risks, how are they managed today in France and in foreign countries, what are the results of the researches carried out during 15 years, what are the advantages and drawbacks of each waste management solution considered, what is the perspective of application of each solution, what is the position of experts, what will be the decision process. This synthetic document supplies some reference marks to better understand these different points. Some pedagogical files about radioactivity, fuel cycle, and nuclear industry activities are attached to the document. (J.S.)

  17. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  18. Bursts of intermediate ions in atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hõrrak, U.; Salm, J.; Tammet, H.

    1998-06-01

    The mobility spectrum of air ions has been measured at Tahkuse Observatory in Estonia for several years. The average concentration of intermediate ions with mobilities of 0.05-0.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 in atmospheric air is about 50 cm-3. On the level of this low background, high concentration bursts of intermediate air ions occur occasionally. A burst can be followed by subsequent evolution of intermediate ions into larger ones. To explain the bursts of intermediate air ions, two hypotheses can be advanced: (1)A burst of neutral particles occurs due to homogeneous nucleation, and the particles are charged by the attachment of cluster ions. (2) The cluster ions grow by ion-induced nucleation in proper environmental conditions.

  19. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Ankowski, A M; Asaadi, J A; Ashenfelter, J; Axani, S N; Babu, K; Backhouse, C; Band, H R; Barbeau, P S; Barros, N; Bernstein, A; Betancourt, M; Bishai, M; Blucher, E; Bouffard, J; Bowden, N; Brice, S; Bryan, C; Camilleri, L; Cao, J; Carlson, J; Carr, R E; Chatterjee, A; Chen, M; Chen, S; Chiu, M; Church, E D; Collar, J I; Collin, G; Conrad, J M; Convery, M R; Cooper, R L; Cowen, D; Davoudiasl, H; De Gouvea, A; Dean, D J; Deichert, G; Descamps, F; DeYoung, T; Diwan, M V; Djurcic, Z; Dolinski, M J; Dolph, J; Donnelly, B; Dwyer, D A; Dytman, S; Efremenko, Y; Everett, L L; Fava, A; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Fleming, B; Friedland, A; Fujikawa, B K; Gaisser, T K; Galeazzi, M; Galehouse, D C; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Garvey, G T; Gautam, S; Gilje, K E; Gonzalez-Garcia, M; Goodman, M C; Gordon, H; Gramellini, E; Green, M P; Guglielmi, A; Hackenburg, R W; Hackenburg, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hans, S; Harris, D; Heeger, K M; Herman, M; Hill, R; Holin, A; Huber, P; Jaffe, D E; Johnson, R A; Joshi, J; Karagiorgi, G; Kaufman, L J; Kayser, B; Kettell, S H; Kirby, B J; Klein, J R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kriske, R M; Lane, C E; Langford, T J; Lankford, A; Lau, K; Learned, J G; Ling, J; Link, J M; Lissauer, D; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Lockwitz, S; Lokajicek, M; Louis, W C; Luk, K; Lykken, J; Marciano, W J; Maricic, J; Markoff, D M; Caicedo, D A Martinez; Mauger, C; Mavrokoridis, K; McCluskey, E; McKeen, D; McKeown, R; Mills, G; Mocioiu, I; Monreal, B; Mooney, M R; Morfin, J G; Mumm, P; Napolitano, J; Neilson, R; Nelson, J K; Nessi, M; Norcini, D; Nova, F; Nygren, D R; Gann, G D Orebi; Palamara, O; Parsa, Z; Patterson, R; Paul, P; Pocar, A; Qian, X; Raaf, J L; Rameika, R; Ranucci, G; Ray, H; Reyna, D; Rich, G C; Rodrigues, P; Romero, E Romero; Rosero, R; Rountree, S D; Rybolt, B; Sanchez, M C; Santucci, G; Schmitz, D; Scholberg, K; Seckel, D; Shaevitz, M; Shrock, R; Smy, M B; Soderberg, M; Sonzogni, A; Sousa, A B; Spitz, J; John, J M St; Stewart, J; Strait, J B; Sullivan, G; Svoboda, R; Szelc, A M; Tayloe, R; Thomson, M A; Toups, M; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Van de Water, R G; Vogelaar, R B; Weber, M; Weng, W; Wetstein, M; White, C; White, B R; Whitehead, L; Whittington, D W; Wilking, M J; Wilson, R J; Wilson, P; Winklehner, D; Winn, D R; Worcester, E; Yang, L; Yeh, M; Yokley, Z W; Yoo, J; Yu, B; Yu, J; Zhang, C

