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Sample records for alkaline hypersaline mono

  1. Comparison of chitinolytic enzymes from an alkaline, hypersaline lake and an estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCleir, Gary R; Buchan, Alison; Maurer, John; Moran, Mary Ann; Hollibaugh, James T

    2007-01-01

    We examined the genetic and physiological characteristics of chitin degrading enzymes expressed by fosmids cloned from two strains of chitinolytic gammaproteobacteria isolated from alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake, California; and from a metagenomic library derived from an estuarine bacterial community (Dean Creek, Sapelo Island, GA, USA). The Mono Lake chitinolytic enzymes presented unique adaptations in terms of halo- and alkalitolerance. The sequence from one of the Mono Lake isolates (strain 12A) was a conventional family 18 glycosyl hydrolase; however, the expressed protein had a novel secondary activity peak at pH 10. We obtained a novel family 20 glycosyl hydrolase sequence from Mono Lake strain AI21. The activity of the expressed protein had a pH optimum of 10, several pH units higher than any other enzyme currently assigned to this family, and the enzyme retained 80% of its activity at pH 11. The enzyme was also halotolerant, retaining activity in salt solutions of up to 225 g l(-1). Sequence analysis indicated a molecular weight of approximately 90 kDa for the protein, and that it contained two active sites. Culture supernatant contained two chitinolytic proteins, 45 and 31 kDa, suggesting possible post-expression modification of the gene product. In contrast, the sequence found in the estuarine metagenomic library and the functional characteristics of the protein expressed from it were those of a conventional family 18 glycosyl hydrolase.

  2. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Sandoval-Yuriar, Alonso; Jiménez-Bueno, Norma G.; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC) ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5), indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances) clearly clustered the communities by pH. PMID:26074731

  3. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yendi E. Navarro-Noya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5, indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances clearly clustered the communities by pH.

  4. Anaerobic halo- alkaliphilic bacterial community of athalassic, hypersaline Mono lake and Owens Lake in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Detkova, Ekaterina N.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-02-01

    The bacterial diversity of microbial extremophiles from the meromictic, hypersaline Mono Lake and a small evaporite pool in Owens Lake of California was studied. In spite of these regions had differing mineral background and different concentrations of NaCl in water they contain the same halo- alkaliphiles anaerobic bacterial community. Three new species of bacteria were detected in this community: primary anaerobe, dissipotrophic saccharolytic spirochete Spirochaeta americana strain AspG1T, primary anaerobe which is proteolytic Tindallia californiensis strain APOT, and secondary anaerobe, hydrogen using Desulfonatronum thiodismutans strain MLF1T, which is sulfate- reducer with chemo-litho-autotrophic metabolism. All of these bacteria are obligate alkaliphiles and dependent upon Na+ ions and CO32- ions in growth mediums. It is interesting that closest relationships for two of these species were isolates from samples of equatorial African soda Magadi lake: Spirochaeta americana AspG1T has 99.4% similarity on 16S rDNA- analyses with Spirochaeta alkalica Z- 7491T, and Tindallia californiensis APOT has 99.1% similarity with Tindallia magadiensis Z-7934T. But result of DNA-DNA- hybridization demonstrated less then 50% similarity between Spirochaeta americana AspG1T and Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491T. Percent of homology between Tindallia californiensis APOT and Tindallia magadiensis Z-7934T is only 55%. The sulfate-reducer from the alkalic anaerobic community of Magadi lake Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans Z-7935T was phylogenetically distant from this sulfate-reducer in Mono lake, but genetically closer (99.7% similarity) to the sulfate-reducer, isolated from Central Asian alkalic lake Khadyn in Siberia Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951T. The study of key enzymes (hydrogenase and CO- hydrogenase) in Tindallia californiensis APOT and Desulfonatronum thiodismutans MLF1T showed the presence of high activity of both the enzymes in first and only hydrogenase in second

  5. Macro and Microelements Drive Diversity and Composition of Prokaryotic and Fungal Communities in Hypersaline Sediments and Saline-Alkaline Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihui; Ding, Xiaowei; Tang, Xiaofei; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Wenjun; Yan, Qingyun; Liu, Zhenghua

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the effects of environmental factors on microbial communities is critical for microbial ecology, but it remains challenging. In this study, we examined the diversity (alpha diversity) and community compositions (beta diversity) of prokaryotes and fungi in hypersaline sediments and salinized soils from northern China. Environmental variables were highly correlated, but they differed significantly between the sediments and saline soils. The compositions of prokaryotic and fungal communities in the hypersaline sediments were different from those in adjacent saline-alkaline soils, indicating a habitat-specific microbial distribution pattern. The macroelements (S, P, K, Mg, and Fe) and Ca were, respectively, correlated closely with the alpha diversity of prokaryotes and fungi, while the macronutrients (e.g., Na, S, P, and Ca) were correlated with the prokaryotic and fungal beta-diversity ( P ≤ 0.05). And, the nine microelements (e.g., Al, Ba, Co, Hg, and Mn) and micronutrients (Ba, Cd, and Sr) individually shaped the alpha diversity of prokaryotes and fungi, while the six microelements (e.g., As, Ba, Cr, and Ge) and only the trace elements (Cr and Cu), respectively, influenced the beta diversity of prokaryotes and fungi ( P analysis (VPA) showed that environmental variables jointly explained 55.49% and 32.27% of the total variation for the prokaryotic and fungal communities, respectively. Together, our findings demonstrate that the diversity and community composition of the prokaryotes and fungi were driven by different macro and microelements in saline habitats, and that geochemical elements could more widely regulate the diversity and community composition of prokaryotes than these of fungi.

  6. Macro and Microelements Drive Diversity and Composition of Prokaryotic and Fungal Communities in Hypersaline Sediments and Saline–Alkaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihui Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of environmental factors on microbial communities is critical for microbial ecology, but it remains challenging. In this study, we examined the diversity (alpha diversity and community compositions (beta diversity of prokaryotes and fungi in hypersaline sediments and salinized soils from northern China. Environmental variables were highly correlated, but they differed significantly between the sediments and saline soils. The compositions of prokaryotic and fungal communities in the hypersaline sediments were different from those in adjacent saline–alkaline soils, indicating a habitat-specific microbial distribution pattern. The macroelements (S, P, K, Mg, and Fe and Ca were, respectively, correlated closely with the alpha diversity of prokaryotes and fungi, while the macronutrients (e.g., Na, S, P, and Ca were correlated with the prokaryotic and fungal beta-diversity (P ≤ 0.05. And, the nine microelements (e.g., Al, Ba, Co, Hg, and Mn and micronutrients (Ba, Cd, and Sr individually shaped the alpha diversity of prokaryotes and fungi, while the six microelements (e.g., As, Ba, Cr, and Ge and only the trace elements (Cr and Cu, respectively, influenced the beta diversity of prokaryotes and fungi (P < 0.05. Variation-partitioning analysis (VPA showed that environmental variables jointly explained 55.49% and 32.27% of the total variation for the prokaryotic and fungal communities, respectively. Together, our findings demonstrate that the diversity and community composition of the prokaryotes and fungi were driven by different macro and microelements in saline habitats, and that geochemical elements could more widely regulate the diversity and community composition of prokaryotes than these of fungi.

  7. Hepatic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels in HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients in Maiduguri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, B W; Yusuph, H; Mustapha, S K; Sahabi, M A; Gwalabe, S A; Tahir, A; Bakki, B; Kida, I M

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that HIV-HBV co-infected patients have an increased risk of liver-related morbidity and mortality compared to their HIV-mono-infected counterparts. Furthermore, it has been reported that HIV-HBV co-infected patients have a significantly high incidence of drug-induced hepatotoxicity following commencement of HAART than HIV-mono-infected patients. To compare the levels of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALKPO 4 ) enzyme levels between HAART naïve HIV-HBV co-infected patients and their HIV-mono-infected counterparts. A cross-sectional descriptive study in which 142 newly diagnosed HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected adults were investigated for alkaline aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels. The study subjects comprised of 80 (56.3%) females and 62 (46.7%) males. The age range of the study population was 15-65 years. The mean ages of male and female subjects were 45.5 ± 10.5 years and 39.1 ± 7.5 years respectively ( P mono-infected. The mean ALT enzyme level of HIV/HBV co-infected subjects was significantly higher than that of HIV mono-infected ones i.e., 42.12 IU/l vs. 27.86 IU/l, ( P = 0.038). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean AST (30.14 IU/l vs. 29.09 IU/l, P = 0.893) and ALKPO 4 (55.86 IU/l vs. 60.97 IU/l, P = 0.205) enzyme levels between HIV-HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected subjects albeit the two enzymes were moderately elevated in both categories of subjects. The significantly elevated ALT enzyme levels amongst HIV-HBV co-infected subjects suggest that HIV-HBV co-infected patients may have an increased risk of liver-related morbidity and mortality than their HIV mono-infected counterparts. Screening for serological markers of chronic HBV infection, as well as hepatic transaminase enzyme levels in all newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients is therefore recommended before commencement of

  8. What's Mono?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What's Mono? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's Mono? What's in this ... and illnesses like chickenpox . How Do Kids Get Mono? Most people who get mono are between the ...

  9. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Microbial Biodiversity at Hypersaline Microbial Mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulecal, Y.; Unsal, N.; Temel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hypersaline environments, such as hypersaline lakes are interesting sources with considerable potential for the isolation of extremophile microorganisms adapted to severe conditions. Biodiversity in such lakes (Dead Sea, the Great Salt Lake, the Solar Lake, the Soda Lake) varies due to differences in environmental conditions and specific lake characteristics such as local climate, lake size, water depth and lake water salt composition (Kamekura 1998; Sorokin et al. 2004). In this study area, Acigol Lake is an alkaline (pH:9), hypersaline lake located at Southwest Anatolia in Turkey. The aim of study was to determine the Archaea and Bacteria in microbial mats of hypersaline lacustrine environments. In conclusion, diagnostic biosignatures for methanogens and other archaeal groups within hypersaline microbial mats were identified through genomic DNA and lipid analyses.

  10. Ecology of Hypersaline Microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, S.

    by microorganisms. A prime example is the Dead Sea, a lake in which the 37 concentration of divalent cations (about 1.9 M Mg+2 and 0.4 M Ca+2) exceeds that of monovalent cations (1.6 M Na+ and 0.14 M K+) and of which the pH is relatively low (around 6.0). Even... such a hostile environment periodically supports dense microbial blooms (Oren, 1988). The two largest and best-studied hypersaline lakes are the Great Salt Lake in the Western United States and the Dead Sea, in the Middle East. The Great Salt Lake...

  11. Ketone deprotonation mediated by mono- and heterobimetallic alkali and alkaline earth metal amide bases: structural characterization of potassium, calcium, and mixed potassium-calcium enolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuyang; Noll, Bruce C; Beatty, Alicia; Mulvey, Robert E; Henderson, Kenneth W

    2004-06-23

    Potassium, calcium, and mixed potassium-calcium amide combinations have been shown to be efficient reagents in enolization reactions, and a set of representative intermediate mono- and heterobimetallic enolates have been successfully isolated and crystallographically characterized.

  12. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, Charlotte D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  13. Metagenomic Insights into the Uncultured Diversity and Physiology of Microbes in Four Hypersaline Soda Lake Brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, C.D.; Ghai, R.; Rodriguez-valera, F.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tringe, S.G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  14. Heterotrophic denitrification at extremely high salt and pH by haloalkaliphilic Gammaproteobacteria from hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapovalova, A.A.; Khijniak, T.V.; Tourova, T.P.; Muyzer, G.; Sorokin, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe denitrification at extremely high salt and pH in sediments from hypersaline alkaline soda lakes and soda soils. Experiments with sediment slurries demonstrated the presence of acetate-utilizing denitrifying populations active at in situ conditions. Anaerobic enrichment

  15. Hypersaline Microbial Mat Lipid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra A.; Summons, Roger E.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotopic abundances are powerful tools for studies of contemporary microbial ecosystems. Knowledge of the relationship of biomarkers to microbial physiology and community structure creates important links for understanding the nature of early organisms and paleoenvironments. Our recent work has focused on the hypersaline microbial mats in evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Specific biomarkers for diatoms, cyanobacteria, archaea, green nonsulfur (GNS), sulfate reducing, sulfur oxidizing and methanotrophic bacteria have been identified. Analyses of the ester-bound fatty acids indicate a highly diverse microbial community, dominated by photosynthetic organisms at the surface. The delta C-13 of cyanobacterial biomarkers such as the monomethylalkanes and hopanoids are consistent with the delta C-13 measured for bulk mat (-10%o), while a GNS biomarker, wax esters (WXE), suggests a more depleted delta C-13 for GNS biomass (-16%o). This isotopic relationship is different than that observed in mats at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YSNP) where GNS appear to grow photoheterotrophic ally. WXE abundance, while relatively low, is most pronounced in an anaerobic zone just below the cyanobacterial layer. The WXE isotope composition at GN suggests that these bacteria utilize photoautotrophy incorporating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway using H2S or H2.

  16. How Is Mono Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español How Is Mono Spread? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Is Mono Spread? Print My sister has mononucleosis. I drank ... had it. Does this mean that I have mono now? – Kyle* Mono, or mononucleosis, is spread through ...

  17. Heterotrophic Protists in Hypersaline Microbial Mats and Deep Hypersaline Basin Water Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan M. Bernhard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although hypersaline environments pose challenges to life because of the low water content (water activity, many such habitats appear to support eukaryotic microbes. This contribution presents brief reviews of our current knowledge on eukaryotes of water-column haloclines and brines from Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basins (DHABs of the Eastern Mediterranean, as well as shallow-water hypersaline microbial mats in solar salterns of Guerrero Negro, Mexico and benthic microbialite communities from Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia. New data on eukaryotic diversity from Shark Bay microbialites indicates eukaryotes are more diverse than previously reported. Although this comparison shows that eukaryotic communities in hypersaline habitats with varying physicochemical characteristics are unique, several groups are commonly found, including diverse alveolates, strameonopiles, and fungi, as well as radiolaria. Many eukaryote sequences (SSU in both regions also have no close homologues in public databases, suggesting that these environments host unique microbial eukaryote assemblages with the potential to enhance our understanding of the capacity of eukaryotes to adapt to hypersaline conditions.

  18. Quantifying the efficiency of a mono-port diffuser in the dispersion of brine discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Loya-Fernández, Angel; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis Miguel; Marco-Méndez, Candela; Martinez-Garcia, Elena; Zubcoff, Jose; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2018-01-01

    Reverse-osmosis seawater desalination processes produce a hypersaline effluent waste (brine) which is usually discharged back into the sea via an underwater outfall. Brine discharges can cause environmental problems due to their high salt concentration, but the effects can be minimised by installing a diffuser structure at the end of the pipeline. In May 2010, a mono-port diffuser was installed at the Nuevo Canal de Cartagena desalination plant pipeline (located in Murcia, Spain) in order to ...

  19. Uranium Geochemistry in Hypersaline Soda Lakes in Eastern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhoff, B. S.; Bennett, P.; Puntsag, T.

    2007-12-01

    Extremely high concentrations of uranium were discovered in water samples from hypersaline soda lakes in eastern Mongolia. The origin and fate of uranium in these lakes was examined using geochemical analyses and modeling, using samples collected from five lakes, six wells and one stream. Samples were analyzed for strontium and uranium isotopes, cations and trace metals, anions, alkalinity, and unstable field parameters. The lakes are small, shallow (chlorine to bromine ratios implying groundwater discharges to lake water and is subsequently evaporated. Evaporation is intense with lake waters having average chlorine concentrations 300 times that of well waters. Uranium in well samples is higher than typical for shallow groundwaters (7-101ppb) suggesting discharging groundwater as a probable source of uranium in lake water. Concentrations of uranium in lake water ranges from 57-14,900ppb making these lakes possibly the highest naturally occurring uranium concentration reported. Lake water alkalinity is strongly correlated to uranium abundance suggesting uranium is complexed with carbonate as the aqueous species UO2CO3. Consequently, the extremely high alkalinity of the most alkaline lake (pH = 9.8, 1288.8 meq alk/L) also has the highest uranium concentrations. Stable strontium isotopes were used to assess the degree of water rock interactions and the presence of 90Sr was checked for to test the possibility of input of nuclear fallout. 90Sr was not detected in lake water samples suggesting the high uranium is of natural origins. A large difference in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was found between groundwater and lake water samples. Groundwater samples displayed large variation in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.70612-0.709776) whereas lake water samples averaged a high radiogenic ratio (0.709432). The large variation in the strontium isotopes in groundwater samples suggests varying degrees of water rock interactions, however the least radiogenic samples likely are derived from

  20. Pressure retarded osmosis from hypersaline sources - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajraktari, Niada; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Madsen, Henrik T.

    2017-01-01

    for commercialization. The scope of this paper is to review the existing knowledge on the use of hypersaline waters in the salinity gradient process, pressure retarded osmosis. Although only few papers have had the specific aim of investigating hypersaline waters, concentrated solutions have been used in many papers...

  1. Investigations of Methane Production in Hypersaline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad M.

    2015-01-01

    The recent reports of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, as well as the findings of hypersaline paleo-environments on that planet, have underscored the need to evaluate the importance of biological (as opposed to geological) trace gas production and consumption. Methane in the atmosphere of Mars may be an indication of life but might also be a consequence of geologic activity and/or the thermal alteration of ancient organic matter. Hypersaline environments have now been reported to be extremely likely in several locations in our solar system, including: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. Modern hypersaline microbial mat communities, (thought to be analogous to those present on the early Earth at a period of time when Mars was experiencing very similar environmental conditions), have been shown to produce methane. However, very little is known about the physical and/or biological controls imposed upon the rates at which methane, and other important trace gases, are produced and consumed in these environments. We describe here the results of our investigations of methane production in hypersaline environments, including field sites in Chile, Baja California Mexico, California, USA and the United Arab Emirates. We have measured high concentrations of methane in bubbles of gas produced both in the sediments underlying microbial mats, as well as in areas not colonized by microbial mats in the Guerrero Negro hypersaline ecosystem, Baja California Mexico, in Chile, and in salt ponds on the San Francisco Bay. The carbon isotopic (d13C) composition of the methane in the bubbles exhibited an extremely wide range of values, (ca. -75 per mille ca. -25 per mille). The hydrogen isotopic composition of the methane (d2H) ranged from -60 to -30per mille and -450 to -350per mille. These isotopic values are outside of the range of values normally considered to be biogenic, however incubations of the sediments in contact with these gas bubbles reveals that the methane is indeed being

  2. Bacterial Dormancy Is More Prevalent in Freshwater than Hypersaline Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanderud, Zachary T.; Vert, Joshua C.; Lennon, Jay T.; Magnusson, Tylan W.; Breakwell, Donald P.; Harker, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria employ a diverse array of strategies to survive under extreme environmental conditions but maintaining these adaptations comes at an energetic cost. If energy reserves drop too low, extremophiles may enter a dormant state to persist. We estimated bacterial dormancy and identified the environmental variables influencing our activity proxy in 10 hypersaline and freshwater lakes across the Western United States. Using ribosomal RNA:DNA ratios as an indicator for bacterial activity, we found that the proportion of the community exhibiting dormancy was 16% lower in hypersaline than freshwater lakes. Based on our indicator variable multiple regression results, saltier conditions in both freshwater and hypersaline lakes increased activity, suggesting that salinity was a robust environmental filter structuring bacterial activity in lake ecosystems. To a lesser degree, higher total phosphorus concentrations reduced dormancy in all lakes. Thus, even under extreme conditions, the competition for resources exerted pressure on activity. Within the compositionally distinct and less diverse hypersaline communities, abundant taxa were disproportionately active and localized in families Microbacteriaceae (Actinobacteria), Nitriliruptoraceae (Actinobacteria), and Rhodobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria). Our results are consistent with the view that hypersaline communities are able to capitalize on a seemingly more extreme, yet highly selective, set of conditions and finds that extremophiles may need dormancy less often to thrive and survive. PMID:27375575

  3. Ophiuroids discovered in the middle triassic hypersaline environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz A Salamon

    Full Text Available Echinoderms have long been considered to be one of the animal phyla that is strictly marine. However, there is growing evidence that some recent species may live in either brackish or hypersaline environments. Surprisingly, discoveries of fossil echinoderms in non-(openmarine paleoenvironments are lacking. In Wojkowice Quarry (Southern Poland, sediments of lowermost part of the Middle Triassic are exposed. In limestone layer with cellular structures and pseudomorphs after gypsum, two dense accumulations of articulated ophiuroids (Aspiduriella similis (Eck were documented. The sediments with ophiuroids were formed in environment of increased salinity waters as suggested by paleontological, sedimentological, petrographical and geochemical data. Discovery of Triassic hypersaline ophiuroids invalidates the paleontological assumption that fossil echinoderms are indicators of fully marine conditions. Thus caution needs to be taken when using fossil echinoderms in paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  4. New Abundant Microbial Groups in Aquatic Hypersaline Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ghai, Rohit; Pa?i?, Lejla; Fern?ndez, Ana Beatriz; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; McMahon, Katherine D.; Papke, R. Thane; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Rodriguez-Brito, Beltran; Rohwer, Forest; S?nchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio; Rodr?guez-Valera, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    We describe the microbiota of two hypersaline saltern ponds, one of intermediate salinity (19%) and a NaCl saturated crystallizer pond (37%) using pyrosequencing. The analyses of these metagenomes (nearly 784 Mb) reaffirmed the vast dominance of Haloquadratum walsbyi but also revealed novel, abundant and previously unsuspected microbial groups. We describe for the first time, a group of low GC Actinobacteria, related to freshwater Actinobacteria, abundant in low and intermediate salinities. M...

  5. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  6. Mono Lake Analog Mars Sample Return Expedition for AMASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, P. G.; Steele, A.; Younse, P.; DiCicco, M.; Morgan, A. R.; Backes, P.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Marquardt, D.; Amundsen, H. E. F.

    2011-01-01

    We explored the performance of one robotic prototype for sample acquisition and caching of martian materials that has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for potential use in the proposed MAX-C Mars Sample Return architecture in an environment, rich in chemical diversity with a variety of mineralogical textures. Mono Lake State Tufa Reserve in Mono County, CA possesses a variety of minerals including a variety of evaporites, volcanic glass and lava, and sand and mudstones. The lake itself is an interesting chemical system: the water is highly alkaline (pH is approximately 10) and contains concentrations of Cl, K, B, with lesser amounts of S Ca Mg, F, As, Li, I and Wand generally enriched HREEs. There are also traces of radioactive elements U, Th, Pl.

  7. Mono pile foundation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyngesen, S.; Brendstrup, C.

    1997-02-01

    The use of mono piles as foundations for maritime structures has been developed during the last decades. The installation requirements within the offshore sector have resulted in equipment enabling driving of piles up to 3-4 m to large penetration depths. The availability of this equipment has made the use of large mono piles feasible as foundations for structures like wind turbines. The mono pile foundations consists of three parts; the bare pile, a conical transition and a boat landing. All parts are prefitted at the yard in order to minimise the installation work that has to be carried out offshore. The study of a mono pile foundations for a 1.5 MW wind turbine has been conducted for two locations, Horns Rev and Roedsand. Three different water depths: 5, 8 and 11 m have been investigated in the study. The on-site welding between pile and conical transition is performed by an automatic welding machine. Final testing and eventually repair of the weld are conducted at least 16 hours after welding. This is followed by final installation of J-tube, tie-in to subsea cables and installation of the impressed current system for corrosive protection of the mono pile. The total cost for procurement and installation of the mono pile using the welded connection is estimated. The price does not include procurement and installation of access platform and boat landing. These costs are estimated to 250.000 DKK. Depending on water depth the cost of the pile ranges from 2,2 to 2,7 million DKK. Procurement and fabrication of the pile are approx. 75% of the total costs. The remaining 25% are due to installation. The total costs are very sensitive to the unit price of pile steel. During the project it became obvious that ice load has a very large influence on the dimensions of the mono pile. (EG)

  8. Biodiversity of the Hypersaline Urmia Lake National Park (NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asem

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Urmia Lake, with a surface area between 4000 to 6000 km2, is a hypersaline lake located in northwest Iran. It is the saltiest large lake in the world that supports life. Urmia Lake National Park is the home of an almost endemic crustacean species known as the brine shrimp, Artemia urmiana. Other forms of life include several species of algae, bacteria, microfungi, plants, birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals. As a consequence of this unique biodiversity, this lake has been selected as one of the 59 biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This paper provides a comprehensive species checklist that needs to be updated by additional research in the future.

  9. Controls on the pH of hyper-saline lakes - A lesson from the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Rotem; Gavrieli, Ittai; Ganor, Jiwchar; Lazar, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    The pH of aqueous environments is determined by the dominant buffer systems of the water, defined operationally as total alkalinity (TA). The major buffer systems in the modern ocean are carbonic and boric acids of which the species bicarbonate, carbonate and borate make up about 77%, 19% and 4% of the TA, respectively. During the course of seawater evaporation (e.g. lagoons) the residual brine loses considerable portion of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and carbonate alkalinity (CA) already at the early stages of evaporation. DIC and CA decrease due to massive precipitation of CaCO3, while total boron (TB) increases conservatively, turning borate to the dominant alkalinity species in marine derived brines. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (KB‧) in saline and hypersaline waters, using the Dead Sea (DS) as a case study. We explain the DS low pH (∼6.3) and the effect of the boric and carbonic acid pK‧-s on the behavior of the brine's buffer system, including the pH increase that results from brine dilution. The KB‧ in DS was estimated from TB, TA, DIC and pH data measured in this study and early empirical data on artificial DS brines containing just carbonic acid. The KB‧ value was corroborated by Pitzer ion interaction model calculations using PHREEQC thermodynamic code applied to the chemical composition of the DS. Our results show that KB‧ increases considerably with the brine's ionic strength, reaching in the DS to a factor of 100 higher than in ;mean; seawater. Based on theoretical calculations and analyses of other natural brines it is suggested that brines' composition is a major factor in determining the KB‧ value and in turn the pH of such brines. We show that the higher the proportion of divalent cations in the brine the higher the dissociation constants of the weak acids (presumably due to formation of complexes). The low pH of the Dead Sea is accordingly explained by its extremely

  10. Differences in lateral gene transfer in hypersaline versus thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Matthew E; Spear, John R; Oren, Aharon; House, Christopher H

    2011-07-08

    The role of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in the evolution of microorganisms is only beginning to be understood. While most LGT events occur between closely related individuals, inter-phylum and inter-domain LGT events are not uncommon. These distant transfer events offer potentially greater fitness advantages and it is for this reason that these "long distance" LGT events may have significantly impacted the evolution of microbes. One mechanism driving distant LGT events is microbial transformation. Theoretically, transformative events can occur between any two species provided that the DNA of one enters the habitat of the other. Two categories of microorganisms that are well-known for LGT are the thermophiles and halophiles. We identified potential inter-class LGT events into both a thermophilic class of Archaea (Thermoprotei) and a halophilic class of Archaea (Halobacteria). We then categorized these LGT genes as originating in thermophiles and halophiles respectively. While more than 68% of transfer events into Thermoprotei taxa originated in other thermophiles, less than 11% of transfer events into Halobacteria taxa originated in other halophiles. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental difference between LGT in thermophiles and halophiles. We theorize that the difference lies in the different natures of the environments. While DNA degrades rapidly in thermal environments due to temperature-driven denaturization, hypersaline environments are adept at preserving DNA. Furthermore, most hypersaline environments, as topographical minima, are natural collectors of cellular debris. Thus halophiles would in theory be exposed to a greater diversity and quantity of extracellular DNA than thermophiles.

  11. Methanogenesis in hypersaline environments -Analogs for Ancient Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad; Chanton, Jeff; Kelley, Cheryl; Tazaz, Amanda; Poole, Jennifer; García Maldonado, José Q.; López Cortés, Alejandro

    The recent findings of evidence of large bodies of hypersaline water which existed in the past on Mars have underscored the need to investigate those environments for evidence of past, as well as extant, life. Methane, a key biomarker gas, has been reported in the atmosphere of Mars, and is known to be produced by microbial mats which are present in most hypersaline environments on Earth. Modern microbial mat communities are thought to be extant analogues of communities which were present early in Earth's geologic history, when environmental condition on Earth and Mars were similar. Because methane may be an indication of life (biogenic methane) but might also be a consequence of geologic activity (abiotic methane) and/or the thermal alteration of ancient organic matter (thermogenic methane), the stable isotopic composition of methane (both carbon and hydrogen) will be a key criterion for determining whether or not the methane on Mars is biologically produced, and if so, how recently (i.e., biogenic vs. thermogenic methane). The goals of our study are: a) to document the range of the stable isotopic composition of methane (both carbon and hydrogen) in hypersaline environments, and b) to understand the role of biology in generating that stable isotopic composition. Our results will help provide a framework for the interpretation of methane stable isotopic data from Mars. We have measured high concentrations of methane in bubbles of gas present in the Guerrero Negro hypersaline ecosystem, Baja California Mexico and in salt ponds on the San Francisco Bay. These bubbles are present both in sediments underlying microbial mats (including one site where methane constitutes nearly 40% by volume of the bubbles), as well as in areas not colonized by microbial mats; layers of evaporitic minerals in some areas trap gas containing high concentrations of methane. The carbon isotopic (δ 13 C) composition of the methane in collected bubbles exhibited an extremely wide range of

  12. Festival nimega Mono / Ivar Sakk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sakk, Ivar, 1962-

    2015-01-01

    Haapsalu graafilise disaini festival Haapsalu Linnagaleriis: sisaldab ülevaate- ja teemanäitust ning väikest sümpoosioni. Temaatilise aastanäituse motiiv on "MONO". Plakateid on ka välismaa tegijatelt. Kuraator Marko Kekishev

  13. Assessment of the trophic state of a hypersaline-carbonatic environment: Vermelha Lagoon (Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Laut

    Full Text Available Vermelha Lagoon is a hypersaline shallow transitional ecosystem in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. This lagoon is located in the protected area of Massambaba, between the cities of Araruama and Saquarema (Brazil, and displays two quite uncommon particularities: it exhibits carbonate sedimentation and displays the development of Holocene stromatolites. Due to both particularities, the salt industry and property speculation have been, increasingly, generating anthropic pressures on this ecosystem. This study aims to apply a multiproxy approach to evaluate the trophic state of Vermelha Lagoon based on physicochemical parameters and geochemical data for the quantification and qualification of organic matter (OM, namely total organic carbon (TOC, total sulfur (TS, total phosphorus (TP and biopolymeric carbon (BPC, including carbohydrates (CHO, lipids (LIP and proteins (PTN. The CHO/TOC ratio values suggest that OM supplied to the sediment is of autochthonous origin and results, essentially, from microbial activity. The cluster analyses allowed the identification of four regions in Vermelha Lagoon. The Region I included stations located in shallow areas of the eastern sector of Vermelha lagoon affected by the impact of the artificial channel of connection with Araruama Lagoon. The Region II, under the influence of salt pans, is characterized by the highest values of BPC, namely CHO promoted by microbiological activity. The Region III include stations spread through the lagoon with high values of dissolved oxygen and lower values of TP. Stromatolites and microbial mattes growth was observed in some stations of this sector. Region IV, where the highest values of TOC and TS were found, represents depocenters of organic matter, located in general in depressed areas. Results of this work evidences that the Vermelha Lagoon is an eutrophic but alkaline and well oxygenated environment (at both water column and surface sediment where the autotrophic

  14. Searches with mono-leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yang; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2013-06-01

    We explore the implications of the mono-lepton plus missing transverse energy signature at the LHC, and point out its significance on understanding how dark matter interacts with quarks, where the signature arises from dark matter pair production together with a leptonically decaying W boson radiated from the initial state quarks. We derive limits using the existing W' searches at the LHC, and find an interesting interference between the contributions from dark matter couplings to up-type and down-type quarks. Mono-leptons can actually furnish the strongest current bound on dark matter interactions for axial-vector (spin-dependent) interactions and iso-spin violating couplings. Should a signal of dark matter production be observed, this process can also help disentangle the dark matter couplings to up- and down-type quarks.

  15. Effect of Subgrains on the Performance of Mono-Like Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Czochralski (Cz monocrystalline silicon material in solar cells is limited by its high cost and serious light-induced degradation. The use of cast multicrystalline silicon is also hindered by its high dislocation densities and high surface reflectance after texturing. Mono-like crystalline silicon is a promising material because it has the advantages of both mono- and multicrystalline silicon. However, when mono-like wafers are made into cells, the efficiencies of a batch of wafers often fluctuate within a wide range of >1% (absolute. In this work, mono-like wafers are classified by a simple process and fabricated into laser doping selective emitter cells. The effect and mechanism of subgrains on the performance of mono-like crystalline silicon solar cells are studied. The results show that the efficiency of mono-like crystalline silicon solar cells significantly depends on material defects that appear as subgrains on an alkaline textured surface. These subgrains have an almost negligible effect on the optical performance, shunt resistance, and junction recombination but significantly affect the minority carrier diffusion length and quantum efficiency within a long wavelength range. Finally, an average efficiency of 18.2% is achieved on wafers with hardly any subgrain but with a small-grain band.

  16. Differences in lateral gene transfer in hypersaline versus thermal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    House Christopher H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of lateral gene transfer (LGT in the evolution of microorganisms is only beginning to be understood. While most LGT events occur between closely related individuals, inter-phylum and inter-domain LGT events are not uncommon. These distant transfer events offer potentially greater fitness advantages and it is for this reason that these "long distance" LGT events may have significantly impacted the evolution of microbes. One mechanism driving distant LGT events is microbial transformation. Theoretically, transformative events can occur between any two species provided that the DNA of one enters the habitat of the other. Two categories of microorganisms that are well-known for LGT are the thermophiles and halophiles. Results We identified potential inter-class LGT events into both a thermophilic class of Archaea (Thermoprotei and a halophilic class of Archaea (Halobacteria. We then categorized these LGT genes as originating in thermophiles and halophiles respectively. While more than 68% of transfer events into Thermoprotei taxa originated in other thermophiles, less than 11% of transfer events into Halobacteria taxa originated in other halophiles. Conclusions Our results suggest that there is a fundamental difference between LGT in thermophiles and halophiles. We theorize that the difference lies in the different natures of the environments. While DNA degrades rapidly in thermal environments due to temperature-driven denaturization, hypersaline environments are adept at preserving DNA. Furthermore, most hypersaline environments, as topographical minima, are natural collectors of cellular debris. Thus halophiles would in theory be exposed to a greater diversity and quantity of extracellular DNA than thermophiles.

  17. MILLIMETER-SCALE GENETIC GRADIENTS AND COMMUNITY-LEVEL MOLECULAR CONVERGENCE IN A HYPERSALINE MICROBIAL MAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner, Marsha W; Kunin, Victor; Raes, Jeroen; Harris, J. Kirk; Spear, John R.; Walker, Jeffrey J.; Ivanova, Natalia; Mering, Christian von; Bebout, Brad M.; Pace, Norman R.; Bork, Peer; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-04-30

    To investigate the extent of genetic stratification in structured microbial communities, we compared the metagenomes of 10 successive layers of a phylogenetically complex hypersaline mat from Guerrero Negro, Mexico. We found pronounced millimeter-scale genetic gradients that are consistent with the physicochemical profile of the mat. Despite these gradients, all layers displayed near identical and acid-shifted isoelectric point profiles due to a molecular convergence of amino acid usage indicating that hypersalinity enforces an overriding selective pressure on the mat community.

  18. Role of the Group 2 Mrp sodium/proton antiporter in rapid response to high alkaline shock in the alkaline- and salt-tolerant Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Qin, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Kai-Duan; Nie, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2018-04-01

    The six- and seven-subunit Na + /H + antiporters (Mrp) are widely distributed in bacteria. They are reported to be integral for pH homeostasis in alkaliphilic bacteria when adapting to high pH environments. In this study, operons encoding for the six-subunit Na + /H + antiporters were found in the genomes of all studied Dietzia strains, which have different alkaline-resistant abilities. Disruption of the operon in the strain Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b which leads to declined growth in presence of hypersaline and alkaline conditions suggested that the six-subunit Na + /H + antiporter played an important role in hypersaline and alkaline resistance. Although the complexes DqMrp from DQ12-45-1b (strain with high alkaline resistance) and DaMrp from D. alimentaria 72 T (strain with low alkaline resistance) displayed Na + (Li + )/H + antiport activities, they functioned optimally at different pH levels (9.0 for DQ12-45-1b and 8.0 for 72 T ). While both antiporters functioned properly to protect Escherichia coli cells from salt shock, only the DqMrp-containing strain survived the high alkaline shock. Furthermore, real-time PCR results showed that the expression of mrpA and mrpD induced only immediately after DQ12-45-1b cells were subjected to the alkaline shock. These results suggested that the expression of DqMrp might be induced by a pH gradient across the cell membrane, and DqMrp mainly functioned at an early stage to respond to the alkaline shock.

  19. Lipid Biomarkers for a Hypersaline Microbial Mat Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda; Orphan, Victoria; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra; Kubo, Mike; Summons, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The use of lipid biomarkers and their carbon isotopic compositions are valuable tools for establishing links to ancient microbial ecosystems. Various lipids associated with specific microbial groups can serve as biomarkers for establishing organism source and function in contemporary microbial ecosystems (membrane lipids), and by analogy, potential relevance to ancient organic-rich sedimentary rocks (geolipids). As witnessed by the stromatolite record, benthic microbial mats grew in shallow water lagoonal environments. Our recent work has focused on lipid biomarker analysis of a potential analogue for such ancient mats growing in a set of hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The aerobic, surface layer of this mat (0 to 1 mm) contained a variety of ester-bound fatty acids (FA) representing a diverse bacterial population including cyanobacteria, sulphate reducers (SRB) and heterotrophs. Biomarkers for microeukaryotes detected in this layer included sterols, C-20 polyunsaturated FA and a highly branched isoprenoid, diagnostic for diatoms. Cyanobacteria were also indicated by the presence of a diagnostic set of mid-chain methylalkanes. C-28, to C-34 wax esters (WXE) present in relatively small amounts in the upper 3 mm of the mat are considered biomarkers for green non-sulphur bacteria. Ether-bound isoprenoids were also identified although in considerably lower abundance than ester-bound FA (approx. 1:l0). These complex ether lipids included archatol, hydroxyarchaeol and a C-40 tetraether, all in small amounts. After ether cleavage with boron tribromide, the major recovered isoprenyl was a C-30:1. This C(sub 30;1) yelded squalane after hydrogenation, a known geobiomarker for hypersaline environments in ancient oils and sediments. In this mat, it represents the dominant Archaeal population. The carbon isotopic composition of biomarker lipids were generally depleted relative to the bulk organic material (delta C-13 TOC -10%). Most

  20. Natronospira proteinivora gen. nov., sp. nov, an extremely salt-tolerant, alkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium from hypersaline soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kublanov, Ilya V; Khijniak, Tatiana V

    2017-08-01

    Brine samples from Kulunda Steppe soda lakes (Altai, Russia) were inoculated into a hypersaline alkaline mineral medium with β-keratin (chicken feather) as a substrate. The micro-organisms dominating the enrichment culture were isolated by limiting serial dilution on the same medium with casein as a substrate. The cells of strain BSker1T were motile, curved rods. The strain was an obligately aerobic heterotroph utilizing proteins and peptides as growth substrates. The isolate was an obligate alkaliphile with a pH range for growth from pH 8.5 to 10.25 (optimum at pH 9.5), and it was extremely salt tolerant, growing with between 1 and 4.5 M total Na+ (optimally at 2-2.5 M). BSker1T had a unique composition of polar lipid fatty acids, dominated by two C17 species. The membrane polar lipids included multiple unidentified phospholipids and two aminolipids. According to phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the isolate forms a novel branch within the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae (class Gammaproteobacteria) with the highest sequence similarity to the members of this family being 91 %. On the basis of distinct phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain BSker1T (=JCM 31341T=UNIQEM U1008T) is proposed to be classified as a representative of a novel genus and species, Natronospira proteinivora gen. nov., sp. nov.

  1. Field observations of hypersaline runoff through a shallow estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Taleb; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates a rare situation at the Mond River Estuary in the Persian Gulf, in which the classical estuarine density gradient coincides with hypersaline runoff entering from saline soils upstream of the estuary after severe precipitation. This builds a unique estuarine setting, where two salt water masses, one originating from the coastal ocean and the other being discharged from upstream confine a range of almost freshwater in the middle of estuary. This "freshwater lens estuary" (FLE) situation includes two saltwater sources with opposing senses of estuarine circulation. Therefore, the tidal damping by the strong river flood can occur, especially during neap tide when high Unsteadiness number (∼0.04) signified ebb oriented condition which was induced by straining residual lateral circulation near the FLE mouth. Transition from well-mixed to weak strain induced periodic stratification regimes indicated the importance of the spring-neap tidal variations. Close to the mouth, a 13.66-day periodic tidal asymmetry from the triad K1-O1-M2 (ebb-dominance during spring tide and flood-dominance in neap tide) was overcome by higher harmonics.

  2. Microbial stratification and microbially catalyzed processes along a hypersaline chemocline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, A.; Joye, S. B.; Teske, A.

    2017-12-01

    Orca Basin is the largest deep hypersaline anoxic basin in the world, covering over 400 km2. Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico, this body of water reaches depths of 200 meters and is 8 times denser (and more saline) than the overlying seawater. The sharp pycnocline prevents any significant vertical mixing and serves as a particle trap for sinking organic matter. These rapid changes in salinity, oxygen, organic matter, and other geochemical parameters present unique conditions for the microbial communities present. We collected samples in 10m intervals throughout the chemocline. After filtering the water, we used high-throughput bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the changing microbial community along the Orca Basin chemocline. The results reveal a dominance of microbial taxa whose biogeochemical function is entirely unknown. We then used metagenomic sequencing and reconstructed genomes for select samples, revealing the potential dominant metabolic processes in the Orca Basin chemocline. Understanding how these unique geochemical conditions shape microbial communities and metabolic capabilities will have implications for the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and the consequences of expanding oxygen minimum zones.

  3. Mechanisms of fenthion activation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to hypersaline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavado, Ramon; Rimoldi, John M.; Schlenk, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in rainbow trout have shown that acclimation to hypersaline environments enhances the toxicity to thioether organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. In order to determine the role of biotransformation in this process, the metabolism of the thioether organophosphate biocide, fenthion was evaluated in microsomes from gills, liver and olfactory tissues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to freshwater and 17 per mille salinity. Hypersalinity acclimation increased the formation of fenoxon and fenoxon sulfoxide from fenthion in liver microsomes from rainbow trout, but not in gills or in olfactory tissues. NADPH-dependent and independent hydrolysis was observed in all tissues, but only NADPH-dependent fenthion cleavage was differentially modulated by hypersalinity in liver (inhibited) and gills (induced). Enantiomers of fenthion sulfoxide (65% and 35% R- and S-fenthion sulfoxide, respectively) were formed in liver and gills. The predominant pathway of fenthion activation in freshwater appears to be initiated through initial formation of fenoxon which may be subsequently converted to the most toxic metabolite fenoxon R-sulfoxide. However, in hypersaline conditions both fenoxon and fenthion sulfoxide formation may precede fenoxon sulfoxide formation. Stereochemical evaluation of sulfoxide formation, cytochrome P450 inhibition studies with ketoconazole and immunoblots indicated that CYP3A27 was primarily involved in the enhancement of fenthion activation in hypersaline-acclimated fish with limited contribution of FMO to initial sulfoxidation

  4. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dafni Vavourakis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still uncultured poly-extremophiles compared to neutral brines of similar salinities. We present the first ‘metagenomic snapshots’ of microbial communities thriving in the brines of four shallow soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia covering a salinity range from 170 to 400 g/L. Both amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments and direct metagenomic sequencing showed that the top-level taxa abundance was linked to the ambient salinity: Bacteroidetes, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant below a salinity of 250 g/L, Euryarchaeota at higher salinities. Within these taxa, amplicon sequences related to Halorubrum, Natrinema, Gracilimonas, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter and Rhodobaca and chemolithotrophic sulfur oxidizers (Thioalkalivibrio were highly abundant. Twenty-four draft population genomes from novel members and ecotypes within the Nanohaloarchaea, Halobacteria and Bacteroidetes were reconstructed to explore their metabolic features, environmental abundance and strategies for osmotic adaptation. The Halobacteria- and Bacteroidetes-related draft genomes belong to putative aerobic heterotrophs, likely with the capacity to ferment sugars in the absence of oxygen. Members from both taxonomic groups are likely involved in primary organic carbon degradation, since some of the reconstructed genomes encode the ability to hydrolyze recalcitrant substrates, such as cellulose and chitin. Putative sodium-pumping rhodopsins were found in both a Flavobacteriaceae- and a Chitinophagaceae-related draft genome. The predicted proteomes of both the latter and a Rhodothermaceae-related draft genome were indicative of a

  5. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev [Latham, NY

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  6. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and…

  7. The genus Eurotium - members of indigenous fungal community in hypersaline waters of salterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butinar, Lorena; Zalar, Polona; Frisvad, Jens C; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2005-01-01

    Six different species of the known teleomorphic food-borne xerophilic genus Eurotium were repeatedly isolated in a mycodiversity study of hypersaline waters. At salinities above 17% NaCl, E. amstelodami was detected most consistently, followed by E. repens and E. herbariorum, while E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and a potentially new species, "Eurotium halotolerans", were detected only occasionally at lower salinities. The qualitative secondary metabolite profiles produced by Eurotium spp. from salterns were not different from those of Eurotium spp. from foods and other habitats. Spatiotemporal frequency of occurrence and in vitro determined adaptive ability of propagules to survive prolonged exposure to hypersaline conditions indicate that E. amstelodami, E. herbariorum, and E. repens contribute to the indigenous fungal community in hypersaline water environments, while E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and "E. halotolerans" are only temporal inhabitants of brine at lower salinities.

  8. Microbial fuel cells in saline and hypersaline environments: Advancements, challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Minteer, Shelley D

    2018-04-01

    This review is aimed to report the possibility to utilize microbial fuel cells for the treatment of saline and hypersaline solutions. An introduction to the issues related with the biological treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewater is reported, discussing the limitation that characterizes classical aerobic and anaerobic digestions. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, and the possibility to be applied in the presence of high salinity, is discussed before reviewing the most recent advancements in the development of MFCs operating in saline and hypersaline conditions, with their different and interesting applications. Specifically, the research performed in the last 5years will be the main focus of this review. Finally, the future perspectives for this technology, together with the most urgent research needs, are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Geo- and Biogeochemical Processes in a Heliothermal Hypersaline Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Moran, James J.; Resch, Charles T.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Cory, Alexandra B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2016-03-17

    Water chemical variations were investigated over three annual hydrologic cycles in hypersaline, heliothermal, meromictic Hot Lake in north-central Washington State, USA. The lake, originally studied by Anderson (1958), contains diverse biota with dramatic zonation related to salinity and redox state. Water samples were collected at 10 cm depth intervals through the shallow lake (2.4 m) at a consistent location during 2012-2014, with comprehensive monitoring performed in 2013. Inorganic salt species, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved carbon forms (DOC, DIC), oxygen, sulfide, and methane were analyzed in lake water samples. Depth sonde measurements of pH and temperature were also performed to track their seasonal variations. A bathymetric survey of the lake was conducted to enable lake water volume and solute inventory calculations. Sediment cores were collected at low water and analyzed by x-ray diffraction to investigate sediment mineralogy. The primary dissolved salt in Hot Lake water was Mg2+-SO42- while sediments were dominated by gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O). Lake water concentrations increased with depth to reach saturation with epsomite that was exposed at lake bottom. At maximum volume in spring, Hot Lake exhibited a relatively dilute mixolimnion containing phyto- and zooplankton; a lower saline metalimnion with stratified oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthetic microbiologic communities; and a stable, hypersaline monimolimnion, separated from above layers by a chemocline, containing high levels of sulfide and methane. The thickness of the mixolimnion regulates a heliothermal effect which creates temperatures in excess of 60 oC in the underlying metalimnion and monimolimnion. The mixolimnion was dynamic and actively mixed. It displayed large pH variations, in-situ calcium carbonate precipitation, and large evaporative volume losses. The depletion of this ephemeral layer by fall allowed deeper mixing into the volume-stable lower mixolimnion, more rapid heat

  10. Diversity and stratification of archaea in a hypersaline microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles E; Spear, John R; Harris, J Kirk; Pace, Norman R

    2009-04-01

    The Guerrero Negro (GN) hypersaline microbial mats have become one focus for biogeochemical studies of stratified ecosystems. The GN mats are found beneath several of a series of ponds of increasing salinity that make up a solar saltern fed from Pacific Ocean water pumped from the Laguna Ojo de Liebre near GN, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Molecular surveys of the laminated photosynthetic microbial mat below the fourth pond in the series identified an enormous diversity of bacteria in the mat, but archaea have received little attention. To determine the bulk contribution of archaeal phylotypes to the pond 4 study site, we determined the phylogenetic distribution of archaeal rRNA gene sequences in PCR libraries based on nominally universal primers. The ratios of bacterial/archaeal/eukaryotic rRNA genes, 90%/9%/1%, suggest that the archaeal contribution to the metabolic activities of the mat may be significant. To explore the distribution of archaea in the mat, sequences derived using archaeon-specific PCR primers were surveyed in 10 strata of the 6-cm-thick mat. The diversity of archaea overall was substantial albeit less than the diversity observed previously for bacteria. Archaeal diversity, mainly euryarchaeotes, was highest in the uppermost 2 to 3 mm of the mat and decreased rapidly with depth, where crenarchaeotes dominated. Only 3% of the sequences were specifically related to known organisms including methanogens. While some mat archaeal clades corresponded with known chemical gradients, others did not, which is likely explained by heretofore-unrecognized gradients. Some clades did not segregate by depth in the mat, indicating broad metabolic repertoires, undersampling, or both.

