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Sample records for alkaline fuel cell

  1. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  2. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  3. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  4. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2005-10-04

    Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an OH-form anion exchange membrane and polyhydric alcohols were studied. A high open circuit voltage of ca. 800mV was obtained for a cell using Pt-Ru/C (anode) and Pt/C (cathode) at 323K, which was about 100-200mV higher than that for a DMFC using Nafion{sup R}. The maximum power densities were in the order of ethylene glycol>glycerol>methanol>erythritol>xylitol. Silver catalysts were used as a cathode catalyst to fabricate alkaline fuel cells, since silver catalyst is almost inactive in the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells using silver as a cathode catalyst gave excellent performance because higher concentrations of fuel could be supplied to the anode. (author)

  5. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  6. Bifunctional Catalysts for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klápště, Břetislav; Vondrák, Jiří; Velická, Jana

    Vol. 1. Brno : Akademické nakladatelství CERM, 2000 - (Vondrák, J.; Sedlaříková, M.), s. 24.1-24.4 ISBN 80-214-1614-9. [Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /1./. Brno (CZ), 28.08.2000-01.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:MSM 262200010 Keywords : alkaline * catalysts * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  7. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a preliminary design study of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. The high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. In addition to providing energy storage, the system can provide hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. During the daylight portion of the orbit the electrolysis module uses power provided by the solar array to generate H2 and O2 from the product water produced by the fuel cell module. The fuel cell module supplies electrical power during the dark period of the orbit.

  8. Alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells: Principle, challenges, and recent progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) have been recognized as a significant power source in future energy systems based on hydrogen. The current PEMFC technology features the employment of acidic polymer electrolytes which, albeit superior to electrolyte solutions, have intrinsically limited the catalysts to noble metals, fundamentally preventing PEMFC from widespread deployment. An effective solution to this problem is to develop fuel cells based on alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEFC), which not only enable the use of non-precious metal catalysts but also avoid the carbonate-precipitate issue which has been troubling the conventional alkaline fuel cells (AFC). This feature article introduces the principle of APEFC, the challenges, and our research progress, and focuses on strategies for developing key materials, including high-performance alkaline polyelectrolytes and stable non-precious metal catalysts. For alkaline polymer electrolytes, high ionic conductivity and satisfactory mechanical property are difficult to be balanced, therefore polymer cross-linking is an ultimate strategy. For non-precious metal catalysts, it is urgent to improve the catalytic activity and stability. New materials, such as transition-metal complexes, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, and metal carbides, would become applicable in APEFC.

  9. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions

  10. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  11. Block copolymers for alkaline fuel cell membrane materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifan

    Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) using anion exchange membranes (AEMs) as electrolyte have recently received considerable attention. AFCs offer some advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells, including the potential of non-noble metal (e.g. nickel, silver) catalyst on the cathode, which can dramatically lower the fuel cell cost. The main drawback of traditional AFCs is the use of liquid electrolyte (e.g. aqueous potassium hydroxide), which can result in the formation of carbonate precipitates by reaction with carbon dioxide. AEMs with tethered cations can overcome the precipitates formed in traditional AFCs. Our current research focuses on developing different polymer systems (blend, block, grafted, and crosslinked polymers) in order to understand alkaline fuel cell membrane in many aspects and design optimized anion exchange membranes with better alkaline stability, mechanical integrity and ionic conductivity. A number of distinct materials have been produced and characterized. A polymer blend system comprised of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride)-b-polystyrene (PVBC-b-PS) diblock copolymer, prepared by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), with poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) or brominated PPO was studied for conversion into a blend membrane for AEM. The formation of a miscible blend matrix improved mechanical properties while maintaining high ionic conductivity through formation of phase separated ionic domains. Using anionic polymerization, a polyethylene based block copolymer was designed where the polyethylene-based block copolymer formed bicontinuous morphological structures to enhance the hydroxide conductivity (up to 94 mS/cm at 80 °C) while excellent mechanical properties (strain up to 205%) of the polyethylene block copolymer membrane was observed. A polymer system was designed and characterized with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) as a hydrophilic polymer grafted through substitution of pendent benzyl chloride groups of a PVBC

  12. Alkaline Exchange Membrane (AEM) for High-Efficiency Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers and Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an alkaline exchange membrane (AEM)for use as a polymer electrolyte in both fuel cell and electrolyzer systems.  The ultimate goal in AEM development...

  13. Solid alkaline membrane fuel cell : what are they advantages and drawbacks compared to proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutanceau, C.; Baranton, S.; Simoes, M. [Univ. de Poitiers, Poitiers (France). Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR CNRS

    2010-07-01

    Low temperature fuel cells such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) are promising power sources for portable electronics and transportation applications. However, these fuel cells require high amounts of platinum at the anodes to achieve high cell performance. Although alkaline membrane fuel cells (AFCs) may be an alternative to PEMFCs, the technology of low temperature fuel cells is less developed than that of fuel cells working with a solid acid electrolyte. Interest in solid alkaline membrane fuel cells (SAMFCs) has increased in recent years because it is easier to activate the oxidation and reduction reactions in alkaline medium than in acidic medium. Fewer platinum based catalysts are needed due to higher electrode kinetics. The development of hydroxyl conductive membrane makes this technology available, but the fuel to be used in the system must be considered. Pure hydrogen or hydrogen-rich gases offer high electric efficiency, but their production, storage, and distribution are not sufficient for a large-scale development. This paper discussed the relatively good electroreactivity of polyols such as glycerol and ethylene glycol in a SAMFC, as well as sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as an alternative. The working principle of SAMFCs was also presented along with considerations regarding the electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrodes, and requirements concerning the catalysts, the triple phase boundary in the electrode and the anionic membrane. Palladium based catalysts were found to be an interesting alternative to platinum in SAMFCs. In situ FTIR measurements and oxidation products analysis was used to determine the electrooxidation pathways of alcohol and NaBH{sub 4}in alkaline medium. The study also included a comparison with oxidation mechanisms in acid medium. 8 refs.

  14. A micro alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with platinum-free catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a micro alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell. The device has been conceived as a feasibility demonstrator, using microtechnologies for the fabrication of the current collectors and traditional techniques for the membrane electrode assembly production. The fuel cell works in passive mode, as expected for the simplicity required for micro power systems. Non-noble catalysts have been used in order to implement the main advantage of alkaline systems, showing the feasibility of such a device as a potential very-low-cost power device at mini- and micro scales. (paper)

  15. Air-breathing microfluidic fuel cells with a cylinder anode operating in acidic and alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An air-breathing microfluidic fuel cell with a cylinder anode is proposed and tested. • The CO2 gas bubbles can be trapped between the anode and spacer. • The current production is well correlated with the dynamic behavior of CO2 bubbles. • CO2 bubbles improve the internal ohmic resistance by reducing the proton conduction. • The cell performance in the alkaline media is higher than that in the acidic media. - Abstract: An air-breathing microfluidic fuel cell with a cylinder anode is fabricated and characterized in the acidic and alkaline media. The dynamic behavior of CO2 bubbles is visualized in the acidic media, and its impact on current production is discussed. The effects of electrolyte concentration, reactant flow rate and channel length on the cell performance are also evaluated in the alkaline media. The results show that most of the CO2 bubbles are trapped between the anode and spacer in the acidic media, and the corresponding chronoamperometry curve is well correlated with the bubble movement. Further analysis indicates that the gas bubble improves the internal ohmic resistance by reducing proton conduction. In the alkaline media, the fuel cell yields a much higher performance than the acidic case, and fuel transfer limitation and cathode potential reversal occur at combined low flow rate and high current density. The cell performance is found to be predominated by ohmic resistance at flow rates over 200 μL min−1

  16. Design and Test of a Carbon-Tolerant Alkaline Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Sen, Ayusman; Grimes, Patrick; Tewari, Ashutosh; Sambhy, Varun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new results which may constitute a breakthrough in the effort to develop fuel cells truly suitable for use in cars and trucks. For decades, researchers have known that the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) is much cheaper to make, more efficient and more durable than the more popular PEM fuel cell; however, "carbon poisoning" (either from CO2 in air or from contaminants in reformed methanol) causes big problems in the kind of oxygen-hydrogen AFC commonly used in space. This paper r...

  17. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

  18. A One-compartment direct glucose alkaline fuel cell with methyl viologen as electron mediator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A glucose–air alkaline fuel cell without using noble metal catalysts has been developed. ► The rudimentary fuel cell generates a maximum power density of 0.62 mW m−2. ► The high performance is attributed to the use of MV and nickel foam. ► Main oxidation products are small organic acids indicating deep oxidation of glucose. - Abstract: Glucose is abundant, renewable, non-toxic and convenient as a fuel for fuel cells, but current technologies are unavailable for us to directly oxidize it to obtain energy. Fuel cells using enzymes and micro-organisms as catalysts are limited by their extremely low power output and rather short durability. Fuel cells using precious metal catalyst are expensive for large-scale use. In this work, a one-compartment direct glucose alkaline fuel cell has been developed that use methyl viologen (MV) as electron mediator and nickel foam as the anode. The rudimentary fuel cell generates a maximum power density of 0.62 mW cm−2, while the maximum current density is 5.03 mA cm−2. Electro-catalytic activities of MV and the nickel foam in alkaline conditions were studied by cyclic voltammetry. It is indicated that the high performance of the fuel cell is attributed to the combined use of MV and nickel foam. 13C-NMR and HPLC were used to analyze oxidation products of glucose. The result shows that the principal oxidation products are short-chain organic acids indicating deep oxidation of glucose is achieved

  19. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  20. Optimisation of three-phase-boundary in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewer, U. [Max Planck Inst. for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Magdeburg (Germany); Otto von Guericke Univ., Magdeburg (Germany). Portable Energy Systems; Khadke, P.S.; Weinzierl, C. [Max Planck Inst. for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Methanol with a hydrogen content of 12.5 wt per cent is considered to be the most viable liquid fuel for fuel cells. Although direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) which use perfluorinated cation exchange membranes (CEMs) such as Nafion and precious metal alloy catalysts are promising candidates for use in portable power sources, their development has been hindered by slow electrode kinetics, CO poisoning of Pt catalyst at lower temperature, methanol crossover and the high cost of membranes and catalysts. In alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC), low cost transition metal or transition metals are used as catalysts for methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction. The CO poisoning in ADMFC is mitigated by the abundant availability of OH- ions. In addition to these advantages, the rate of methanol electro-oxidation and oxygen reduction is also higher in alkaline media. In an effort to address problems associated with liquid alkaline solutions and carbonate fouling, this study used perfluorinated acid polymer cation-exchange membranes known as Fumapem as the electrolyte for ADMFCs. Various types of ADMFCs were prepared, using different MEAs with varying content of commercial FAA 2-component solution and Nafion as the ionomer in catalyst layer. Diagnostic methods such as current-voltage polarization and impedance measurement were used to evaluate these fuel cells. Experiments were performed using aqueous solutions of methanol, methanol-carbonate and methanol-alkaline as anolyte. The water uptake and swelling properties of membrane were evaluated. The performance of the cells operating with aqueous methanol-carbonate solutions was found to depend on the crossover rate of carbonate ions through the membrane and pH of the anolyte. The selective crossover of the carbonate ions through the membrane from anode to cathode was shown to improve performance and was also helpful for water recovery in ADMFCs. 1 ref.

  1. A self-humidifying acidic-alkaline bipolar membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sikan; Xu, Xin; Lu, Shanfu; Sui, Pang-Chieh; Djilali, Ned; Xiang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    To maintain membrane hydration and operate effectively, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) require elaborate water management, which significantly increases the complexity and cost of the fuel cell system. Here we propose a novel and entirely different approach to membrane hydration by exploiting the concept of bipolar membranes. Bipolar membrane (BPM) fuel cells utilize a composite membrane consisting of an acidic polymer electrolyte membrane on the anode side and an alkaline electrolyte membrane on the cathode side. We present a novel membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication method and demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that BPM fuel cells can (a) self-humidify to ensure high ionic conductivity; and (b) allow use of non-platinum catalysts due to inherently faster oxygen reduction kinetics on an alkaline cathode. Our Pt-based BPM fuel cell achieves a two orders of magnitude gain in power density of 327 mW cm-2 at 323 K under dry gas feed, the highest power output achieved under anhydrous operation conditions. A theoretical analysis and in situ measurements are presented to characterize the unique interfacial water generation and transport behavior that make self-humidification possible during operation. Further optimization of these features and advances in fabricating bipolar MEAs would open the way for a new generation of self-humidifying and water-management-free PEMFCs.

  2. Design and Test of a Carbon-Tolerant Alkaline Fuel Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Urquidi-Macdonald, M; Grimes, P; Tewari, A; Sambhy, V; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Sen, Ayusman; Grimes, Patrick; Tewari, Ashutosh; Sambhy, Varun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new results which may constitute a breakthrough in the effort to develop fuel cells truly suitable for use in cars and trucks. For decades, researchers have known that the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) is much cheaper to make, more efficient and more durable than the more popular PEM fuel cell; however, "carbon poisoning" (either from CO2 in air or from contaminants in reformed methanol) causes big problems in the kind of oxygen-hydrogen AFC commonly used in space. This paper reports successful tests of a technique for coating the electrodes with polystyrene which, in conjunction with older common-sense techniques, appears to solve the problem. This kind of design is applicable to cars run on hydrogen fuel, on reformed methanol or even direct methanol. Developing a test methodology was a major part of the work. A foreword by one of the sponsors at NSF discusses the larger importance of this work for energy security and the environment.

  3. A study of the direct dimethyl ether fuel cell using alkaline anolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kan; Lao, Shao Jiang; Qin, Hai Ying; Li, Zhou Peng [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Bin Hong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-09-01

    The electrooxidation behavior of dimethyl ether (DME) dissolved in acidic, neutral or alkaline anolyte has been studied. The cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that DME in alkaline anolyte demonstrates higher electrooxidation reactivity than that in acidic or neutral anolyte. With increasing the NaOH concentration in the anolyte, the electrooxidation reactivity of DME can be further improved. Direct dimethyl ether fuel cells (DDFCs) are assembled by using Nafion membrane as the electrolyte, Pt/C as the cathode catalyst, and Pt-Ru/C as the anode catalyst. It is found that the use of alkaline anolyte can significantly improve the performance of DDFCs. A maximum power density of 60 mW cm{sup -2} has been achieved when operating the DDFC at 80 C under ambient pressure. (author)

  4. Development and characterization of direct ethanol fuel cells using alkaline anion-exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Peck Cheng

    2009-08-01

    Alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) is a relatively new fuel cell technology that is generating considerable interests. It offers the electrocatalytic advantages of conventional alkaline fuel cells, and the manufacturing and cost advantages of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells. This project was carried out to develop and characterize high performance membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for all-solid-state AMFCs. The primary fuel of interests is ethanol, but hydrogen was used in the development stages to facilitate the diagnostic and evaluation of the fuel cell performance. In the preliminary investigation, AMFC was assembled using off-the-shelf electrodes and anion-exchange membrane (AEM). It was found that the performance of AMFC operating on ethanol fuel was limited by a large high-frequency resistance (HFR) value. The advantage of using non-toxic ethanol fuel was also compromised by the need to add hydrazine and potassium hydroxide to the fuel blend. Subsequently, a high performance MEA was developed for an all-solid-state AMFC, in which liquid electrolyte or other additives were not required during the operation of the fuel cell. Ionomer was incorporated in the formulation of catalyst ink, and the catalyst ink was directly coated on the anion-exchange membrane (AEM). An ionomer content of 20 wt.% was found to be the optimum amount required in the catalyst layers. It was demonstrated that the AMFC generated a maximum power density of 365 mW/cm2 and 213 mW/cm 2 with the use of hydrogen/oxygen and hydrogen/pure air, respectively. The performance of the AMFC was also found to be influenced by exposure to carbon dioxide in the air. Hence, the CCMs were pre-treated in potassium hydroxide solution and pure oxygen was used to condition the fuel cell to maximize the power output from the AMFCs. Although satisfactory performance was demonstrated in the AMFC, its stability during cell operation remains a major issue. The poor stability was attributed to degradation of

  5. Seeking effective dyes for a mediated glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustis, Ross; Tsang, Tsz Ming; Yang, Brigham; Scott, Daniel; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-02-01

    A significant level of power generation from an abiotic, air breathing, mediated reducing sugar-air alkaline battery/fuel cell has been achieved in our laboratories at room temperature without complicated catalysis or membrane separation in the reaction chamber. Our prior studies suggested that mass transport limitation by the mediator is a limiting factor in power generation. New and effective mediators were sought here to improve charge transfer and power density. Forty-five redox dyes were studied to identify if any can facilitate mass transport in alkaline electrolyte solution; namely, by increasing the solubility and mobility of the dye, and the valence charge carried per molecule. Indigo dyes were studied more closely to understand the complexity involved in mass transport. The viability of water-miscible co-solvents was also explored to understand their effect on solubility and mass transport of the dyes. Using a 2.0 mL solution, 20% methanol by volume, with 100 mM indigo carmine, 1.0 M glucose and 2.5 M sodium hydroxide, the glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell attained 8 mA cm-2 at short-circuit and 800 μW cm-2 at the maximum power point. This work shall aid future optimization of mediated charge transfer mechanism in batteries or fuel cells.

  6. Imidazolium-Based Polymeric Materials as Alkaline Anion-Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Reddy, Prakash V.; Nair, Nanditha

    2012-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes that conduct hydroxide ions have potential use in fuel cells. A variety of polystyrene-based quaternary ammonium hydroxides have been reported as anion exchange fuel cell membranes. However, the hydrolytic stability and conductivity of the commercially available membranes are not adequate to meet the requirements of fuel cell applications. When compared with commercially available membranes, polystyrene-imidazolium alkaline membrane electrolytes are more stable and more highly conducting. At the time of this reporting, this has been the first such usage for imidazolium-based polymeric materials for fuel cells. Imidazolium salts are known to be electrochemically stable over wide potential ranges. By controlling the relative ratio of imidazolium groups in polystyrene-imidazolium salts, their physiochemical properties could be modulated. Alkaline anion exchange membranes based on polystyrene-imidazolium hydroxide materials have been developed. The first step was to synthesize the poly(styrene-co-(1-((4-vinyl)methyl)-3- methylimidazolium) chloride through a free-radical polymerization. Casting of this material followed by in situ treatment of the membranes with sodium hydroxide solutions provided the corresponding hydroxide salts. Various ratios of the monomers 4-chloromoethylvinylbenzine (CMVB) and vinylbenzine (VB) provided various compositions of the polymer. The preferred material, due to the relative ease of casting the film, and its relatively low hygroscopic nature, was a 2:1 ratio of CMVB to VB. Testing confirmed that at room temperature, the new membranes outperformed commercially available membranes by a large margin. With fuel cells now in use at NASA and in transportation, and with defense potential, any improvement to fuel cell efficiency is a significant development.

  7. Water removal studies on high power hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells with alkaline electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, K.; Oliveira, J. C. T.; Gruber, Ch.; Winkler, G.

    1989-08-01

    Research in verification of bipolar fuel cell design, containing mass-produceable all-carbon electrodes which can be used in alkaline or acidic cells with liquid or immobilized (matrix) electrolytes, is described. Spin-offs from the research related to the Hermes manned spaceplane could be useful for applications on Earth. Peak-power plants, electric vehicles and storage devices used in combination with renewable energy sources could all benefit from the research. A subsequent investigation of water transpiration properties of carbon electrodes is described.

  8. Characterization of an anionic-exchange membranes for direct methanol alkaline fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuin, Graciela C. [Centro de Procesos Superficiales, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial (INTI), Av. Gral. Paz 5445, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nonjola, Patrick; Mathe, Mkhulu K. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Material Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Brumeria, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Franceschini, Esteban A.; Izraelevitch, Federico H.; Corti, Horacio R. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    Ammonium quaternized polymers such as poly (arylene ether sulfones) are being developed and studied as candidates of ionomeric materials for application in alkaline fuel cells, due to their low cost and promising electrochemical properties. In this work, a quaternary ammonium polymer was synthesized by chloromethylation of a commercial polysulfone followed by amination process. Quaternized polysulfone membrane properties such us water and water-methanol uptake, electrical conductivity and Young's modulus were evaluated and compared to Nafion 117, commonly employed in direct methanol fuel cells. The anionic polysulfone membrane sorbs more water than Nafion all over the whole range of water activities, but it uptakes much less methanol as compared to Nafion. The specific conductivity of the fully hydrated polysulfone membrane equilibrated with KOH solutions at ambient temperature increases with the KOH concentration, reaching a maximum of 0.083 S cm{sup -1} for 2 M KOH, slightly less conductive than Nafion 117. The elastic modulus of the polysulfone membranes inmersed in water is similar to that reported for Nafion membranes under the same conditions. We concluded that quaternized polysulfone membrane are good candidates as electrolytes in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  9. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryadi,, E-mail: haryadi@polban.ac.id; Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung Jl. Gegerkalong Hilir, Ds. Ciwaruga, Bandung West Java (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm{sup −1} and 3300 cm{sup −1} respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10{sup −2} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  10. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm−1 and 3300 cm−1 respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10−2 S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant

  11. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryadi, Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E.

    2015-12-01

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm-1 and 3300 cm-1 respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10-2 S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  12. Intermittent use of a low-cost alkaline fuel cell-hybrid system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Voss, Susanne; Hacker, Victor; Aronson, Robert R.; Fabjan, Christoph; Hejze, Thomas; Daniel-Ivad, Josef

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) hybrids with the capability to shut down completely between uses (by draining the circulating KOH electrolyte) can expect an operating life of about 4000 h, which is equivalent to 200,000 km of driving, They should be able to compete on cost with heat engines (US50 to US100 per kW). An early model is the hydrogen/air fuel cell lead-acid hybrid car, built by K. Kordesch in the 1970s. Improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz, make success probable. In cooperation with Electric Auto (EAC), an ammonia cracker is also in development. A RAM™ battery-AFC hybrid combination has been optimized.

  13. Palladium/nickel bifunctional electrocatalyst for hydrogen oxidation reaction in alkaline membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesker, Maria; Page, Miles; Shviro, Meital; Paska, Yair; Gershinsky, Gregory; Dekel, Dario R.; Zitoun, David

    2016-02-01

    Investigation of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) in alkaline media has been pursued in the past few years side by side with the development of alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs), also called anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEM-FCs). In this communication, we present the synthesis, electrochemistry and AMFC test of a platinum-free HOR catalyst. The anode catalyst is prepared by growing palladium nanoparticles onto nanoparticles of an oxophilic metal (nickel), resulting in nano-dispersed, interconnected crystalline phases of Ni and Pd. When used in the anode of a hydrogen/air AMFC, such Pd/Ni catalyst exhibits high HOR activity, resulting in record high performance for a platinum-free AMFC (0.4 A cm-2 at 0.6 V vs RHE). The enhancement of HOR catalytic activity vs. that observed at Pd (or Ni) alone is revealed directly in rotating disc electrode tests of this Pd/Ni catalyst that shows a significant negative shift (200 mV) of the onset potential for the HOR current vs. the case of Pd.

  14. Efficiency of non-optimized direct carbon fuel cell with molten alkaline electrolyte fueled by carbonized biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, A.; Kobyłecki, R.; Włodarczyk, R.; Bis, Z.

    2016-07-01

    The direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs) belong to new generation of energy conversion devices that are characterized by much higher efficiencies and lower emission of pollutants than conventional coal-fired power plants. In this paper the DCFC with molten hydroxide electrolyte is considered as the most promising type of the direct carbon fuel cells. Binary alkali hydroxide mixture (NaOH-LiOH, 90-10 mol%) is used as electrolyte and the biochar of apple tree origin carbonized at 873 K is applied as fuel. The performance of a lab-scale DCFC with molten alkaline electrolyte is investigated and theoretical, practical, voltage, and fuel utilization efficiencies of the cell are calculated and discussed. The practical efficiency is assessed on the basis of fuel HHV and LHV and the values are estimated at 40% and 41%, respectively. The average voltage efficiency is calculated as roughly 59% (at 0.65 V) and it is in a relatively good agreement with the values obtained by other researchers. The calculated efficiency of fuel utilization exceeds 95% thus indicating a high degree of carbon conversion into the electric power.

  15. Binary and ternary palladium based electrocatalysts for alkaline direct glycerol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleão; da Silva, Dionisio Furtunato; e Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade; Spinacé, Estevam Vitório; Neto, Almir Oliveira; dos Santos, Mauro Coelho

    2015-10-01

    Pd/C, PdAu/C 50:50, PdSn/C 50:50, PdAuSn/C 50:40:10 and PdAuSn/C 50:10:40 electrocatalysts are prepared using an electron beam irradiation reduction method and tested for glycerol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) are used to characterize the resulting materials. The activity for glycerol electro-oxidation is tested in alkaline medium at room temperature using Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry (CA) and in a single alkaline direct glycerol fuel cell (ADGFC) at temperature range of 60-90 °C. EDX analysis demonstrate that Pd:Au:Sn atomic ratios are very similar to the nominal ones. X-ray diffractograms of PdAuSn/C electrocatalysts evidence the presence of Pd (fcc), Au (fcc) and SnO2 phases. TEM analysis demonstrates a good dispersion of the nanoparticles on the carbon support with some agglomerates. Cyclic Voltammetry experiments suggest that PdAuSn/C electrocatalysts demonstrate better results. In single fuel cell tests, at 85 °C, using 2.0 mol L-1 glycerol in 2.0 mol L-1 KOH solutions, the electrocatalyst PdAuSn/C 50:40:10 demonstrate highest power density (51 mW cm-2) and the 120 h durability tests demonstrate a 210 μV h-1 degradation rate.

  16. Studies of a granular aluminum anode in an alkaline fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, Neil A.; Govind, Rakesh

    A granular aluminum anode was investigated for use in an alkaline aluminum/hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. The fuel cell utilizes granules of aluminum (8-12 mm in diameter) as an anode, potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an anolyte and hydrogen peroxide as a catholyte. Granular anodes have a significantly higher surface area than planar surfaces, thereby resulting in higher utilization of the anode material. Polarization experiments were performed as well as closed circuit power production experiments. KOH concentrations were varied in the experiments. Polarization experiments achieved a current density of 10.02 mA/cm 2 using 2 M KOH and granular aluminum with a surface area of 205.6 cm 2. Power production experiments sustained a current density of 0.05 mA/cm 2 using 1.5 M KOH and granular aluminum with a surface area of 59.8 cm 2. Results indicate that granular metal anodes have potential for use in high energy density fuel cells.

  17. Guanidinium based blend anion exchange membranes for direct methanol alkaline fuel cells (DMAFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Syed D.; Liu, Dong; Wei, Zi; Sakri, Shambhavi; Shen, Yi; Hong, Yi; Liu, Fuqiang

    2015-12-01

    Guanidinium based blend anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for direct methanol alkaline fuel cells have been fabricated and studied. The guanidinium prepolymer is first synthesized through a simple polycondensation process with the ion exchange moieties incorporated directly into the polymer backbone, and then is used to make guanidinium - chitosan (Gu-Chi) blend membranes. Besides, a lipophilic guanidinium prepolymer, synthesized by means of a precipitation reaction between sodium stearate and guanidinium salt, is adopted to tune solubility and mechanical properties of the blend AEMs. Results show that both ionic conductivity and methanol permeability of the AEMs can be tuned by blend composition and chemistry of the guanidinium based prepolymer. The selectivity (ratio of ionic conductivity to methanol permeability) of the fabricated membranes is superior to that of commercial membranes. Under fuel cell tests using 3 M methanol, the open circuit voltage (OCV) value for the blend AEM with 72 wt% of the guanidinium polymer (0.69 V) is much higher than that of the commercial Tokuyama A201 (0.47 V) at room temperature, while the blend AEMs with 50 wt% guanidinium content still show comparable values. Overall, the developed membranes demonstrate superior performance and therefore pose great promise for direct methanol anion exchange fuel cell (DMAFC) applications.

  18. Mathematical model of water transport in Bacon and alkaline matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Easter, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Based on general mass continuity and diffusive transport equations, a mathematical model was developed that simulates the transport of water in Bacon and alkaline-matrix fuel cells. The derived model was validated by using it to analytically reproduce various Bacon and matrix-cell experimental water transport transients.

  19. Oxygen reduction reaction over nitrogen-doped graphene oxide cathodes in acid and alkaline fuel cells at intermediate temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ORR for nitrogen-doped graphene in acid and alkaline fuel cells at intermediate temperatures. • Nitrogen-doped graphene had higher activity for the ORR than graphene. • The ORR activity was enhanced by an increase in the operating temperature. • The ORR activity was kept for long time in both acid and alkaline fuel cells. - Abstract: Graphene oxides with various nitrogen contents were prepared by annealing them in an NH3 flow between 350 and 850 °C, and their electrocatalytic properties toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acid and alkaline fuel cells at intermediate temperatures were investigated. In both acid and alkaline fuel cells, graphene oxide treated with NH3 at 700 °C for 1 h was the most active cathode at operating temperatures between 75 and 200 °C, where the ORR activity was enhanced by an increase in the operating temperature. This cathode also exhibited high chemical and thermal stability toward the ORR. X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopic measurements of the nitrogen-doped graphene oxides indicated that the pyridinic nitrogen introduced disordered edge planes into the graphene structure. BET analysis also revealed that the surface area of graphene oxide was increased by the exposure of such edge planes. These observations lead to the assumption that the defects introduced by pyridinic nitrogen act as active sites for the ORR. Considering the similarity in ORR activity between the acid and alkaline fuel cells, dissociative adsorption of O2 at the active site is a rate-determining step

  20. Alkaline RFC Space Station prototype - 'Next step Space Station'. [Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell, a candidate technology for the Space Station's energy storage system, is described. An advanced development program was initiated to design, manufacture, and integrate a regenerative fuel cell Space Station prototype (RFC SSP). The RFC SSP incorporates long-life fuel cell technology, increased cell area for the fuel cells, and high voltage cell stacks for both units. The RFC SSP's potential for integration with the Space Station's life support and propulsion systems is discussed.

  1. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Coutanceau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  2. Influence of Hydration Level on Polymer and Water Dynamics in Alkaline Anion Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Jacob; Kim, Jenny; Tyagi, Madhu; Soles, Christopher; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Coughlin, Bryan

    2015-03-01

    Triblock copolymers based on poly(chloromethylstyrene)-b-poly(ethylene)-b-poly(chloromethylstyrene) can be quaternized to different extents to yield anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells. In the absence of moisture, these membranes demonstrate bilayer lamellar morphology. Upon high levels of hydration, however, in-situ small angle neutron scattering reveals the emergence of higher-order diffraction peaks. This phenomena has previously been observed in analogous diblock copolymer-based membranes and has been attributed to the induction of a multilayer lamellar morphology in which selective striping of water occurs in the center of the ion-rich domain. By conducting humidity-resolved quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements using deuterated water, we are able to isolate differences in the pico- to nanosecond timescale dynamics of the hydrogenated membrane upon hydration. QENS measurements in the presence of a hydrogenated water source subsequently permit deconvolution and isolation of the translational and rotational dynamics of water as a function of relative humidity, revealing spatial and temporal changes in polymer and water motion at high levels of hydration.