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  20. Detection of protein adduction derived from dauricine by alkaline permethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Honglei; Liu, Yuyang; Peng, Ying; Zhao, Dongmei; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Dauricine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivative and has shown multiple pharmacological properties. Despite this, our previous study demonstrated that dauricine induced severe lung toxicity in experimental animals. Metabolic activation of dauricine to the corresponding quinone methide intermediate is suggested to play an important role in dauricine-induced cytotoxicity. Protein adduction derived from the reactive intermediate is considered to initiate the process of the toxicity. In the present study, we developed an alkaline permethylation- and mass spectrometry-based approach to detect dauricine-derived protein adduction. Protein samples were permethylated in the presence of NaOH and CH3I at 80 °C, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. A thioether product was produced in the reaction. Not only does this technique quantify dauricine-derived protein adduction but also it tells the nature of the interaction between the target proteins and the reactive intermediate of dauricine. The recovery, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantity, and method detection limit were found to be 102.8 %±1.7 %, 1.89 %, 1.32 fmol/mL, 4.93 fmol/mL and 3.37 fmol/mL respectively. The surrogate recovery and surrogate RSD values were 81.5-103.0 % and 2.59 %, respectively. This analytical method has proven sensitive, selective, reliable, and feasible to assess total protein adduction derived from dauricine, and will facilitate the mechanistic investigation of dauricine and other bisbenzylisoquinoline toxicities. Graphical Abstract Alkaline permethylation of dauricine derived protein adduct. PMID:27071763

  1. Intermediate energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subgroup 13 (SG13) on Intermediate Energy Nuclear data was formed by NEA Nuclear Science Committee to solve common problems of these types of data for nuclear applications. An overview is presented in this final report of the present activities of SG13, including data needs, high-priority nuclear data request list (nuclides), compilation of experimental data, specialists meetings and benchmarks, data formats and data libraries. Some important accomplishments are summarized, and recommendations are presented. (R.P.)

  2. Volatility and Financial Intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Aizenman; Andrew Powell

    1997-01-01

    Following the Tequila period, its after-effects in Latin America and recent events in South East Asia, the effect of volatility on emerging market economies has become an important topic of research with the domestic financial intermediation process being advanced as one of the most important transmission mechanisms. At the same time there has been continued interest in issues related to imperfect information and rationing in credit markets. In this paper, we consider an economy where risk ne...

  3. Associations between Renal Hyperfiltration and Serum Alkaline Phosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Se Won; Han, Kum Hyun; Han, Sang Youb

    2015-01-01

    Renal hyperfiltration, which is associated with renal injury, occurs in diabetic or obese individuals. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level is also elevated in patients with diabetes (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS), and increased urinary excretion of ALP has been demonstrated in patients who have hyperfiltration and tubular damage. However, little was investigated about the association between hyperfiltration and serum ALP level. A retrospective observational study of the 21,308 adults in t...

  4. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  5. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  6. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  7. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3M) of sodium azide (NaN3) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M2

  8. Cold-active alkaline phosphatase is irreversibly transformed into an inactive dimer by low urea concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjörleifsson, Jens Guðmundur; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is a homodimeric metallo-hydrolase where both Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) are important for catalysis and stability. Cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase variants have high activity at low temperatures and lower thermal stability compared with variants from mesophilic hosts. The instability, and thus inactivation, could be due to loose association of the dimers and/or loosely bound Mg(2)(+) in the active site, but this has not been studied in detail for the cold-adapted variants. Here, we focus on using the intrinsic fluorescence of Trp in alkaline phosphatase from the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus (VAP) to probe for dimerization. Trp→Phe substitutions showed that two out of the five native Trp residues contributed mostly to the fluorescence emission. One residue, 15Å away from the active site (W460) and highly solvent excluded, was phosphorescent and had a distant role in substrate binding. An additional Trp residue was introduced to the dimer interface to act as a possible probe for dimerization. Urea denaturation curves indicated that an inactive dimer intermediate, structurally equivalent to the native state, was formed before dimer dissociation took place. This is the first example of the transition of a native dimer to an inactive dimer intermediate for alkaline phosphatase without using mutagenesis, ligands, or competitive inhibition. PMID:27043172