  11. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  12. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  13. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  14. Methanogens in hypersaline environments and their substrates for methane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, J. A.; Kelley, C. A.; Chanton, J.; Tazaz, A.; Bebout, B.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of our study was to determine the dominant substrates being used by methanogens in salt ponds in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. These are extreme environments that have been used as analogs for ancient life, terrestrial and extraterrestrial. Microbial mat and/or sediments from the ponds, amended either with site water only (controls) or with site water and various substrates, were incubated in N2 flushed serum vials. We hypothesized that trimethylamine, a degradation product of the osmoregulant glycine betaine, would be a dominant substrate in all ponds, as has been previously reported. Additionally we incubated with methanol, dimethylsulfide, monomethylamine, bicarbonate, and acetate, all reported to be substrates of great importance in other hypersaline environments. Concentrations of methane in the vial headspaces were monitored through time to obtain methane production rates. As expected, trimethylamine stimulated methane production over the controls in all incubations. Dimethylsulfide and methanol also stimulated methane production; the former increased methane production in the lowest salinity pond (55 ppt salinity) and the latter at one of the highest salinity ponds (184 ppt salinity). In addition to methane production data, stable carbon isotopic values of the methane in methane-rich bubbles collected at the sites as well as in the particulate organic carbon (POC) of the microbial mat/sediment were obtained. Fractionation factors, a measure of the isotopic differences between methane and substrate, can help indicate dominant substrates. Published fractionation factors differ depending on the substrate used and increase in the following order of use by methanogens: acetate, dimethylsulfide, CO2 reduction/trimethylamine and methanol. Since trimethylamine was used as a substrate at all of these sites, high fractionation factors in the range of 1.05 to 1.07 (the published range for trimethylamine) were expected. However, the apparent

  15. Two novel Aspergillus species from hypersaline soils of The National Park of Lake Urmia, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arzanlou, M.; Samadi, R.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    Two novel Aspergillus species, one belonging to the section Terrei and the other to section Flavipedes, were isolated from hypersaline soils of The National Park of Lake Urmia (Iran) and are here described as Aspergillus iranicus and Aspergillus urmiensis. A polyphasic taxonomic approach comprising...

  16. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline

  17. A Modeling Comparison of Methanogenesis from Noncompetitive vs Competitive Substrates in a Simulated Hypersaline Microbial Mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, K. L.; Potter, C.; Hoehler, T.

    2005-12-01

    The well-documented assumption about methanogens that co-occur in hypersaline mat communities with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is that they rely entirely on non-competitive substrates for methanogenesis. The reason for this is that during sulfate reduction, sulfur-reducing bacteria efficiently utilize H2, leaving a concentration too low for methanogenesis. Early results from recent work on a hypersaline microbial mat from salt evaporation ponds of Guerrero Negro, Baja, Mexico cast doubt that methanogenesis only occurs via non-competitive substrates, because it shows an excess of H2 in the mat rather than a paucity. We explore the use of our simulation model of the microbial biogeochemistry of a hypersaline mat (named MBGC) to compare methane production rates in a 1 cm thick mat when the methanogens use competitive substrates versus noncompetitive substrates. In the `non-competitive substrate' version of the model, methanogens rely exclusively on methylated amines that are accumulated as compatible solutes in cyanobacteria and released after lysis. In contrast, the `competitive substrate' models examine methanogen use of substrates (such as H2 + acetate) with different SRB population sizes (from absent to low). The comparison of these models of methane and sulfide biogeochemistry of a hypersaline mat has both ecological and geobiological significance, as one hypothesis of Archean microbial mats is that they existed in a low sulfate environment.

  18. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. 172.834 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.834 Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. The food additive ethoxylated mono-and diglycerides (polyoxyethylene (20) mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids) (polyglycerate...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Mono- and diglycerides. 184.1505 Section 184.1505... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1505 Mono- and diglycerides. (a) Mono- and diglycerides consist of a mixture of glyceryl mono- and diesters, and minor amounts of triesters, that are...

  20. Sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation under extremely natron-alkaline conditions by syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Abbas, B.; Tourova, T.P.; Bumazhkin, B.K.; Kolganova, T.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2014-01-01

    So far, anaerobic sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation at high pH has only been demonstrated for a low-salt-tolerant syntrophic association of a clostridium ‘Candidatus Contubernalis alkalaceticum’ and its hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing partner Desulfonatronum cooperativum. Anaerobic enrichments

  1. Alkaline phosphatase: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ujjawal; Pal, Deeksha; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; E.C.3.I.3.1.) is an ubiquitous membrane-bound glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters at basic pH values. Alkaline phosphatase is divided into four isozymes depending upon the site of tissue expression that are Intestinal ALP, Placental ALP, Germ cell ALP and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase or liver/bone/kidney (L/B/K) ALP. The intestinal and placental ALP loci are located near the end of long arm of chromosome 2 and L/B/K ALP is located near the end of the short arm of chromosome 1. Although ALPs are present in many mammalian tissues and have been studied for the last several years still little is known about them. The bone isoenzyme may be involved in mammalian bone calcification and the intestinal isoenzyme is thought to play a role in the transport of phosphate into epithelial cells of the intestine. In this review, we tried to provide an overview about the various forms, structure and functions of alkaline phosphatase with special focus on liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase.

  2. Brackish to hypersaline lake dolostones of the Mississippian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carys; Kearsey, Timothy; Davies, Sarah; Millward, David; Marshall, John

    2016-04-01

    , and 9% of all dolostone beds in the Norham Core are pedogenically altered. The isotopic composition of dolomite beds is δ18O -3.6‰ to -1.7‰ and δ13C -2.6‰ to 1.6‰ which is consistent with a brackish as opposed to marine origin. The dolostones are categorised by their sedimentary composition: Facies 1: Cemented siltstone and sandstone; Facies 2: Homogeneous micrite to micro-crystaline dolomite, within a clay matrix; Facies 3: Bedded dolomite and siltstone; Facies 4: Mixed calcite and dolomite; Facies 5: Dolomite with gypsum and anhydrite. Formation processes are diverse, and include diagenetic cementation (Facies 1), deposition in saline (brackish) lakes (Facies 2), deposition in saline lakes with clastic sediment input (Facies 3), lagoonal to shallow-marine carbonate deposition (Facies 4), and hypersaline lake to sabkha environments (Facies 5). 60% of the beds are facies 2 or 3 and their sedimentology, fauna, ichnofauna and isotopic composition indicate a brackish-water origin. Other Mississippian dolostones from around the world also contain a fairly restricted fauna and have been interpreted as brackish water deposits. The mechanism of dolomite formation under these conditions is discussed. These dolostones provided extensive coastal lakes that may have been an important habitat for tetrapods and other transitional groups during the Mississippian.

  3. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Stefania; Salvi, Paolo; Nelli, Paolo; Pesenti, Rachele; Villa, Marco; Berrettoni, Mario; Zangari, Giovanni; Kiros, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    A short review on the fundamental and technological issues relevant to water electrolysis in alkaline and proton exchange membrane (PEM) devices is given. Due to price and limited availability of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts they currently employ, PEM electrolyzers have scant possibilities of being employed in large-scale hydrogen production. The importance and recent advancements in the development of catalysts without PGMs are poised to benefit more the field of alkaline electrolysis rather than that of PEM devices. This paper presents our original data which demonstrate that an advanced alkaline electrolyzer with performances rivaling those of PEM electrolyzers can be made without PGM and with catalysts of high stability and durability. Studies on the advantages/limitations of electrolyzers with different architectures do show how a judicious application of pressure differentials in a recirculating electrolyte scheme helps reduce mass transport limitations, increasing efficiency and power density.

  4. [Advances of alkaline amylase production and applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-04-01

    Alkaline amylase is one of alkaline enzymes with optimum pH in the alkaline range, and it could keep stability and efficiently hydrolyze starch under alkaline conditions. Alkaline amylase finds wide applications in textile, detergent, pharmaceutical, food and other fields. Alkaline amylases could be produced by alkaliphilic microorganisms. In this work, the advances of alkaline amylase production and applications were reviewed.

  5. Hypersaline waters - a potential source of foodborne toxigenic aspergilli and penicillia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butinar, Lorena; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of hypersaline environments have revealed the dominant presence of melanized yeast-like fungi and related Cladosporium spp. In this study, we focused on the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and their teleomorphic forms. From oligotrophic and eutrophic hypersaline waters around ......, marine salt used for consumption can be a potential source of food-borne fungi and their byproducts. For example, ochratoxin-A-producing species Penicillium nordicum was recovered from brine, salt and salted meat products....... herbariorum, as they were quite evenly distributed among the sampled sites, and Aspergillus candidus, which was abundant, but more locally distributed. These species and their byproducts can accumulate downstream following evaporation of brine, and they can become entrapped in the salt crystals. Consequently...

  6. Geophysical Investigations of Hypersaline Subglacial Water Systems in the Canadian Arctic: A Planetary Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, A.; Sharp, M. J.; Blankenship, D. D.; Skidmore, M. L.; Grima, C.; Schroeder, D. M.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Young, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Robotic exploration and remote sensing of the solar system have identified the presence of liquid water beneath ice on several planetary bodies, with evidence for elevated salinity in certain cases. Subglacial water systems beneath Earth's glaciers and ice sheets may provide terrestrial analogs for microbial habitats in such extreme environments, especially those with higher salinity. Geological data suggest that several ice caps and glaciers in the eastern Canadian High Arctic are partially underlain by evaporite-rich sedimentary rocks, and subglacial weathering of these rocks is potentially conducive to the formation of hypersaline subglacial waters. Here, we combine airborne geophysical data with geological constraints to identify and characterize hypersaline subglacial water systems beneath ice caps in Canada's Queen Elizabeth Islands. High relative bedrock reflectivity and specularity anomalies that are apparent in radio-echo sounding data indicate multiple locations where subglacial water is present in areas where modeled ice temperatures at the glacier bed are well below the pressure melting point. This suggests that these water systems are hypersaline, with solute concentrations that significantly depress the freezing point of water. From combined interpretations of geological and airborne-magnetic data, we define the geological context within which these systems have developed, and identify possible solute-sources for the inferred brine-rich water systems. We also derive subglacial hydraulic potential gradients using airborne laser altimetry and ice thickness data, and apply water routing models to derive subglacial drainage pathways. These allow us to identify marine-terminating glaciers where outflow of the brine-rich waters may be anticipated. These hypersaline subglacial water systems beneath Canadian Arctic ice caps and glaciers may represent robust microbial habitats, and potential analogs for brines that may exist beneath ice masses on planetary

  7. Diversity and Distribution in Hypersaline Microbial Mats of Bacteria Related to Chloroflexus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nübel, Ulrich; Bateson, Mary M.; Madigan, Michael T.; Kühl, Michael; Ward, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria containing bacteriochlorophylls c and a were enriched from hypersaline microbial mats. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences, these organisms form a previously undescribed lineage distantly related to Chloroflexus spp. We developed and tested a set of PCR primers for the specific amplification of 16S rRNA genes from filamentous phototrophic bacteria within the kingdom of “green nonsulfur bacteria.” PCR products recovered from microbial mats in a salter...

  8. Microbial Diversity of the Hypersaline Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes of the Algerian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Boutaiba, Saad; Hacene, Hocine; Bidle, Kelly A.; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial populations within hypersaline lakes often exhibit high activities of photosynthesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and other processes and, thus, can have profound impacts on biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other important elements within arid lands. To further understand these types of ecosystems, the physicochemical and biological properties of Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes in the Algerian Sahara were examined and compared. Both lakes were relativel...

  9. Trophic ecology and food consumption of fishes in a hypersaline tropical lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, P H; Tubino, R A; Zambrano, L C; Hunder, D A; Garritano, S R; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the trophic ecology (diet composition, trophic strategy, similarities and overlap between species, feeding period and food consumption) of six benthivorous fish species in Araruama Lagoon, the largest hypersaline tropical lagoon on the east coast of South America, with an area of 210 km(2) and an average salinity of 52. The burrfish Chilomycterus spinosus fed on Anomalocardia flexuosa shell deposits, ingesting associated fauna. The caitipa mojarra Diapterus rhombeus differed from all other species, having not only the highest proportions of algae and Nematoda, but also feeding on polychaete tentacles. The two mojarras Eucinostomus spp. showed similar trophic strategies, feeding mostly on Polychaeta. The corocoro grunt Orthopristis ruber also fed mainly on Polychaeta, but differed from Eucinostomus spp. in secondary items. The whitemouth croacker Micropogonias furnieri fed mainly on small Crustacea at night, showing a high number of secondary prey items with low frequencies and high prey-specific abundance. The daily food consumption (g food g(-1) fish mass) for Eucinostomus argenteus was 0·012 and was 0·031 and 0·027 for M. furnieri in two different sampling events. The diet similarities between Araruama Lagoon and other brackish and marine environments indicate that hypersalinity is not a predominant factor shaping the trophic ecology of fishes in this lagoon. The stability of hypersaline conditions, without a pronounced gradient, may explain the presence of several euryhaline fishes and invertebrates well adapted to this condition, resulting in a complex food web. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. A case for the protection of saline and hypersaline environments: a microbiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Varun G; Mormile, Melanie R

    2017-08-01

    Saline and hypersaline environments are known for their unique geochemical properties, microbial populations and aesthetic appeal. Microbial activities and a spectrum of diversity seen in hypersaline environments are distinct with many novel species being identified and reported on a regular basis. Many distinguishing characteristics about the adaptation, morphology, evolutionary history, and potential environmental and biotechnological applications of these organisms are continually investigated. An abundance of interdisciplinary activities and opportunities exist to explore and understand the importance of these environments that potentially hold promising solutions for current and future global issues. Therefore, it is critical to conserve these unique environments and limit the damage inflicted by anthropogenic influences. Increased salinization due to water diversions, undesired freshening, extensive mineral extraction, sewage effluents, pollution due to agricultural runoff and industrial processes, urbanization, and global climate change are factors negatively affecting hypersaline lakes and their surrounding environments. If these harmful effects continue to proceed at the current or even accelerated rates, irrevocable consequences for these environments will occur, resulting in the loss of potential opportunities to gain new knowledge of the biogeochemistry as well as beneficial microbial populations closely associated with these unique and interesting environments. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Organismal and spatial partitioning of energy and macronutrient transformations within a hypersaline mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobberley, Jennifer M.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Moran, James J.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome; Hu, Dehong; Beyenal, Haluk; Nelson, William C.

    2017-03-21

    Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms, however little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity, and metabolic gradient measurements. Draft reconstructed genomes of abundant organisms revealed three dominant cyanobacterial populations differentially distributed across the top layers of the mat suggesting niche separation along light and oxygen gradients. Many organisms contained diverse functional profiles, allowing for metabolic response to changing conditions within the mat. Organisms with partial nitrogen and sulfur metabolisms were widespread indicating dependence upon metabolite exchange. In addition, changes in community spatial structure were observed over the diel. These results indicate that organisms within the mat community have adapted to the temporally dynamic environmental gradients in this hypersaline mat through metabolic flexibility and fluid syntrophic interactions, including shifts in spatial arrangements.

  12. Microbial Diversity in a Hypersaline Sulfate Lake: A Terrestrial Analog of Ancient Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pontefract

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Life can persist under severe osmotic stress and low water activity in hypersaline environments. On Mars, evidence for the past presence of saline bodies of water is prevalent and resulted in the widespread deposition of sulfate and chloride salts. Here we investigate Spotted Lake (British Columbia, Canada, a hypersaline lake with extreme (>3 M levels of sulfate salts as an exemplar of the conditions thought to be associated with ancient Mars. We provide the first characterization of microbial structure in Spotted Lake sediments through metagenomic sequencing, and report a bacteria-dominated community with abundant Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, as well as diverse extremophiles. Microbial abundance and functional comparisons reveal similarities to Ace Lake, a meromictic Antarctic lake with anoxic and sulfidic bottom waters. Our analysis suggests that hypersaline-associated species occupy niches characterized foremost by differential abundance of Archaea, uncharacterized Bacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Potential biosignatures in this environment are discussed, specifically the likelihood of a strong sulfur isotopic fractionation record within the sediments due to the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria. With its high sulfate levels and seasonal freeze-thaw cycles, Spotted Lake is an analog for ancient paleolakes on Mars in which sulfate salt deposits may have offered periodically habitable environments, and could have concentrated and preserved organic materials or their biomarkers over geologic time.

  13. Microbial community structure and diversity within hypersaline Keke Salt Lake environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Jing; Long, Qifu; Chen, Laisheng; Liu, Deli; Zhu, Derui

    2017-11-01

    Keke Salt Lake is located in the Qaidamu Basin of China. It is a unique magnesium sulfate-subtype hypersaline lake that exhibits a halite domain ecosystem, yet its microbial diversity has remained unstudied. Here, the microbial community structure and diversity was investigated via high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA genes. A high diversity of operational taxonomic units was detected for Bacteria and Archaea (734 and 747, respectively), comprising 21 phyla, 43 classes, and 201 genera of Bacteria and 4 phyla, 4 classes, and 39 genera of Archaea. Salt-saturated samples were dominated by the bacterial genera Bacillus (51.52%-58.35% relative abundance), Lactococcus (9.52%-10.51%), and Oceanobacillus (8.82%-9.88%) within the Firmicutes phylum (74.81%-80.99%), contrasting with other hypersaline lakes. The dominant Archaea belonged to the Halobacteriaceae family, and in particular, the genera (with an abundance of >10% of communities) Halonotius, Halorubellus, Halapricum, Halorubrum, and Natronomonas. Additionally, we report the presence of Nanohaloarchaeota and Woesearchaeota in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau lakes, which has not been previously documented. Total salinity (especially Mg 2+ , Cl - , Na + , and K + ) mostly correlated with taxonomic distribution across samples. These results expand our understanding of microbial resource utilization within hypersaline lakes and the potential adaptations of dominant microorganisms that allow them to inhabit such environments.

  14. Organismal and spatial partitioning of energy and macronutrient transformations within a hypersaline mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobberley, Jennifer M.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Moran, James J.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome; Hu, Dehong; Beyenal, Haluk; Nelson, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms; however, little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity and metabolic gradient measurements. Draft reconstructed genomes of 34 abundant organisms revealed three dominant cyanobacterial populations differentially distributed across the top layers of the mat suggesting niche separation along light and oxygen gradients. Many organisms contained diverse functional profiles, allowing for metabolic response to changing conditions within the mat. Organisms with partial nitrogen and sulfur metabolisms were widespread indicating dependence on metabolite exchange. In addition, changes in community spatial structure were observed over the diel. These results indicate that organisms within the mat community have adapted to the temporally dynamic environmental gradients in this hypersaline mat through metabolic flexibility and fluid syntrophic interactions, including shifts in spatial arrangements. PMID:28334407

  15. Identification and characterization of bacteria in a selenium-contaminated hypersaline evaporation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M P; Amini, A; Dojka, M A; Pickering, I J; Dawson, S C; Pace, N R; Terry , N

    2001-09-01

    Solar evaporation ponds are commonly used to reduce the volume of seleniferous agricultural drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. These hypersaline ponds pose an environmental health hazard because they are heavily contaminated with selenium (Se), mainly in the form of selenate. Se in the ponds may be removed by microbial Se volatilization, a bioremediation process whereby toxic, bioavailable selenate is converted to relatively nontoxic dimethylselenide gas. In order to identify microbes that may be used for Se bioremediation, a 16S ribosomal DNA phylogenetic analysis of an aerobic hypersaline pond in the San Joaquin Valley showed that a previously unaffiliated group of uncultured bacteria (belonging to the order Cytophagales) was dominant, followed by a group of cultured gamma-Proteobacteria which was closely related to Halomonas species. Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of selenate-treated bacterial isolates showed that they accumulated a mixture of predominantly selenate and a selenomethionine-like species, consistent with the idea that selenate was assimilated via the S assimilation pathway. One of these bacterial isolates (Halomonas-like strain MPD-51) was the best candidate for the bioremediation of hypersaline evaporation ponds contaminated with high Se concentrations because it tolerated 2 M selenate and 32.5% NaCl, grew rapidly in media containing selenate, and accumulated and volatilized Se at high rates (1.65 microg of Se g of protein(-1) x h(-1)), compared to other cultured bacterial isolates.

  16. The density-driven circulation of the coastal hypersaline system of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamena, Gerry G; Martins, Flávio; Ridd, Peter V

    2016-04-15

    The coastal hypersaline system of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in the dry season, was investigated for the first time using a 3D baroclinic model. In the shallow coastal embayments, salinity increases to c.a. 1‰ above typical offshore salinity (~35.4‰). This salinity increase is due to high evaporation rates and negligible freshwater input. The hypersalinity drifts longshore north-westward due to south-easterly trade winds and may eventually pass capes or headlands, e.g. Cape Cleveland, where the water is considerably deeper (c.a. 15m). Here, a pronounced thermohaline circulation is predicted to occur which flushes the hypersalinity offshore at velocities of up to 0.08m/s. Flushing time of the coastal embayments is around 2-3weeks. During the dry season early summer, the thermohaline circulation reduces and therefore, flushing times are predicted to be slight longer due to the reduced onshore-offshore density gradient compared to that in the dry season winter period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tubes, Mono Jets, Squeeze Out and CME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longacre, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-10-23

    Glasma Flux Tubes, Mono Jets with squeeze out flow around them plus the Chiral Magnetic Effect(CME) are physical phenomenon that generate two particle correlation with respect to the reaction plane in mid-central 20% to 30% Au-Au collision √sNN = 200.0 GeV measured at RHIC.

  18. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of mono- and bissalicylic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurendić Evgenija A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthesis of mono- and bis-salicylic acid derivatives 1-10 by the transesterification of methyl salicylate (methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate with 3-oxapentane-1,5-diol, 3,6- dioxaoctane-1,8-diol, 3,6,9-trioxaundecane-1,11-diol, propane-1,2-diol or 1-aminopropan- 2-ol in alkaline conditions is reported. All compounds were tested in vitro on three malignant cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, PC-3 and one non-tumor cell line (MRC- 5. Strong cytotoxicity against prostate PC-3 cancer cells expressed compounds 3, 4, 6, 9 and 10, all with the IC50 less than 10 μmol/L, which were 11-27 times higher than the cytotoxicity of antitumor drug doxorubicin. All tested compounds were not toxic against the non-tumor MRC-5 cell line. Antioxidant activity of the synthesized derivatives was also evaluated. Compounds 2, 5 and 8 were better OH radical scavengers than commercial antioxidants BHT and BHA. The synthesized compounds showed satisfactory scavenger activity, which was studied by QSAR modeling. A good correlation between the experimental variables IC50 DPPH and IC50 OH and MTI (molecular topological indices molecular descriptors and CAA (accessible Connolly solvent surface area for the new compounds 1, 3, and 5 was observed.

  19. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyglycerin mono(4...

  20. Plasma etching on large-area mono-, multi- and quasi-mono crystalline silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    for their 16.8% efficient black Si cell using a metal-assisted, chemical etching method on FZ mono-crystalline Si substrates. Yoo et al. [4] use RIE similar to this work on large-area, multi-crystalline Si cells and achieve a 16.1% efficiency despite a relatively high reflectance of 13.3%. Despite several...... using maskless RIE in a O2 and SF6 plasma, and the surface topology was optimized for solar cell applications by varying gas flows, pressure, power and process time. The starting substrates were 156x156 mm p-type, CZ mono-, multi- and quasi-mono crystalline Si wafers, respectively, with a thickness...... of 200 μm. Reflectance measurements of the RIE-textured mono-, multi and quasi-mono Si surfaces were performed using a broadband lightsource (Mikropack DH-2000), an integrating sphere (Mikropack ISP-30-6-R), and a spectrometer (Ocean Optics QE65000, 280-1000 nm). The reference solar spectral irradiance...

  1. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  2. Preserving the world second largest hypersaline lake under future irrigation and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadkam, Somayeh; Ludwig, Fulco; van Vliet, Michelle T H; Pastor, Amandine; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-07-15

    Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hypersaline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster. To rescue the lake a new water management plan has been proposed, a rapid 40% decline in irrigation water use replacing a former plan which intended to develop reservoirs and irrigation. However, none of these water management plans, which have large socio-economic impacts, have been assessed under future changes in climate and water availability. By adapting a method of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for hypersaline lakes, we estimated annually 3.7·10(9)m(3) water is needed to preserve Urmia Lake. Then, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was forced with bias-corrected climate model outputs for both the lowest (RCP2.6) and highest (RCP8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios to estimate future water availability and impacts of water management strategies. Results showed a 10% decline in future water availability in the basin under RCP2.6 and 27% under RCP8.5. Our results showed that if future climate change is highly limited (RCP2.6) inflow can be just enough to meet the EFRs by implementing the reduction irrigation plan. However, under more rapid climate change scenario (RCP8.5) reducing irrigation water use will not be enough to save the lake and more drastic measures are needed. Our results showed that future water management plans are not robust under climate change in this region. Therefore, an integrated approach of future land-water use planning and climate change adaptation is therefore needed to improve future water security and to reduce the desiccating of this hypersaline lake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial Community Response to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Amendments in Freshwater, Marine, and Hypersaline Water-Containing Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:23872573

  4. Prokaryotic diversity in one of the largest hypersaline coastal lagoons in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino, M M; Vieira, R P; Cardoso, A M; Nascimento, A P A; Silveira, C B; Riva, T C; Gonzalez, A S M; Paranhos, R; Albano, R M; Ventosa, A; Martins, O B

    2008-07-01

    Araruama Lagoon is an environment characterized by high salt concentrations. The low raining and high evaporation rates in this region favored the development of many salty ponds around the lagoon. In order to reveal the microbial composition of this system, we performed a 16S rRNA gene survey. Among archaea, most clones were related to uncultured environmental Euryarchaeota. In lagoon water, we found some clones related to Methanomicrobia and Methanothermococcus groups, while in the saline pond water members related to the genus Haloarcula were detected. Bacterial community was dominated by clones related to Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Synechococcus in lagoon water, while Salinibacter ruber relatives dominated in saline pond. We also detected the presence of Alpha-proteobacteria, Pseudomonas-like bacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Only representatives of the genus Ralstonia were cosmopolitan, being observed in both systems. The detection of a substantial number of clones related to uncultured archaea and bacteria suggest that the hypersaline waters of Araruama harbor a pool of novel prokaryotic phylotypes, distinct from those observed in other similar systems. We also observed clones related to halophilic genera of cyanobacteria that are specific for each habitat studied. Additionally, two bacterioplankton molecular markers with ecological relevance were analyzed, one is linked to nitrogen fixation (nifH) and the other is linked to carbon fixation by bacterial photosynthesis, the protochlorophyllide genes, revealing a specific genetic distribution in this ecosystem. This is the first study of the biogeography and community structure of microbial assemblages in Brazilian tropical hypersaline environments. This work is directed towards a better understanding of the free-living prokaryotic diversity adapted to life in hypersaline waters.

  5. [Number of bacteria and features of their activity in hypersaline reservoirs of the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, E G

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of bacteria, their biomass production, and heterotrophic assimilation of CO2 by bacterioplankton were studied in the Crimean hypersaline water reservoirs from May to October of 1974. The total incidence of bacteria in the natural brine of these reservoirs varied from 20 to 70 x 10(6) cells per 1 ml. Such a high bacterial number may be caused by the combined action of water evaporation which increased the concentration of bacterial cells and active growth of microflora. Low values of bacterial production and heterotrophic CO2 assimilation should be attributed to weak activity of microflora in the reservoirs.

  6. Diversity and distribution in hypersaline microbial mats of bacteria related to Chloroflexus spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, Ulrich; Bateson, Mary M.; Madigan, Michael T.

    2001-01-01

    primers for the specific amplification of 16S rRNA genes from filamentous phototrophic bacteria within the kingdom of "green nonsulfur bacteria." PCR products recovered from microbial mats in a saltern in Guerrero Negro, Mexico, were subjected to cloning or denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis......Filamentous bacteria containing bacteriochlorophylls c and a were enriched from hypersaline microbial mats. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences, these organisms form a previously undescribed lineage distantly related to Chloroflexus spp. We developed and tested a set of PCR...

  7. On the origins of hypersaline groundwater in the Nile Delta Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, Joeri; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Kooi, Henk; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2017-04-01

    The fresh groundwater resources in the Nile Delta, Egypt, are of eminent socio-economic importance. These resources are under major stress due to population growth, the anticipated sea level rise and increased groundwater extraction rates, making fresh water availability the most challenging issue in this area. Up till now, numerous groundwater studies mainly focused on sea water intrusion on the top 100m of the groundwater system and assumed salinities not exceeding that of Mediterranean sea water, as there was no knowledge on groundwater in the deeper coastal parts of the Quaternary Nile Delta aquifer (that ranges up to 1000m depth). Recently, however, the Egyptian Research Institute for Groundwater (RIGW) collected salinity measurements and found a widespread occurrence of "hypersaline" groundwater: groundwater with salinities largely exceeding that of sea water at 600m depth (Nofal et al., 2015). This hypersaline groundwater greatly influences flow patterns and the fresh water potential of the aquifer. This research focuses on the origins of the hypersaline groundwater and the possible processes causing its transport. We consider all relevant salinization processes in the Nile Delta aquifer, over a time domain of up to 2.5 million years, which is the time span in which the aquifer got deposited. The following hypotheses were investigated with a combination of analytical solutions and numerical modelling: upward salt transport due to a) molecular diffusion, b) thermal buoyancy, c) consolidation-induced advection and dispersion, or downward transport due to d) composition buoyancy (salt inversion). We conclude that hypotheses a) and b) can be rejected, but c) and d) are both possible with the available information. An enhanced chemical analysis is suggested for further research, to determine the origins of this hypersaline water. This information in combination with the conclusions drawn in this research will give more insight in the potential amount of non

  8. Method of cleaning alkaline metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yukio; Naito, Kesahiro; Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Nakasuji, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of used sodium and aqueous alkaline solution when cleaning used sodium and metallic sodium adhering to equipment with an aqueous alkaline solution. Method: A sodium treating container is filled with an aqueous alkaline solution, and stainless steel gauze is sunk in the container. Equipment to be cleaned such as equipment with sodium adhering to it are retained under the gauze and are thus cleaned. On the other hand, the surface of the aqueous alkaline solution is covered with a fluid paraffin liquid covering material. Thus, the hydrogen produced by the reaction of the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution will float up, pass through the liquid covering material and be discharged. The sodium will pass through the gauze and float upwardly while reacting with the aqueous alkaline solution in a partic ulate state to the boundary between the aqueous alkaline solution and up to the covering material, and thus the theratment reaction will continue. Thus, the cover material prevents the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution from scattering. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, E.; Gonzalez, E. R.

    The faster kinetics of the alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells (ADAFCs), opening up the possibility of using less expensive metal catalysts, as silver, nickel and palladium, makes the alkaline direct alcohol fuel cell a potentially low cost technology compared to acid direct alcohol fuel cell technology, which employs platinum catalysts. A boost in the research regarding alkaline fuel cells, fuelled with hydrogen or alcohols, was due to the development of alkaline anion-exchange membranes, which allows the overcoming of the problem of the progressive carbonation of the alkaline electrolyte. This paper presents an overview of catalysts and membranes for ADAFCs, and of testing of ADAFCs, fuelled with methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol, formed by these materials.

  10. Scour properties of mono bucket foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroescu, Ionut Emanuel; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2016-01-01

    Field experience proved that the Mono Bucket Foundations (MBFs) have good response against scour development. Moreover, the ratio between large diameter (bucket lid) and the small diameter (shaft tower) is the driving parameter for the process of erosion/backfill, like scour protection diameter...... tidal flow. Three structural models have been tested in several tidal cycles with a variation of the current intensity. Three levels of alignment with seabed are taken: one flushing and two more with different levels of misalignment. Field results for installation stage have been collected from...

  11. Halo(natronoarchaea isolated from hypersaline lakes utilize cellulose and chitin as growth substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Y Sorokin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, extremely halophilic euryarchaeota were considered mostly as aerobic heterotrophs utilizing simple organic compounds as growth substrates. Almost nothing is known on the ability of these prokaryotes to utilize complex polysaccharides as cellulose, xylan and chitin. Although few haloarchaeal cellulases and chitinases were recently characterized, the analysis of currently available haloarchaeal genomes deciphered numerous genes encoding glycosidases (GHs of various families including endoglucanases and chitinases. However, all these haloarchaea were isolated and cultivated on simple substrates and their ability to grow on polysaccharides in situ or in vitro is unknown. This study examines several halo(natronoarchaeal strains from geographically distant hypersaline lakes for the ability to grow on insoluble polymers as a sole growth substrate in salt-saturated mineral media. Some of them belonged to known taxa, while other represented novel phylogenetic lineages within the class Halobacteria. All isolates produced extracellular extremely salt tolerant cellulases or chitinases, either cell-free or cell-bound. Obtained results demonstrate a presence of diverse population of haloarchaeal cellulo/chitinotrophs in hypersaline habitats indicating that euryarchaea participate in aerobic mineralization of recalcitrant organic polymers in salt-saturated environments.

  12. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS AND AUTECOLOGY OF SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA FROM HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladka, G V; Romanovskaya, V A; Tashyreva, H O; Tashyrev, O B

    2015-01-01

    Multi-resistant to extreme factors spore-forming bacteria of Bacillus genus are isolated from hypersaline environments of the Crimea (Ukraine) and the Dead Sea (Israel). Phylogenetic analysis showed distinction of dominating extremophilic culturable species in studied regions. In Crimean environments they are B. mojavensis and B. simplex, in the Dead Sea ecosystem--B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. simplex. Isolates are simultaneously halotolerant and resistant to UV radiation. Strains isolated from the Dead Sea and the Crimea environments were resistant to UV: LD90 and LD99.99 made 100-170 J/m2 and 750-1500 J/m2 respectively. Spores showed higher UV-resistance (LD99.99-2500 J/m2) than the vegetative cells. However the number of spores made 0.02-0.007% of the whole cell population, and should not significantly affect the UV LD99.99 value. Isolates of both environments were halotolerant in the range of 0.1-10% NaCl and thermotolerant in the range of 20-50 °C, and didn't grow at 15 °C. Survival strategy of spore-forming bacteria from hypersaline environments under high UV radiation level can be performed by spore formation which minimize cell damage as well as efficient DNA-repair systems that remove damages.

  13. Geobiological Comparisons of Preservation Potential within Hypersaline Mineral-Microbe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, S. M.; Celestian, A. J.; Vaishampayan, P.; Seuylemezian, A.; Mahseredjian, T.; Baxter, B.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations is to show comparative measurements between known biological sources of biomarkers and biosignatures and how they can be independently verified, within instrumentation limits, by laboratory investigations analogous to future surface missions to Mars and Europa. Precipitated hypersaline mineralogy can provide a biotic record of microbial activity and habitation within evaporating lake systems. The extent of microbial preservation is a direct relationship between the magnitudes of aqueous activity post-precipitation, original or in-situ biological habitats, dissolution events due to chemical weathering, and organic matter degradation due to UV exposure and desiccation. Chemical biomarkers and physical biosignatures to be quantified and correlated based from preserved DNA as the most sensitive biomarker to more recalcitrant biomarkers such as lipids and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). Moreover the timing of cell movement during nutrient cycling within specific evaporite minerals can be associated to the formation of physical biosignatures as a function of already active and abundant biomarkers allowing for relative timelines of biogenic actions (e.g., nutrient cycling, cell division) to be correlated together. Our investigation has compared hypersaline biotic activity within different photosynthetic and chemosynthetic settings to quantify preservation and detection profiles given measured DNA as the source validation standard and micron-scale Raman measurements for specific paleoenvironmental mineral sampling.

  14. Mollusc-Microbe Mutualisms Extend the Potential for Life in Hypersaline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Carole S.

    2003-11-01

    Metazoans in extreme environments have evolved mutualisms with microbes that extend the physical and chemical capabilities of both partners. Some of the best examples are bivalve molluscs in evaporite and hypersaline settings. Mollusc tissue is developmentally and evolutionarily amenable to housing vast numbers of symbiotic microbes. Documented benefits to the host are nutritional. Multiple postulated benefits to the microbes are related to optimizing metabolic performance at interfaces, where heterogeneity and steep gradients that cannot be negotiated by microbes can be spanned by larger metazoan hosts. A small cockle, Fragum erugatum, and its photosymbiotic microbes provide a remarkable example of a mutualistic partnership in the hypersaline reaches of Shark Bay, Western Australia. Lucinid bivalves and their endosymbiotic chemolithotrophic bacteria provide examples in which hosts span oxic/anoxic interfaces on behalf of their symbionts at sites of seafloor venting. Multiple lines of evidence underscore the antiquity of mutualisms and suggest that they may have played a significant role in life's first experiments above the prokaryotic grade of complexity. The study of metazoan-microbe mutualisms and their signatures in extreme environments in the geologic record will provide a significant augmentation to microbial models in paleobiology and astrobiology. There are strong potential links between mutualisms and the early history of life on Earth, the persistence of life in extreme environments at times of global crisis and mass extinction, and the possibilities for life elsewhere in the universe.

  15. Two Fixed Ratio Dilutions for Soil Salinity Monitoring in Hypersaline Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Juan; Weindorf, David C.; Castañeda, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Highly soluble salts are undesirable in agriculture because they reduce yields or the quality of most cash crops and can leak to surface or sub-surface waters. In some cases salinity can be associated with unique history, rarity, or special habitats protected by environmental laws. Yet in considering the measurement of soil salinity for long-term monitoring purposes, adequate methods are required. Both saturated paste extracts, intended for agriculture, and direct surface and/or porewater salinity measurement, used in inundated wetlands, are unsuited for hypersaline wetlands that often are only occasionally inundated. For these cases, we propose the use of 1:5 soil/water (weight/weight) extracts as the standard for expressing the electrical conductivity (EC) of such soils and for further salt determinations. We also propose checking for ion-pairing with a 1:10 or more diluted extract in hypersaline soils. As an illustration, we apply the two-dilutions approach to a set of 359 soil samples from saline wetlands ranging in ECe from 2.3 dS m-1 to 183.0 dS m-1. This easy procedure will be useful in survey campaigns and in the monitoring of soil salt content. PMID:26001130

  16. Viruses Occur Incorporated in Biogenic High-Mg Calcite from Hypersaline Microbial Mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wit, Rutger; Gautret, Pascale; Bettarel, Yvan; Roques, Cécile; Marlière, Christian; Ramonda, Michel; Nguyen Thanh, Thuy; Tran Quang, Huy; Bouvier, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Using three different microscopy techniques (epifluorescence, electronic and atomic force microscopy), we showed that high-Mg calcite grains in calcifying microbial mats from the hypersaline lake “La Salada de Chiprana”, Spain, contain viruses with a diameter of 50–80 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis revealed that they contain nitrogen and phosphorus in a molar ratio of ~9, which is typical for viruses. Nucleic acid staining revealed that they contain DNA or RNA. As characteristic for hypersaline environments, the concentrations of free and attached viruses were high (>1010 viruses per g of mat). In addition, we showed that acid treatment (dissolution of calcite) resulted in release of viruses into suspension and estimated that there were ~15 × 109 viruses per g of calcite. We suggest that virus-mineral interactions are one of the possible ways for the formation of nano-sized structures often described as “nanobacteria” and that viruses may play a role in initiating calcification. PMID:26115121

  17. On mono-W signatures in spin-1 simplified models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Haisch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential sensitivity to isospin-breaking effects makes LHC searches for mono-W signatures promising probes of the coupling structure between the Standard Model and dark matter. It has been shown, however, that the strong sensitivity of the mono-W channel to the relative magnitude and sign of the up-type and down-type quark couplings to dark matter is an artifact of unitarity violation. We provide three different solutions to this mono-W problem in the context of spin-1 simplified models and briefly discuss the impact that our findings have on the prospects of mono-W searches at future LHC runs.

  18. On Mono-W Signatures in Spin-1 Simplified Models

    CERN Document Server

    Haisch, Ulrich; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2016-09-10

    The potential sensitivity to isospin-breaking effects makes LHC searches for mono-W signatures promising probes of the coupling structure between the Standard Model and dark matter. It has been shown, however, that the strong sensitivity of the mono-W channel to the relative magnitude and sign of the up-type and down-type quark couplings to dark matter is an artefact of unitarity violation. We provide three different solutions to this mono-W problem in the context of spin-1 simplified models and briefly discuss the impact that our findings have on the prospects of mono-W searches at future LHC runs.

  19. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Sivash, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Yvonne I.; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding

  20. The Outer Membrane Protein OmpW Enhanced V. cholerae Growth in Hypersaline Conditions by Transporting Carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic marine bacteria are found in environments and food sources with high salt concentrations, which the bacteria must effectively manage for their survival. Several mechanisms, such as the transport of ions and compatible solutes as well as changes in aerobic and anaerobic respiration, confer salt tolerance to bacteria. In this study, we found that the outer membrane protein OmpW was related to salt stress in Vibrio cholerae and that ompW gene transcription and expression were up-regulated in cultures containing high NaCl concentrations. Deletion of ompW resulted in reduced V. cholerae growth in hypersaline culture conditions. Supplements of the compatible solutes betaine, L-carnitine, or L-lysine enhanced the growth of V. cholerae in hypersaline media. Supplements of betaine or L-lysine had the same growth enhancement effect on the ompW-deletion mutant cultured in hypersaline media, whereas L-carnitine supplementation did not restore mutant growth. In addition, the uptake of L-carnitine was decreased in the ompW-deletion mutant. Our study showed that among the multiplex factors that enhance the hypersaline tolerance of V. cholerae, OmpW also plays a role by transporting L-carnitine.

  1. Halanaeroarchaeum sulfurireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., the first obligately anaerobic sulfur-respiring haloarchaeon, isolated from a hypersaline lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Kublanov, Ilya V.; Yakimov, Mikhail M.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichments with acetate as electron donor and carbon source, and elemental sulfur as electron acceptor at 4 M NaCl using anaerobic sediments and brines from several hypersaline lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) resulted in isolation in pure culture of four strains of obligately

  2. Sulphur-containing compounds in sulphur-rich crude oils from hypersaline lake sediments and their geochemical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Guoying, S.; Jiamo, F.; Brassell, S.C.; Gowar, A.P.; Eglinton, G.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Schenck, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Three sulphur-rich commercial crude oils have been studied, which contain sulphur as high as up to 4 —12 %. These samples were collected from Tertiary hypersaline lake sediments of the Jianghan Basin, Hubei Province at different depths, but above the oil generation threshold (2200m). FPD-GC and

  3. Microbial Mediated Mineralization in the Extreme Hypersaline Sabkha Environment of Abu Dhabi (UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, T.; McKenzie, J.; Warthmann, R.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2005-12-01

    Studies of microbes living in extreme environments provide important information about microbial metabolisms, survival strategies and production of biominerals. Knowledge of these geobiological processes and the ultimate product can be used to better reconstruct the evolution of life during the early Earth, when skeletal fossils are absent. Our study focuses on a well-documented extreme hypersaline environment, the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi (UAE), which is among the rare geological settings where primary dolomite is forming today. The origin of dolomite still remains one of the most debated subjects in sedimentary geology. Although microbial mediation is proposed as a solution for this controversy, the relationship between microbial activity and dolomite precipitation in the sabkha environment has not been fully evaluated. The goal of this study is to investigate this microbial dolomite factor combining sedimentological, geochemical and microbiological approaches. Preliminary results indicate the existence of a new dolomite facies consisting of dolomite spheres enveloped in a biofilm. This association is evidence supporting the microbial hypothesis of dolomite formation. Together with other evaporite minerals, the spheres grow in situ accumulating between 10 and 40 cm depth below the sabkha surface in an organic carbon-rich sediment. The co-existence of dolomite with gypsum leads us to hypothesize a link between the C and S cycles under hypersaline conditions. We propose that formation of significant amounts of gypsum within the zone of dolomite precipitation could be related to the recycling of S compounds during microbial metabolism, such as a combination of sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation, which could lead to the retention of S in the system. Additionally, the EPS included within the biofilm is widely recognized as an important organic component involved in the precipitation of carbonates. EDS/SEM studies of the biofilm encompassing the dolomite

  4. High pressure behaviour of uranium mono pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagare, Gitanjali; Ojha, Poonam; Sanyal, S.P.; Aynyas, Mahendra

    2006-01-01

    The pressure induced structural phase transition of three actinide mono pnictides AX (A=U and X=As, Sb, Bi), have been studied theoretically using two body interionic potential with necessary modifications to include the effect of Coulomb screening by the delocalized 5f electrons of the actinide (uranium) ion. The peculiar properties of these compounds have been interpreted in terms of the hybridization of f electrons with the conduction band. The calculated compression curves are compared with the experimental results. These compounds exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from their NaCl (B 1 ) phase to CsCl (B 2 ) phase at 17GPa, 9.5GPa and 5.3 GPa respectively. The NaCl phase possesses lower energy than CsCl phase and stable at ambient pressure. (author)

  5. Plasma etching on large-area mono-, multi- and quasi-mono crystalline silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    using maskless RIE in a O2 and SF6 plasma, and the surface topology was optimized for solar cell applications by varying gas flows, pressure, power and process time. The starting substrates were 156x156 mm p-type, CZ mono-, multi- and quasi-mono crystalline Si wafers, respectively, with a thickness...... for AM 1.5 was used to calculate the weighted average reflectance in the wavelength range from 280-1000 nm. Our mask-less, scalable RIE nanostructuring of the Si surface is shown to reduce the AM1.5-weighted average reflectance to a level below 1 % in a fully optimized RIE texturing, and thus holds...

  6. SAR Imagery Applied to the Monitoring of Hyper-Saline Deposits: Death Valley Example (CA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasne, Yannick; Paillou, Philippe; Freeman, Anthony; Chapman, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims at understanding the influence of salinity on the dielectric constant of soils and then on the backscattering coeff cients recorded by airborne/spaceborne SAR systems. Based on dielectric measurements performed over hyper-saline deposits in Death Valley (CA), as well as laboratory electromagnetic characterization of salts and water mixtures, we used the dielectric constants as input parameters of analytical IEM simulations to model both the amplitude and phase behaviors of SAR signal at C, and L-bands. Our analytical simulations allow to reproduce specif c copolar signatures recorded in SAR data, corresponding to the Cottonball Basin saltpan. We also propose the copolar backscattering ratio and phase difference as indicators of moistened and salt-affected soils. More precisely, we show that these copolar indicators should allow to monitor the seasonal variations of the dielectric properties of saline deposits.

  7. Use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to Measure Hypersaline Bidirectional Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.K.; Loving, B.L.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey measures the exchange of flow between the north and south parts of Great Salt Lake, Utah, as part of a monitoring program. Turbidity and bidirectional flow through the breach in the causeway that divides the lake into two parts makes it difficult to measure discharge with conventional streamflow techniques. An acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can be used to more accurately define the angles of flow and the location of the interface between the layers of flow. Because of the high salinity levels measured in Great Salt Lake (60-280 parts per thousand), special methods had to be developed to adjust ADCP-computed discharges for the increased speed of sound in hypersaline waters and for water entrained at the interface between flow layers.

  8. An Updated View of the Microbial Diversity in Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basins

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2017-03-02

    Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are marine extreme habitats, firstly discovered in the 1970s of the last century, located in several oceanographic regions, including the Mediterranean and Red Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. These basins are filled with brines that do not mix with the overlying seawater, due to a density difference. Brine and seawater result separated by a thick interface acting as a trap for particulate and cells. Some microbiological studies focused on seawater-brine interfaces of DHABs, showing that microbial populations are differentially distributed according to the gradient of salinity, oxygen, and nutrients occurring in such transition zones. Moreover, DHABs’ brines were intensively studied showing that specific bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic populations thrive there. In the last few years, cultivation and “omics”-based approaches have been used with samples collected from DHABs around the world, allowing clarifying metabolic processes of paramount ecological importance and pointing out the high biotechnological potential of the inhabiting extremophiles.

  9. Recent studies in microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Zhereppa Fathepure

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many hypersaline environments are often contaminated with petroleum compounds. Among these, oil and natural gas production sites all over the world and hundreds of kilometers of coastlines in the more arid regions of Gulf countries are of major concern due to the extent and magnitude of contamination. Because conventional microbiological processes do not function well at elevated salinities, bioremediation of hypersaline environments can only be accomplished using high salt-tolerant microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum compounds. In the last two decades, there have been many reports on the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in moderate to high salinity environments. Numerous microorganisms belonging to the domain Bacteria and Archaea have been isolated and their phylogeny and metabolic capacity to degrade a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in varying salinities have been demonstrated. This article focuses on our growing understanding of bacteria and archaea responsible for the degradation of hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions in moderate to high salinity conditions. Even though organisms belonging to various genera have been shown to degrade hydrocarbons, members of the genera Halomonas Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Haloferax, Haloarcula, and Halobacterium dominate the published literature. Despite rapid advances in understanding microbial taxa that degrade hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions, not much is known about organisms that carry out similar processes in anaerobic conditions. Also, information on molecular mechanisms and pathways of hydrocarbon degradation in high salinity is scarce and only recently there have been a few reports describing genes, enzymes and breakdown steps for some hydrocarbons. These limited studies have clearly revealed that degradation of oxygenated and non-oxygenated hydrocarbons by halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms occur by pathways similar to those found in non-halophiles.

  10. Modeling of membrane bioreactor treating hypersaline oily wastewater by artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendashteh, Ali Reza; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.; Chaibakhsh, Naz; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Abidin, Zurina Zainal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hypersaline oily wastewater was treated in a membrane bioreactor. → The effects of salinity and organic loading rate were evaluated. → The system was modeled by neural network and optimized by genetic algorithm. → The model prediction agrees well with experimental values. → The model can be used to obtain effluent characteristics less than discharge limits. - Abstract: A membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) treating hypersaline oily wastewater was modeled by artificial neural network (ANN). The MSBR operated at different total dissolved solids (TDSs) (35,000; 50,000; 100,000; 150,000; 200,000; 250,000 mg/L), various organic loading rates (OLRs) (0.281, 0.563, 1.124, 2.248, and 3.372 kg COD/(m 3 day)) and cyclic time (12, 24, and 48 h). A feed-forward neural network trained by batch back propagation algorithm was employed to model the MSBR. A set of 193 operational data from the wastewater treatment with the MSBR was used to train the network. The training, validating and testing procedures for the effluent COD, total organic carbon (TOC) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations were successful and a good correlation was observed between the measured and predicted values. The results showed that at OLR of 2.44 kg COD/(m 3 day), TDS of 78,000 mg/L and reaction time (RT) of 40 h, the average removal rate of COD was 98%. In these conditions, the average effluent COD concentration was less than 100 mg/L and met the discharge limits.