  3. The affects of membrane on the cell performance when using alkaline borohydride-hydrazine solutions as the fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Haiying; Liu, Zixuan; Guo, Yanfeng; Li, Zhoupeng [Department of Chemical and Bio-chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The cell performance and the polarization behavior of the fuel cell using alkaline NaBH{sub 4}-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} solutions as the fuel were investigated. It was found that the use of different membrane: anion exchange membrane (AEM) or cation exchange membrane (CEM) would influence the cell performance and cathode polarization behavior. The direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) using CEM gave a higher power density than that using AEM, but the direct hydrazine fuel cell (DHFC) using CEM gave a lower power density compared with the DHFC using AEM. In the DBFCs using CEM, N{sub 2}H{sub 4} addition in alkaline NaBH{sub 4} solution improved the cell performance but it did not make any difference when adding more N{sub 2}H{sub 4}. On the other hand, in the DBFCs using AEM, cell performance was improved with increasing the amount of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} in the anolyte. (author)

  4. A small-scale flow alkaline fuel cell for on-site production of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of a small-scale flow alkaline fuel cell (AFC) built-up for on-site production of HO2- using commercial gas-diffusion electrodes has been studied. It produces a spontaneous current due to the oxidation of H2 to H2O at the H2-diffusion anode and the reduction of O2 to HO2- at the O2-diffusion cathode, while a fresh 1.0-6.0 mol dm-3 KOH electrolyte at 15.0-45.0 deg. C is injected through it. Under circulation of HO2-+KOH solutions in open circuit, the flow AFC behaves as a two-electron reversible system. When it is shorted with an external load (Rext), steady cell voltage-current density curves are found. The use of O2/N2 mixtures to fed the cathode causes a loss of its performance, being required to supply pure O2 to yield a maximum HO2- electrogeneration. The current density and HO2- productivity increase with raising OH- concentration, temperature and pressure of O2 fed. At Rext=0.10 Ω, a current efficiency close to 100% is obtained, and current densities >100 mA cm-2 are achieved for 1.0 mol dm-3 KOH at 45.0 deg. C and for higher KOH concentrations at 25.0 deg. C. The flow AFC can work under optimum conditions up to 6.0 mol dm-3 KOH and 45.0 deg. C for possible industrial applications

  5. Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell performance using alkali-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol/functionalized carbon nano-tube solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yi; Lin, Jia-Shiun; Pan, Wen-Han; Shih, Chao-Ming; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/functionalized carbon nano-tubes (m-CNTs) composite in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC). The m-CNTs are functionalized with PVA using the ozone mediation method, and the PVA composite containing the modified CNTs is prepared. Adding m-CNT into the PVA matrix enhances the alkaline uptake and the ionic conductivity of the KOH-doped electrolyte. Meanwhile, the m-CNT-containing membrane exhibited a lower swelling ratio and suppressed ethanol permeability compared to the pristine PVA film. The optimal condition for the ADEFC is determined to be under operation at an anode feed of 3 M ethanol in a 5 M KOH solution (at a flow rate of 5 cm3 min-1) with a cathode feed of moisturized oxygen (with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min-1) and the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte. We achieved a peak power density value of 65 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is the highest among the ADEFC literature data and several times higher than the proton-exchange direct ethanol fuel cells using sulfonated membrane electrolytes. Therefore, the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte is a suitable solid electrolyte for ADEFCs and has potential for commercialization in alkaline fuel cell applications.

  6. Assembly of a Cost-Effective Anode Using Palladium Nanoparticles for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Feliciano-Ramos, Ileana; Casañas-Montes, Barbara; García-Maldonado, María M.; Menéndez, Christian L.; Mayol, Ana R.; Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology allows the synthesis of nanoscale catalysts, which offer an efficient alternative for fuel cell applications. In this laboratory experiment, the student selects a cost-effective anode for fuel cells by comparing three different working electrodes. These are commercially available palladium (Pd) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, and a carbon paste (CP) electrode that is prepared by the students in the laboratory. The GC and CP were modified with palladium nanoparticles (PdNP) s...

  7. Electrochemical kinetic and mass transfer model for direct ethanol alkaline fuel cell (DEAFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, S.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Hasran, U. A.; Masdar, M. S.; Daud, W. R. W.

    2016-07-01

    A mathematical model is developed for a liquid-feed DEAFC incorporating an alkaline anion-exchange membrane. The one-dimensional mass transport of chemical species is modelled using isothermal, single-phase and steady-state assumptions. The anode and cathode electrochemical reactions use the Tafel kinetics approach, with two limiting cases, for the reaction order. The model fully accounts for the mixed potential effects of ethanol oxidation at the cathode due to ethanol crossover via an alkaline anion-exchange membrane. In contrast to a polymer electrolyte membrane model, the current model considers the flux of ethanol at the membrane as the difference between diffusive and electroosmotic effects. The model is used to investigate the effects of the ethanol and alkali inlet feed concentrations at the anode. The model predicts that the cell performance is almost identical for different ethanol concentrations at a low current density. Moreover, the model results show that feeding the DEAFC with 5 M NaOH and 3 M ethanol at specific operating conditions yields a better performance at a higher current density. Furthermore, the model indicates that crossover effects on the DEAFC performance are significant. The cell performance decrease from its theoretical value when a parasitic current is enabled in the model.

  8. Palladium and palladium-tin supported on multi wall carbon nanotubes or carbon for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleão; Furtunato da Silva, Dionisio; Martins da Silva, Júlio César; Antonio de Sá, Osvaldo; Spinacé, Estevam Vitório; Neto, Almir Oliveira; Coelho dos Santos, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Pd and PdSn (Pd:Sn atomic ratios of 90:10), supported on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) or Carbon (C), are prepared by an electron beam irradiation reduction method. The obtained materials are characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The activity for ethanol electro-oxidation is tested in alkaline medium, at room temperature, using Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry (CA) and in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in the temperature range of 60-90 °C. CV analysis finds that Pd/MWCNT and PdSn/MWCNT presents onset potentials changing to negative values and high current values, compared to Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts. ATR-FTIR analysis, performed during the CV, identifies acetate and acetaldehyde as principal products formed during the ethanol electro-oxidation, with low conversion to CO2. In single fuel cell tests, at 85 °C, using 2.0 mol L-1 ethanol in 2.0 mol L-1 KOH solutions, the electrocatalysts supported on MWCNT, also, show higher power densities, compared to the materials supported on carbon: PdSn/MWCNT, presents the best result (36 mW cm-2). The results show that the use of MWCNT, instead of carbon, as support, plus the addition of small amounts of Sn to Pd, improves the electrocatalytic activity for Ethanol Oxidation Reaction (EOR).

  9. Platinum- and membrane-free swiss-roll mixed-reactant alkaline fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziznia, Amin; Oloman, Colin W; Gyenge, Előd L

    2013-05-01

    Eliminating the expensive and failure-prone proton exchange membrane (PEM) together with the platinum-based anode and cathode catalysts would significantly reduce the high capital and operating costs of low-temperature (monolithic carbon fiber materials (referred to as an osmium 3D anode). The borohydride-oxygen SR-MRFC operates at 323 K and near atmospheric pressure, generating a peak power density of 1880 W m(-2) in a single-cell configuration by using an osmium-based anode (with an osmium loading of 0.32 mg cm(-2)) and a manganese dioxide gas-diffusion cathode. To the best of our knowledge, 1880 W m(-2) is the highest power density ever reported for a mixed-reactant fuel cell operating under similar conditions. Furthermore, the performance matches the highest reported power densities for conventional dual chamber PEM direct borohydride fuel cells. PMID:23589385

  10. Temperature dependence of an abiotic glucose/air alkaline fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Dane; Scott, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The temperature dependence of a previously developed glucose fuel cell is explored. This cell uses a small molecule dye mediator to transport oxidizable electrons from glucose to a carbon felt anode. This reaction is driven by an air breathing MnO2 cathode. This research investigates how the temperature of the system affects the power production of the fuel cell. Cell performance is observed using either methyl viologen, indigo carmine, trypan blue, or hydroquinone as a mediator at temperatures of 15, 19, 27, 32, 37, 42, and 49 °C. Cyclic voltammetry of the cell anode at the given temperatures with the individual dyes is also presented. The highest power production amongst all of the cells occurs at 32 °C. This occurs with the mediator indigo carmine or with the mediator methyl viologen. These sustained powers are 2.31 mW cm-2 and 2.39 mW cm-2, respectively. This is approximately a 350% increase for these cells compared to their power produced at room temperature. This dramatic increase is likely due to increased solubility of the mediator dye at higher temperatures.

  11. Development of a mathematical model for a single alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) with fixed volume and general square section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Elise Meister; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Setor de Tecnologia], Email: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Martins, Lauber de Souza; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: martins@caps.fsu.edu, ordonez@eng.fsu.edu

    2010-07-01

    The Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell (AMFC) is a recently developed fuel cell type, which has shown good experimental results in the laboratory. This paper introduces a mathematical model for the single AMFC with fixed volume and general square section. The main objective is to produce a reliable model (and computationally fast) to predict the response of the single AMFC according to variations of the physical properties of manufacturing materials and operating and design parameters. The model is based on mass, momentum, energy and species conservation, and electrochemical principles, and takes into account pressure drops in the gas channels and temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction. The simulation results comprise the AMFC temperature distribution, net power and polarization curves. It is shown that temperature spatial gradients and gas channels pressure drops significantly affect fuel cell performance. Such effects are not usually investigated in the models available in the literature, with most of them assuming uniform pressure and temperature operation. Therefore, the model is expected to be a useful tool for AMFC design and optimization. (author)

  12. High performance nano-Ni/Graphite electrode for electro-oxidation in direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed B.; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S.; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2016-09-01

    Ni/Graphite electrocatalysts (Ni/G) are successfully prepared through electrodeposition of Ni from acidic (pH = 0.8) and feebly acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous Ni (II) baths. The efficiencies of such electrodes are investigated as anodes for direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells through their ethanol electrooxidation cyclic voltammetric (CV) response in alkaline medium. A direct proportionality between the amount of the electrodeposited Ni and its CV response is found. The amounts of the deposited Ni from the two baths are recorded using the Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (eQCM). The Ni/G electrodes prepared from the feebly acidic bath show a higher electrocatalytic response than those prepared from the acidic bath. Surface morphology of the Ni particles electrodeposited from feebly acidic bath appears in a nano-scale dimension. Various electrochemical experiments are conducted to confirm that the Ni/G ethanol electrooxidation CV response greatly depends on the pH rather than nickel ion concentration of the deposition bath. The eQCM technique is used to detect the crystalline phases of nickel as α-Ni(OH)2/γ-NiOOH and β-Ni(OH)2/β-NiOOH and their in-situ inter-transformations during the potentiodynamic polarization.

  13. Imidazolium-Functionalized Anion Exchange Polymer Electrolytes with High Tensile Strength and Stability for Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports novel kinds of high tensile strength alkaline anion-exchange membranes composed of imidazolium-functionalized anion exchange polymer electrolytes. The membranes were prepared by a combined thermal and chemical cross-linking of poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (3-methyl-1-vinylimidazolium chloride)-co-(1-vinylpyrrolidone) (PMVIC-co-VP). Characterizations by AC impedance technique, mechanical property, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), along with the water uptake, alkaline resistance and oxidation stability were carried out on the membranes consisting of different PVA/PVA-PMVIC-co-VP mass ratios to evaluate their applicability in alkaline fuel cells. The membrane in a mass ratio of 1:0.4 exhibited high tensile stress at break in the range of 59.3∼76.6 MPa, and the elongation at break around 9.2∼14.9%, depending on the annealing temperature from 130∼190 °C. The OH− conductivity of the membranes was found to be increased with increasing annealing temperature and mass ratio, and reached high up to 1.7 × 10−2 S cm−1. Besides, the membranes showed perfect oxidation stability in 30% H2O2 for 250 hours with no obvious weight loss was observed. XPS analysis indicated that some degradation occurred when the membrane was exposed to 8 M KOH at 85 °C for 312 h, but no lessened OH− conductivity was detected. SEM pictures revealed an ordered microvoid structure with pore size ca. 100∼150 nm uniformly dispersed on the membrane surface, which imparted the PVA/PVA-PMVIC-co-VP membrane with good OH− conductivity

  14. The Performance of Electron-Mediator Modified Activated Carbon as Anode for Direct Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Six different electron mediators were immobilized on the activated carbon (AC anode and their effects on performance of a direct glucose alkaline fuel cell were explored. 2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone (NQ, methyl viologen (MV, neutral red (NR, methylene blue (MB, 1, 5-dichloroanthraquinone (DA and anthraquinone (AQ were doped in activated carbon (AC, respectively, and pressed on nickel foam to fabricate the anodes. NQ shows comparable performance with MV, but with much lower cost and environmental impact. With NQ-AC anode, the fuel cell attained a peak power density of 16.10 Wm−2, peak current density of 48.09 Am−2, and open circuit voltage of 0.76 V under the condition of 1 M glucose, 3 M KOH, and ambient temperature. Polarization curve, EIS and Tafel measurements were also conducted to explore the mechanism of performance enhancement. The high performance is likely due to the enhanced charge transfer and more reactive sites provided on the anode.

  15. Electrodeposited gold nanoparticles on carbon nanotube-textile: Anode material for glucose alkaline fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-06-01

    In the present paper we propose a new anode material for glucose-gluconate direct oxidation fuel cells prepared by electrodepositing gold nanoparticles onto a conductive textile made by conformally coating single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) on a polyester textile substrate. The electrodeposition conditions were optimized in order to achieve a uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles in the 3D porous structure of the textile. On the basis of previously reported studies, the reaction conditions (pH, electrolyte composition and glucose concentration) were tuned in order to achieve the highest oxidation rate, selectively oxidizing glucose to gluconate. The electrochemical characterization was carried out by means of cyclic voltammetry. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of imidazolium-type alkaline anion exchange membranes for fuel cell application

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, J; Wu, L.; XU, T; Varcoe, JR; Ong, AL; Poynton, SD

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of imidazolium-type alkaline anion exchange membranes (Im-AAEMs) based on the functionalization of bromomethylated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) using 1-methylimdazole. Aromatic polymers bearing bromomethyl, instead of chloromethyl, functional groups were employed as base materials to avoid complicated chloromethylation which require toxic reagents. H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic data indicated the synthesis of a series of membranes with contr...

  17. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Štefková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells.

  18. A fuel-cell reactor for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide alkaline solutions from H(2) and O(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Ichiro; Onisawa, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; Murayama, Toru

    2011-04-18

    The effects of the type of fuel-cell reactors (undivided or divided by cation- and anion-exchange membranes), alkaline electrolytes (LiOH, NaOH, KOH), vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF) cathode components (additives: none, activated carbon, Valcan XC72, Black Pearls 2000, Seast-6, and Ketjen Black), and the flow rates of anolyte (0, 1.5, 12 mL h(-1)) and catholyte (0, 12 mL h(-1)) on the formation of hydrogen peroxide were studied. A divided fuel-cell system, O(2) (g)|VGCF-XC72 cathode|2 M NaOH catholyte|cation-exchange membrane (Nafion-117)|Pt/XC72-VGCF anode|2 M NaOH anolyte at 12 mL h(-1) flow|H(2) (g), was effective for the selective formation of hydrogen peroxide, with 130 mA cm(-2) , a 2 M aqueous solution of H(2)O(2)/NaOH, and a current efficiency of 95 % at atmospheric pressure and 298 K. The current and formation rate gradually decreased over a long period of time. The cause of the slow decrease in electrocatalytic performance was revealed and the decrease was stopped by a flow of catholyte. Cyclic voltammetry studies at the VGCF-XC72 electrode indicated that fast diffusion of O(2) from the gas phase to the electrode, and quick desorption of hydrogen peroxide from the electrode to the electrolyte were essential for the efficient formation of solutions of H(2)O(2)/NaOH. PMID:21400665

  19. Global optimization and oxygen dissociation on polyicosahedral Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster for alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Chen, F. Y.; Wu, X. Q.

    2015-07-01

    The structure of 38 atoms Ag-Cu cluster is studied by using a combination of a genetic algorithm global optimization technique and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is demonstrated that the truncated octahedral (TO) Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is less stable than the polyicosahedral (pIh) Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster from the atomistic models and the DFT calculation shows an agreeable result, so the newfound pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is further investigated for potential application for O2 dissociation in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The activation energy barrier for the O2 dissociation on pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is 0.715 eV, where the d-band center is -3.395 eV and the density of states at the Fermi energy level is maximal for the favorable absorption site, indicating that the catalytic activity is attributed to a maximal charge transfer between an oxygen molecule and the pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster. This work revises the earlier idea that Ag32Cu6 core-shell nanoparticles are not suitable as ORR catalysts and confirms that Ag-Cu nanoalloy is a potential candidate to substitute noble Pt-based catalyst in alkaline fuel cells.

  20. Lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofiber mats with supercritically deposited Ag nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Electrospun carbon nanofiber mats were prepared from a natural product of lignin. • The freestanding mats were flexible with BET specific surface area of ∼583 m2/g. • The mats were surface-deposited with Ag nanoparticles via the scCO2 method. • Novel electrocatalytic systems of Ag/ECNFs exhibited high activities towards ORR. - Abstract: Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) (11, 15, and 25 wt.%) were deposited on the surface of the freestanding and mechanically flexible mats consisting of lignin-derived electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) by the supercritical CO2 method followed by the thermal treated at 180 °C. The electrochemical activity of Ag/ECNFs electrocatalyst systems towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was studied in 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution using the rotating disk/rotating ring disk electrode (RDE/RRDE) technique. The SEM, TEM, and XRD results indicated that, the spherical AgNPs were uniformly distributed on the ECNF surface with sizes in the range of 2-10 nm. The electrocatalytic results revealed that, all of the Ag/ECNFs systems exhibited high activity in ORR and demonstrated close-to-theoretical four-electron pathway. In particular, the mass activity of 15 wt.% Ag/ECNFs system was the highest (119 mA mg−1), exceeding that of HiSPEC 4100™ commercial Pt/C catalyst (98 mA mg−1). This study suggested that the lignin-derived ECNF mats surface-deposited with AgNPs would be promising as cost-effective and highly efficient electrocatalyst for ORR in alkaline fuel cells

  1. Hydroxyl anion conducting membranes poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) for alkaline fuel cell applications: Effect of molecular weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyl anion conducting membranes have been developed using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as polymer matrix by incorporation of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) as anion charge carriers. PDDA of four different molecular weight (namely PDDA-HMw, PDDA-MMw, PDDA-LMw and PDDA-ULMw) was incorporated in order to clarifying the effect of molecular weight on membrane performances. The membranes are characterized in detail by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravity analysis (TG), mechanical property, AC impedance technique, water uptake, swelling ratio, oxidation and alkaline stability to evaluate their applicability in alkaline fuel cells. The OH− conductivity of the membranes was found to be increased with increasing molecular weight of PDDA, and the maximum OH− conductivity of 0.027 S cm−1 was achieved for PVA/PDDA-HMw membrane. The PVA/PDDA-HMw membrane also showed the best mechanical property and excellent thermal stability due to the most compact and dense network structure. All the membranes showed relatively high oxidative stability in 30% H2O2 and strong alkaline stability in 2 M KOH for 624 h at room temperature. The fuel cell performances of the MEAs with these membranes were 18.2, 23.4, 28.5 and 35.1 mW cm−2 using H2 and O2 gases at 25 °C. The long-term stability of single-cell performance showed that the PVA/PDDA membrane could approximately last 80 h on the fuel cell with only a slight decrease of 0.1 V in cell potential

  2. Imidazolium-based Block Copolymers as Solid-State Separators for Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykaza, Jacob Richard

    In this study, polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) diblock copolymers were explored as solid-state polymer separators as an anion exchange membrane (AEM) for alkaline fuel cells AFCs and as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for lithium-ion batteries. Polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymers are a distinct set of block copolymers that combine the properties of both ionic liquids (e.g., high conductivity, high electrochemical stability) and block copolymers (e.g., self-assembly into various nanostructures), which provides the opportunity to design highly conductive robust solid-state electrolytes that can be tuned for various applications including AFCs and lithium-ion batteries via simple anion exchange. A series of bromide conducting PIL diblock copolymers with an undecyl alkyl side chain between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium moiety were first synthesized at various compositions comprising of a PIL component and a non-ionic component. Synthesis was achieved by post-functionalization from its non-ionic precursor PIL diblock copolymer, which was synthesized via the reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique. This PIL diblock copolymer with long alkyl side chains resulted in flexible, transparent films with high mechanical strength and high bromide ion conductivity. The conductivity of the PIL diblock copolymer was three times higher than its analogous PIL homopolymer and an order of magnitude higher than a similar PIL diblock copolymer with shorter alkyl side chain length, which was due to the microphase separated morphology, more specifically, water/ion clusters within the PIL microdomains in the hydrated state. Due to the high conductivity and mechanical robustness of this novel PIL block copolymer, its application as both the ionomer and AEM in an AFC was investigated via anion exchange to hydroxide (OH-), where a maximum power density of 29.3 mW cm-1 (60 °C with H2/O2 at 25 psig (172 kPa) backpressure) was achieved. Rotating disk

  3. 3-Methyltrimethylammonium poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Hari Gopi; S Gouse Peera; S D Bhat; P Sridhar; S Pitchumani

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxyl ion (OH–) conducting anion exchange membranes based on modified poly (phenylene oxide) are fabricated for their application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). In the present study, chloromethylation of poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) is performed by aryl substitution rather than benzyl substitution and homogeneously quaternized to form an anion exchange membrane (AEM). 1H NMR and FT–IR studies reveal successful incorporation of the above groups in the polymer backbone. The membrane is characterized for its ion exchange capacity and water uptake. The membrane formed by these processes show good ionic conductivity and when used in fuel cell exhibited an enhanced performance in comparison with the state-of-the-art commercial AHA membrane. A peak power density of 111 mW/cm2 at a load current density of 250 mA/cm2 is obtained for PPO based membrane in APEFCs at 30 °C.

  4. Fumed Silica Nanoparticles Incorporated in Quaternized Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Membrane for Enhanced Power Densities in Direct Alcohol Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite polymer membrane based on quaternized poly(vinyl alcohol/fumed silica (QPVA/FS was prepared via a quaternization process and solution casting method. The physico-chemical properties of the QPVA/FS membrane were investigated. Its high ionic conductivity was found to depend greatly on the concentration of fumed silica in the QPVA matrix. A maximum conductivity of 3.50 × 10−2 S/cm was obtained for QPVA/5%FS at 60 °C when it was doped with 6 M KOH. The permeabilities of methanol and ethanol were reduced with increasing fumed silica content. Cell voltage and peak power density were analyzed as functions of fumed silica concentration, temperature, methanol and ethanol concentrations. A maximum power density of 96.8 mW/cm2 was achieved with QPVA/5%FS electrolyte using 2 M methanol + 6 M KOH as fuel at 80 °C. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was obtained using the QPVA/5%FS electrolyte with 3 M ethanol + 5 M KOH as fuel. The resulting peak power densities are higher than the majority of published reports. The results confirm that QPVA/FS exhibits promise as a future polymeric electrolyte for use in direct alkaline alcoholic fuel cells.

  5. Foam Based Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Reversible Alkaline Electrolysis Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline electrolysis cells operated at 250 °C and 40 bar have shown to be able to convert electrical energy into hydrogen at very high efficiencies and power densities. Foam based gas diffusion electrodes and an immobilized electrolyte allow for reversible operation as electrolysis cell or fuel...

  6. Investigation of nanostructured platinum-nickel supported on the titanium surface as electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, L.; Balčiūnaitė, A.; Vaiciukevičienė, A.; Selskis, A.; Pakštas, V.

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the formation of nanostructured platinum-nickel supported on the titanium surface catalysts using the galvanic displacement technique and investigation of their electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of borohydride, methanol and ethanol in an alkaline media by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Scanning electron microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the surface structure, composition and morphology. The nanoPt(Ni)/Ti and nanoPt/Ti catalysts exhibited a higher catalytic efficiency to the oxidation of borohydride, ethanol and methanol as compared with that of pure Pt.

  7. Carbon nanotubes/heteroatom-doped carbon core-sheath nanostructures as highly active, metal-free oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Young Jin; Park, Chiyoung; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Seok-Hee; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyoung Taek; Park, Gu-Gon; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2014-04-14

    A facile, scalable route to new nanocomposites that are based on carbon nanotubes/heteroatom-doped carbon (CNT/HDC) core-sheath nanostructures is reported. These nanostructures were prepared by the adsorption of heteroatom-containing ionic liquids on the walls of CNTs, followed by carbonization. The design of the CNT/HDC composite allows for combining the electrical conductivity of the CNTs with the catalytic activity of the heteroatom-containing HDC sheath layers. The CNT/HDC nanostructures are highly active electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction and displayed one of the best performances among heteroatom-doped nanocarbon catalysts in terms of half-wave potential and kinetic current density. The four-electron selectivity and the exchange current density of the CNT/HDC nanostructures are comparable with those of a Pt/C catalyst, and the CNT/HDC composites were superior to Pt/C in terms of long-term durability and poison tolerance. Furthermore, an alkaline fuel cell that employs a CNT/HDC nanostructure as the cathode catalyst shows very high current and power densities, which sheds light on the practical applicability of these new nanocomposites. PMID:24554521

  8. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  9. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  10. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and...... nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  11. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  12. Foam Based Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Reversible Alkaline Electrolysis Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline electrolysis cells operated at 250 °C and 40 bar have shown to be able to convert electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen at very high efficiencies and power densities. Foam based gas diffusion electrodes and a liquid immobilized electrolyte allow the operation of...... the newly designed electrolysis cell as a fuel cell, but condensation of steam may lead to blocked pores, thereby inhibiting gas diffusion and decreasing the performance of the cell. In the here presented work we present the application of a hydrophobic, porous, and electro-catalytically active layer...

  13. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefková, K.; Procházková, Jiřina; Pachernik, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 2015 (2015). ISSN 1687-966X Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : PRIMORDIAL GERM-CELLS * P38 MAP KINASE * EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA-CELLS Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.813, year: 2014

  14. Foam Based Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Reversible Alkaline Electrolysis Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline electrolysis cells operated at 250 °C and 40 bar have shown to be able to convert electrical energy into hydrogen at very high efficiencies and power densities. Foam based gas diffusion electrodes and an immobilized electrolyte allow for reversible operation as electrolysis cell or fuel...... cell. In the present work we demonstrate the application of hydrophobic, porous, and electro-catalytically active gas diffusion electrodes. PTFE particles and silver nanowires as electro-catalysts were used in the gas diffusion electrodes. Impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were performed to...

  15. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  16. The development of a state-of-the-art experimental setup demonstrated by the investigation of fuel cell reactions in alkaline electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, Gustav Karl Henrik

    2010-10-04

    The objectives of this work can be separated into three different topics: the design and development of a state-of-the art electrochemical experiment setup, which is then followed by two separate experimental studies in alkaline electrolyte. These studies demonstrate the capabilities of the experimental setup, and each focus on separate model catalysts. The first study investigated the influence of Pt oxide formation on the measured catalytic activity of FC relevant reactions on polycrystalline Pt in alkaline electrolyte. The second study focused on the characterisation of the ORR for a non-platinum catalyst, in this case Ag, by adapting the established thin-film RDE methodology employed for characterising Pt based electrocatalysts. A state-of-the-art electrochemical experimental setup comprises of a largely automated setup that allows meticulous control over experimental parameters such as potential, temperature, purging gas and solution convection. In order to realise such a setup, both experimental hardware and software were developed. In particular, a custom built analogue potentiostat optimised for single working electrode measurements was constructed. The potentiostat features R{sub sol}-compensation which can be monitored online due to its fully analogue design, allowing the precise current and potential relationship to be measured. In addition, the experimental throughput was enhanced by fabricating a modular add-on device, the MWE, which allows simultaneous electrochemical measurement on up to 8 parallel working electrodes. The MWE device is compatible with any single channel potentiostat, enhancing existing instrumentation. Several Teflon cells were designed for electrochemical investigations in acid and alkaline electrolytes, and were adapted to work using either the RDE or MWE. A gas changer was also assembled, which enabled computer controlled switching of electrolyte purge gas. Furthermore, in order to control the potentiostat and the accessory

  17. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  18. Potential Materials for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Sri Harsha

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have attracted immense research activities from the inception of the technology due to its high stability and performance capabilities. The major obstacle from commercialization is the cost of the catalyst material in manufacturing the fuel cell. In the present study, the major focus in PEMFCs has been in reduction of the cost of the catalyst material using graphene, thin film coated and Organometallic Molecular catalysts. The present research is focused on improving the durability and active surface area of the catalyst materials with low platinum loading using nanomaterials to reduce the effective cost of the fuel cells. Performance, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, oxygen reduction and surface morphology studies were performed on each manufactured material. Alkaline fuel cells with anion exchange membrane get immense attention due to very attractive opportunity of using non-noble metal catalyst materials. In the present study, cathodes with various organometallic cathode materials were prepared and investigated for alkaline membrane fuel cells for oxygen reduction and performance studies. Co and Fe Phthalocyanine catalyst materials were deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) support materials. Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated using Tokuyama Membrane (#A901) with cathodes containing Co and Fe Phthalocyanine/MWCNTs and Pt/C anodes. Fuel cell performance of the MEAs was examined.

  19. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen. PMID:26855359

  20. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  1. Highly active carbon supported palladium-rhodium PdXRh/C catalysts for methanol electrooxidation in alkaline media and their performance in anion exchange direct methanol fuel cells (AEM-DMFCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Synthesis and physical evaluation of carbon supported, Rh containing Pd electrocatalysts. • Electroactivity towards methanol oxidation strongly enhanced in alkaline media. • Bimetallic catalyst show low CO oxidation and OH adsorption potentials. • CO2 current efficiency higher for bimetallic catalysts than for Pt/C or Pd/C. • Power density of 105 mW cm−2 for platinum-free alkaline direct methanol fuel cell. - Abstract: In this study carbon supported PdXRh electrocatalysts synthesized by wet chemical reduction process were tested for the potential use in anion-exchange membrane direct methanol fuel cells (AEM-DMFC) and compared to Pd/C and commercially available Pt/C. A metal loading of 20wt% on carbon was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and catalyst compositions of PdRh3/C, PdRh/C and Pd3Rh/C were found via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the average particle and crystallite sizes of the PdXRh/C catalysts are in the range of 3.1 to 4.3 nm. It was also found that these catalysts are not alloyed. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) data reveals a 85–140 mV lower CH3OH oxidation onset potential and higher mass current densities for PdXRh/C catalysts compared with Pd/C. Steady-state measurements via chronoamperometry (CA) showed a good stability against poisoning during methanol oxidation and higher mass activities for PdRh/C and Pd3Rh/C compared to Pt/C. By using differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) it was successfully shown that adding Rh to Pd results in an enhanced CO2 current efficiency (CCE) compared to Pd/C or Pt/C. AEM-DMFCs free from platinum were fabricated and single cell tests at 60 °C showed a significant increase of power density at 0.5 V cell potential from 4.8 mW cm−2 for Pd/C to 16.5 mW cm−2 for PdRh/C with the anode and cathode fed with 1 M methanol + 2 M KOH and synthetic air

  2. Invited: A Stability Study of Alkali Doped PBI Membranes for Alkaline Electrolyzer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Aili, David; Hansen, Martin Kalmar;

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline fuel cells and electrolyzers are attracting increasing interest. This is to a large extent due to the broad selection of catalyst materials not based on resource limited and expensive noble metals. The first fuel cells in practical use were Francis Thomas Bacon’s based on an alkaline...... electrolyte. The system has been quite successful with good oxygen kinetics, but the electrolyte suffers from carbonization when operated in normal CO2containing air and this has limited the application to space technology and similar niches. The alkaline electrolyzer on the other hand has been the state of...... art commercial choice for decades and the carbonization problem is absent since oxygen is produced, not consumed. However, the demand for high voltage efficiency has been limited and the alkaline electrolyzer has been optimized in the direction of robustness and long lifetime instead. Today it has...

  3. Status of commercial fuel cell powerplant system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshay, Marvin

    The primary focus is on the development of commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) powerplant systems because the PAFC, which has undergone extensive development, is currently the closest fuel cell system to commercialization. Shorter discussions are included on the high temperature fuel cell systems which are not as mature in their development, such as the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The alkaline and the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell systems, are also included, but their discussions are limited to their prospects for commercial development. Currently, although the alkaline fuel cell continues to be used for important space applications there are no commercial development programs of significant size in the USA and only small efforts outside. The market place for fuel cells and the status of fuel cell programs in the USA receive extensive treatment. The fuel cell efforts outside the USA, especially the large Japanese programs, are also discussed.

  4. Fuel Cell Research and Development for Future NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Hoberecht, Mark; Loyselle, Patricia; Burke, Kenneth; Bents, David; Farmer, Serene; Kohout, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    NASA has been using fuel cell systems since the early days of space flight. Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel cells provided the primary power for the Gemini and Apollo missions and more recently, alkaline fuel cells serve as the primary power source for the Space Shuttle. NASA's current investments in fuel cell technology support both Exploration and Aeronautics programs. This presentation provides an overview of NASA's fuel cell development programs.