  9. Uncertainty in the reactive transport model response to an alkaline perturbation in a clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral alteration in the concrete barrier and in the clay formation around long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in the French deep geological disposal concept is evaluated using numerical modeling. There are concerns that the mineralogical composition of the surrounded clay will not be stable under the high alkaline pore fluid conditions caused by concrete (pH ∼ 12). Conversely, the infiltration of CO2-rich groundwater from the clay formation into initially unsaturated concrete, at the high temperature (T ∼ 70 C) produced from the decay of radionuclides, could cause carbonation, thereby potentially affecting critical performance functions of this barrier. This could also lead to significant changes in porosity, which would affect aqueous diffusive transport of long-lived radionuclides. All these processes are therefore intimately coupled and advanced reactive transport models are required for long-term performance assessment. The uncertainty in predictions of these models is one major question that must be answered. A mass-transfer model response to an alkaline perturbation in clay with standard model values is first simulated using the two-phase non-isothermal reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The selection of input parameters is thereafter designed to sample uncertainties in a wide range of physico-chemical processes without making a priori assumptions about the relative importance of different feedbacks. This 'base-case' simulation is perturbed by setting a parameter to a minimum, intermediate or maximum value or by switching on/off a process. This sensitivity analysis is conducted using grid computing facilities of BRGM (http://iggi.imag.fr). Our evaluation of the preliminary results suggests that the resaturation and the heating of the near-field will be of long enough duration to cause a limited carbonation through all the width of the concrete barrier. Another prediction is the possibility of self-sealing at the concrete/clay interface

  10. Software Testing An ISEB Intermediate Certificate

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Covering testing fundamentals, reviews, testing and risk, test management and test analysis, this book helps newly qualified software testers to learn the skills and techniques to take them to the next level. Written by leading authors in the field, this is the only official textbook of the ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing.

  11. Co-mineralization of alkaline-earth carbonates and silica

    OpenAIRE

    Kellermeier, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the manifold interactions that occur when alkaline-earth metal carbonates are crystallized in the presence of dissolved silica as an additive. The described work subdivides into two main lines of research. On the one hand, an understanding of the potential roles of silica during crystallization was sought on a fundamental level. That is, the mineral - in this case calcium carbonate - was directly precipitated from silica-containing solutions and the effect on gro...

  12. Financial Intermediation and Economic Growth of Jordan 1964-1988

    OpenAIRE

    Magableh, Ali H.

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, the economics and financial literature placed little attention on the role that financial intermediation can play in accelerating the rate of economic development in less Developed Countries (LDCs). This has been changed now, however, where some instrumental role has been emphasised for financial intermediation in the process of economic development and growth. It is argued that an expansion of the financial system, size and intermediation in LDCs tends to increase the level o...

  13. Alkaline earths as main group reagents in molecular catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Michael S; Liptrot, David J; Weetman, Catherine

    2016-02-21

    The past decade has witnessed some remarkable advances in our appreciation of the structural and reaction chemistry of the heavier alkaline earth (Ae = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) elements. Derived from complexes of these metals in their immutable +2 oxidation state, a broad and widely applicable catalytic chemistry has also emerged, driven by considerations of cost and inherent low toxicity. The considerable adjustments incurred to ionic radius and resultant cation charge density also provide reactivity with significant mechanistic and kinetic variability as group 2 is descended. In an attempt to place these advances in the broader context of contemporary main group element chemistry, this review focusses on the developing state of the art in both multiple bond heterofunctionalisation and cross coupling catalysis. We review specific advances in alkene and alkyne hydroamination and hydrophosphination catalysis and related extensions of this reactivity that allow the synthesis of a wide variety of acyclic and heterocyclic small molecules. The use of heavier alkaline earth hydride derivatives as pre-catalysts and intermediates in multiple bond hydrogenation, hydrosilylation and hydroboration is also described along with the emergence of these and related reagents in a variety of dehydrocoupling processes that allow that facile catalytic construction of Si-C, Si-N and B-N bonds. PMID:26797470