  11. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrates community in a hypersaline estuary (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlinda Railly Ferreira Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The estuarine community of benthic macroinvertebrates spatially varies in response to changes in environmental variables in these ecosystems. Understanding this variability helps our understanding the mechanisms structuring these communities. Aim Assess the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in a hypersaline estuary, and to relate to environmental variables that influence the community structure along the estuary. Methods The study was conducted at Tubarão river estuary in May 2015. We sampled two estuarine areas (upper and lower, and in each zone were sampled six points composed of two replicas, one sampled in sandy bottom and the other in muddy bottom. Samples of benthic macroinvertebrates and estuarine environmental variables were collected. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrate community were determined by Distance-based Linear Models analysis. The contribution of individual species to the dissimilarity between the areas and substrate types were determined by analysis of the percentage of similarity. Results The composition of benthic macroinvertebrate community differed between the upper and lower areas, although it was similar between the muddy and sandy bottoms. The variation in the benthic community between areas was mainly related to the influence of salinity in the upper area. In the lower area, the variation of the macroinvertebrates was related to salinity, associated with other variables in the sandy (temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen and muddy (temperature, total dissolved solids and dissolved oxygen substrates. Taxa which contributed most to the dissimilarity between the upper and lower areas were Nereididae (17.89%, Anomalocardia brasiliana (15% and Cirratulidae (10.43%. Conclusions Salinity was the main driver of the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the upper area of the estuary, although in the lower area a set of

  12. Extremophile microbiomes in acidic and hypersaline river sediments of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shipeng; Peiffer, Stefan; Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Oldham, Carolyn; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Näb, Olga; Lillicrap, Adam; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the microbial community compositions in two sediment samples from the acidic (pH ∼3) and hypersaline (>4.5% NaCl) surface waters, which are widespread in Western Australia. In West Dalyup River, large amounts of NaCl, Fe(II) and sulfate are brought by the groundwater into the surface run-off. The presence of K-jarosite and schwertmannite minerals in the river sediments suggested the occurrence of microbial Fe(II) oxidation because chemical oxidation is greatly reduced at low pH. 16S rRNA gene diversity analyses revealed that sequences affiliated with an uncultured archaeal lineage named Aplasma, which has the genomic potential for Fe(II) oxidation, were dominant in both sediment samples. The acidophilic heterotrophs Acidiphilium and Acidocella were identified as the dominant bacterial groups. Acidiphilium strain AusYE3-1 obtained from the river sediment tolerated up to 6% NaCl at pH 3 under oxic conditions and cells of strain AusYE3-1 reduced the effects of high salt content by forming filamentous structure clumping as aggregates. Neither growth nor Fe(III) reduction by strain AusYE3-1 was observed in anoxic salt-containing medium. The detection of Aplasma group as potential Fe(II) oxidizers and the inhibited Fe(III)-reducing capacity of Acidiphilium contributes to our understanding of the microbial ecology of acidic hypersaline environments. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Exploiting the aerobic endospore-forming bacterial diversity in saline and hypersaline environments for biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Couto, Camila Rattes; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Azevedo Jurelevicius, Diogo; Seldin, Lucy

    2015-10-28

    Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules with great applicability in the food, pharmaceutical and oil industries. Endospore-forming bacteria, which survive for long periods in harsh environments, are described as biosurfactant producers. Although the ubiquity of endospore-forming bacteria in saline and hypersaline environments is well known, studies on the diversity of the endospore-forming and biosurfactant-producing bacterial genera/species in these habitats are underrepresented. In this study, the structure of endospore-forming bacterial communities in sediment/mud samples from Vermelha Lagoon, Massambaba, Dois Rios and Abraão Beaches (saline environments), as well as the Praia Seca salterns (hypersaline environments) was determined via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial strains were isolated from these environmental samples and further identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains presenting emulsification values higher than 30 % were grouped via BOX-PCR, and the culture supernatants of representative strains were subjected to high temperatures and to the presence of up to 20 % NaCl to test their emulsifying activities in these extreme conditions. Mass spectrometry analysis was used to demonstrate the presence of surfactin. A diverse endospore-forming bacterial community was observed in all environments. The 110 bacterial strains isolated from these environmental samples were molecularly identified as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Thalassobacillus, Halobacillus, Paenibacillus, Fictibacillus and Paenisporosarcina. Fifty-two strains showed emulsification values of at least 30%, and they were grouped into 18 BOX groups. The stability of the emulsification values varied when the culture supernatants of representative strains were subjected to high temperatures and to the presence of up to 20% NaCl. The presence of surfactin was demonstrated in one of the most promising strains. The environments studied can harbor endospore

  14. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  15. Macrodomain-containing proteins are new mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Florian; Feijs, Karla L H; Frugier, Emilie; Bonalli, Mario; Forst, Alexandra H; Imhof, Ralph; Winkler, Hans C; Fischer, David; Caflisch, Amedeo; Hassa, Paul O; Lüscher, Bernhard; Hottiger, Michael O

    2013-04-01

    ADP-ribosylation is an important post-translational protein modification (PTM) that regulates diverse biological processes. ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 10 (ARTD10, also known as PARP10) mono-ADP-ribosylates acidic side chains and is one of eighteen ADP-ribosyltransferases that catalyze mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation of target proteins. Currently, no enzyme is known that reverses ARTD10-catalyzed mono-ADP-ribosylation. Here we report that ARTD10-modified targets are substrates for the macrodomain proteins MacroD1, MacroD2 and C6orf130 from Homo sapiens as well as for the macrodomain protein Af1521 from archaebacteria. Structural modeling and mutagenesis of MacroD1 and MacroD2 revealed a common core structure with Asp102 and His106 of MacroD2 implicated in the hydrolytic reaction. Notably, MacroD2 reversed the ARTD10-catalyzed, mono-ADP-ribose-mediated inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in vitro and in cells, thus underlining the physiological and regulatory importance of mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolase activity. Our results establish macrodomain-containing proteins as mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolases and define a class of enzymes that renders mono-ADP-ribosylation a reversible modification.

  16. Professional Android Programming with Mono for Android and NETC#

    CERN Document Server

    McClure, Wallace B; Croft, John J; Dick, Jonathan; Hardy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A one-of-a-kind book on Android application development with Mono for Android The wait is over! For the millions of .NET/C# developers who have been eagerly awaiting the book that will guide them through the white-hot field of Android application programming, this is the book. As the first guide to focus on Mono for Android, this must-have resource dives into writing applications against Mono with C# and compiling executables that run on the Android family of devices. Putting the proven Wrox Professional format into practice, the authors provide you with the knowledge you need to become a succ

  17. MONO FOR CROSS-PLATFORM CONTROL SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Timossi, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Mono is an independent implementation of the .NET Framework by Novell that runs on multiple operating systems (including Windows, Linux and Macintosh) and allows any .NET compatible application to run unmodified. For instance Mono can run programs with graphical user interfaces (GUI) developed with the C(number s ign) language on Windows with Visual Studio (a full port of WinForm for Mono is in progress). We present the results of tests we performed to evaluate the portability of our controls system .NET applications from MS Windows to Linux

  18. Focused transhepatic electroporation mediated by hypersaline infusion through the portal vein in rat model. Preliminary results on differential conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pañella Clara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spread hepatic tumours are not suitable for treatment either by surgery or conventional ablation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of selectively increasing the healthy hepatic conductivity by the hypersaline infusion (HI through the portal vein. We hypothesize this will allow simultaneous safe treatment of all nodules by irreversible electroporation (IRE when applied in a transhepatic fashion.

  19. Mechanisms of selenomethionine developmental toxicity and the impacts of combined hypersaline conditions on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsco, Allison; Schlenk, Daniel

    2014-06-17

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that can cause embryotoxicty at levels 7-30 times above essential concentrations. Exposure to hypersaline conditions and 50 μM selenomethionine (SeMet) decreased embryo hatch and depleted glutathione in Japanese medaka embryos without affecting Se accumulation. To better understand the impacts of nonchemical stressors on developmental toxicity of Se in fish, several adverse outcome pathways were evaluated in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). We treated medaka embryos at 12 h post fertilization with 50 μM SeMet for 12 hours in freshwater or in 13 ppth hypersalinity and evaluated the contributions of oxidative stress, the unfolded protein response and apoptosis to reduced hatch. Exposure to SeMet and hypersalinity decreased embryo hatch to 3.7% ± 1.95, and induced teratogenesis in 100% ± 0 of hatched embryos. In contrast, treatments of freshwater, saltwater, and SeMet in freshwater resulted in 89.8% ± 3.91-86.7% ± 3.87 hatch, and no significant increase in deformities. We found no significant differences in lipid peroxidation, indicating that oxidative stress may not be responsible for the observed toxicity in embryos at this time point (24 h). Although significant changes in apoptosis were not observed, we witnessed up to 100 fold increases in transcripts of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP) and trends toward increasing downstream signals, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and ATF6 indicating potential contributions of the unfolded protein response to the effects of SeMet and hypersaline conditions. These data indicate that multiple adverse outcome pathways may be responsible for the developmental toxicity of Se and salinity, and these pathways may be time dependent.

  20. The modulation of leaf metabolism plays a role in salt tolerance of Cymodocea nodosa exposed to hypersaline stress in mesocosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia ePiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By the proteomic approach we tested the physiological responses of the euryhaline seagrass Cymodocea nodosa to deliberate manipulation of salinity in a mesocosm system. Plants were subjected to a chronic hypersaline condition (43 psu to compare their proteins expression and plant photochemistry responses after 15 and 30 days of exposure with those of plants cultured under normal/ambient saline conditions (37 psu. Results showed a general decline in the expression level of leaf proteins in hypersaline stressed plants, with more intense reductions on the long-lasting exposure. Specifically, the carbon-fixing enzyme RuBisCo displayed a lower expression level in stressed plants relative to controls; while contrarily, the key enzymes involve in the regulation of glycolisis, the cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phopsphate dehydrogenase, the enolase 2 and triose-phosphate isomerase, showed significant higher expression levels. Responses that suggest a shift of the carbon metabolism in stressed plants. Hypersaline stress also induced a significant alteration of the photosynthetic physiology of the C. nodosa by means of the down-regulation of structural proteins and enzymes of both PSII and PSI; however we found an over-expression of the cytochrome b559 alpha subunit of the PSII initial complex, which is a receptor for the PSII core proteins involved in biogenesis or repair processes and therefore potentially involved in the absence of effects at the photochemical level of stressed plants. As expected hypersalinity also affects the vacuolar metabolism increasing the leaf cell turgor pressure and enhancing the up-take of Na+ by the over-expression of the tonoplast specific intrinsic protein pyrophosphate-energized inorganic pyrophosphatase (H(+-PPase that is coupled with the Na+/H+-antiporter. The modulation of carbon metabolism and the enhancement of vacuole capacity in Na+ sequestration and osmolarity changes are discussed in relation to salt tolerance of C

  1. Travertine Hot Springs, Mono County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesterman, C.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.

    1991-08-01

    This article is an abridgement of Special Report 172, Travertine Hot Springs at Bridgeport, Mono County, California, in preparation at the California Division of Mines and Geology. The Travertine Hot Springs area is on the northern edge of what many consider to be one of the most tectonically active areas in the United States. There is abundant geothermal and seismic activity. The landscape is dotted with volcanic features- cones, craters, domes, flows, fumaroles and hot springs-indicators of unrest in the present as well as reminders of activity in the past. Travertine, also known as calcareous sinter, is limestone formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) from ground or surface waters. It forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves, fills some veins and spring conduits and can also be found at the mouths of springs, especially hot springs. The less compact variety is called tufa and the dense, banded variety is known as Mexican onyx, or onyx marble. True onyx, however, is a banded silicate.

  2. Potentially mobile of heavy metals on the surface sediments in tropical hyper-saline and positive estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS A. RAMOS E SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estuarine sediments represent important pools of trace metals, released from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Fluctuations in the water column physicochemical conditions, on the other hand, may transfer metals from solid to liquid compartment and resulting in contamination of the surrounding environment. The present research was carried out to evaluate the weakly bounded heavy metal levels in tropical hyper-saline and positive estuaries, in order to quantify its potentially availability. The monitoring includes five metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and cover nine estuaries in Rio Grande do Norte state/Brazil, including four hypersaline and five true estuaries. 50 surface sediment samples were collected in each estuary. At the same time, organic matter concentrations were evaluated in order to help explaining possible local variations in heavy metal levels. Organic matter results (0.7% - 7.3% suggest the positive Potengi estuary as the most critical environmental quality situation. On the other hand, according to heavy metals levels, both Conchas and Potengi estuaries registered the higher concentrations of Cr. The highest concentrations were observed in the hyper-saline estuaries, with the exception of the Zn. The present study revealed that the watershed occupation has significantly influenced the heavy metal concentrations in the estuaries.

  3. Methanogenic diversity and activity in hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Parkes, R John; Cragg, Barry A; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-08-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. The Napoli mud volcano, situated in the brine-impacted Olimpi Area of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, emits mainly biogenic methane particularly at the centre of the mud volcano. Temperature gradients support the suggestion that Napoli is a cold mud volcano with moderate fluid flow rates. Biogeochemical and molecular genetic analyses were carried out to assess the methanogenic activity rates, pathways and diversity in the hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano. Methylotrophic methanogenesis was the only significant methanogenic pathway in the shallow sediments (0-40 cm) but was also measured throughout the sediment core, confirming that methylotrophic methanogens could be well adapted to hypersaline environments. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway below 50 cm; however, low rates of acetoclastic methanogenesis were also present, even in sediment layers with the highest salinity, showing that these methanogens can thrive in this extreme environment. PCR-DGGE and methyl coenzyme M reductase gene libraries detected sequences affiliated with anaerobic methanotrophs (mainly ANME-1) as well as Methanococcoides methanogens. Results show that the hypersaline conditions in the centre of the Napoli mud volcano influence active biogenic methane fluxes and methanogenic/methylotrophic diversity. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Bepaling van dapson, mono- en diacetyldapson in runderbloedplasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuver, de M.J.B.; Aerts, M.M.L.; Kuiper, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Doel van dit onderzoek is: het testen van de bepalingsmetheden voor dapson, mono- en diacetyldapson in bloedplasma van melkgevende runderen en het vaststellen van het kinetisch profiel van genoemde stoffen na orale en intramusculaire toediening. Tevens wordt deglucuronidering en eiwitbinding

  5. Selective mono-alkylation of N-methoxybenzamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zenghua; Hu, Le'an; Zeng, Fanyun; Zhu, Ranran; Zheng, Shasha; Yu, Qingzhen; Huang, Jianhui

    2017-04-11

    We report our latest discovery of norbornene derivative modulated highly mono-selective ortho-C-H activation alkylation reactions on arenes bearing simple mono-dentate coordinating groups. The reaction features the use of readily available benzamides and alkyl halides. During the study, we prepared 30 mono-alkylated aryl amides in good yields with good mono-selectivity. We have also demonstrated that structurally rigid alkenes such as norbornene and its derivatives are a good class of ligand and could be used for future direct C-H functionalizations. The utilization of norbornene type ligands for assistance in C-H activation processes has opened a new window for future molecular design using direct C-H functionalization strategies.

  6. Fatigue Analysis of a Mono-Tower Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    In this paper, a fatigue reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure mode, fatigue failure in the butt welds, is investigated with two different models. The one with the fatigue strength expressed through SN relations, the other with the fatigue strength expressed...... of the natural period, damping ratio, current, stress Spectrum and parameters describing the fatigue strength. Further, soil damping is shown to be significant for the Mono-tower....

  7. Cyclic heliothermal behaviour of the shallow, hypersaline Lake Hayward, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jeffrey V.; Rosen, Michael R.; Coshell, Lee; Woodbury, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    Lake Hayward is one of only about 30 hypersaline lakes worldwide that is meromictic and heliothermal and as such behaves as a natural salt gradient solar pond. Lake Hayward acts as a local groundwater sink, resulting in seasonally variable hypersaline lake water with total dissolved solids (TDS) in the upper layer (mixolimnion) ranging between 56 kg m−3 and 207 kg m−3 and the deeper layer (monimolimnion) from 153 kg m−3 to 211 kg m−3. This is up to six times the salinity of seawater and thus has the highest salinity of all eleven lakes in the Yalgorup National Park lake system. A program of continuously recorded water temperature profiles has shown that salinity stratification initiated by direct rainfall onto the lake’s surface and local runoff into the lake results in the onset of heliothermal conditions within hours of rainfall onset.The lake alternates between being fully mixed and becoming thermally and chemically stratified several times during the annual cycle, with the longest extended periods of heliothermal behaviour lasting 23 and 22 weeks in the winters of 1992 and 1993 respectively. The objective was to quantify the heat budgets of the cyclical heliothermal behaviour of Lake Hayward.During the period of temperature profile logging, the maximum recorded temperature of the monimolimnion was 42.6 °C at which time the temperature of the mixolimnion was 29.4 °C.The heat budget of two closed heliothermal cycles initiated by two rainfall events of 50 mm and 52 mm in 1993 were analysed. The cycles prevailed for 11 and 20 days respectively and the heat budget showed net heat accumulations of 34.2 MJ m−3 and 15.4 MJ m−3, respectively. The corresponding efficiencies of lake heat gain to incident solar energy were 0.17 and 0.18 respectively. Typically, artificial salinity gradient solar ponds (SGSP) have a solar radiation capture efficiencies ranging from 0.10 up to 0.30. Results from Lake Hayward have

  8. 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Lars; Kjartansdóttir, Cecilia Kristin; Allebrod, Frank

    This report provides the results of the 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis project which was initiated in 2008. The project has been conducted from 2009-2012 by a consortium comprising Århus University Business and Social Science – Centre for Energy Technologies (CET (former HIRC)), Technical...

  9. Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBreen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and... derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Monosodium phophate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides are composed of glyceride derivatives formed by reacting mono- and diglycerides that are derived from edible...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides... prepared by the reaction of diacetyl tartaric anhydride with mono- and diglycerides that are derived from...

  12. Searching for Dark Matter in the Mono-Jet and Mono-Photon Channels with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ratti, Maria Giulia; Carminati, Leonardo

    This work presents searches for dark matter particles in the mono-jet and mono-photon final states using the data collected by the ATLAS experiment during 2015 and 2016. The thesis starts with an introduction to the basic concepts of the Standard Model, followed by a discussion of the dark matter problem and the WIMP hypothesis. The focus then shifts to the description of the experimental facilities to collect the data and reconstruct the collision events. Particular focus is put on the reconstruction and performance of the missing transverse momentum. After characterizing a few theoretical models predicting dark matter particles in the mono-photon and mono-jet final states, the searches in these two signatures are thoroughly discussed, with particular focus on the background estimation techniques. While no significant deviations from the Standard Model predictions are found, the results obtained by these searches further restrict the phase-space where the dark matter particles can lie.

  13. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cyanide- plating bath for copper has been developed using alkaline trisodium citrate and triethanolamine solutions5. The present investigation presents cyclic voltammetric studies on the electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes, ...

  14. Microbial Diversity of the Hypersaline Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes of the Algerian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutaiba, Saad; Hacene, Hocine; Bidle, Kelly A; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A

    2011-10-01

    Microbial populations within hypersaline lakes often exhibit high activities of photosynthesis, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and other processes and, thus, can have profound impacts on biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and other important elements within arid lands. To further understand these types of ecosystems, the physicochemical and biological properties of Sidi Ameur and Himalatt Salt Lakes in the Algerian Sahara were examined and compared. Both lakes were relatively neutral in pH (7.2 to 7.4) and high in salt, at 12% and 20 % (w/v) salinity for Himalatt and Sidi Ameur Lakes, respectively, with dominant ions of sodium and chloride. The community compositions of microbes from all three domains (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya) were surveyed through the use of 16S and 18S ribosomal gene amplification and clone library clustering using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) in conjunction with DNA sequencing and analysis. A high level of microbial diversity, particularly among the bacteria of the Himalatt Salt Lake and archaea of Sidi Ameur Lake, was found within these environments. Representatives from all known halophilic bacterial phyla as well as 6 different genera of halophilic archaea were identified. Moreover, several apparently novel phylotypes among both archaea and bacteria were revealed.

  15. Egg banks in hypersaline lakes of the South-East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatello, Salvatore; Belmonte, Genuario

    2009-01-01

    The cyst banks of 6 coastal hypersaline lakes of South-East Europe have been investigated. The study concerned the bottom sediments of Khersonesskoe and Koyashskoe lakes in the Crimea (Ukraine), Nartë saltworks (Albania), Vecchia Salina at Torre Colimena (Apulia, Italy), Pantano Grande and Pantano Roveto at Vendicari (Sicily, Italy). A total of 19 cyst types were recognised. The cyst banks of lakes were found to be well separated in the representation derived from a statistical multivariate data analysis. For all the lakes examined a comparison was possible between the resting community in sediments (cyst bank) and the active one in the water. The cyst banks contained more species than those recorded over a multi-year sampling effort in the water column. The study of cyst hatching, performed on 5 cyst types under lab conditions, demonstrated that cysts do not hatch under the same conditions. Furthermore, each cyst type shows a wide range of preferential hatching conditions, which allow us to confirm the ecological generalism of salt lake species. PMID:19292906

  16. Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  17. Archaeal populations in hypersaline sediments underlying orange microbial mats in the Napoli mud volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; L'haridon, Stéphane; Pignet, Patricia; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Microbial mats in marine cold seeps are known to be associated with ascending sulfide- and methane-rich fluids. Hence, they could be visible indicators of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and methane cycling processes in underlying sediments. The Napoli mud volcano is situated in the Olimpi Area that lies on saline deposits; from there, brine fluids migrate upward to the seafloor. Sediments associated with a brine pool and microbial orange mats of the Napoli mud volcano were recovered during the Medeco cruise. Based on analysis of RNA-derived sequences, the "active" archaeal community was composed of many uncultured lineages, such as rice cluster V or marine benthic group D. Function methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes were affiliated with the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) of the ANME-1, ANME-2a, and ANME-2c groups, suggesting that AOM occurred in these sediment layers. Enrichment cultures showed the presence of viable marine methylotrophic Methanococcoides in shallow sediment layers. Thus, the archaeal community diversity seems to show that active methane cycling took place in the hypersaline microbial mat-associated sediments of the Napoli mud volcano.

  18. Archaeal Populations in Hypersaline Sediments Underlying Orange Microbial Mats in the Napoli Mud Volcano▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Pignet, Patricia; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Microbial mats in marine cold seeps are known to be associated with ascending sulfide- and methane-rich fluids. Hence, they could be visible indicators of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and methane cycling processes in underlying sediments. The Napoli mud volcano is situated in the Olimpi Area that lies on saline deposits; from there, brine fluids migrate upward to the seafloor. Sediments associated with a brine pool and microbial orange mats of the Napoli mud volcano were recovered during the Medeco cruise. Based on analysis of RNA-derived sequences, the “active” archaeal community was composed of many uncultured lineages, such as rice cluster V or marine benthic group D. Function methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes were affiliated with the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) of the ANME-1, ANME-2a, and ANME-2c groups, suggesting that AOM occurred in these sediment layers. Enrichment cultures showed the presence of viable marine methylotrophic Methanococcoides in shallow sediment layers. Thus, the archaeal community diversity seems to show that active methane cycling took place in the hypersaline microbial mat-associated sediments of the Napoli mud volcano. PMID:21335391

  19. Novel active kinetoplastids associated with hypersaline anoxic basins in the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgcomb, V. P.; Orsi, W.; Breiner, H.-W.; Stock, A.; Filker, S.; Yakimov, M. M.; Stoeck, T.

    2011-10-01

    The combination of nearly saturated salt concentration and corresponding high density, high hydrostatic pressure, absence of light, anoxia, and a sharp chemocline make the deep hypersaline anoxic basins in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea some of the most polyextreme habitats on Earth. Using kinetoplastid-specific primers, we detected kinetoplastid flagellates in some of the harshest deep-sea environments known to date, including some whose small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences are not closely related to cultured representatives. Kinetoplastids, including presumably novel representatives appear to be specialists of halocline environments in the Eastern Mediterranean, and to comprise a significant fraction of the protist communities in the brines and haloclines of several basins. Fluorescent in situ hybridization data indicate a novel 'unidentified' sequence clade of kinetoplastids related to bodonids represents as much as 10% of the total protist community in the Discovery Basin halocline. Different kinetoplastid groups are unevenly represented in the different basins and habitats we sampled, which we discuss as a result of environmental selection.

  20. Patterns of metal distribution in hypersaline microbialites during early diagenesis: Implications for the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforna, M C; Daye, M; Philippot, P; Somogyi, A; van Zuilen, M A; Medjoubi, K; Gérard, E; Jamme, F; Dupraz, C; Braissant, O; Glunk, C; Visscher, P T

    2017-03-01

    The use of metals as biosignatures in the fossil stromatolite record requires understanding of the processes controlling the initial metal(loid) incorporation and diagenetic preservation in living microbialites. Here, we report the distribution of metals and the organic fraction within the lithifying microbialite of the hypersaline Big Pond Lake (Bahamas). Using synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence, confocal, and biphoton microscopies at different scales (cm-μm) in combination with traditional geochemical analyses, we show that the initial cation sorption at the surface of an active microbialite is governed by passive binding to the organic matrix, resulting in a homogeneous metal distribution. During early diagenesis, the metabolic activity in deeper microbialite layers slows down and the distribution of the metals becomes progressively heterogeneous, resulting from remobilization and concentration as metal(loid)-enriched sulfides, which are aligned with the lamination of the microbialite. In addition, we were able to identify globules containing significant Mn, Cu, Zn, and As enrichments potentially produced through microbial activity. The similarity of the metal(loid) distributions observed in the Big Pond microbialite to those observed in the Archean stromatolites of Tumbiana provides the foundation for a conceptual model of the evolution of the metal distribution through initial growth, early diagenesis, and fossilization of a microbialite, with a potential application to the fossil record. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sustainable Hypersaline Microbial Fuel Cells: Inexpensive Recyclable Polymer Supports for Carbon Nanotube Conductive Paint Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Shivel, Nelson D; Sifat, Iram; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Minteer, Shelley D

    2017-05-09

    Microbial fuel cells are an emerging technology for wastewater treatment, but to be commercially viable and sustainable, the electrode materials must be inexpensive, recyclable, and reliable. In this study, recyclable polymeric supports were explored for the development of anode electrodes to be applied in single-chamber microbial fuel cells operated in field under hypersaline conditions. The support was covered with a carbon nanotube (CNT) based conductive paint, and biofilms were able to colonize the electrodes. The single-chamber microbial fuel cells with Pt-free cathodes delivered a reproducible power output after 15 days of operation to achieve 12±1 mW m -2 at a current density of 69±7 mA m -2 . The decrease of the performance in long-term experiments was mostly related to inorganic precipitates on the cathode electrode and did not affect the performance of the anode, as shown by experiments in which the cathode was replaced and the fuel cell performance was regenerated. The results of these studies show the feasibility of polymeric supports coated with CNT-based paint for microbial fuel cell applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Primary and heterotrophic productivity relate to multikingdom diversity in a hypersaline mat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Brislawn, Colin J.; Dana, Karl; Flores-Wentz, Tobias; Cory, Alexandra B.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Moran, James J.

    2017-10-01

    Benthic microbial ecosystems are widespread yet knowledge gaps still remain on the relationships between the diversity of species across kingdoms and productivity. Here, we ask two fundamental questions: 1) How does species diversity relate to the rates of primary and heterotrophic productivity? 2) How do diel variations in light-energy inputs influence productivity and microbiome diversity? To answer these questions, microbial mats from a magnesium sulfate hypersaline Lake were used to establish microcosms. Both the number and relatedness between bacterial and eukaryotic taxa in the microbiome were assayed via amplicon based sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes over two diel cycles. These results correlated with biomass productivity obtained from substrate-specific 13C stable isotope incorporation that enabled comparisons between primary and heterotrophic productivity. Both bacterial and eukaryotic species richness and evenness were related only to the rates of 13C labeled glucose and acetate biomass incorporation. Interestingly, measures of these heterotrophic relationships changed from positive and negative correlations depending on carbon derived from glucose and acetate, respectively. Bacterial and eukaryotic diversity of this ecosystem is also controlled, in part, energy constraints imposed by changing irradiance over a diel cycle.

  3. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mapelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  4. Temporal acclimation of Microchloropsis gaditana CCMP526 in response to hypersalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikaichamy, Anbarasu; Deore, Pranali; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Coppel, Ross; Bulach, Dieter; Beardall, John; Noronha, Santosh

    2018-04-01

    Evaporation from culture ponds and raceways can subject algae to hypersalinity stress, and this is exacerbated by global warming. We investigated the effect of salinity on a marine microalga, Microchloropsis gaditana, which is of industrial significance because of its high lipid-accumulating capability. Both short-term (hours) and medium-term (days) effects of salinity were studied across various salinities (37.5, 55, 70 and 100 PSU). Salinity above 55 PSU suppressed cell growth and specific growth rate was significantly reduced at 100 PSU. Photosynthesis (F v /F m , rETR max and I k ) was severely affected at high salinity conditions. Total carbohydrate per cell increased ∼1.7-fold after 24 h, which is consistent with previous findings that salinity induces osmolyte production to counter osmotic shock. In addition, accumulation of lipid increased by ∼4.6-fold in response to salinity. Our findings indicate a possible mechanism of acclimation to salinity, opening up new frontiers for osmolytes in pharmacological and cosmetics applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutral monosaccharides from a hypersaline tropical environment: Applications to the characterization of modern and ancient ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moers, M.E.C.; Larter, S.R. (The University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom))

    1993-07-01

    Surficial and buried sediment samples from a hypersaline lagoon-sabkha system (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) were analyzed for carbohydrates (as neutral monosaccharides) to distinguish and characterize various types of recent and ancient tropical ecosystems on a molecular level. The samples consisted of surficial and buried microbial mats, lagoonal sediments containing seagrass (Halodule uninervis), and mangrove (Avicennia marine) paleosoils and handpicked mangrove leaves, ranging in age from contemporary to ca. 6000 yr BP. Analysis of quantitative neutral monosaccharide data by multivariate techniques shows that various groups can be distinguished: intact vascular plant material (mangrove leaf) contains high amounts of arabinose and glucose and hardly any partially methylated monosaccharides, whereas microbial mats in general and lagoonal seagrass sediments show high contributions of fucose, ribose, mannose, galactose, and partially methylated monosaccharides. Moreover, surficial microbial mats consisting of filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcoleus chtonoplastes, Lyngbya aestuarii) can be distinguished from other mats and sediments containing coccoid cyanobacteria (Entophysalis major) and/or fermenting, sulphate reducing, and methanogenic bacteria on the basis of high contributions of specific groups of partially methylated monosaccharides and other [open quotes]minor[close quotes] saccharides. The neutral monosaccharides present in mangrove paleosoils are for a substantial part derived from microorganisms. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Genome sequence of the photoarsenotrophic bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain BSL-9, isolated from a hypersaline alkaline arsenic-rich extreme environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, Jaime; Stoneburner, Brendon; Boren, Alison; Miller, Laurence; Rosen, Michael R.; Oremland, Ronald S.; Saltikov, Chad W

    2016-01-01

    The full genome sequence of Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain BSL-9 is reported here. This purple sulfur bacterium encodes an arxA-type arsenite oxidase within the arxB2AB1CD gene island and is capable of carrying out “photoarsenotrophy” anoxygenic photosynthetic arsenite oxidation. Its genome is composed of 3.5 Mb and has approximately 63% G+C content.

  7. Eco-morphological differentiation in Lake Magadi tilapia, an extremophile cichlid fish living in hot, alkaline and hypersaline lakes in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavembe, Geraldine D; Kautt, Andreas F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Meyer, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Ecological diversification through divergent selection is thought to be a major force during the process of adaptive radiations. However, the large sizes and complexity of most radiations such as those of the cichlids in the African Great Lakes make it impossible to infer the exact evolutionary history of any population divergence event. The genus Alcolapia, a small cichlid lineage endemic to Lakes Magadi and Natron in East Africa, exhibits phenotypes similar to some of those found in cichlids of the radiations of the African Great Lakes. The simplicity within Alcolapia makes it an excellent model system to investigate ecological diversification and speciation. We used an integrated approach including population genomics based on RAD-seq data, geometric morphometrics and stable isotope analyses to investigate the eco-morphological diversification of tilapia in Lake Magadi and its satellite lake Little Magadi. Additionally, we reconstructed the demographic history of the species using coalescent simulations based on the joint site frequency spectrum. The population in Little Magadi has a characteristically upturned mouth--possibly an adaptation to feeding on prey from the water surface. Eco-morphological differences between populations within Lake Magadi are more subtle, but are consistent with known ecological differences between its lagoons such as high concentrations of nitrogen attributable to extensive guano deposits in Rest of Magadi relative to Fish Springs Lagoon. All populations diverged simultaneously only about 1100 generations ago. Differences in levels of gene flow between populations and the effective population sizes have likely resulted in the inferred heterogeneous patterns of genome-wide differentiation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  9. Diversity, activity, and abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in saline nad hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foti, M.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Lomans, B.P.; Mussman, M.; Zacharova, E.E.; Pimenov, N.V.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2007-01-01

    Soda lakes are naturally occurring highly alkaline and saline environments. Although the sulfur cycle is one of the most active element cycles in these lakes, little is known about the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this study we investigated the diversity, activity, and abundance of SRB in

  10. Limnological studies on the Pretoria Salt Pan, a hypersaline maar lake

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, PJ

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pretoria Salt pan is shallow and alkaline with pronounced mesothermy at a depth of between 0.55 and 0.7 metres. Secchi disc transparencies ranged from 7 to 19 cm. Endorheic or closed drainage basins are widely distributed in many climate...

  11. Exploration of microbial diversity and community structure of Lonar Lake: the only hypersaline meteorite crater lake within basalt rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj ePaul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lonar Lake is a hypersaline and hyperalkaline soda lake and the only meteorite impact crater in the world created in the basalt rocks. Although culture-dependent studies have been reported, the comprehensive understanding of microbial community composition and structure of Lonar Lake remain obscure. In the present study, microbial community structure associated with Lonar Lake sediment and water samples was investigated using high throughput sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed the existence of diverse, yet near consistent community composition. The predominance of bacterial phyla Proteobacteria (30% followed by Actinobacteria (24%, Firmicutes (11% and Cyanobacteria (5% was observed. Bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes (1.12%, BD1-5 (0.5%, Nitrospirae (0.41% and Verrucomicrobia (0.28% were detected as relatively minor populations in Lonar Lake ecosystem. Within Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria represented the most abundant population (21-47% among all the sediments and as a minor population in water samples. Bacterial members Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were present significantly higher (p≥0.05 in sediment samples, whereas members of Actinobacteria, Candidate_division_TM7 and Cyanobacteria (p≥0.05 were significantly abundant in water samples. It was noted that compared to other hypersaline soda lakes, Lonar Lake samples formed one distinct cluster, suggesting a different microbial community composition and structure. The present study reports for the first time the different composition of indigenous microbial communities between the sediment and water samples of Lonar Lake. Having better insight of community structure of this Lake ecosystem could be useful in understanding the microbial role in the geochemical cycle for future functional exploration of the unique hypersaline Lonar Lake.

  12. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the sivash, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.

  13. Microbial Mg-carbonate Precipitation and Early Diagenetic Dolomite Crust Formation at Hypersaline Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahniuk Rumbelsperger, A. M.; McKenzie, J. A.; Perri, E.; Vögeli, N.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary dolomite rocks are commonly considered to be primarily a replacement product of the calcium carbonate components comprising the original limestone, a process known as secondary replacement dolomitization. Although numerous dolomite formations in the geologic record are composed of fine-grained crystals of micritic dolomite, an alternative process, i.e., direct precipitation, is often excluded because of the absence of visible or geochemical indicators supporting primary precipitation. We present a study of a modern coastal hypersaline lagoon, Brejo do Espinho, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which is located in a special climatic regime where a well-defined seasonal cycle of wet and dry conditions occur. The direct precipitation of modern high-Mg calcite and Ca-dolomite mud from the lagoonal waters under low-temperature hypersaline conditions is associated with the activity of microbial organisms living in this restricted environment. The mud undergoes an early diagenetic transformation into a 100% dolomite crust on the margins of the lagoon. The biomineralization process, characterized by the variations of the physico-chemical conditions in this environment during the annual hydrologic cycle, is integrated with isotopic analysis to define the early diagenetic processes responsible for the formation of both dolomitic mud and crust. The carbon isotope values indicate a contribution of respired organic carbon, which is greater for the crust (δ13C = -9.5‰ VPDB) than mud (δ13C = -1.2‰ VPDB). The oxygen isotope values reflect a moderate degree of evaporation during mud formation (δ18O = 1.1‰ VPDB), whereas it is greatly enhanced during early diagenetic crust formation (δ18O = 4.2‰ VPDB). The clumped isotope formation temperatures derived for the Brejo do Espinho mud is 34°C and 32°C for the crust. These temperatures are consistent with the upper range of measured values during the dry season when the lagoon experiences the most hypersaline

  14. δ18O and Carbonate Clumped Isotopes as Proxies of Lake Level Change: Mono Lake Modern Sediments Inform Pleistocene Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westacott, S.; Ingalls, M.; Meixnerova, J.; Betts, M.; Lloyd, M. K.; Miller, L. G.; Sessions, A. L.; Trower, L.; Geobiology Course, A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1941 LA County began diverting water from the Mono Lake basin, causing lake level to fall dramatically until 1994 when diversion was substantially discontinued. High sedimentation rate (0.7 cm/yr) in combination with rapid, well-documented environmental change offers a unique opportunity to investigate the isotopic fingerprint of lake level change at a much finer scale than is typically accessible in the geologic record. δ18Ocarb can record lake level in a closed-basin system, but relies on knowing the relative contributions from carbonate precipitated from lake water and from authigenic carbonates, both of which are expected to exist in alkaline lake sediments. Here, we combine δ18Ocarb with clumped isotope thermometry (T(Δ47)) on a 70 cm sediment core to "unmix" the carbonate sources and reconstruct δ18Owater of Mono Lake over the past 116 years. Carbonate from the upper 10 cm of the sediment core yields a T(Δ47) of 26°C, reflecting surface water carbonate precipitation during late summer. Carbonates from sediment depths greater than 10cm yield a consistent T(Δ47) of 9.6°C, warmer than today's bottom waters, suggesting dissolution and reprecipitation of originally "warm" carbonate deposited from the water column alongside "cold" water of a different δ18Ow than Mono Lake surface water. A clumped isotope mixing model (Defliese & Lohmann, 2015) used to calculate the relative contributions of the two carbonate precipitates, corroborated by mirrored shifts in δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb down-core, suggests that about half of the carbonate found in the lower 60 cm of the sediment core is authigenic. As an example of how this strategy can be applied to older strata with looser constraints on primary composition, we also analysed the Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation—lake sediments from Mono Lake's predecessor, Lake Russell. Although Pleistocene Lake Russell should have been cooler than modern Mono Lake, T(Δ47) values were similar to those of modern sediments

  15. Transient Monotonic and Cyclic Load Effects on Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam

    Today, 80 % of all European offshore wind turbines are installed on monopiles. A cost-effective alternative to the monopile is the mono bucket foundation. For an offshore wind turbine foundation in open seas, the dominant load is often coming from waves. During storms, large waves are formed...... and when hitting the foundation they induce high impact loads with a short duration. It is important that the foundation is able to resists these huge loads. Fortunately, the conducted research showed that the capacity of the mono bucket foundation is high to impact loads. When exposed to a huge wave load...... accumulating for each wave impact. The presented research has shown indications that only the first waves contribute to the permanent rotation. These indications are seen in small-scale laboratory tests and on a full-scale mono bucket foundation....

  16. Cost-Effective Mass Production of Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Nielsen, Søren Andreas; Fejerskov, Morten

    2015-01-01

    No recognized procedures exist for the Mono Bucket Foundation design, which is an obstruction for mass customization/production and industrialization in relation to certifying authorities. This paper presents the outcome of on-going research and development program that provides solution for inno......No recognized procedures exist for the Mono Bucket Foundation design, which is an obstruction for mass customization/production and industrialization in relation to certifying authorities. This paper presents the outcome of on-going research and development program that provides solution...... for innovative and cost-effective design of Mono Bucket foundations. Established approach merges wind and wave load models, soil/structure interaction topics, structural optimization and installation/fabrication aspects, into software package with ability to perform optimal design of the individual foundations...

  17. Mono- and co-substrate utilization kinetics using mono- and co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Noha; Gupta, Medhavi; Hafez, Hisham; El Naggar, M Hesham; Nakhla, George

    2017-10-01

    The effect of co-culturing C. beijerinckii and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum for H 2 production using mono- and co-substrates of glucose, starch, and cellulose was assessed. Monod kinetic parameters (K, maximum specific substrate utilization rate; and K s , half-saturation constant) of the C. beijerinckii, C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum, and the co-culture were determined. Co-cultures utilizing glucose competed for the substrate, but showed enhancement for utilizing starch. The maximum values for K on glucose and starch were 0.48g substrate/gVSS.h achieved by C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum mono-culture and 0.39g substrate/gVSS.h achieved by the co-culture, respectively. The average K s for all mono- and co-culture experiments was 0.93±0.03g/L. Acetate, butyrate, and propionate were the main fermentation products for all experiments. Maximum H 2 production yields on glucose (2.69mol/mol glucose ) and starch (1.07mol/mol hexose ) were achieved by C. beijerinckii and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum mono-cultures, respectively; however, neither culture was able to degrade cellulose as a mono-substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mathematical simulation of the diel O, S, and C biogeochemistry of a hypersaline microbial mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, K.; Potter, C.

    2003-12-01

    The creation of a mathematical simulation model of photosynthetic microbial mats is an important step in our understanding of key biogeochemical cycles that may have altered the atmospheres of early Earth and of other terrestrial planets. A modeling investigation is presented here as a tool to utilize and integrate empirical results from research on hypersaline mats from Baja California, Mexico into a computational system that can be used to simulate biospheric inputs of trace gases to the atmosphere. An early version of our model calculates fluxes and cycling of oxygen, sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via abiotic components and via the major bacterial guilds: cyanobacteria (CYA), sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB), purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and colorless sulfur bacteria (CSB). We used generalized monod-type equations that incorporate substrate and energy limits upon maximum rates of metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and sulfate reduction. We ran a simulation using temperature and irradiance inputs from data collected from a microbial mat in Guerrero Negro in Baja Mexico. Model oxygen, sulfide, and DIC results compared well with data collected in the field mats. A divergence from the field data was an initial large negative DIC flux early in the morning and little flux into the mat thereafter in the simulation. We hypothesize that this divergence will be reduced or eliminated if the salinity of the water surrounding the mat were used as an environmental input and as a limit to photosynthesis rates. Salinity levels, organic carbon, methane, methanogens and green nonsulfur bacteria will be added to this model before it is incorporated into a global model to simulate geological time scales.

  19. Rhodococcus sovatensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the hypersaline and heliothermal Lake Ursu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Táncsics, András; Máthé, István; Benedek, Tibor; Tóth, Erika M; Atasayar, Ewelina; Spröer, Cathrin; Márialigeti, Károly; Felföldi, Tamás; Kriszt, Balázs

    2017-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, mesophilic bacterium, designated H004T, was isolated from a water sample of the hypersaline and heliothermal Lake Ursu, Sovata, Romania. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain H004T formed a distinct phyletic lineage within the genus Rhodococcus. It shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Rhodococcus yunnanensis YIM 70056T (98.80 %), followed by Rhodococcus fascians LMG 3623T (98.73 %), Rhodococcus cercidiphylli YIM 65003T (98.73 %), Rhodococcus cerastii C5T (98.58 %) and Rhodococcus kyotonensis DS472T (98.53 %). The alkB-based phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that this strain constitutes a highly unique lineage within the genus. Chemotaxonomic characteristics, including the predominant fatty acids acids C15 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C19 : 1ω11c/C19 : 1ω9c and C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, the major quinone MK-8(H2), the presence of mycolic acids and cell-wall chemotype IV were also consistent with the properties of members of the genus Rhodococcus. The DNA G+C content of strain H004T was 65.4 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization analyses with the closest relatives, in combination with the alkB-based phylogenetic analysis, as well as the chemotaxonomic and physiological data, demonstrated that isolate H004T represents a novel species of the genus Rhodococcus, for which the name Rhodococcus sovatensissp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H004T (=DSM 102881T=NCAIM B.02632T).

  20. Stage susceptibility of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to selenomethionine and hypersaline developmental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsco, Allison; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of seleniferous soils can lead to selenium contamination of waterways. Although selenium is an essential micronutrient, bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of proteinaceous selenomethionine (SeMet) can result in embryo toxicity. Furthermore, as the climate changes, the salinity of spawning grounds in water-restrained estuaries is increasing. Although a small increase in salinity may not directly impact adult fish, it may alter the detoxification strategies of developing organisms. Previous research indicates that hypersalinity may potentiate SeMet embryo toxicity at an early developmental stage. However, embryonic development is a complex, spatiotemporal process with a constantly shifting cellular microenvironment. To generate thresholds and an adverse outcome pathway for the interactions between selenium and salinity, we sought to identify windows of susceptibility for lethality and deformities in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Embryos were treated in freshwater or saltwater for 24 h with 0.5 µM, 5 µM, and 50 µM SeMet at 6 different developmental stages (9, 17, 25, 29, 34, and 38). Survival, hatch, deformities (total, type, and severity), and days to hatch were quantified. Selenium embryo tissue measurements were performed. Selenomethionine exposures of 5 µM and 50 µM significantly decreased survival and hatch at all stages. However, SeMet uptake was stage-dependent and increased with stage. Stage 17 (early neurulation) was identified as the most susceptible stage for lethality and deformities. Selenomethionine in saltwater caused significantly greater toxicity than freshwater at stage 25 (early organogenesis), suggesting a role for liver and osmoregulatory organogenesis in toxicity. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Microbial communities inhabiting hypersaline microbial mats from the Abu Dhabi sabkha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza; Dutton, Kirsten; Paul, Andreas; van der Land, Cees; Sherry, Angela; Lokier, Stephen; Head, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Microbial mats are organo-sedimentary structures that are typically found in areas with extreme environmental conditions. Since these ecosystems are considered to be representative of the oldest forms of life on Earth, the study of microbial mats can inform our understanding of the development of life early in the history of our planet. In this study, we used hypersaline microbial mats from the Abu Dhabi sabkha (coastal salt flats). Cores of microbial mats (ca. 90 mm depth) were collected within an intertidal region. The cores were sliced into layers 2-3 mm thick and genomic DNA was extracted from each layer. A fragment of the 16S rRNA encoding gene was amplified in all DNA extracts, using barcoded primers, and the amplicons sequenced with the Ion Torrent platform to investigate the composition of the microbial communities down the depth of the cores. Preliminary results revealed a high proportion of Archaea (15.5-40.8% abundance) in all layers, with Halobacteria appearing to be more significant in the first 40 mm (0.4-10.3% of the total microbial community). Members of the Deltaproteobacteria were dominant in almost all layers of the microbial mat (≤ 48.6% relative abundance); however this dominance was not reflected in the first 8 mm, where the abundance was less than 2%. Chloroflexi and Anaerolinea, representing 93% of bacterial abundance, dominated the first 8 mm depth and decreased at greater depth (≤ 3% relative abundance). Cyanobacteria were found only in the top 10 mm, with unexpected low abundance (≤ 3% of the total number of reads). These results show a vertical zonation of microbial communities and processes in the microbial mats. Further analyses are underway to investigate if these patterns are repeated at other sites along a transect of the sabkha, and to relate the microbial composition to the physical-chemical conditions of the sites.

  2. Fermentation couples Chloroflexi and sulfate-reducing bacteria to Cyanobacteria in hypersaline microbial mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Z Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Past studies of hydrogen cycling in hypersaline microbial mats have shown an active nighttime cycle, with production largely from Cyanobacteria and consumption from sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB. However, the mechanisms and magnitude of hydrogen cycling have not been extensively studied. Two mats types near Guerrero Negro, Mexico -- permanently submerged Microcoleus microbial mats (GN-S, and intertidal Lyngbya microbial mats (GN-I -- were used in microcosm diel manipulation experiments with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU, molybdate, ammonium addition, and physical disruption to understand the processes responsible for hydrogen cycling between mat microbes. Across microcosms, H2 production occurred under dark anoxic conditions with simultaneous production of a suite of organic acids. H2 production was not significantly affected by inhibition of nitrogen fixation, but rather appears to result from constitutive fermentation of photosynthetic storage products by oxygenic phototrophs. Comparison to accumulated glycogen and to CO2 flux indicated that, in the GN-I mat, fermentation released almost all of the carbon fixed via photosynthesis during the preceding day, primarily as organic acids. Across mats, although oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs were detected, cyanobacterial [NiFe]-hydrogenase transcripts predominated. Molybdate inhibition experiments indicated that SRBs from a wide distribution of dsrA phylotypes were responsible for H2 consumption. Incubation with 13C-acetate and nanoSIMS (secondary ion mass-spectrometry indicated higher uptake in both Chloroflexi and SRBs relative to other filamentous bacteria. These manipulations and diel incubations confirm that Cyanobacteria were the main fermenters in Guerrero Negro mats and that the net flux of nighttime fermentation byproducts (not only hydrogen was largely regulated by the interplay between Cyanobacteria, SRBs, and Chloroflexi.

  3. Microbial diversity of the hypersaline and lithium-rich Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferburg, Götz; Gröning, Janosch A D; Schmidt, Nadja; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Erquicia, Juan Carlos; Schlömann, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Salar de Uyuni, situated in the Southwest of the Bolivian Altiplano, is the largest salt flat on Earth. Brines of this athalassohaline hypersaline environment are rich in lithium and boron. Due to the ever- increasing commodity demand, the industrial exploitation of brines for metal recovery from the world's biggest lithium reservoir is likely to increase substantially in the near future. Studies on the composition of halophilic microbial communities in brines of the salar have not been published yet. Here we report for the first time on the prokaryotic diversity of four brine habitats across the salar. The brine is characterized by salinity values between 132 and 177 PSU, slightly acidic to near-neutral pH and lithium and boron concentrations of up to 2.0 and 1.4g/L, respectively. Community analysis was performed after sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes employing the Illumina MiSeq technology. The mothur software package was used for sequence processing and data analysis. Metagenomic analysis revealed the occurrence of an exclusively archaeal community comprising 26 halobacterial genera including only recently identified genera like Halapricum, Halorubellus and Salinarchaeum. Despite the high diversity of the halobacteria-dominated community in sample P3 (Shannon-Weaver index H'=3.12 at 3% OTU cutoff) almost 40% of the Halobacteriaceae-assigned sequences could not be classified on the genus level under stringent filtering conditions. Even if the limited taxonomic resolution of the V3-V4 region for halobacteria is considered, it seems likely to discover new, hitherto undescribed genera of the family halobacteriaceae in this particular habitat of Salar de Uyuni in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of Chloroflexus respiration to oxygen cycling in a hypersaline microbial mat from Lake Chiprana, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polerecky, Lubos; Bachar, Ami; Schoon, Raphaela

    2007-01-01

    in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) regions to study this coupling in more detail. Using this novel approach, we separately quantified the activity of the major players in the oxygen cycle in a hypersaline microbial mat: gross photosynthesis of cyanobacteria, NIR light-dependent respiration...... of Chloroflexus-like bacteria (CLB) and respiration of aerobic heterotrophs. Illumination by VIS light induced oxygen production in the top 1 mm of the mat. In this zone CLB were found responsible for all respiration, while the contribution of the aerobic heterotrophs was negligible. Additional illumination...