  5. Electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was investigated the oxygen reduction reaction (fundamental reaction in fuel cells) on electrocatalysts of Pt, Co, Ni and their alloys CoNi, PtCo, PtNi, PtCoNi in H2SO4 0.5 M and KOH 0.5 M as electrolyte. The electrocatalysts were synthesized using mechanical alloying processes and chemical vapor deposition. The electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The evaluation was performed using electrocatalytic technique of rotating disk electrode and kinetic parameters were determined for each electro catalyst. We report the performance of all synthesized electrocatalysts in acid and alkaline means. (Author)

  6. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  7. Starch and cellulose as fuel sources for low temperature direct mode fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Spets, J.-P; KIROS, YOHANNES; Kuosa, M. A.; Rantanen, J; Sallinen, J.; Lampinen, M. J.; Saari, K

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a study about a direct mode fuel cell with a near-neutral-state and alkaline electrolytes. The aim of study was to develop a fuel cell, which operates directly by mixing the fuel with the electrolyte. This arrangement helps to avoid inserting membranes and additional bacterial cultures in fuel cell. The target is also to create a fuel cell with a capacity of few mWcm-2 with the starch as a fuel. Also, glucose and sorbitol have been tested as fuel for the fuel cell. QC 20111124

  8. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either 3H-fatty acids or [3H]ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the 3H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of [3H]ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from 3H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the 3H-fatty acid and the [3H]ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the [3H]ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The 3H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from [3H]ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic [3H]ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the 3H-fatty acid and [3H]ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase

  9. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  10. European Fuel Cells R&D Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, P. D.; Maguire, J.

    1994-09-01

    A review is presented on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells, and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD&D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission's activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.

  11. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2014-01-01

    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  12. ADVANCES IN THE MODEL OF CYLINDRICAL ALKALINE CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The advancement of a systematic investigation on the modeling of cylindrical alkaline cells is presented.Initial analysis utilizes thermodynamic and kinetic information to predict alkaline cell performance under low discharge rates.Subsequent modling has taken into consideration detailed information on the chemistry of electrode reactions,mass tranport of dissolved species,physical and chemical properties of the electrolyte and solid phases,and internal geonetry of cell systems.The model is capable of predicting alkaline cell performance under a variety of dicharge conditions.The model also provides information regarding internal cell changes during discharge.The model is the basis of a rational approach for the optimal design of cells.

  13. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  14. Control of Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZENITH, Federico

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with control of fuel cells, focusing on high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. Fuel cells are devices that convert the chemical energy of hydrogen, methanol or other chemical compounds directly into electricity, without combustion or thermal cycles. They are efficient, scalable and silent devices that can provide power to a wide variety of utilities, from portable electronics to vehicles, to nation-wide electric grids. Whereas studies about the design of fuel ...

  15. Control of Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZENITH, Federico

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with control of fuel cells, focusing on high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells.Fuel cells are devices that convert the chemical energy of hydrogen, methanol or other chemical compounds directly into electricity, without combustion or thermal cycles. They are efficient, scalable and silent devices that can provide power to a wide variety of utilities, from portable electronics to vehicles, to nation-wide electric grids.Whereas studies about the design of fuel ce...

  16. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  17. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  18. A Development of Ethanol/Percarbonate Membraneless Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Priya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on membraneless sodium percarbonate fuel cell using platinum electrodes in alkaline-acidic media is investigated. In this cell, ethanol is used as the fuel and sodium percarbonate is used as an oxidant for the first time in an alkaline-acidic media. Sodium percarbonate generates hydrogen peroxide in aqueous medium. At room temperature, the laminar-flow-based microfluidic membraneless fuel cell can reach a maximum power density of 18.96 mW cm−2 with a fuel mixture flow rate of 0.3 mL min−2. The developed fuel cell features no proton exchange membrane. The simple planar structured membraneless ethanol fuel cell presents with high design flexibility and enables easy integration of the microscale fuel cell into actual microfluidic systems and portable power applications.

  19. Microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are a promising technology for sustainable production of alternative energy and waste treatment. A microbial fuel cell transformation chemical energy in the chemical bonds in organic compounds to electrical energy through catalytic reactions of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. It has been known for many years that it is possible to generate electricity directly by using bacteria to break down organic substrates. Key words: microbial fuel cells (MFC), biosensor, wastewater treatment

  20. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  1. Fuel cells technologies for fuel processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shekhawat, Dushyant, II; Berry, David A, I

    2014-01-01

    Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing provides an overview of the most important aspects of fuel reforming to the generally interested reader, researcher, technologist, teacher, student, or engineer. The topics covered include all aspects of fuel reforming: fundamental chemistry, different modes of reforming, catalysts, catalyst deactivation, fuel desulfurization, reaction engineering, novel reforming concepts, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer issues, system design, and recent research and development. While no attempt is made to describe the fuel cell itself, there is sufficient

  2. Fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cell systems are an entirely different approach to the production of electricity than traditional technologies. They are similar to the batteries in that both produce direct current through electrochemical process. There are six types of fuel cells each with a different type of electrolyte, but they all share certain important characteristics: high electrical efficiency, low environmental impact and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells serve a variety of applications: stationary power plants, transport vehicles and portable power. That is why world wide efforts are addressed to improvement of this technology. (Original)

  3. A Development of Ethanol/Percarbonate Membraneless Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, M.; Arun, A.; Elumalai, M.; S. Kiruthika; Muthukumaran, B.

    2014-01-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on membraneless sodium percarbonate fuel cell using platinum electrodes in alkaline-acidic media is investigated. In this cell, ethanol is used as the fuel and sodium percarbonate is used as an oxidant for the first time in an alkaline-acidic media. Sodium percarbonate generates hydrogen peroxide in aqueous medium. At room temperature, the laminar-flow-based microfluidic membraneless fuel cell can reach a maximum power density of 18.96 mW cm−2 with a ...

  4. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  5. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  6. Fuel cells : emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation highlighted the findings of the 2009 review of the fuel cell industry and emerging markets as they appeared in Fuel Cell Today (FCT), a benchmark document on global fuel cell activity. Since 2008, the industry has seen a 50 per cent increase in fuel cell systems shipped, from 12,000 units to 18,000 units. Applications have increased for backup power for datacentres, telecoms and light duty vehicles. The 2009 review focused on emerging markets which include non-traditional regions that may experience considerable diffusion of fuel cells within the next 5 year forecast period. The 2009 review included an analysis on the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, Brazil and India and reviewed primary drivers, likely applications for near-term adoption, and government and private sector activity in these regions. The presentation provided a forecast of the global state of the industry in terms of shipments as well as a forecast of countries with emerging markets

  7. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  8. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  9. FUEL CELLS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study fuel cells. They convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emmission of pollutants. This thesis provides an overview of fuel cell technology.The basic working principle of fuel cells and the basic fuel cell system components are introduced in this thesis. The properties, advantages, disadvantages and applications of six different kinds of fuel cells are introduced. Then the efficiency of each fuel cell is p...

  10. PEM regenerative fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, Larry L.; Laconti, Anthony B.; McCatty, Stephen A.

    1993-11-01

    This paper will update the progress in developing electrocatalyst systems and electrode structures primarily for the positive electrode of single-unit solid polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cells. The work was done with DuPont Nafion 117 in complete fuel cells (40 sq cm electrodes). The cells were operated alternately in fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode at 80 C. In fuel cell mode, humidified hydrogen and oxygen were supplied at 207 kPa (30 psi); in electrolysis mode, water was pumped over the positive electrode and the gases were evolved at ambient pressure. Cycling data will be presented for Pt-Ir catalysts and limited bifunctional data will be presented for Pt, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Na(x)Pt3O4 catalysts as well as for electrode structure variations.

  11. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  12. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  13. Fuel ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover (CS) has the potential to serve as an abundant low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Due to heterogeneous complexity and recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment is required to break the lignin seal and/or disrupt the structure of crystalline cellulose to in...

  14. Fuel cell; Nenryo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    More than 100 sets of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) have been installed by now, and accumulated operation performance exceeding 40 thousand hours, which is regarded as a development target, has been achieved. Further, there are also PAFCs that have achieved continuous operation performance exceeding 9,000 hours, thus being most approachable to practical use. On the other hand, developments of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), which operate at high temperatures, have high power generation efficiencies due to the capability of operating associatively with gas turbines or vapor turbines, and may use coal gasified gases as fuels, are carried out for an aim of realizing the practical use at the begging of the 21st century. Further, in recent years, researches and developments of the polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) have been accelerated mainly in vehicle business for the purpose of using PEFC as power sources for movable bodies, and researches and development for accelerative development of cell stacks and power generation systems are executed. In this paper, situations of the researches and developments in respect to the above-mentioned four kinds of fuel cells are summarily introduced. (NEDO)

  15. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  16. Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Alexander; Vandine, Leslie L.; Stedman, James K.

    1987-07-01

    Summarized are the results of a 12-month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (W-hr/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the alkaline cell because of its high performance, advanced state of development, and proven ability to operate in a launch and space environment. Three alkaline system concepts were studied. The first, the integrated design, utilized a configuration in which the fuel cell and electrolysis cells are alternately stacked inside a pressure vessel. Product water is transferred by diffusion during electrolysis and waste heat is conducted through the pressure wall, thus using completely passive means for transfer and control. The second alkaline system, the dedicated design, uses a separate fuel cell and electrolysis stack so that each unit can be optimized in size and weight based on its orbital operating period. The third design was a dual function stack configuration, in which each cell can operate in both fuel cell and electrolysis mode, thus eliminating the need for two separate stacks and associated equipment. Results indicate that using near term technology energy densities between 46 and 52 W-hr/lb can be achieved at efficiencies of 55 percent. System densities of 115 W-hr/lb are contemplated.

  17. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  18. Fuel cell cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, J.G. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Archer, D.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) sponsors the research and development of engineered systems which utilize domestic fuel supplies while achieving high standards of efficiency, economy, and environmental performance. Fuel cell systems are among the promising electric power generation systems that METC is currently developing. Buildings account for 36 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption. Cogeneration systems for commercial buildings represent an early market opportunity for fuel cells. Seventeen percent of all commercial buildings are office buildings, and large office buildings are projected to be one of the biggest, fastest-growing sectors in the commercial building cogeneration market. The main objective of this study is to explore the early market opportunity for fuel cells in large office buildings and determine the conditions in which they can compete with alternative systems. Some preliminary results and conclusions are presented, although the study is still in progress.

  19. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  20. Fuel cells; Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, K. Andreas [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2012-07-01

    In Germany, the fuel cell technology is characterized by projects and demonstration activities within the National Innovation Programme. Above all, the field tests for fuel cell vehicles under the Clean Energy Partnership, and the field tests for domestic power systems within the project Callux stand out in public. The subsidized market launch of home energy systems in Japan received a great encouragement. Technologically further progresses in the field of reliability and durability were achieved. This is confirmed by the successful and highly publicized trip of three B-Class F-Cell vehicles around the world. In the next few years, the hydrogen infrastructure increasingly becomes important.

  1. Fuel Cell Testing - Degradation of Fuel Cells and its Impact on Fuel Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pfrang, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future energy supply, especially polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells could become an integral part in future cars. Reduction of degradation of fuel cell performance while keeping fuel cell cost under control is the key for an introduction into mass markets.

  2. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  3. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  4. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  5. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  6. Fuel cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sundmacher

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells are attractive electrochemical energy converters featuring potentially very high thermodynamic efficiency factors. The focus of this volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering is on quantitative approaches, particularly based on chemical engineering principles, to analyze, control and optimize the steady state and dynamic behavior of low and high temperature fuel cells (PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC) to be applied in mobile and stationary systems. * Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings using original reviews * Written by leading industry experts and scholars * Review

  7. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    OpenAIRE

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefor...

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  9. Fuel cell generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell generator comprising a housing means defining a plurality of chambers including a generator chamber and a combustion products chamber, a porous barrier separating the generator and combustion product chambers, a plurality of elongated annular fuel cells each having a closed end and an open end with the open ends disposed within the combustion product chamber, the cells extending from the open end through the porous barrier and into the generator chamber, a conduit for each cell, each conduit extending into a portion of each cell disposed within the generator chamber, each conduit having means for discharging a first gaseous reactant within each fuel cell, exhaust means for exhausting the combustion product chamber, manifolding means for supplying the first gaseous reactant to the conduits with the manifolding means disposed within the combustion product chamber between the porous barrier and the exhaust means and the manifolding means further comprising support and bypass means for providing support of the manifolding means within the housing while allowing combustion products from the first and a second gaseous reactant to flow past the manifolding means to the exhaust means, and means for flowing the second gaseous reactant into the generator chamber

  10. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  11. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Cell Technical Team promotes the development of a fuel cell power system for an automotive powertrain that meets the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) goals.

  12. Fuel cell based hybrid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Davat, B.; Astier, S.; Bethoux, O.; CANDUSSO,D; Coquery, G.; DE-BERNARDINIS, A; DRUART, F; Francois, M; GARCIA ARREGUI, F; Harel, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different works which are currently developed in the field of fuel cell hybrid systems indifferent public laboratories in France. These works are presented in three sections corresponding to: 1. Hybrid fuel cell/battery or supercapacitor power sources; 2. Fuel cell multistack power sources; 3. Fuel cell in hybrid power systems for distributed generation. The presented works combine simulation and experimental results.

  13. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  14. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  15. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  16. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  17. Platinum and palladium alloys suitable as fuel cell electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns electrode catalysts used in fuel cells, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The invention is related to the reduction of the noble metal content and the improvement of the catalytic efficiency by low level substitution of the noble metal to provide ne...... and innovative catalyst compositions in fuel cell electrodes. The novel electrode catalysts of the invention comprise a noble metal selected from Pt and Pd alloyed with an alkaline earth metal.......The present invention concerns electrode catalysts used in fuel cells, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The invention is related to the reduction of the noble metal content and the improvement of the catalytic efficiency by low level substitution of the noble metal to provide new...

  18. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  19. Fuel cell leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and device for leak testing vessels such as fuel cells or tanks which are large enough for a person to move around within holding a small hand held ball or balloon type device which is provided with a large aperture. In leak testing a vessel, the aperture portion of the device is pressed against the inside wall of the vessel with sufficient pressure to form an airtight seal between the inside of the device and the wall. While maintaining the airtight seal, the device is moved over the full inside surface of the cell. If there is a hole in the cell, the device which is very compliant will tend to collapse as it passes over the hole due to a resilient pressure drop created by the hole allowing the air to escape from the device to the atmosphere

  20. ARPA advanced fuel cell development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, L.H.

    1995-08-01

    Fuel cell technology is currently being developed at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for several Department of Defense applications where its inherent advantages such as environmental compatibility, high efficiency, and low noise and vibration are overwhelmingly important. These applications range from man-portable power systems of only a few watts output (e.g., for microclimate cooling and as direct battery replacements) to multimegawatt fixed base systems. The ultimate goal of the ARPA program is to develop an efficient, low-temperature fuel cell power system that operates directly on a military logistics fuel (e.g., DF-2 or JP-8). The absence of a fuel reformer will reduce the size, weight, cost, and complexity of such a unit as well as increase its reliability. In order to reach this goal, ARPA is taking a two-fold, intermediate time-frame approach to: (1) develop a viable, low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that operates directly on a simple hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., methanol or trimethoxymethane) and (2) demonstrate a thermally integrated fuel processor/fuel cell power system operating on a military logistics fuel. This latter program involves solid oxide (SOFC), molten carbonate (MCFC), and phosphoric acid (PAFC) fuel cell technologies and concentrates on the development of efficient fuel processors, impurity scrubbers, and systems integration. A complementary program to develop high performance, light weight H{sub 2}/air PEM and SOFC fuel cell stacks is also underway. Several recent successes of these programs will be highlighted.

  1. Strong, Tough Glass Composites Developed for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2005-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that continuously converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy. It consists of an electrolyte, an anode, and a cathode. Various types of fuel cells are available, such as direct methanol fuel cells, alkaline fuel cells, proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The salient features of an SOFC are all solid construction and high-temperature electrochemical-reaction-based operation, resulting in clean, efficient power generation from a variety of fuels. SOFCs are being developed for a broad range of applications, such as portable electronic devices, automobiles, power generation, and aeronautics.

  2. Unitized regenerative fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell system uses heat pipes to convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the reactant storage tanks. The storage tanks act as heat sinks/sources and as passive radiators of the waste heat from the fuel cell stack. During charge up, i.e., the electrolytic process, gases are conveyed to the reactant storage tanks by way of tubes that include dryers. Reactant gases moving through the dryers give up energy to the cold tanks, causing water vapor in with the gases to condense and freeze on the internal surfaces of the dryer. During operation in its fuel cell mode, the heat pipes convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the respective reactant storage tanks, thereby heating them such that the reactant gases, as they pass though the respective dryers on their way to the fuel cell stacks retrieve the water previously removed.

  3. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  4. PEM fuel cell diagnostic tools

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Haijiang

    2011-01-01

    PEM Fuel Cell Diagnostic Tools presents various tools for diagnosing PEM fuel cells and stacks, including in situ and ex situ diagnostic tools, electrochemical techniques, and physical/chemical methods. The text outlines the principles, experimental implementation, data processing, and application of each technique, along with its capabilities and weaknesses. The book covers many diagnostics employed in the characterization and determination of fuel cell performance. It discusses commonly used conventional tools, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning elec

  5. SOME ASPECTS OF FUEL CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Войтко, Ігор Іванович; Зубрій, О.О.; Козлова, О.М.

    2012-01-01

    This work provides literature data to improve solid oxide fuel cells by a direct methane fuel cell and electrode settings of uninterrupted space. The possibility of electrochemical generators SOFC as synthesis gas from natural gas. We describe progress in the creation of new nanomaterials for components SOFC and modern technologies for their manufacture. Briefly described features of the operation and use molten carbonate fuel cells and their accessories and SOFC in cogeneration system (three...

  6. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Gabrielle

    2004-12-03

    This report discusses the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant located at the Sheraton Edison Hotel, Edison, New Jersey. PPL EnergyPlus, LLC installed the plant under a contract with the Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. A DFC{reg_sign}300 fuel cell, manufactured by FuelCell Energy, Inc. of Danbury, CT was selected for the project. The fuel cell successfully operated from June 2003 to May 2004. This report discusses the performance of the plant during this period.

  7. Fuel cells problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive, accessible introduction to fuel cells, their applications, and the challenges they pose Fuel cells-electrochemical energy devices that produce electricity and heat-present a significant opportunity for cleaner, easier, and more practical energy. However, the excitement over fuel cells within the research community has led to such rapid innovation and development that it can be difficult for those not intimately familiar with the science involved to figure out exactly how this new technology can be used. Fuel Cells: Problems and Solutions, Second Edition addresses this i

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, Richard C.

    1986-09-02

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  9. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  10. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  11. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  12. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  13. Enzymatic fuel cells: Recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing interest in replacing non-selective metal catalysts, currently used in low temperature fuel cells, with enzymes as catalysts. Specific oxidation of fuel and oxidant by enzymes as catalysts yields enzymatic fuel cells. If the catalysts can be immobilised at otherwise inert anode and cathode materials, this specificity of catalysis obviates the requirement for fuel cell casings and membranes permitting fuel cell configurations amenable to miniaturisation to be adopted. Such configurations have been proposed for application to niche areas of power generation: powering remotely located portable electronic devices, or implanted biomedical devices, for example. We focus in this review on recent efforts to improve electron transfer between the enzymes and electrodes, in the presence or absence of mediators, with most attention on research aimed at implantable or semi-implantable enzymatic fuel cells that harvest the body's own fuel, glucose, coupled to oxygen reduction, to provide power to biomedical devices. This ambitious goal is still at an early stage, with device power output and stability representing major challenges. A comparison of performance of enzymatic fuel cell electrodes and assembled fuel cells is attempted in this review, but is hampered in general by lack of availability of, and conformity to, standardised testing and reporting protocols for electrodes and cells. We therefore highlight reports that focus on this requirement. Ultimately, insight gained from enzymatic fuel cell research will lead to improved biomimetics of enzyme catalysts for fuel cell electrodes. These biomimetics will mimic enzyme catalytic sites and the structural flexibility of the protein assembly surrounding the catalytic site.

  14. Fuel cells: Hydrogen induced insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2016-06-01

    Coupling high ionic and low electronic conductivity in the electrolyte of low-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells remains a challenge. Now, the electronic conductivity of a perovskite electrolyte, which has high proton conductivity, is shown to be heavily suppressed when exposed to hydrogen, leading to high fuel cell performance.

  15. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A.

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  16. Recent advances in monolithic solid oxide fuel cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argonne Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (MSOFC) is fabricated in a honey comb structure having alternate corrugated and flat layers similar to corrugated paperboard. This honeycomb structure, shown schematically in this paper is lightweight yet strong. The materials used to fabricate the MSOFC include yttria-stabilized zirconia as the electrolyte, alkaline earth-doped lanthanum chromite as the interconnection material (bipolar plate), strontium-doped lanthanum manganite as the cathode or air electrode, and yttria-stabilized zirconia-nickel cermet as the anode of fuel electrode. The high power densities of the MSOFC allow it to be used in many applications that would not be possible for other fuel cell designs. Some of these applications include lightweight, mobile power supplies as well as power sources for helicopters and aircraft, automobiles, space platforms, etc. The MSOFC is particularly suited for mobile power applications because of its ability to reform hydrocarbon fuels within the fuel channels

  17. PEM Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Modeling and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics. Part III: Applications Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell system design and applications.

  18. PEM fuel cell failure mode analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Haijiang

    2011-01-01

    PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis presents a systematic analysis of PEM fuel cell durability and failure modes. It provides readers with a fundamental understanding of insufficient fuel cell durability, identification of failure modes and failure mechanisms of PEM fuel cells, fuel cell component degradation testing, and mitigation strategies against degradation. The first several chapters of the book examine the degradation of various fuel cell components, including degradation mechanisms, the effects of operating conditions, mitigation strategies, and testing protocols. The book then discus

  19. PEM Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics. Part III: Applications Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell system design and applications.

  20. Fuel-Cell Water Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan; Fisher, Caleb; Newman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The main product of a typical fuel cell is water, and many fuel-cell configurations use the flow of excess gases (i.e., gases not consumed by the reaction) to drive the resultant water out of the cell. This two-phase mixture then exits through an exhaust port where the two fluids must again be separated to prevent the fuel cell from flooding and to facilitate the reutilization of both fluids. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) has designed, built, and tested an innovative fuel-cell water separator that not only removes liquid water from a fuel cell s exhaust ports, but does so with no moving parts or other power-consuming components. Instead it employs the potential and kinetic energies already present in the moving exhaust flow. In addition, the geometry of the separator is explicitly intended to be integrated into a fuel-cell stack, providing a direct mate with the fuel cell s existing flow ports. The separator is also fully scalable, allowing it to accommodate a wide range of water removal requirements. Multiple separators can simply be "stacked" in series or parallel to adapt to the water production/removal rate. GRC s separator accomplishes the task of water removal by coupling a high aspect- ratio flow chamber with a highly hydrophilic, polyethersulfone membrane. The hydrophilic membrane readily absorbs and transports the liquid water away from the mixture while simultaneously resisting gas penetration. The expansive flow path maximizes the interaction of the water particles with the membrane while minimizing the overall gas flow restriction. In essence, each fluid takes its corresponding path of least resistance, and the two fluids are effectively separated. The GRC fuel-cell water separator has a broad range of applications, including commercial hydrogen-air fuel cells currently being considered for power generation in automobiles.

  1. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  2. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  3. Direct alcohol fuel cells materials, performance, durability and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, Horacio R

    2013-01-01

    Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells: Materials, Performance, Durability and Applications begins with an introductory overview of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC); it focuses on the main goals and challenges in the areas of materials development, performance, and commercialization. The preparation and the properties of the anodic catalysts used for the oxidation of methanol, higher alcohols, and alcohol tolerant cathodes are then described. The membranes used as proton conductors in DAFC are examined, as well as alkaline membranes, focusing on the electrical conductivity and alcohol permeability. The use

  4. Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University

    2014-03-30

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. They should be scientifically exciting and sound. They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  5. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M.; Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function.

  6. Chip integrated fuel cell accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H. [Laboratory for Process Technology, IMTEK-Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Erdler, G.; Frerichs, H.-P. [Micronas GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Strasse 19, Freiburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A unique new design of a chip integrated fuel cell accumulator is presented. The system combines an electrolyser and a self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with integrated palladium hydrogen storage on a silicon substrate. Outstanding advantages of this assembly are the fuel cell with integrated hydrogen storage, the possibility of refuelling it by electrolysis and the opportunity of simply refilling the electrolyte by adding water. By applying an electrical current, wiring the palladium hydrogen storage as cathode and the counter-electrode as anode, the electrolyser produces hydrogen at the palladium surface and oxygen at the electrolyser cell anode. The generated hydrogen is absorbed by the palladium electrode and the hydrogen storage is refilled consequently enabling the fuel cell to function. (author)

  7. Fuel cells and hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocarsly, Andrew [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Mingos, Michael P. (eds.) [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    2011-07-01

    This book contains the following five contributions: 1. Solid oxide fuel cells (S.C. Singhal and X.-D. Zhou); 2. Electrocatalysis of direct alcohol fuel cells: Quantitative DEMS studies (H. Wang and H.D. Abruna); 3. Mechanical and transport properties of Nafion: Effects of temperature and water activity (J. Benziger, A. Bocarsly, M.J. Cheah, P.Majsztrik, B. Satterfield and Q. Zhao); 4. The use of heteropoly acids in proton exchange fuel cells (S. Sachdeva, J. A. Turner, J.L. Horana and A. M. Herring); 5. perspective on the storage of hydrogen: Past and future (M. T. Kelly).

  8. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  9. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  10. Fuel cell technology for prototype logistic fuel cell mobile systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederquist, R.A.; Garow, J.

    1995-08-01

    Under the aegis of the Advanced Research Project Agency`s family of programs to develop advanced technology for dual use applications, International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) is conducting a 39 month program to develop an innovative system concept for DoD Mobile Electric Power (MEP) applications. The concept is to integrate two technologies, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with an auto-thermal reformer (ATR), into an efficient fuel cell power plant of nominally 100-kilowatt rating which operates on logistic fuels (JP-8). The ATR fuel processor is the key to meeting requirements for MEP (including weight, volume, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, and especially operation on logistic fuels); most of the effort is devoted to ATR development. An integrated demonstration test unit culminates the program and displays the benefits of the fuel cell system, relative to the standard 100-kilowatt MEP diesel engine generator set. A successful test provides the basis for proceeding toward deployment. This paper describes the results of the first twelve months of activity during which specific program aims have remained firm.

  11. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  12. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShanwenTao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  13. Nano-electrocatalyst materials for low temperature fuel cells:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Vignarooban; J. Lin; A. Arvay; S. Kolli; I. Kruusenberg; K. Tammeveski; L. Munukutla; A. M. Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature fuel cells are an attractive technology for transportation and residential applica‐tions due to their quick start up and shut down capabilities. This review analyzed the current status of nanocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and alkaline membrane fuel cells. The preparation process influences the performance of the nanocatalyst. Several synthesis methods are covered for noble and non‐noble metal catalysts on various catalyst supports including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, nanowires, and graphenes. Ex situ and in situ characterization methods like scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fuel cell testing of the nanocatalysts on various supports for both proton exchange and alkaline membrane fuel cells are discussed. The accelerated durability estimate of the nanocat‐alysts, predicted by measuring changes in the electrochemically active surface area using a voltage cycling method, is considered one of the most reliable and valuable method for establishing durabil‐ity.

  14. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  15. Micro fuel cell fabrication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Scotti, Gianmario

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are established devices for high efficiency conversion of chemical into electrical energy. Microfabricated fuel cells (MFC) promise higher energy density compared to rechargeable batteries currently used in portable applications (mobile phones, tablets, laptops etc.). In this work new fabrication technologies have been developed to make MFCs more viable alternatives to batteries. Like other microfluidic devices, MFCs can be fabricated using a number of different techniques, each...

  16. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  17. 14 CFR 31.45 - Fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel cells. 31.45 Section 31.45 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.45 Fuel cells. If fuel cells are used, the fuel cells, their attachments, and related supporting structure must be shown by tests to be capable...

  18. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  19. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Zhu, Yimin; Kahn, Zakia; Man, Malcolm

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  20. Comparison of in vitro behavior of as-sprayed, alkaline-treated and collagen-treated bioceramic coatings obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp)–TiO2 samples obtained using high velocity oxy-fuel spray (HVOF), that had previously shown excellent mechanical behaviour, were innovatively surface treated in order to improve their biological performance. The chosen treatments were an alkaline treatment to increase –OH radicals density on the surface (especially on TiO2 zones), and a collagen treatment to bond collagen fibrils to the –OH radicals present in hydroxyapatite. These coatings were analysed using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy, and tested for human osteoblast biocompatibility and functionality. In the case of the alkaline treatment, although the –OH radicals density did not increase compared to the as-sprayed coatings, a nanostructured layer of sodium hydroxycarbonate precipitated on the surface, thus improving biological behaviour due to the nanoroughness effect. For the collagen-treated samples, collagen fibrils appeared well-adhered to the surface, and in vitro cell culture tests showed that these surfaces were much more conducive to cell adhesion and differentiation than the as-sprayed and alkaline-treated samples. These results pointed to collagen treatment as a very promising method to improve bioactivity of HAp–TiO2 thermal-sprayed coatings.

  1. Comparison of in vitro behavior of as-sprayed, alkaline-treated and collagen-treated bioceramic coatings obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melero, H., E-mail: hortensia.melero.correas@gmail.com [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia-Giralt, N. [URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), RETICEF, Doctor Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Fernández, J. [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Díez-Pérez, A. [URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), RETICEF, Doctor Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Servei de Medicina Interna, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Guilemany, J.M. [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp)–TiO{sub 2} samples obtained using high velocity oxy-fuel spray (HVOF), that had previously shown excellent mechanical behaviour, were innovatively surface treated in order to improve their biological performance. The chosen treatments were an alkaline treatment to increase –OH radicals density on the surface (especially on TiO{sub 2} zones), and a collagen treatment to bond collagen fibrils to the –OH radicals present in hydroxyapatite. These coatings were analysed using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy, and tested for human osteoblast biocompatibility and functionality. In the case of the alkaline treatment, although the –OH radicals density did not increase compared to the as-sprayed coatings, a nanostructured layer of sodium hydroxycarbonate precipitated on the surface, thus improving biological behaviour due to the nanoroughness effect. For the collagen-treated samples, collagen fibrils appeared well-adhered to the surface, and in vitro cell culture tests showed that these surfaces were much more conducive to cell adhesion and differentiation than the as-sprayed and alkaline-treated samples. These results pointed to collagen treatment as a very promising method to improve bioactivity of HAp–TiO{sub 2} thermal-sprayed coatings.

  2. Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc., Proton Exchange Member (PEM) Fuel Cell Engineering Model Powerplant. Test Report: Initial Benchmark Tests in the Original Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyselle, Patricia; Prokopius, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology is the leading candidate to replace the alkaline fuel cell technology, currently used on the Shuttle, for future space missions. During a 5-yr development program, a PEM fuel cell powerplant was developed. This report details the initial performance evaluation test results of the powerplant.

  3. Portable Fuel Cells for Consumer Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, Mark; Ibrahim, Samir; Learn, Thomas; Kenyon, Kenneth; Haberman, David; Hoffman, Stephanie; Salter, Carlton [Enable Fuel Cell Company, 2120 West Greenview Drive Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Enable Fuel Cells (Enable) is developing small passive proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These fuel cells are well-suited for use with many portable consumer products. The fuel cells have been demonstrated with applications such as radios, flat screen TVs, CD players, fluorescent and incandescent lighting, global positioning systems and toy trains. In this paper we present operational data and discuss issues that arise in comparing fuel cells with batteries. (author)

  4. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  5. System Studies of Fuel Cell Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kivisaari, Timo

    2001-01-01

    This thesis concerns system studies of power plants wheredifferent types of fuel cells accomplish most of the energyconversion. Ever since William Grove observed the fuel cell effect inthe late 1830s fuel cells have been the subject or more or lessintense research and development. Especially in the USA theseactivities intensified during the second part of the 1950s,resulting in the development of the fuel cells used in theApollo-program. Swedish fuel cell activities started in themid-1960s, w...