  14. Electrocatalysis of the HER in acid and alkaline media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilovic Nemanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the HER are studied on selected metals (M= Cu, Ag, Au, Pt, Ru, Ir, Ti in acid and alkaline environments. We found that with the exception of Pt, Ir and Au, due to high coverage by spectator species on non-noble metal catalysts, experimentally established positions of Cu , Ag, Ru and Ti in the observed volcano relations are still uncertain. We also found that while in acidic solutions the M-Hupd binding energy most likely is controlling the activity trends, the trends in activity in alkaline solutions are controlled by a delicate balance between two descriptors: the M-Had interaction as well as the energetics required to dissociate water molecules. The importance of the second descriptor is confirmed by introducing bifunctional catalysts such as M modified by Ni(OH; e.g. while the latter serves to enhance catalytic decomposition of water, the metal sites are required for collecting and recombining the produced hydrogen intermediates.

  15. Safety relevant aspects of the long-term intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and vitrified high-level radioactive wastes; Sicherheitstechnische Aspekte der langfristigen Zwischenlagerung von bestrahlten Brennelementen und verglastem HAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger, A.; Geupel, S.; Gewehr, K.; Gmal, B.; Hannstein, V.; Hummelsheim, K.; Kilger, R.; Wagner, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Schmidt, G.; Spieth-Achtnich, A. [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer angewandte Oekolgie (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The currently in Germany pursued concept for management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants provides intermediate dry cask storage at the NPP sites until direct disposal in a deep geologic repository. In addition the earlier commissioned centralized dry storage facilities are being used for storage of high level radioactive waste returned from foreign reprocessing of German spent fuel performed so far. The dry interim storage facilities are licensed for 40 years of operation time. According to the German regulations a full scope periodic safety review is not required so far, neither practical experience on dry storage for this period of time is available. With regard to this background the report at hand is dealing with long term effects, which may affect safety of the interim storage during the 40 years period or beyond if appropriate, and with the question, whether additional analyses or monitoring measures may be required. Therefore relevant publications have been evaluated, calculations have been performed as well as a systematic screening with regard to loads and possible ageing effects has been applied to structures and components important for safety of the storage, in order to identify relevant long term effects, which may not have been considered sufficiently so far and to provide proposals for an improved ageing management. The report firstly provides an overview on the current state of technology describing shortly the national and international practice and experience. In the following chapters safety aspects of interim storage with regard to time dependent effects and variations are being analyzed and discussed. Among this not only technical aspects like the long term behavior of fuel elements, canisters and storage systems are addressed, but also operational long term aspects regarding personnel planning, know how conservation, documentation and quality management are taken into account. A separate chapter is dedicated to developing and describing

  16. Biodegradation of the alkaline cellulose degradation products generated during radioactive waste disposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Rout

    Full Text Available The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118 in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7 × 10(-2 hr(-1 (SE ± 2.9 × 10(-3. These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility.

  17. Intermediate Trainee Perspectives of Family Therapy Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Margo

    2004-01-01

    Marriage and family therapy training involves the development of therapy skills that lead to effective treatment, and the family therapy literature recognizes the importance of skill development in training. The training literature dealing with specific skills most often refers to beginning-level skills and obtains data largely from supervisors and trainers. Intermediate-level skills appear to be overlooked and no apparent attention is given from the perspective of trainees. This research ...

  18. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  19. Alkaline rocks and the occurrence of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many alkaline complexes contain uranium and other minerals in low concentrations and are regarded as constituting valuable potential reserves. Certain complex metallurgical problems, however, remain to be solved. Alkaline rocks occur in a number of forms and environments and it is noted that they are generated during periods of geological quiescence emplaced mainly in stable aseismic areas. Many occur along the extensions of oceanic transform faults beneath the continental crust and the application of this concept to areas not currently known to host alkaline complexes may prove useful in identifying potential target areas for prospecting operations

  20. Financial Intermediation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dima, Bogdan; Petru-Eugen OPRIȘ

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates the relationship between financial intermediation and the economic growth in the developing economic systems. First, using dataset from 28 countries,between 2001 and 2010 we define a financial intermediation indicator applying EFA method. We use several dimensions of the financial intermediation: Domestic credit provided by banking sector (% of GDP); Domestic credit to private sector (% of GDP); Broad money (% of GDP); Market capitalization of listed companies (% of GDP). ...