  5. The Effect of Acid Neutralization on Analytical Results Produced from SW846 Method 8330 after the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Explosives in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Hydrochloric acid H3PO Phosphoric acid H2SO4 Sulfuric acic NaOH Sodium hydroxide NaH2PO4 Mono...basic form of phosphoric acid or sodium phosphate NO2- Nitrite OH- Hydroxide ion ERDC/EL TR-12-14 1 1 Introduction Alkaline hydrolysis has... sodium hydroxide pellets visible after mixing. Neutralization of Soil pH Neutralization of soil pH prior to extraction was accomplished by

  6. Synthesis and spectroscopic study of nitroxide mono- and bi- radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michon, Pierre

    1970-01-01

    Synthesis and study of nitroxide mono- and bi- radicals derived from oxazolidine: - The first part is the synthesis of amines and radicals, and the I.R. U.V., E.P.R. spectroscopy study. - Conformational analysis of two biradicals has been carried out by measurement of dipolar interaction, on the E.P.R. spectra in the second part. - The final part is an application of N.M.R. study to the determination of the sign and magnitude of nuclear-electron spin-spin couplings and conformations analysis in five mono-radicals. (author) [fr

  7. Reliability Analysis of a Mono-Tower Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    In this paper a reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure modes, considered, are yelding in the tube cross-sections, and fatigue failure in the butt welds. The fatigue failure mode is investigated with a fatigue model, where the fatigue strength is expressed through SN...... for the fatigue limit state is a significant failure mode for the Mono.tower platform. Further, it is shown for the fatigue failure mode the the largest contributions to the overall uncertainty are due to the damping ratio, the inertia coefficient, the stress concentration factor, the model uncertainties...

  8. Histochemistry of placental alkaline phosphatase in preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Shevade, Sapna Prashant; Arole, Vasanti; Paranjape, Vaishali Mohan; Bharambe, Vaishaly Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Placental alkaline phosphatase (PALP) is synthesized in placenta and increases with gestational age. Alkaline phosphatase supports pregnancy and could play an essential role in nutrient supply and growth of the fetus. Preeclampsia is a systemic disorder which affects 5 to 7 percent of women worldwide and is a major cause for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. As it has a major role in fetal growth, nutrition and defense mechanism study of alkaline phosphatase enzymatic...

  9. The concept of an estuary: A definition that incorporates systems which can become closed to the ocean and hypersaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Ian C.; Chuwen, Benjamin M.; Hoeksema, Steeg D.; Elliott, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The majority of the definitions of estuaries have been based on the characteristics of estuaries in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. As previously pointed out ( Day, 1980), such definitions do not take into account such features as periodic closure of their mouths and hypersaline conditions during dry periods, which characterise many estuaries in southern Africa and south-western Australia. There is also ambiguity as to whether an estuary sensu stricto must be fed by a river. The following definition was developed to encompass the main characteristics of all estuaries: An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of water that is either permanently or periodically open to the sea and which receives at least periodic discharge from a river(s), and thus, while its salinity is typically less than that of natural sea water and varies temporally and along its length, it can become hypersaline in regions when evaporative water loss is high and freshwater and tidal inputs are negligible. Estuaries are thus regarded as unique ecosystems, which, in the case of fishes, for example, are occupied by species that collectively represent a particular suite of guilds.

  10. Sodium toxicity and pathology associated with exposure of waterfowl to hypersaline playa lakes of southeast New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Dubielzig, R.D.; Dein, F.J.; Baeten, L.A.; Moore, M.K.; Jehl, J.R.; Wesenberg, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Cause of mortality was studied in waterfowl in hypersaline playa lakes of southeast New Mexico during spring and fall migration. Mortality was not common in wild ducks resting on the playas during good weather. However, when birds remained on the lakes for prolonged periods of time, such as during experimental trials and stormy weather, a heavy layer of salt precipitated on their feathers. Sodium toxicity was the cause of death for all experimental mallards housed on playa water and for 50% of the wild waterfowl found moribund or dead during the spring of 1995. Gross lesions included heavy salt precipitation on the feathers, ocular lens opacities, deeply congested brains, and dilated, thin-walled, fluid-filled cloacae. Microscopic lesions in the more severely affected birds included liquefaction of ocular lens cortex with lens fiber swelling and multifocal to diffuse ulcerative conjunctivitis with severe granulocytic inflammation, edema, and granulocytic vasculitis resulting in thrombosis. Inflammation similar to that seen in the conjunctiva occasionally involved the mucosa of the mouth, pharynx, nasal turbinates, cloaca, and bursa. Transcorneal movement of water in response to the hypersaline conditions on the playa lakes or direct contact with salt crystals could induce anterior segment dehydration of the aqueous humor and increased osmotic pressure on the lens, leading to cataract formation.

  11. Salt resistance genes revealed by functional metagenomics from brines and moderate-salinity rhizosphere within a hypersaline environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eMirete

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypersaline environments are considered one of the most extreme habitats on earth and microorganisms have developed diverse molecular mechanisms of adaptation to withstand these conditions. The present study was aimed at identifying novel genes involved in salt resistance from the microbial communities of brines and the rhizosphere from the Es Trenc saltern (Mallorca, Spain. The microbial diversity assessed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed the presence of communities that are typical in such environments. Metagenomic libraries from brine and rhizosphere samples, were transferred to the osmosensitive strain Escherichia coli MKH13, and screened for salt resistance. As a result, eleven genes that conferred salt resistance were identified, some encoding for well known proteins previously related to osmoadaptation as a glycerol and a proton pump, whereas others encoded for proteins not previously related to this function in microorganisms as DNA/RNA helicases, an endonuclease III (Nth and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Furthermore, four of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis and they also exhibited salt resistance in this bacterium, broadening the spectrum of bacterial species where these genes can operate. This is the first report of salt resistance genes recovered from metagenomes of a hypersaline environment.

  12. Risperidone Mono - Therapy as Prophylaxis in Bipolar Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mohit; Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Risperidone has been found to be useful in the treatment of acute bipolar disorders. This is a case report where risperidone mono therapy has been found to be effective in prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder. The pharmacological and clinical implications of risperidone in the management of BPAD are discussed

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Some Mono Chloro-S- Triazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of ten bifunctional mono-chloro-s-triazine vinyl sulphone reactive dyes were synthesized based on Hacid with varied substituents coded as (BRD). These dyes were characterized by IR spectroscopy. The results revealed an incorporation of various substituents. The visible absorption spectra of these dyes were ...

  14. Reliability Analysis of a Mono-Tower Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, a reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. Te failure modes considered are yielding in the tube cross sections and fatigue failure in the butts welds. The fatigue failrue mode is investigated with a fatigue model, where the fatigue strength is expressed through SN...

  15. Production of mono sugar from acid hydrolysis of seaweed | Jang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this work was to optimize the process conditions for the saccharification of macroalgae (seaweed) into mono sugar using the following parameters such as: Amount of biomass, catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time. The major component of Ulva pertusa (green seaweed), Laminaria japonica ...

  16. Air quality in bedded mono-slope beef barns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedded mono-slope barns are becoming more common in the upper Midwest. Because these are new facilities, little research has been published regarding environmental quality, building management and animal performance in these facilities. A team of researchers from South Dakota State University, USDA ...

  17. Mono-fermentation of shea waste in anaerobic digesters - laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the purpose of understanding the characteristics in performance of the shea waste and to provide the necessary input parameters towards the design of biogas plants, mono-fermentation as an option in anaerobic digestion for energy (methane) generation was investigated. Six horizontal reactors with a liquid volume of ...

  18. Mono Drama: Categorization and Theoretical Scaffolds in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is against this background that this study attempts to investigate very vital issues concerning mono drama, which include: the concept of Solo drama in creative and performance contexts, taxonomy of solo/monodrama as well as the deployment of appropriate theories that should be applied by both solo drama writers and ...

  19. Reversible mono-ADP-ribosylation of DNA breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnur, Deeksha; Ahel, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a chemical modification of macromolecules that plays an important role in regulation of quintessential biological processes such as DNA repair, transcription, chromatin remodelling, stress response, apoptosis, bacterial metabolism and many others. ADP-ribosylation is carried out by ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) that transfer either monomer or polymers of ADP-ribose onto the molecular targets by using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) as a cofactor. Traditionally, proteins have been described as primary targets of ADP-ribosylation; however, there has been growing evidence that DNA may be a common target as well. Here, we show using biochemical studies that PARP3, a DNA damage-activated ADP-ribosyltransferase, can mono-ADP-ribosylate double-stranded DNA ends. ADP-ribosylation of DNA mediated by PARP3 attaches a single mono-ADP-ribose moiety to the phosphate group at the terminal ends of DNA. We further show that mono ADP-ribosylation at DNA ends can be efficiently reversed by several cellular hydrolases (PARG, MACROD2, TARG1 and ARH3). This suggests that mono ADP-ribosylated DNA adducts can be efficiently removed in cells by several mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. Spin, Charge, and Bonding in Transition Metal Mono Silicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, D. van der; Damascelli, A.; Schulte, K.; Menovsky, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Published in: Physica B 244 (1998) 138-147 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We review some of the relevant physical properties of the transition metal mono-silicides with the FeSi structure (CrSi, MnSi, FeSi, CoSi, NiSi, etc) and explore the relation between their structural

  1. A mono harvest of California black oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Ron W. Goode

    2017-01-01

    In about 1925 or 1926, Margaret Baty, a tribal member of Big Sandy Rancheria, displayed a collection of acorns from California black oak (Quercus kelloggii, wi-yap' in Mono) and an acorn cooking basket. This photograph, taken by George Holt and courtesy of the Flegal Collection of the Jesse Peter Museum at Santa Rosa Junior College,...

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. N/A

  3. Mono- and binuclear complexes of low-valent zirconium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielstra, IJtsen

    1990-01-01

    This thesis is a study on the synthesis and reactivity of low-valent zirconium. The investigation can be divided in two parts: the first describes the chemistry of mono-cyclopentadienyl Zr (II) complexes (Chapter II, III and IV), and the second describes some synthetic pathways successfully used for

  4. Convenient Regioselective mono-2-O-Sulfonation of Cyclomaltooctaose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, K; Tanabe, S; Hisamatsu, M; Yamada, T

    1998-01-01

    Regioselective mono-2-O-sulfonation of cyclomaltooctaose was conveniently achieved by using the combination of sulfonyl imidazole and molecular sieves in DMF. In this reaction, no 3-O- or 6-O-sulfonation products were produced. The reactions do not require strict anhydrous or basic conditions, or specific sulfonyl groups.

  5. Cost-Effective Mass Production of Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Nielsen, Søren Andreas; Fejerskov, Morten

    2015-01-01

    No recognized procedures exist for the Mono Bucket Foundation design, which is an obstruction for mass customization/production and industrialization in relation to certifying authorities. This paper presents the outcome of on-going research and development program that provides solution...

  6. Alkaline Electrochemical Capacitor and Electrode Fabrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finello, D

    1999-01-01

    .... The subject low cost alkaline electrochemical capacitor designs are based upon titanium nitride electrodes which exhibit 125 mF/sq cm surface capacitance density and remarkable electrochemical...

  7. Pyrogen testing of lipid-based TPN using Mono Mac 6 monocyte cell line and DELFIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in Mono Mac 6 cells.......Measurement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in Mono Mac 6 cells....

  8. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weimin; Zheng Zhenji; Chen Bao; Chen Yonggui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  9. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  10. Biological Characterization of Microenvironments in a Hypersaline Cold Spring Mars Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley M. Sapers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While many habitable niches on Earth are characterized by permanently cold conditions, little is known about the spatial structure of seasonal communities and the importance of substrate-cell associations in terrestrial cyroenvironments. Here we use the 16S rRNA gene as a marker for genetic diversity to compare two visually distinct but spatially integrated surface microbial mats on Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian high arctic, proximal to a perennial saline spring. This is the first study to describe the bacterial diversity in microbial mats on Axel Heiberg Island. The hypersaline springs on Axel Heiberg represent a unique analog to putative subsurface aquifers on Mars. The Martian subsurface represents the longest-lived potentially habitable environment on Mars and a better understanding of the microbial communities on Earth that thrive in analog conditions will help direct future life detection missions. The microbial mats sampled on Axel Heiberg are only visible during the summer months in seasonal flood plains formed by melt water and run-off from the proximal spring. Targeted-amplicon sequencing revealed that not only does the bacterial composition of the two mat communities differ substantially from the sediment community of the proximal cold spring, but that the mat communities are distinct from any other microbial community in proximity to the Arctic springs studied to date. All samples are dominated by Gammaproteobacteria: Thiotichales is dominant within the spring samples while Alteromonadales comprises a significant component of the mat communities. The two mat samples differ in their Thiotichales:Alteromonadales ratio and contribution of Bacteroidetes to overall diversity. The red mats have a greater proportion of Alteromonadales and Bacteroidetes reads. The distinct bacterial composition of the mat bacterial communities suggests that the spring communities are not sourced from the surface, and that seasonal melt events create

  11. Lanthanide behavior in hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico - an environment with halophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choumiline, K.; López-Cortés, A.; Grajeda-Muñoz, M.; Shumilin, E.; Sapozhnikov, D.

    2013-12-01

    Lanthanides are known, in some cases, to be sensitive to changes in water column or sediment chemistry, a fact that allows them to be used as environmental fingerprints. Nevertheless, the behavior of these elements in hypersaline environments is insufficiently understood, especially in those colonized by bacteria, archaea and eukarya halophiles. Extreme environments like the mentioned exist in the artificially-controlled ponds of the 'Exportadora de Sal' salt-producing enterprise located in Guerrero Negro (Baja California, Mexico). Sediment cores from various ponds were collected, subsampled and measured by ICP-MS and INAA. This allowed differencing the behavior of lanthanides and trace elements under a water column salinity gradient along the evaporation sequence of ponds. Sediment profiles (30 mm long), obtained in Pond 5, dominated by Ca and Mg precipitation and at the same time rich in organic matter due to bacterial mat presence, showed highs and lows of the shale-normalized patterns along different in-core depths. Two groups of elements could be distinguished with similar trends: set A (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and set B (Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu). The first 'group A' had two prominent peaks at 15 mm and around 22 mm, whereas the 'group B' showed only slight increase at 15 mm and none at 22 mm. Microscopic analyses of prokaryotic cells of a stratified mat in Pond 5 (collected in 2004) showed filamentous bacteria and cyanobacteria with a cell abundance and morphotype richness maxima of prokaryotic cells in a chemocline from 3 mm to 7 mm depth which co-exists nine morphotypes of aerobic and anaerobic prokaryotes Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Leptolyngbya, Cyanothece, Geitlerinema, Spirulina, Chloroflexus, Beggiatoa, Chromatium and Thioploca. Below the 7 mm depth, oxygenic photosynthesis depletes and sulfur reducing compounds increase. The highs of the shale-normalized lanthanide contents of the 'group A' (at 15 mm depth) seem to correlate with the

  12. Amino Acid Coding Bias of the Hypersaline Dead Sea on an Environmental Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, M. E.; Fitz-Gibbon, S.; Bodaker, I.; Beja, O.; Oren, A.; House, C.

    2008-12-01

    relatively diverse hypersaline environment to one in which only the most extreme of hyperhalophiles could cope. It also suggests that the amino acid composition of the microbial community of an environment can serve as a proxy for salinity and potentially other environmental factors as well.

  13. Desulfonatronovibrio halophilus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Abbas, B.; Suhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Four strains of lithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been enriched and isolated from anoxic sediments of hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) at 2 M NaCl and pH 7.5. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were closely related

  14. Metagenomic Insights into the Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity of the Prokaryotic Community Dwelling in Hypersaline Soils from the Odiel Saltmarshes (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Vera-Gargallo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypersaline environments encompass aquatic and terrestrial habitats. While only a limited number of studies on the microbial diversity of saline soils have been carried out, hypersaline lakes and marine salterns have been thoroughly investigated, resulting in an aquatic-biased knowledge about life in hypersaline environments. To improve our understanding of the assemblage of microbes thriving in saline soils, we assessed the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community of two hypersaline soils (with electrical conductivities of ~24 and 55 dS/m from the Odiel saltmarshes (Spain by metagenomics. Comparative analysis of these soil databases with available datasets from salterns ponds allowed further identification of unique and shared traits of microbial communities dwelling in these habitats. Saline soils harbored a more diverse prokaryotic community and, in contrast to their aquatic counterparts, contained sequences related to both known halophiles and groups without known halophilic or halotolerant representatives, which reflects the physical heterogeneity of the soil matrix. Our results suggest that Haloquadratum and certain Balneolaeota members may preferentially thrive in aquatic or terrestrial habitats, respectively, while haloarchaea, nanohaloarchaea and Salinibacter may be similarly adapted to both environments. We reconstructed 4 draft genomes related to Bacteroidetes, Balneolaeota and Halobacteria and appraised their metabolism, osmoadaptation strategies and ecology. This study greatly improves the current understanding of saline soils microbiota.

  15. A proteomic investigation of Fusobacterium nucleatum alkaline-induced biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Jactty; Zilm, Peter S; Fuss, Janet M; Gully, Neville J

    2012-09-03

    The Gram negative anaerobe Fusobacterium nucleatum has been implicated in the aetiology of periodontal diseases. Although frequently isolated from healthy dental plaque, its numbers and proportion increase in plaque associated with disease. One of the significant physico-chemical changes in the diseased gingival sulcus is increased environmental pH. When grown under controlled conditions in our laboratory, F. nucleatum subspecies polymorphum formed mono-culture biofilms when cultured at pH 8.2. Biofilm formation is a survival strategy for bacteria, often associated with altered physiology and increased virulence. A proteomic approach was used to understand the phenotypic changes in F. nucleatum cells associated with alkaline induced biofilms. The proteomic based identification of significantly altered proteins was verified where possible using additional methods including quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), enzyme assay, acidic end-product analysis, intracellular polyglucose assay and Western blotting. Of 421 proteins detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, spot densities of 54 proteins varied significantly (p nucleatum cultured at pH 8.2 compared to growth at pH 7.4. Proteins that were differentially produced in biofilm cells were associated with the functional classes; metabolic enzymes, transport, stress response and hypothetical proteins. Our results suggest that biofilm cells were more metabolically efficient than planktonic cells as changes to amino acid and glucose metabolism generated additional energy needed for survival in a sub-optimal environment. The intracellular concentration of stress response proteins including heat shock protein GroEL and recombinational protein RecA increased markedly in the alkaline environment. A significant finding was the increased abundance of an adhesin, Fusobacterial outer membrane protein A (FomA). This surface protein is known for its capacity to bind to a vast number of bacterial species and human epithelial

  16. A proteomic investigation of Fusobacterium nucleatum alkaline-induced biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Jactty

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram negative anaerobe Fusobacterium nucleatum has been implicated in the aetiology of periodontal diseases. Although frequently isolated from healthy dental plaque, its numbers and proportion increase in plaque associated with disease. One of the significant physico-chemical changes in the diseased gingival sulcus is increased environmental pH. When grown under controlled conditions in our laboratory, F. nucleatum subspecies polymorphum formed mono-culture biofilms when cultured at pH 8.2. Biofilm formation is a survival strategy for bacteria, often associated with altered physiology and increased virulence. A proteomic approach was used to understand the phenotypic changes in F. nucleatum cells associated with alkaline induced biofilms. The proteomic based identification of significantly altered proteins was verified where possible using additional methods including quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, enzyme assay, acidic end-product analysis, intracellular polyglucose assay and Western blotting. Results Of 421 proteins detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, spot densities of 54 proteins varied significantly (p F. nucleatum cultured at pH 8.2 compared to growth at pH 7.4. Proteins that were differentially produced in biofilm cells were associated with the functional classes; metabolic enzymes, transport, stress response and hypothetical proteins. Our results suggest that biofilm cells were more metabolically efficient than planktonic cells as changes to amino acid and glucose metabolism generated additional energy needed for survival in a sub-optimal environment. The intracellular concentration of stress response proteins including heat shock protein GroEL and recombinational protein RecA increased markedly in the alkaline environment. A significant finding was the increased abundance of an adhesin, Fusobacterial outer membrane protein A (FomA. This surface protein is known for its capacity to bind to a

  17. Synthesis and biological activity of novel mono-indole and mono-benzofuran inhibitors of bacterial transcription initiation complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Marcin; Thomas, Ruth V; Ma, Cong; Kandemir, Hakan; Yang, Xiao; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Black, David StC; Griffith, Renate; Lewis, Peter J; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-04-15

    Our ongoing research focused on targeting transcription initiation in bacteria has resulted in synthesis of several classes of mono-indole and mono-benzofuran inhibitors that targeted the essential protein-protein interaction between RNA polymerase core and σ(70)/σ(A) factors in bacteria. In this study, the reaction of indole-2-, indole-3-, indole-7- and benzofuran-2-glyoxyloyl chlorides with amines and hydrazines afforded a variety of glyoxyloylamides and glyoxyloylhydrazides. Similarly, condensation of 2- and 7-trichloroacetylindoles with amines and hydrazines delivered amides and hydrazides. The novel molecules were found to inhibit the RNA polymerase-σ(70)/σ(A) interaction as measured by ELISA, and also inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in culture. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the mono-indole and mono-benzofuran inhibitors suggested that the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance is an important determinant of biological activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of Key Ion Transporters in the Gill and Esophageal-Gastrointestinal Tract of Euryhaline Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus Acclimated to Fresh Water, Seawater and Hypersaline Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Lui, Eei Yin; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Ip, Yuen Kwong; Lin, Qingsong; Lam, Toong Jin; Lam, Siew Hong

    2014-01-01

    The ability of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia to tolerate extreme environmental salinities makes it an excellent model for investigating iono-regulation. This study aimed to characterize and fill important information gap of the expression levels of key ion transporters for Na+ and Cl− in the gill and esophageal-gastrointestinal tract of Mozambique tilapia acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt), seawater (30 ppt) and hypersaline (70 ppt) environments. Among the seven genes studied, it was found that nkcc2, nkcc1a, cftr, nka-α1 and nka-α3, were more responsive to salinity challenge than nkcc1b and ncc within the investigated tissues. The ncc expression was restricted to gills of freshwater-acclimated fish while nkcc2 expression was restricted to intestinal segments irrespective of salinity challenge. Among the tissues investigated, gill and posterior intestine were found to be highly responsive to salinity changes, followed by anterior and middle intestine. Both esophagus and stomach displayed significant up-regulation of nka-α1 and nka-α3, but not nkcc isoforms and cftr, in hypersaline-acclimated fish suggesting a response to hypersalinity challenge and involvement of other forms of transporters in iono-regulation. Changes in gene expression levels were partly corroborated by immunohistochemical localization of transport proteins. Apical expression of Ncc was found in Nka-immunoreactive cells in freshwater-acclimated gills while Nkcc co-localized with Nka-immunoreactive cells expressing Cftr apically in seawater- and hypersaline-acclimated gills. In the intestine, Nkcc-stained apical brush border was found in Nka-immunoreactive cells at greater levels under hypersaline conditions. These findings provided new insights into the responsiveness of these genes and tissues under hypersalinity challenge, specifically the posterior intestine being vital for salt absorption and iono-osmoregulation in the Mozambique tilapia; its ability to survive in hypersalinity may be in

  19. 21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.824 Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates. The food additive sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates may be safely used in...

  20. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following specifications...

  1. 77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California AGENCY... trust for gaming purposes for the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California on November 26... land in trust for the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California under the authority of the...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  3. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an emulsifier...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5255 - 2-Naphthalenol, mono and dioctyl derivs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Naphthalenol, mono and dioctyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5255 2-Naphthalenol, mono and dioctyl derivs. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-naphthalenol, mono and...

  5. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit

    1990-01-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10 -6 , 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M) of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M 2

  6. catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Kinetics of ruthenium (III) catalyzed oxidation of atenolol by permanganate in alkaline medium at constant ionic strength of 0⋅30 mol dm3 has been studied spectrophotometrically using a rapid kinetic accessory. Reaction between permanganate and atenolol in alkaline medium exhibits 1 : 8 stoichiometry.

  7. Increased liver alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of daily, oral administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark (2mg/kg body weight) for 18days on the alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities of rat liver and serum were investigated. Compared with the control, the activities of liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ...

  8. Alkaline Phosphatases From Camel Small Intestine | Fahmy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camel intestinal alkaline phosphatase have been purified and characterized. The purification was carried out by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Five intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (IAP1 to IAP5) were obtained. IAP2 and IAP5 with the highest activity levels were purified to homogeneity by Sephacryl ...

  9. Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This book details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. The book discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant

  10. Functional Role of Native and Invasive Filter-Feeders, and the Effect of Parasites: Learning from Hypersaline Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Sánchez

    Full Text Available Filter-feeding organisms are often keystone species with a major influence on the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. Studies of filtering rates in such taxa are therefore vital in order to understand ecosystem functioning and the impact of natural and anthropogenic stressors such as parasites, climate warming and invasive species. Brine shrimps Artemia spp. are the dominant grazers in hypersaline systems and are a good example of such keystone taxa. Hypersaline ecosystems are relatively simplified environments compared with much more complex freshwater and marine ecosystems, making them suitable model systems to address these questions. The aim of this study was to compare feeding rates at different salinities and temperatures between clonal A. parthenogenetica (native to Eurasia and Africa and the invasive American brine shrimp A. franciscana, which is excluding native Artemia from many localities. We considered how differences observed in laboratory experiments upscale at the ecosystem level across both spatial and temporal scales (as indicated by chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity. In laboratory experiments, feeding rates increased at higher temperatures and salinities in both Artemia species and sexes, whilst A. franciscana consistently fed at higher rates. A field study of temporal dynamics revealed significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll-a in sites occupied by A. parthenogenetica, supporting our experimental findings. Artemia parthenogenetica density and biomass were negatively correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration at the spatial scale. We also tested the effect of cestode parasites, which are highly prevalent in native Artemia but much rarer in the invasive species. The cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides and Anomotaenia tringae decreased feeding rates in native Artemia, whilst Confluaria podicipina had no significant effect. Total parasite prevalence was positively correlated with turbidity. Overall, parasites are

  11. Humanos salvajes y monos altruistas. Reflexiones sobre Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martinez Contreras

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN   Darwin propuso en 1871 que preferiría descender de un mono que de los “salvajes”. El mono es un babuino hamadryas que, en un relato de Brehm, salva a un infante de una jauría. Los “salvajes” son los fueguinos a los que visitó en los años 1830. ¿Por qué Darwin fue tan buen observador del comportamiento animal y por qué no dudo discernir en qué consistía la sociedad de cazadores-recolectores de los cuatro grupos de Tierra del Fuego?. Esto es lo que tratamos de dilucidar en este trabajo.   Palabras clave: Darwin, fueguinos, hamadryas, altruismo, egoísmo.

  12. Alkaline Phosphatase: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/alkalinephosphatase.html Alkaline Phosphatase To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Alkaline Phosphatase Test? An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures ...

  13. STABILITY OF AXIALLY COMPRESSED SINGLE-CELL MONO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60. N.N. OSADEBE and J.C. EZEH. Figure 1 shows one of the cross sections of a single-cell mono symmetric thin-walled closed column under consideration. Using. Lagrange's principle, Vlasov [6] expressed the displacements in the longitudinal and transverse directions, u(x, s) and v(x, s) of a thin-walled closed structure in ...

  14. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  15. Gamma spectra pictures using a digital plotter. Program MONO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The program MONO has been written for a CALCOMP-936 digital plotter operating off- -line with a UMI VAC 1106 computer, to obtain graphic representations of single gamma spectra stored on magnetic tape. It allows to plot the whole spectrum or only a part, as well as to draw a given spectrum on the same or different picture than the previous one. Ten representation scales are available and at up nine comment lines can be written in a graphic. (Author) 4 refs

  16. Reconstruction of mono-vacancies in carbon nanotubes: Atomic relaxation vs. spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berber, S.; Oshiyama, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the reconstruction of mono-vacancies in carbon nanotubes using density functional theory (DFT) geometry optimization and electronic structure calculations, employing a numerical basis set. We considered mono-vacancies in achiral nanotubes with diameter range ∼4-9A. Contrary to previous tight-binding calculations, our results indicate that mono-vacancies could have several metastable geometries, confirming the previous plane-wave DFT results. Formation energy of mono-vacancies is 4.5-5.5eV, increasing with increasing tube diameter. Net magnetic moment decreases from ideal mono-vacancy value after reconstruction, reflecting the reduction of the number of dangling bonds. In spite of the existence of a dangling bond, ground state of mono-vacancies in semiconducting tubes have no spin polarization. Metallic carbon nanotubes show net magnetic moment for most stable structure of mono-vacancy, except for very small diameter tubes

  17. Multisystemic functions of alkaline phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchet, René; Millán, José Luis; Magne, David

    2013-01-01

    Human and mouse alkaline phosphatases (AP) are encoded by a multigene family expressed ubiquitously in multiple tissues. Gene knockout (KO) findings have helped define some of the precise exocytic functions of individual isozymes in bone, teeth, the central nervous system, and in the gut. For instance, deficiency in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in mice (Alpl (-/-) mice) and humans leads to hypophosphatasia (HPP), an inborn error of metabolism characterized by epileptic seizures in the most severe cases, caused by abnormal metabolism of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (the predominant form of vitamin B6) and by hypomineralization of the skeleton and teeth featuring rickets and early loss of teeth in children or osteomalacia and dental problems in adults caused by accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Enzyme replacement therapy with mineral-targeting TNAP prevented all the manifestations of HPP in mice, and clinical trials with this protein therapeutic are showing promising results in rescuing life-threatening HPP in infants. Conversely, TNAP induction in the vasculature during generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), type II diabetes, obesity, and aging can cause medial vascular calcification. TNAP inhibitors, discussed extensively in this book, are in development to prevent pathological arterial calcification. The brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an important role in fatty acid (FA) absorption, in protecting gut barrier function, and in determining the composition of the gut microbiota via its ability to dephosphorylate lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knockout mice (Akp3 (-/-)) deficient in duodenal-specific IAP (dIAP) become obese, and develop hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). These changes are accompanied by upregulation in the jejunal-ileal expression of the Akp6 IAP isozyme (global IAP, or gIAP) and concomitant upregulation of FAT/CD36, a phosphorylated fatty acid

  18. Age of the Mono Lake excursion and associated tephra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.; Liddicoat, J.; Smoot, J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Negrini, R.; Lund, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is an important time marker that has been found in lake and marine sediments across much of the Northern Hemisphere. Dating of this event at its type locality, the Mono Basin of California, has yielded controversial results with the most recent effort concluding that the MLE may actually be the Laschamp excursion (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 197 (2002) 151). We show that a volcanic tephra (Ash #15) that occurs near the midpoint of the MLE has a date (not corrected for reservoir effect) of 28,620 ?? 300 14C yr BP (??? 32,400 GISP2 yr BP) in the Pyramid Lake Basin of Nevada. Given the location of Ash #15 and the duration of the MLE in the Mono Basin, the event occurred between 31,500 and 33,300 GISP2 yr BP, an age range consistent with the position and age of the uppermost of two paleointensity minima in the NAPIS-75 stack that has been associated with the MLE (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009). The lower paleointensity minimum in the NAPIS-75 stack is considered to be the Laschamp excursion (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009).

  19. Seasonality of cavitation and frost fatigue in Acer mono Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Feng, Feng; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-12-08

    Although cavitation is common in plants, it is unknown whether the cavitation resistance of xylem is seasonally constant or variable. We tested the changes in cavitation resistance of Acer mono before and after a controlled cavitation-refilling and freeze-thaw cycles for a whole year. Cavitation resistance was determined from 'vulnerability curves' showing the percent loss of conductivity versus xylem tension. Cavitation fatigue was defined as a reduction of cavitation resistance following a cavitation-refilling cycle, whereas frost fatigue was caused by a freeze-thaw cycle. A. mono developed seasonal changes in native embolisms; values were relatively high during winter but relatively low and constant throughout the growing season. Cavitation fatigue occurred and changed seasonally during the 12-month cycle; the greatest fatigue response occurred during summer and the weakest during winter, and the transitions occurred during spring and autumn. A. mono was highly resistant to frost damage during the relatively mild winter months; however, a quite different situation occurred during the growing season, as the seasonal trend of frost fatigue was strikingly similar to that of cavitation fatigue. Seasonality changes in cavitation resistance may be caused by seasonal changes in the mechanical properties of the pit membranes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Lipid Biomarkers for Methanogens in Hypersaline Cyanobacterial Mats for Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Summons, Roger E.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of sediments from the vicinity of active methane seeps have uncovered a particular suite of lipid biomarker patterns that characterize methane consuming archaea and their syntrophic, sulfate reducing partners. These isoprenoid biomarkers, largely identified by their anomalously light carbon isotopic signatures, have been a topic of intense research activity and are recorded in numerous methane-rich environments from Holocene to Cenozoic. This phenomenon has implications for depleted kerogens at 2.7 Ga on early Earth (Hinrichs 2002). In contrast, the lipid biosignatures of methane producing archaea are not readily identified through distinct isotopic labels and have received comparably little attention in analyses of archaea in environmental samples. Indeed, environmental analyses generally detect only free archaeal lipids, not the intact, polar molecules found in the membrane of living organisms. As part of the Ames NAI, the 'Early Microbial Ecosystem Research Group' (EMERG) is working to understand microbial processes in the hypersaline cyanobacterial mats growing in the salt evaporation ponds of the Exportadora de Sal at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The aim of this study was to develop methods by which we could identify the organisms responsible for methane generation in this environment. While the ester-bound fatty acids, hopanoids and wax esters provide a means to identify most of the bacterial components of these mats, the archaea which Ere evidently present through genomic assays and the fact of intense methane production (Hoehler et al. 200l), have not been identified through their corresponding lipid signatures. Archaeal core lipids present a number of analytical challenges. The core lipids of methanogens comprise C20, C40 and sometimes C25 isoprenoid chains, linked through ether bonds to glycerol. As well as archaeal (C20), sn-2- and sn-3-hydroxyarchaeol are associated particularly with methylotrophic methanogens. Recently, we have

  1. Effect of salinity on the concentrations of radioisotopes in the aquatic environment of a hypersaline coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Khaled A; Seddeek, Mostafa K; Sharshar, Taher; Elnimr, Tarek; Badran, Hussein M

    2014-06-01

    Research of the effect of salinity on the fate of radionuclides has been focused on seas or estuarine systems while there is almost no information on marine environments with a salinity higher than that of sea water. The hypersaline Bardawil lagoon is a concentration basin, with evaporation exceeding precipitation. This study presents the characteristics of some environmental factors including salinity and their influence on the distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides in different compartments of the lagoon. The concentrations of (238)U, (234)Th, (228)Ra and (137)Cs in sediments show some degree of dependency on the water's salinity. Migration of these radionuclides in the lagoon's sediments must take place from high salinity to low-salinity regions. Cluster analysis revealed the data structure for sediment by separating (137)Cs and (40)K from (232)Th, (226)Ra, and (234)Th and for sand by separating (40)K from the other radioisotopes.

  2. Hypersalinity reduces the risk of cyanide toxicosis to insectivorous bats interacting with wastewater impoundments at gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Lumsden, Linda F; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife and livestock that ingest bioavailable cyanide compounds in gold mining tailings dams are known to experience cyanide toxicosis. Elevated levels of salinity in open impoundments have been shown to prevent wildlife cyanide toxicosis by reducing drinking and foraging. This finding appears to be consistent for diurnal wildlife interacting with open impoundments, however the risks to nocturnal wildlife of cyanide exposure are unknown. We investigated the activity of insectivorous bats in the airspace above both fresh (potable to wildlife) and saline water bodies at two gold mines in the goldfields of Western Australian. During this study, cyanide-bearing solutions stored in open impoundments at both mine sites were hypersaline (range=57,000-295,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS)), well above known physiological tolerance of any terrestrial vertebrate. Bats used the airspace above each water body monitored, but were more active at fresh than saline water bodies. In addition, considerably more terminal echolocation buzz calls were recorded in the airspace above fresh than saline water bodies at both mine sites. However, it was not possible to determine whether these buzz calls corresponded to foraging or drinking bouts. No drinking bouts were observed in 33 h of thermal video footage recorded at one hypersaline tailings dam, suggesting that this water is not used for drinking. There is no information on salinity tolerances of bats, but it could be assumed that bats would not tolerate salinity in drinking water at concentrations greater than those documented as toxic for saline-adapted terrestrial wildlife. Therefore, when managing wastewater impoundments at gold mines to avoid wildlife mortalities, adopting a precautionary principle, bats are unlikely to drink solutions at salinity levels ≥50,000 mg/L TDS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Focused Transhepatic Electroporation Mediated by Hypersaline Infusion through the Portal Vein in Rat Model. Preliminary Results on Differential Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pañella, Clara; Castellví, Quim; Moll, Xavier; Quesada, Rita; Villanueva, Alberto; Iglesias, Mar; Naranjo, Dolores; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Andaluz, Anna; Grande, Luís; Ivorra, Antoni; Burdío, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Spread hepatic tumours are not suitable for treatment either by surgery or conventional ablation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of selectively increasing the healthy hepatic conductivity by the hypersaline infusion (HI) through the portal vein. We hypothesize this will allow simultaneous safe treatment of all nodules by irreversible electroporation (IRE) when applied in a transhepatic fashion. Sprague Dawley (Group A, n = 10) and Athymic rats with implanted hepatic tumour (Group B, n = 8) were employed. HI was performed (NaCl 20%, 3.8 mL/Kg) by trans-splenic puncture. Deionized serum (40 mL/Kg) and furosemide (2 mL/Kg) were simultaneously infused through the jugular vein to compensate hypernatremia. Changes in conductivity were monitored in the hepatic and tumour tissue. The period in which hepatic conductivity was higher than tumour conductivity was defined as the therapeutic window (TW). Animals were monitored during 1-month follow-up. The animals were sacrificed and selective samples were used for histological analysis. The overall survival rate was 82.4% after the HI protocol. The mean maximum hepatic conductivity after HI was 2.7 and 3.5 times higher than the baseline value, in group A and B, respectively. The mean maximum hepatic conductivity after HI was 1.4 times higher than tumour tissue in group B creating a TW to implement selective IRE. HI through the portal vein is safe when the hypersaline overload is compensated with deionized serum and it may provide a TW for focused IRE treatment on tumour nodules.

  4. Community Structure and Activity of a Highly Dynamic and Nutrient-Limited Hypersaline Microbial Mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Thani, Roda

    2014-03-21

    The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1–L4) in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively), the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging), oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor), and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing) decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1). Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%–42% of the identified bacteria). Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus) were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3), evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4) was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer). Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%–97%), whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%). Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods.

  5. Community structure and activity of a highly dynamic and nutrient-limited hypersaline microbial mat in Um Alhool Sabkha, Qatar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roda Al-Thani

    Full Text Available The Um Alhool area in Qatar is a dynamic evaporative ecosystem that receives seawater from below as it is surrounded by sand dunes. We investigated the chemical composition, the microbial activity and biodiversity of the four main layers (L1-L4 in the photosynthetic mats. Chlorophyll a (Chl a concentration and distribution (measured by HPLC and hyperspectral imaging, respectively, the phycocyanin distribution (scanned with hyperspectral imaging, oxygenic photosynthesis (determined by microsensor, and the abundance of photosynthetic microorganisms (from 16S and 18S rRNA sequencing decreased with depth in the euphotic layer (L1. Incident irradiance exponentially attenuated in the same zone reaching 1% at 1.7-mm depth. Proteobacteria dominated all layers of the mat (24%-42% of the identified bacteria. Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (dominated by Chloroflexus were most abundant in the third red layer of the mat (L3, evidenced by the spectral signature of Bacteriochlorophyll as well as by sequencing. The deep, black layer (L4 was dominated by sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, which were responsible for high sulfate reduction rates (measured using 35S tracer. Members of Halobacteria were the dominant Archaea in all layers of the mat (92%-97%, whereas Nematodes were the main Eukaryotes (up to 87%. Primary productivity rates of Um Alhool mat were similar to those of other hypersaline microbial mats. However, sulfate reduction rates were relatively low, indicating that oxygenic respiration contributes more to organic material degradation than sulfate reduction, because of bioturbation. Although Um Alhool hypersaline mat is a nutrient-limited ecosystem, it is interestingly dynamic and phylogenetically highly diverse. All its components work in a highly efficient and synchronized way to compensate for the lack of nutrient supply provided during regular inundation periods.

  6. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Liu

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE, whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC. In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM. Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278 among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  7. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunping; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  8. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  9. Alkaline rocks and the occurrence of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Toens, P.D.

    1980-10-01

    Many alkaline complexes contain uranium and other minerals in low concentrations and are regarded as constituting valuable potential reserves. Certain complex metallurgical problems, however, remain to be solved. Alkaline rocks occur in a number of forms and environments and it is noted that they are generated during periods of geological quiescence emplaced mainly in stable aseismic areas. Many occur along the extensions of oceanic transform faults beneath the continental crust and the application of this concept to areas not currently known to host alkaline complexes may prove useful in identifying potential target areas for prospecting operations [af

  10. Alkalinity in oil field waters - what alkalinity is and how it is measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasa, B.; Oestvold, T.

    1996-01-01

    The alkalinity is an important parameter in the description of pH-behaviour, buffer capacity and scaling potentials in oil field waters. Although the alkalinity is widely used, it seems to be considerable confusion in connection with the concept. It is often used incorrectly and different authors define the concept in different ways. Several different methods for the determination of alkalinity can be found in the literature. This paper discusses the definition of alkalinity and how to use alkalinity in oil field waters to obtain data of importance for scale and pH predictions. There is also shown how a simple titration of oil field waters can give both the alkalinity and the content of organic acids in these waters. It is obvious from these findings that most of the methods used to day may give considerable errors when applied to oil field waters with high contents of organic acids. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Alkaline Electrochemical Capacitor and Electrode Fabrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finello, D

    1999-01-01

    .... With energy density in excess of 300 mJ/cc and the potential to exceed a power density of 100 W/cc, the alkaline electrochemical capacitor represents a significant advancement in technology for high power energy storage.

  12. Alkaline Electrochemical Capacitor and Electrode Fabrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finello, D

    1999-01-01

    Highly capacitive (high surface area) electrodes that are electrochemically stable in strong alkaline electrolyte will form the basis for a new generation of electrical and electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices...

  13. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 3. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium Ferricyanide. Sangeeta Pandita Saral Baweja. Classroom Volume 21 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 285-288 ...

  14. Toxicity of alkalinity to Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Reinert, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity testing and chemical analyses of sediment pore water have been suggested for use in sediment quality assessments and sediment toxicity identification evaluations. However, caution should be exercised in interpreting pore-water chemistry and toxicity due to inherent chemical characteristics and confounding relationships. High concentrations of alkalinity, which are typical of sediment pore waters from many regions, have been shown to be toxic to test animals. A series of tests were conducted to assess the significance of elevated alkalinity concentrations to Hyalella azteca, an amphipod commonly used for sediment and pore-water toxicity testing. Toxicity tests with 14-d old and 7-d old animals were conducted in serial dilutions of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions producing alkalinities ranging between 250 to 2000 mg/L as CaCO3. A sodium chloride (NaCl) toxicity test was also conducted to verify that toxicity was due to bicarbonate and not sodium. Alkalinity was toxic at concentrations frequently encountered in sediment pore water. There was also a significant difference in the toxicity of alkalinity between 14-d old and 7-d old animals. The average 96-h LC50 for alkalinity was 1212 mg/L (as CaCO3) for 14-d old animals and 662 mg/L for the younger animals. Sodium was not toxic at levels present in the NaHCO3 toxicity tests. Alkalinity should be routinely measured in pore-water toxicity tests, and interpretation of toxicity should consider alkalinity concentration and test-organism tolerance.

  15. Hybrid Alkaline Cements: Bentonite-Opc Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Garcia-Lodeiro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Moderately alkaline activators can be used to formulate cementitious binders with a high Supplemetary Cementitious Materials (SCMs and a low portland cement content (hybrid alkaline cements. This study aimed to prepare hybrid alkaline cements containing large percentages of dehydroxylated bentonite (BT and small Portland cement (OPC fractions, with 5% Na2SO4 as a solid alkaline activator. The hydration kinetics of the pastes hydrated in water in the presence and absence of the solid activator were assessed by isothermal conduction calorimetry, whilst the reaction products were characterised with X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD and Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The presence of the alkaline activator hastened OPC and BT/OPC hydration: more heat of hydration was released, favouring greater initial bentonite reactivity. The portlandite forming during cement hydration reacted readily with the Na2SO4, raising medium alkalinity and enhancing bentonite dissolution and with it reaction product precipitation (primarily (N,C-A-S-H-like gels that co-exist with C-S-H- or C-A-S-H-like gels. The presence of sulfate ions favoured the formation of AFm-like phases. Preceding aspects accelerated the hydration reactions, with the formation of more reaction product and matrix densification. As a result, the 28 days Na2SO4 activated systems developed greater mechanical strength than the water-hydrated systems, with the 60% BT/40% OPC blends exhibiting higher compressive strength than the 100% OPC pastes.

  16. Characterization and quantification of biochar alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, Rivka B; Laird, David A; Thompson, Michael L; Lawrinenko, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lack of knowledge regarding the nature of biochar alkalis has hindered understanding of pH-sensitive biochar-soil interactions. Here we investigate the nature of biochar alkalinity and present a cohesive suite of methods for its quantification. Biochars produced from cellulose, corn stover and wood feedstocks had significant low-pK a organic structural (0.03-0.34 meq g -1 ), other organic (0-0.92 meq g -1 ), carbonate (0.02-1.5 meq g -1 ), and other inorganic (0-0.26 meq g -1 ) alkalinities. All four categories of biochar alkalinity contributed to total biochar alkalinity and are therefore relevant to pH-sensitive soil processes. Total biochar alkalinity was strongly correlated with base cation concentration, but biochar alkalinity was not a simple function of elemental composition, soluble ash, fixed carbon, or volatile matter content. More research is needed to characterize soluble biochar alkalis other than carbonates and to establish predictive relationships among biochar production parameters and the composition of biochar alkalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of menstrual migraine; multidisciplinary or mono-disciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Hester; van den Berg, Peter; Vermeulen, Guus

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a multidisciplinary approach of menstrual (related) migraine, combining the neurological and gynaecological consultation, to a mono-disciplinary approach involving neurological treatment. There is a clear relationship between the menstruation cycle and the occurrence of migraine (menstrual migraine). Nowadays the treatment of menstrual (related) migraine is performed by a neurologist. A treatment with attention to hormonal treatment seems more convenient. This retrospective study was performed in a cohort using data of 88 women with menstrual (related) migraine who visited the menstrual migraine clinic between 2012 and 2014 (intervention group). The results were compared to a historical control group, which consisted of women with menstrual (related) migraine who were treated before 2012 and received a mono-disciplinary approach. In the intervention group the Headache Impact (HIT) score significantly improved (65 to 59 points). The mean headache days per month declined significantly (from 6 to 3.83 days) and these women needed less use of pain medication. In the control group the decline in HIT score was less striking (65 to 63.5 points) and the mean headache days per month increased (6 to 6,5 days). It appeared that 20 out of 27 patients in the control group required a gynaecological consultation in course of time. A multidisicplinary treatment of women with menstrual (related) migraine gives better results compared to a mono-disciplinary approach. These results should be interpreted with caution as we performed a retrospective study with a relative small control group.

  18. Intracellular Mono-ADP-Ribosylation in Signaling and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütepage, Mareike; Eckei, Laura; Verheugd, Patricia; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A key process in the regulation of protein activities and thus cellular signaling pathways is the modification of proteins by post-translational mechanisms. Knowledge about the enzymes (writers and erasers) that attach and remove post-translational modifications, the targets that are modified and the functional consequences elicited by specific modifications, is crucial for understanding cell biological processes. Moreover detailed knowledge about these mechanisms and pathways helps to elucidate the molecular causes of various diseases and in defining potential targets for therapeutic approaches. Intracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation refers to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent modification of proteins with ADP-ribose and is catalyzed by enzymes of the ARTD (ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin like, also known as PARP) family as well as some members of the Sirtuin family. Poly-ADP-ribosylation is relatively well understood with inhibitors being used as anti-cancer agents. However, the majority of ARTD enzymes and the ADP-ribosylating Sirtuins are restricted to catalyzing mono-ADP-ribosylation. Although writers, readers and erasers of intracellular mono-ADP-ribosylation have been identified only recently, it is becoming more and more evident that this reversible post-translational modification is capable of modulating key intracellular processes and signaling pathways. These include signal transduction mechanisms, stress pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and stress granules, and chromatin-associated processes such as transcription and DNA repair. We hypothesize that mono-ADP-ribosylation controls, through these different pathways, the development of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26426055

  19. Diversity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large-subunit genes in the MgCl2-dominated deep hypersaline anoxic basin discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wielen, PWJJ

    Partial sequences of the form I (cbbL) and form II (cbbM) of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) large subunit genes were obtained from the brine and interface of the MgCl2-dominated deep hypersaline anoxic basin Discovery. CbbL and cbbM genes were found in both brine and

  20. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes (granular...

  1. Improved electrodes and gas impurity investigations on alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reissner, R.; Schiller, G.; Knoeri, T.

    Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved.......Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved....