  6. Market brief : the hydrogen and fuel cells industry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the Swedish hydrogen industry was presented in this report, which also outlined some of the partnership opportunities available for Canadian hydrogen industry members. Details of research and development in Sweden's hydrogen and fuel cells sector were described. It was noted that in 2006, the Swedish government announced its plan to become the world's first oil-free economy by the year 2020. The development and use of hydrogen and fuel cell energy systems are seen as key to achieving their objectives. The EU's sixth Framework Programme (FP6) has dedicated an estimated $2.5 billion to fuel cells and hydrogen initiatives, and is working towards a target of 5 per cent EC road transport to be hydrogen-powered by 2020. Although Sweden's fuel cell development in a commercial environment had stagnated with the failure of Asea's work in alkaline fuel cells, larger energy utilities are now investing in hydrogen technology and have been responsible for the installation of Sweden's first hydrogen fuelling station in 2003. It was concluded that technological advances in stationary and portable fuel cell systems in Canada may offer good business opportunities for Canadian companies who wish to create partnerships with Sweden and other Nordic countries. Over the last 20 years, the government of Canada has provided more than $200 million in support of emerging Canadian fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. In 2005, the National Research Council's Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation hosted the Nordic-Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Partnership between Canada and Nordic countries. 55 refs

  7. Ballard: leading the fuel cell charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    This article outlines the role of Ballard Power Systems in the development of fuel cells, and their strategy in concentrating on fuel cells for cars, buses, trucks, and stationary and portable power plants. Market drivers; costs; the concept of a fuel cell as a component of a power plant, and customers and competition are discussed. California's fuel cell partnership for testing fuel cell vehicles, the shrinking of fuel cell sizes and weights, aspects of piracy and copyright, and fuel types and sources are examined. (UK)

  8. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  9. The Western Canada Fuel Cell Initiative (WCFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  10. Electrochemical behaviour of denatured ethanol for use in direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Domnik; Kintzel, Birgit; Joos, Martin; Cremers, Carsten; Tuebke, Jens [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, two denaturing agents, an adjuvant to a denaturing agent and a mixture of a denaturing agend and the adjuvant were tested with regard to their fuel cell compatibility. Therefore, various electrochemical tests including cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and differential electrochemical mass spectroscopy have been conducted at platinum as model catalyst in acidic and alkaline medium. In addition, the most promising denaturing agent, a mixture of tert-butyl ethyl ether (ETBE) with the adjuvant Bitrex {sup registered}, has also been tested at commercial fuel cell catalysts in both acidic and alkaline media. (orig.)

  11. Fuel Cell Applied Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Richardson

    2006-09-15

    Since November 12, 2003, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology has been operating a 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell to provide electrical and thermal energy to its campus. The project was made possible by funding from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as by a partnership with the provincial Alberta Energy Research Institute; a private-public partnership, Climate Change Central; the federal Ministry of Western Economic Development; and local natural gas supplier, ATCO Gas. Operation of the fuel cell has contributed to reducing NAIT's carbon dioxide emissions through its efficient use of natural gas.

  12. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  13. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  14. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  15. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  16. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  17. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  18. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  19. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan;

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  20. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  1. Polymer Materials for Fuel Cell Membranes :Sulfonated Poly(ether sulfone) for Universal Fuel Cell Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyoung-Juhn Kim

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) have been spotlighted because they are clean and highly efficient power generation system. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), which use reformate gases or pure H2 for a fuel, have been employed for automotives and residential usages. Also, liquid-feed fuel cells such as direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) were studied for portable power generation.

  2. European Fuel Cells R&D Review. Final report, Purchase Order No. 062014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, P.D.; Maguire, J. [Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    Aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD&D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.

  3. Catalysts compositions for use in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Steven S.C.

    2015-12-01

    The present invention generally relates to the generation of electrical energy from a solid-state fuel. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a solid-oxide fuel cell for generating electrical energy from a carbon-based fuel, and to catalysts for use in a solid-oxide fuel cell.

  4. Innovative Fuel Cell Health Monitoring IC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energy storage devices, including fuel cells, are needed to enable future robotic and human exploration missions. Historically, the reliability of the fuel cells...

  5. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  6. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Experimental Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, gives researchers access to models and simulations that predict how solid oxide fuel cells...

  8. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan; Gang, Xiao; Gao, Ji-An; Bjerrum, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...... temperature allows for utilization of the excess heat for fuel processing. Moreover, it provides an excellent CO tolerance of several percent, and the system needs no purification of hydrogen from a reformer. Continuous service for over 6 months at 150°C has been demonstrated....

  9. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  10. Development of portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  11. High Temperature Alkaline Electrolysis Cells with Metal Foam Based Gas Diffusion Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline electrolysis cells operating at 250°C and 40 bar are able to convert electrical energy into hydrogen at very high efficiencies and power densities. In the present work we demonstrate the application of a PTFE hydrophobic network and Ag nanowires as oxygen evolution electrocatalyst in the...... metal foam based gas diffusion electrodes. A novel cell production method, based on tape casting and hot pressing, was developed which allows to increase the cell size from lab scale (1 cm2) to areas of 25 cm2 or larger. The thickness of the electrolyte matrix could be adjusted to only 200 μm, achieving...... novel cell concept promises more than a 10-fold improvement in power density, compared to conventional alkaline electrolysis cells, and thereby equivalent reduction in stack size and cost....

  12. Fuel cell/gas turbine integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knickerbocker, T. [Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-10-19

    The Allison Engine Company`s very high efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycle program is discussed. The power cycle has the following advantages: high system efficiency potential, reduced emissions inherent to fuel cells, unmanned operation(no boiler) particularly suited for distributed power, and existing product line matches fuel cell operating environment. Cost effectiveness, estimates, and projections are given.

  13. Measurement of DNA strand breakage and DNA repair induced with hydrogen peroxide using single cell gel electrophoresis, alkaline DNA unwinding and alkaline elution of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three techniques single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), alkaline elution of DNA, and alkaline DNA unwinding (ADU) were chosen to compare the sensitivity among these methods in detection of DNA damage and repair in human diploid VH10 cell line after short-term exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Using SCGE technique a dose-dependent increase in DNA migration was found in cell exposed to hydrogen peroxide in concentration range from 10 μmol/l. Alkaline DNA unwinding method detected increased level of single strand breaks (ssb) in concentration range from 25 μmol/l of H2O2, and alkaline elution of DNA estimated increased DNA elution rate from concentration 50 μmol/l of H2O2. In a time course study to evaluate the kinetics of DNA repair, both SCGE and ADU techniques showed that the repair of DNA strand breaks is very rapid; the level of ssb in treated cells has returned to near the background level within two hours. After this time damage remaining in the DNA was in the form of oxidised bases as revealed the incubation of treated cells with specific DNA repair endonuclease, formamidopyridine-DNA glycosylase. (author)

  14. Fuel and control for an integrated fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OS/IES (On-Site Integrated Energy System) comprises a phosphoric acid fuel cell driven total energy package that produces electrical energy in the form of AC power (when the DC voltage from the fuel cell is inverted), and heat energy in the form of hot water. The fuel cell prefers a fuel high in hydrogen therefore it becomes necessary to convert as much of the fuel, i.e. natural or pipeline gas into hydrogen as possible using a fuel reformer. Fuel reforming is an endothermic process and in this case waste energy in the form of ''spent'' fuel from the fuel cell is used to supply heat to the reformer. Fuel cell waste heat is also used to raise the steam used in the reforming process. The OS/IES fuel processing system comprises five interrelated subsystems. Each subsystem is controlled independently through a microprocessor but a change in any subsystem function could have an effect on the operation of any or several other subsystems. Thus the controller receives a signal indicating electrical demand and proceeds to balance the subsystems as well as the fuel and air flow to each of the fuel cells. The controller also responds to a number of alarm signals and is capable of starting and stopping the complete OS/IES. It is assisted by a tie to the utility line which can dispense electrical energy for startup or instantaneous load following and accept excess generated power in case of load loss. In this paper we review fuel cell operation and requirements, the components and interactions that make up the reformer system, and the microprocessor control required to integrate the OS/IES

  15. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  16. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes. With the...... thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  17. Fuel cell with ionization membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A fuel cell is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas passing therethrough, and a cathode for receiving the ions generated by the ionization membrane. The ionization membrane may include one or more openings in the membrane with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of molecules within the gas to be ionized. Methods of manufacture are also provided.

  18. Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Klápště, Břetislav; Velická, Jana; Sedlaříková, M.; Černý, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2003), s. 44-47. ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0983; GA AV ČR IAA4032002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : electrocatalysis * hydrogen electrode Ionex membrane * membrane fuel cell Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2003

  19. Differential staining of interspecific chromosomes in somatic cell hybrids by alkaline Giemsa stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, K K; Chen, S; Ruddle, F H

    1976-03-01

    Staining of chromosome preparations of Chinese hamster-human hybrid cells and mouse-chimpanzee hybrids with alkaline Giemsa has yielded color differentiation of the interspecific chromosomes. Bicolor chromosomes, indicating apparent translocations also are observed for each of these hybrids. The specific color differences observed provide a rapid means of recognizing and aiding in the identification of the interspecific chromosomes and apparent translocations in these somatic cell hybrids. PMID:1028166

  20. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  1. Fuel cell science theory, fundamentals, and biocatalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of theoretical andexperimental concepts in fuel cell chemistry Fuel cell science is undergoing significant development, thanks, in part, to a spectacular evolution of the electrocatalysis concepts, and both new theoretical and experimental methods. Responding to the need for a definitive guide to the field, Fuel Cell Science provides an up-to-date, comprehensive compendium of both theoretical and experimental aspects of the field. Designed to inspire scientists to think about the future of fuel cell technology, Fuel Cell Science addresses the emerging field of

  2. Development of the work on fuel cells in the Ministry for Atomic Energy of Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubovin, B.Y.; Novitski, E.Z.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes research on fuel cells in the Russian Federation. The beginning of the practical work on fuel cells in Russia dates back to the 50`s and 60`s when the Ural Electrochemical Plant and the Ural Electromechanical Plant of the Ministry of Medium Machine-Building of the USSR, all Russian Research Institute of the power sources and many other institutes of the Ministry of Electrotechnical Industry of the USSR got to the development of the alkaline fuel cells for the spaceships according to the tasks of the SPC `Energy` and for the submarines on the tasks of the Ministry of Defense.

  3. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  4. General Motors automotive fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fronk, M.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of the second phase of the GM/DOE fuel cell program is to develop and test a 30 kW fuel cell powerplant. This powerplant will be based on a methanol fuel processor and a proton exchange membrane PM fuel cell stack. In addition, the 10 kW system developed during phase I will be used as a {open_quotes}mule{close_quotes} to test automotive components and other ancillaries, needed for transient operation.

  5. Towards Extrusion of Ionomers to Process Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Sanchez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available While Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC membranes are currently prepared by film casting, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of extrusion, a solvent-free alternative process. Thanks to water-soluble process-aid plasticizers, duly selected, it was possible to extrude acidic and alkaline polysulfone ionomers. Additionally, the feasibility to extrude composites was demonstrated. The impact of the plasticizers on the melt viscosity was investigated. Following the extrusion, the plasticizers were fully removed in water. The extrusion was found to impact neither on the ionomer chains, nor on the performances of the membrane. This environmentally friendly process was successfully validated for a variety of high performance ionomers.

  6. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  7. Fuel cells using ionic liquids as electrolyte and operating at room temperature; Celulas de combustivel utilizando como eletrolito liquidos ionicos e operando a temperatura ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botton, Janine Padilha; Souza, Roberto Fernando de; Goncalves, Reinaldo Simoes; Dupont, Jairton [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: janine@iq.ufrgs.br

    2004-07-01

    The room temperature imidazolium based ionic liquids, such as 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF4) are outstanding electrolytes for fuel cells. A 67% overall cell efficiency is achieve using these liquids as supporting electrolytes for a commercially available alkaline fuel cell (AFC) at room temperature operating with air and hydrogen at atmospheric pressure. (author)

  8. Pyramidal texturing of silicon surface via inorganic-organic hybrid alkaline liquor for heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyou; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Liguo; Jiang, Yuanjian; Wei, Changchun; Zhao, Ying

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a new class of silicon texturing approach based on inorganic (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and organic (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, TMAH) alkaline liquor etching processes for photovoltaic applications. The first stage of inorganic alkaline etching textures the silicon surface rapidly with large pyramids and reduces the cost. The subsequent organic alkaline second-etching improves the coverage of small pyramids on the silicon surface and strip off the metallic contaminants produced by the first etching step. In addition, it could smoothen the surface of the pyramids to yield good morphology. In this study, the texturing duration of both etching steps was controlled to optimize the optical and electrical properties as well as the surface morphology and passivation characteristics of the silicon substrates. Compared with traditional inorganic NaOH texturing, this hybrid process yields smoother (111) facets of the pyramids, fewer residual Na+ ions on the silicon surface, and a shorter processing period. It also offers the advantage of lower cost compared with the organic texturing method based on the use of only TMAH. We applied this hybrid texturing process to fabricate silicon heterojunction solar cells, which showed a remarkable improvement compared with the cells based on traditional alkaline texturing processes.

  9. Hybrid Cars Now, Fuel Cell Cars Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdöven, Nurettin; Deutch, John

    2004-08-01

    We compare the energy efficiency of hybrid and fuel cell vehicles as well as conventional internal combustion engines. Our analysis indicates that fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen from fossil fuels offer no significant energy efficiency advantage over hybrid vehicles operating in an urban drive cycle. We conclude that priority should be placed on hybrid vehicles by industry and government.

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  11. Early stage fuel cell funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Early stage venture funding requires an in depth understanding of both current and future markets as well as the key technical hurdles that need to be overcome for new technology to commercialize into successful products for mass markets. As the leading fuel cell and hydrogen investor, Chrysalix continuously reviews global trends and new technologies, evaluates them with industry leaders worldwide and tries to match them up with the best possible management teams when selecting its early stage investments. Chrysalix Energy Limited Partnership is an early-stage venture capital firm focusing on fuel cell and related fueling technology companies and is a private equity joint venture between Ballard Power Systems, BASF Venture Capital, The BOC Group, The Boeing Company, Duke Energy, Mitsubishi Corporation and Shell Hydrogen. Operating independently, Chrysalix offers a unique value proposition to its clients throughout the business planning, start-up and operations phases of development. Chrysalix provides early-stage funding to new companies as well as management assistance, technological knowledge, organized networking with industry players and experience in the management of intellectual property. (author)

  12. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  13. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  14. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    traditional unidirectional fuel cell, bidirectional fuel cells have increased operating voltage and current ranges. These characteristics increase the stresses on dc-dc and dc-ac converters in the electrical system, which require proper design and advanced optimization. This work is part of the PhD project......The large scale integration of renewable energy sources requires suitable energy storage systems to balance energy production and demand in the electrical grid. Bidirectional fuel cells are an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to the high energy density of fuel. Compared to...... entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies as...

  15. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  16. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  17. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  18. The direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpert, G.; Narayanan, S.R.; Frank, H. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This presentation describes the approach and progress in the ARPA-sponsored effort to develop a Direct Methanol, Liquid-Feed Fuel Cell (DMLFFC) with a solid Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) for battery replacement in small portable applications. Using Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) developed by JPL and Giner, significant voltage was demonstrated at relatively high current densities. The DMLFFC utilizes a 3 percent aqueous solution of methanol that is oxidized directly in the anode (fuel) chamber and oxygen (air) in the cathode chamber to produce water and significant power. The only products are water and CO{sub 2}. The ARPA effort is aimed at replacing the battery in the BA 5590 military radio.

  19. Multiscale porous fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao

    Porous electrodes are widely used in fuel cells to enhance electrode performance due to their high surface area. Increasingly, such electrodes are designed with both micro-scale and nano-scale features. In the current work, carbon based porous materials have been synthesized and utilized as bioelectrode support for biofuel cells, analysis of such porous electrodes via rotating disk electrode has been enhanced by a numerical model that considers diffusion and convection within porous media. Finally, porous perovskite metal oxide cathodes for solid oxide fuel cell have been modeled to simulate impedance response data obtained from symmetric cells. Carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) were fabricated to mimic the microenvironment of carbon fiber paper based porous electrodes. They were also miniature electrodes for small-scale applications. As observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formed a homogeneously intertwined matrix. Biocatalysts can fully infiltrate this matrix to form a composite, with a significantly enhanced glucose oxidation current---that is 6.4 fold higher than the bare carbon fiber electrodes. Based on the CNT based porous matrix, polystyrene beads of uniform diameter at 500 nm were used as template to tune the porous structure and enhance biomolecule transport. Focused ion beam (FIB) was used to observe the morphology both at the surface and the cross-section. It has been shown that the template macro-pores enhanced the fuel transport and the current density has been doubled due to the improvement. Like commonly used rotating disk electrode, the porous rotating disk electrode is a system with analytically solved flow field. Although models were proposed previously with first order kinetics and convection as the only mass transport at high rotations, some recent findings indicated that diffusion could play an important role at all disk rotation rates. In the current proposed model, enzymatic kinetics that follow a Ping

  20. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.

  1. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  2. Fuel cells science and engineering. Materials, processes, systems and technology. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolten, Detlef; Emonts, Bernd (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energieforschung (IEF), Brennstoffzellen (IEF-3)

    2012-07-01

    The first volume is divided in four parts and 22 chapters. It is structured as follows: PART I: Technology. Chapter 1: Technical Advancement of Fuel-Cell Research and Development (Dr. Bernd Emonts, Ludger Blum, Thomas Grube, Werner Lehnert, Juergen Mergel, Martin Mueller and Ralf Peters); 2: Single-Chamber Fuel Cells (Teko W. Napporn and Melanie Kuhn); 3: Technology and Applications of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (Barbara Bosio, Elisabetta Arato and Paolo Greppi); 4: Alkaline Fuel Cells (Erich Guelzow); 5: Micro Fuel Cells (Ulf Groos and Dietmar Gerteisen); 6: Principles and Technology of Microbial Fuel Cells (Jan B. A. Arends, Joachim Desloover, Sebastia Puig and Willy Verstraete); 7: Micro-Reactors for Fuel Processing (Gunther Kolb); 8: Regenerative Fuel Cells (Martin Mueller). PART II: Materials and Production Processes. Chapter 9: Advances in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development between 1995 and 2010 at Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Germany (Vincent Haanappel); 10: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Fabrication by Infiltration (Evren Gunen); 11: Sealing Technology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (K. Scott Weil); 12: Phosphoric Acid, an Electrolyte for Fuel Cells - Temperature and Composition Dependence of Vapor Pressure and Proton Conductivity (Carsten Korte); 13: Materials and Coatings for Metallic Bipolar Plates in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (Heli Wang and John A. Turner); 14: Nanostructured Materials for Fuel Cells (John F. Elter); 15: Catalysis in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells - An Overview (Sabine Schimpf and Michael Bron). PART III: Analytics and Diagnostics. Chapter 16: Impedance Spectroscopy for High-Temperature Fuel Cells (Ellen Ivers-Tiffee, Andre Leonide, Helge Schichlein, Volker Sonn and Andre Weber); 17: Post-Test Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Stacks (Norbert H. Menzler and Peter Batfalsky); 18: In Situ Imaging at Large-Scale Facilities (Christian Toetzke, Ingo Manke and Werner Lehnert); 19: Analytics of Physical Properties of Low

  3. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  4. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells). An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Stavroula Sfaelou; Panagiotis Lianos

    2016-01-01

    This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell op...

  5. Control of placental alkaline phosphatase gene expression in HeLa cells: induction of synthesis by prednisolone and sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HeLa S3 cells produce an alkaline phosphatase indistinguishable from the enzyme from human term placenta. The phosphatase activity in these cells was induced by both prednisolone and sodium butyrate. Both agents stimulated de novo synthesis of the enzyme. The increase in phosphatase activity paralleled the increase in immunoactivity and biosynthesis of placental alkaline phosphatase. The fully processed phosphatase monomer in control, prednisolone-treated or butyrate-treated cells was a 64.5 K polypeptide, measured by both incorporation of L-[35S]methionine into enzyme protein and active-site labeling. The 64.5K polypeptide was formed by the incorporation of additional N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties to a precursor polypeptide of 61.5K. However, this biosynthetic pathway was identified only in butyrate-treated cells. In prednisolone-treated cells, the processing of 61.5K to 64.5K monomer was accelerated, and the presence of the 61.5 precursor could only be detected by either neuraminidase or monensin treatment. Phosphatase mRNA which comigrated with the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA of 2.7 kilobases was induced in the presence of either prednisolone or butyrate. Alkaline phosphatase mRNA is untreated HeLa S3 cells migrated slightly faster than the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Butyrate also induced a second still faster migrating alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Both prednisolone and butyrate increased the steady-state levels of placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. The data indicate that the increase in phosphatase mRNA by prednisolone and butyrate resulted in the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity and biosynthesis in HeLa S3 cells. Furthermore, both agents induced the expression of different alkaline phosphatase gene transcripts without altering its protein product

  6. Regulation of Power Conversion in Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Mu-zhong; ZHANG J.; K. Scott

    2004-01-01

    Here we report a regulation about power conversion in fuel cells. This regulation is expressed as that total power produced by fuel cells is always proportional to the square of the potential difference between the equilibrium potential and work potential. With this regulation we deduced fuel cell performance equation which can describe the potential vs. the current performance curves, namely, polarization curves of fuel cells with three power source parameters: equilibrium potential E0; internal resistance R; and power conversion coefficient K. The concept of the power conversion coefficient is a new criterion to evaluate and compare the characteristics and capacity of different fuel cells. The calculated values obtained with this equation agree with practical performance of different types of fuel cells.

  7. Commercialization of fuel cells: myth or reality?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junye

    2014-01-01

    Despite huge investment and efforts in the last decades, fuel cells are still known as a fledgling industry after 170 years of the first fuel cell. It becomes clear that these investment and efforts did not address the critical questions. Why upscaling of fuel cells failed often when many researchers stated their successes in small scale? Why the fuel cells with simpler structure still lag far from the internal combustion (IC) engines and gas turbines? Could the current investment of the hydrogen infrastructure reduce substantially the fuel cell cost and make a breakthrough to the key issues of durability, reliability and robustness? In this paper, we study these fundamental questions and point out a must-way possible to reduce cost of fuel cells and to substantially improve durability and reliability.

  8. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  9. Use of alternative fuels in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    A future sustainable energy system will certainly be based on a variety of environmentally benign energy production technologies. Fuel cells can be a key element in this scenario. One of the fuel cells types the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has a number of advantages that places them in a favorable position: high efficiency, parallel production of electricity and high value heat, prevention of NOx emission, flexibility regarding usable fuels, and certain tolerance towards impurities. It is thus a natural option, to combine such a highly efficient energy conversion tool with a sustainable fuel supply. In the present contribution, the use of alternative compared to conventional fuels in SOFCs was evaluated. Regarding carbon containing, biomass derived fuels, SOFCs showed excellent power output and stability behavior during long-term testing under technologically relevant conditions. Moreover, ammonia can be used directly as fuel. The chemical and structural properties of the SOFC anode makes it even possible, to combine a chemical conversion of the fuel, for example methane into synthesis gas via steam reforming and decomposition of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, with the electrochemical production of electricity in one step. (au)

  10. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel cell is claimed capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst

  11. Renewable energies - Fuel cell and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 2003 the Fuel Cell Program was established at IPEN in order to contribute to the national development in this area. The program was structured in a cross-cutting way involving human and infrastructure resources from IPEN Technical Departments. Three main areas were developed: PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell): SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell); and REFORM (H2 production from ethanol reforming)

  12. Review of UK fuel cell. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The advancement of fuel cell technology in recent years has made commercial viability a reality in many disciplines in the UK. The Carbon Trust and the Department of Trade and Industry have jointly undertaken a study to facilitate and encourage the penetration of fuel cells into the commercial market both at home and overseas. This document summarises the findings of the study and concludes that stationary fuel cells have the greatest potential for market stimulation.

  13. A development of direct hydrazine/hydrogen peroxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, Shao Jiang; Qin, Hai Ying; Ye, Li Qiang; Li, Zhou Peng [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Bin Hong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-07-01

    A direct hydrazine fuel cell using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidizer has been developed. The N{sub 2}H{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} fuel cell is assembled by using Ni-Pt/C composite catalyst as the anode catalyst, Au/C as the cathode catalyst, and Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. Both anolyte and catholyte show significant influences on cell voltage and cell performance. The open-circuit voltage of the N{sub 2}H{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} fuel cell reaches up to 1.75 V when using alkaline N{sub 2}H{sub 4} solution as the anolyte and acidic H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution as the catholyte. A maximum power density of 1.02 W cm{sup -2} has been achieved at operation temperature of 80 C. The number of electrons exchanged in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction reaction on Au/C catalyst is 2. (author)

  14. Water balance in fuel cells systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cell systems are attractive for their high efficiency (i.e., electric power generated per weight/volume of fuel,) and lower emissions. These systems are being developed for applications that include transportation (propulsion and auxiliary), remote stationary, and portable. Where these systems use on-board fuel processing of available fuels, the fuel processor requires high-purity water. For utility applications, this water may be available on-site, but for most applications, the process water must be recovered from the fuel cell system exhaust gas. For such applications, it is critically important that the fuel cell system be a net water-producing device. A variety of environmental conditions (e.g., ambient temperature, pressure), fuel cell system design, and operating conditions determine whether the fuel cell system is water-producing or water-consuming. This paper will review and discuss the conditions that determine the net-water balance of a generic fuel cell system and identify some options that will help meet the water needs of the fuel processor

  15. Fuel Cells in China 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken-Xuan Liu; Rissanen, Markku

    2009-01-15

    This report gives an overview of the fuel cell field with some history, the development as per today, the present situation and status of fuel cells in China, with the regard to industry, manufacturers, and suppliers, other organizations, applications, development and trends. USA, Canada, Japan, Korea and Germany are the main countries in the lead of the fuel cell area. When comparing with these countries e.g. the neighboring countries Japan and Korea, China is still behind but they are rapidly catching up, especially in the transportation area where there are many activities ongoing and where the government has put a large focus. In the year 2008 there were many demonstration projects with buses and cars, some in connection with the Olympic Games. Still the activities are mainly driven by research organizations, i.e. Universities and Institutes, but some commercial companies have started to show up. As for investment and financing, the development is dependent on governmental resources but there have been investments made from bus, car and bicycle manufacturers. Other private investments are small. The companies or other organizations that are in the forefront on a worldwide basis are mainly some research institutes as Tsinghua University, Tongji University and Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and some vehicle manufacturer, e.g. Shanghai Volkswagen. Many of the Chinese organizations, e.g. Chinese Academy of Science have some cooperation with companies abroad to gain experiences and to have a fast development in the area. For the portable and stationary applications there is not as much activity as in the transportation area with demonstrations and media coverage. However, with China's position in the production of batteries for portable devices there are some activities in the battery companies and in the research organizations, but this is not reported extensively. With regards to stationary applications and larger power outputs there are not that many

  16. PEM fuel cells performance improvements by CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The system of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) is considered as the leading candidate to replace the internal combustion engine in the 21st century, as well as being a key technology for small stationary power stations, transportation and portable systems. Since 2001, the National R and D Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies-ICIT Rm. Valcea has developed several research projects in the field of hydrogen production, storage and fuel cells. Due to the interdisciplinary team, ICIT Rm. Valcea has expertise both in the fields of conductive and stable polymers, chemical and electrochemical synthesis and polymeric membranes, catalysts chemical synthesis and also fluid dynamics computation. The system behavior in different working regimes and the optimization of the fuel cells stack configuration (geometric and thermodynamic) in order to increase the power production for the future applications, can be done using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD is an indispensable tool in identifying, understanding, predicting, controlling and optimizing various transport and physico (electro)-chemical processes that occur on different length scales in fuel cells. By developing a comprehensive and detailed mathematical model for studying electrochemical, thermodynamics and fluid dynamics relations that occur in a PEM fuel cell, and solving numerically this model using a CFD software one can obtain a powerful modeling tool that can be viewed like an important alternatives for fuel cell optimization process and for reduction of exploitation/experimentation costs. The collaboration between the numerical modelers and experimenters and between academics and industrialists are required in order to speed up the development of the CFD modeling capabilities and the fuel cell technology as a whole. We can anticipate that with the continuous development of more detailed fuel cell sub-models, advanced CFD modeling techniques with their flexibility

  17. PEM fuel cell testing and diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jifeng; Zhang, Jiujun

    2013-01-01

    PEM Fuel Cell Testing and Diagnosis covers the recent advances in PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell systems, focusing on instruments and techniques for testing and diagnosis, and the application of diagnostic techniques in practical tests and operation. This book is a unique source of electrochemical techniques for researchers, scientists and engineers working in the area of fuel cells. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are currently considered the most promising clean energy-converting devices for stationary, transportation, and micro-power applications due to their

  18. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  19. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  20. Automatic online buffer capacity (alkalinity) measurement of wastewater using an electrochemical cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Charles, Wipa; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The use of an automatic online electrochemical cell (EC) for measuring the buffer capacity of wastewater is presented. pH titration curves of different solutions (NaHCO3, Na2HPO4, real municipal wastewater, and anaerobic digester liquid) were obtained by conventional chemical titration and compared to the online EC measurements. The results show that the pH titration curves from the EC were comparable to that of the conventional chemical titration. The results show a linear relationship between the response of the online EC detection system and the titrimetric partial alkalinity and total alkalinity of all tested samples. This suggests that an EC can be used as a simple online titration device for monitoring the buffer capacity of different industrial processes including wastewater treatment and anaerobic digestion processes. PMID:26935968

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  2. Cost targets for domestic fuel cell CHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffell, I.; Green, R.; Kendall, K.

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy bills by providing both heat and power at the point of use, generating high value electricity from a low cost fuel. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently low to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. A computer simulation is used to estimate the savings and cost targets for fuel cell CHP systems. Two pitfalls of this kind of simulation are addressed: the selection of representative performance figures for fuel cells, and the range of houses from which energy demand data was taken. A meta-study of the current state of the art is presented, and used with 102 house-years of demand to simulate the range of economic performance expected from four fuel cell technologies within the UK domestic CHP market. Annual savings relative to a condensing boiler are estimated at €170-300 for a 1 kWe fuel cell, giving a target cost of €350-625 kW -1 for any fuel cell technology that can demonstrate a 2.5-year lifetime. Increasing lifetime and reducing fuel cell capacity are identified as routes to accelerated market entry. The importance of energy demand is seen to outweigh both economic and technical performance assumptions, while manufacture cost and system lifetime are highlighted as the only significant differences between the technologies considered. SOFC are considered to have the greatest potential, but uncertainty in the assumptions used precludes any clear-cut judgement.

  3. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  4. Alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperature and pressure of 250 °C and 42 bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    A new type of alkaline electrolysis cells with nickel foam based gas diffusion electrodes and KOH (aq) immobilized in mesoporous SrTiO3 has been developed and tested at temperatures and pressures up to 250 °C and 42 bar, respectively. Current densities of 1.0 A cm−2 have been measured at a cell...... voltage of 1.5 V without the use of expensive noble metal catalysts. High electrical efficiency and current density combined with relatively small production costs may lead to both reduced investment and operating costs for hydrogen and oxygen production....

  5. Hydroponics gel as a new electrolyte gelling agent for alkaline zinc-air cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, R.; Basirun, W. J.; Yahaya, A. H.; Arof, A. K.

    The viability of hydroponics gel as a new alkaline electrolyte gelling agent is investigated. Zinc-air cells are fabricated employing 12 wt.% KOH electrolyte immobilised with hydroponics gel. The cells are discharged at constant currents of 5, 50 and 100 mA. XRD and SEM analysis of the anode plates after discharge show that the failure mode is due to the formation of zinc oxide insulating layers and not due to any side reactions between the gel and the plate or the electrolyte.