  2. High pressure structural phase transition of neodymium mono pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagare, Gitanjali; Ojha, P.; Sanyal, S.P.; Aynyas, Mahendra

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated theoretically the high-pressure structural phase transition of two neodymium mono NdX (X=As, Sb) using an interionic potential theory with necessary modification to include the effect of Coulomb screening by the delocalized f electrons of Nd ion. These compounds exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from their NaCl (B 1 ) phase to body centered tetragonal (BCT) at 27 GPa and 15.3 GPa respectively. We also calculated the Nd-Nd distance as a function of pressure. (author)

  3. Mono- and bis-thiazolium salts have potent antimalarial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzé, Abdallah; Rubi, Eric; Arnal, Pascal; Boisbrun, Michel; Carcel, Carole; Salom-Roig, Xavier; Maynadier, Marjorie; Wein, Sharon; Vial, Henri; Calas, Michèle

    2005-05-19

    Three new series comprising 24 novel cationic choline analogues and consisting of mono- or bis (N or C-5-duplicated) thiazolium salts have been synthesized. Bis-thiazolium salts showed potent antimalarial activity (much superior to monothiazoliums). Among them, bis-thiazolium salts 12 and 13 exhibited IC(50) values of 2.25 nM and 0.65 nM, respectively, against P. falciparum in vitro. These compounds also demonstrated good in vivo activity (ED(50)

  4. Mono-Z dark matter search with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Basalaev, Artem; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search with ATLAS detector is presented for collider signatures of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs) leading to mono-Z signal. Events with large missing transverse momentum and two oppositely-charged electrons or muons consistent with the decay of a Z-boson were selected in analysis. The limits on the mass scale of the contact interaction as a function of the dark matter particle mass and the limits on the coupling and scalar particle mediator obtained from Run 1 ATLAS data are shown. Analysis techniques specific to Run 2 are reviewed.

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  6. iOS Development using MonoTouch Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tavlikos, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    The book is written in a cookbook style, presenting examples in the style of recipes, allowing you to go directly to your topic of interest, or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain in-depth knowledge. This book is essential for C# and .NET developers with no previous experience in iOS development and Objective-C developers that want to make a transition to the benefits of MonoTouch and the C# language, for creating complete, compelling iPhone, iPod and iPad applications and deploying them to the App Store.

  7. A macrodomain-linked immunosorbent assay (MLISA) for mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Lam, Albert T; Zhang, Yong

    2018-02-15

    ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) catalyze reversible additions of mono- and poly-ADP-ribose onto diverse types of proteins by using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) as a cosubstrate. In the human ART superfamily, 14 out of 20 members are shown to catalyze endogenous protein mono-ADP-ribosylation and play important roles in regulating various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Identification of new modulators of mono-ARTs can thus potentially lead to discovery of novel therapeutics. In this study, we developed a macrodomain-linked immunosorbent assay (MLISA) for characterizing mono-ARTs. Recombinant macrodomain 2 from poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 14 (PARP14) was generated with a C-terminal human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) tag for detecting mono-ADP-ribosylated proteins. Coupled with an anti-HA secondary antibody, the generated HA-tagged macrodomain 2 reveals high specificity for mono-ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by distinct mono-ARTs. Kinetic parameters of PARP15-catalyzed automodification were determined by MLISA and are in good agreement with previous studies. Eight commonly used chemical tools for PARPs were examined by MLISA with PARP15 and PARP14 in 96-well plates and exhibited moderate inhibitory activities for PARP15, consistent with published reports. These results demonstrate that MLISA provides a new and convenient method for quantitative characterization of mono-ART enzymes and may allow identification of potent mono-ART inhibitors in a high-throughput-compatible manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prophylactic treatment with alkaline phosphatase in cardiac surgery induces endogenous alkaline phosphatase release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Seinen, Willem; Schamhorst, Volkher; Wulkan, Raymond W.; Schoenberger, Jacques P.; van Oeveren, Wim

    Introduction: Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP), an endotoxin detoxifier, on alkaline phosphatase levels

  9. Steroid Derived Mesoionic Gold and Silver Mono- and Polymetallic Carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María; de la Torre, María C; Sierra, Miguel A

    2015-12-07

    A two-step synthesis of gold mesoionic carbene complexes containing estrone moieties has been developed. The method uses the methylation of the triazole nucleus, followed by the treatment of the triazolium salt with Ag2O and transmetalation with [AuCl(SMe2)]. Mono-, bi-, tri-, and tetrametallic gold complexes can be obtained depending on the structure of the starting triazolium salts. Tetrametallic gold carbene embedded in a macrocylic stereoidal cavity containing four estrone nuclei has been also prepared. Additionally, the mono- and bimetallic silver carbene complexes containing triazole-steroid ligands have been isolated and characterized. These complexes resulted to be stable and have been characterized by spectroscopic and HRMS techniques. The gold and silver complexes having triazole-steroid ligands are unprecedented in the literature and the method reported here to access to these compounds is easy and efficient. Preliminary results regarding the catalytic activity of some of the gold-carbenes prepared in the insertion of diazoalkanes into alcohols are presented.

  10. Viscosity of Molten Alkaline-Earth Fluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Hoshino, Yosuke; Anbo, Yusuke; Yanagase, Kei-ichi; Aono, Masahiro; Sato, Yuzuru

    2015-04-01

    The viscosities of molten alkaline-earth fluorides were measured using the oscillating crucible method, which is especially suitable for measuring molten salts with low viscosity. The results showed a good Arrhenius linearity over a wide temperature range. The measured viscosities and activation energies increased in the following order: . Judging by the charge density, the viscosity of alkaline-earth fluorides should increase from molten to . However, the results indicate a different tendency, which may be explained by a Coulomb force that is very strong. The low viscosity of can be attributed to a decreased cohesive force, due to a partial loss of the Coulomb force caused by a higher charge density of the material. The viscosities were also compared to those of molten alkali fluorides and alkaline-earth chlorides. The viscosities of molten alkaline-earth fluorides were higher than those of molten alkali fluorides and alkaline-earth chlorides. The viscosity determined in this study was compared to literature values and showed a reasonable value in the relatively low-viscosity region.

  11. One step alkaline synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles using dextrin as capping agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael J.; Torres-Chavolla, Edith; Castro, Brian A.; Alocilja, Evangelyn C.

    2011-07-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used in sensing methods as tracers and transducers. The most common AuNP synthesis techniques utilize citrate under acidic reaction conditions. The synthesis described in this article generates glyco-AuNPs under mild alkaline conditions providing a "greener" alternative to Brust and Turkevich methodologies. This biologically compatible one-step technique uses dextrin as a capping agent and sodium carbonate as the reducing agent for chloroauric acid. The generated particles were relatively mono-dispersed and water soluble with a range of controllable mean diameters from 5.9 to 16.8 ± 1.6 nm. The produced AuNPs were stable in water for more than 6 months stored at room temperature (21 °C) in generation solution without protection from light. This article shows the effect of temperature, pH, and dextrin concentration on the synthesis procedure and AuNP diameter. These factors were found to control the reaction speed. The produced glyco-AuNPs were successfully functionalized with DNA oligonucleotides, and the functionalization efficiency was similar to citrate-generated AuNPs. The alkaline synthesis allows future exploration of simultaneous synthesis and functionalization procedures, which could significantly reduce the time of current ligand exchange methodologies.

  12. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether. 721.1729 Section 721.1729 Protection... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  13. Assessing ocean alkalinity for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renforth, Phil; Henderson, Gideon

    2017-09-01

    Over the coming century humanity may need to find reservoirs to store several trillions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel combustion, which would otherwise cause dangerous climate change if it were left in the atmosphere. Carbon storage in the ocean as bicarbonate ions (by increasing ocean alkalinity) has received very little attention. Yet recent work suggests sufficient capacity to sequester copious quantities of CO2. It may be possible to sequester hundreds of billions to trillions of tons of C without surpassing postindustrial average carbonate saturation states in the surface ocean. When globally distributed, the impact of elevated alkalinity is potentially small and may help ameliorate the effects of ocean acidification. However, the local impact around addition sites may be more acute but is specific to the mineral and technology. The alkalinity of the ocean increases naturally because of rock weathering in which >1.5 mol of carbon are removed from the atmosphere for every mole of magnesium or calcium dissolved from silicate minerals (e.g., wollastonite, olivine, and anorthite) and 0.5 mol for carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite). These processes are responsible for naturally sequestering 0.5 billion tons of CO2 per year. Alkalinity is reduced in the ocean through carbonate mineral precipitation, which is almost exclusively formed from biological activity. Most of the previous work on the biological response to changes in carbonate chemistry have focused on acidifying conditions. More research is required to understand carbonate precipitation at elevated alkalinity to constrain the longevity of carbon storage. A range of technologies have been proposed to increase ocean alkalinity (accelerated weathering of limestone, enhanced weathering, electrochemical promoted weathering, and ocean liming), the cost of which may be comparable to alternative carbon sequestration proposals (e.g., $20-100 tCO2-1). There are still many

  14. Competition for inorganic carbon between oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs in a hypersaline microbial mat, Guerrero Negro, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Niko; Hoehler, Tori M; Polerecky, Lubos; Buehring, Benjamin; Thamdrup, Bo

    2013-05-01

    While most oxygenic phototrophs harvest light only in the visible range (400-700 nm, VIS), anoxygenic phototrophs can harvest near infrared light (> 700 nm, NIR). To study interactions between the photosynthetic guilds we used microsensors to measure oxygen and gross oxygenic photosynthesis (gOP) in a hypersaline microbial mat under full (VIS + NIR) and VIS illumination. Under normal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations (2 mM), volumetric rates of gOP were reduced up to 65% and areal rates by 16-31% at full compared with VIS illumination. This effect was enhanced (reduction up to 100% in volumetric, 50% in areal rates of gOP) when DIC was lowered to 1 mM, but diminished at 10 mM DIC or lowered pH. In conclusion, under full-light illumination anoxygenic phototrophs are able to reduce the activity of oxygenic phototrophs by efficiently competing for inorganic carbon within the highly oxygenated layer. Anoxygenic photosynthesis, calculated from the difference in gOP under full and VIS illumination, represented between 10% and 40% of the C-fixation. The DIC depletion in the euphotic zone as well as the significant C-fixation by anoxygenic phototrophs in the oxic layer influences the carbon isotopic composition of the mat, which needs to be taken into account when interpreting isotopic biosignals in geological records. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates produced by an extreme halophilic bacterium, Halomonas nitroreducens, isolated from hypersaline ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Uc, J M; Catzin, J; Vargas, I; Herrera-Kao, W; Moguel, F; Ramirez, E; Rincón-Arriaga, S; Lizama-Uc, G

    2014-10-01

    Morphological, biochemical and genotypic characterization of a halophilic bacterium isolated from hypersaline ponds located at Las Coloradas (Río Lagartos, Yucatán, Mexico). Characterization of polymer produced by this strain was also performed. Twenty strains were isolated from water samples of salt ponds and selected based on both morphological features and their PHA storage capacity, which were determined by SEM and staining methods with Nile red and Nile blue, respectively; strains were also analysed by the fluorescence imaging technique. Among them, JCCOL25.8 strain showed the highest production of PHA's reason why phenotypic and genotypic characterization was performed; this strain was identified as Halomonas nitroreducens. Polymer produced by this strain was characterized by FTIR, DSC, GPC and EDX spectroscopy. Results indicated that the biosynthesized polymer was polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) which had a melting peak at 170°C and a crystallinity percentage of about 36%. Based on phenotypic and genotypic aspects, JCCOL25.8 strain was identified as H. nitroreducens and it was capable to accumulate PHB. To our knowledge, there is only one study published on the biosynthesis of PHA's by H. nitroreducens strains, although the characterization of the obtained polymer was not reported. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Phytoplankton along the coastal shelf of an oligotrophic hypersaline environment in a semi-enclosed marginal sea: Qatar (Arabian Gulf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Antonietta; Al-Ansi, Mohsin; Al Din, Nehad Nour; Wei, Chih-Lin; Nunnally, Clifton C.; Al-Ansari, Ibrahim S.; Rowe, Gilbert T.; Soliman, Yousria; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Mahmoud, Ismail; Youssef, Nabiha; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.

    2013-06-01

    Phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a concentration), primary production, abundance, species diversity and species groupings were measured in the coastal waters surrounding Qatar (Arabian Gulf) at 13 stations in February 2010, July 2010, February 2011 and May 2011. In addition, a broad suite of physico-chemical characteristics were measured: temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nutrients (dissolved and particulate). Waters surrounding the Qatari peninsula were found to be highly diverse (125 species of diatoms, dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria were identified) but were low in both biomass (0.18-2.19 μg Chl a l-1) and productivity (0.14-0.97 mg C m-2 day-1). Phytoplankton physiology (Fv/Fm, σPSII, τQa, p) revealed acclimation strategies consistent with phytoplankton populations receiving ample light but insufficient nutrients. The finding of low primary production is consistent with water column nutrient ratios (DIN:P and DIN:Si ratioswaters stimulated biomass production of phytoplankton. This study in an oligotrophic, hypersaline semi-enclosed marginal sea is intended to contribute to the growing body of ecological information on this ecosystem functions.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of a microbialite-forming microbial mat from a hypersaline lake of the Kiritimati atoll, Central Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dominik; Arp, Gernot; Reimer, Andreas; Reitner, Joachim; Daniel, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    On the Kiritimati atoll, several lakes exhibit microbial mat-formation under different hydrochemical conditions. Some of these lakes trigger microbialite formation such as Lake 21, which is an evaporitic, hypersaline lake (salinity of approximately 170‰). Lake 21 is completely covered with a thick multilayered microbial mat. This mat is associated with the formation of decimeter-thick highly porous microbialites, which are composed of aragonite and gypsum crystals. We assessed the bacterial and archaeal community composition and its alteration along the vertical stratification by large-scale analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the nine different mat layers. The surface layers are dominated by aerobic, phototrophic, and halotolerant microbes. The bacterial community of these layers harbored Cyanobacteria (Halothece cluster), which were accompanied with known phototrophic members of the Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria. In deeper anaerobic layers more diverse communities than in the upper layers were present. The deeper layers were dominated by Spirochaetes, sulfate-reducing bacteria (Deltaproteobacteria), Chloroflexi (Anaerolineae and Caldilineae), purple non-sulfur bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria), purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales), anaerobic Bacteroidetes (Marinilabiacae), Nitrospirae (OPB95), Planctomycetes and several candidate divisions. The archaeal community, including numerous uncultured taxonomic lineages, generally changed from Euryarchaeota (mainly Halobacteria and Thermoplasmata) to uncultured members of the Thaumarchaeota (mainly Marine Benthic Group B) with increasing depth.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of a microbialite-forming microbial mat from a hypersaline lake of the Kiritimati atoll, Central Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Schneider

    Full Text Available On the Kiritimati atoll, several lakes exhibit microbial mat-formation under different hydrochemical conditions. Some of these lakes trigger microbialite formation such as Lake 21, which is an evaporitic, hypersaline lake (salinity of approximately 170‰. Lake 21 is completely covered with a thick multilayered microbial mat. This mat is associated with the formation of decimeter-thick highly porous microbialites, which are composed of aragonite and gypsum crystals. We assessed the bacterial and archaeal community composition and its alteration along the vertical stratification by large-scale analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the nine different mat layers. The surface layers are dominated by aerobic, phototrophic, and halotolerant microbes. The bacterial community of these layers harbored Cyanobacteria (Halothece cluster, which were accompanied with known phototrophic members of the Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria. In deeper anaerobic layers more diverse communities than in the upper layers were present. The deeper layers were dominated by Spirochaetes, sulfate-reducing bacteria (Deltaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi (Anaerolineae and Caldilineae, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales, anaerobic Bacteroidetes (Marinilabiacae, Nitrospirae (OPB95, Planctomycetes and several candidate divisions. The archaeal community, including numerous uncultured taxonomic lineages, generally changed from Euryarchaeota (mainly Halobacteria and Thermoplasmata to uncultured members of the Thaumarchaeota (mainly Marine Benthic Group B with increasing depth.

  19. Catalytic oxidation of soot over alkaline niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecchi, G.; Cabrera, B.; Buljan, A.; Delgado, E.J.; Gordon, A.L.; Jimenez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► No previous reported studies about alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation. ► NaNbO 3 and KNbO 3 perovskite-type oxides show lower activation energy than other lanthanoid perovskite-type oxides. ► The alkaline niobate does not show deactivation by metal loss. - Abstract: The lack of studies in the current literature about the assessment of alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation has motivated this research. In this study, the synthesis, characterization and assessment of alkaline metal niobates as catalysts for soot combustion are reported. The solids MNbO 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) are synthesized by a citrate method, calcined at 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, 750 °C, and characterized by AAS, N 2 adsorption, XRD, O 2 -TPD, FTIR and SEM. All the alkaline niobates show catalytic activity for soot combustion, and the activity depends basically on the nature of the alkaline metal and the calcination temperature. The highest catalytic activity, expressed as the temperature at which combustion of carbon black occurs at the maximum rate, is shown by KNbO 3 calcined at 650 °C. At this calcination temperature, the catalytic activity follows an order dependent on the atomic number, namely: KNbO 3 > NaNbO 3 > LiNbO 3 . The RbNbO 3 solid do not follow this trend presumably due to the perovskite structure was not reached. The highest catalytic activity shown by of KNbO 3 , despite the lower apparent activation energy of NaNbO 3 , stress the importance of the metal nature and suggests the hypothesis that K + ions are the active sites for soot combustion. It must be pointed out that alkaline niobate subjected to consecutive soot combustion cycles does not show deactivation by metal loss, due to the stabilization of the alkaline metal inside the perovskite structure.

  20. Separation of pig bone alkaline phosphatase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunis, J C; Vancraeynest, T; Brauman, J

    1977-01-01

    A simple method for the separation of alkaline phosphatase and pyrophosphatase activities of pig bone ribs is described. Using anionic exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose) and affinity chromatography on Concanavalin A sepharose (Con A) eluted by a step pH gradient and Na4P2O7, several activities were obtained. A pyrophosphatase containing very little alkaline phosphatase activity was isolated from Con A sepharose by elution with pyrophosphatase. Our data are consistent, with the hypothesis that cortical alcaline phosphatase and pyrophosphatase activities are not due to a single enzyme protein. The method was used on whole bone, on bone marrow and on cortical bone.

  1. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  2. Dynamics of biogeochemical sulfur cycling in Mono Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A. A.; Fairbanks, D.; Wells, M.; Fullerton, K. M.; Bao, R.; Johnson, H.; Speth, D. R.; Stamps, B. W.; Miller, L.; Sessions, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Mono Lake, California is a closed-basin soda lake (pH 9.8) with high sulfate (120mM), and is an ideal natural laboratory for studying microbial sulfur cycling. Mono Lake is typically thermally stratified in summer while mixing completely in winter. However, large snowmelt inputs may induce salinity stratification that persists for up to five years, causing meromixis. During the California drought of 2014-16, the lake has mixed thoroughly each winter, but the abundant 2017 snowmelt may usher in a multi-year stratification. This natural experiment provides an opportunity to investigate the temporal relationship between microbial sulfur cycling and lake biogeochemistry. We analyzed water samples from five depths at two stations in May of 2017, before the onset of meromixis. Water column sulfate isotope values were generally constant with depth, centering at a δ34SVCDT of 17.39 ± 0.06‰. Organic sulfur isotopes were consistently lighter than lake sulfate, with a δ34SVCDT of 15.59 ± 0.56‰. This significant offset between organic and inorganic sulfur contradicts the minimal isotope effect associated with sulfate assimilation. Sediment push core organic values were further depleted, ranging between δ34SVCDT of -8.94‰ and +0.23‰, implying rapid turnover of Mono Lake sulfur pools. Both lipid biomarkers and 16S rRNA gene amplicons identify Picocystis salinarum, a unicellular green alga, as the dominant member of the microbial community. However, bacterial biomarkers and 16S rRNA genes point to microbes capable of sulfur cycling. We found that dsrA increased with depth (R2 = 0.9008, p 1 year of stratification. We saw no evidence in May of 2017 of sulfate reducing bacteria across the oxycline. Additionally, no sulfide was detectable in lake bottom waters despite oxygen below 6.25 µM. Preliminary results suggest a dynamic interplay between sulfide oxidation, sulfate reduction, and the onset of lake stratification. Additional data from September 2017 sampling will

  3. Mono- and combined antimicrobial agents efficiency in experimental wound infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Ігорівна Філімонова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern problems of antibiotic therapy are shown by wide range of side effects, both on organism and microbiological levels: the spread of allergies, toxic for organ systems reactions, dysbiosis development, and resistant pathogens formation and dissemination. Therefore the necessity of search for new effective drugs with significant antimicrobial activity applied for the wounds treatment arises. Development of combined remedies on the background of different origin antimicrobial agents’ derivatives is one of the fight directions against infectious diseases in the skin pathology. Recently among the existing antimicrobial agents one should focus on antiseptic drugs, due to degenerative and dysfunctional effect on microbial cell.Aim of research. The comparison of mono- and combined antimicrobial agents chemotherapeutic efficiency in the treatment of localized purulent infection under experimental conditions.Metods. The study of chemotherapeutic efficiency was carried out on the model of localized purulent Staphylococcus infection on albino mice weighting 14 – 16 g. S.aureus ATCC 25923 strains were used as infectious agents. The contamination was performed subcutaneously to the right side of mice’s skin after depilation. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: the 1st group – infected mice without treatment (control; the 2nd group – infected mice treated with a ciprofloxacin; the 3rd group – infected mice treated with a Ciprofloxacin and Decamethoxin combination; the 4th group – infected mice treated with a combined drug on the base of mutual prodrugs (Hexamethylenetetramine and Phenyl salicylate.Results. The efficiency of mono- and combined antimicrobial agents under experimental Staphylococcus wound infection conditions was studied. It was found that localized purulent staph center was formed more slowly in comparison with control and mono preparation use (2nd group of animals. The average index of skin lesions in comparison

  4. Behavioral ecology of American Pikas (Ochotona princeps) at Mono Craters, California: living on the edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Smith; John D. Nagy; Connie Millar

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral ecology of the American pika (Ochotona princeps) was investigated at a relatively hot south-facing, low-elevation site in the Mono Craters, California, a habitat quite different from the upper montane regions more typically inhabited by this species and where most prior investigations have been conducted. Mono Craters pikas exhibited...

  5. Study of half-sandwich mono and dinuclear complexes of platinum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N-donor ligands; mono and binuclear complexes; ruthenium; rhodium; iridium. 1. Introduction. Mono and binuclear complexes of platinum group metals containing heterocyclic nitrogen based ligands have received considerable attention owing to their catalytic activities1–7 as well as in the development of new biologically ...

  6. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  7. Mono(NCN-pincer palladium)-metalloporphyrin catalysts: evidence for supramolecular bimetallic catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, B.M.J.M.; Schamhart, D. J.; Kooijman, H.; Spek, A.L.; van Koten, G.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis and catalytic properties of ditopic mono-pincer-mono-porphyrin complexes were investigated. The statistical Adler condensation reaction of 3,5-bis(methoxymethyl)-4-bromo-benzaldehyde, p-tolylaldehyde, and pyrrole, furnished an AB3-type tetraphenylporphyrin, containing three

  8. Determination of Acidity and Alkalinity of Food Materials

    OpenAIRE

    三浦,芳助; 福永,祐子; 瀧川,裕里子; 津田,真美; 渡辺,陽子; 瀨山,一正

    2006-01-01

    The acidity and alkalinity of food materials in various menus was determined to clarify the influence of food on physiological functions. Menus mainly containing alkaline food materials (alkaline menu) and acid ones (acid menu) were compared. Determination of acidity and alkalinity was performed for each food material in the alkaline menu and acid menu, and acidity and alkalinity of one meal and a day's one were estimated. 1. Most of food materials in acid menu were assessed to be...

  9. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  10. Mechanically flexible optically transparent porous mono-crystalline silicon substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we present a simple process to fabricate a thin (≥5μm), mechanically flexible, optically transparent, porous mono-crystalline silicon substrate. Relying only on reactive ion etching steps, we are able to controllably peel off a thin layer of the original substrate. This scheme is cost favorable as it uses a low-cost silicon <100> wafer and furthermore it has the potential for recycling the remaining part of the wafer that otherwise would be lost and wasted during conventional back-grinding process. Due to its porosity, it shows see-through transparency and potential for flexible membrane applications, neural probing and such. Our process can offer flexible, transparent silicon from post high-thermal budget processed device wafer to retain the high performance electronics on flexible substrates. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Mono-jet signatures of gluphilic scalar dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini M. Godbole

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A gluphilic scalar dark matter (GSDM model has recently been proposed as an interesting vision for WIMP dark matter communicating dominantly with the Standard Model via gluons. We discuss the collider signature of a hard jet recoiling against missing momentum (“mono-jet” in such a construction, whose leading contribution is at one-loop. We compare the full one-loop computation with an effective field theory (EFT treatment, and find (as expected that EFT does not accurately describe regions of parameter space where mass of the colored mediator particles are comparable to the experimental cuts on the missing energy. We determine bounds (for several choices of SU(3 representation of the mediator from the s=8 TeV data, and show the expected reach of the s=13 TeV LHC and a future 100 TeV pp collider to constrain or discover GSDM models.

  12. Fatigue Reliability Analysis of a Mono-Tower Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a fatigue reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure mode, fatigue failure in the butt welds, is investigated with two different models. The one with the fatigue strength expressed through SN relations, the other with the fatigue strength expressed...... through linear-elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). In determining the cumulative fatigue damage, Palmgren-Miner's rule is applied. Element reliability, as well as systems reliability, is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The sensitivity of the systems reliability to various parameters...... is investigated. The systems reliability index, estimated by using the fatigue elements with the fatigue strength expressed through SN relations, is found to be smaller than the systems reliability index estimated by using LEFM. It is shown that the systems reliability index is very sensitive to variations...

  13. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  14. Synthesis, chemical and biological properties of the new mono- and bis-derivatives of imidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Welchinska

    2014-12-01

    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine. The lectin’s preparations were obtained by treatment of culture Liquid of saprophytic strain Bacillus from Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms of Institute of Microbiology and Virology (IMV: B. polymyxa 102 KGU; in future: lectine 102 was clarified by treatment with ammonium sulfate (70% concentration of a saturated solution. Results. For the first time the interaction of a series of imidazole substituted with halothane compounds have been investigated, the conditions of the reaction have been defined, the methods have been developed and the composition of the reaction products has been studied. The studies revealed that the initial heterocycle, namely imidazole reacts with the intermediate product of halothane conversion in an alkaline medium, under conditions of phase transfer catalysis DB-18-crown-6 in a solvent system (dimethyl formamide - benzene - diethyl ether or in another variant: in DMSO with the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate with the formation of mono-and bis-derivatives of imidazole. This reaction made possible a new strategy of synthesis of selectively poly-functionalized molecules, the chemical structure of which is available for incorporation of new pharmacophore fragments into molecule. It has been discovered that mono-, bis-derivatives of imidazole, molecular complex of bis-derivative of imidazole and antitumour bacterial lectin are low toxic preparations (LD50: from 278 mg/kg to 102 mg/kg. Conclusion. New mono- and bis-adducts of imidazole, molecular complex of Bacillus polymyxa 102 KGU and imidazole bis-derivative have been prepared and its toxicity has been tested. New convenient methods for the preparation of heterocyclic mono- and bis-adducts of imidazole with 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-bromo-2-chloroethane (halothane have been described. The reactions were catalyzed by DB-18-crown-6-complex (at the alkali medium. Investigation of the critical toxicity

  15. Potentiometric assay for acid and alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncki, Robert; Ogonczyk, Dominika; Glab, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    Simple potentiometric kinetic assay for evaluation of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity has been developed. Enzymatically catalyzed hydrolysis of monofluorophosphate, the simplest inorganic compound containing P-F bond, has been investigated as the basis of the assays. Fluoride ions formed in the course of the hydrolysis of this specific substrate have been detected using conventional fluoride ion-selective electrode based on membrane made of lanthanum fluoride. The key analytical parameters necessary for sensitive and selective detection of both enzymes have been assessed. Maximal sensitivity of the assays was observed at monofluorophosphate concentration near 10 -3 M. Maximal sensitivity of acid phosphatase assay was found at pH 6.0, but pH of 4.8 is recommended to eliminate effects from alkaline phosphatase. Optimal pH for alkaline phosphatase assay is 9.0. The utility of the developed substrate-sensor system for determination of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in human serum has been demonstrated

  16. Alkaline Activator Impact on the Geopolymer Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz Z.; Król, Maciej R.

    2017-10-01

    Concrete structures are constantly moving in the direction of improving the durability. Durability depends on many factors, which are the composition of concrete mix, the usage of additives and admixtures and the place, where material will work and carry the load. The introduction of new geopolymer binders for geopolymer structures adds a new aspect that is type of used activator. This substance with strongly alkaline reaction is divided because of the physical state, the alkaline degree and above all the chemical composition. Taking into account, that at present the geopolymer binders are made essentially from waste materials or by-products from the combustion of coal or iron ore smelting, unambiguous determination of the effect of the activator on the properties of the geopolymer material requires a number of trials, researches and observation. This paper shows the influence of the most alkaline activators on the basic parameters of the durability of geopolymer binders. In this study there were used highly alkaline hydroxides, water glasses and granules, which are waste materials in a variety of processes taking place in chemical plants. As the substrate of geopolymer binders there were used fly ash which came from coal and high calcareous ash from the burning of lignite.

  17. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    applications in the field of optical fibers, optoelectronic devices; radiation shields, surgical lasers and their glass ceramic counter parts have wide range of applications (Rajasree et al., 2011; Sharma et al., 2007, Limkitjaroenporn et al., 2010). Boric acid. (H3BO3) form stable glasses with alkaline earth oxides (R= MgO, CaO, ...

  18. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    and yellow colour appears. Initial colour remains but fades. Orange colour appears. Yellow colour appears. Carbohydrates. Monosaccharide. Disaccharide. + Alkaline ferricyanide (shake for 5 minutes). Colour disappears. Colour does not disappear. Put the test tube in boiling water for 10 seconds. Put the test tube in boiling.

  19. Optimization of alkaline protease production from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... the metal ions tested. Key words: Alkaline protease, casein agar, meat waste contaminated soil, Pseudomonas fluorescens. INTRODUCTION. Proteases are the most important industrial enzymes that execute a wide variety of functions and have various important biotechnological applications (Mohen et al.,.

  20. Investigation of mono/competitive adsorption of environmentally relevant ionized weak acids on graphite: impact of molecular properties and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed M A; McPhedran, Kerry N; Moreira, Jesús; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-12-16

    The thermodynamics of adsorption and competitive interactions of five weak acids on a graphite surface was assessed in alkaline solutions. Adsorption of the acids in mono- and multicompound solutions followed their Freundlich isotherms which suggest a diversity of graphite adsorption sites as confirmed by the presence of carboxylic and phenolic groups observed on graphite surfaces. Thermodynamic calculations assigned the formation of the negatively charged assisted hydrogen bond (-CAHB) between ionized solutes and adsorbent surface groups as the possible adsorption mechanism. However, the similar pKa values of current acids resulted in comparable free energies for -CAHB formation (ΔG(-CAHB)) being less than solvation free energies (ΔGSolv). Thus, additional ΔG is supplemented by increased hydrophobicity due to proton exchange of ionized acids with water (ΔΔG Hydrophobicity). Adsorption capacities and competition coefficients indicated that ΔΔG Hydrophobicity values depend on the neutral and ionized acid Kow. Competitive adsorption implies that multilayer adsorption may occur via hydrophobic bonding with the CH3 ends of the self-assembled layer which affects the acid adsorption capacities in mixtures as compared to monocompound solutions. The determination of adsorption mechanisms will assist in understanding of the fate and bioavailability of emerging and classical weak acids released into natural waters.

  1. Alkaline earth metal catalysts for asymmetric reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shū; Yamashita, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-18

    The group 2 alkaline earth metals calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) are among the most common elements on Earth, abundant in both the sea and the Earth's crust. Although they are familiar in our daily lives, their application to organic synthesis has, so far, been limited. Some particularly useful properties of these elements include (i) low electronegativity, (ii) a stable oxidation state of +2, meaning that they can potentially form two covalent bonds with anions, and (iii) the ability to occupy a variety of coordination sites due to their large ionic radius. Furthermore, the alkaline earth metals, found between the group 1 and group 3 elements, show mild but significant Lewis acidity, which can be harnessed to control coordinative molecules via a Lewis acid-base interaction. Taken together, these characteristics make the metals Ca, Sr, and Ba very promising components of highly functionalized acid-base catalysts. In this Account, we describe the development of chiral alkaline earth metal catalysts for asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. Recently prepared chiral alkaline earth metal complexes have shown high diastereo- and enantioselectivities in fundamental and important chemical transformations. We chose chiral bisoxazoline (Box) derivatives bearing a methylene tether as a ligand for chiral modification. These molecules are very useful because they can covalently coordinate to alkaline earth metals in a bidentate fashion through deprotonation of the tether portion. It was found that chiral calcium-Box complexes could successfully promote catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition and [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Both the calcium-Box complexes and chiral strontium-bis-sulfonamide and chiral barium-BINOLate complexes could catalyze asymmetric 1,4-addition reactions with high enantioselectivities. Furthermore, we designed a calcium-neutral coordinative ligand complex as a new type of chiral alkaline

  2. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) total protein levels were evaluated as indicators of bone turnover in twenty patients with sickle cell haemoglobinopathies and in twenty normal healthy individuals. The serum bonespecific alkaline phosphatase ...

  3. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether. 721.522 Section 721.522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5...

  4. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject to...

  6. Sedimentology, Mineralogy, Morphology, and Characterization of Purple Non-Sulfur Bacteria Communities from Modern Hypersaline Microbial Mats in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Colon, B. J.; Rivera-Lopez, E. O.; Ramirez-Martinez, W. R.; Rios-Velazquez, C.; Perez-Valentin, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial mats are organosedimentary structures which house complex guilds of microbial communities, held together by a gelatinous exopolymeric substance (EPS). This biofilm contributes to the formation of laminations by binding and trapping sediments, as well as in-situ organomineralization. Microbial mats commonly thrive in extreme habitats, such as the hypersaline environments, which have been studied throughout several coastal regions in the Caribbean. This project aims to study the morphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of five different modern hypersaline microbial mats from Puerto Rico and Anegada that have not yet been studied, to assess their differences/similarities. At the same time, we intent to isolate and characterize purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB), which is an anoxyphototrophic microorganism that contributes to the pink pigmentation observed in the second layer of a typical microbial mat. Different layers within each mat were separated, dissected and dissolved to remove all organic material. The resulting sediment was then analyzed mineralogically using X-ray diffraction, and used to make petrographic thin sections. To isolate PNSB candidates, serial dilutions followed by filtration were performed to extracted sections from the pink layer of each mat. The samples were planted in Petri dishes with marine media and placed in Anaerobic Jars. Colonies Descriptions, Gram stain and molecular analysis using 16S rDNA gene was performed. Preliminary results show a diversity of mat morphologies throughout the ponds, similar to what has been observed in other hypersaline ponds and marshes in the Caribbean. Sedimentary analysis shows that the mats from Puerto Rico have similar allochthonous material (e.g. Halimeda sp. fragments). Microcodium fabrics, conoform structures, and hemispheroidal morphologies were observed as well. In Anegada, lithified microbialites were observed in the Red Pond location. Mineralogically, all samples were similar except for the

  7. The comparative osmoregulatory ability of two water beetle genera whose species span the fresh-hypersaline gradient in inland waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pallarés

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh-hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae. Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal's haemolymph and the external medium was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg(-1. In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg(-1 across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm(-1, respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg(-1, comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels

  8. Application of factor analysis and electrical resistivity to understand groundwater contributions to coastal embayments in semi-arid and hypersaline coastal settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bighash, Paniz; Murgulet, Dorina

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater contributions and sources of salinity to Oso Bay in south Texas were investigated using multivariate statistical analysis of geochemical data and multitemporal electrical resistivity tomography surveys. Both analysis of geochemical data and subsurface imaging techniques identified two commonalities for the investigated system: 1) hypersaline water occurs near the groundwater/surface water interface during wet conditions creating reverse hydraulic gradients due to density effects. The development and downward movement of these fluids as continuous plumes deflect fresher groundwater discharge downward and laterally away from the surface; and 2) more pronounced upwelling of fresher groundwater occurs during drought periods when density inversions are more defined and are expected to overcome dispersion and diffusion processes and create sufficiently large-enough unstable gradients that induce density-difference convection. Salinity mass-balance models derived from time-difference resistivity tomograph and in-situ salinity data reaffirm these findings indicating that groundwater upwelling is more prominent during dry to wet conditions in 2013 (~ 545.5 m 3 /d) and is less pronounced during wet to dry conditions in 2012 (~ 262.7 m 3 /d) for the 224 m 2 area surveyed. Findings show that the highly saline nature of water in this area and changes in salinity regimes can be attributed to a combination of factors, namely: surface outflows, evapoconcentration, recirculation of hypersaline groundwaters, and potential trapped oil field brines. Increased drought conditions will likely exacerbate the rate at which salinity levels are increasing in bays and estuaries in semi-arid regions where both hypersaline groundwater discharge and high evaporation rates occur simultaneously. - Highlights: • Study of salinity regimes in relation to groundwater in a coastal semiarid setting • Factor analysis defined dominant factors influencing water quality variations.

  9. Application of factor analysis and electrical resistivity to understand groundwater contributions to coastal embayments in semi-arid and hypersaline coastal settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighash, Paniz; Murgulet, Dorina

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater contributions and sources of salinity to Oso Bay in south Texas were investigated using multivariate statistical analysis of geochemical data and multitemporal electrical resistivity tomography surveys. Both analysis of geochemical data and subsurface imaging techniques identified two commonalities for the investigated system: 1) hypersaline water occurs near the groundwater/surface water interface during wet conditions creating reverse hydraulic gradients due to density effects. The development and downward movement of these fluids as continuous plumes deflect fresher groundwater discharge downward and laterally away from the surface; and 2) more pronounced upwelling of fresher groundwater occurs during drought periods when density inversions are more defined and are expected to overcome dispersion and diffusion processes and create sufficiently large-enough unstable gradients that induce density-difference convection. Salinity mass-balance models derived from time-difference resistivity tomograph and in-situ salinity data reaffirm these findings indicating that groundwater upwelling is more prominent during dry to wet conditions in 2013 (~545.5m(3)/d) and is less pronounced during wet to dry conditions in 2012 (~262.7 m(3)/d) for the 224 m(2) area surveyed. Findings show that the highly saline nature of water in this area and changes in salinity regimes can be attributed to a combination of factors, namely: surface outflows, evapoconcentration, recirculation of hypersaline groundwaters, and potential trapped oil field brines. Increased drought conditions will likely exacerbate the rate at which salinity levels are increasing in bays and estuaries in semi-arid regions where both hypersaline groundwater discharge and high evaporation rates occur simultaneously. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Salinivibrio costicola GL6, a Novel Isolated Strain for Biotransformation of Caffeine to Theobromine Under Hypersaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashengroph, Morahem

    2017-01-01

    The present study has been conducted towards isolation of moderately halophilic bacteria capable of transforming caffeine into theobromine. A total of 45 caffeine-degrading moderate halophiles were enriched from hypersaline lakes and examined for the biotransformation of caffeine to theobromine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Strain GL6, giving the highest yield of theobromine, was isolated from the Hoz Soltan Lake, 20 % w/v salinity, central Iran, and identified as Salinivibrio costicola based on morphological and biochemical features as well as its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank Accession No. KT378066) and DNA-DNA relatedness. The biotransformation of caffeine with strain GL6 leads to the formation of two metabolites, identified as theobromine and paraxanthine, but the yield of paraxanthine was much lower. Further study on the production of theobromine from caffeine under resting cell experiment was carried out subsequently. The optimal yield of theobromine (56 %) was obtained after a 32-h incubation using 5 mM of caffeine and 15 g l -1 (wet weight) of biomass in 0.1 M saline phosphate buffer (pH 7.0 and 10 % w/v NaCl) under agitation 180 rpm at 30 °C. The biotransformed theobromine was purified by preparative TLC and subjected to FTIR and mass spectroscopy for chemical identification. This is the first evidence for biotransformation of caffeine into theobromine by strains of the genus Salinivibrio.

  11. Microbial Diversity in Sediment Ecosystems (Evaporites Domes, Microbial Mats, and Crusts) of Hypersaline Laguna Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana B.; Rasuk, Maria C.; Visscher, Pieter T.; Contreras, Manuel; Novoa, Fernando; Poire, Daniel G.; Patterson, Molly M.; Ventosa, Antonio; Farias, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    We combined nucleic acid-based molecular methods, biogeochemical measurements, and physicochemical characteristics to investigate microbial sedimentary ecosystems of Laguna Tebenquiche, Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular diversity, and biogeochemistry of hypersaline microbial mats, rhizome-associated concretions, and an endoevaporite were compared with: The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by pyrosequencing to analyze the total microbial diversity (i.e., bacteria and archaea) in bulk samples, and in addition, in detail on a millimeter scale in one microbial mat and in one evaporite. Archaea were more abundant than bacteria. Euryarchaeota was one of the most abundant phyla in all samples, and particularly dominant (97% of total diversity) in the most lithified ecosystem, the evaporite. Most of the euryarchaeal OTUs could be assigned to the class Halobacteria or anaerobic and methanogenic archaea. Planctomycetes potentially also play a key role in mats and rhizome-associated concretions, notably the aerobic organoheterotroph members of the class Phycisphaerae. In addition to cyanobacteria, members of Chromatiales and possibly the candidate family Chlorotrichaceae contributed to photosynthetic carbon fixation. Other abundant uncultured taxa such as the candidate division MSBL1, the uncultured MBGB, and the phylum Acetothermia potentially play an important metabolic role in these ecosystems. Lithifying microbial mats contained calcium carbonate precipitates, whereas endoevoporites consisted of gypsum, and halite. Biogeochemical measurements revealed that based on depth profiles of O2 and sulfide, metabolic activities were much higher in the non-lithifying mat (peaking in the least lithified systems) than in lithifying mats with the lowest activity in endoevaporites. This trend in decreasing microbial activity reflects the increase in salinity, which may play an important role in the biodiversity. PMID:27597845

  12. Methylohalobius crimeensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, methanotrophic bacterium isolated from hypersaline lakes of Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Jürgen; Berger, Ursula; Hardt, Martin; Dunfield, Peter F

    2005-09-01

    A novel genus and species are proposed for two strains of methanotrophic bacteria isolated from hypersaline lakes in the Crimean Peninsula of Ukraine. Strains 10Ki(T) and 4Kr are moderate halophiles that grow optimally at 1-1.5 M (5.8-8.7%, w/v) NaCl and tolerate NaCl concentrations from 0.2 M up to 2.5 M (1.2-15%). This optimum and upper limit are the highest for any methanotrophic bacterium known to date. The strains are Gram-negative, aerobic, non-pigmented, motile, coccoid to spindle-shaped bacteria that grow on methane or methanol only and utilize the ribulose monophosphate pathway for carbon assimilation. They are neutrophilic (growth occurs only in the range pH 6.5-7.5) and mesophilic (optimum growth occurs at 30 degrees C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, strains 10Ki(T) and 4Kr represent a type I methanotroph within the 'Gammaproteobacteria'. However, the 16S rRNA gene sequence displays <91.5 % identity to any public-domain sequence. The most closely related methanotrophic bacterium is the thermophilic strain HB. The DNA G+C content is 58.7 mol%. The major phospholipid fatty acids are 18:1omega7 (52-61%), 16:0 (22-23%) and 16:1omega7 (14-20%). The dominance of 18:1 over 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids is unique among known type I methanotrophs. The data suggest that strains 10Ki(T) and 4Kr should be considered as belonging to a novel genus and species of type I methanotrophic bacteria, for which the name Methylohalobius crimeensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. Strain 10Ki(T) (=DSM 16011(T)=ATCC BAA-967(T)) is the type strain.

  13. Association of a new type of gliding, filamentous, purple phototrophic bacterium inside bundles of Microcoleus chthonoplastes in hypersaline cyanobacterial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, E. D.; Cohen, Y.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    An unidentified filamentous purple bacterium, probably belonging to a new genus or even a new family, is found in close association with the filamentous, mat-forming cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes in a hypersaline pond at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and in Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt. This organism is a gliding, segmented trichome, 0.8-0.9 micrometer wide. It contains intracytoplasmic stacked lamellae which are perpendicular and obliquely oriented to the cell wall, similar to those described for the purple sulfur bacteria Ectothiorhodospira. These bacteria are found inside the cyanobacterial bundle, enclosed by the cyanobacterial sheath. Detailed transmission electron microscopical analyses carried out in horizontal sections of the upper 1.5 mm of the cyanobacterial mat show this cyanobacterial-purple bacterial association at depths of 300-1200 micrometers, corresponding to the zone below that of maximal oxygenic photosynthesis. Sharp gradients of oxygen and sulfide are established during the day at this microzone in the two cyanobacterial mats studied. The close association, the distribution pattern of this association and preliminary physiological experiments suggest a co-metabolism of sulfur by the two-membered community. This probable new genus of purple bacteria may also grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by the cyanobacterium. Since the chemical gradients in the entire photic zone fluctuate widely in a diurnal cycle, both types of metabolism probably take place. During the morning and afternoon, sulfide migrates up to the photic zone allowing photoautotrophic metabolism with sulfide as the electron donor. During the day the photic zone is highly oxygenated and the purple bacteria may either use oxidized species of sulfur such as elemental sulfur and thiosulfate in the photoautotrophic mode or grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by M. chthonoplastes. The new type of filamentous purple sulfur

  14. Microbial diversity in sediment ecosystems (evaporites domes, microbial mats and crusts of hypersaline Laguna Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Fernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We combined nucleic acid-based molecular methods, biogeochemical measurements and physicochemical characteristics to investigate microbial sedimentary ecosystems of Laguna Tebenquiche, Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular diversity and biogeochemistry of hypersaline microbial mats, rhizome-associated concretions and an endoevaporite were compared with: The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by pyrosequencing to analyze the total microbial diversity (i.e., bacteria and archaea in bulk samples and, in addition, in detail on a millimeter scale in one microbial mat and in one evaporite. Archaea were more abundant than bacteria. Euryarchaeota was one of the most abundant phyla in all samples, and particularly dominant (97% of total diversity in the most lithified ecosystem, the evaporite. Most of the euryarchaeal OTUs could be assigned to the class Halobacteria or anaerobic and methanogenic archaea. Planctomycetes potentially also play a key role in mats and rhizome-associated concretions, notably the aerobic organoheterotroph members of the class Phycisphaerae. In addition to cyanobacteria, members of Chromatiales and possibly the candidate family Chlorotrichaceae contributed to photosynthetic carbon fixation. Other abundant uncultured taxa such as the candidate division MSBL1, the uncultured MBGB and the phylum Acetothermia potentially play an important metabolic role in these ecosystems. Lithifying microbial mats contained calcium carbonate precipitates, whereas endoevoporites consisted of gypsum and halite. Biogeochemical measurements revealed that based on depth profiles of O2 and sulfide, metabolic activities were much higher in the non-lithifying mat (peaking in the least lithified systems than in lithifying mats with the lowest activity in endoevaporites. This trend in decreasing microbial activity reflects the increase in salinity, which may play an important role in the biodiversity.

  15. Precise measurement of inner diameter of mono-capillary optic using X-ray imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soonmu; Lim, Jae Hong; Namba, Yoshiharu; Chon, Kwon Su

    2017-11-16

    Mono-capillary optics have been applied to increase the performance of X-ray instruments. However, performance of a mono-capillary optic strongly depends on the shape accuracy, which is determined by the diameters of the inner hollow of the capillary along the axial direction. To precisely determine the inner diameter of the capillary optic used in X-ray imaging technique, which aims to replace the conventional method using a visible microscope. High spatial resolution X-ray images of the mono-capillary optic were obtained by a synchrotron radiation beamline. The inner diameter of the mono-capillary optic was measured and analyzed by the pixel values of the X-ray image. Edge enhancement effect was quite useful in determining the inner diameter, and the accuracy of the diameter determination was less than 1.32 μm. Many images obtained by scanning the mono-capillary optic along the axial direction were combined, and the axial profile, consisting of diameters along the axial direction, was obtained from the combined image. The X-ray imaging method could provide an accurate measurement with slope error of±19 μrad. Applying X-ray imaging technique to determine the inner diameter of a mono-capillary optic can contribute to increasing fabrication accuracy of the mono-capillary optic through a feedback process between the fabrication and measurement of its diameter.

  16. Separation of mono- and di-PEGylate of exenatide and resolution of positional isomers of mono-PEGylates by preparative ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Thanh Thi; Lee, Jae Sun; Yun, Soi; Lee, E K

    2016-07-29

    Exenatide is a synthetic version of the 39-mer peptide of Exendin-4, which is an FDA-approved therapeutic against Type II diabetes mellitus. However, exenatide has a very short in-serum half-life and PEGylation have been performed to improve its in-serum stability. PEGylation often yields multivalent binding to non-specific residues, and the desired species should be carefully separated by chromatographies. In this study, we first devised an aqueous-phase, two-step PEGylation process. This consists of thiolation of Lys 12 and 27 residues followed by attachment of PEG-maleimide (10kD) to thiol groups. This process yields various species: mono-PEGylates with positional isomers, di-PEGylate, and other higher MW substances. A prep-grade cationic exchange chromatography (HiTrap SP) at pH 3.0 partially separated mono- and di-PEGylates based on the molar ratio of conjugated PEG and peptide and thus molecular weight of the conjugates. To further investigate the chromatographic separation of positional isomers of mono-PEGylates, we prepared two kinds of exenatide analogs by point mutation; K12C and K27C. Each analog was mono-PEGylated with very high yield (>95%). When a mixture of the two positional isomers of mono-PEGylates was applied to HiTrap SP chromatography, K12C-PEGylate and K27C-PEGylate eluted separately at 0.22M and 0.33M NaCl, respectively. When the proportions of acid and its conjugate base of the amino acid residues adjacent to the PEGylation site at pH 3.0 were analyzed, K27C-PEGylate shows stronger positive charge than K12C-PEGylate, and we propose the residence time difference between the two mono-PEGylates could be due to the charge difference. ELISA result shows that the immuno-binding activity of both analogs and their mono-PEGylates are well maintained. Furthermore, both mono-PEGylates of the analogs show higher than 50-fold improved anti-trypsin stability. We expect that mono-PEGylates of the exenatide analogs are alternatives to the conventional C40

  17. Develop mono-block tooth implants using automate design and FEM analysis

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Alister; J. Moller,; F. Alister; R. Hunter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is present a new approach to modelling and design the low cost mono-block dental implants based on the integration of the computer aided techniques. This approach provides the automation of the design process of the mono-block dental implants.Design/methodology/approach: The approach used to develop the modelling and design of the mono-block dental implants are based on the parametrization of the main geometric features of the implants. This approach allows to ...