  6. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; York, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  7. The role of fuel cells and electrolysers in future efficient energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vang Hendriksen, P.; Pedersen, Allan S.; Linderoth, S. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Roskilde (Denmark); Vad Mathiesen, B. [Aalborg Univ.. Dept. of Development and Planning, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Fuel cells possess a number of other characteristics which make them relevant to many different applications in the future energy system. They are by nature modular and may thus be used at a wide variety of scales: from battery replacements (0.1-1 kW), through combined heat and power (CHP) for single houses (1-10 kW) and decentralised units (100 kW-5 MW), to large centralised power and CHP plants (100-500 MW). Fuel cells may also be operated in reverse mode, as electrolysers, to convert electrical energy to chemical energy. An example is the reduction of steam to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} to CO; using well-known catalytic routes the resulting gases can be further converted to a range of hydrocarbons which may be used as transport fuels, such as methanol, DME and even synthetic diesel. Several different types of fuel cells exist. They can be classified by the type of electrolyte used. All have their advantages and disadvantages, but none has to date matured to a level where fuel cells are in widespread commercial use or play a significant role in the energy system. Alkaline fuel cells have been used for space and military applications but are expensive and challenging to use in other applications. Phosphoric acid (PAFC), molten carbonate (MCFC) and alkaline (AFC) fuel cells have historically attracted a lot of R and D, but still face a number of challenges for commercial use. Low- and high-temperature PEM and solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells are currently attracting the largest development efforts for CHP and transport applications. Domestic CHP units based on both PEMFCs and SOFCs have recently been launched by industrial suppliers as have larger units for distributed generation. Fuel cells and electrolysis cells are still to enter a wide spread use, but the technologies have great potential in a future more efficient and more sustainable energy system. (LN)

  8. Internet public information for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhoff, F.A. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The rapid development and integration of the Internet into the mainstream of professional life provide the fuel cell industry with the opportunity to share new ideas with unprecedented capabilities. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has undertaken the task to provide a service where current fuel cell descriptions and information are available to customers, manufactures, academia, and the general public. METC has developed a Fuel Cell Forum where members can exchange ideas and information pertaining to fuel cell technologies using the Internet. Forum membership is encouraged from utilities, industry, universities, and Government. Because of the public nature of the Internet, business sensitive, confidential, or proprietary information should not be placed on this system. The views and opinions of authors expressed in the forum do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. Government or METC. METC, has endeavored to develop a World Wide Web (WWW) location committed to the description and development of the fuel cell. Netscape or compatible software provides access to the METC Homepage. The user then selects Advanced Power Systems, then Fuel Cells. Fuel cell overview and description is followed by a presentation of the fuel cell system characteristics and advantages. Descriptions of major fuel cell projects are provided in the FACTS section. Finally, as a service to METC customers, the homepage provides a calendar and points of contact. Updates to the WWW location are occasionally made revealing current technical advances in fuel cells. In the continuing effort to further improve public knowledge and perception of fuel cell power generation, METC has created two new modes of communication using the Internet.

  9. UV-induced alkaline labile DNA damage in human adenovirus and its repair after infection of human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV-induced alkaline labile viral DNA damage was detected following irradiation of adenovirus type 2 and found to be repaired following the infection of human KB cells. Human adenovirus type 2 was irradiated with various doses of UV and subsequently used to infect human KB cells in tissue culture at approximately 2 x 103 particles per cell. Before, and at various times after infection, the viral DNA was examined on alkaline sucrose gradients. Irradiated free virus DNA showed a dose dependent decrease in molecular weight compared to unirradiated virus DNA, indicating the presence of UV-induced alkaline labile lesions. Furthermore, an increase in the molecular weight of the irradiated virus DNA was found after infection indicating that alkaline labile lesions were removed from the viral DNA by a host mediated repair mechanism. After infection, the molecular weight of the irradiated virus DNA reached a value similar to that of unirradiated virus DNA for all the UV doses studied. (author)

  10. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fengge; Miraoui, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.This book pre

  11. High-Efficiency Artificial Photosynthesis Using a Novel Alkaline Membrane Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri; Haines, Brennan; Blosiu, Julian; Marzwell, Neville

    2009-01-01

    A new cell designed to mimic the photosynthetic processes of plants to convert carbon dioxide into carbonaceous products and oxygen at high efficiency, has an improved configuration using a polymer membrane electrolyte and an alkaline medium. This increases efficiency of the artificial photosynthetic process, achieves high conversion rates, permits the use of inexpensive catalysts, and widens the range of products generated by this type of process. The alkaline membrane electrolyte allows for the continuous generation of sodium formate without the need for any additional separation system. The electrolyte type, pH, electrocatalyst type, and cell voltage were found to have a strong effect on the efficiency of conversion of carbon dioxide to formate. Indium electrodes were found to have higher conversion efficiency compared to lead. Bicarbonate electrolyte offers higher conversion efficiency and higher rates than water solutions saturated with carbon dioxide. pH values between 8 and 9 lead to the maximum values of efficiency. The operating cell voltage of 2.5 V, or higher, ensures conversion of the carbon dioxide to formate, although the hydrogen evolution reaction begins to compete strongly with the formate production reaction at higher cell voltages. Formate is produced at indium and lead electrodes at a conversion efficiency of 48 mg of CO2/kilojoule of energy input. This efficiency is about eight times that of natural photosynthesis in green plants. The electrochemical method of artificial photosynthesis is a promising approach for the conversion, separation and sequestration of carbon dioxide for confined environments as in space habitats, and also for carbon dioxide management in the terrestrial context. The heart of the reactor is a membrane cell fabricated from an alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane and catalyst- coated electrodes. This cell is assembled and held in compression in gold-plated hardware. The cathode side of the cell is supplied with carbon

  12. Fuel cell and membrane therefore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aindow, Tai-Tsui

    2016-08-09

    A fuel cell includes first and second flow field plates, and an anode electrode and a cathode electrode between the flow field plates. A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is arranged between the electrodes. At least one of the flow field plates influences, at least in part, an in-plane anisotropic physical condition of the PEM that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM has an in-plane physical property that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM is oriented with its high value direction substantially aligned with the high value direction of the flow field plate.

  13. Fuel cells for telephone networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical telephone network systems are currently protected from electric utility power failures by a backup system consisting of lead-acid batteries and an engine-alternator. It is considered here an alternate power system where less expensive off-peak commercial electricity electrolyses water, while fuel cells draw continuously on the stored gas products to provide direct current for the protected equipment. The lead acid batteries are eliminated. The benefits and costs of the existing and alternate systems in scenarios with various system efficiencies, capital costs, and electric utility rates and incentives, are compared. In today's conditions, the alternate system is not economical; however, cost and performance feasibility domains are identified. 2 figs., 4 tabs., 12 refs

  14. Microbial fuel cell: A green technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) was developed which was able to generate bio energy continuously while consuming wastewater containing organic matters. Even though the bio energy generated is not as high as hydrogen fuel cell, the MFC demonstrated great potential in bio-treating wastewater while using it as fuel source. Thus far, the dual-ability of the MFC to generate bio energy and bio-treating organic wastewater has been examined successfully using synthetic acetate and POME wastewaters. (author)

  15. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  16. The fuel cell; La pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursin, P.

    2005-07-01

    This document is an exhaustive review of the history of fuel cells from 1802 to 2004. It focusses mainly on the automotive applications and supplies many technical details about each prototype of fuel cell and/or vehicle. (J.S.)

  17. A Method of Operating a Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of determining the net water drag coefficient (rd) in a fuel cell. By measuring the velocity of the fluid stream at the outlet of the anode, rd can be determined. Real time monitoring and adjustments of the water balance of a fuel cell may be therefore...

  18. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in th

  19. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  20. Renewable energies - Fuel cell and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the IPEN program are based on the MCT (Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology) national program, contributing significantly to the national development in this area. The program comprises three main areas of interest: PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell); SOFC(Solid Oxide Fuel Cell); and H2-Production, mainly from ethanol reforming

  1. Organic fuel cell methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Eugene (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor); Olah, George A. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A liquid organic, fuel cell is provided which employs a solid electrolyte membrane. An organic fuel, such as a methanol/water mixture, is circulated past an anode of a cell while oxygen or air is circulated past a cathode of the cell. The cell solid electrolyte membrane is preferably fabricated from Nafion.TM.. Additionally, a method for improving the performance of carbon electrode structures for use in organic fuel cells is provided wherein a high surface-area carbon particle/Teflon.TM.-binder structure is immersed within a Nafion.TM./methanol bath to impregnate the electrode with Nafion.TM.. A method for fabricating an anode for use in a organic fuel cell is described wherein metal alloys are deposited onto the electrode in an electro-deposition solution containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. A fuel additive containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid for use with fuel cells employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte is also disclosed. New organic fuels, namely, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane are also described for use with either conventional or improved fuel cells.

  2. FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-03-24

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.

  3. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-08-01

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2005 through June 2005. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  4. Fuel Transformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Rhys Foster; Anthony Litka

    2006-07-27

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from January of 2006 through June 2006. Work focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the layout plans for further progress in next budget period.

  5. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  6. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  7. Polymer electrolyte membrane assembly for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolyte membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain sulfonated polyphenylether sulfones. The membrane can contain a first sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and a second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone, wherein the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone have equivalent weights greater than about 560, and the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone also have different equivalent weights. Also, a membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain a sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and an unsulfonated polyphenylether sulfone. Methods for manufacturing a membrane electrode assemblies for use in fuel cells can include roughening a membrane surface. Electrodes and methods for fabricating such electrodes for use in a chemical fuel cell can include sintering an electrode. Such membranes and electrodes can be assembled into chemical fuel cells.

  8. Gasifiers optimized for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, G.; Fruchtman, J.; Hauserman, W. B.; Lee, A.; Meyers, S. J.

    Conventional coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems are typically configured so that the fuel gas is primarily hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, with waste heat recovery for process requirements and to produce additional power in a steam bottoming cycle. These systems make use of present day gasification processes to produce the low to medium Btu fuel gas which in turn is cleaned up and consumed by the fuel cell. These conventional gasification/fuel cell systems have been studied in recent years projecting system efficiencies of 45-53 percent (HHV). Conventional gasification systems currently available evolved as stand-alone systems producing low to medium Btu gas fuel gas. The requirements of the gasification process dictates high temperatures to carry out the steam/carbon reaction and to gasify the tars present in coal. The high gasification temperatures required are achieved by an oxidant which consumes a portion of the feed coal to provide the endothermic heat required for the gasification process. The thermal needs of this process result in fuel gas temperatures that are higher than necessary for most end use applications, as well as for gas cleanup purposes. This results in some efficiency and cost penalties. This effort is designed to study advanced means of power generation by integrating the gasification process with the unique operating characteristics of carbonate fuel cells to achieve a more efficient and cost effective coal based power generating system. This is to be done by altering the gasification process to produce fuel gas compositions which result in more efficient fuel cell operation and by integrating the gasification process with the fuel cell as shown in Figure 2. Low temperature catalytic gasification was chosen as the basis for this effort due to the inherent efficiency advantages and compatibility with fuel cell operating temperatures.

  9. Expression of a human placental alkaline phosphatase gene in transfected cells: Use as a reporter for studies of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human placental alkaline phosphatase gene has been cloned and reintroduced into mammalian cells. When a plasmid carrying the gene under control of the simian virus 40 early promoter (pSV2Apap) is transfected into a variety of different cell types, placental alkaline phosphatase activity can readily be detected by using whole cell suspensions or cell lysates. Alkaline phosphatase activity can also be visualized directly in individual transfected cells by histochemical staining. The gene is appropriate for use as a reporter in studies of gene regulation since its expression is dependent on the presence of exogenous transcription control elements. The overall assay to detect the expression of the gene is quantitative, very rapid, and inexpensive. Cotransfections of cells with pSV2Apap and a related plasmid carrying the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (pSV2Acat) indicate that transcription of these two genes is detected with roughly the same sensitivity

  10. Alkaline pH activates the transport activity of GLUT1 in L929 fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnink, Stephen M; Kerk, Samuel A; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Alabi, Ola D; Kuipers, David P; Praamsma, Riemer C; Wrobel, Kathryn E; Louters, Larry L

    2014-04-01

    The widely expressed mammalian glucose transporter, GLUT1, can be acutely activated in L929 fibroblast cells by a variety of conditions, including glucose deprivation, or treatment with various respiration inhibitors. Known thiol reactive compounds including phenylarsine oxide and nitroxyl are the fastest acting stimulators of glucose uptake, implicating cysteine biochemistry as critical to the acute activation of GLUT1. In this study, we report that in L929 cells glucose uptake increases 6-fold as the pH of the uptake solution is increased from 6 to 9 with the half-maximal activation at pH 7.5; consistent with the pKa of cysteine residues. This pH effect is essentially blocked by the pretreatment of the cells with either iodoacetamide or cinnamaldehyde, compounds that form covalent adducts with reduced cysteine residues. In addition, the activation by alkaline pH is not additive at pH 8 with known thiol reactive activators such as phenylarsine oxide or hydroxylamine. Kinetic analysis in L929 cells at pH 7 and 8 indicate that alkaline conditions both increases the Vmax and decreases the Km of transport. This is consistent with the observation that pH activation is additive to methylene blue, which activates uptake by increasing the Vmax, as well as to berberine, which activates uptake by decreasing the Km. This suggests that cysteine biochemistry is utilized in both methylene blue and berberine activation of glucose uptake. In contrast a pH increase from 7 to 8 in HCLE cells does not further activate glucose uptake. HCLE cells have a 25-fold higher basal glucose uptake rate than L929 cells and the lack of a pH effect suggests that the cysteine biochemistry has already occurred in HCLE cells. The data are consistent with pH having a complex mechanism of action, but one likely mediated by cysteine biochemistry. PMID:24333987

  11. A new histochemical method using human placenta alkaline phosphatase for demonstrating concanavalin A binding sites on cell surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki,Yoshito

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Human placenta alkaline phosphatase (HP-ALP, a glycoprotein, was stained histochemically for the purpose of examining the concanavalin A (Con A binding sites on the cell surface. HP-ALP was bound to the cell surface by Con A. This simple method successfully detected Con A binding sites on the cell surface.

  12. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In...

  13. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2008-04-22

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  14. Solid oxide MEMS-based fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2007-03-13

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  15. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  16. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin; Urko, Willam

    2008-01-29

    A modular multi-stack fuel-cell assembly in which the fuel-cell stacks are situated within a containment structure and in which a gas distributor is provided in the structure and distributes received fuel and oxidant gases to the stacks and receives exhausted fuel and oxidant gas from the stacks so as to realize a desired gas flow distribution and gas pressure differential through the stacks. The gas distributor is centrally and symmetrically arranged relative to the stacks so that it itself promotes realization of the desired gas flow distribution and pressure differential.

  17. Chrysler Pentastar direct hydrogen fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimble, M.; Deloney, D.

    1995-08-01

    The Chrysler Pentastar Electronics, Inc. Direct Hydrogen Fueled PEM Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle Program (DPHV) was initiated 1 July, 1994 with the following mission, {open_quotes}Design, fabricate, and test a Direct Hydrogen Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System including onboard hydrogen storage, an efficient lightweight fuel cell, a gas management system, peak power augmentation and a complete system controls that can be economically mass produced and comply with all safety environmental and consumer requirements for vehicle applications for the 21st century.{close_quotes} The Conceptual Design for the entire system based upon the selection of an applicable vehicle and performance requirements that are consistent with the PNGV goals will be discussed. A Hydrogen Storage system that has been selected, packaged, and partially tested in accordance with perceived Hydrogen Safety and Infrastructure requirements will be discussed in addition to our Fuel Cell approach along with design of the {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} module. The Gas Management System and the Load Leveling System have been designed and the software programs have been developed and will be discussed along with a complete fuel cell test station that has the capability to test up to a 60 kW fuel cell system.

  18. Reversible (unitized) PEM fuel cell devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Smith, W F; Weisberg, Molter, T M

    1999-06-01

    Regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) are enabling for many weight-critical portable applications, since the packaged specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) of properly designed lightweight RFC systems is several-fold higher than that of the lightest weight rechargeable batteries. RFC systems can be rapidly refueled (like primary fuel cells), or can be electrically recharged (like secondary batteries) if a refueling infrastructure is not conveniently available. Higher energy capacity systems with higher performance, reduced weight, and freedom from fueling infrastructure are the features that RFCs promise for portable applications. Reversible proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also known as unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs), or reversible regenerative fuel cells, are RFC systems which use reversible PEM cells, where each cell is capable of operating both as a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer. URFCs further economize portable device weight, volume, and complexity by combining the functions of fuel cells and electrolyzers in the same hardware, generally without any system performance or efficiency reduction. URFCs are being made in many forms, some of which are already small enough to be portable. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has worked with industrial partners to design, develop, and demonstrate high performance and high cycle life URFC systems. LLNL is also working with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in lightweight pressure vessels that are necessary for URFC systems to achieve the specific energy advantages over rechargeable batteries. Proton Energy Systems, Inc. (Proton) is concurrently developing and commercializing URFC systems (UNIGEN' product line), in addition to PEM electrolyzer systems (HOGEN' product line), and primary PEM fuel cell systems. LLNL is constructing demonstration URFC units in order to persuade potential sponsors, often in their own conference rooms, that advanced applications based on URFC s are

  19. Micro PEM Fuel Cells and Stacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-shing; Hsieh

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The effects of different operating parameters on micro proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance were experimentally studied for three different flow field configurations (interdigitated,mesh,and serpentine).Experiments with different cell operating temperatures and different backpressures on the H2 flow channels,as well as various combinations of these parameters,have been conducted for three different flow geometries.The micro PEM fuel cells were designed and fabricated in-house t...

  20. Feasibility study of a mini fuel cell to detect interference from a cellular phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. O.; Gan, Y. K.

    Fuel cells produce electricity without involving combustion processes. They generate no noise, vibration or air pollution and are therefore suitable for use in many vibration-free power-generating applications. In this study, a mini alkaline fuel cell signal detector system has been designed, constructed and tested. The initial results have shown the applicability of such system for used as an indicator of signal disturbance from cellular phones. A small disturbance even at 4 mV cm -1, corresponding to an amplitude of 12-18 mG in terms of electromagnetic field, can be well detected by such a device. Subsequently, a thermodynamics model has been developed to provide a parametric study by simulation to show the likely performance of the fuel cell alone in other environments. As such the model can provide many useful generic design data for alkaline fuel cells. Two general conclusions can be drawn from the present theoretical study: (i) fuel cell performance increases with temperature, pressure and correction factor, Cf; (ii) the temperature factor ( E/ T) increases with increasing temperature and with increasing pressure factor.

  1. Feasibility study of a mini fuel cell to detect interference from a cellular phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.O.; Gan, Y.K. [Mechanical and Manufacturing System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2006-04-21

    Fuel cells produce electricity without involving combustion processes. They generate no noise, vibration or air pollution and are therefore suitable for use in many vibration-free power-generating applications. In this study, a mini alkaline fuel cell signal detector system has been designed, constructed and tested. The initial results have shown the applicability of such system for used as an indicator of signal disturbance from cellular phones. A small disturbance even at 4mVcm{sup -1}, corresponding to an amplitude of 12-18mG in terms of electromagnetic field, can be well detected by such a device. Subsequently, a thermodynamics model has been developed to provide a parametric study by simulation to show the likely performance of the fuel cell alone in other environments. As such the model can provide many useful generic design data for alkaline fuel cells. Two general conclusions can be drawn from the present theoretical study: (i) fuel cell performance increases with temperature, pressure and correction factor, C{sub f}; (ii) the temperature factor (E/T) increases with increasing temperature and with increasing pressure factor. (author)

  2. The fuel cell yesterday, today and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuel cell has some characteristics of a battery carrying out direct chemical conversion into electric energy. In relation to classical systems used for chemical energy conversion into electric power, through heat energy and mechanical operation, the fuel cell has considerably higher efficiency. The thermo-mechanical conversion of chemical into electric energy, in thermal power plants is carried out with 30% efficiency, while the efficiency of chemical conversion into electric energy, using a fuel cell is up to 60%. With the exception of the space programme, the commercial usage of the fuel cell did not exist up to 1990, when the most developed countries started extensive financial support of this source of energy. By 1995, more than a hundred fuel cells were installed in the process of electricity generation in Europe, USA and Japan, while nowadays there are thousands of installations, of efficient energetic capacity. Because of its superior characteristics, the fuel cell compared to other commercial electric energy producers, fulfills the most important condition - it does not pollute or if it does, the level is minimal. With such characteristics the fuel cell can help solve the growing conflict between the further economic development of mankind and the preservation of a clean and healthy natural environment.

  3. Internal voltage control of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells: Feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the feasibility of internal voltage regulation of fuel cell systems. Two methods were tested. In one, reactant partial pressure was used as the voltage control parameter and in the other reactant total pressure was used for control. Both techniques were breadboarded and tested on a single alkaline-electrolyte fuel cell. Both methods were found to be possible forms of regulation, however, of the two the total pressure technique would be more efficient, simpler to apply and would provide better transient characteristics.

  4. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2004-08-01

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where the fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  5. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1) Development of lithium ferrate (LiFeO{sub 2}) and lithium cobaltate (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life; (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life); (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power-density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2} and >100 kW/m{sup 3} in an integrated MCFC system); and (4) Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  6. Proton-exchange membrane regenerative fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, Larry L.; LaConti, Anthony B.; McCatty, Stephen A.

    This paper will update the progress in developing electrocatalyst systems and electrode structures primarily for the positive electrode of single-unit solid polymer proton-exchange membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cells. The work was done with DuPont Nafion 117 in complete fuel cells (40 cm 2 electrodes). The cells were operated alternately in fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode at 80°C. In fuel cell mode, humidified hydrogen and oxygen were supplied at 207 kPa (30 psi); in electrolysis mode, water was pumped over the positive electrode and the gases were evolved at ambient pressure. Cycling data will be presented for Pt-Ir catalysts and limited bifunctional data will be presented for Pt. Ir, Ru. Rh and Na xPt 3O 4 catalysts as well as for electrode structure variations.

  7. Platinum Porous Electrodes for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    fundamental for the cell development, which is established on a sound understanding of the electrode structure and balance of protonic phase, electronic phase and gas phase. The scope of the work includes:  Electrode components characterization: permeability; particle size and atomic lattice; surface area...... a genuine picture of a working PEM fuel cell catalyst layer. These, in turn, enrich the knowledge of Three-Phase-Boundary, provide efficient tool for the electrode selection and eventually will contribute the advancement of PEMFC technology.......Fuel cell energy bears the merits of renewability, cleanness and high efficiency. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising candidates as the power source in the near future. A fine management of different transports and electrochemical reactions in PEM fuel cells is...

  8. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  9. Sealant materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this work is to complete the development of soft glass-ceramic sealants for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Among other requirements, the materials must soften at the operation temperature of the fuel cell (600-1000{degrees}C) to relieve stresses between stack components, and their thermal expansions must be tailored to match those of the stack materials. Specific objectives included addressing the needs of industrial fuel cell developers, based on their evaluation of samples we supply, as well as working with commercial glass producers to achieve scaled-up production of the materials without changing their properties.

  10. Micro & nano-engineering of fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Dennis YC

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are clean and efficient energy conversion devices expected to be the next generation power source. During more than 17 decades of research and development, various types of fuel cells have been developed with a view to meet the different energy demands and application requirements. Scientists have devoted a great deal of time and effort to the development and commercialization of fuel cells important for our daily lives. However, abundant issues, ranging from mechanistic study to system integration, still need to be figured out before massive applications can be used. Miniaturizatio

  11. In-membrane micro fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Besser, Ronald

    2016-09-06

    An in-membrane micro fuel cell comprises an electrically-insulating membrane that is permissive to the flow of cations, such as protons, and a pair of electrodes deposited on channels formed in the membrane. The channels are arranged as conduits for fluids, and define a membrane ridge between the channels. The electrodes are porous and include catalysts for promoting the liberation of a proton and an electron from a chemical species and/or or the recombination of a proton and an electron with a chemical specie. The fuel cell may be provided a biosensor, an electrochemical sensor, a microfluidic device, or other microscale devices fabricated in the fuel cell membrane.

  12. Method for Making a Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L. (Inventor); Setlock, John A. (Inventor); Farmer, Serene C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention is a novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack comprising individual bi-electrode supported fuel cells in which an electrolyte layer is supported between porous electrodes. The porous electrodes may be made from graded pore ceramic tape that has been created by the freeze cast method followed by freeze-drying. Each piece of graded pore tape later becomes a graded pore electrode scaffold that, subsequent to sintering, is made into either an anode or a cathode. The electrode scaffold comprising the anode includes a layer of liquid metal. The pores of the electrode scaffolds gradually increase in diameter as the layer extends away from the electrolyte layer. As a result of this diameter increase, any forces that would tend to pull the liquid metal away from the electrolyte are reduced while maintaining a diffusion path for the fuel. Advantageously, the fuel cell of the invention may utilize a hydrocarbon fuel without pre-processing to remove sulfur.

  13. Fuel cells for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having first briefly illustrated the basic design, construction and operating principles of fuel cells, this paper assesses the progress that has been achieved to date in the development of the phosphoric acid (PAFC), molten carbonate (MCFC) and solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells. Special attention is given to the design, performance and cost characteristics of the phosphoric acid fuel cells. For example, the paper cites the IFC/Toshiba 4.8 and 11.0 MW models, which have attained efficiencies of 37.5 and 41.0% respectively, and points out that these fuel cells, with efficiencies comparable to those of conventional poly-fuelled and combined cycle power plants, offer the advantages of compact size and better environmental compatibility with respect to the latter. However, fuel cells cannot yet compete with the lower per kWh costs of fossil fuel power plants. The paper concludes with an assessment of Italian fuel cell commercialization efforts, especially those centered around the use of methane fuelled PAFC's, and reviews the status of coordinated international research programs involving Japan, the USA and Italy

  14. High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Scott; M. Mamlouk

    2006-01-01

    One of the major issues limiting the introduction of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is the low temperature of operation which makes platinum-based anode catalysts susceptible to poisoning by the trace amount of CO, inevitably present in reformed fuel. In order to alleviate the problem of CO poisoning and improve the power density of the cell, operating at temperature above 100 ℃ is preferred. Nafion(R) -type perfluorosulfonated polymers have been typically used for PEMFC. However, the conductivity of Nafion(R) -type polymers is not high enough to be used for fuel cell operations at higher temperature ( > 90 ℃) and atmospheric pressure because they dehydrate under these condition.An additional problem which faces the introduction of PEMFC technology is that of supplying or storing hydrogen for cell operation,especially for vehicular applications. Consequently the use of alternative fuels such as methanol and ethanol is of interest, especially if this can be used directly in the fuel cell, without reformation to hydrogen. A limitation of the direct use of alcohol is the lower activity of oxidation in comparison to hydrogen, which means that power densities are considerably lower. Hence to improve activity and power output higher temperatures of operation are preferable. To achieve this goal, requires a new polymer electrolyte membrane which exhibits stability and high conductivity in the absence of liquid water.Experimental data on a polybenzimidazole based PEMFC were presented. A simple steady-state isothermal model of the fuel cell is also used to aid in fuel cell performance optimisation. The governing equations involve the coupling of kinetic, ohmic and mass transport. This paper also considers the advances made in the performance of direct methanol and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells and considers their limitations in relation to the source and type of fuels to be used.

  15. Development of a 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Power Pack:Fuel Cell Stack Test

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Bang, Mads; Korsgaard, Anders; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    When using pressurized hydrogen to fuel a fuel cell, much space is needed for fuel storage. This is undesirable especially with mobile or portable fuel cell systems, where refuelling also often is inconvenient. Using a reformed liquid carbonhydrate can reduce this fuel volume considerably. Nafion based low temperature PEM (LTPEM) fuel cells are very intolerant to reformate gas because of the presence of CO. PBI based high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells can operate stable at much higher CO...

  16. Durable and Robust Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalmarsson, Per; Knibbe, Ruth; Hauch, Anne;

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an attractive technology for the generation of electricity with high efficiency and low emissions. Risø DTU (now DTU Energy Conversion) works closely together with Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S in their effort to bring competitive SOFC systems to the market. This 2-year...... project had as one of its’ overarching goals to improve durability and robustness of the Danish solid oxide fuel cells. The project focus was on cells and cell components suitable for SOFC operation in the temperature range 600 – 750 °C. The cells developed and/or studied in this project are intended for....... The fact that degradation and robustness is not very well explored or understood at operating temperatures below 750 °C, provides motivation for focussing on materials and cells suitable for, and operated in this temperature range. A significant part of this project was concerned with improved...

  17. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  18. Fuel cells make gains in power generation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultra-low emission, highly efficient natural gas-fueled fuel cell system is beginning to penetrate the electric power generation market in the US and abroad as the fuel cell industry lowers product costs. And, even as the current market continues to grow, fuel cell companies are developing new technology with even higher levels of energy efficiency. The paper discusses fuel cell efficiency, business opportunities, work to reduce costs, and evolving fuel cell technology

  19. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  20. Electrochemical Detection of Alkaline Phosphatase in BALB/c Mouse Fetal Liver Stromal Cells with Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Mei SUN; Dong LI; Zeng Liang BAI; Wen Rui JIN

    2004-01-01

    A method for determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in BALB/c mouse fetal liver stromal cells has been described based on the catalytic reaction. After the cell extract is incubated with the substrate disodium phenyl phosphate, the reaction product phenol generated by ALP is determined by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

  1. Fuel cells: A handbook (Revision 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Stauffer, D.B.; Engleman, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of reaction directly into electrical energy. In a typical fuel cell, gaseous fuels are fed continuously to the anode (negative electrode) compartment and an oxidant (i.e., oxygen from air) is fed continuously to the cathode (positive electrode) compartment; the electrochemical reactions take place at the electrodes to produce an electric current. A fuel cell, although having similar components and several characteristics, differs from a typical battery in several respects. The battery is an energy storage device, that is, the maximum energy that is available is determined by the amount of chemical reactant stored within the battery itself. Thus, the battery will cease to produce electrical energy when the chemical reactants are consumed (i.e., discharged). In a secondary battery, the reactants are regenerated by recharging, which involves putting energy into the battery from an external source. The fuel cell, on the other hand, is an energy conversion device which theoretically has the capability of producing electrical energy for as long as the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the electrodes. In reality, degradation or malfunction of components limits the practical operating life of fuel cells.

  2. Wnt5a attenuates Wnt3a-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in dental follicle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakisaka, Yukihiko [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Masahiro [Department of Oral Diagnosis, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tohoku Fukushi University, Sendai 989-3201 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Liason Center for Innovative Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tamura, Masato [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Shimauchi, Hidetoshi [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nemoto, Eiji, E-mail: e-nemoto@dent.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2015-08-01

    Wnt signaling regulates multiple cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathways. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling can promote the differentiation of dental follicle cells, putative progenitor cells for cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament cells, toward a cementoblast/osteoblast phenotype during root formation, but little is known about the biological significance of noncanonical Wnt signaling in this process. We identified the expression of Wnt5a, a representative noncanonical Wnt ligand, in tooth root lining cells (i.e. precementoblasts/cementoblasts) and dental follicle cells during mouse tooth root development, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Silencing expression of the Wnt5a gene in a dental follicle cell line resulted in enhancement of the Wnt3a (a representative canonical Wnt ligand)-mediated increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. Conversely, treatment with recombinant Wnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression, suggesting that Wnt5a signaling functions as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. Wnt5a did not affect the nuclear translocation of β-catenin as well as β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of T-cell factor (Tcf) triggered by Wnt3a, suggesting that Wnt5a inhibits the downstream part of the β-catenin-Tcf pathway. These findings suggest the existence of a feedback mechanism between canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling during the differentiation of dental follicle cells. - Highlights: • Dental follicle cells express Wnt5a during tooth root development. • Silencing of Wnt5a enhances Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. • Conversely, treatment with rWnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression. • Wnt5a functions as a negative regulator of Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression.

  3. Wnt5a attenuates Wnt3a-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in dental follicle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnt signaling regulates multiple cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathways. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling can promote the differentiation of dental follicle cells, putative progenitor cells for cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament cells, toward a cementoblast/osteoblast phenotype during root formation, but little is known about the biological significance of noncanonical Wnt signaling in this process. We identified the expression of Wnt5a, a representative noncanonical Wnt ligand, in tooth root lining cells (i.e. precementoblasts/cementoblasts) and dental follicle cells during mouse tooth root development, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Silencing expression of the Wnt5a gene in a dental follicle cell line resulted in enhancement of the Wnt3a (a representative canonical Wnt ligand)-mediated increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. Conversely, treatment with recombinant Wnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression, suggesting that Wnt5a signaling functions as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. Wnt5a did not affect the nuclear translocation of β-catenin as well as β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of T-cell factor (Tcf) triggered by Wnt3a, suggesting that Wnt5a inhibits the downstream part of the β-catenin-Tcf pathway. These findings suggest the existence of a feedback mechanism between canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling during the differentiation of dental follicle cells. - Highlights: • Dental follicle cells express Wnt5a during tooth root development. • Silencing of Wnt5a enhances Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. • Conversely, treatment with rWnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression. • Wnt5a functions as a negative regulator of Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression

  4. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang;

    2013-01-01

    propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power......A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric......, whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental...