  18. A new approach to modelling and designing mono-block dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hunter; F. Alister; J. Möller; J. Alister

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is present a new approach to modelling and design the low cost mono-block dental implants based on the integration of the computer aided techniques. This approach provides the automation of the design process of the mono-block dental implants.Design/methodology/approach: The approach used to develop the modelling and design of the mono-block dental implants are based on the parametrization of the main geometric features of the implants. This approach allows to generate ...

  19. Professional iPhone Programming with MonoTouch and .NET/C#

    CERN Document Server

    McClure, Wallace B; Dunn, Craig

    2010-01-01

    What .NET C# developers need to enter the hot field of iPhone apps. iPhone applications offer a hot opportunity for developers. Until the open source MonoTouch project, this field was limited to those familiar with Apple's programming languages. Now .NET and C# developers can join the party. This Wrox guide is the first book to cover MonoTouch, preparing developers to take advantage of this lucrative opportunity.: MonoTouch opens the field of iPhone app development to .NET and C# developers for the first time; the Wrox reputation among .NET developers assures them that this guide covers everyt

  20. MonoGame- ja Unity-ympäristöjen vertailu pelinkehityksessä

    OpenAIRE

    Pasanen, Rami

    2017-01-01

    Tutkielmassa verrataan MonoGamea ja Unitya pelinkehitysalustoina C#-kielellä. Tarkoituksena on selvittää MonoGamen ja Unityn eroja ja potentiaalisia vahvuuksia toisiinsa verrattuna, ensisijaisesti 2D-peleissä ja aloittelevan pelinkehittäjän näkökulmasta. Tutkimusmenetelmänä on kirjallisuuskatsaus ja vertailu molemmilla sovelluksilla toteutetun bullet hell -genreen sijoittuvan esimerkkipelin avulla. Sekä MonoGamen että Unityn toimintaan tutustutaan erillisissä luvuissa, ja tutustumisen jälkeen...

  1. Study of niobium corrosion in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, S.H. de.

    1987-01-01

    A comparative study of niobium electrochemical behaviour in NaOH and KOH solution, with concentrations between 0,5 and 6,1M is presented. The studies were done through electrochemicals assays, consisting in the corrosion potential and anodic and cathodic polarization curves, complemented by loss of mass experiments. The niobium anodic behaviour in alkaline medium is characterized by passivation occurrence, with a stable film formation. The Na oH solution in alkaline medium are more corrosible to niobium than the KOH solution. The loss of mass assays showed that the corrosion velocit is more dependente of hydroxide concentration in KOH medium than the NaOH medium. (C.G.C.) [pt

  2. Photolysis of alkaline-earth nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriger, L. D.; Miklin, M. B.; Dyagileva, E. P.; Anan'ev, V. A.

    2013-02-01

    Peroxynitrite and nitrite ions are the diamagnetic products of photolysis (with light at a wavelength of 253.7 nm) of alkaline-earth nitrates; the paramagnetic products and hydrogen peroxide were not found. The structural water in alkaline-earth nitrate crystals did not affect the qualitative composition of the photodecomposition products. The quantum yield of nitrite ions was 0.0012, 0.0038, 0.0078, and 0.0091 quanta-1 and that of peroxynitrite ions was 0.0070, 0.0107, 0.0286, and 0.0407 quanta-1 for Sr(NO3)2, Ba(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O, and Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O, respectively.

  3. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  4. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2017-03-21

    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  5. Purification and characterisation of alkaline phosphotase enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'enzyme phosphatase alkaline était purifié de la bactérie Escherichia coli C90 cultivé dans un médium pauvre en phosphate comme phase stationnaire utilisant une colonne d'échange d'ion enveloppée avec une cellulose DEAE comme matrice et exclusion de taille chromographique utilisant le Sepharcryl S-300HR ...

  6. THE RECOGNITION OF SPOKEN MONO-MORPHEMIC COMPOUNDS IN CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-da Lai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the auditory lexical access of mono-morphemic compounds in Chinese as a way of understanding the role of orthography in the recognition of spoken words. In traditional Chinese linguistics, a compound is a word written with two or more characters whether or not they are morphemic. A monomorphemic compound may either be a binding word, written with characters that only appear in this one word, or a non-binding word, written with characters that are chosen for their pronunciation but that also appear in other words. Our goal was to determine if this purely orthographic difference affects auditory lexical access by conducting a series of four experiments with materials matched by whole-word frequency, syllable frequency, cross-syllable predictability, cohort size, and acoustic duration, but differing in binding. An auditory lexical decision task (LDT found an orthographic effect: binding words were recognized more quickly than non-binding words. However, this effect disappeared in an auditory repetition and in a visual LDT with the same materials, implying that the orthographic effect during auditory lexical access was localized to the decision component and involved the influence of cross-character predictability without the activation of orthographic representations. This claim was further confirmed by overall faster recognition of spoken binding words in a cross-modal LDT with different types of visual interference. The theoretical and practical consequences of these findings are discussed.

  7. Fringing in MonoCam Y4 filter images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.; Nomerotski, A.; Fisher-Levine, M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the fringing patterns observed in MonoCam, a camera with a single Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) CCD sensor. Images were taken at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona (NOFS) employing its 1.3 m telescope and an LSST y 4 filter. Fringing occurs due to the reflection of infrared light (700 nm or larger) from the bottom surface of the CCD which constructively or destructively interferes with the incident light to produce a net ''fringe'' pattern which is superimposed on all images taken. Emission lines from the atmosphere, dominated by hydroxyl (OH) spectra, can change in their relative intensities as the night goes on, producing different fringe patterns in the images taken. We found through several methods that the general shape of the fringe patterns remained constant, though with slight changes in the amplitude and phase of the fringes. We also found that a superposition of fringes from two monochromatic lines taken in the lab offered a reasonable description of the sky data.

  8. Differential catalytic promiscuity of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily bimetallo core reveals mechanistic features underlying enzyme evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunden, Fanny; AlSadhan, Ishraq; Lyubimov, Artem; Doukov, Tzanko; Swan, Jeffrey; Herschlag, Daniel

    2017-12-22

    Members of enzyme superfamilies specialize in different reactions but often exhibit catalytic promiscuity for one another's reactions, consistent with catalytic promiscuity as an important driver in the evolution of new enzymes. Wanting to understand how catalytic promiscuity and other factors may influence evolution across a superfamily, we turned to the well-studied alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily, comparing three of its members, two evolutionarily distinct phosphatases and a phosphodiesterase. We mutated distinguishing active-site residues to generate enzymes that had a common Zn 2+ bimetallo core but little sequence similarity and different auxiliary domains. We then tested the catalytic capabilities of these pruned enzymes with a series of substrates. A substantial rate enhancement of ∼10 11 -fold for both phosphate mono- and diester hydrolysis by each enzyme indicated that the Zn 2+ bimetallo core is an effective mono/di-esterase generalist and that the bimetallo cores were not evolutionarily tuned to prefer their cognate reactions. In contrast, our pruned enzymes were ineffective sulfatases, and this limited promiscuity may have provided a driving force for founding the distinct one-metal-ion branch that contains all known AP superfamily sulfatases. Finally, our pruned enzymes exhibited 10 7 -10 8 -fold phosphotriesterase rate enhancements, despite absence of such enzymes within the AP superfamily. We speculate that the superfamily active-site architecture involved in nucleophile positioning prevents accommodation of the additional triester substituent. Overall, we suggest that catalytic promiscuity, and the ease or difficulty of remodeling and building onto existing protein scaffolds, have greatly influenced the course of enzyme evolution. Uncovering principles and properties of enzyme function, promiscuity, and repurposing provides lessons for engineering new enzymes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Degradation of polymers in an alkaline environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, P. G.; Thorpe, S. J.; Venter, R. D. [Toronto Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    To introduce widespread use of hydrogen as a source of fuel, it is essential to significantly reduce the cost of electrolysers and fuel cells, preferably by substituting degradation-resistant low cost alternatives for traditional materials. An experimental apparatus for evaluating short-term degradation characteristics of polymers in 25 per cent potassium hydroxide aqueous solution at 70 and at 85 degrees C was constructed to determine changes in physical appearance, weight, volume and dimensions as a function of immersion time from 0 to 670 hours. Polymers that were part of this test included chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polypropylene (PP),and a polyurethane/polyester blend. Polypropylene demonstrated the greatest degradation resistance to the alkaline environment at both temperatures. CPVC discolored and the polyurethane/polyester blend deteriorated into smaller pieces when subjected to identical conditions. Resistance to degradation in an alkaline environment is a primary requirement for the selection of polymers for use as structural materials in alkaline water analyzers, which in turn is fundamental to the widespread adoption of a hydrogen economy. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Alkaline Material Effects on Roots of Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Shetty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to identify and analyse all studies related to the effects of alkaline materials used in dentistry on roots of teeth. The first part of the review focused on mechanical property alterations of root dentine due to sodium hypochlorite (SH used as an irrigant solution based on MeSH (Medical Subject Heading terms from a previous study by Pascon et al in 2009. The second part reviewed literature on calcium hydroxide (CH, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and other alkaline materials used as root canal dressings or filling materials. Additional MeSH terms used included “compressive strength”, “elastic modulus” “flexural strength”, “fracture strength” and “fracture resistance”. The language filter was English. Of the initial 205 articles identified, 49 were included in this review, of which 29 were on SH, 21 on CH/MTA, and 1 relating to both. Many in vitro studies indicated a strong link between reduced mechanical properties of roots of teeth or radicular dentine treated with SH, and when sealers or root fillings with CH- or MTA-based materials were placed in contact with roots or radicular dentine. Recent literature indicates that the association between reduced mechanical properties and alkaline sealers and/or root-filling materials is not as straightforward as previously assumed, and requires further investigation using more valid experimental models.

  11. Processing Methods of Alkaline Hydrolysate from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Arefieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper devoted to finding processing methods of alkaline hydrolysate produced from rice husk pre-extraction, and discusses alkaline hydrolysate processing schemed and disengagement of some products: amorphous silica of various quality, alkaline lignin, and water and alkaline extraction polysaccharides. Silica samples were characterized: crude (air-dried, burnt (no preliminary water treatment, washed in distilled water, and washed in distilled water and burnt. Waste water parameters upon the extraction of solids from alkaline hydrolysate dropped a few dozens or thousand times depending on the applied processing method. Color decreased a few thousand times, turbidity was virtually eliminated, chemical oxygen demanded about 20–136 times; polyphenols content might decrease 50% or be virtually eliminated. The most prospective scheme obtained the two following solid products from rice husk alkaline hydrolysate: amorphous silica and alkaline extraction polysaccharide. Chemical oxygen demand of the remaining waste water decreased about 140 times compared to the silica-free solution.

  12. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing C# Apps for iPhone and iPad using MonoTouch

    CERN Document Server

    Costanich, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Developing C# Applications for iPhone and iPad using MonoTouch shows you how to use your existing C# skills to write apps for the iPhone and iPad. Fortunately, there's MonoTouch, Novell's .NET library that allows C# developers to write C# code that executes in iOS. Furthermore, MonoTouch allows you to address all the unique functions of the iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad. And the big plus: You needn't learn any Objective-C to master MonoTouch!. Former Microsoft engineer and published app-store developer Bryan Costanich shows you how to use the tools you already know to create native apps in iOS

  14. Self-Assembly of Mono- and Dinuclear Metal Complexes; Oxidation Catalysis and Metalloenzyme Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelling, Onko-Jan; Rispens, Minze T.; Lubben, Marcel; Feringa, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    In this chapter several approaches to achieve assembly of mono- and dinuclear metal complexes, which can be considered structural and functional models for metalloenzymes, are described. The emphasis lies on oxidation chemistry, summarizing O2 binding, hydroxylation, demethylation, dehalogenation

  15. Mono-Cycle Photonics and Optical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Route to Femtosecond Ångstrom Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Yamashita, Mikio; Morita, Ryuji

    2005-01-01

    "Mono-Cycle Photonics and Optical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy" deals with both the ultrashort laser-pulse technology in the few- to mono-cycle region and the laser-surface-controlled scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) extending into the spatiotemporal extreme technology. The former covers the theory of nonlinear pulse propagation beyond the slowly-varing-envelope approximation, the generation and active chirp compensation of ultrabroadband optical pulses, the amplitude and phase characterization of few- to mono-cycle pulses, and the feedback field control for the mono-cycle-like pulse generation. In addition, the wavelength-multiplex shaping of ultrabroadband pulse is described. The latter covers the CW-laser-excitation STM, the femtosecond-time-resolved STM and atomic-level surface phenomena controlled by femtosecond pulses.

  16. Mono-X, dijet, and long-lived particle searches at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Emily; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the most recent Run II searches and results in the mono-X (photon, Z/W/H), mono-/di-jet, and long-lived particle channels for the ATLAS and CMS experiments. Limits on Simplified Models of dark matter and Effective Field Theories in each channel are also presented where relevant as a complement to the SUSY, BSM Higgs, and Invisible Higgs results which are to be covered in a separate presentation.

  17. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  18. Heparin and alkalinized lidocaine versus alkalinized lidocaine for treatment of interstitial cystitis symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C Lowell; Koziol, James A; Proctor, Jeffrey G; Zupkas, Paul; Argade, Sulabha

    2015-04-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC), sometimes referred to as IC/bladder pain syndrome, is a substantial health care problem. Once considered a rare, orphan disease, it is now believed to be relatively common. This pilot study was undertaken to determine if the combination of heparin and alkalinized lidocaine (heparin-lidocaine) was more efficacious than alkalinized lidocaine at relieving pain and urgency symptoms associated with IC and also capable of yielding higher lidocaine absorption. A single blind study was conducted on 14 IC patients with a heparin-lidocaine combination versus alkalinized lidocaine instilled intravesically. In a separate study serum lidocaine levels for heparin-alkalinized lidocaine combination versus USP lidocaine only were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Alkalinized lidocaine and heparin have been reported to provide relief from pain and urgency symptoms associated with IC. The heparin-lidocaine combination significantly reduced the % of bladder pain (38% versus 13%, p = 0.029) and urgency (42% versus 8% p = 0.003) compared to lidocaine. In addition the GAR was significantly better for the heparin-lidocaine combination at both 1 hr % improved (77% versus 50%, p = 0.04) and 24 hrs (57% versus 23%, p = 0.002) after study drug treatment. Serum lidocaine levels for the heparin-lidocaine combination were significantly higher compared to USP lidocaine (unalkalinized). The mean +/- SEM was 0.45 +/- 0.09 µg/mL and 0.20 +/- 0.05 µg/mL, respectively (p = 0.019). In this pilot study the heparin-lidocaine combination results in significantly better relief of IC symptoms compared to alkalinized lidocaine and the combination yields higher lidocaine absorption than USP lidocaine.

  19. Generalized dynamic model and control of ambiguous mono axial vehicle robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Duchon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the novel concept of ambiguous mono axial vehicle robot. Such robot is a combination of Segway and dicycle, which utilizes the advantages of each chassis. The advantage of dicycle is lower energy consumption during the movement and the higher safety of carried payload. The movable platform inside the ambiguous mono axial vehicle allows using the various sensors or devices. This will change the ambiguous mono axial vehicle to the Segway type robot. Both these modes are necessary to control in the stable mode to ensure the safety of the ambiguous mono axial vehicle’s movement. The main contents of the article contain description of generalized dynamic model of ambiguous mono axial vehicle and related control of ambiguous mono axial vehicle. The proposal is unique in that the same controller is used for both modes. Several simulations verify proposed control schemes and identified parameters. Moreover, the dicycle type of platform has never been used in robotics and that is another novelty.

  20. Roles of mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 in the formation of Smad transcriptional complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Mitsuyasu

    2008-11-14

    TGF-beta activates receptor-regulated Smad (R-Smad) through phosphorylation by type I receptors. Activated R-Smad binds to Smad4 and the complex translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the transcription of target genes through association with co-activators including p300. It is not clear, however, how activated Smad complexes are removed from target genes. In this study, we show that TGF-beta enhances the mono-ubiquitination of Smad4. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination was promoted by p300 and suppressed by the c-Ski co-repressor. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination disrupted the interaction with Smad2 in the presence of constitutively active TGF-beta type I receptor. Furthermore, mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 was not found in DNA-binding Smad complexes. A Smad4-Ubiquitin fusion protein, which mimics mono-ubiquitinated Smad4, enhanced localization to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that mono-ubiquitination of Smad4 occurs in the transcriptional activator complex and facilitates the turnover of Smad complexes at target genes.

  1. Good quality blastocyst from non-/mono-pronuclear zygote may be used for transfer during IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bao-Li; Hao, Hao-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wei, Duo; Zhang, Cui-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Although healthy infants have developed from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes, the transfer of embryos from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes is not recommended because there are no proper selection criteria. In the present study, we discuss how to select non- and mono-pronuclear embryos with the highest developmental potential at 19-20 hours post-insemination. We found that the percentage of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution in non-pronuclear zygotes was slightly higher than in mono-pronuclear zygotes. Non- and mono-pronuclear embryos that were at the 4-cell stage on D2 and/or at the 6- to 8-cell stage on D3 had higher incidence rates of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitutions. We also found higher incidences of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution on D6 than on D5. The results suggest that if high quality non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes develop to the 4-cell stage on D2 and the 6-to 8- cell stages on D3, along with high quality D6 blastocysts, the incidence of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution is higher.

  2. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Antolak, A.J.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the 11B(p,gamma)12C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the 11B(p,gamma)12C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB6 tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 mu s long pulses, and a 1percent duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part 2. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumgalz, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Databases of alkaline and alkaline earth bromide solubilities in water at various temperatures were created using experimental data from publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluation of the created databases was produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluation. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed bromide minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions.

  4. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  5. Origin of mafic and ultramafic cumulates from the Ditrău Alkaline Massif, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Batki, Anikó; Almási, Enikő; Kiss, Balázs; Upton, Brian G. J.; Markl, Gregor; Odling, Nicholas; Harangi, Szabolcs

    2015-12-01

    Mafic-ultramafic cumulates enclosed in gabbroic-dioritic rocks form part of the Mesozoic Ditrău Alkaline Massif in the Eastern Carpathians, Romania. The poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich and nearly mono mineralic hornblendite rocks display typical cumulate textures with early crystallised olivine (Fo75-73), diopside and augite. In the early stages of their genesis the amphibole was intercumulus whilst in later stages it acquired cumulus status as the fractionating magma evolved. Using major and trace element compositions of minerals and whole-rock samples the origin of these cumulates is determined and the parental magma composition and depth of emplacement are calculated. Cumulus clinopyroxene has more primitive composition than intercumulus amphibole suggesting closed system fractionation for the evolution of poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich cumulates. The evolution of the amphibole-rich mesocumulates is more clearly the result of closed system crystallisation dominated by the precipitation of clinopyroxene and amphibole cumulus crystals. Lamprophyre dykes of the Ditrău Alkaline Massif are proposed to reflect multiple basanitic parental magma batches from which the cumulus olivine and clinopyroxene crystallised. Relative to these dykes the calculated equilibrium melts for intercumulus amphibole in the cumulates was more primitive whilst that for the cumulus amphibole was more evolved. The calculated crystallisation temperature and pressure of ~ 1000-1050 °C and ~ 0.7 GPa, based on the composition of the amphiboles, indicate crystallisation at lower crustal depths. Rare earth element compositions are consistent with an intra-plate tectonic setting.

  6. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... during hospitalization. His blood type was O, RH+, Le (a-, b+) and he was a secretor of H-substance, which may be associated with rising API activity after fat-loading. In this case API was unchanged after fat-loading. Neither intestinal nor liver diseases were found, and no other cause for the elevated...

  7. Alkaline erosion of CR 39 polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiman, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of erosion of CR 39 polymer in alkaline environments. We observed the kinetics of absorption of water and methanol into both unirradiated and γ-irradiated samples. We use a capillary model to interpret our results. We etched our samples in both KOH solutions, and KOH solutions doped with methanol. Etch rate was desensitizing to γ-irradiation when KOH concentration approached saturation, but KOH solutions doped with methanol were not desensitizing, unlike with nuclear tracks. We account for this difference

  8. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  9. RES Hydrogen: efficient pressurised alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    The RESelyser project addresses issues associated with coupling alkaline electrolysis to renewable energy sources such as electrode stability and gas purity by implementing improved electrodes and a new separator membrane concept. The project aims to improve performance, operation pressure...... and reduce system cost. The project supports DTU Energy's activities on electrodes within the larger FCH-JU project. The overall project demonstrated: improved electrode efficiency also during cyclic operation, safe gas purity at a system pressure of 30 bar, 10 kW stack operation and estimated system costs...

  10. Structures of mono-unsaturated triacylglycerols. IV. The highest melting β'-2 polymorphs of trans-mono-unsaturated triacylglycerols and related saturated TAGs and their polymorphic stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mechelen, J.B.; Peschar, R.; Schenk, H.

    2008-01-01

    The β1'-2 crystal structures of a series of mixed-chain saturated and trans-mono-unsaturated triacylglycerols containing palmitoyl, stearoyl and elaidoyl acyl chains have been solved from high-resolution powder diffraction data, from synchrotron as well as laboratory X-ray sources. The structures

  11. In situ measurements of benthic primary production, respiration and nutrient fluxes in a hypersaline coastal lagoon of SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan Knoppers

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Bentbic oxygen and nutrient ftuxes were measured in a section of the hypersaline carbonate-rich coastal lagoon of Araruama, SE-Brazil. In situ incubations of the sediment surface (Zm - 1.5 were performed at one station with light/dark chambers during september 1993 (early spring period and april 1995 (earlyautumn period. The carbonate..rich aediments were covered by 1-3 mm thick microalgal mats, dominated by the cyanobaeteria Phormidium sp, Oscillatoria sp, and Lyngbya sp. Benthic net primary production rates were 15.4 ± 0.7 mmolC/m²/d in early spring and 33.8 ± 8.8 mmolC/m²/d in early autumn, total community respiration rates attained 35.3 ± 7.2 and 65.7 ± 16.9 mmolC/m²/d, and pelagic primary production rates 1.7 ± 0.7 and 4.0 ± 1.4 mmolC/m²/d, respectively. Total community metabolism was thus heterauophic and mainly driven by benthic metabolism. The benthic release rates af ammonia were 0.65 ± 0.32 mmolC/m²/day in early spring and 0.58± 0.42mmoVm ldaym early autumn, butwere near to negligible for orthophosphate. Pelagic primaryproduction was limited byphosphorous, in part, by the preferential release of étmmonia over orthophosphate from the sediment-water interface. The benthic primary production and nutrient release rates were within the range of other eury-to hypersaline carbonate-rich environments characterized by non- consolidated algat rats.Fluxos bênticos de oxigênio e nutrientes foram medidos numa seção da lagoa hipersalina e carbonática de Araruama, SE-Brasil Incubações in situ da superfície do sedimento (Zm = 1,5 foram realizadas em uma estação com câmaras claras/escuras nos meses de setembro de 1993 (início da primavera e abril de 1995 (início do outono. Os sedimentos ricos em carbonatos eram recobertos por um tapete microalgal de 1-3 mm, dominados pelas cianobactérias Phormidium sp,Oscillatoria spLyngbya sp. As taxas de produção primária yquida foram 15,4 ± 0,7 mmolC/m²/d Id no iníCIO da primavera e

  12. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the initial alkalinity. Acidity calculated from the pH and dissolved metals concentrations, assuming equivalents of 2 per mole of Fe and Mn and 3 per mole of Al, was equivalent to that calculated based on complete aqueous speciation of FeII/FeIII. Despite changes in

  13. Neutral alkaline-metal and alkaline-earth-metal derivatives of imidazole and benzimidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Lloyd, David G; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2014-06-12

    A theoretical study of the minima and connecting transition states of the neutral complexes formed by alkaline-metal and alkaline-earth-metal derivatives of imidazolate and benzimidazolate anions has been carried out using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p), B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p), and G3B3 methods. Two and three nondegenerated minima and two and four TS structures have been identified for imidazole and benzimidazole derivatives, respectively. The most stable minima of the alkaline-metal derivatives of both systems correspond to the metal interacting with the imidazole ring, whereas in the alkaline-earth-metal derivatives, the preferred minima depend on the substituent. A remarkable feature of some minima is the fact that some of the metal-aromatic interactions follow the classical π-cation pattern, even though the global structure corresponds to a neutral salt, constituting a class of noncovalent interaction of great interest in the chemistry of aromatic and heterocyclic complexes. A CSD search has confirmed that the two bonding modes, N-σ and π, are present in the solid phase. The π mode has been analyzed by comparison with other azoles.

  14. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  15. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes

  16. Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., a new anaerobic, haloalkaliphilic, spore-forming acetogen isolated from Mono Lake in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, E. V.; Hoover, R. B.; Bej, A. K.; Marsic, D.; Detkova, E. N.; Whitman, W. B.; Krader, P.

    2003-01-01

    A novel extremely haloalkaliphilic, strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium strain APO was isolated from sediments of the athalassic, meromictic, alkaline Mono Lake in California. The Gram-positive, spore-forming, slightly curved rods with sizes 0.55- 0.7x1.7-3.0 microns were motile by a single laterally attached flagellum. Strain APO was mesophilic (range 10-48 C, optimum of 37 C); halophilic (NaCl range 1-20% (w/v) with optimum of 3-5% (w/v), and alkaliphilic (pH range 8.0-10.5, optimum 9.5). The novel isolate required sodium ions in the medium. Strain APO was an organotroph with a fermentative type of metabolism and used the substrates peptone, bacto-tryptone, casamino acid, yeast extract, L-serine, L-lysine, L-histidine, L-arginine, and pyruvate. The new isolate performed the Stickland reaction with the following amino acid pairs: proline + alanine, glycine + alanine, and tryptophan + valine. The main end product of growth was acetate. High activity of CO dehydrogenase and hydrogenase indicated the presence of a homoacetogenic, non-cycling acetyl-coA pathway. Strain APO was resistant to kanamycin but sensitive to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and gentamycin. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.4 mol% (by HPLC method). The sequence of the 16s rRNA gene of strain APO possessed 98.2% similarity with the sequence from Tindullia magadiensis Z-7934, but the DNA-DNA hybridization value between these organisms was only 55%. On the basis of these physiological and molecular properties, strain APO is proposed to be a novel species of the genus Tindallia with the name Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., (type strain APO = ATCC BAA-393 - DSM 14871).

  17. Comparison between mono-bloc and bi-bloc mandibular advancement devices for obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Hyun; Wee, Jee Hye; Lee, Chul Hee; Kim, Min-Su; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Yun, Pil-Young; Yoon, In-Young; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2013-11-01

    Although mandibular advancement device (MAD) is widely used, there are a few papers comparing the efficacy and compliance at the same time according to the type of MAD. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and compliance between mono-bloc and bi-bloc MAD in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Ninety-three patients who treated with mono-bloc MAD and 60 patients with bi-bloc MAD from January 2007 through September 2011 were retrospectively enrolled. All the patients underwent full-night polysomnography(PSG) before and 3 months after MAD was applied. The response rate was significantly higher in the patients using mono-bloc than those using bi-bloc MAD (77.4 vs. 58.3 %; P = 0.012). In contrast, the compliance rate of MAD use was significantly higher in the patients using bi-bloc than those using mono-bloc MAD (68.8 vs. 83.3 %; P = 0.044) at 1 year. According to the severity of OSA, the response rate was significantly higher in severe OSA than in mild to moderate OSA (P = 0.033 for mono-bloc MAD and P = 0.048 for bi-bloc MAD). However, there was no difference in the compliance between mild to moderate OSA and severe OSA. Our study showed that mono-bloc MAD was superior to bi-bloc MAD in efficacy while bi-bloc MAD is superior to mono-bloc MAD in compliance. We propose that both the efficacy and compliance should be considered in using MAD for treatment of OSA.

  18. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laurence J; George, Roy

    2017-10-23

    In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  19. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganley, Jason C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Howard University, 2013 Lewis K. Downing Hall, 2300 6th Street NW, Washington, DC 20059 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    This paper describes experimental work involving the direct-current electrolysis of highly concentrated potassium hydroxide solutions at high temperatures (up to 400 C) and under various pressures. A high-temperature alkaline electrolysis cell resistant to chemical attack from the highly corrosive electrolyte solution and capable of high-pressure operation was designed and tested. The cell was constructed with a Monel {sup registered} alloy housing and cathode, while various anode materials were compared. The anode materials tested included nickel, Monel alloy, lithiated nickel, and cobalt-plated nickel. The advantages of operating an alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures include increasing the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte and enhancing the rates of electrochemical reactions at the electrode surfaces. Cell operation with increasing steam partial pressure over the solution is also shown to enhance cell performance. The prudent selection of anode material also impacts the required terminal potential for a given current density, and consequently the cell's electric power efficiency. The best cell performance was achieved using a cobalt-plated nickel anode at a temperature of 400 C and a steam partial pressure of 8.7 MPa. (author)

  20. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Roy

    2017-01-01

    In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled. PMID:29065540

  1. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of alkaline earth uranyl carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amayri, Samer; Reich, Tobias; Arnold, Thuro; Geipel, Gerhard; Bernhard, Gert

    2005-01-01

    A series of alkaline uranyl carbonates, M[UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ].nH 2 O (M=Mg 2 , Ca 2 , Sr 2 , Ba 2 , Na 2 Ca, and CaMg) was synthesized and characterized by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after nitric acid digestion, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The molecular structure of these compounds was characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Crystalline Ba 2 [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ].6H 2 O was obtained for the first time. The EXAFS analysis showed that this compound consists of (UO 2 )(CO 3 ) 3 clusters similar to the other alkaline earth uranyl carbonates. The average U-Ba distance is 3.90+/-0.02A.Fluorescence wavelengths and life times were measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The U-O bond distances determined by EXAFS, TRLFS, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy agree within the experimental uncertainties. The spectroscopic signatures observed could be useful for identifying uranyl carbonate species adsorbed on mineral surfaces

  3. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  4. Denitrification in a hypersaline lake–aquifer system (Pétrola Basin, Central Spain): The role of recent organic matter and Cretaceous organic rich sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Alday, J.J., E-mail: JuanJose.Gomez@uclm.es [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Carrey, R., E-mail: raulcarrey@ub.edu [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Valiente, N., E-mail: Nicolas.Valiente@uclm.es [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Otero, N., E-mail: notero@ub.edu [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: albertsolergil@ub.edu [Grup d’Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Dep. Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Ayora, C., E-mail: cayora1@gmail.com [Grup d' Hidrologia Subterrània (GHS), Institut de Diagnóstic Ambiental i Estudis de l' Aigua (IDAEA-CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, D. [Hydrogeology Group, Institute for Regional Development (IDR), University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); and others

    2014-11-01

    Agricultural regions in semi-arid to arid climates with associated saline wetlands are one of the most vulnerable environments to nitrate pollution. The Pétrola Basin was declared vulnerable to NO{sub 3}{sup −} pollution by the Regional Government in 1998, and the hypersaline lake was classified as a heavily modified body of water. The study assessed groundwater NO{sub 3}{sup −} through the use of multi-isotopic tracers (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 34}S, δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O) coupled to hydrochemistry in the aquifer connected to the eutrophic lake. Hydrogeologically, the basin shows two main flow components: regional groundwater flow from recharge areas (Zone 1) to the lake (Zone 2), and a density-driven flow from surface water to the underlying aquifer (Zone 3). In Zones 1 and 2, δ{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} and δ{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} suggest that NO{sub 3}{sup −} from slightly volatilized ammonium synthetic fertilizers is only partially denitrified. The natural attenuation of NO{sub 3}{sup −} can occur by heterotrophic reactions. However, autotrophic reactions cannot be ruled out. In Zone 3, the freshwater–saltwater interface (down to 12–16 m below the ground surface) is a reactive zone for NO{sub 3}{sup −} attenuation. Tritium data suggest that the absence of NO{sub 3}{sup −} in the deepest zones of the aquifer under the lake can be attributed to a regional groundwater flow with long residence time. In hypersaline lakes the geometry of the density-driven flow can play an important role in the transport of chemical species that can be related to denitrification processes. - Highlights: • Denitrification comes about in a hypersaline lake–aquifer system. • Nitrate in the basin is derived from synthetic fertilizers slightly volatilized. • Organic carbon oxidation is likely to be the main electron donor in denitrification. • Density driven flow transports organic carbon to deeper zones of the aquifer.

  5. Effective Uranium (VI) Sorption from Alkaline Solutions Using Bi-Functionalized Silica-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.; He, L.; Liu, B.; Tang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    High temperature gas reactor is one of generation IV reactors that can adapt the future energy market, of which the preparation of fuel elements will produce a large amount of radioactive wastewater with uranium and high-level ammonia. Sorption treatment is one of the most important method to recover uranium from wastewater. However, there are few report on uranium sorbent that can directly be applied in wastewater with ammonia. Therefore, the development of a sorbent that can recover uranium in basic environment will greatly decrease the cost of fuel element production and the risk of radioactive pollution. In this work, ammonium-phosphonate-bifunctionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles has been developed for effective sorption of uranium from alkaline media, which are not only advantaged in the uranium separation from liquid phase, but also with satisfactory adsorption rate, amount and reusability. The as-prepared sorbent is found to show a maximum uranium sorption capacity of 70.7 mg/g and a fast equilibrium time of 2 h at pH 9.5 under room temperature. Compared with the mono-functionalized (phosphonate alone and ammonium alone) particles, the combination of the bi-functionalized groups gives rise to an excellent ability to remove uranium from basic environment. The sorbent can be used as a promising solid phase candidate for highly-efficient removal of uranium from basic solution. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to reporting...

  7. [Technique of complex mammary irradiation: Mono-isocentric 3D conformational radiotherapy and helical tomotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendorpe, B; Guilbert, P; Champagne, C; Antoni, T; Nguyen, T D; Gaillot-Petit, N; Servagi Vernat, S

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the dosimetric contribution of helical tomotherapy for breast cancers compared with conformal radiotherapy in mono-isocentric technique. For 23 patients, the dosimetric results in mono-isocentric 3D conformational radiotherapy did not satisfy the constraints either of target volumes nor organs at risk. A prospective dosimetric comparison between mono-isocentric 3D conformational radiotherapy and helical tomotherapy was therefore carried out. The use of helical tomotherapy showed a benefit in these 23 patients, with either an improvement in the conformity index or homogeneity, but with an increase in low doses. Of the 23 patients, two had pectus excavatum, five had past thoracic irradiation and two required bilateral irradiation. The other 14 patients had a combination of morphology and/or indication of lymph node irradiation. For these patients, helical tomotherapy was therefore preferred to mono-isocentric 3D conformational radiotherapy. Tomotherapy appears to provide better homogeneity and tumour coverage. This technique of irradiation may be justified in the case of morphological situations such as pectus exavatum and in complex clinical situations. In other cases, conformal radiotherapy in mono-isocentric technique remains to be favoured. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Selective mono-radioiodination and characterization of a cell-penetrating peptide. L-Tyr-maurocalcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Mitra; Bacot, Sandrine; Perret, Pascale; Riou, Laurent; Ghezzi, Catherine [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); INSERM U1039, Grenoble (France). Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques; Poillot, Cathy; Cestele, Sandrine [INSERM U836, Grenoble (France). Grenoble Inst. of Neuroscience; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Desruet, Marie-Dominique [INSERM U1039, Grenoble (France). Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques; Couvet, Morgane; Bourgoin, Sandrine; Seve, Michel [CRI-INSERM U823, Grenoble (France). Inst. of Albert Bonniot; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Waard, Michel de [INSERM U836, Grenoble (France). Grenoble Inst. of Neuroscience; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Smartox Biotechnologies, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Mono-and poly-iodinated peptides form frequently during radioiodination procedures. However, the formation of a single species in its mono-iodinated form is essential for quantitative studies such as determination of tissue concentration or image quantification. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to define the optimal experimental conditions in order to exclusively obtain the mono-iodinated form of L-maurocalcine (L-MCa). L-MCa is an animal venom toxin which was shown to act as a cell-penetrating peptide. In order to apply the current direct radioiodination technique using oxidative agents including chloramine T, Iodo-Gen {sup registered} or lactoperoxidase, an analogue of this peptide containing a tyrosine residue (Tyr-L-MCa) was synthesized and was shown to fold/oxidize properly. The enzymatic approach using lactoperoxidase/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was found to be the best method for radioiodination of Tyr-L-MCa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses were then used for identification of the chromatographic eluting components of the reaction mixtures. We observed that the production of different radioiodinated species depended upon the reaction conditions. Our results successfully described the experimental conditions of peptide radioiodination allowing the exclusive production of the mono-iodinated form with high radiochemical purity and without the need for a purification step. Mono-radioiodination of L-Tyr-MCa will be crucial for future quantitative studies, investigating the mechanism of cell penetration and in vivo biodistribution.

  9. Steroid sparing effect of sublingual immunotherapy: real life study in mono/polisensitized children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Bahceciler, Nerin; Galip, Nilufer; Babayigit, Arzu

    2017-11-01

    Steroid-sparing effect of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in mono/polisensitized asthmatic children were evaluated.  Children undergoing allergen-specific SLIT between 2010 and 2014 were included. Asthma control and usage/dose of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in the previous year was determined. Asthma control without ICS need ≥6 months was defined as 'ICS avoidance'.  90 children (mean ± SD age 8.92 ± 4.17 years) were enrolled, 56.7% (n = 60) being polysensitized. Mono, 2-simultaneous and multiple-pollen-mix allergen SLIT were prescribed in 84.4, 17.8 and 7.8%, respectively. ICS was avoided in 70%, with no significant difference in mono- versus poly-sensitized patients. ICS-avoidance rates in mono-allergen, pollen-mixture and 2-simultaneous-allergen SLIT were 93.6, 83.3 and 73.7%, respectively. Longer-duration SLIT resulted in significantly more ICS-avoidance (p:0.0001). SLIT with mono/multiple-mixed/simultaneous allergens in childhood asthma resulted in retained-avoidance of ICS. Steroid-sparing effect of SLIT in polysensitized children warrants further investigation.

  10. Identifying Family-Member-Specific Targets of Mono-ARTDs by Using a Chemical Genetics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-O'Connell, Ian; Jin, Haihong; Morgan, Rory K; Zaja, Roko; David, Larry L; Ahel, Ivan; Cohen, Michael S

    2016-01-26

    ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTD1-16) have emerged as major downstream effectors of NAD(+) signaling in the cell. Most ARTDs (ARTD7 and 8, 10-12, and 14-17) catalyze the transfer of a single unit of ADP-ribose from NAD(+) to target proteins, a process known as mono-ADP-ribosylation (MARylation). Progress in understanding the cellular functions of MARylation has been limited by the inability to identify the direct targets for individual mono-ARTDs. Here, we engineered mono-ARTDs to use an NAD(+) analog that is orthogonal to wild-type ARTDs. We profiled the MARylomes of ARTD10 and ARTD11 in vitro, identifying isoform-specific targets and revealing a potential role for ARTD11 in nuclear pore complex biology. We found that ARTD11 targeting is dependent on both its regulatory and catalytic domains, which has important implications for how ARTDs recognize their targets. We anticipate that our chemical genetic strategy will be generalizable to all mono-ARTD family members based on the similarity of the mono-ARTD catalytic domains. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement of low light level images using color-plus-mono dual camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Ju

    2017-05-15

    In digital photography, the improvement of imaging quality in low light shooting is one of the users' needs. Unfortunately, conventional smartphone cameras that use a single, small image sensor cannot provide satisfactory quality in low light level images. A color-plus-mono dual camera that consists of two horizontally separate image sensors, which simultaneously captures both a color and mono image pair of the same scene, could be useful for improving the quality of low light level images. However, an incorrect image fusion between the color and mono image pair could also have negative effects, such as the introduction of severe visual artifacts in the fused images. This paper proposes a selective image fusion technique that applies an adaptive guided filter-based denoising and selective detail transfer to only those pixels deemed reliable with respect to binocular image fusion. We employ a dissimilarity measure and binocular just-noticeable-difference (BJND) analysis to identify unreliable pixels that are likely to cause visual artifacts during image fusion via joint color image denoising and detail transfer from the mono image. By constructing an experimental system of color-plus-mono camera, we demonstrate that the BJND-aware denoising and selective detail transfer is helpful in improving the image quality during low light shooting.

  12. Identifying Family-Member-Specific Targets of Mono-ARTDs by Using a Chemical Genetics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Carter-O’Connell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTD1–16 have emerged as major downstream effectors of NAD+ signaling in the cell. Most ARTDs (ARTD7 and 8, 10–12, and 14–17 catalyze the transfer of a single unit of ADP-ribose from NAD+ to target proteins, a process known as mono-ADP-ribosylation (MARylation. Progress in understanding the cellular functions of MARylation has been limited by the inability to identify the direct targets for individual mono-ARTDs. Here, we engineered mono-ARTDs to use an NAD+ analog that is orthogonal to wild-type ARTDs. We profiled the MARylomes of ARTD10 and ARTD11 in vitro, identifying isoform-specific targets and revealing a potential role for ARTD11 in nuclear pore complex biology. We found that ARTD11 targeting is dependent on both its regulatory and catalytic domains, which has important implications for how ARTDs recognize their targets. We anticipate that our chemical genetic strategy will be generalizable to all mono-ARTD family members based on the similarity of the mono-ARTD catalytic domains.

  13. X-ray microtomography characterization of carbonate microbialites from a hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Rio de Janeiro State—Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, A.S., E-mail: alemachado@lin.ufrj.br [Laboratório de Geologia Sedimentar—IGEO, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear—COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dal Bó, P.F.F. [Laboratório de Geologia Sedimentar—IGEO, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lima, I. [Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear—COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Borghi, L. [Laboratório de Geologia Sedimentar—IGEO, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R. [Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear—COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to apply the micro-CT technique to assess recent microbialite samples from a hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Rio de Janeiro State. The study comprises structural assessment, mineralogical characterization and porosity distribution of each sample. Micro-CT is increasingly present in geological reservoir analyses, and has advantages over other laboratory techniques since it is non-invasive and allows 2D/3D visualization of inner structures without previous preparation method, such as slabbing, polishing, thinning or impregnation. This technique renders structural analyses which can be spatially resolved to a scale of micrometers. Results show that micro-CT technique is also adequate for the characterization of carbonate microbialites, providing excellent high resolution 3D images, that enabled to distinguish different mineralogies and porosity distribution beyond it is inner structure.

  14. Matrix-elimination with steam distillation for determination of short-chain fatty acids in hypersaline waters from pre-salt layer by ion-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda N; Carneiro, Manuel C; Vaitsman, Delmo S; Pontes, Fernanda V M; Monteiro, Maria Inês C; Silva, Lílian Irene D da; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover

    2012-02-03

    A method for determination of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in hypersaline waters by ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC), using steam distillation to eliminate matrix-interference, was developed. The steam distillation variables such as type of solution to collect the distillate, distillation time and volume of the 50% v/v H₂SO₄ solution were optimized. The effect of the addition of NaCl different concentrations to the calibration standards on the carboxylic acid recovery was also investigated. Detection limits of 0.2, 0.5, 0.3 and 1.5 mg L⁻¹ were obtained for formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. Produced waters from petroleum reservoirs in the Brazilian pre-salt layer containing about 19% m/v of NaCl were analyzed. Good recoveries (99-108%) were obtained for all acids in spiked produced water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The exploration of eastern Mediterranean deep hypersaline anoxic basins with MODUS: a significant example of technology spin-off from the Geostar Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corselli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A significant example of technological spin-off from the GEOSTAR project is represented by the special-purpose instrumented module, based on the deep-sea ROV MODUS, which was developed in the framework of the EU-sponsored project BIODEEP. The goal to be achieved has been defined as the exploration, through real-time video images, measurements and accurate video-guided sampling, of the deep hypersaline anoxic basins of the eastern Mediterranean Sea at water depths well exceeding 3000 meters. Due to their peculiar characteristics, these basins are one of the most extreme environments on Earth and represent a site of utmost interest for their geochemical and microbial resources. The paper presents the strategies and the main results achieved during the two cruises carried out within the BIODEEP project.

  16. Corrosion of copper in alkaline chloride environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    2002-08-01

    The available literature information on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of copper in alkaline environments has been reviewed. The purpose of the review was to assess the impact of an alkaline plume from cementitious material on the corrosion behaviour of a copper canister in an SKB-3 type repository. The effect of the evolution of the environmental conditions within the repository have been considered, including the effects of temperature, redox conditions, pore-water salinity and pH. If the pore-water pH increases prior to the establishment of anoxic conditions, the canister surface will passivate as the pore-water pH exceeds a value of ∼ pH 9. Passivation will result from the formation of a duplex Cu 2 O/Cu(OH) 2 film. The corrosion potential will be determined by the equilibrium potential for the Cu 2 O/Cu(OH) 2 couple under oxic conditions, or by the Cu/Cu 2 O redox couple under anoxic conditions (in the absence of sulphide). Pitting corrosion is only likely to occur early in the evolution of the repository environment, whilst the canister is still relatively cool ( 2 available to support localised corrosion, and prior to the increase in pore-water pH and salinity. The subsequent increase in canister surface temperature, pore-water pH and salinity, and decrease in O 2 will make pit initiation less likely, although the canister will remain passive provided the pore-water pH is maintained above pH 9. The higher the pore-water pH, the more strongly the canister is passivated and the less likely the surface is to undergo localised attack. If the pore-water salinity increases prior to the increase in pH, there could be a period of active canister corrosion before passivation occurs.Under these circumstances, the corrosion potential will be a true mixed potential, determine by the relative kinetics of Cu dissolution as CuCl 2 - and of the reduction of O 2 . The development of anoxic conditions and an increase in pore-water sulphide concentration will

  17. Alkaline lixiviation of uranium in granitic pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambor, S.

    1980-06-01

    The work described herein concerns the determination of the experimental optimum conditions for the alkaline lixiviation of uranium based on the following parameters: time, pH, temperature, density and grane size. The samples were obtained from the Supamo complex, near the Currupia river in the Piar District of the Bolivar State in Venezuela. They have a granitic composition and graphitic texture. The uranium was found in them as a secondary oxidized mineral of green-yellow colour localized in fractures fissures, intergranular spaces and also in the mica as. Secondary uranitite. The lixiviation process was carried out using Na 2 CO 3 /NaHCO 3 buffer solution and for 100 gr. samples the best values for an efficient process were found by using 170 mesh grane size and 500 ml of pH buffer at 70 0 C for a 24 hour time period. (author)

  18. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkind, A.J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve-type silver-zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO/sub 2/ - and several nickel electrodes for nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities detected by XPS and SAM. After the first discharge AgNiO/sub 2/ can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic-bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)/sub 2/ largely eliminate this

  19. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  20. Retention of alkaline earth elements in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.

    1990-06-01

    The data on human metabolism and long-term retention of alkaline earth elements ( 133 Ba injected into six healthy male volunteers at age 25-81 y and 45 Ca and 85 Sr received by one healthy male volunteer) are presented. Excreta were collected for 2-3 weeks after injection of the tracer into an antecubital vein. Activity in urine, ashed faeces and early samples of blood plasma was determined by gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry. Whole body retention has been assessed through serial measurements of body radioactivity. The injected 133 Ba apparently became mainly skeletal within several days, much earlier than predicted by the ICRP model. The whole-body retention at 32 d ranged from 5 to 14%, the rate of loss correlating with the excretory plasma clearance rate. No age-related trends were identified in the metabolism of Ca and Sr. 2 refs, 2 figs

  1. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkind, A. J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W. A.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve type silver zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO2 and several nickel electrodes for nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities. After the first discharge AgNiO2 can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)2 largely eliminate this.

  2. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  3. Impact of temperature on performance of series and parallel connected mono-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chander

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on impact of temperature on the performance of series and parallel connected mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si solar cell employing solar simulator. The experiment was carried out at constant light intensity 550 W/m2with cell temperature in the range 25–60 oC for single, series and parallel connected mono-Si solar cells. The performance parameters like open circuit voltage, maximum power, fill factor and efficiency are found to decrease with cell temperature while the short circuit current is observed to increase. The experimental results reveal that silicon solar cells connected in series and parallel combinations follow the Kirchhoff’s laws and the temperature has a significant effect on the performance parameters of solar cell.

  4. Second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties of unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegão, Luis M. G.; Fonseca, Ruben D.; Santos, Francisco A.; Souza, Gabriela B.; Barreiros, André Luis B. S.; Barreiros, Marizeth L.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Mendonça, Cleber R.; Silva, Daniel L.; De Boni, Leonardo; Rodrigues, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    This work describes the second and third orders of nonlinear optics properties of unsubstituted chalcone (C15H12O) and mono-substituted chalcone (C16H14O2) in solution, using hyper-Rayleigh scattering and Z-Scan techniques to determine the first molecular hyperpolarizability (β) and the two-photon absorption (2PA) cross section respectively. β Values of 25.4 × 10-30 esu and 31.6 × 10-30 esu, for unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcone, respectively, dissolved in methanol have been obtained. The highest values of 2PA cross-sections obtained were 9 GM and 14 GM for unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcone, respectively. The experimental 2PA cross sections obtained for each chalcone are in good agreement with theoretical results.

  5. Preparation of mono- and diacetyl 4,4′-dimethylbiphenyl and their corresponding carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titinchi, Salam J.J.; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Abbo, Hanna S.

    2007-01-01

    Shape selective acetylation of 4,4′-dimethylbiphenyl using anhydrous aluminum chloride as catalyst is an effective route for the production of mono- and di-acetyl-4,4′-dimethylbiphenyl. Preparations, characterization and a catalytic study of the Friedel-Crafts acetylation of 4,4′-dimethylbiphenyl......, involving use of the Perrier addition procedure are carried out in a range of solvents and under a variety of experimental conditions. The obtained ketones are isolated and identified by various physico-chemical techniques. Mono acetylation of 4,4′-dimethylbiphenyl afforded a mixture of two isomeric acetyl...... dimethylbiphenyls. In chloroalkane or carbon disulfide solvent, the yields of isomers were in the order: 2 -> 3-; in nitromethane 3-isomer predominated. On the other hand diacetylation of the hydrocarbon gave only the 2,3′-diacetyl isomer. The mono- and di-ketones are converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids...

  6. Regulation of TGF-β Superfamily Signaling by SMAD Mono-Ubiquitination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Zhang, Zhengkui; van Dam, Hans; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Fangfang

    2014-01-01

    TGF-β(transforming growth factor-β) superfamily signaling mediators are important regulators of diverse physiological and pathological events. TGF-β signals are transduced by transmembrane type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and their downstream effectors, the SMAD (drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein) proteins. Numerous studies have already demonstrated crucial regulatory roles for modification of TGF-β pathway components by poly-ubiquitination. Recently, several studies also uncovered mono-ubiquitination of SMADs as a mechanism for SMAD activation or inactivation. Mono-ubiquitination and subsequent deubiquitination of SMAD proteins accordingly play important roles in the control of TGF-β superfamily signaling. This review highlights the major pathways regulated by SMAD mono-ubiquitination. PMID:25317929

  7. Enhanced oil recovery using local alkaline | Akpoturi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of the local alkaline (palm bunch ash) was compared with other conventional alkaline (NaOH, KOH, and Na2CO3). Eight cores (A1 – A$ and C1 – C4) were prepared, saturated with formation brine of 30, 000ppm salinity; crude (light and medium) were then flowed through sand samples. The samples were ...

  8. Waterbirds of alkaline lakes in Western Uganda | Pomeroy | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda's only alkaline lakes are found in the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area and the adjoining Kyambura Wildlife Reserve. Both are Important Bird Areas, a status to which the birds of the lakes contribute. A total of 179 waterbird counts were made between 1984 and 2000, covering eight of the nine alkaline lakes, ...

  9. based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cell; anion exchange membrane; PPO; homogeneous quaterni- zation. 1. Introduction. Presently, alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs) using anion exchange membranes have received an immense interest among researchers (Varcoe and Slade. 2005). The advantages of ...

  10. Dynamic Properties of the Alkaline Vesicle Population at Hippocampal Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röther, Mareike; Brauner, Jan M.; Ebert, Katrin; Welzel, Oliver; Jung, Jasmin; Bauereiss, Anna; Kornhuber, Johannes; Groemer, Teja W.

    2014-01-01

    In compensatory endocytosis, scission of vesicles from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm is a prerequisite for intravesicular reacidification and accumulation of neurotransmitter molecules. Here, we provide time-resolved measurements of the dynamics of the alkaline vesicle population which appears upon endocytic retrieval. Using fast perfusion pH-cycling in live-cell microscopy, synapto-pHluorin expressing rat hippocampal neurons were electrically stimulated. We found that the relative size of the alkaline vesicle population depended significantly on the electrical stimulus size: With increasing number of action potentials the relative size of the alkaline vesicle population expanded. In contrast to that, increasing the stimulus frequency reduced the relative size of the population of alkaline vesicles. Measurement of the time constant for reacification and calculation of the time constant for endocytosis revealed that both time constants were variable with regard to the stimulus condition. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of the alkaline vesicle population can be predicted by a simple mathematical model. In conclusion, here a novel methodical approach to analyze dynamic properties of alkaline vesicles is presented and validated as a convenient method for the detection of intracellular events. Using this method we show that the population of alkaline vesicles is highly dynamic and depends both on stimulus strength and frequency. Our results implicate that determination of the alkaline vesicle population size may provide new insights into the kinetics of endocytic retrieval. PMID:25079223

  11. Alkaline protease production on date waste by an alkalophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on isolation and characterization of a new strain of Bacillus sp. from alkaline soil, which was able to producing extracellular alkaline protease and amylase from date waste at pH ranging from 8 to 11 and temperatures of 20 to 50°C. Purification was conducted by fractionation, concentration, and cation ...

  12. A generally applicable sequential alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical double staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, Chris M.; Teeling, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A universal type of sequential double alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical staining is described that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and cryostat tissue sections from human and mouse origin. It consists of two alkaline phosphatase detection systems including enzymatic

  13. Partial purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline proteases from the digestive tract of anchovy were partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purification fold and yield were 6.23 and 4.49%, respectively. The optimum activities of partially purified alkaline proteases were observed at 60°C and at pH 11.0.

  14. Comparative Detection of Alkaline Protease Production in Exiguobacterium acetylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, O.M.; EI Shafey, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline protease is one of the most important enzymes in industry, medicine, and research. In the present work, a comparative detection for alkaline protease activity was established for instant detection of enzyme activity. Eight different alkalophilic bacterial isolates were compared based on the clear zone they produced on skim milk agar. One strain gave an absolute clear zone in 16 hours and was used for alkaline protease detection. The result of Phenotypic identification using Biology Microlog 3 identified the isolate as Exiguobacterium acetylicum. The isolate under study showed slightly different characteristics from a known Exiguobacterium acetylicum strain. The isolate tolerated alkaline conditions up to ph 11, while good growth was evident at ph 7, the maximum alkaline protease activity was observed at ph 9 which reached up to 109.01 U/ml. The alkaline activity assay using alkaline protease enzyme assay were coordinating with those obtained by conductivity; there was a relevant decrease in conductivity at the maximum increase in enzyme activity, which proved the cell membrane conductivity has a close relation to alkaline protease production. This isolate has tolerated gamma radiation, the increase in dose (up to 4 Gy) gave wider clear zones in terms of diameter and this was relevant to the conductivity measurements

  15. Application of alkaline waterflooding to a high acidity crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyouh, M.H. (King Sand Univ., Riyadh (SA). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Abdel-Waly, A.; Osman, A. (Cairo Univ. (EG). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Awara, A.Z. (Geisum Oil Company, Cairo (EG))

    The enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude) by alkaline solutions is studied. Acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, temperature and viscosity on recovery. The interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until a minimum, after which it increases again. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. At the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until a maximum at 4% by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. Oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until a maximum at 15% PV. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55{sup 0}C) and decreasing oil viscosity.

  16. Production of Thermostab Streptomyc ction of Thermostable Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence: onyi4bernardine@gmail.com. Introduction. Proteases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of protein into amino-acid. Proteases, especially alkaline type constitute about 60-65% of the global industrial enzyme market (Gupta et al., 2010). Among different proteases, alkaline proteases produced by.

  17. Production of alkaline protease by Teredinobacter turnirae cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conditions for immobilizing the new alkaline protease-producing bacteria strain Teredinobacter turnirae by entrapment in calcium alginate gel were investigated. The influence of alginate concentration (20, 25 and 30 g/l) and initial cell loading (ICL) on enzyme production were studied. The production of alkaline ...

  18. Imaging the magmatic system of Mono Basin, California with magnetotellurics in three--dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Jared R.; Mangan, Margaret T.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Ponce, David A.

    2015-01-01

    A three–dimensional (3D) electrical resistivity model of Mono Basin in eastern California unveils a complex subsurface filled with zones of partial melt, fluid–filled fracture networks, cold plutons, and regional faults. In 2013, 62 broadband magnetotelluric (MT) stations were collected in an array around southeastern Mono Basin from which a 3D electrical resistivity model was created with a resolvable depth of 35 km. Multiple robust electrical resistivity features were found that correlate with existing geophysical observations. The most robust features are two 300 ± 50 km3 near-vertical conductive bodies (3–10 Ω·m) that underlie the southeast and north-eastern margin of Mono Craters below 10 km depth. These features are interpreted as magmatic crystal–melt mush zones of 15 ± 5% interstitial melt surrounded by hydrothermal fluids and are likely sources for Holocene eruptions. Two conductive east–dipping structures appear to connect each magma source region to the surface. A conductive arc–like structure (resistivity (200 Ω·m) suggestive of a cooled connection. A third, less constrained conductive feature (4–10 Ω·m) 15 km deep extending to 35 km is located west of Mono Craters near the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada escarpment, and is coincident with a zone of sporadic, long–period earthquakes that are characteristic of a fluid-filled (magmatic or metamorphic) fracture network. A resistive feature (103–105 Ω·m) located under Aeolian Buttes contains a deep root down to 25 km. The eastern edge of this resistor appears to structurally control the arcuate shape of Mono Craters. These observations have been combined to form a new conceptual model of the magmatic system beneath Mono Craters to a depth of 30 km.

  19. Ethanol production from bamboo using mild alkaline pre-extraction followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Kapu, Nuwan Sella

    2018-01-01

    A sequential two-stage pretreatment process comprising alkaline pre-extraction and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHP) was investigated to convert bamboo carbohydrates into bioethanol. The results showed that mild alkaline pre-extraction using 8% (w/w) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 100°C for 180min followed by AHP pretreatment with 4% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was sufficient to generate a substrate that could be efficiently digested with low enzyme loadings. Moreover, alkali pre-extraction enabled the use of lower H 2 O 2 charges in AHP treatment. Two-stage pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with only 9FPU/g cellulose led to the recovery of 87% of the original sugars in the raw feedstock. The use of the pentose-hexose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8u strain enabled the utilization of 95.7% sugars in the hydrolysate to reach 4.6%w/v ethanol titer. The overall process also enabled the recovery of 62.9% lignin and 93.8% silica at high levels of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Roles of mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 in the formation of Smad transcriptional complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bei; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Mitsuyasu

    2008-01-01

    TGF-β activates receptor-regulated Smad (R-Smad) through phosphorylation by type I receptors. Activated R-Smad binds to Smad4 and the complex translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the transcription of target genes through association with co-activators including p300. It is not clear, however, how activated Smad complexes are removed from target genes. In this study, we show that TGF-β enhances the mono-ubiquitination of Smad4. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination was promoted by p300 and suppres...

  1. Permethylated metallocenes as suitable models for obtaining the onium mono- and dications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybinskaya, M.I.; Krejndlin, A.Z.; Khoffmann, R.; Minyaev, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Permethylated metallocenes of iron sub-group (M = Fe, Ru, Os) have been considered as suitable models for obtaining the onium mono- and dications. EHM MO calculation of charge distribution in monocations, homoannular and heteroannular dications has shown that the positive charge is localized mainly at the metal atom. This fact was confirmed by X-ray studies, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectral and electrochemical data. Reactivity of monocations has been studied. It is shown that M-C(α) σ-bond is realized in mono- and dications under investigation. 36 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Aza-Michael Mono-addition Using Acidic Alumina under Solventless Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Bosica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aza-Michael reactions between primary aliphatic and aromatic amines and various Michael acceptors have been performed under environmentally-friendly solventless conditions using acidic alumina as a heterogeneous catalyst to selectively obtain the corresponding mono-adducts in high yields. Ethyl acrylate was the main acceptor used, although others such as acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and acrylamide were also utilized successfully. Bi-functional amines also gave the mono-adducts in good to excellent yields. Such compounds can serve as intermediates for the synthesis of anti-cancer and antibiotic drugs.

  3. Endospores of B subtilis are pyrogenic and activate Mono Mac 6 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik W; Christensen, Jens D

    2003-01-01

    The monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 is sensitive to pyrogens and interleukin-6 secretion is induced after exposure to pyrogens. The aim of this study is to examine the pyrogenic activity and the interleukin-6-inducing capacity of the Gram-positive B. subtilis bacteria, endospores and isolated cell...... wall components. Furthermore the involvement of CD14 in activation of interleukin-6 release is investigated. All test substances are pyrogenic in the rabbit pyrogen test. The test substance is incubated with monocytic cells (Mono Mac 6) for 24 h and the secreted interleukin-6 is determined...

  4. Forced vibration and wave propagation in mono-coupled periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the wave propagation and vibration characteristics of mono-coupled structures which are of spatially periodic nature. The receptance approach to periodic structure theory is applied to study undamped periodic systems with composite structural elements; particular emphasis...... is laid on investigating resonant periodic point loading and its pronounced effect on the propagation of longitudinal waves. General mono-coupled periodic systems are first assumed to be infinite in extent; thereafter reflections caused by arbitrary end terminations of finite structures are considered...

  5. Mono- and Bis(pyrrolo)tetrathiafulvalene Derivatives Tethered to C60

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Marta Vico; Della Pia, E. A.; Jevric, M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of mono- (MPTTF) and bis(pyrrolo) tetrathiafulvalene (BPTTF) derivatives tethered to one or two C-60 moieties was synthesized and characterized. The synthetic strategy for these dumbbell-shaped compounds was based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between aldehyde-functionalized MP......A series of mono- (MPTTF) and bis(pyrrolo) tetrathiafulvalene (BPTTF) derivatives tethered to one or two C-60 moieties was synthesized and characterized. The synthetic strategy for these dumbbell-shaped compounds was based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between aldehyde...

  6. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either 3 H-fatty acids or [ 3 H]ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the 3 H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of [ 3 H]ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from 3 H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the 3 H-fatty acid and the [ 3 H]ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the [ 3 H]ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The 3 H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from [ 3 H]ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic [ 3 H]ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the 3 H-fatty acid and [ 3 H]ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase

  7. Mono-N-acyl-2,6-diaminopimelic acid derivatives: analysis by electromigration and spectroscopic methods and examination of enzyme inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaváček, Jan; Vítovcová, Miloslava; Sázelová, Petra; Pícha, Jan; Vaněk, Václav; Buděšínský, Miloš; Jiráček, Jiří; Gillner, Danuta M; Holz, Richard C; Mikšík, Ivan; Kašička, Václav

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen mono-N-acyl derivatives of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-new potential inhibitors of the dapE-encoded N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE; EC 3.5.1.18)-were analyzed and characterized by infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies and two capillary electromigration methods: capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Structural features of DAP derivatives were characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies, whereas CZE and MEKC were applied to evaluate their purity and to investigate their electromigration properties. Effective electrophoretic mobilities of these compounds were determined by CZE in acidic and alkaline background electrolytes (BGEs) and by MEKC in acidic and alkaline BGEs containing a pseudostationary phase of anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The best separation of DAP derivatives, including diastereomers of some of them, was achieved by MEKC in an acidic BGE (500 mM acetic acid [pH 2.54] and 60mM SDS). All DAP derivatives were examined for their ability to inhibit catalytic activity of DapE from Haemophilus influenzae (HiDapE) and ArgE from Escherichia coli (EcArgE). None of these DAP derivatives worked as an effective inhibitor of HiDapE, but one derivative-N-fumaryl, Me-ester-DAP-was found to be a moderate inhibitor of EcArgE, thereby providing a promising lead structure for further studies on ArgE inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of irrigated rice cropping on the alkalinity of two alkaline rice soils in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.J.A.; Zelfde, van 't J.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Hammecker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Irrigated rice cropping is practiced to reclaim alkaline-sodic soils in many parts of the world. This practice is in apparent contrast with earlier studies in the Sahel, which suggests that irrigated rice cropping may lead to the formation of alkaline-sodic soils. Soil column experiments were done

  9. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    There is no perfect disposable battery--one that will sit on the shelf for 20 years, then continually provide unlimited current, at a completely constant voltage until exhausted, without producing heat. There is no perfect rechargeable battery--one with all of the above characteristics and will also withstand an infinite overcharge while providing an equally infinite cycle life. There are only compromises. Every battery selection is a compromise between the ideally required characteristics, the advantages, and the limitations of each battery type. General selection of a battery type to power a medical device is largely outside the purview of the biomed. Initially, these are engineering decisions made at the time of medical equipment design and are intended to be followed in perpetuity. However, since newer cell types evolve and the manufacturer's literature is fixed at the time of printing, some intelligent substitutions may be made as long as the biomed understands the characteristics of both the recommended cell and the replacement cell. For example, when the manufacturer recommends alkaline, it is usually because of the almost constant voltage it produces under the devices' design load. Over time, other battery types may be developed that will meet the intent of the manufacturer, at a lower cost, providing longer operational life, at a lower environmental cost, or with a combination of these advantages. In the Obstetrical Doppler cited at the beginning of this article, the user had put in carbon-zinc cells, and the biomed had unknowingly replaced them with carbonzinc cells. If the alkaline cells recommended by the manufacturer had been used, there would have been the proper output voltage at the battery terminals when the [table: see text] cells were at their half-life. Instead, the device refused to operate since the battery voltage was below presumed design voltage. While battery-type substitutions may be easily and relatively successfully made in disposable

  10. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

  11. Extraction of uranium from alkaline medium by organic extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El - nadi, Y.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    A recent possible route for treatment of small amounts of neutron irradiated uranium from alkaline medium was addressed. This have some advantages related to the isolation of many troublesome fission products which forms insoluble carbonates or hydroxides upon alkaline carbonate dissolution of uranium oxide. In alkaline solution containing sodium carbonate and hydroxide, hexavalent uranium is expected to be dissolved in solution whereby most of the fission products transition elements exemplified by zirconium and niobium as well as trivalent lanthanides and actinides will be precipitated. Therefore, in this medium the solution will contain mainly alkali and alkaline earth metal such as Cs + and Sr 2+ and anionic fission products such as pertechnetates and antimonates, Which can be easily separted from uranium. Therefore, The present thesis is directed to investigate the following; 1 - solubility of uranium oxide in alkaline medium consists of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide in presence of oxidizing agent. 2 - Extraction of uranium from the aforementioned alkaline medium by immiscible organic diluent containing different amine extractants. 3 - Extraction behaviour of uranium by the macroporous anion exchanger, amberlite IRA - 410, from alkaline solution

  12. Efficient utilization of licorice root by alkaline extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hirokazu; Miyoshi, Shozo; Araho, Daisuke; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Tsuda, Tadashi; Sunaga, Katsuyoshi; Amano, Shigeru; Ohkoshi, Emika; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kazue; Yamamoto, Masaji

    2014-01-01

    Compared to studies of water extracts of plants, those utilising alkaline extracts are limited. Both water and alkaline extracts from licorice root were compared regarding their biological activities. Licorice root was successively extracted first with water or alkaline solution (pH 9 or 12), and the alkaline (pH 12.0) extract was further separated into 50% ethanol-soluble and -insoluble fractions. Viable cell number was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 was determined by turbidity assay. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP)3A4 activity was measured by β-hydroxylation of testosterone using human recombinant CYP3A4. Radical intensity of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Alkaline extraction yielded slightly higher amounts of dried materials compared to water extraction. Alkaline extract showed higher anti-HIV and antibacterial activities, and similar magnitudes of CYP3A4 inhibitory and superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, compared to water extract. When alkaline extract was fractionated by 50% ethanol, anti-HIV activity was recovered from the insoluble fraction representing approximately 3% of the alkaline extract, whereas antibacterial activity was concentrated in the soluble fraction rich in glycyrrhizid acid, flavanones and chalcones. All extracts and sub-fractions led to bimodal hormetic dose-response (maximum hormetic response=238%) on the bacterial growth. The present study demonstrated the superiority of alkaline extraction over water extraction for preparing anti-HIV and antibacterial agents at higher yield from licorice root. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Elimination of Cu (II) and Zn (II) ions in mono-element and the bi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elimination of Cu (II) and Zn (II) ions in mono-element and the bi-element aqueous solutions by adsorption on natural clay of Bikougou (Gabon) ... The modeling of the experimental results is better achieved by application of. Freundlich adsorption isotherm and Langmuir adsorption isotherm concerning the adsorption of Cu ...

  14. Bioconversion of Mono- and Sesquiterpenoids by Recombinant Human Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julsing, Mattijs K.; Fichera, Mario A.; Malz, Frank; Ebbelaar, Monique; Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play an important role in the biosynthesis and metabolism of terpenoids. We explored the potential of recombinant human liver cytochrome P450 monooxygenases CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, to convert mono- and sesquiterpenoids

  15. Emotions in freely varying and mono-pitched vowels, acoustic and EGG analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija; Palo, Pertti; Kankare, Elina

    2015-12-01

    Vocal emotions are expressed either by speech or singing. The difference is that in singing the pitch is predetermined while in speech it may vary freely. It was of interest to study whether there were voice quality differences between freely varying and mono-pitched vowels expressed by professional actors. Given their profession, actors have to be able to express emotions both by speech and singing. Electroglottogram and acoustic analyses of emotional utterances embedded in expressions of freely varying vowels [a:], [i:], [u:] (96 samples) and mono-pitched protracted vowels (96 samples) were studied. Contact quotient (CQEGG) was calculated using 35%, 55%, and 80% threshold levels. Three different threshold levels were used in order to evaluate their effects on emotions. Genders were studied separately. The results suggested significant gender differences for CQEGG 80% threshold level. SPL, CQEGG, and F4 were used to convey emotions, but to a lesser degree, when F0 was predetermined. Moreover, females showed fewer significant variations than males. Both genders used more hypofunctional phonation type in mono-pitched utterances than in the expressions with freely varying pitch. The present material warrants further study of the interplay between CQEGG threshold levels and formant frequencies, and listening tests to investigate the perceptual value of the mono-pitched vowels in the communication of emotions.

  16. Conformational studies on pertrimethylsilyl derivatives of some mono- and disaccharides by 220 MHz PMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Streefkerk, D.G.; Bie, M.J.A. de

    1973-01-01

    The complete interpretation of 220 MHz PMR spectra and the accurate chemical shifts and coupling constants, obtained after computer simulation of the spectra, of a number of TMS-mono and -disaccharides are given. By means of an adapted Karplus equation the conformation of the derivatives has been

  17. Removal of copper (II), iron (III) and lead (II) ions from Mono ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Removal of copper (II), iron (III) and lead (II) ions from. Mono-component Simulated Waste Effluent by. Adsorption on Coconut Husk. Oyedeji O. Abdulrasaq* and Osinfade G. Basiru. Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria. Accepted 28 April 2010. The use of coconut ...

  18. Production of pulse in mono-cropped rice system in the coastal region of Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Nanda, P.; Chandra, Dinesh; Ghorai, A.K.; Behera, M.S.

    2001-04-01

    This experiment was undertaken with an objective to increase the yield of black-gram leguminous pulse crop through optimal doses of phosphatic fertilizer with supplemental irrigation in mono-cropped rice-fallow regions of India. Irrigation and phosphorus fertilizer application were introduced for enhancing productivity of black-gram to provide better returns to available water resources

  19. Endotoxin testing of proteins for parenteral administration using the Mono Mac 6 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    2000-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products containing proteins cause problems in testing for endotoxin and pyrogens. Many proteins interfere with the LAL test and the proteins are immunogenic in rabbits. The monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 is an alternative assay for detection of endotoxin and other pyrogens....

  20. Mono- and multimeric ferrocene congeners of quinoline-based polyamines as potential antiparasitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of mono- and multimeric polyamine-containing ferrocenyl complexes bearing a quinoline motif were prepared. The complexes were characterised by standard techniques. The molecular structure of the monomeric salicylaldimine derivative was elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction and w...

  1. Transient heating and evaporation of moving mono-component liquid fuel droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a complete description of a model for transient heating and evaporation of moving mono-component liquid fuel droplets. The model mainly consists of gas phase heat and mass transfer analysis, liquid phase analysis, and droplet dynamics analysis, which address the interaction be...

  2. Experimental damping assessment of a full scale offshore mono bucket foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Fejerskov, Morten; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    This paper quantifies the system damping of a offshore meteorological mast supported by a Mono Bucket foundation based on a long-term experimental campaign. The structure is located at Dogger Bank west, North Sea, and equipped with a measurement system monitoring acceleration, strain, inclination...

  3. Elevated levels of homocysteine increase IL-6 production in monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, B. E.; Jansen, J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The aim of this study was to analyze if exposure of monocytic cells to increased levels of homocysteine (HCY) induces the accumulation of inflammatory mediators. Interleukin (IL)-6 production by monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6

  4. Asynchronous replication, mono-allelic expression, and long range Cis-effects of ASAR6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Nathan; Stoffregen, Eric P; Smith, Leslie; Montagna, Christina; Thayer, Mathew J

    2013-04-01

    Mammalian chromosomes initiate DNA replication at multiple sites along their length during each S phase following a temporal replication program. The majority of genes on homologous chromosomes replicate synchronously. However, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes, and genes on female X chromosomes replicate asynchronously. We have identified a cis-acting locus on human chromosome 6 that controls this replication-timing program. This locus encodes a large intergenic non-coding RNA gene named Asynchronous replication and Autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, or ASAR6. Disruption of ASAR6 results in delayed replication, delayed mitotic chromosome condensation, and activation of the previously silent alleles of mono-allelic genes on chromosome 6. The ASAR6 gene resides within an ∼1.2 megabase domain of asynchronously replicating DNA that is coordinated with other random asynchronously replicating loci along chromosome 6. In contrast to other nearby mono-allelic genes, ASAR6 RNA is expressed from the later-replicating allele. ASAR6 RNA is synthesized by RNA Polymerase II, is not polyadenlyated, is restricted to the nucleus, and is subject to random mono-allelic expression. Disruption of ASAR6 leads to the formation of bridged chromosomes, micronuclei, and structural instability of chromosome 6. Finally, ectopic integration of cloned genomic DNA containing ASAR6 causes delayed replication of entire mouse chromosomes.

  5. Asynchronous replication, mono-allelic expression, and long range Cis-effects of ASAR6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Donley

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian chromosomes initiate DNA replication at multiple sites along their length during each S phase following a temporal replication program. The majority of genes on homologous chromosomes replicate synchronously. However, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes, and genes on female X chromosomes replicate asynchronously. We have identified a cis-acting locus on human chromosome 6 that controls this replication-timing program. This locus encodes a large intergenic non-coding RNA gene named Asynchronous replication and Autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, or ASAR6. Disruption of ASAR6 results in delayed replication, delayed mitotic chromosome condensation, and activation of the previously silent alleles of mono-allelic genes on chromosome 6. The ASAR6 gene resides within an ∼1.2 megabase domain of asynchronously replicating DNA that is coordinated with other random asynchronously replicating loci along chromosome 6. In contrast to other nearby mono-allelic genes, ASAR6 RNA is expressed from the later-replicating allele. ASAR6 RNA is synthesized by RNA Polymerase II, is not polyadenlyated, is restricted to the nucleus, and is subject to random mono-allelic expression. Disruption of ASAR6 leads to the formation of bridged chromosomes, micronuclei, and structural instability of chromosome 6. Finally, ectopic integration of cloned genomic DNA containing ASAR6 causes delayed replication of entire mouse chromosomes.

  6. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in...

  7. Síntesis de mono y diitaconatos de alquilo y arilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sánchez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una técnica para la síntesis en laboratorio de mono y diitaconatos y la separación de los mismos por extracción selectiva con solventes orgánicos. La pureza de los productos se determina por cromatografía en capa fina y por espectroscopia infrarroja.

  8. Stability of Axially Compressed Single-Cell Mono-Symmetric Thin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared with conventional structural columns, the pronounced role of instabilities complicates the behaviour and design of thin-walled columns. This study investigated the stability of axially compressed single-cell thin-walled column with mono-symmetric non-deformable cross-sections. The work involved a theoretical ...

  9. Some transition metal complexes derived from mono- and di-ethynyl perfluorobenzenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armitt, D.J.; Bruce, M.I.; Gaudio, M.; Zaitseva, N.N.; Skelton, B.W.; White, A.H.; Le Guennic, B.; Halet, J.-F.; Fox, M.A.; Roberts, R.L.; Hartl, F.; Low, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Transition metal alkynyl complexes containing perfluoroaryl groups have been prepared directly from trimethylsilyl-protected mono- and di-ethynyl perfluoroarenes by simple desilylation/metallation reaction sequences. Reactions between Me3SiC CC6F5 and RuCl(dppe)Cp'[Cp' = Cp, Cp*] in the presence of

  10. Study of half-sandwich mono and dinuclear complexes of platinum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 3. Study of half-sandwich mono and dinuclear complexes of platinum group metals containing pyrazolyl pyridine analogues: Synthesis and spectral characterization. Venkateswara Rao Anna Kota Thirumala Prasad Peng Wang Kollipara Mohan Rao.

  11. Crystalline mono- and multilayer self-assemblies of oligothiophenes at the air-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isz, S.; Weissbuch, I.; Kjær, K.

    1997-01-01

    The formation of Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface has long been believed to be limited to amphiphilic molecules containing a hydrophobic chain and a hydrophilic headgroup. Here we report the formation of crystalline mono- and multilayer self-assemblies of oligothiophenes, a class...

  12. Cyclin D activates the Rb tumor suppressor by mono-phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha, Anil M; Kaulich, Manuel; Shapiro, Gary S; Choi, Yoon J; Sicinski, Piotr; Dowdy, Steven F

    2014-06-04

    The widely accepted model of G1 cell cycle progression proposes that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 inactivates the Rb tumor suppressor during early G1 phase by progressive multi-phosphorylation, termed hypo-phosphorylation, to release E2F transcription factors. However, this model remains unproven biochemically and the biologically active form(s) of Rb remains unknown. In this study, we find that Rb is exclusively mono-phosphorylated in early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Mono-phosphorylated Rb is composed of 14 independent isoforms that are all targeted by the E1a oncoprotein, but show preferential E2F binding patterns. At the late G1 Restriction Point, cyclin E:Cdk2 inactivates Rb by quantum hyper-phosphorylation. Cells undergoing a DNA damage response activate cyclin D:Cdk4/6 to generate mono-phosphorylated Rb that regulates global transcription, whereas cells undergoing differentiation utilize un-phosphorylated Rb. These observations fundamentally change our understanding of G1 cell cycle progression and show that mono-phosphorylated Rb, generated by cyclin D:Cdk4/6, is the only Rb isoform in early G1 phase.

  13. Synthesis of Mono-PEGylated Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 and Investigation of its Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Beihua; Zhou, Ziniu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an efficient synthetic route to the mono-PEGylated growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and its biological activity in vivo. The commercially available key PEGylating reagent, mPEG-NHS ester, was successfully utilized to the synthesis of mono-PEGylated GHRP-2, during which the PEGylation profiles of GHRP-2 were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The product was purified by cation exchange chromatography, and its biological activity was conducted in rats. The desired mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 as the major product was readily obtained in anhydrous aprotic solvent, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), when the molar ratio of mPEG-NHS ester to GHRP-2 was fixed to be 0.8:1. The products were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The evaluation of the biological activity for the products showed that the mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 gave a more stable activity than GHRP-2, suggesting that PEGylation led to the increase in the half-life of GHRP-2 in plasma without greatly impairing the biological activity. PEGylation of the GHRP-2 is a good choice for the development of the GHRP-2 applications.

  14. The Simple Mono-Canal Algorithm for the Temperature Estimating of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge of the surface temperature is strongly required in several applications, for instance in agrometeorology, climatology and environmental studies. In this study we have developed an algorithm mono-canal to estimate land surface temperature (Ts) in spectral band as the infrared channel (IR) of METEOSAT-7.

  15. Fanconi anemia core complex-dependent HES1 mono-ubiquitination regulates its transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Cédric S; Huang, Feng Fei; Lévesque, Georges; Carreau, Madeleine

    2018-02-20

    The Hairy Enhancer of Split 1 (HES1) is a transcriptional repressor that regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation during development. We previously found an interaction between HES1 and Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins. FA is a hematological and developmental disorder caused by mutations in more than 20 different genes. Eight FA gene products form a nuclear core complex containing E3 ligase activity required for mono-ubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI, both of which are FA proteins. Given that HES1 interacts with members of the FA core complex, the aim of this study was to determine whether HES1 is mono-ubiquitinated via the FA core complex. We show that HES1 is mono-ubiquitinated on a highly-conserved lysine residue that is located within a FA-like recognition motif. HES1 modification is dependent on a functional FA complex. Absence of HES1 mono-ubiquitination affects transcriptional repression of its own promoter. This study uncovers a novel post-translational modification of HES1 that regulates its transcriptional activity and suggests that ubiquitination of HES1 occurs in a FA core complex-dependent manner.

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from ot...

  17. Mono-, di-and tetranuclear rhodium (I) complexes of morpholine and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 6. Mono-, di- and tetranuclear rhodium(I) complexes of morpholine and -methylpiperazine functionalized cyclodiphosph(III)azanes, cis-[(tBuN-)2(PNC4H8X)2] (X = O, NMe). Maravanji S Balakrishna D Suresh Joel T Mague. Volume 123 Issue 6 ...

  18. Mono-, di- and tetranuclear rhodium(I) complexes of morpholine and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    123, No. 6, November 2011, pp. 861–868. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Mono-, di- and tetranuclear rhodium(I) complexes of morpholine and N-methylpiperazine functionalized cyclodiphosph(III)azanes, cis-[( t. BuN-μ)2(PNC4H8X)2] (X = O, NMe). MARAVANJI S BALAKRISHNAa,∗, D SURESHa and JOEL T MAGUEb.

  19. The nest predator assemblage for songbirds in Mono Lake basin riparian habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Sacha K. Heath; Grant Ballard

    2012-01-01

    Because nest predation strongly limits avian fitness, ornithologists identify nest predators to inform ecological research and conservation. During 2002–2008, we used both video-monitoring of natural nests and direct observations of predation to identify nest predators of open-cup nesting riparian songbirds along tributaries of Mono Lake, California. Video cameras at...

  20. Co-metabolic degradation of mono-fluorophenols by the ectomycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Albina R; Ferreira, António C; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-09-01

    The release of fluorinated organic compounds from fire retardants or agrochemical products may have a significant negative effect on soil ecosystems. In this study, the ability of Pisolithus tinctorius to tolerate and degrade mono-fluorophenols (FP) was assessed. In vitro studies showed fungal growth in the presence of 0.45mM of 2-FP and 3-FP, but not in the presence of 4-FP. P. tinctorius was able to degrade up to 79% and 92% of 1mM 2-FP and 3-FP, respectively, in glucose supplemented liquid medium, suggesting that 2- and 3-FP degradation occurred in co-metabolism with glucose consumption. 3-Fluorocatechol (FC) and 4-FC were identified as metabolic intermediates using HPLC and LC-MS. Liberation of fluoride was not detected suggesting that a fluorinated dead-end product was formed. In extracts of cells collected at the end of cultures supplemented with the mono-FPs, a metabolic intermediate compatible with a mass corresponding to a fluoromuconate compound, according to LC-MS data, was recovered. The results further suggest that ectomycorrhizal fungi may be able to degrade mono-FP in pure culture while using glucose as a carbon source, through a similar pathway as that found in bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first time that degradation of mono-FPs by an ectomycorrhizal fungus is reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Health Disparities and Relational Well-Being between Multi- and Mono-Ethnic Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…

  2. Chemostat modeling of Escherichia coli persistence in conventionalized mono-associated and streptomycin-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rang, C.; Midtvedt, T.; Molin, Søren

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that Escherichia coli BJ4 has similar doubling time in mice that are mono-associated (having only the inoculated E. coli BJ4) or streptomycin-treated (having mainly gram-positive bacteria plus the inoculated E. coli BJ4). We also showed that when the mice were conventiona......We have previously shown that Escherichia coli BJ4 has similar doubling time in mice that are mono-associated (having only the inoculated E. coli BJ4) or streptomycin-treated (having mainly gram-positive bacteria plus the inoculated E. coli BJ4). We also showed that when the mice were...... the decrease in colony counts, we analyzed our previous results by a chemostat model. The analysis shows that the increasing doubling time alone is sufficient to explain the decrease in colony counts in mono- associated mice, but not in the streptomycin-treated mice. The observed decreasing rate in colony...... counts in streptomycin- treated mice is slower than predicted. Furthermore, whereas the model predicted a decrease to extinction in both mice, the E. coli persist at a frequency 10-80 times higher in streptomycin- treated mice than in mono-associated mice. Thus, while a chemostat model is able to explain...

  3. Retrograde axoplasmic flow of serotonin in central mono-aminergic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, Lucienne; Pujol, J.-F.; Bobillier, Pierre; Jouvet, Michel

    1977-01-01

    Following an injection of 3 H-5 HT in the neostriatum of the Rat, the tracer is transported by axoplasmic retrograde flow to the cell groups containing mono-aminergic neurons which are known or thought to have afferences to this structure: substantia nigra, dopaminergic group A8 and n. raphe dorsalis [fr

  4. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  5. Characterization of alkaline xylanases from Bacillus pumilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Marta Cristina Teixeira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline xylanases produced by four different strains of Bacillus pumilus were characterized. The optimal pH and temperature were pH 9.0 and 60ºC for strain 13a, and pH 8.0 and 55ºC for strains 5(2, 5(14, and 4a. Under these conditions the following activities were found after 10 min in the presence of 1% xylan (birchwood: 328 U.ml-1, 131 U.ml-1, 90 U.ml-1, and 167 U.ml-1, respectively, for the four strains. The enzymes were stable at 40ºC, with 40% of the xylanase activity remaining after 2 hours for the enzymes of strain 5(2 and 60% for the other three strains. Stability at 50ºC was improved by addition of glycerol. Taking into account the conditions under which kraft pulps are bleached during the manufacture of paper, xylanases from B. pumilus exhibit favorable potential for application to bleaching in the paper making process.

  6. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  7. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model

  8. Alkaline Phosphatase, an Unconventional Immune Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A. Rader

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (APs, revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP (hAP proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP and intestinal AP (IAP. This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes, including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism, and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharide, and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant bovine APs and recombinant hAPs are currently being explored for their potential as pharmacological agents to treat AP-associated diseases and mitigate multiple sources of inflammation. Continued research on these versatile proteins will undoubtedly provide insight into human pathophysiology, biochemistry, and the human holobiont.

  9. Alkaline Materials and Regenerative Endodontics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Kahler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periapical health is the primary goal of endodontic treatment in mature and immature teeth. In addition, the goals of treatment of immature teeth with arrested root development include root growth to length and maturation of the apex, as well as thickening of the canal wall. These goals are valid for immature teeth that have been subjected to trauma and dental caries or that are the result of developmental anomalies that expose the tooth to the risk of pulp necrosis and consequently result in the cessation of root maturation. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs have been described as a “paradigm shift” in the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis and underdeveloped roots, as there is the potential for further root maturation and return of vitality. Treatment with REPs is advocated as the treatment of choice for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. REP protocols involve the use of alkaline biomaterials, primarily sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates and Biodentine, and are the essential components of a successful treatment regimen.

  10. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    The overall purpose of this project has been to contribute to this load management by developing a 2{sup nd} generation of alkaline electrolysis system characterized by being compact, reliable, inexpensive and energy efficient. The specific targets for the project have been to: 1) Increase cell efficiency to more than 88% (according to the higher heating value (HHV)) at a current density of 200 mA /cm{sup 2}; 2) Increase operation temperature to more than 100 degree Celsius to make the cooling energy more valuable; 3) Obtain an operation pressure more than 30 bar hereby minimizing the need for further compression of hydrogen for storage; 4) Improve stack architecture decreasing the price of the stack with at least 50%; 5) Develop a modular design making it easy to customize plants in the size from 20 to 200 kW; 6) Demonstrating a 20 kW 2{sup nd} generation stack in H2College at the campus of Arhus University in Herning. The project has included research and development on three different technology tracks of electrodes; an electrochemical plating, an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and finally a high temperature and pressure (HTP) track with operating temperature around 250 deg. C and pressure around 40 bar. The results show that all three electrode tracks have reached high energy efficiencies. In the electrochemical plating track a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C has been shown. The APS track showed cell efficiencies of 97%, however, coatings for the anode side still need to be developed. The HTP cell has reached 100 % electric efficiency operating at 1.5 V (the thermoneutral voltage) with a current density of 1. 1 A/cm{sup 2}. This track only tested small cells in an externally heated laboratory set-up, and thus the thermal loss to surroundings cannot be given. The goal set for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser system, has been to generate 30 bar pressure in the cell stack. An obstacle to be

  11. A role of intracellular mono-ADP-ribosylation in cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Emanuele S; Fabrizio, Gaia; Di Girolamo, Maria

    2013-08-01

    During the development, progression and dissemination of neoplastic lesions, cancer cells can hijack normal pathways and mechanisms. This includes the control of the function of cellular proteins through reversible post-translational modifications, such as ADP-ribosylation, phosphorylation, and acetylation. In the case of mono-ADP-ribosylation and poly-ADP-ribosylation, the addition of one or several units of ADP-ribose to target proteins occurs via two families of enzymes that can generate ADP-ribosylated proteins: the diphtheria toxin-like ADP-ribosyltransferase (ARTD) family, comprising 17 different proteins that are either poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases or mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases or inactive enzymes; and the clostridial toxin-like ADP-ribosyltransferase family, with four human members, two of which are active mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases, and two of which are enzymatically inactive. In line with a central role for poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 in response to DNA damage, specific inhibitors of this enzyme have been developed as anticancer therapeutics and evaluated in several clinical trials. Recently, in combination with the discovery of a large number of enzymes that can catalyse mono-ADP-ribosylation, the role of this modification has been linked to human diseases, such as inflammation, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and cancer, thus revealing the need for the development of specific ARTD inhibitors. This will provide a better understanding of the roles of these enzymes in human physiology and pathology, so that they can be targeted in the future to generate new and efficacious drugs. This review summarizes our present knowledge of the ARTD enzymes that are involved in mono-ADP-ribosylation reactions and that have roles in cancer biology. In particular, the well-documented role of macro-containing ARTD8 in lymphoma and the putative role of ARTD15 in cancer are discussed. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  12. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of mono-dispersed cubic BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Chunxi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Inukai, Koji; Takahashi, Yosuke [Noritake Co., Limited, RD Center, Miyoshi 470-0293 (Japan); Izu, Noriya; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Itoh, Toshio [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Shin, Woosuck, E-mail: w.shin@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Mono-dispersed BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles have been prepared via the assistance of capping agent poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). - Highlights: • BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with single cubic crystal structure. • Poor dispersibility of nanoparticles has been overcome by in situ modification way. • Growth competition between BaTiO3 core and polymer shell. - Abstract: In this study, poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-assisted synthesis of mono-dispersed BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles have been reported. The various processing parameters, namely, refluxing temperature, KOH concentration, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) concentration, have been varied, and the effects on the growth of BaTiO{sub 3} particles have been analyzed systematically. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that poly(vinylpyrrolidone) did not affect the crystal structure, but rather influenced the crystal lattice structure. In addition, the use of surfactant poly(vinylpyrrolidone) hindered the agglomeration of the nanoparticles, and facilitated the formation of mono-dispersed core–shell organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite. Furthermore, the mineralizer KOH promoted the dissolution of reactants and promoted the crystallization of BaTiO{sub 3} particles. Accordingly, the dissolution-precipitation scheme was believed to be the mechanism underlying the formation of BaTiO{sub 3} particles. This was further substantiated by the experimental observations, which indicated that the nucleation and crystallization of the particles was affected by the KOH concentration in the reaction system. Finally, the formation of mono-dispersed core–shell nanocomposites proceeded via reaction limited cluster aggregation. We believe that the method proposed in this study could be extended for the synthesis of mono-dispersed nanoparticles for industrial applications.

  13. Organic carbon and phosphorus burial and iron limitation in hypersaline sediments of Guerrero Negro, Mexico: paleoceanographic significance and comparison to the Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, J. J.; Huerta-Diaz, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Hypersaline environments, including their microbial mat communities, were significantly more extensive in the geologic past, specifically during the Permian, than they are today and have been used as proxies to paleoenvironments. Over geologic time there have been significant changes in the burial of carbon, phosphorus and iron associated to pyrite. Eight sediment cores were collected along a salinity gradient (47 to 125‰) from Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OLL) and the evaporation ponds of the Guerrero Negro salt evaporation and production zone. Cores (from 15.5 to 23.5cm) were analyzed in 1cm increments for organic carbon (Corg), organic phosphorus (Porg), and pyrite. Using the evaporation pond (# 5) with the most well formed microbial mats as a proxy to Permian hypersaline environments and published accretion rates, burial fluxes of Corg and Porg were calculated to be 3.2±0.7 and 2.8x10-5±1.6x10-5gcm2yr-1, respectively. These fluxes were found to be orders of magnitude higher than present fluxes reported for some continental shelf and coastal regions. The average concentration of pyrite for the pond 5 was found to be 4.7±4.6µmolg-1, with Fe found to be limiting the formation of pyrite. In previous studies Corg to sulfur-pyrite ratios (C:S) for the Permian were found to be at their peak in geologic time. C:S values for this study were found to be even higher than Permian C:S values (526±247 to 2.5x109±9.1x108; 1131±1204 for pond 5). Based on reported paleoceanographic data, its suggested that at times during Earth’s history, when salt evaporation sites were more abundant, more Corg could have been preserved on a global scale in these environments than during the present. This increase in Corg burial was found in conjunction with decreased pyrite burial, which we attributed to Fe limitation. If this Fe limitation were caused by the extensive microbial mats that carpet the sediment surface, then Fe limitation would not be seen in OLL and where microbial mats do

  14. The Estimation Formation Alkaline In The Proses Desalination MSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latiffah, Siti Nurul

    2000-01-01

    Already to go on estimation phenomena formation alkaline scale of a seawater. In desalination system seawater on MSF to go on scale by a thermal decomposition HCO sub.3- ion and hydrolysis carbonate ion with water on the temperature operation. The varieties alkaline scale in attached on tube surface, while reduced efficiency heat transfer and to raise corrosion attack to structure material is caused all this high cost. Estimation to take please which a sum step by step decomposition ion bicarbonate from then information scale which carbonate and hydroxyl ion. The various scale maximal is alkaline form is a calcium carbonate = 116,5 gram per meter cubic the various sedimentation is alkaline and magnesium hydroxide = 67,57 gram per meter cubic

  15. Microbial alkaline pectinases and their industrial applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoondal, G S; Tiwari, R P; Tewari, R; Dahiya, N; Beg, Q K

    2002-08-01

    The biotechnological potential of pectinolytic enzymes from microorganisms has drawn a great deal of attention from various researchers worldwide as likely biological catalysts in a variety of industrial processes. Alkaline pectinases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in the current biotechnological arena with wide-ranging applications in textile processing, degumming of plant bast fibers, treatment of pectic wastewaters, paper making, and coffee and tea fermentations. The present review features the potential applications and uses of microbial alkaline pectinases, the nature of pectin, and the vast range of pectinolytic enzymes that function to mineralize pectic substances present in the environment. It also emphasizes the environmentally friendly applications of microbial alkaline pectinases thereby revealing their underestimated potential. The review intends to explore the potential of these enzymes and to encourage new alkaline pectinase-based industrial technology.

  16. Microbial alkaline proteases: Optimization of production parameters and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanupriya Miglani Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are hydrolytic enzymes capable of degrading proteins into small peptides and amino acids. They account for nearly 60% of the total industrial enzyme market. Proteases are extensively exploited commercially, in food, pharmaceutical, leather and detergent industry. Given their potential use, there has been renewed interest in the discovery of proteases with novel properties and a constant thrust to optimize the enzyme production. This review summarizes a fraction of the enormous reports available on various aspects of alkaline proteases. Diverse sources for isolation of alkaline protease producing microorganisms are reported. The various nutritional and environmental parameters affecting the production of alkaline proteases in submerged and solid state fermentation are described. The enzymatic and physicochemical properties of alkaline proteases from several microorganisms are discussed which can help to identify enzymes with high activity and stability over extreme pH and temperature, so that they can be developed for industrial applications.

  17. Palladium-based nanocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation in alkaline media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct alcohol alkaline fuel cells (DAAFCs) are potential power sources for a variety of portable applications as they provide unique advantages over hydrogen-based fuel cell devices. Alcohols (such as methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol...

  18. Effects of alkaline treatment for fibroblastic adhesion on titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam Cuellar-Flores

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The treatment of Ti plates with NaOH enhances cell adhesion and the proliferation of HPLF cells. Clinically, the alkaline treatment of Ti-based implants could be an option to improve and accelerate osseointegration.

  19. Kinetics of the Fading of Phenolphthalein in Alkaline Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lois

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment which illustrates pseudo-first-order kinetics in the fading of a common indicator in an alkaline solution. Included are background information, details of materials used, laboratory procedures, and sample results. (CW)

  20. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  1. Fluorescence quenching based alkaline phosphatase activity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yaqi; Hu, Qiong; Zhou, Baojing; Zhang, Yonghui; He, Minhui; Xu, Ting; Li, Feng; Kong, Jinming

    2018-01-01

    Simple and fast detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is of great importance for diagnostic and analytical applications. In this work, we report a turn-off approach for the real-time detection of ALP activity on the basis of the charge transfer induced fluorescence quenching of the Cu(BCDS) 2 2- (BCDS = bathocuproine disulfonate) probe. Initially, ALP can enzymatically hydrolyze the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate to release ascorbic acid (AA). Subsequently, the AA-mediated reduction of the Cu(BCDS) 2 2- probe, which displays an intense photoluminescence band at the wavelength of 402nm, leads to the static quenching of fluorescence of the probe as a result of charge transfer. The underlying mechanism of the fluorescence quenching was demonstrated by quantum mechanical calculations. The Cu(BCDS) 2 2- probe features a large Stokes shift (86nm) and is highly immune to photo bleaching. In addition, this approach is free of elaborately designed fluorescent probes and allows the detection of ALP activity in a real-time manner. Under optimal conditions, it provides a fast and sensitive detection of ALP activity within the dynamic range of 0-220mUmL -1 , with a detection limit down to 0.27mUmL -1 . Results demonstrate that it is highly selective, and applicable to the screening of ALP inhibitors in drug discovery. More importantly, it shows a good analytical performance for the direct detection of the endogenous ALP levels of undiluted human serum and even whole blood samples. Therefore, the proposed charge transfer based approach has great potential in diagnostic and analytical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photovoltaic hydrogen production with commercial alkaline electrolysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursua, A.; Lopez, J.; Gubia, E.; Marroyo, L.; Sanchis, P. [Public Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources and Electrolysis generate the so-called green Hydrogen, a zero-emission and potentially fossil fuel independent energy source. However, the inherent variability of the renewable energy sources implies a mode of operation for which most current electrolysers have not been designed. This paper analyses the operation of a water electrolyser fed with photovoltaic (PV) generator electric profile. The system, Integrated by a 1 Nm{sup 3}/h Hydrogenics alkaline electrolyser and a 5100 W PV generator with 60 BP585 modules, is installed at the Public University of Navarra (Spain). The PV generator profile fed to the electrolyser is emulated by a custom-made apparatus designed and built by the authors of this paper. The profile is designed according to real irradiance data measured by a calibration cell. The irradiance data are converted to the electric power profile that the PV generator would have delivered in case of having been connected to the electrolyser by means of a DC/DC converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Finally, from previously measured power-current electrolyser characteristic curves, the current profile to be delivered to the electrolyser is obtained and programmed to the electronic device. The electrolyser was tested for two types of days. During the first day, the irradiance was very stable, whereas during the second day, the irradiance was very variable. The experimental results show an average power consumption rate and an efficiency of 4908 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 72.1%, on the first day, and 4842 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 73.3% on the second day. The electrolyser performance was particularly good in spite of the high variability of the electric supply of the second day. (orig.)