  5. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  6. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  7. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L.; Scherer, G.G.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  8. Fuel cells: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the main features at present state-of-the-art fuel cell and hybrid cycle technologies, discussing their actual performance, possible applications, market entry perspectives and potential development

  9. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel fuel cell electrocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorer, Alexander

    2005-07-26

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum, ruthenium, and nickel, wherein the nickel is at a concentration that is less than about 10 atomic percent.

  10. The quiet revolution: decentralisation and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses how major changes in the electricity supply industry can take place in the next few years due to market liberalisation and efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Decentralisation is discussed as being a 'mega-trend' and fuel cells in particular are emphasised as being a suitable means of generating heat and power locally, i.e. where they are needed. Also, the ecological advantages of using natural gas to 'fire' the fuel cell units that are to complement or replace coal-fired or gas-fired combined gas and steam-turbine power stations is discussed. Various types of fuel cell are briefly described. Market developments in the USA, where the power grid is extensive and little reserve capacity is available, are noted. New designs of fuel cell are briefly examined and it is noted that electricity utilities, originally against decentralisation, are now beginning to promote this 'quiet revolution'

  11. Direct formate fuel cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-07-01

    Direct formate fuel cells (DFFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in formate directly into electricity, are recently attracting more attention, primarily because of the use of the carbon-neutral fuel and the low-cost electrocatalytic and membrane materials. As an emerging energy technology, the DFFC has made a rapid progress in recent years (currently, the state-of-the-art power density is 591 mW cm-2 at 60 °C). This article provides a review of past research on the development of this type of fuel cell, including the working principle, mechanisms and materials of the electrocatalytic oxidation of formate, singe-cell designs and performance, as well as innovative system designs. In addition, future perspectives with regard to the development of this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  12. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  13. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  14. Electrocatalysts for fuel cells; Electrocatalizadores para celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia C, M. A.; Fernandez V, S. M. [ININ, Depto. de Quimica, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Mexico 11801, D. F. (Mexico); Vargas G, J. R. [IPN, Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Mexico 07300, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It was investigated the oxygen reduction reaction (fundamental reaction in fuel cells) on electrocatalysts of Pt, Co, Ni and their alloys CoNi, PtCo, PtNi, PtCoNi in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M and KOH 0.5 M as electrolyte. The electrocatalysts were synthesized using mechanical alloying processes and chemical vapor deposition. The electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The evaluation was performed using electrocatalytic technique of rotating disk electrode and kinetic parameters were determined for each electro catalyst. We report the performance of all synthesized electrocatalysts in acid and alkaline means. (Author)

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  16. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  17. Fuel cells sector profile in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to environmental concerns, Norway's environment, transportation and energy sectors are implementing programs to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and build a hydrogen-based society that promotes fuel cell technology and the use of other renewable energy sources. This paper presents a market overview of the fuel cell sector in Norway and describes the opportunities for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. As a signatory nation of the Kyoto Protocol, Norway has committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1 per cent above 1990 levels over the 2008 to 2012 period. In addition to its interest in fuel cell technology, Norway is researching hydrogen storage in metal hydrides. With the introduction of fuel cell powered vehicles in Norway, the Ministry of Transport is offering incentives for the purchase of zero-emission cars. Opportunities in fuel cell applications include power electronics, maritime applications, stationary applications and road transportation. In addition, Norway's petroleum industry is interested in technologies associated with the development of solid oxide fuel cells that allow for cleaner offshore production of oil and gas. The Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) strengthens scientific cooperation between Canadian and Norwegian companies in research areas such as fuel cell development, transportation applications and hydrogen storage. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers described the several organizations that manage and approve fuel cell projects. Considerations for market-entry in Norway were outlined. The use of a

  18. Development of a lateral PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Karl; Kronberger, Hermann; Fafilek, Guenter [ECHEM Center of Competence in Applied Electrochemistry, Viktor Kaplanstr.2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Technology Vienna, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytic/EC 164, Getreidemarkt 9/164, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Loibl, Helmut; Schlauf, Thomas [FOTEC Forschungs und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplanstr.2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pallanits, Josef [HTP High Tech Plastics AG, A-7201 Neudoerfl (Austria); Gornik, Christian [Battenfeld Kunststoffmaschinen GmbH, Wiener Neustaedterstrasse 81, A-2542 Kottingbrunn (Austria); Nauer, Gerhard [ECHEM Center of Competence in Applied Electrochemistry, Viktor Kaplanstr.2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Vienna, Institute for Physical Chemistry, Waehringerstr. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-06-15

    A novel lateral PEM fuel cell was developed. The anodes and cathodes are situated nearby each other on a polymer electrolyte membrane. The transport of the protons takes place in a lateral way in the membrane. All manufacturing steps of the lateral PEM fuel cell were designed to meet the requirements of mass production. The base plate being the central part was made by means of polymer micro injection moulding. (author)

  19. The fuel cell yesterday, today and tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    Stanojević Dušan D.; Tomić Milorad V.

    2005-01-01

    The fuel cell has some characteristics of a battery carrying out direct chemical conversion into electric energy. In relation to classical systems used for chemical energy conversion into electric power, through heat energy and mechanical operation, the fuel cell has considerably higher efficiency. The thermo-mechanical conversion of chemical into electric energy, in thermal power plants is carried out with 30% efficiency, while the efficiency of chemical conversion into electric energy, usin...

  20. Reviews on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Apinan Soottitantawat; Arnornchai Arpornwichanop; Worapon Kiatkittipong; Wisitsree Wiyaratn; Navadol Laosiripojana; Suttichai Assabumrungrat

    2009-01-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is one type of high temperature fuel cell that appears to be one of the most promising technology to provide the efficient and clean energy production for wide range of applications (from small units to large scale power plants). This paper reviews the current status and related researches on SOFC technologies. In details, the research trend for the development of SOFC components(i.e. anode, electrolyte, cathode, and interconnect) are presented. Later, the current...

  1. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The European electricity market is changing. This paper will look at the background to power generation in Europe and highlight the recent factors which have entered the market to promote change. The 1990s seem to offer great possibilities for fuel cell commercialisation. Awareness of environmental problems has never been greater and there is growing belief that fuel cell technology can contribute to solving some of these problems. Issues which have caused the power industry in Europe to re-think its methods of generation include: concern over increasing carbon dioxide emissions and their contribution to the greenhouse effect; increasing SO x and NO x emissions and the damage cause by acid rain; the possibility of adverse effects on health caused by high voltage transmission lines; environmental restrictions to the expansion of hydroelectric schemes; public disenchantment with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident; avoidance of dependence on imported oil following the Gulf crisis and a desire for fuel flexibility. All these factors are hastening the search for clean, efficient, modular power generators which can be easily sited close to the electricity consumer and operated using a variety of fuels. It is not only the power industry which is changing. A tightening of the legislation concerning emissions from cars is encouraging European auto companies to develop electric vehicles, some of which may be powered by fuel cells. Political changes, such as the opening up of Eastern Europe will also expand the market for low-emission, efficient power plants as attempts are made to develop and clean up that region. Many Europeans organisations are re-awakening their interest, or strengthening their activities, in the area of fuel cells because of the increasing opportunities offered by the European market. While some companies have chosen to buy, test and demonstrate Japanese or American fuel cell stacks with the aim of gaining operational experience and

  2. Hydrogen and its applications. Fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT, Rm. Valcea, Romania has started a research project financed by the National Research and Development Program with the main purpose to develop an experimental- demonstrative pilot plant for energy conversion and storage using hydrogen proton exchange (PEM) fuel cells. This paper presents the results obtained in an experimental-demonstrative conversion energy system which contains a sequence of hydrogen purification units and a CO removing reactors until a CO level lower than 10 ppm is obtained that finally feeds a hydrogen fuel stack. The research activity has been directed to the development of a fuel processor adequate to supply a fuel cell stack. The fuel processor consists in a unit for hydrogen production based on methane catalytic steam reforming process and a series of hydrogen purification units. The designed reactor operates at 700 deg C and 3 atm, the steam reforming process being produced on a Ni based catalyst disposed in ten columns, circularly distributed. The output gas is drawn into the HTS (high-temperature shift) and LTS (low-temperature shift). In the first purification unit, HTS, the water-gas shift reaction is produced at 500 deg C, the reaction taking place on a Fe2O3/Cr2O3 catalyst, disposed in three columns, circularly distributed. In the second reactor, LTS, the reaction takes place at 200 deg C, before the LTS the gas being cooled. The LTS reaction is based on a CuO/ZnO alumina supported catalyst disposed in three columns, circularly distributed. The hydrogen will be finally purified so that the CO concentration is lower than 10 ppm, the CO easily poisoning the exchange protons membrane used for fuel cells construction. The paper also describes the design of a 300W PEM fuel cell system which can be used for both validating fuel cell models and for measuring the fuel cell model parameters. (author)

  3. Energy conversion using hydrogen PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National R and D Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT Rm. Valcea, Romania has started a research project financed by the National Research-Development Program with the main purpose to develop an experimental - demonstrative pilot plant for energy conversion and storage using hydrogen proton exchange (PEM) fuel cells. This paper presents the results obtained in an experimental - demonstrative conversion energy system which contains a sequence of hydrogen purification units and a CO removing reactors until a CO level lower than 10 ppm is reached, that finally feeds a hydrogen fuel stack. The research has been focused onto the development of a fuel processor adequate to supply a fuel cell stack; the fuel processor consists in a unit for hydrogen production based on methane catalytic steam reforming process and a series of hydrogen purification units. The reactor is designed to work at 700 deg. C and 3 atm, the steam reforming process being produced on a Ni based catalyst disposed in ten columns, circularly distributed. The output gas is drawn into first purification unit, HTS (high-temperature shift) and LTS (low-temperature shift). The water-gas shift reaction is produced at 500 deg. C, the reaction taking place on a Fe2O3/Cr2O3 catalyst, disposed in three columns, circularly distributed. In the second reactor, LTS, the reaction takes place at 200 deg. C, before the LTS the gas being cooled. The LTS reaction is based on a CuO/ZnO alumina supported catalyst disposed in three columns, circularly distributed. The hydrogen will be finally purified so that the CO concentration is lower than 10 ppm, the CO easily poisoning the proton exchange membrane used for fuel cells construction. The paper also describes the design of a 300 W PEM fuel cell system which can be used for both validating fuel cell models and for measuring the fuel cell model parameters. (authors)

  4. Catalytic autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cell development has seen remarkable progress in the past decade because of an increasing need to improve energy efficiency as well as to address concerns about the environmental consequences of using fossil fuel for producing electricity and for propulsion of vehicles[1]. The lack of an infrastructure for producing and distributing H(sub 2) has led to a research effort to develop on-board fuel processing technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H(sub 2)[2]. The primary focus is on reforming gasoline, because a production and distribution infrastructure for gasoline already exists to supply internal combustion engines[3]. Existing reforming technology for the production of H(sub 2) from hydrocarbon feedstocks used in large-scale manufacturing processes, such as ammonia synthesis, is cost prohibitive when scaled down to the size of the fuel processor required for transportation applications (50-80 kWe) nor is it designed to meet the varying power demands and frequent shutoffs and restarts that will be experienced during normal drive cycles. To meet the performance targets required of a fuel processor for transportation applications will require new reforming reactor technology developed to meet the volume, weight, cost, and operational characteristics for transportation applications and the development of new reforming catalysts that exhibit a higher activity and better thermal and mechanical stability than reforming catalysts currently used in the production of H(sub 2) for large-scale manufacturing processes

  5. Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

  6. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2010-07-20

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  7. Powering Cell Phones with Fuel Cells Running on Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ruiming Zhang

    2007-01-31

    The major goals of this project were to increase lifetime, increase energy density, and reduce material costs. The combination of identifying corrosion resistant materials and changing catalysts increased lifetimes. Work to increase the energy density included increasing the concentration of the formic acid fuel from 12M (ca. 50 wt%) to 22M (ca. 85 wt%) and decreasing the amount of fuel crossing over. The largest expense of the device is the cathode catalyst. At the beginning of the project Pt loading was over 8 mg/cm2 on our cathodes. Through optimization work we managed to bring down the cathode loading to approximately half of what we started with.

  8. PEM Fuel Cells from Single Cell to Stack - Fundamental, Modeling, Analysis, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2015-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Part III: Analysis Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell analysis. Chapter 8: PEM fuel cell stack desig...

  9. Proceedings of the fuel cells `95 review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Fuel Cells `95` Review Meeting. Topics included solid oxide fuel cells; DOE`s transportation program; ARPA advanced fuel cell development; molten carbonate fuel cells; and papers presented at a poster session. Individual papers have been processed separately for the U.S. DOE databases.

  10. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan outlines the strategy, activities, and plans of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, which includes hydrogen and fuel cell activities within the EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program and the DOE offices of Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Science.

  11. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  12. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  13. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  14. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth; Gangi, Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    This report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. It features the top five fuel cell states (in alphabetical order): California, Connecticut, New York, Ohio, and South Carolina. State activities reported include supportive fuel cell and hydrogen policies, installations and demonstrations, road maps, and level of activism.

  15. Current-Voltage Modeling of the Enzymatic Glucose Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Zeev Rubin

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic fuel cells produce electrical power by oxidation of renewable energy sources. An enzymatic glucose biofuel cell uses glucose as fuel and enzymes as biocatalyst, to convert biochemical energy into electrical energy. The applications which need low electrical voltages and low currents have much of the interest in developing enzymatic fuel cells. An analytical modelling of an enzymatic fuel cell should be used, while developing fuel cell, to estimate its various parameters, to attain t...

  16. Development and operation of a hybrid acid-alkaline advanced water electrolysis cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, O.; Zwanziger, M.

    A hybrid acid-alkaline water electrolysis cell has been developed for hydrogen production. The cell is based on the use of an acidic solution at the cathode and a basic solution at the anode to reduce the minimum theoretical voltage for water decomposition from the thermoneutral potential of 1.47 V to close to 1.4 V at 25 C and 1 atm. The pH differential is maintained by the removal of OH ions from the cathode section and water removal from the anode section, which can be driven by heat energy. A practical cell has been built using a solid polymer electrolyte in which, however, the cathodic compartment is not acidic but neutral. Tests with a platinum black cathode catalyst and a platinum-iridium anode catalyst have resulted in steady-state water hydrolysis at an applied voltage of 0.9 V, and a V-I diagram with a considerably lower slope than that of a conventional cell has been obtained at 90 C.

  17. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basel, R.A.; Pierre, J.F.

    1995-08-01

    The goals of the SOFC pressurized test program are to obtain cell voltage versus current (VI) performance data as a function of pressure; to evaluate the effects of operating parameters such as temperature, air stoichiometry, and fuel utilization on cell performance, and to demonstrate long term stability of the SOFC materials at elevated pressures.

  18. A transient fuel cell model to simulate HTPEM fuel cell impedance spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a spatially resolved transient fuel cell model applied to the simulation of high temperature PEM fuel cell impedance spectra. The model is developed using a 2D finite volume method approach. The model is resolved along the channel and across the membrane. The model considers...

  19. Human prostatic acid phosphatase directly stimulates collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase content of isolated bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP) directly enhances the differentiated characteristics of isolated bone cells in vitro. This enzyme, when added to cell cultures for 24 h in vitro stimulates collagen synthesis and the production of alkaline phosphatase. The effects are dose dependent, with statistically significant effects occurring from 0.1-100 nM hPAP. Concentrations higher than 100 nM do not evoke greater effects. The maximal effect of hPAP occurs between 12 and 24 h of exposure. The cells stimulated to the greatest degree are osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Fibroblasts isolated from the same tissue show a lesser sensitivity to hPAP. hPAP has no detectable effect on cell proliferation, as measured by radiolabeled thymidine incorporation or total DNA synthesis. None of the observations reported in this work can be attributed to contaminating proteins in the hPAP preparation. hPAP was radiolabeled with 125I and was used for affinity binding and cross-linking studies. Scatchard analysis of specific binding indicated the presence of 1.0 X 10(5) high affinity binding sites/cell, with a Kd of 6.5 nM. Cross-linking studies demonstrated the presence of one 320-kDa binding complex. The pH profile and kinetic determinations of Km and maximum velocity for hPAP were similar to those previously reported, except for the finding of positive cooperativity of the substrate with the enzyme under the conditions of our assay. We believe that the direct stimulation of bone-forming cells by hPAP may contribute to the sclerotic nature of skeletal bone around sites of neoplastic prostatic metastases and that the effect of the enzyme is probably mediated by a plasma membrane receptor

  20. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells and Organic Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton

    harvested from the cells. This is completely avoided at the elevated temperatures with the additional benefit of increased kinetics. In the presented work an experimental setup for testing direct dimethyl ether high temperature fuel cells is described, proposing a novel design of an evaporator for a burst...... the experiments have been conducted at atmospheric pressure. Experiments with varying amounts of PBI in the cathode catalyst layer has shown that there is a minimum content limit for the preparation of a well dispersed catalyst ink of 15 carbon to PBI weight ratio in the currently used ink formulation......Modern way of life demands enormous amounts of energy, which so far has been mainly produced by combustion of various types of fossil fuel. Increased amounts of atmospheric CO2 and global warming leading to severe climate changes are the consequence. There is a need to make the energy production...

  1. Dimethoxymethane and trimethoxymethane as alternative fuels for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Raghuram; Scott, Keith

    The electrooxidation of dimethoxymethane (DMM) and trimethoxymethane (TMM) was studied at different platinum-based electrocatalysts deposited onto a titanium mesh substrate by thermal decomposition of chloride precursors. Half-cell tests showed an increase in oxidation current for the methoxy fuels at the platinum electrode with the alloying of ruthenium and tin. Increase in reaction temperature and reactant concentration showed an increase in current density for the mesh-based anodes similar to carbon-supported catalysts. Single fuel cell tests, employing the titanium mesh anode with PtRu and PtSn catalysts showed maximum power densities up to 31 mW cm -2 and 48 mW cm -2 for 1.0 mol dm -3 aqueous solutions of DMM and TMM, respectively at 60 °C using oxygen.

  2. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  3. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and

  4. FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

    1999-12-01

    A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

  5. Control and optimization in fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells are electrochemical energy converters. They convert the chemical energy contained in the fuel into electricity while producing water and heat. Compared to the traditional energy converters, such as batteries and internal combustion engines, fuel cells are marked by high conversion efficiency and very low emissions.This work contains a computer study of optimization and control of fuel cells systems. An analytical study of the fuel (Hydrogen and air) supply system was performed taking into account compressor, cooling and humidification subsystems. In addition, the stack system, which consists of a lot of cells, was analyzed using the experimental equations of Nafion 117 membrane. The model of the whole system was then implemented in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The effect of the cathode pressure and the membrane water content on the polarization curves of the cell was examined. To validate the model, the responses of the model to step changes in the compressor voltage and the current drawn from the stack, were used. More attention was given to the net power which can be provided by the system, taking into account the power wasted by the compressor. (author)

  6. SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORYREGENERATIVE FUEL CELL PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, T

    2008-11-11

    A team comprised of governmental, academic and industrial partners led by the Savannah River National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a regenerative fuel cell system for backup power applications. Recent market assessments have identified emergency response and telecommunication applications as promising near-term markets for fuel cell backup power systems. The Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFC) consisted of a 2 kg-per-day electrolyzer, metal-hydride based hydrogen storage units and a 5 kW fuel cell. Coupling these components together created a system that can produce and store its own energy from the power grid much like a rechargeable battery. A series of test were conducted to evaluate the performance of the RFC system under both steady-state and transit conditions that might be encountered in typical backup power applications. In almost all cases the RFC functioned effectively. Test results from the demonstration project will be used to support recommendations for future fuel cell and hydrogen component and system designs and support potential commercialization activities. In addition to the work presented in this report, further testing of the RFC system at the Center for Hydrogen Research in Aiken County, SC is planned including evaluating the system as a renewable system coupled with a 20kW-peak solar photovoltaic array.

  7. Performance of miniaturized direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) devices using micropump for fuel delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Qing-Ming

    A fuel cell is a device that can convert chemical energy into electricity directly. Among various types of fuel cells, both polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) can work at low temperature (mini pumps, the size of the piezoelectric micropump is much smaller and the energy consumption is much lower. Thus, it is very viable and effective to use a piezoelectric valveless micropump for fuel delivery in miniaturized DMFC power systems.

  8. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries such as lithium-ion batteries have insufficiently low energy density. Methanol is a promising fuel for such devices due to the high energy density and ease of refueling compared to charging batteri...

  9. Simulating the Adoption of Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Malte Schwoon

    2005-01-01

    Supply security and environmental concerns associated with oil call for an introduction of hydrogen as a transport fuel. To date, scenario studies of infrastructure build up and sales of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are driven by cost estimates and technological feasibility assumptions, indicating that there is a "chicken and egg problem": Car producers do not offer FCVs as long as there are no hydrogen filling stations, and infrastructure will not be set up unless there is a significant number ...

  10. Specification for dispersed fuel-cell generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, L. M.; Cohen, R.

    1981-11-01

    A general description and performance definition for a standard 11-mw fuel cell power plant designed for electric utility dispersed-generation applications are provided. Additional features available at the option of the purchaser are also described. The power plant can operate singly or grouped with other power plants to produce larger mutli-megawatt power stations. A 33-mw station is discussed as representative of multiple power plant installations. The power plant specification defines power rating, heat rate, fuels, operating modes, siting characteristics, and available options. A general description included in the attachments covers equipment, typical site arrangement, auxiliary subsystems, maintenance, fuel flexibility, and general fluid and electrical schematics.

  11. Investigation of platinum and palladium as potential anodic catalysts for direct borohydride and ammonia borane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olu, Pierre-Yves; Deschamps, Fabien; Caldarella, Giuseppe; Chatenet, Marian; Job, Nathalie

    2015-11-01

    Platinum and palladium are investigated as anodic catalysts for direct borohydride and direct ammonia borane fuel cells (DBFC and DABFC). Half-cell characterizations performed at 25 °C using NH3BH3 or NaBH4 alkaline electrolytes demonstrate the lowest open-circuit potential and highest electrocatalytic activity for the NH3BH3 alkaline electrolyte for Pd and Pt rotating disk electrodes, respectively. Voltammograms performed in fuel cell configuration at 25 °C confirm this trend: the highest open circuit voltage (1.05 V) and peak power density (181 mW·cm-2) are monitored for DABFC using Pd/C and Pt/C anodes, respectively. Increasing the temperature heightens the peak power density (that reaches 420 mW·cm-2 at 60 °C for DBFC using Pt/C anodes), but strongly generates gas from the fuel hydrolysis, hindering the overall fuel cells performances. The anode texture strongly influences the fuel cell performances, highlighting: (i) that an open anode texture is required to efficiently circulate the anolyte and (ii) the difficulty to compare potential anodic catalysts characterized using different fuel cell setups within the literature. Furthermore, TEM imaging of Pt/C and Pd/C catalysts prior/post DBFC and DABFC operation shows fast degradation of the carbon-supported nanoparticles.

  12. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  13. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent

    fabrication techniques where utilized to build μDMFCs with the purpose of engineering the structures, both on the micro and nano scales in order to realize a high level of control over the membrane and catalyst components. The work presents four different monolithic fuel cell designs. The primary design is......The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries...... into the current collector electrodes. This design is based on catalytic in situ growth of carbon nanotubes and atomic layer deposition of active catalyst particles. The additional two fuel cell designs utilize a porous silicon structure as the mechanical support, using respectively a spray coated...

  14. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  15. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzheng eLu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of Electrolyte -free fuel cell (EFFC with single component was invented which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  16. Fuel cells for a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells offer one of the most promising technologies for the production of clean energy, both for transportation and for stationary production of electricity and heating. Currently, more than 100 billion m3 gas are flared each year because it has no market. If this gas were converted to methanol, the emission of greenhouse gases would be substantially reduced. Methanol is produced and distributed all over the globe and 99% of the infrastructure is present. Thus, if used as energy source for fuel cells, this may be the optimum solution for a clean environment. Although the concept is simple, a transition from a hydrocarbon-based economy to one based on hydrogen is a great technological and financial challenge. For the fuel cell technology to play an important role in energy production, it must be introduced on a large scale. This can be done by means of methanol

  17. Thermal analysis of air-cooled fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shahsavari, Setareh

    2011-01-01

    Temperature distribution in a fuel cell significantly affects the performance and efficiency of the fuel cell system. Particularly, in low temperature fuel cells, improvement of the system requires proper thermal management, which indicates the need for developing accurate thermal models. In this study, a 3D numerical thermal model is presented to analyze the heat transfer and predict the temperature distribution in air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). In the modeled fuel c...

  18. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  19. Fuel choices for fuel-cell vehicles : well-to-wheel energy and emission impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their high energy efficiencies and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) are undergoing extensive research and development. While hydrogen will likely be the ultimate fuel to power fuel-cell vehicles, because of current infrastructure constraints, hydrogen-carrying fuels are being investigated as transitional fuel-cell fuels. A complete well-to-wheels (WTW) evaluation of fuel-cell vehicle energy and emission effects that examines (1) energy feedstock recovery and transportation; (2) fuel production, transportation, and distribution; and (3) vehicle operation must be conducted to assist decision makers in selecting the fuel-cell fuels that achieve the greatest energy and emission benefits. A fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model--was used to evaluate well-to-wheels energy and emission impacts of various fuel-cell fuels. The results show that different fuel-cell fuels can have significantly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects. Therefore, if fuel-cell vehicles are to achieve the envisioned energy and emission reduction benefits, pathways for producing the fuels that power them must be carefully examined.

  20. Model-based Interpretation of the Performance and Degradation of Reformate Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kromp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells offer great prospects for the sustainable, clean and safe conversion of various fuels into electrical energy. In this thesis, the performance-determining loss processes for the cell operation on reformate fuels are elucidated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Model-based analyses reveal the electrochemical fuel oxidation mechanism, the coupling of fuel gas transport and reforming chemistry and the impact of fuel impurities on the degradation of each loss process.

  1. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  2. Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J. [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-19

    Solar Turbines, Incorporated (Solar) has a vested interest in the integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuel cells and in particular, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Solar has identified a parallel path approach to the technology developments needed for future products. The primary approach is to move away from the simple cycle industrial machines of the past and develop as a first step more efficient recuperated engines. This move was prompted by the recognition that the simple cycle machines were rapidly approaching their efficiency limits. Improving the efficiency of simple cycle machines is and will become increasingly more costly. Each efficiency increment will be progressively more costly than the previous step.

  3. Energy Storage Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A; Markel, T; Zolot, M; Sprik, S; Tataria, H; Duong, T

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) vehicle technology has received considerable attention as a strategy to decrease oil consumption and reduce harmful emissions. However, the cost, transient response, and cold performance of FC systems may present significant challenges to widespread adoption of the technology for transportation in the next 15 years. The objectives of this effort were to perform energy storage modeling with fuel cell vehicle simulations to quantify the benefits of hybridization and to identify a process for setting the requirements of ES for hydrogen-powered FC vehicles for U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program.

  4. Microfluidic fuel cells for energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, M; Jänis, J; Sánchez, S

    2016-08-01

    Sustainable energy generation is of recent interest due to a growing energy demand across the globe and increasing environmental issues caused by conventional non-renewable means of power generation. In the context of microsystems, portable electronics and lab-on-a-chip based (bio)chemical sensors would essentially require fully integrated, reliable means of power generation. Microfluidic-based fuel cells can offer unique advantages compared to conventional fuel cells such as high surface area-to-volume ratio, ease of integration, cost effectiveness and portability. Here, we summarize recent developments which utilize the potential of microfluidic devices for energy generation. PMID:27367869

  5. Fuel cells: a survey of current developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, Mark A. J.; Geiger, Stefan; Jollie, David M.

    Since the first practical uses of fuel cells were developed, it has become clear that they could find use in many products over a wide power range of milliwatts to tens of megawatts. Throughout the 1990s, and later, there has been significant work carried out on adapting the various different fuel cell technologies for use in targetted consumer and industrial applications. This paper discusses these developments and gives details on the specific market segments for providing power to vehicles, portable devices and large- and small-scale stationary power generation.

  6. Separator plate for a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1996-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  7. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2010-08-20

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an \\'experimental functional map\\' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Facile and Gram-scale Synthesis of Metal-free Catalysts: Toward Realistic Applications for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Hee; Cho, Yong-Hun; Chung, Dong Young; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoo, Ji Mun; Park, Ji Eun; Choe, Heeman; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-03-01

    Although numerous reports on nonprecious metal catalysts for replacing expensive Pt-based catalysts have been published, few of these studies have demonstrated their practical application in fuel cells. In this work, we report graphitic carbon nitride and carbon nanofiber hybrid materials synthesized by a facile and gram-scale method via liquid-based reactions, without the use of toxic materials or a high pressure-high temperature reactor, for use as fuel cell cathodes. The resulting materials exhibited remarkable methanol tolerance, selectivity, and stability even without a metal dopant. Furthermore, these completely metal-free catalysts exhibited outstanding performance as cathode materials in an actual fuel cell device: a membrane electrode assembly with both acidic and alkaline polymer electrolytes. The fabrication method and remarkable performance of the single cell produced in this study represent progressive steps toward the realistic application of metal-free cathode electrocatalysts in fuel cells.

  9. Regenerative fuel cell systems R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems produce power and electrolytically regenerate their reactants using stacks of electrochemical cells. Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (> 400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight pressure vessels to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Progress is reported on the development, integration, and operation of rechargeable energy storage systems with such high specific energy. Lightweight pressure vessels that enable high specific energies have been designed with performance factors (burst pressure/internal volume/tank weight) > 50 km (2.0 million inches), and a vessel with performance factor of 40 km (1.6 million inches) was fabricated. New generations of both advanced and industry-supplied hydrogen tankage are under development. A primary fuel cell test rig with a single cell (46 cm{sup 2} active area) has been modified and operated reversibly as a URFC (for up to 2010 cycles on a single cell). This URFC uses bifunctional electrodes (oxidation and reduction electrodes reverse roles when switching from charge to discharge, as with a rechargeable battery) and cathode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the hydrogen side of the cell). Recent modifications also enable anode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the oxygen side of the cell). Hydrogen/halogen URFCs, capable of higher round-trip efficiency than hydrogen/oxygen URFCs, have been considered, and will be significantly heavier. Progress is reported on higher performance hydrogen/oxygen URFC operation with reduced catalyst loading.

  10. Quantum dot loading in strong alkaline: improved performance in quantum-dot sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, we demonstrate that the conversion efficiency of CdTe quantum-dot sensitized solar cells could be effectively improved by using a strong alkaline environment during deposition of quantum dots (QDs) onto the TiO2 mesoporous electrode. Alkalis play three unique roles during the deposition: (i) decreasing the inter-particle electrostatic force between TiO2 nanoparticles and QDs to improve QD deposition; (ii) spontaneous formation of Cd(OH)2 during the deposition, which contributes to improvement of device efficiency; (iii) enhancing QD stability by hindering ligands' detachment from QD surface. With these advantages, improved QD loading onto a TiO2 photoanode has been achieved, from barely loading to dense, uniform QD loading with an optimized NaOH addition. Using this method, the overall efficiency of CdTe sensitized solar cell exceeds 2.1% when coupled with a Cu2S cathode—an almost 40% increase of efficiency compared with QDs deposited under a relatively low pH environment. (paper)

  11. Strategies for fuel cell product development. Developing fuel cell products in the technology supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the high cost of research and development and the broad spectrum of knowledge and competences required to develop fuel cell products, many product-developing firms outsource fuel cell technology, either partly or completely. This article addresses the inter-firm process of fuel cell product development from an Industrial Design Engineering perspective. The fuel cell product development can currently be characterised by a high degree of economic and technical uncertainty. Regarding the technology uncertainty: product-developing firms are more often then not unfamiliar with fuel cell technology technology. Yet there is a high interface complexity between the technology supplied and the product in which it is to be incorporated. In this paper the information exchange in three current fuel cell product development projects is analysed to determine the information required by a product designer to develop a fuel cell product. Technology transfer literature suggests that transfer effectiveness is greatest when the type of technology (technology uncertainty) and the type of relationship between the technology supplier and the recipient are carefully matched. In this line of thinking this paper proposes that the information required by a designer, determined by the design strategy and product/system volume, should be met by an appropriate level of communication interactivity with a technology specialist. (author)

  12. Development of solid oxide fuel cell technology at FuelCell Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' FuelCell Energy, Inc. (Danbury, CT) is a world leader in the development and manufacture of high temperature carbonate fuel cells for clean electric power generation and currently offers power plant products ranging in size from 250 kilowatts to multi-megawatts. With its recent acquisition of Global Thermoelectric, Inc. (Calgary, Alberta, Canada) it is also a leading developer of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. The goal of SOFC development is to commercialize low-cost SOFCs for commercial and light industrial applications ranging in product size from 3 to 10 kilowatts for applications up to 100 kilowatts. When successfully commercialized, these products will be complementary to FuelCell Energy's larger scale product line. The commercialization of SOFC technology requires the development of enabling cell and stack technology combined with an engineering focus on system efficiency and cost reduction. This paper highlights the current status of FuelCell Energy's SOFC technology, including: Review of the integrated single co-fire cell manufacturing process. The performance of production cells made using this process. Long-term testing exceeding 20,000 h. Stack developments that have enabled a significant improvement in life and performance. Development of natural gas fuel cell prototype systems. (author)

  13. The Autohumidification Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Benziger, J B; Tulyani, S; Turner, A; Bocarsly, A B; Kevrekidis, Yu G

    2003-01-01

    A PEM fuel cell was specially constructed to determine kinetics under conditions of well-defined gas phase composition and cell temperature. Steady state multiplicity was discovered in the autohumidification PEM fuel cell, resulting from a balance between water production and water removal. Ignition was observed in the PEM fuel cell for a critical water activity of about 0.1. Ignition is a consequence of the exponential increase of proton conductivity with water activity, which creates an autocatalytic feedback between the water production and the proton conduction. The steady state current in the ignited state decreases with increasing temperature between 50 to 105 deg C. At temperatures greater than 70 deg C five steady states were observed in the PEM fuel cell. The steady state performance has been followed with variable load resistance and hysteresis loops have been mapped. The dynamics of transitions between steady states are slow about 10^3 to 10^4 s. These slow dynamics are suggested to result from a c...

  14. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth

    2011-07-31

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  15. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Development in Columbia (SC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth [University of South Carolina; Chen, Fanglin [University of South Carolina; Popov, Branko [University of South Carolina; Chao, Yuh [University of South Carolina; Xue, Xingjian [University of South Carolina

    2012-09-15

    This is an update to the final report filed after the extension of this program to May of 2011. The activities of the present program contributed to the goals and objectives of the Fuel Cell element of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Department of Energy through five sub-projects. Three of these projects have focused on PEM cells, addressing the creation of carbon-based metal-free catalysts, the development of durable seals, and an effort to understand contaminant adsorption/reaction/transport/performance relationships at low contaminant levels in PEM cells. Two programs addressed barriers in SOFCs; an effort to create a new symmetrical and direct hydrocarbon fuel SOFC designs with greatly increased durability, efficiency, and ease of manufacturing, and an effort to create a multiphysics engineering durability model based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy interpretations that associate the micro-details of how a fuel cell is made and their history of (individual) use with specific prognosis for long term performance, resulting in attendant reductions in design, manufacturing, and maintenance costs and increases in reliability and durability.

  16. Proceedings of the fourth annual fuel cells contractors review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective of the program was to develop the essential technology for private sector commercialization of various fuel cell electrical generation systems, which promise high fuel efficiencies (40--60%), possibilities for cogeneration, modularity, possible urban siting, and low emissions. Purpose of this meeting was to provide the R and D participants in the DOE/Fossil Energy-sponsored Fuel Cells Program with a forum. With the near commercialization of phosphoric acid fuel cells, major emphasis was on molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells. 22 papers were given in 3 formal sessions: molten carbonate fuel cells; solid oxide fuel cells; and systems and phosphoric acid. In addition, the proceedings also include a welcome to METC address and comments on the Fuel Cells program from the viewpoint of EPRI and DOE's vehicular fuel cell program. Separate abstracts have been prepared

  17. Waveform control of fuel-cell inverter systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, GR; Wang, KW; Tse, CK; Tan, SC

    2012-01-01

    Fuel-cell power systems comprising single-phase DC/AC inverters draw low-frequency AC ripple currents at twice the output frequency from the fuel cell. Such a 100/120 Hz ripple current may create instability in the fuel cell system, lowers its efficiency, and shortens the lifetime of fuel cell stack. This paper1 presents a waveform control method that can mitigate such a low-frequency ripple current from being drawn from the fuel cell while the fuel-cell system delivers AC power to the load t...

  18. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  19. The Effects of Two Species of Daphne, Betulin and Betulinic Acid on Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Two Human Cancer Cell lines, K562 and MCF-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Panahi Kokhdan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Changes of alkaline phosphatase activity is one of the symptoms of many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two types of Daphne, Betulin and Betulinic acid, on alkaline phosphatase activity in K562 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. Methods: In this study, 106 cancer cell lines of K562 and MCF-7 were cultured in presence of 5% carbon dioxide at 37 ° C. at doses near the IC50. The viability of cells, inside and outside alkaline phosphatase activity and the amount of total protein in each treatment were studied. The collected data was analyzed with a multivariate analysis of variance (Nested Design and Dunnett test. Results: The intracellular alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells showed different behavior compared to the extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity (p< 0.01. The highest increase of alkaline phosphatase activity in two cell lines (K562 and MCF-7 were 339% and 236% which was related to the treatment by macronata daphne. Conclusion: Unexpected increase in intracellular alkaline phosphatase activity in D. mucronata, D. oleides, Betulin, and Betulinic acid treatment may be due to changes in the composition of plasma membrane component and an increase the non-connected membrane of the protein which is due to the creation of more active proteins. Keywords: Daphne mucronata, Daphne oleoides, Alkaline Phosphatase, Betulinic Acid, Betulin

  20. Past, present and future of fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Though the fuel cell was invented by Grove in 1839,there are no commercially viable products at present.The development of fuel cells can be conveniently divided into three phases-exploratory phase(1839-1967).The main emphasis of the work is to increase the area of the three-phase interface at the electrode.The problem was solved by Bacon who invented the dual porosity,biporous nickel electrode.He demonstrated the first H2/O2 fuel cell(180℃,20atm).This cell was later improved and scaled up to power the Apollo lunar mission.However,the cost is too high for civilian applications and we come to the development phase (1967-2001).The main emphasis has been on the use of Teflon bonded electrodes and novel catalysts(PtRu,Pt/WO3 and Pt-Ru/WO3 anode catalyst for the anodic oxidation of impure H2 and methanol.In addition,the recent discovery of gadolinium doped ceria has reduced the operating temperature of solid oxide electrolytes to ~500℃ instead of 1 000℃.From 2001 onwards,we may be entering the breakthrough phase where the most favourable candidates are direct methanol vapor fuel cells and solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells.In the former case,there is a need to reduce the cross-over of methanol to the cathode compartment and the development of air cathode catalyst which are less affected by methanol and in the latter case,there is a need to improve the activity of the anode and cathode catalysts.

  1. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell demonstration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyo, S.E.

    1995-08-01

    The development of a viable fuel cell driven electrical power generation system involves not only the development of cell and stack technology, but also the development of the overall system concept, the strategy for control, and the ancillary subsystems. The design requirements used to guide system development must reflect a customer focus in order to evolve a commercial product. In order to obtain useful customer feedback, Westinghouse has practiced the deployment with customers of fully integrated, automatically controlled, packaged solid oxide fuel cell power generation systems. These field units have served to demonstrate to customers first hand the beneficial attributes of the SOFC, to expose deficiencies through experience in order to guide continued development, and to garner real world feedback and data concerning not only cell and stack parameters, but also transportation, installation, permitting and licensing, start-up and shutdown, system alarming, fault detection, fault response, and operator interaction.

  2. Micro space power system using MEMS fuel cell for nano-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkwang; Kim, Taegyu

    2014-08-01

    A micro space power system using micro fuel cell was developed for nano-satellites. The power system was fabricated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication technologies. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell was selected in consideration of space environment. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was selected as a hydrogen source while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was selected as an oxygen source. The power system consists of a micro fuel cell, micro-reactor, micro-pump, and fuel cartridges. The micro fuel cell was fabricated on a light-weight and corrosion-resistant glass plates. The micro-reactor was used to generate hydrogen from NaBH4 alkaline solution via a catalytic hydrolysis reaction. All components such as micro-pump, fuel cartridges, and auxiliary battery were integrated for a complete power system. The storability of NaBH4 solution was evaluated at -25 °C and the performance of the micro power system was measured at various operating conditions. The power output of micro power system reasonably followed up the given electric load conditions.

  3. Dendronized Polymer Architectures for Fuel Cell Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Takamuku, S.;

    2013-01-01

    evaluated as PEMs for use in fuel cells by proton conductivity measurements, and in the case of dendronized architectures: thermal stability. The proposed synthetic strategy facilitates exploration of a non‐fluorous system with various flexible side chains where IEC is tunable by the degree of substitution....

  4. Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammells, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells and major features and types of batteries used for electrical energy storage. Includes two tables presenting comparison of major battery features and summary of major material problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide batteries. (JN)

  5. Diffuse Charge Effects in Fuel Cell Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Franco, A.A.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that electrolyte membranes in fuel cells are electrically neutral, except in unsteady situations, when the double-layer capacitance is heuristically included in equivalent circuit calculations. Indeed, the standard model for electron transfer kinetics at the membrane/electrode

  6. New tigers in the fuel cell tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Service, R.F.

    2000-06-16

    At last researchers have made critical strides in developing commercially viable fuel cells that extract electricity from natural gas, ethane and other fossil fuels. A new generation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) such as that described in a paper by Hibino et al in this issue of Science (pp 2031-2033) convert hydrocarbons directly into electricity at low temperatures. New designs overcome the earlier problem of carbon atoms sticking to the anode of the cell and ruining it. Scott Barnett and his colleagues at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, have used an atomic spray-painting technique to grow yttria-stabilized zirconia membranes much thinner than the standard 150 micrometer membranes so oxygen ions can slip through them at temperatures closer to 600{degree}C and also developed a nickel-spiked cerium-oxide anode that works at those temperatures. Lower operating temperatures mean fuel cells could be constructed from steel rather than costly heat-resistant alloys. Another group of researchers have developed a copper based anode that reduces carbon buildup. The novel design of Hibino's groups, at Nagoya University, Japan has a cerium oxide wafer with a nickel anode on one side and a ceramic composite cathode which passes oxygen to form ions which react at the anode to form CO{sub 2} water and electricity. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 photo.

  7. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2007-03-27

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  8. Microfabrication of Microchannels for Fuel Cell Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Su Jang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Portable electronic devices such as notebook computers, PDAs, cellular phones, etc., are being widely used, and they increasingly need cheap, efficient, and lightweight power sources. Fuel cells have been proposed as possible power sources to address issues that involve energy production and the environment. In particular, a small type of fuel-cell system is known to be suitable for portable electronic devices. The development of micro fuel cell systems can be achieved by the application of microchannel technology. In this study, the conventional method of chemical etching and the mechanical machining method of micro end milling were used for the microfabrication of microchannel for fuel cell separators. The two methods were compared in terms of their performance in the fabrication with regards to dimensional errors, flatness, straightness, and surface roughness. Following microchannel fabrication, the powder blasting technique is introduced to improve the coating performance of the catalyst on the surface of the microchannel. Experimental results show that end milling can remarkably increase the fabrication performance and that surface treatment by powder blasting can improve the performance of catalyst coating.

  9. Recent Advances in Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Experiments and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic fuel cells convert the chemical energy of biofuels into electrical energy. Unlike traditional fuel cell types, which are mainly based on metal catalysts, the enzymatic fuel cells employ enzymes as catalysts. This fuel cell type can be used as an implantable power source for a variety of medical devices used in modern medicine to administer drugs, treat ailments and monitor bodily functions. Some advantages in comparison to conventional fuel cells include a simple fuel cell design and lower cost of the main fuel cell components, however they suffer from severe kinetic limitations mainly due to inefficiency in electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. In this review article, the major research activities concerned with the enzymatic fuel cells (anode and cathode development, system design, modeling by highlighting the current problems (low cell voltage, low current density, stability will be presented.

  10. Ruthenium dissolution in direct methanol fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Schökel, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The lifetime of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is mostly determined by the degradation of its active component, the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Besides degradation of the proton conducting membrane, the aging of the electrodes and especially the catalysts therein is the major limiting factor. One of the catalyst degradation mechanisms is ruthenium dissolution. This work is the first extensive study on the dissolution, migration and deposition of ruthenium in a DMFC single cell d...

  11. Modeling of a Microbial Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Calder, Michael Alexander

    2007-01-01

    It is clear that society worldwide must immediately begin to mitigate its environmental damage in order to sustain life on Earth. In this regard, researchers all over the global are exploring new energy efficient alternatives to power everything from cars to cell phones. The following brief describes research conducted on Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) and its ability to utilize bacteria to produce electricity from biological masses for low energy consumer products While structurally the MFC i...

  12. Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes: Physiochemical characterization and fuel cell applications [PEM fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Bjerrum, Niels

    2001-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operational at temperatures around 150-200 degrees C is desirable for fast electrode kinetics and high tolerance to fuel impurities. For this purpose polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes have been prepared and H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/-doped in a doping range from 30...

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes the state of art of systems for energy production in electrical vehicles, looking into the general characteristics of electrodes and membranes. The water and thermal balance of the cell in relation to operative conditions, the pressure and temperature influence on the performance are examined. Special emphasis is given to the electrode characteristics-fabrication techniques and assembly of membrane electrodes. The problems related to the oxygen reduction kinetics at the cathode are examined, in relation to the fabrication techniques and to operative conditions of the cells. Finally, the possible alternative catalyzers for anode and cathode are reviewed

  14. A characterisation of electronic properties of alkaline texturized polycrystalline silicon solar cells using IBIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, electronic properties of p-type alkaline texturized polycrystalline silicon solar cells were investigated using ion beam induced charge (IBIC) analysis. With this technique, quantitative information on electronic diffusion lengths and average electronic capture cross sections of lattice defects generated by high energy protons were obtained. Angular-resolved IBIC analysis was used to quantify the electronic diffusion lengths. For this purpose, the experimental data were fitted using a simulation based on the Ramo-Shockley-Gunn (RSG) theorem and the assumption of an abrupt pn-junction. In order to determine the average electronic capture cross section of proton-induced lattice defects, the loss of charge collection efficiency (CCE) was plotted vs. the accumulated ion fluence. As will be demonstrated, a simple model based on charge carrier diffusion and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination is able to fit the CCE loss well. Furthermore, spatially and energetically highly resolved IBIC-maps of grain boundaries were recorded. A comparison with PIXE-maps shows that there is no correlation observable between CCE variations at grain boundaries and metallic impurities within the PIXE detection limits of a few ppm. On the contrary, there is an evident correlation to the morphology of the sample's surface as was observed by comparing IBIC-maps and SEM-micrographs. These local CCE fluctuations are dominated by the interplay of charge carrier diffusion processes and the sample surface morphology.

  15. Bleb formation is induced by alkaline but not acidic pH in estrogen receptor silenced breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajah, Maitham A; Mathew, Princy M; Alam-Eldin, Nada S; Luqmani, Yunus A

    2015-04-01

    De novo and acquired resistance to endocrine-based therapies in breast cancer occurs in parallel with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is associated with enhanced proliferative and metastatic potential, and poor clinical outcome. We have established several endocrine insensitive breast cancer lines by shRNA-induced depletion of estrogen receptor (ER) by transfection of MCF7 cells. All of these exhibit EMT. We have previously reported that brief exposure of specifically ER- breast cancer cells, to extracellular alkaline pH, results in cell rounding and segregation, and leads to enhanced invasive potential. In this study we describe more detailed morphological changes and compare these with cell exposure to acidic pH. Morphological changes and localization of various molecules critical for cell adhesion and motility, associated with pH effects, were assessed by live cell microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Exposure of either ER- or ER+ breast cancer cells to extracellular acidic pH did not induce significant changes in morphological appearance. Conversely, brief exposure of specifically ER silenced cells, to alkaline pH, resulted in cell contractolation and formation of bleb-like actin-rich structures which were evenly distributed on the outer membrane. Integrin α2, FAK, and JAM-1 were found in the cytoplasm streaming into the newly formed blebs. These blebs appear to be related to cell polarity and movement. Pre-treatment with cytochalasin-D or inhibitors of Rho or MLCK prevented both contractolation and bleb formation. Our data suggest that the effect of pH on the microenvironment of endocrine resistant breast cancer cells needs to be more extensively investigated. Alkaline, rather than acidic pH, appears to induce dramatic morphological changes, and enhances their invasive capabilities, through re-organization of cortical actin. PMID:25672508

  16. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  17. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market drivers and the future outlook for fuel cells.

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems

    2012-05-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability

  20. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO2 emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: → A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. → The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO2 emissions results. → A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  1. Yeast fuel cell: Application for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana, Ummy; Innocent, Christophe; Cretin, Marc; Buchari, Buchari; Gandasasmita, Suryo

    2016-02-01

    Yeasts have been implicated in microbial fuel cells as biocatalysts because they are non-pathogenic organisms, easily handled and robust with a good tolerance in different environmental conditions. Here we investigated baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the oxidation of glucose. Yeast was used in the anolyte, to transfer electrons to the anode in the presence of methylene blue as mediator whereas K3Fe(CN)6 was used as an electron acceptor for the reduction reaction in the catholyte. Power production with biofuel cell was coupled with a desalination process. The maximum current density produced by the cell was 88 mA.m-2. In those conditions, it was found that concentration of salt was removed 64% from initial 0.6 M after 1-month operation. This result proves that yeast fuel cells can be used to remove salt through electrically driven membrane processes and demonstrated that could be applied for energy production and desalination. Further developments are in progress to improve power output to make yeast fuel cells applicable for water treatment.

  2. Coal derived fuel gases for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Product streams from state-of-the-art and future coal gasification systems are characterized to guide fuel cell program planners and researchers in establishing performance goals and developing materials for molten carbonate fuel cells that will be compatible with gasifier product gases. Results are presented on: (1) the range of gasifier raw-gas compositions available from the major classes of coal gasifiers; (2) the degree of gas clean-up achievable with state-of-the-art and future gas clean-up systems; and (3) the energy penalties associated with gas clean-up. The study encompasses fixed-bed, fluid-bed, entrained-bed, and molten salt gasifiers operating with Eastern bituminous and Western subbituminous coals. Gasifiers operating with air and oxygen blowing are evaluated, and the coal gasification product streams are characterized with respect to: (1) major gas stream constituents, e.g., CO, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O; (2) major gas stream contaminants, e.g., H/sub 2/S, COS, particulates, tars, etc.; and (3) trace element contaminants, e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, Hg, etc.

  3. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.;

    1993-01-01

    Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen......, as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity....

  4. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  5. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  6. Charging system for fuel cell applications; Luftversorgung fuer Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Dietmar; Werner, Juergen; Muenz, Stefan [BorgWarner Turbo Systems, Kirchheimbolanden (Germany). Bereich Advanced Engineering; Becker, Michael [BorgWarner BERU Systems GmbH, Ludwigsburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Vehicles with fuel cells become increasingly important, as OEM have announced to introduce fuel cell vehicles into the market starting in 2015. Similarly to a combustion engine, the fuel cell also needs compressed air to provide high power density. For a longer period, BorgWarner has collaborated with different OEM and has developed a turbocharger for fuel cells with high maturity level which is scalable to support various applications. (orig.)

  7. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-15

    This 2011 report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides an update of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. State activities reported include new policies and funding, recent and planned fuel cell and hydrogen installations, and recent activities by state industries and universities.

  8. Performance optimization of a PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to develop a semi-empirical model that would simulate the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells without extensive calculations. A fuel cell mathematical module has been designed and constructed to determine the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The influence of some operating parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell has been investigated using pure hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. The present model can be used to investigate t...

  9. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Characterization for Electric Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, D.H.; Dickinson, B.E.; Arikara, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data and an analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system for electric vehicle applications. The dependence of the fuel cell system's performance on air stoichiometry, operating temperature, and reactant gas pressure was assessed in terms of the fuel cell's polarity and power density-efficiency graphs. All the experiments were performed by loading the fuel cell with resistive heater coils which could be controlled to provide a constant current or con...

  10. Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-03-30

    There has been an increase in recent years in the number of reports of microorganisms that can generate electrical current in microbial fuel cells. Although many new strains have been identified, few strains individually produce power densities as high as strains from mixed communities. Enriched anodic biofilms have generated power densities as high as 6.9 W per m2 (projected anode area), and therefore are approaching theoretical limits. To understand bacterial versatility in mechanisms used for current generation, this Progress article explores the underlying reasons for exocellular electron transfer, including cellular respiration and possible cell-cell communication.

  11. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) development activities and current program status. The Westinghouse goal is to develop a cost effective cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 hours. Progress toward this goal will be discussed and test results presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 56,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Results of development efforts to reduce cost and increase power output of tubular SOFCs are described.

  12. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  13. Simplified Load-Following Control for a Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    A simplified load-following control scheme has been proposed for a fuel cell power system. The scheme could be used to control devices that are important parts of a fuel cell system but are sometimes characterized as parasitic because they consume some of the power generated by the fuel cells.

  14. 77 FR 50488 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy... open meeting (Webinar) of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC). The Federal..., DC 20585. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose of the Committee: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell...

  15. Advanced methods of solid oxide fuel cell modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Jaroslaw; Santarelli, Massimo; Leone, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells are widely regarded as the future of the power and transportation industries. Intensive research in this area now requires new methods of fuel cell operation modeling and cell design. Typical mathematical models are based on the physical process description of fuel cells and require a detailed knowledge of the microscopic properties that govern both chemical and electrochemical reactions. ""Advanced Methods of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modeling"" proposes the alternative methodology of generalized artificial neural networks (ANN) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modeling. ""Advanced Methods

  16. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John C.; Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2007-05-08

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  17. Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Hubert

    2004-03-01

    Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC environment more corrosion

  18. Reduced L/B/K alkaline phosphatase gene expression in renal cell carcinoma: plausible role in tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ujjawal; Pal, Deeksha; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Kakkar, Nandita; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-09-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer in adults. Although several genes have been found to be involved in carcinogenesis of RCC, more great efforts are needed to identify new genes which are responsible for the process. Clear cell RCC, originates from proximal tubule cells, is the most common pathological type of RCC. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a marker enzyme of brush border membrane of proximal tubular cells. Our previous studies showed a significant decreased activity of Liver/Bone/Kidney (L/B/K) alkaline phosphatase in RCC. In the present study, we explored the molecular basis of the decreased activity of ALP in RCC. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis showed decreased ALP protein in RCC. Additionally, real time PCR documented significantly reduced ALP gene expression (P = 0.009). Moreover, RCC cell lines (ACHN and A498) transfected with full length L/B/K cDNA showed decreased migratory property as well as viability of these cells as compared with controls (P = 0.000). Further, L/B/K ALP cDNA transfected cells (ACHN and A498) showed significant increased apoptosis as compared to control (P = 0.000). These findings suggest the new role of ALP in cell viability and apoptosis and involvement in RCC tumorigenesis. However, further studies are needed to explore the exact molecular mechanism. PMID:24909115

  19. Status of hydrogen fuel cell electric buses worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Thanh; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Eudy, Leslie; Singer, Gregg; Jermer, Boris; Asselin-Miller, Nick; Wessel, Silvia; Patterson, Timothy; Marcinkoski, Jason

    2014-12-01

    This review summarizes the background and recent status of the fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration projects in North America and Europe. Key performance metrics include accumulated miles, availability, fuel economy, fuel cost, roadcalls, and hydrogen fueling. The state-of-the-art technology used in today's fuel cell bus is highlighted. Existing hydrogen infrastructure for refueling is described. The article also presents the challenges encountered in these projects, the experiences learned, as well as current and future performance targets.

  20. Electrochemical reduction of CO2 and H2O into fuels: Cell types and kinetic barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Some water electrolysers like alkaline electrolyser cells (AEC) and polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyser cell (PEMEC) have been commercially available for many decades, but for production of hydrogen for fuel using renewable electricity they are not yet affordable because of a too low ratio of production rate/cost. Production rate is determined mainly by electrode kinetics. Therefore, parallel to improving the electrodes of these electrolyser cells, other cell types, which have faster el...

  1. A novel supercapacitor-fuel cell hybrid cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Y; ZHENG Jim P

    2006-01-01

    A monolithic hybrid fuel cell (MHFC) with a novel configuration was proposed in an effort to improve the fuel cell performance during instantaneous power changes. A modified direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) with a layer of hydrous ruthenium dioxide (RuO2·xH2O) sandwiched between the anode catalyst layer and membrane was used to demonstrate the principle of the MHFC. Experimental results indicate that the RuO2·xH2O layer is equivalent to a resistor-capacitor transmission line and functions similar to a capacitor in parallel with the anode electrode. The improvement in dynamic response of the MHFC was experimentally confirmed under step current change and square current pulse operating. The ionic conductivity of the RuO2·xH2O layer was also obtained.

  2. GRID INDEPENDENT FUEL CELL OPERATED SMART HOME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2003-12-07

    A fuel cell power plant, which utilizes a smart energy management and control (SEMaC) system, supplying the power need of laboratory based ''home'' has been purchased and installed. The ''home'' consists of two rooms, each approximately 250 sq. ft. Every appliance and power outlet is under the control of a host computer, running the SEMaC software package. It is possible to override the computer, in the event that an appliance or power outage is required. Detailed analysis and simulation of the fuel cell operated smart home has been performed. Two journal papers has been accepted for publication and another journal paper is under review. Three theses have been completed and three additional theses are in progress.

  3. Progress in Microbial Fuel Cells Energy Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the natural metabolisms of microbes to produce electrical power from almost any kind of organic matter. In addition to the low power densities (about 1mW for a 1-liter reactor), MFCs are presently built with expensive membrane and electrodes. The payback time of MFCs is therefore very long (evaluated to 25000 years for our lab prototype). Progresses in designing low-cost MFCs are necessary before conceiving large scale energy production. (author)

  4. Fuel cell using a hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-10-19

    A system is described for storing and generating hydrogen and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  5. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich's solution and analysis.

  6. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich`s solution and analysis.

  7. Electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Celorrio, V.

    2013-01-01

    The properties of CNC as well as their surface chemistry can be tuned by an adequate choice of synthesis conditions, favouring the formation of surface oxygen groups. Platinum-based catalysts have been supported on CNCs through different synthesis methods and their catalytic activity has been proven. These results prove that CNCs are promising candidates as alternative to replace Vulcan in order to improve the performance of the direct alcohol fuel cells. In addition, it can be affirmed that ...

  8. Fuel cell technology development forges ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On 11 June, 2006, a bright red sightseeing van attracted much attention at the Xinghai Square in Dalian, a coastal city of northeast China's Liaoning Province. This is no ordinary tour coach, as it is jointly driven by fuel cells (FC) and storage batteries. Acting as its "heart," the FC system could generate electricity not only for driving the mini-coach, but also for re-charging the storage battery system when excess power is yielded.

  9. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Interconnection materials in a solid oxide fuel cell are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. The thermal expansion characteristics of substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromite interconnect materials were evaluated by dilatometry as a function of oxygen partial pressures from 1 atm to 10{sup -18} atm, controlled using a carbon dioxide/hydrogen buffer.

  10. Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Magee; Richard Gehman

    2005-07-12

    This document reports on the work done by Honeywell Sensing and Control to investigate the feasibility of modifying low cost Commercial Sensors for use inside a PEM Fuel Cell environment. Both stationary and automotive systems were considered. The target environment is hotter (100 C) than the typical commercial sensor maximum of 70 C. It is also far more humid (100% RH condensing) than the more typical 95% RH non-condensing at 40 C (4% RH maximum at 100 C). The work focused on four types of sensors, Temperature, Pressure, Air Flow and Relative Humidity. Initial design goals were established using a market research technique called Market Driven Product Definition (MDPD). A series of interviews were conducted with various users and system designers in their facilities. The interviewing team was trained in data taking and analysis per the MDPD process. The final result was a prioritized and weighted list of both requirements and desires for each sensor. Work proceeded on concept development for the 4 types of sensors. At the same time, users were developing the actual fuel cell systems and gaining knowledge and experience in the use of sensors and controls systems. This resulted in changes to requirements and desires that were not anticipated during the MDPD process. The concepts developed met all the predicted requirements. At the completion of concept development for the Pressure Sensor, it was determined that the Fuel Cell developers were happy with off-the-shelf automotive pressure sensors. Thus, there was no incentive to bring a new Fuel Cell Specific Pressure Sensor into production. Work was therefore suspended. After the experience with the Pressure Sensor, the requirements for a Temperature Sensor were reviewed and a similar situation applied. Commercially available temperature sensors were adequate and cost effective and so the program was not continued from the Concept into the Design Phase.

  11. On direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles : modelling and demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Haraldsson, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, direct hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems in vehicles are investigated through modelling, field tests and public acceptance surveys. A computer model of a 50 kW PEM fuel cell system was developed. The fuel cell system efficiency is approximately 50% between 10 and 45% of the rated power. The fuel cell auxiliary system, e.g. compressor and pumps, was shown to clearly affect the overall fuel cell system electrical efficiency. Two hydrogen on-board storage ...

  12. Experimental Characterization and Modeling of PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk

    Fuel cells are strong candidates to become the power sources of the 21th century. Despite, being close to mass market entry for several years, fuel cells still are still only found in prototypes and very few commercial products. The reason for this is that fuel cells currently suffer from too hig...... transferred into a current density measurement tool. It is the hope that the contribution of this thesis can aid in bringing fuel cells faster to the market. Fuel cells are a key technology needed to cope with the climate changes of the future....

  13. Fuel cell operation with oxygen enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, M.; Hamelin, J.; Agbossou, K.; Bose, T.K. [Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Institut de Recherche sur l' Hydrogene, 3351, Boul. Des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres (QC), G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2003-02-01

    Experimental results on the performance of a Ballard 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack for different oxygen contents in the oxidant are presented. A description of the experimental setup is given. Polarization, power, and efficiency curves as a function of the current density, for different oxygen concentrations are presented. This detailed characterization of the fuel cell stack behavior is required in order to evaluate the effects of oxygen enrichment on the net power output of the stack. This investigation is done in the framework of a project on stand-alone power generation systems using renewable energy sources, and based on hydrogen production and storage. An electrolyzer, powered by the excess electrical energy from renewable energy sources, produces hydrogen. The stored hydrogen could then be used to feed an energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell stack, which acts as a secondary power source in periods of high demand. Therefore, a second objective is to evaluate the possibility of using the oxygen produced by the electrolyzer for the enrichment. Other oxygen enrichment techniques such as membrane gas separation and pressure swing adsorption are also discussed. Net available power and system efficiency are used as comparison factors. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  15. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  16. Enhanced bifunctional activity of LaNiO3-based gas diffusion electrodes for regenerative fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, R A; Soares, C. O.; Carvalho, M. D.; C. M. Rangel; Pereira, M. I. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Perovskites are of great interest when searching replacements for precious metals as catalyst for bifunctional oxygen electrodes involving the oxygen evolution(OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as is the case of regenerative fuel cells. In this work a full electrochemical study on the electrochemical properties of gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) using LaNiO3-based catalysts, conducted in alkaline media, led to a study of cyclability and durability. The incorporation of GDEs in a low po...

  17. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of fast regulation abilities combined with excellent part-load efficiencies. Additionally scaling the cells from W to kW to MW is possible and does not influence the efficiencies of the cells. The feasi...

  18. CONTROL OF ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY IN C3H10T1/2 CELLS: ROLE OF RETINOIC ACID AND CELL DENSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP) has been shown to be lost or inappropriately expressed during carcinogenesis in some tissues. ecause retinoic acid (RA) appears to play a role in the normal regulation of the enzyme (RA up-regulates AP in a variety of cell types) we have sugge...

  19. Nanostructured electrocatalyst for fuel cells : silica templated synthesis of Pt/C composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Switzer, Elise E.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Cornelius, Christopher James; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    Platinum-based electrocatalysts are currently required for state-of-the-art fuel cells and represent a significant portion of the overall fuel cell cost. If fuel cell technology is to become competitive with other energy conversion technologies, improve the utilization of precious metal catalysts is essential. A primary focus of this work is on creating enhanced nanostructured materials which improve precious-metal utilization. The goal is to engineer superior electrocatalytic materials through the synthesis, development and investigation of novel templated open frame structures synthesized in an aerosol-based approach. Bulk templating methods for both Pt/C and Pt-Ru composites are evaluated in this study and are found to be limited due to the fact that the nanostructure is not maintained throughout the entire sample. Therefore, an accurate examination of structural effects was previously impossible. An aerosol-based templating method of synthesizing nanostructured Pt-Ru electrocatalysts has been developed wherein the effects of structure can be related to electrocatalytic performance. The aerosol-based templating method developed in this work is extremely versatile as it can be conveniently modified to synthesize alternative materials for other systems. The synthesis method was able to be extended to nanostructured Pt-Sn for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were evaluated in a unique approach tailored to electrocatalytic studies in alkaline media. At low temperatures, nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were found to have significantly higher ethanol oxidation activity than a comparable nanostructured Pt catalyst. At higher temperatures, the oxygen-containing species contribution likely provided by Sn is insignificant due to a more oxidized Pt surface. The importance of the surface coverage of oxygen-containing species in the reaction mechanism is established in these studies. The investigations in this work present

  20. Effect of pH in a Pd-based ethanol membraneless air breathing nanofluidic fuel cell with flow-through electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rico, C. A.; Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Ledesma-García, J.; Arriaga, L. G.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.; Arjona, N.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a nanofluidic fuel cell (NFC) in which streams flow through electrodes was used to investigate the role of pH in the cell performance using ethanol as fuel and two Pd nanoparticles as electrocatalysts: one commercially available (Pd/C from ETEK) and other synthesized using ionic liquids (Pd/C IL). The cell performances for both electrocatalysts in acid/acid (anodic/cathodic) streams were of 18.05 and 9.55 mW cm-2 for Pd/C ETEK and Pd/C IL. In alkaline/alkaline streams, decrease to 15.94 mW cm-2 for Pd/C ETEK and increase to 15.37 mW cm-2 for Pd/C IL. In alkaline/acidic streams both electrocatalysts showed similar cell voltages (up to 1 V); meanwhile power densities were of 87.6 and 99.4 mW cm-2 for Pd/C ETEK and Pd/C IL. The raise in cell performance can be related to a decrease in activation losses, the combined used of alkaline and acidic streams and these high values compared with flow-over fuel cells can be related to the enhancement of the cathodic mass transport by using three dimensional porous electrodes and two sources of oxygen: from air and from a saturated solution.

  1. PEM Fuel Cells Redesign Using Biomimetic and TRIZ Design Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Keith Kin Kei

    Two formal design methodologies, biomimetic design and the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, TRIZ, were applied to the redesign of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Proof of concept prototyping was performed on two of the concepts for water management. The liquid water collection with strategically placed wicks concept demonstrated the potential benefits for a fuel cell. Conversely, the periodic flow direction reversal concepts might cause a potential reduction water removal from a fuel cell. The causes of this water removal reduction remain unclear. In additional, three of the concepts generated with biomimetic design were further studied and demonstrated to stimulate more creative ideas in the thermal and water management of fuel cells. The biomimetic design and the TRIZ methodologies were successfully applied to fuel cells and provided different perspectives to the redesign of fuel cells. The methodologies should continue to be used to improve fuel cells.

  2. Fuel cell commercialization — beyond the 'Notice of Market Opportunity for Fuel Cells' (NOMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfass, J. A.; Glenn, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Notice of Market Opportunity for Fuel Cells (NOMO) was released in Oct. 1988 by the American Public Power Association. Its goal was to identify a manufacturer for commercializing a multi-megawatt fuel cell power plant with attractive cost and performance characteristics, supported by a realistic, yet aggressive commercialization plan, leading to mid-1990s application. Energy Research Corporation's program to commercialize its 2-MW internal-reforming carbonate fuel cell was selected. The program was refined in the development of the Principles and Framework for Commercializing Direct Fuel Cell Power Plants, which defines buyer responsibilities for promotion and coordination of information development, supplier responsibilities for meeting certain milestones and for sharing the results of success in a royalty agreement, and risk management features. Twenty-three electric and gas utilities in the US and Canada have joined the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group to support the buyers' obligations in this program. The City of Santa Clara, CA; Electric Power Research Institute; Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Southern California Gas Company; Southern California Edison; National Rural Electric Cooperative Association; and Pacific Gas & Electric, have formed the Santa Clara Demonstration Group to build the first 2-MW power plant. The preliminary design for this demonstration is nearly complete. Integrated testing of a 20-kW stack with the complete balance-of-plant, has been successfully accomplished by Pacific Gas & Electric at its test facility in San Ramon, CA.

  3. Fuel cell progress and its application in field of transportation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' The paper presents the latest fuel cell technology progress in China and its application in field of transportation. The units who are engaged in fuel cell technology and fuel cell products will be introduced and their applications in light fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell cars as well as fuel cell buses will be included. (author)

  4. Solar Airplanes and Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A solar electric aircraft with the potential to "fly forever" has captured NASA's interest, and the concept for such an aircraft was pursued under Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Feasibility of this aircraft happens to depend on the successful development of solar power technologies critical to NASA's Exploration Initiatives; hence, there was widespread interest throughout NASA to bring these technologies to a flight demonstration. The most critical is an energy storage system to sustain mission power during night periods. For the solar airplane, whose flight capability is already limited by the diffuse nature of solar flux and subject to latitude and time of year constraints, the feasibility of long endurance flight depends on a storage density figure of merit better than 400-600 watt-hr per kilogram. This figure of merit is beyond the capability of present day storage technologies (other than nuclear) but may be achievable in the hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC). This potential has led NASA to undertake the practical development of a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell, initially as solar energy storage for a high altitude UAV science platform but eventually to serve as the primary power source for NASAs lunar base and other planet surface installations. Potentially the highest storage capacity and lowest weight of any non-nuclear device, a flight-weight RFC aboard a solar-electric aircraft that is flown continuously through several successive day-night cycles will provide the most convincing demonstration that this technology's widespread potential has been realized. In 1998 NASA began development of a closed cycle hydrogen oxygen PEM RFC under the Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project and continued its development, originally for a solar electric airplane flight, through FY2005 under the Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP) project. Construction of

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Luo, Jin; Fang, Bin; Wanjala, Bridgid N.; Njoki, Peter N.; Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Yin, Jun

    2010-02-01

    One of the most important challenges for the ultimate commercialization of fuel cells is the preparation of active, robust, and low-cost catalysts. This review highlights some findings of our investigations in the last few years in developing advanced approaches to nanostructured catalysts that address this challenge. Emphasis is placed on nanoengineering-based fabrication, processing, and characterization of multimetallic nanoparticles with controllable size (1-10 nm), shape, composition (e.g. MlnM2100-n, M1nM2mM3100-n-m, M1@M2, where M (1 or 2) = Pt, Co, Ni, V, Fe, Cu, Pd, W, Ag, Au etc) and morphology (e.g. alloy, core@shell etc). In addition to an overview of the fundamental issues and the recent progress in fuel cell catalysts, results from evaluations of the electrocatalytic performance of nanoengineered catalysts in fuel cell reactions are discussed. This approach differs from other traditional approaches to the preparation of supported catalysts in the ability to control the particle size, composition, phase, and surface properties. An understanding of how the nanoscale properties of the multimetallic nanoparticles differ from their bulk-scale counterparts, and how the interaction between the nanoparticles and the support materials relates to the size sintering or evolution in the thermal activation process, is also discussed. The fact that the bimetallic gold-platinum nanoparticle system displays a single-phase character different from the miscibility gap known for its bulk-scale counterpart serves as an important indication of the nanoscale manipulation of the structural properties, which is useful for refining the design and preparation of the bimetallic catalysts. The insight gained from probing how nanoparticle-nanoparticle and nanoparticle-substrate interactions relate to the size evolution in the activation process of nanoparticles on planar substrates serves as an important guiding principle in the control of nanoparticle sintering on different

  6. A critical assessment of fuel cell technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold combustion is a promised technology to mankind since the middle of the last century. The fuel cell may at last become the energy machine of the one to come after a long journey on a road bordered with expectations, successes and disappointments. Ten billion people will need the cell for their well-being. The progress and the state-of-art is assessed by means of figures of merit for performance, normalized to standard conditions, life and variability. State-of-art current densities for multi-kW stacks operating on atmospheric pressure air at 0.74 V cell voltage (50% efficiency, HHV) are estimated to be 150 mA/cm2 for MCFC, 160 mA/cm2 for AFC, 239 mA/cm2 for PEFC and 270 mA/cm2 for SOFC. PAFC gives 260 mA/cm2 at 0.66 V and DMFC 100 mA/cm2 at 0.37 V. Decay rates are about 1%/1000 h for PEFC, PAFC and SOFC compared to 2%/1000 h for AFC and 3%/1000 h for MCFC. Coefficients of variation for cell voltages amount to about 1% for all options, except for MCFC with 3-4%. Improvement of cell performance after 1975 is nil to moderate, except for SOFC with a consistent annual improvement of about 10%. There is room for further development of terrestrial AFCs towards 300-400 mA/cm2 considering the figure 800 mA/cm2 for oxygen AFCs. Life and cost will decide the future of the fuel cell. Prospects are not as good as they could be. The fuel cell community lacks understanding of the basics of fuel processing, as demonstrated by the widespread misbelief ('the CO2 syndrome') that CO2 cannot be removed cost effectively from a hydrogen feed (which is practiced in every NH3 plant around the world). The competition, read the gas turbine, has to be taken very seriously. Emphasis has to be shifted from premature demonstrations to R and D on fundamental problems, which have been around too long. 34 refs

  7. Platinum-rare earth cathodes for direct borohydride-peroxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, D. S. P.; Santos, D. M. F.; Šljukić, B.; Sequeira, C. A. C.; Macciò, D.; Saccone, A.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is being actively investigated as an oxidant for direct borohydride fuel cells. Herein, platinum-rare earth (RE = Sm, Dy, Ho) alloys are prepared by arc melting and their activity for hydrogen peroxide reduction reaction (HPRR) is studied in alkaline media. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements show that Pt-Sm electrode displays the highest catalytic activity for HPRR with the lowest activation energy, followed by Pt-Ho, while Pt-Dy alloys show practically no activity. Laboratory direct borohydride-peroxide fuel cells (DBPFCs) are assembled using these alloys. The DBPFC with Pt-Sm cathode gives the highest peak power density of 85 mW cm-2, which is more than double of that obtained in a DBPFC with Pt electrodes.

  8. Biorefinery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Das; Thomas T. Adams; Mark A. Eiteman; John Stickney; Joy Doran Peterson; James R. Kastner; Sudhagar Mani; Ryan Adolphson

    2012-06-12

    In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [1] establishment of pyrolysis processing systems and characterization of the product oils for fuel applications, including engine testing of a preferred product and its pro forma economic analysis; [2] extraction of sugars through a novel hotwater extaction process, and the development of levoglucosan (a pyrolysis BioOil intermediate); [3] identification and testing of the use of biochar, the coproduct from pyrolysis, for soil applications; [4] developments in methods of atomic layer epitaxy (for efficient development of coatings as in fuel cells); [5] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics, [6] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery, and [7] development of catalysts from coproducts. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the pyrolysis biooil based diesel fuel supplement, sugar extraction from lignocelluose, use of biochar, production of algal biomass in wastewaters, and the development of catalysts. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The various coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

  9. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontela, Pablo [Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A., Av del mediterraneo 22, Parque Tecnologico de Leganes, Leganes (Spain); Soria, Antonio [Area of Hybrid Systems Area of R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, Jose Francisco; de Blas, Juan [R and D Unit, BESEL S.A. (Spain); Gauchia, Lucia [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University, Universidad Carlos III, Av. Universidad 30, Leganes (Spain); Martinez, Juan M. [Electric engineering Department, Carlos III University (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness,..), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions. (author)

  10. In situ catalyzed Boudouard reaction of coal char for solid oxide-based carbon fuel cells with improved performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Industrial coal char was used as a fuel for solid oxide-based carbon fuel cells. • The Boudouard reactivity of coal char is higher than that of a commercial activated carbon. • The mineral matter in coal char has a catalytic effect on the Boudouard reaction. • Added catalysts and the inherent catalysts synergetically improved cell output. - Abstract: The use of industrial coal char as a fuel source for an anode-supported solid oxide-based carbon fuel cell (SO-CFC) with a yttrium-stabilized zirconia electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 cathode was investigated. Both the Boudouard reactivity and electrochemical performance of the coal char samples are higher than those of activated carbon samples under the same conditions. The inherent catalytic activity of the metal species (FemOn, CaO, etc.) in the coal char mineral matter leads to good cell performance, even in the absence of an external catalyst. For example, the peak power density of a cell fueled with pure coal char is 100 mW cm−2 at 850 °C, and that of a cell fueled with coal char impregnated with an FemOn-alkaline metal oxide catalyst is 204 mW cm−2. These results suggest that using coal char as the fuel in SO-CFCs might be an attractive way to utilize abundant coal resources cleanly and efficiently, providing an alternative for future power generation

  11. Structure and Control Strategies of Fuel Cell Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建国; 张承宁; 孙逢春; 钟秋海

    2004-01-01

    The structure and kinds of the fuel cell vehicle (FCV) and the mathematical model of the fuel cell processor are discussed in detail. FCV includes many parts: the fuel cell thermal and water management, fuel supply, air supply and distribution, AC motor drive, main and auxiliary power management, and overall vehicle control system. So it requires different kinds of control strategies, such as the PID method, zero-pole method, optimal control method, fuzzy control and neural network control. Along with the progress of control method, the fuel cell vehicle's stability and reliability is up-and-up. Experiment results show FCV has high energy efficiency.

  12. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  13. Zinc electrodes for alkaline reserve cells. [German patent; Ag oxide cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lala, A.

    1977-01-20

    Higher current densities at lower operational temperatures can be obtained from alkaline filler elements with silver oxide cathodes if according to the invention a foil or net each of aluminium or aluminium alloy lies on both sides of the current tap of the anode and a zinc foil each on the electrolyte side.

  14. A dynamic simulation tool for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. M.; Hauer, K. H.; Friedman, D.; Cunningham, J.; Badrinarayanan, P.; Ramaswamy, S.; Eggert, A.

    This paper describes a dynamic fuel cell vehicle simulation (FCVSim) tool for the load-following direct-hydrogen (DH) fuel cell vehicle. The emphasis is on simulation of the direct-hydrogen fuel cell system (FC System) within the vehicle simulation tool. This paper is focused on the subsystems that are specific to the load-following direct-hydrogen model. The four major subsystems discussed are the fuel cell stack, the air supply, the water and thermal management (WTM), and the hydrogen supply. The discussion provides the details of these subsystem simulations. The basic vehicle configuration has been previously outlined by Hauer [An Analysis Tool For Fuel Cell Vehicle Hardware and Software (Controls) with an Application to Fuel Economy Comparisons of Alternative System Designs, Dissertation, UC California, Davis, USA, 2001] and Hauer and Moore [Fuel Cells for Automotive Applications, Professional Engineering Publishing, 2003, pp. 157-177, ISBN 1860584233] and is only briefly reviewed in this paper.

  15. Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2001-10-02

    The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

  16. Fuel cell electrode interconnect contact material encapsulation and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derose, Anthony J.; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Gudyka, Russell A.; Bonadies, Joseph V.; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2016-05-31

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cell cassettes each including a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode. Each fuel cell cassette also includes an electrode interconnect adjacent to the anode or the cathode for providing electrical communication between an adjacent fuel cell cassette and the anode or the cathode. The interconnect includes a plurality of electrode interconnect protrusions defining a flow passage along the anode or the cathode for communicating oxidant or fuel to the anode or the cathode. An electrically conductive material is disposed between at least one of the electrode interconnect protrusions and the anode or the cathode in order to provide a stable electrical contact between the electrode interconnect and the anode or cathode. An encapsulating arrangement segregates the electrically conductive material from the flow passage thereby, preventing volatilization of the electrically conductive material in use of the fuel cell stack.

  17. Analysis and Test of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Power System for Space Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo; Varanauski, Donald; Clark, Robert, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An effort is underway to develop a prototype Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell breadboard system for fuhlre space applications. This prototype will be used to develop a comprehensive design basis for a space-rated PEM fuel cell powerplant. The prototype system includes reactant pressure regulators, ejector-based reactant pumps, a 4-kW fuel cell stack and cooling system, and a passive, membranebased oxygen / water separator. A computer model is being developed concurrently to analytically predict fluid flow in the oxidant reactant system. Fuel cells have historically played an important role in human-rated spacecraft. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used fuel cells for vehicle electrical power. The Space Shuttle currently uses three Alkaline Fuel Cell Powerplants (AFCP) to generate all of the vehicle's 15-20kW electrical power. Engineers at the Johnson Space Center have leveraged off the development effort ongoing in the commercial arena to develop PEM fuel cel ls for terrestrial uses. The prototype design originated from efforts to develop a PEM fuel cell replacement for the current Space Shuttle AFCP' s. In order to improve on the life and an already excellent hi storical record of reliability and safety, three subsystems were focused on. These were the fuel cell stack itself, the reactant circulation devices, and reactant / product water separator. PEM fuel cell stack performance is already demonstrating the potential for greater than four times the useful life of the current Shuttle's AFCP. Reactant pumping for product water removal has historically been accomplished with mechanical pumps. Ejectors offer an effective means of reactant pumping as well as the potential for weight reduction, control simplification, and long life. Centrifugal water separation is used on the current AFCP. A passive, membrane-based water separator offers compatibility with the micro-gravity environment of space, and the potential for control simplification, elimination of

  18. Fuel cell applications for novel metalloporphyrin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryba, G.; Shelnutt, J.; Doddapaneni, N.; Zavadil, K.

    1997-04-01

    This project utilized Computer-Aided Molecular Design (CAMD) to develop a new class of metalloporphyrin materials for use as catalysts for two fuel cell reactions. The first reaction is the reduction of oxygen at the fuel cell cathode, and this reaction was the main focus of the research. The second reaction we attempted to catalyze was the oxidation of methanol at the anode. Two classes of novel metalloporphyrins were developed. The first class comprised the dodecaphenylporphyrins whose steric bulk forces them into a non-planar geometry having a pocket where oxygen or methanol is more tightly bound to the porphyrin than it is in the case of planar porphyrins. Significant improvements in the catalytic reduction of oxygen by the dodecaphenyl porphyrins were measured in electrochemical cells. The dodecaphenylporphyrins were further modified by fluorinating the peripheral phenyl groups to varying degrees. The fluorination strongly affected their redox potential, but no effect on their catalytic activity towards oxygen was observed. The second class of porphyrin catalysts was a series of hydrogen-bonding porphyrins whose interaction with oxygen is enhanced. Enhancements in the interaction of oxygen with the porphyrins having hydrogen bonding groups were observed spectroscopically. Computer modeling was performed using Molecular Simulations new CERIUS2 Version 1.6 and a research version of POLYGRAF from Bill Goddard`s research group at the California Institute of Technology. We reoptimized the force field because of an error that was in POLYGRAF and corrected a problem in treatment of the metal in early versions of the program. This improved force field was reported in a J. Am. Chem. Soc. manuscript. Experimental measurements made on the newly developed catalysts included the electrochemical testing in a fuel cell configuration and spectroscopic measurements (UV-Vis, Raman and XPS) to characterize the catalysts.

  19. Direct methanol fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2004-10-26

    A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

  20. Energy conversion using hydrogen PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that hydrogen is the most promising solution of future energy, both for long and medium term strategies. Hydrogen can be produced using many primary sources (naphthalene, natural gas, methanol, coal, biomass), solar cells power, etc. It can be burned or chemically reacted having a high yield of energy conversion and is a non-polluted fuel. This paper presents the results obtained by ICSI Rm. Valcea in an experimental-demonstrative conversion energy system consisting in a catalytic methane reforming plant for hydrogen production and three synthesis gas purification units in order to get pure hydrogen with a CO level lower than 10 ppm that finally feeds a hydrogen fuel stock. (authors)

  1. Enhanced performance of anion exchange membranes via crosslinking of ion cluster regions for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ao Nan; Guo, Dong; Lin, Chen Xiao; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Zhu, Ai Mei; Ye, Mei Ling; Liu, Qing Lin

    2016-09-01

    Development of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with high hydroxide conductivity, good dimensional and alkaline stabilities is still a challenge for the practical application of AEM fuel cells. In this study, we report a new strategy to prepare high-performance AEMs with crosslinked ionic regions. A series of phenolphthalein-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s crosslinked AEMs was synthesized by grafting ion groups selectively and densely on the phenolphthalein units to form ion clusters that are further crosslinked to generate the hydrophilic ionic regions. The crosslinking reaction not only improved the dimensional stability of the AEMs, but also increased the aggregation of the ion clusters leading to the formation of hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase-separated morphology and ion-conducting channels. As a result, enhancements in both ion conductivity and dimensional stability can be achieved. The crosslinked AEMs showed high hydroxide conductivities in the range of 52.2-143.4 mS cm-1 from 30 to 80 °C and a superb ratio of relative conductivity to relative swelling at 80 °C. Furthermore, the crosslinked AEMs also exhibited good mechanical properties, thermal and alkaline stabilities and desirable single cell performance. This work presents a promising strategy for the synthesis of high-performance AEMs for fuel cells.

  2. Physical Modeling of the Enzymatic Glucose-Fuelled Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir (Zeev) Rubin; Lea Mor

    2013-01-01

    An enzymatic glucose biofuel cell uses glucose as fuel and enzymes as biocatalyst, to transform biochemical energy into electrical energy. An analytical modelling of an enzymatic biofuel cell should be used, while developing fuel cell, to estimate its various enzymatic parameters, to obtain the highest voltage feasibly. The analytical model was developed, and the open circuit voltage (OCV) calculated by the model for various parameters of the fuel cell is in agreement with the experimental re...

  3. Zinc may increase bone formation through stimulating cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen synthesis in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyun-Ju; Cho, Young-Eun; Kim, Taewan; Shin, Hong-In; Kwun, In-Sook

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element required for bone formation, however not much has been clarified yet for its role in osteoblast. We hypothesized that zinc would increase osteogenetic function in osteoblasts. To test this, we investigated whether zinc treatment enhances bone formation by stimulating osteoblast proliferation, bone marker protein alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen synthesis in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured and treated with various concentra...

  4. Palladium-based electrocatalysts and fuel cells employing such electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel; Richard I. , Zhu; Yimin , Larsen; Robert T.

    2010-08-31

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a fluid fuel comprising formic acid, an anode having an electrocatalyst comprising palladium nanoparticles, a fluid oxidant, a cathode electrically connected to the anode, and an electrolyte interposed between the anode and the cathode.

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell power system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Rick [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Troy, MI (United States); Wall, Mark [Independent Energy Partners Technology, LLC., Parker, CO (United States); Sullivan, Neal [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-26

    This report summarizes the progress made during this contractual period in achieving the goal of developing the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology to be suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive, commercially deployed electrical power systems. Progress was made in further understanding cell and stack degradation mechanisms in order to increase stack reliability toward achieving a 4+ year lifetime, in cost reduction developments to meet the SECA stack cost target of $175/kW (in 2007 dollars), and in operating the SOFC technology in a multi-stack system in a real-world environment to understand the requirements for reliably designing and operating a large, stationary power system.

  6. Fuel cell separator with compressible sealing flanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mientek, Anthony P.

    1985-04-30

    A separator for separating adjacent fuel cells in a stack of such cells includes a flat, rectangular, gas-impermeable plate disposed between adjacent cells and having two opposite side margins thereof folded back over one side of the plate to form two first seal flanges and having the other side margins thereof folded back over the opposite side of the plate to form two second seal flanges, each of the seal flanges cooperating with the plate to define a channel in which is disposed a resiliently compressible stack of thin metal sheets. The two first seal flanges cooperate with the electrolyte matrix of one of the cells to form a gas-impermeable seal between an electrode of the one cell and one of two reactant gas manifolds. The second seal flanges cooperate with the electrolyte matrix of the other cell for forming a gas-impermeable seal between an electrode of the other cell and the other of the two reactant gas manifolds. The seal flanges cooperate with the associated compressible stacks of sheets for maintaining a spacing between the plate and the electrolyte matrices while accommodating variation of that spacing.

  7. On the use of gamma irradiation crosslinked PVA membranes in hydrogen fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, Vladimir M. [Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, 11000 Belgrade, P.O. Box 551 (RS); Krkljes, Aleksandra; Popovic, Zorica Kacarevic; Lausevic, Zoran V. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 11001 Belgrade, P.O. Box 522 (RS); Miljanic, Scepan S. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, 11001 Belgrade, P.O. Box 276 (RS)

    2007-11-15

    There is growing interest in the use of fuel cells (FC) with hydrogen as the main fuel for stationary, mobile, and transportation applications. In the FC concept membranes play increasingly important roles. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are considered as the most promising fuel cell technology for a wide range of applications due to the stable operation, the high energy generation yield and the simplicity of the system. In this work, we develop different types of membranes based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). PVA is a water-soluble polymer that is used in practical applications because of its easy preparation, excellent chemical resistance, thermal and mechanical properties. Crosslinking of the PVA was performed by gamma irradiation since radiation chemistry is found to be a very effective method for constructing three-dimensional polymeric networks. The samples prepared in this way were then immersed in the alkaline solution over a certain period of time to turn them into conductive membranes. Ionic conductivity of the PVA hydrogels, was then measured as a function of concentration of KOH solutions and temperature. Cyclic voltammetry of these PVA hydrogel electrolytes was performed to determine the width of the electrochemical stability window. We examined these membranes impregnated with saturated 6 M KOH electrolyte as polymer membrane for fuel cells application. Our experiments showed that PEMFCs with PVA and Nafion {sup registered} membranes had similar polarization curves, under same conditions. Furthermore, PVA membranes proved to be stable during the real cell tests. This study offers a possibility for more earnest approach to the use of PVA membranes for fuel cell applications. (author)

  8. INVESTIGATION OF PEM FUEL CELL FOR AUTOMOTIVE USE

    OpenAIRE

    A K M Mohiuddin; Ataur Rahman; Mohamed Fadhil Chemani; Mohd Baihaqi Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a brief investigation on suitability of Proton-exchange  membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) as the source of power for transportation purposes. Hydrogen is an attractive alternative transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel that can be used in an internal combustion engine (ICE) and it is widely available. If hydrogen is used in a fuel cell which converts the chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity, (NOx) emissions are eliminated. The investigation was carried out...

  9. Fuel options for the fuel cell vehicle: hydrogen, methanol or gasoline?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cell vehicles can be powered directly by hydrogen or, with an onboard chemical processor, other liquid fuels such as gasoline or methanol. Most analysts agree that hydrogen is the preferred fuel in terms of reducing vehicle complexity, but one common perception is that the cost of a hydrogen infrastructure would be excessive. According to this conventional wisdom, the automobile industry must therefore develop complex onboard fuel processors to convert methanol, ethanol or gasoline to hydrogen. We show here, however, that the total fuel infrastructure cost to society including onboard fuel processors may be less for hydrogen than for either gasoline or methanol, the primary initial candidates currently under consideration for fuel cell vehicles. We also present the local air pollution and greenhouse gas advantages of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to those powered by gasoline or methanol. (Author)

  10. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-12-15

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  11. Fuel handling machine and auxiliary systems for a fuel handling cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working report is an update for as well as a supplement to an earlier fuel handling machine design (Kukkola and Roennqvist 2006). A focus in the earlier design proposal was primarily on the selection of a mechanical structure and operating principle for the fuel handling machine. This report introduces not only a fuel handling machine design but also auxiliary fuel handling cell equipment and its operation. An objective of the design work was to verify the operating principles of and space allocations for fuel handling cell equipment. The fuel handling machine is a remote controlled apparatus capable of handling intensely radiating fuel assemblies in the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The fuel handling cell is air tight space radiation-shielded with massive concrete walls. The fuel handling machine is based on a bridge crane capable of traveling in the handling cell along wall tracks. The bridge crane has its carriage provided with a carousel type turntable having mounted thereon both fixed and telescopic masts. The fixed mast has a gripper movable on linear guides for the transfer of fuel assemblies. The telescopic mast has a manipulator arm capable of maneuvering equipment present in the fuel handling cell, as well as conducting necessary maintenance and cleaning operations or rectifying possible fault conditions. The auxiliary fuel handling cell systems consist of several subsystems. The subsystems include a service manipulator, a tool carrier for manipulators, a material hatch, assisting winches, a vacuum cleaner, as well as a hose reel. With the exception of the vacuum cleaner, the devices included in the fuel handling cell's auxiliary system are only used when the actual encapsulation process is not ongoing. The malfunctions of mechanisms or actuators responsible for the motion actions of a fuel handling machine preclude in a worst case scenario the bringing of the fuel handling cell and related systems to a condition appropriate for

  12. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK, new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2. This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115.

  13. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery

  14. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  15. Differentiation-dependent activation of the human intestinal alkaline phosphatase promoter by HNF-4 in intestinal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Bressendorff, Simon; Troelsen, Jesper T;

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPI) encodes a digestive brush-border enzyme, which is highly upregulated during small intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. To identify new putative promoter motifs responsible for the regulation of ALPI expression during differentiation of the...... of HNF-4alpha to stimulate the expression from the ALPI promoter was investigated in the nonintestinal Hela cell line. Cotransfection with an HNF-4alpha expression vector demonstrated a direct activation of the ALPI promoter through this -94 to -82 element. EMSA showed that HNF-4alpha from nuclear...... extracts of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) bound with high affinity to the predicted HNF-4 binding site. A 521 bp promoter fragment containing the HNF-4 binding site demonstrated a differentiation-dependent increase in promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. The presence of the HNF-4...

  16. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells (HDCFCs) consisting of a solid carbon (carbon black)-molten carbonate ((62–38 wt% Li-K)2CO3) mixtures in the anode chamber of an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell type full-cell are tested for their electrochemical performance between 700 and 800°C. Performance...

  17. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells for IT Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer

    2016-03-09

    With the increased push for carbon-free and sustainable data centers, data center operators are increasingly looking to renewable energy as a means to approach carbon-free status and be more sustainable. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a world leader in hydrogen research and already has an elaborate hydrogen infrastructure in place at the Golden, Colorado, state-of-the-art data center and facility. This presentation will discuss hydrogen generation, storage considerations, and safety issues as they relate to hydrogen delivery to fuel cells powering IT equipment.

  18. Nanotubular array solid oxide fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Munekazu; Chao, Cheng-Chieh; An, Jihwan; Jung, Hee Joon; Gür, Turgut M; Prinz, Friedrich B

    2014-01-28

    This report presents a demonstration and characterization of a nanotubular array of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) made of one-end-closed hollow tube Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia/Pt membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The tubular MEAs are nominally ∼5 μm long and have building the nanotubular MEA architecture as an important step toward achieving high surface area ultrathin SOFCs operating in the intermediate to low-temperature regime. A fabricated nanotubular SOFC theoretically attains a 20-fold increase in the effective surface, while projections indicate the possibility of achieving up to 40-fold. PMID:24266776

  19. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector. Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a...

  20. Robust and reliable fuel cells; Robusta och tillfoerlitliga braensleceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlund, Joakim [Cellkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-15

    For fuel cells to be a viable alternative for backup power in applications, where reliability is a critical factor, the reliability of fuel cells has to be high and documented. Based on intrinsic properties of fuel cells, it is safe to argue that it is possible to make them highly reliable, but to unleash the full reliability potential of fuel cells, some great engineering work has to be performed. Cellkraft has since many years been addressing this issue and this project is an important piece of this puzzle. The project included both a large number of laboratory testing of fuel cells and long experiments in field environment to verify the results from the laboratory work. The development work performed within this project is a solid base for the continuous work to fulfil Cellkraft's own, tough, technical reliability targets. The project targets below were achieved within this project: 1. The fuel cell start with 100 % reliability. 2. The fuel cell provides nominal power within 30 seconds in 100 % of the cases. 3. The fuel cell keeps providing nominal power as long as there is a demand in 100 % of the cases. 4. No cell in the fuel cell deviates from the mean cell potential with more than 0,1 V at full power.