  3. Chlorine solubility in evolved alkaline magmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Carroll

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of Cl solubility in trachytic to phonolitic melts provide insights into the capacity of alkaline magmas to transport Cl from depth to the earth?s surface and atmosphere, and information on Cl solubility variations with pressure, temperature and melt or fluid composition is crucial for understanding the reasons for variations in Cl emissions at active volcanoes. This paper provides a brief review of Cl solubility experiments conducted on a range of trachytic to phonolitic melt compositions. Depending on the experimental conditions the melts studied were in equilibrium with either a Cl-bearing aqueous fluid or a subcritical assemblage of low- Cl aqueous fluid + Cl-rich brine. The nature of the fluid phase(s was identified by examination of fluid inclusions present in run product glasses and the fluid bulk composition was calculated by mass balance. Chlorine concentrations in the glass increase with increasing Cl molality in the fluid phase until a plateau in Cl concentration is reached when melt coexists with aqueous fluid + brine. With fluids of similar Cl molality, higher Cl concentrations are observed in peralkaline phonolitic melts compared with peraluminous phonolitic melts; overall the Cl concentrations observed in phonolitic and trachytic melts are approximately twice those found in calcalkaline rhyolitic melts under similar conditions. The observed negative pressure dependence of Cl solubility implies that Cl contents of melts may actually increase during magma decompression if the magma coexists with aqueous fluid and Cl-rich brine (assuming melt-vapor equilibrium is maintained. The high Cl contents (approaching 1 wt% Cl observed in some melts/glasses from the Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei areas suggest saturation with a Cl-rich brine prior to eruption.

  4. Alkaline Peroxide Delignification of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh [Biosciences; Katahira, Rui [National; Donohoe, Bryon S. [Biosciences; Black, Brenna A. [National; Pattathil, Sivakumar [Complex; Stringer, Jack M. [National; Beckham, Gregg T. [National

    2017-05-30

    Selective biomass fractionation into carbohydrates and lignin is a key challenge in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In the present study, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was investigated to fractionate lignin from polysaccharides in corn stover (CS), with a particular emphasis on the fate of the lignin for subsequent valorization. The influence of peroxide loading on delignification during AHP pretreatment was examined over the range of 30-500 mg H2O2/g dry CS at 50 degrees C for 3 h. Mass balances were conducted on the solid and liquid fractions generated after pretreatment for each of the three primary components, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. AHP pretreatment at 250 mg H2O2/g dry CS resulted in the pretreated solids with more than 80% delignification consequently enriching the carbohydrate fraction to >90%. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy of the AHP pretreated residue shows that, under high peroxide loadings (>250 mg H2O2/g dry CS), most of the side chain structures were oxidized and the aryl-ether bonds in lignin were partially cleaved, resulting in significant delignification of the pretreated residues. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis shows that AHP pretreatment effectively depolymerizes CS lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fragments in the aqueous fraction. Imaging of AHP pretreated residues shows a more granular texture and a clear lamellar pattern in secondary walls, indicative of layers of varying lignin removal or relocalization. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this pretreated residue at 20 mg/g of glucan resulted in 90% and 80% yields of glucose and xylose, respectively, after 120 h. Overall, AHP pretreatment is able to selectively remove more than 80% of the lignin from biomass in a form that has potential for downstream valorization processes and enriches the solid pulp into a highly digestible material.

  5. Economic Analysis of Improved Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm; Ketelaer, Thomas; Koj, Jan Christian

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is a mature hydrogen production technology and there exists a range of economic assessments for available technologies. For advanced AWEs, which may be based on novel polymer-based membrane concepts, it is of prime importance that development comes along with new configurations and technical and economic key process parameters for AWE that might be of interest for further economic assessments. This paper presents an advanced AWE technology referring to three different sites in Europe (Germany, Austria, and Spain). The focus is on financial metrics, the projection of key performance parameters of advanced AWEs, and further financial and tax parameters. For financial analysis from an investor’s (business) perspective, a comprehensive assessment of a technology not only comprises cost analysis but also further financial analysis quantifying attractiveness and supply/market flexibility. Therefore, based on cash flow (CF) analysis, a comprehensible set of metrics may comprise levelised cost of energy or, respectively, levelized cost of hydrogen (LCH) for cost assessment, net present value (NPV) for attractiveness analysis, and variable cost (VC) for analysis of market flexibility. The German AWE site turns out to perform best in all three financial metrics (LCH, NPV, and VC). Though there are slight differences in investment cost and operation and maintenance cost projections for the three sites, the major cost impact is due to the electricity cost. Although investment cost is slightly lower and labor cost is significantly lower in Spain, the difference can not outweigh the higher electricity cost compared to Germany. Given the assumption that the electrolysis operators are customers directly and actively participating in power markets, and based on the regulatory framework in the three countries, in this special case electricity cost in Germany is lowest. However, as electricity cost is profoundly influenced by political decisions as

  6. Emplacement of Amba Dongar Carbonatite-alkaline Complex at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40Ar-39Ar analyses of three fresh alkaline rock samples and a phlogopite separate from a carbonatite from Amba Dongar carbonatite-alkaline complex of the Deccan Flood Basalt Province, India, yield indistinguishable precise plateau ages of 64.8 ± 0.6, 64.7 ± 0.5, 65.5 ± 0.8 and 65.3 ± 0.6 Ma, giving a mean plateau age ...

  7. Processes determining the marine alkalinity and carbonate saturation distributions

    OpenAIRE

    B. R. Carter; J. R. Toggweiler; R. M. Key; J. L. Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a composite tracer, Alk*, that has a global distribution primarily determined by CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution. Alk* also highlights riverine alkalinity plumes that are due to dissolved calcium carbonate from land. We estimate the Arctic receives approximately twice the riverine alkalinity per unit area as the Atlantic, and 8 times that of the other oceans. Riverine inputs broadly elevate Alk* in the Arctic surface and particularly near ri...

  8. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  10. Mono-ADP-ribosylation of histone 3 at arginine-117 promotes proliferation through its interaction with P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Feng; Tang, Yi; Li, Ming; Li, Qing-Shu; Li, Xian; Yang, Lian; Zhao, Wei; Jin, Cong-Cong; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Chang; Wu, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Wen-Wen; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Ya-Lan; Threadgill, Michael D

    2017-09-22

    Relatively little attention has been paid to ADP-ribosylated modifications of histones, especially to mono-ADP-ribosylation. As an increasing number of mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases have been identified in recent studies, the functions of mono-ADP-ribosylated proteins have aroused research interest. In particular, histones are substrates of some mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases and mono-ADP-ribosylated histone have been detected in physiological or pathological processes. In this research, arginine-117 (Arg-117; R-117) of hsitone3(H3) is identified as the a site of mono-ADP-ribosylation in colon carcinoma(the first such site to be identified); this posttranslational modification may promote the proliferation of colon carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo . Using a point-mutant lentivirus transfection and using an activator of P300 allowed us to observe the mono-ADP-ribosylation at H3R117 and enhancement of the activity of P300 to up-regulate the level of acetylated β-catenin, which could increase the expression of c-myc and cyclin D1.

  11. Involvement of membrane potential in alkaline band formation by internodal cells of Chara corallina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmen, Teruo; Wakabayashi, Akiko

    2008-10-01

    Internodal cells of Chara corallina form alkaline bands on their surface upon illumination via photosynthesis. In the present study, the effect of KCl on alkaline band formation was analyzed. When the extracellular KCl concentration was increased, alkaline band formation was extensively inhibited. Electrophysiological analysis unequivocally showed the need for inner negative membrane potential for alkaline band formation.

  12. 40 CFR 420.110 - Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alkaline cleaning subcategory. 420.110 Section 420.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.110 Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory... alkaline cleaning baths to remove mineral and animal fats or oils from the steel, and those rinsing...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system... Test Systems § 862.1050 Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. An alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure alkaline phosphatase or its isoenzymes...

  14. 1. Mono([8]annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported

  15. 1. Mono([8]annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussie, Thomas Richard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  16. 1. Mono((8)annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  17. Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Jin, Shuguang; Li, Dongyi; Zhang, Meixia; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion efficiency, combination pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization was applied to pretreat sewage sludge. Effect of alkaline dosage on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated in detail. SCOD of sludge supernatant significantly increased with the alkaline dosage increase after the combined pretreatment because of sludge disintegration. Organics were significantly degraded after the anaerobic digestion, and the maximal SCOD, TCOD and VS removal was 73.5%, 61.3% and 43.5%, respectively. Cumulative biogas production, methane content in biogas and biogas production rate obviously increased with the alkaline dosage increase. Considering both the biogas production and alkaline dosage, the optimal alkaline dosage was selected as 0.04 mol/L. Relationships between biogas production and sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas was mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration. The methane yield linearly increased with the DDCOD increase as Methane yield (ml/gVS)=4.66 DDCOD-9.69. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Secondary minerals from salt caves in the Atacama Desert (Chile: a hyperarid and hypersaline environment with potential analogies to the Martian subsurface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo De Waele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 15 years several expeditions by French, American and especially Italian cavers have unveiled over 50 caves in the Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama Desert, Northern Chile. Many of these caves contain a variety of speleothems and minerals, some of which have rarely been observed within karst systems. Most of the secondary deposits in these caves are composed of halite, but also other halide, carbonate, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate minerals have been found. Among the sixteen cave mineral species recognized, atacamite, darapskite, blödite, leonite, anhydrite, and especially antarcticite are worth mentioning. In one of the samples an unknown Ca-Sr-bearing chloride mineral has also been discovered, but it has not been possible to carry out detailed mineralogical analyses. These often-rare minerals have formed in this region due to the very extreme hyperarid and salt-rich environment. This research reports the mineralogical results and proposes the genetical mechanisms leading to the formation of antarcticite, powdery anhydrite, and the paragenesis of the halite-darapskite-blödite. This study also shows that Atacama caves may be excellent analogues to study weathering processes and subsurface secondary minerals in hyperarid and hypersaline environments on Mars.

  19. Extremely 'vanadiphilic' multiply metal-resistant and halophilic aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, strains EG13 and EG8, from hypersaline springs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csotonyi, J T; Maltman, C; Swiderski, J; Stackebrandt, E; Yurkov, V

    2015-01-01

    Two pinkish peach-colored strains of obligately aerobic phototrophic bacteria, EG13 and EG8, were isolated from a saline spring effluent stream in west central Manitoba, Canada. The strains possessed bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into a typical purple bacterial light-harvesting complex 1 (870 nm) and reaction center (801 nm). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated 100% identity among the isolates and 99% similarity to Roseovarius tolerans EL-172(T). The strains were physiologically well adapted to high salinity (0-22%), fluctuating pH (7-12) and temperature (7-40 °C) of the exposed hypersaline stream of East German Creek. EG8 and EG13 were also highly resistant to the toxic metal(loid) oxyanions tellurite, selenite and metavanadate (≥1000 μg/ml each). Most intriguingly, growth and pigment production of EG13 on glutamate minimal medium was stimulated by 1000-10000 μg/ml of sodium metavanadate compared to metal-free conditions. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic properties such as pigment composition and morphology indicate close relatedness to Roseovarius genus.

  20. Acidic minespoil reclamation with alkaline biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drill, C.; Lindsay, B.J.; Logan, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of an alkaline stabilized biosolids product, N-Viro Soil (NVS), was studied at a wild animal preserve in Cumberland, OH. The preserve occupies land that was strip mined for high-sulfur coal. While most of the land has been conventionally reclaimed, several highly acidic hot spots remain. Two of these hot spots were studied through concurrent field, greenhouse, and laboratory projects. In April 1995, NVS was applied at rates ranging from 0--960 mt/ha (wet wt.) to plots at the two sites. The plots were seeded using a standard reclamation mix and soil samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics before and after application and also in 1996 and 1997. Soil pH increased from 3.5 to about 11 in the amended plots and soil EC values increased from 21.0 mmho/cm to a maximum of 6.0 mmho/cm in the amended plots immediately after application. Soil Cu and Zn concentrations also increased in the NVS amended plots, but this did not affect plant germination or growth. By the summer of 1996, soil pH values had decreased to 7.3--8.7 and EC values decreased to 0.34--1.36 mmho/cm to the amended plots. Soil samples were collected in September 1995 for physical analyses. N-Viro Soil improved the moisture retention and water conductivity properties of the spoil. The plots were monitored for growth during the summer of 1995 and plant biomass and soil samples were taken in 1996 and 1997 for trace element and nutrient analysis. NVS did not significantly increase trace element concentrations in the biomass. The addition of NVS to acid mine spoil improves the chemical and physical properties of the spoil material thus aiding vegetative establishment and growth. NVS improves the chemical nature of the spoil by increasing pH and providing micro and macronutrients and improves the physical properties of the spoil with the addition of organic matter

  1. Alkaline phosphatase in boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, D; Isani, G; Giaretta, E; Spinaci, M; Tamanini, C; Ferlizza, E; Galeati, G

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) catalyses the detachment of phosphate residues from different substrates. Its activity has been demonstrated in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from porcine and other mammalian species; anyway, the role of AP in male reproduction has not been clarified yet and the aim of this study was to determine AP function in boar sperm capacitation and in vitro fertilization (IVF). AP activity was assayed in seminal plasma and in uncapacitated and in vitro capacitated (IVC) spermatozoa; in addition, capacitation was studied in presence of different doses of AP (1.2 and 2.5 IU/mL). The effect of different doses of AP (1.2 and 2.5 IU/mL) on several sperm parameters after IVC (viability, acrosome integrity with FITC-PSA, capacitation status with CTC staining, tyrosine phosphorylation) and on fertilizing ability during IVF were also evaluated. High AP activity was detected in seminal plasma, in particular in sperm-rich fraction; a lower activity was detected in uncapacitated spermatozoa while a significant decrease was evidenced after IVC. Viability was not changed by AP supplementation of the capacitating medium, whereas acrosome integrity and capacitation status were significantly affected by 1.2 and 2.5 doses, with a dose-dependent decrease in acrosome-reacted cells as well as in CTC B pattern displaying cells. As for sperm head protein phosphorylation, a decrease in relative fluorescence was detected in AP 2.5 group, if compared with capacitated one. After IVF, a dose-dependent decrease in penetrated oocytes was recorded, with an increase in monospermic zygote rate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AP activity decreases under capacitating condition and that addition of AP to spermatozoa during capacitation results in a depression of the capacitating process and IVF. We can infer that AP plays a role in keeping spermatozoa quiescent until they are ejaculated and in modulating the acquisition of the fertilizing ability. © 2013 American Society of

  2. Fabrication and Application of Mono-sized Spherical Micro Particles by Pulsated Orifice Ejection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel technology called pulsated orifice ejection method(POEM and used for preparing mono-sized and high-precision spherical micro particles was introduced in this article. The working principle of the technique was illustrated and it was in two modes:low-melting point diaphragm mode and high-melting point rod mode, depending on the different melting points of materials. The particles prepared by POEM have the advantages of mono-sized, uniform and controllable particle size, high sphericity, and consistent thermal history. By introducing the application of particles prepared by this method, showing the huge application prospects of this technology in electronic packaging, bioengineering, micro-fabrication, rapid solidification analysis of metal droplets, additive manufacturing and so on.With the development of POEM, this technology is predicted to have wider prospects due to its unique characteristics.

  3. Mono-allelic retrotransposon insertion addresses epigenetic transcriptional repression in human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyang-Min; Heo, Kyu; Mitchell, Kasey J; Yang, Allen S

    2012-02-02

    Retrotransposons have been extensively studied in plants and animals and have been shown to have an impact on human genome dynamics and evolution. Their ability to move within genomes gives retrotransposons to affect genome instability. we examined the polymorphic inserted AluYa5, evolutionary young Alu, in the progesterone receptor gene to determine the effects of Alu insertion on molecular environment. We used mono-allelic inserted cell lines which carry both Alu-present and Alu-absent alleles. To determine the epigenetic change and gene expression, we performed restriction enzyme digestion, Pyrosequencing, and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation. We observed that the polymorphic insertion of evolutionally young Alu causes increasing levels of DNA methylation in the surrounding genomic area and generates inactive histone tail modifications. Consequently the Alu insertion deleteriously inactivates the neighboring gene expression. The mono-allelic Alu insertion cell line clearly showed that polymorphic inserted repetitive elements cause the inactivation of neighboring gene expression, bringing aberrant epigenetic changes.

  4. Resurrecting an unsalvageable lower incisor with a mono-block approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rachit; Thomas, Manuel S.; Yadav, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary techniques, as well as the availability of bioactive and adhesive materials in endodontics, have helped revivifying teeth that were deemed hopeless. These newer materials and techniques would enable the clinician: (a) to predictably stop microbial activity (b) to achieve a total corono-apical fluid tight seal and (c) to strengthen mutilated teeth by obtaining intra-radicular reinforcement through mono-block effect. This case report demonstrates the successful treatment of a mutilated anterior tooth with the use of bioactive and adhesive materials to obtain a total seal and mono-block effect. This article also shows the use of a simple method in the placement of root filling cement into the root canal. PMID:26430310

  5. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, S.; Barrakzai, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Methodology: Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels of greater or equal to 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D/sub 3/ < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 +- 68.14I U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Conclusion: Serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  6. Conditioning alkaline coolant radioactive waste from research reactor BR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir, Smykov; Mikhail, Kononyuk; Kirill, Butov

    2014-01-01

    In the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russia) has developed and was successfully demonstrated a technology of solid-phase oxidation of alkaline metal by slag from the copper-smelting industry. Neutralization of alkaline metal in the solid-phase oxidation process occurs in a single phase. The solid-phase oxidation process does not result in the generation of hydrogen. The product of alkaline metal radioactive waste processing is solid mineral-like sinter of reaction products, contained inside a steel reaction container, which is immediately shipped for dry storage in a solid radioactive waste storage facility. The presence of a mercury admixture in the research reactor BR-10 (BR-10) reactor alkaline metals radioactive waste makes conditioning of that waste considerably more complicated. Laboratory research demonstrated that mercury could be effectively removed from alkaline metal by pushing the Na-K alloy through chips of metallic magnesium in elevated temperatures. For neutralization of non-drainable sodium residues and admixtures in individual equipment (cold traps, pipe lines, tanks) of the research reactor BR-10 has developed a method for neutralization of non-drainable residues of alkaline liquid metal coolants with a gaseous sub oxide of nitrogen, which is characterized by absence of hydrogen generation, improving the safety of the technology. Currently, the reactor building is undergoing installation of the experimental-industrial plant 'Magma', the purpose of which is processing of accumulated alkaline metals radioactive waste. In according with concept of 'experimental polygon for testing the decommissioning technologies of the BN series of reactors' based on the BR-10 installation, it would appear sensible to start the development of the installation for conditioning by solid-phase oxidation of up to 1000 liters of radioactive waste per loading. (author)

  7. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chenju; Lin, Ya-Ting; Shiu, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline ascorbic acid (a.k.a. vitamin C) is capable of reductively degrading NB. • The pH above the pK a2 of ascorbic acid increases reductive electron transfer to NB. • The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA is determined. • NSB, AZOXY, and AZO are identified as intermediates and aniline as a final product. • Alkaline pH is essential for AA remediation of NB contaminated soils. - Abstract: Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO 2 − ) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pK a2 of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r = ((0.89 ± 0.11) × 10 −4 mM 1−(a + b) h −1 ) × [NB] a = 1.35 ± 0.10 [AA] b = 0.89 ± 0.01 . The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  8. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  9. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis. Task 2 summary report. Model for alkaline water electrolysis systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, M.R.; Murray, J.N.

    1980-04-01

    Task 2 involved the establishment of an engineering and economic model for the evaluation of various options in water electrolysis. The mode, verification of the specific coding and four case studies are described. The model was tested by evaluation of a nearly commercial technology, i.e., an 80-kW alkaline electrolyte system, operating at 60/sup 0/C, which delivers approximately 255 SLM, hydrogen for applications such as electrical generation cooling or semiconductor manufacturing. The calculated cost of hydrogen from this installed non-optimized case system with an initial cost to the customer of $87,000 was $6.99/Kg H/sub 2/ ($1.67/100 SCF) on a 20-yr levelized basis using 2.5 cents/kWh power costs. This compares favorably to a levelized average merchant hydrogen cost value of $9.11/Kg H/sub 2/ ($2.17/100 SCF) calculated using the same program.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin, humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a better understanding of the structure and properties of humin. However, the structural relationship between bulk humin and its alkaline-soluble (AS and alkaline-insoluble (AIS fractions is still unknown. In this study, we isolated bulk humin from two soils of Northeast China by exhaustive extraction (25 to 28 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH + 0.1 mol L-1 Na4P2O7, followed by the traditional treatment with 10 % HF-HCl. The isolated bulk humin was then fractionated into AS-humin and AIS-humin by exhaustive extraction (12 to 15 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. Elemental analysis and solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize and compare the chemical structures of bulk humin and its corresponding fractions. The results showed that, regardless of soil types, bulk humin was the most aliphatic and most hydrophobic, AS-humin was the least aliphatic, and AIS-humin was the least alkylated among the three humic components. The results showed that bulk humin and its corresponding AS-humin and AIS-humin fractions are structurally differed from one another, implying that the functions of these humic components in the soil environment differed.

  11. New Mono- and Biaccelerator Iterative Methods with Memory for Nonlinear Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceleration of convergence is discussed for some families of iterative methods in order to solve scalar nonlinear equations. In fact, we construct mono- and biparametric methods with memory and study their orders. It is shown that the convergence orders 12 and 14 can be attained using only 4 functional evaluations, which provides high computational efficiency indices. Some illustrations will also be given to reverify the theoretical discussions.

  12. Morphological and Spectral Characteristics of Hybrid Nanosystems Based on Mono- and Bimetallic Platinum Nanoparticles and Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valueva, S. V.; Vylegzhanina, M. E.; Sukhanova, T. E.

    2018-02-01

    Morphological and spectral characteristics of hybrid nanosystems (NSes) based on mono- and bimetallic silver and platinum nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized by a cationic polyelectrolyte (CP), poly- N,N,N,N-trimethylmethacryloyloxyethylammonium methylsulfate, are determined via static/dynamic light scattering, UV spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The formation of dense spherical polymolecular nanostructures is established. The possibility of controlling the morphological and spectral characteristics of the NS is shown by varying the nature and composition of NPs.

  13. Screening for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by using cytokeratin 18 and transient elastography in HIV mono-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Benmassaoud

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals are at high risk of developing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, a leading cause of end-stage liver disease in Western countries. Nonetheless, due to the invasiveness of liver biopsy, NASH remains poorly understood in HIV mono-infection. We aimed to characterize the prevalence and predictors of NASH in unselected HIV mono-infected patients by means of non-invasive diagnostic tools.HIV-infected adults without significant alcohol intake or co-infection with hepatitis B or C underwent a routine screening program employing transient elastography (TE with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP and the serum biomarker cytokeratin-18 (CK-18. NASH was diagnosed non-invasively as the coexistence of fatty liver (CAP ≥248 dB/m and CK-18 >246 U/L. Identified cases of NASH were offered a diagnostic liver biopsy. Predictors of NASH were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis.202 consecutive HIV mono-infected patients were included. NASH was non-invasively diagnosed in 23 cases (11.4%. Among them, 17 underwent a liver biopsy, and histology confirmed NASH in all cases. The prevalence of NASH was higher in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (17.1%, insulin resistance defined by homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (25%, those with detectable HIV viral load (42.9% and those with elevated ALT (53.6%. After adjustment, higher HOMA-IR (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.43; p = 0.03 and ALT (aOR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.50-3.79; p<0.001 were independent predictors of NASH.NASH, diagnosed by a non-invasive diagnostic approach employing CK-18 and TE with CAP, is common in unselected HIV mono-infected individuals, particularly in the presence of insulin resistance and elevated ALT.

  14. Heavy metals behaviour during mono-combustion and co-combustion of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. Helena; Abelha, Pedro; Olieveira, J.F. Santos; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel [INETI-DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the study of the combustion of granular dry sewage sludge performed on a pilot fluidized bed system. The results of mono-combustion of sludge and co-combustion with coal were compared with those of coal combustion for ash partitioning, the formation of gaseous pollutants and heavy metals behaviour. It was found that the mineral matter of sludge was essentially retained as bottom ashes. The production of fines ashes was small during the mono-combustion due to the tendency of coal to produce fine ashes which also contained unburned char. The degree of heavy metal volatilization was found to be slightly higher during co-combustion than in mono-combustion; however, most of them were retained in ashes and their emissions were found to be below the regulated levels. Hg was completely volatilized; however, during combustion trials involving coal it was captured by cyclone ashes at temperatures below 300 deg C. During sludge mono-combustion the retention of Hg in cyclone ashes containing low LOI was not enough to decrease emissions below the regulated levels; hence, it is necessary to install dedicated flue gas treatment for Hg removal. The leachability and ecotoxicity of sludge and ashes was compared with the new regulatory limits for landfill disposal in the EU. It was found that the release of organic matter and heavy metals found in the sludge was low from granular bed ashes; hence, except for sulphate release, bed ashes were converted into inert and non-ecotoxic materials. Ashes from test with limestone and cyclone ashes seemed to be more problematic because of pH effects and contamination with steel corrosion products. The recovery and reutilization of sludge bed ashes could, therefore, be possible, as long as the release of sulphate do not interfere with the process.

  15. Finite-dimensional output feedback regulator for a mono-tubular heatexchanger process

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaodong; Dubljevic, Stevan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the output tracking and disturbance rejection problems of a mono-tubular heat exchanger process and a novel finite-dimensional output feedback regulator is developed. In the proposed output feedback regulator design, measurements available for the regulator do not belong to the set of controlled outputs. In other words, design emphasizes that other than controlled output is used as input signal to the regulator. The proposed output feedback regulator with only plant ...

  16. Asynchronous Replication, Mono-Allelic Expression, and Long Range Cis-Effects of ASAR6

    OpenAIRE

    Donley, Nathan; Stoffregen, Eric P.; Smith, Leslie; Montagna, Christina; Thayer, Mathew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian chromosomes initiate DNA replication at multiple sites along their length during each S phase following a temporal replication program. The majority of genes on homologous chromosomes replicate synchronously. However, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes, and genes on female X chromosomes replicate asynchronously. We have identified a cis-acting locus on human chromosome 6 that controls this replication-timing program. This locus encod...

  17. Charge transport and storage of low programming voltage SONOS/MONOS memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libsch, Frank R.; White, Marvin H.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, a model based on two carrier conduction (electrons and holes) at both injecting boundaries (semiconductor bulk and gate electrode) is introduced to interpret the ERASE/WRITE characteristics of scaled SONOS devices. The amphoteric statistics describe the positive and negative charging of the deep-level traps in the nitride "memory" layer. Scaled SONOS/MONOS (polysilicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-semiconductor)/(metal-oxide- nitride-oxide-semiconductor) transistors and capacitors with the bottom ('tunnel') oxide layer thickness around 20 Å, the final nitride layer thickness below 100 Å, and the top ('blocking') oxide layer thickness between 35-50 Å, have been fabricated and characterized. The results of the model are consistent with the experimental data, which permits physical insight into the mechanisms of charge injection, transport and storage during the ERASE/WRITE operation. Lattice imaging electron microscopy (TEM), ellipsometry, electrical capacitance, and chemical etchback techniques have been used to determine scaled SONOS/MONOS material parameters. The linear voltage ramp technique, which simultaneously measures the flatband voltage shift and separates the charges at the injecting boundary, and the dynamic pulse techniques of flatband tracking and threshold monitoring, which measure ERASE/WRITE, retention and endurance operations, have been employed to electrically characterize the scaled SONOS/MONOS devices. We have demonstrated a differential, saturated ERASE/WRITE flatband shift of 3.8 V with a ±5 V programming voltage for scaled-down SONOS/MONOS devices with dimensions of 20 Å for the tunnel oxide, 50 Å for the nitride, and 35 Å for the blocking oxide. With ±5 V saturated ERASE/WRITE programming voltages and 10 6 ERASE/WRITE cycles, extrapolated retention gives a projected 10 year 0.5 V memory window at room temperature.

  18. Mono-implicit Runge Kutta schemes for singularly perturbed delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihan, Fathalla A.; Al-Salti, Nasser S.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we adapt Mono-Implicit Runge-Kutta schemes for numerical approximations of singularly perturbed delay differential equations. The schemes are developed to reduce the computational cost of the fully implicit method which combine the accuracy of implicit method and efficient implementation. Numerical stability properties of the schemes are investigated. Numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of the method for both stiff and non-stiff initial value problems.

  19. SIMAC - A phosphoproteomic strategy for the rapid separation of mono-phosphorylated from multiply phosphorylated peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Robinson, Phillip J

    2008-01-01

    spectrometric analysis, such as immobilized metal affinity chromatography or titanium dioxide the coverage of the phosphoproteome of a given sample is limited. Here we report a simple and rapid strategy - SIMAC - for sequential separation of mono-phosphorylated peptides and multiply phosphorylated peptides from...... and an optimized titanium dioxide chromatographic method. More than double the total number of identified phosphorylation sites was obtained with SIMAC, primarily from a three-fold increase in recovery of multiply phosphorylated peptides....

  20. Constraining Dark Matter using Mono-X, Dijet, and Dilepton Final States with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tolley, Emma; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Weakly-coupled TeV-scale particles may mediate interactions between dark matter (DM) and Standard Model (SM) particles. DM production at colliders may be evident in “mono-X” topologies, and mediator production in in dijet and dilepton events. The latest results obtained by the ATLAS experiment are presented and interpreted following the LHC DM WG guidelines, with particular focus on the complementarity between different collider searches as well as direct detection experiments.

  1. Dark Matter Searches with Mono-X Signatures at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tolley, Emma; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    At the LHC dark matter particles can be produced in association with other particles which mainly come from initial state radiation. Searches for such processes are presented using events with jets, photons or massive gauge bosons recoiling against large missing transverse momentum in ATLAS at 13 TeV. These “mono-X” signatures provide powerful probes to dark matter production at the LHC, allowing to interpret results in terms of simplified models with pair production of WIMPs.

  2. Dark Matter searches with Mono-X signatures at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00377126; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    At the LHC dark matter particles can be produced in association with Standard Model particles coming from initial state radiation. Searches for such processes using events with jets, photons or massive gauge bosons recoiling against large missing transverse momentum in ATLAS at 13 TeV are presented. These ``mono-X'' signatures provide powerful probes to dark matter production at the LHC, allowing for the interpretation of results in terms of simplified models with pair production of WIMPs.

  3. Nest site selection by greater sage-grouse in Mono County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolada, Eric J.; Sedinger, James S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of nesting habitat is believed to be a factor in the decline of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) throughout its range. Few data are available for sage-grouse in Mono County, California, USA, in the most southwestern portion of the species' range. We studied habitat selection of nesting sage-grouse in Mono County, California, from 2003 to 2005 by capturing and radiotracking females to identify nesting locations. We sampled vegetation at nest sites and randomly selected sites within 200 m of nests and within each of 5 subareas within Mono County. Nest sites were characterized by 42.4 ± 1.3% (x ¯ ± SE) shrub canopy cover, 10.5 ± 1.0 cm residual grass height, and 2.7 ± 1.0% residual grass cover. Shrub cover was the only variable found to differentiate nest sites from randomly selected sites. Unlike some other studies, we did not find understory vegetation to be important for selecting nest sites. Mean shrub cover was 38.7 ± 1.5% at random sites within 200 m of nests and 33.6 ± 1.6% at random sites at the approximate scale of home ranges, indicating that nesting females selected nesting areas that contained denser shrubs than their home range, and nest sites that contained greater shrub cover than the vicinity immediately surrounding nests. Our results suggest that managers should consider managing for greater shrub cover in Mono County than what is currently called for in other parts of sage-grouse range and that management for sage-grouse habitat may need to be tied more closely to local conditions.

  4. Stereoselective mannich reactions of mono thiomalonates : & screening for peptidic triazolium salt based catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Bahlinger, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Part I: The stereoselective synthesis of ß-amino thioesters is of high interest since they are versatile and common building blocks for a variety of pharmaceutically important compounds. Within this thesis a mild organocatalyzed approach for the synthesis of ß-amino thioesters by using mono thiomalonates (MTMs) as thioester enolate equivalents was developed. Those nucleophiles proved to be highly reactive in Mannich reactions providing for acyclic ß2-amino thioesters and ß2,3,3-amino thioeste...

  5. Demonstration of bioprocess factors optimization for enhanced mono-rhamnolipid production by a marine Pseudomonas guguanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, RamyaDevi K; R, Lakshmi Sundaram; D, Asha; V, Sivamurugan; Vasudevan, Vidya; Krishnan, Mary Elizabeth Gnanambal

    2018-03-01

    We identified that Pseudomonas guguanensis produced macromolecular mono-rhamnolipid (1264.52 Da) upon sensing n-hexadecane/diesel/kerosene from its surroundings. Permutation experiments were done to improve the laboratory-scale mono-rhamnolipid production (ie, a three-fold increase) using RSM validation. Consequently, maximal mono-rhamnolipids production [40-50 mg/L] and emulsification abilities [65-70%] were encountered on day 8 using vegetable oil, peptone + yeast extract. EI 24 values for the rhamnolipids were found to be 78±1.75% at 12.5 mg/ mL. Production and secretion of rhamnolipids were accompanied by aggregation of cells at day 6 as pictured in SEM. Pure monorhamnolipids of P. guguanensis was found to lower the surface tension of water to 32.98±0.3 mN/m than the crude and CFSs of P. aeruginosa indicating efficient activity. Utilization and subsequent removal of hexadecane was 77.2% and the breakdown products were fatty acids [decanoic, hexadecanoic, octadecanoic acids and methyl stearates] as signified in Head-space GC-MS. The breakdown products of hexadecane are also present in the synthesized rhamnolipids suggesting their biosynthetic role. Rapid degradation of hexadecane, diesel and kerosene by this emulsifier combined with non-pathogenic trait of P. guguanensis identifies this organism as a viable option to remove n-alkanes from aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Absolute palaeointensity study of the Mono Lake excursion recorded by New Zealand basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, John; Hill, Mimi J.

    2009-02-01

    One of the geomagnetic excursions recorded in basalts of the Auckland volcanic field, New Zealand, has recently been correlated unequivocally with the Mono Lake excursion, making it the only confirmed record from the southern hemisphere. This record is also exceptional in occurring in five separate monogenetic basaltic volcanoes. Absolute palaeointensity determinations using the microwave technique, based on a comprehensive suite of samples of the Auckland basalts recording the excursion, show that the geomagnetic field in New Zealand at the time of the Mono Lake excursion was reduced to about 14 μT i.e. to 30% of its normal value. This result confirms previous estimates based on more limited sampling. In addition, it provides a comparison of the microwave and LDT-DHT Shaw methods of measuring palaeointensity, which give results that are statistically indistinguishable. The palaeointensities determined from the five different volcanoes are also indistinguishable, though the palaeodirection data suggest that a very small segment of the VGP path may have been recorded. This study confirms the reliability of palaeointensity and palaeodirection determinations from these particular New Zealand basalts, which together with their definitive 40Ar/ 39Ar ages, establishes this record of the Mono Lake excursion as one of the best documented. Consequently, there is significant potential in searching for records of this excursion elsewhere in the Pacific region for use as a stratigraphic marker in studies of recent volcanism and palaeoclimate reconstructions.

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity and variation of acer mono max seedlings after spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, C.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity and variation of Acer Mono Maxim seedlings sampled from space-mutated (sm) populations were compared to seedlings from parallel control (ck) ones using molecular markers. RAMP analysis showed that the percentage of polymorphic band, Shannon diversity index and Nei gene diversity index of the space-mutated populations were higher than those of the control ones, which indicated that genetic variation increased after spaceflight in populations of Acer Mono Maxim. By using un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method, three space-mutated repeats (populations) were clustered together, and control groups clustered separately, which further indicated that there was difference between the space-mutated ones and the control ones, which may be caused by space mutation. Further analysis of genomic inconsistency between the root and leaf samples from the same tree showed that a total variation rate of 6.3% and 1.7% were obtained in ten space-mutated individuals by using RAMP and SSR markers, respectively, however, the variation rate was zero in control ones. It provided that space mutation may be caused the individual variation of Acer Mono Maxim. (author)

  8. Geochemical fingerprinting of Wilson Creek formation tephra layers (Mono Basin, California) using titanomagnetite compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Bursik, Marcus; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen tephra layers within the Wilson Creek formation near Mono Lake provide a record of late Pleistocene to early Holocene volcanic activity from the nearby Mono Craters and are important chronostratigraphic markers for paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic studies. These stratigraphically important tephra deposits can be geochemically identified using compositions of their titanomagnetite phenocrysts. Titanomagnetite compositions display a broad range (XUsp 0.26–0.39), which allow the tephra layers to be distinguished despite the indistinguishable major-element glass compositions (76–77 wt% SiO2) of their hosts. The concentrations of Ti and Fe in titanomagnetite display geochemical and stratigraphic groupings that allow clear discrimination between older (> 57 ka) and younger (2O3 contents. In addition, a few tephra layers can be correlated to their source vents by their titanomagnetite compositions. The unique geochemical fingerprint of the Mono Craters-sourced titanomagnetites also allows the discrimination of two tephra layers apparently sourced from nearby Mammoth Mountain volcano in Long Valley.

  9. p-Type Quasi-Mono Silicon Solar Cell Fabricated by Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The p-type quasi-mono wafer is a novel type of silicon material that is processed using a seed directional solidification technique. This material is a promising alternative to traditional high-cost Czochralski (CZ and float-zone (FZ material. Here, we evaluate the application of an advanced solar cell process featuring a novel method of ion implantation on p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer. The ion implantation process has simplified the normal industrial process flow by eliminating two process steps: the removal of phosphosilicate glass (PSG and the junction isolation process that is required after the conventional thermal POCl3 diffusion process. Moreover, the good passivation performance of the ion implantation process improves Voc. Our results show that, after metallization and cofiring, an average cell efficiency of 18.55% can be achieved using 156 × 156 mm p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer. Furthermore, the absolute cell efficiency obtained using this method is 0.47% higher than that for the traditional POCl3 diffusion process.

  10. Correlates of Mono- and Dual-Victims of Cybergrooming and Cyberbullying: Evidence from Four Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Sebastian; Whittle, Helen C; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Wolf, Karsten D; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Junger, Marianne

    2018-02-01

    Today's adolescents grow up using information and communication technologies as an integral part of their everyday life. This affords them with extensive opportunities, but also exposes them to online risks, such as cybergrooming and cyberbullying victimization. The aims of this study were to investigate correlates of cybergrooming and cyberbullying victimization and examine whether victims of both cybergrooming and cyberbullying (dual-cybervictims) show higher involvement in compulsive Internet use (CIU) and troubled offline behavior (TOB) compared to victims of either cybergrooming or cyberbullying (mono-cybervictims). The sample consisted of 2,042 Dutch, German, Thai, and U.S. adolescents (age = 11-17 years; M = 14.2; SD = 1.4). About every ninth adolescent (10.9 percent) reported either mono- or dual-cybervictimization. Second, both CIU and TOB were associated with all three types of cybervictimization, and finally, both CIU and TOB were more strongly linked to dual-cybervictimization than to both forms of mono-cybervictimization. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the associations between different forms of cybervictimization and psychological health and behavior problems among adolescents.

  11. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma as a differential diagnosis of diffuse mono-articular joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolvien, Tim; Zustin, Jozef; Mussawy, Haider; Schmidt, Tobias; Pogoda, Pia; Ueblacker, Peter

    2016-11-04

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the frequency of intra-articular osteoid osteoma (iaOO) in a large study cohort and to demonstrate its clinical relevance as an important differential diagnosis of non-specific mono-articular joint pain. We searched the registry for bone tumours of the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf for osteoid osteomas in the last 42 years. Herein, we present three selected iaOO which were detected in the three major weight-bearing joints. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed for initial diagnosis. Out of a total of 367 osteoid osteomas, 19 (5.2 %) tumours were localized intra-articularly. In all three presented tumours, a history of severe mono-articular pain was reported; however, the mean time to correct diagnosis was delayed to 20.7 months. Clearly, the nidus seen in CT and MRI images in combination with inconsistent salicylate-responsive nocturnal pain led to the diagnosis of iaOO. Rarely, osteoid osteoma can occur in an intra-articular location. In cases of diffuse mono-articular pain, iaOO should be considered both in large and smaller joints to avoid delays in diagnosis and therapy of this benign bone tumour.

  12. Anaerobic mono-digestion of lucerne, grass and forbs – Influence of species and cutting frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahid, Radziah; Feng, Lu; Cong, Wenfeng

    2018-01-01

    but it was not possible to ascertain whether this was due to organic overload alone or if high ammonia levels during Lu-4 digestion were contributing to the reduced performance. It was found that four cuts per year was suitable for a lab-scale mono-digestion system as the substrate was less fibrous and has lower dry......In the present study, biogas potentials of multispecies swards including grass, lucerne, caraway, ribwort plantain and chicory from two- and four-cut regimes (Mix-2 and Mix-4) for mono-digestion applying batch and continuous modes under lab-scale conditions were investigated. The gas yields...... confirmed with continuous experiments, during which the reactor digesting Mix-4 was stable throughout the experiment with low ammonia and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration. Meanwhile, mono-digestion of Lu-4 led to elevated VFA levels, even at a comparatively low organic loading rate of 1.76 g L−1 d−1...

  13. Controlled modification of mono- and bilayer graphene in O2, H2 and CF4 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, A; Pireaux, J-J; Eckmann, A; Casiraghi, C; Krupke, R

    2013-01-01

    In this work, covalent modification of mono- and bilayer graphene is achieved using tetrafluoromethane (CF 4 ), oxygen and hydrogen RF plasma. Controlled modification of graphene is usually difficult to achieve, in particular with oxygen plasma, which is rather aggressive and usually leads to etching of graphene. Here we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to show that mild plasma conditions and fine tuning of the number of functional groups can be obtained in all plasmas by varying parameters such as exposure time and sample position inside the chamber. We found that even for the usual harsh oxygen treatment the defect density could be lowered, down to one defect for 3.5 × 10 4 carbon atoms. Furthermore, we show that CF 4 plasma leads to functionalization without etching and that graphene becomes an insulator at saturation coverage. In addition, the reactivity of mono- and bilayer graphene was studied revealing faster modification of monolayer in oxygen and CF 4 plasma, in agreement with previous works. In contrast, similar modification rates were observed for both mono- and bilayer during hydrogenation. We attribute this discrepancy to the presence of more energetic species in the hydrogen plasma such as positive ions that could play a role in the functionalization process. (paper)

  14. Controlled modification of mono- and bilayer graphene in O2, H2 and CF4 plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, A.; Eckmann, A.; Pireaux, J.-J.; Krupke, R.; Casiraghi, C.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, covalent modification of mono- and bilayer graphene is achieved using tetrafluoromethane (CF4), oxygen and hydrogen RF plasma. Controlled modification of graphene is usually difficult to achieve, in particular with oxygen plasma, which is rather aggressive and usually leads to etching of graphene. Here we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to show that mild plasma conditions and fine tuning of the number of functional groups can be obtained in all plasmas by varying parameters such as exposure time and sample position inside the chamber. We found that even for the usual harsh oxygen treatment the defect density could be lowered, down to one defect for 3.5 × 104 carbon atoms. Furthermore, we show that CF4 plasma leads to functionalization without etching and that graphene becomes an insulator at saturation coverage. In addition, the reactivity of mono- and bilayer graphene was studied revealing faster modification of monolayer in oxygen and CF4 plasma, in agreement with previous works. In contrast, similar modification rates were observed for both mono- and bilayer during hydrogenation. We attribute this discrepancy to the presence of more energetic species in the hydrogen plasma such as positive ions that could play a role in the functionalization process.

  15. Controlled modification of mono- and bilayer graphene in O₂, H₂ and CF₄ plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, A; Eckmann, A; Pireaux, J-J; Krupke, R; Casiraghi, C

    2013-09-06

    In this work, covalent modification of mono- and bilayer graphene is achieved using tetrafluoromethane (CF₄), oxygen and hydrogen RF plasma. Controlled modification of graphene is usually difficult to achieve, in particular with oxygen plasma, which is rather aggressive and usually leads to etching of graphene. Here we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to show that mild plasma conditions and fine tuning of the number of functional groups can be obtained in all plasmas by varying parameters such as exposure time and sample position inside the chamber. We found that even for the usual harsh oxygen treatment the defect density could be lowered, down to one defect for 3.5 × 10⁴ carbon atoms. Furthermore, we show that CF₄ plasma leads to functionalization without etching and that graphene becomes an insulator at saturation coverage. In addition, the reactivity of mono- and bilayer graphene was studied revealing faster modification of monolayer in oxygen and CF₄ plasma, in agreement with previous works. In contrast, similar modification rates were observed for both mono- and bilayer during hydrogenation. We attribute this discrepancy to the presence of more energetic species in the hydrogen plasma such as positive ions that could play a role in the functionalization process.

  16. Electrospun decyl-3-methylimidazolium mono bromate/polyamide nanofibers as solid-phase microextraction coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaie, Ali; Rastegar, Sorosh; Najarzadegan, Hamid; Ehteshami, Shokooh

    2017-09-22

    In the current study, electrospun-based ionic liquid (IL) doped polyamide (PA) nanofibers were prepared and used as the coating material of solid phase microextration device in the fiber geometry. Addition of IL, decyl-3-methylimidazolium mono bromate, increased the conductivity of the PA solution facilitating the electrospining process. The scanning electron microscopy images of decyl-3-methylimidazolium mono bromated/polyamide nanofibers showed the decreased diameter of the nanofibers in the range of 35-160nm compared to the PA nanofiber. The factors affecting the structure of nanofibers (e.g. ratio of decyl-3-methylimidazolium mono bromate to PA, coating time and applied voltage) were studied. In addition, influential parameters of extraction/desorption performance such as ionic strength, extraction time, and desorption time and temperature were studied. The limit of detections and limit of quantifications were obtained in the range of 0.75-0.9 and 2-5ngL -1 , respectively, demonstrating high efficiency of the prepared nanofiber. The developed method also showed good repeatability, RSD 4-9% (n=3), for the spiked aqueous solution at concentration level 150ngL -1 of chlorobenzenes, and linearity,R=0.996, in the range of 5-5000ngL -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Catalytic residues and a predicted structure of tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watschinger, Katrin; Fuchs, Julian E.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Keller, Markus A.; Golderer, Georg; Hermetter, Albin; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Hulo, Nicolas; Werner, Ernst R.

    2012-01-01

    Alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase (EC 1.14.16.5) forms a third, distinct, class among tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes in addition to aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthases. Its protein sequence contains the fatty acid hydroxylase motif, a signature indicative of a di-iron centre, which contains eight conserved histidine residues. Membrane enzymes containing this motif, including alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase, are especially labile and so far have not been purified to homogeneity in active form. To obtain a first insight into structure–function relationships of this enzyme, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 26 selected amino acid residues and expressed wild-type and mutant proteins containing a C-terminal Myc tag together with fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase in Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Among all of the acidic residues within the eight-histidine motif, only mutation of Glu137 to alanine led to an 18-fold increase in the Michaelis–Menten constant for tetrahydrobiopterin, suggesting a role in tetrahydrobiopterin interaction. A ninth additional histidine residue essential for activity was also identified. Nine membrane domains were predicted by four programs: ESKW, TMHMM, MEMSAT and Phobius. Prediction of a part of the structure using the Rosetta membrane ab initio method led to a plausible suggestion for a structure of the catalytic site of alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase. PMID:22220568

  18. The use of approximation formulae in calculations of acid-base equilibria-I Mono- and diprotic acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasaki, H

    1979-07-01

    The pH of mono- and diprotic acids is calculated by use of approximation formulae and the theoretically exact equations. The regions for useful application of the approximation formulae (error <0.02 pH) have been identified.

  19. Serum adiponectin in HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus mono- and co-infected Kenyan injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndombi, Eric M; Budambula, Valentine; Webale, Mark K; Musumba, Francis O; Wesongah, Jesca O; Mibei, Erick; Ahmed, Aabid A; Lihana, Raphael; Were, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Adiponectin is an important marker of anthropometric profiles of adipose tissue. However, association of adiponectin and adiposity in HIV mono- and co-infected and hepatitis (HCV) injection drug users (IDUs) has not been elucidated. Therefore, the relationship of total adiponectin levels with anthropometric indices of adiposity was examined in HIV mono-infected (anti-retroviral treatment, ART-naive, n=16 and -experienced, n=34); HCV mono-infected, n=36; HIV and HCV co-infected (ART-naive, n=5 and -experienced, n=13); uninfected, n=19 IDUs; and healthy controls, n=16 from coastal Kenya. Anthropometric indices of adiposity were recorded and total circulating adiponectin levels were measured in serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiponectin levels differed significantly amongst the study groups (P<0.0001). Post-hoc analyses revealed decreased levels in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs in comparison to uninfected IDUs (P<0.05) and healthy controls (P<0.05). However, adiponectin levels were elevated in HCV mono-infected IDUs relative to HIV mono-infected ART-naive (P<0.001) and -experienced (P<0.001) as well as HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive (P<0.05) IDUs. Furthermore, adiponectin correlated with weight (ρ=0.687; P=0.003) and BMI (ρ=0.598; P=0.014) in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs; waist circumference (ρ=-0.626; P<0.0001), hip (ρ=-0.561; P=0.001) circumference, and bust-to-waist ratio (ρ=0.561; P=0.001) in HIV mono-infected ART-experienced IDUs; waist girth (ρ=0.375; P=0.024) in HCV mono-infected IDUs; and waist-to-hip ratio (ρ=-0.872; P=0.048) in HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive IDUs. Altogether, these results suggest suppression of adiponectin production in treatment-naive HIV mono-infected IDUs and that circulating adiponectin is a useful surrogate marker of altered adiposity in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV and HCV mono- and co-infected IDUs. © 2015 The authors.

  20. Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Robey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular pH (pHe of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs. We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (. Tumor pHe buffering may reduce optimal conditions for enzymes involved in tumor invasion such as cathepsins and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs. To address this, we tested the effect of transient alkalinization on cathepsin and MMP activity using enzyme activatable fluorescence agents in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 mammary xenografts. Transient alkalinization significantly reduced the fluorescent signal of protease-specific activatable agents in vivo (. Alkalinization, however, did not affect expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX. The findings suggest a possible mechanism in a live model system for breast cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion.