WorldWideScience

Sample records for alkaline chemical injury

  1. Chemical and radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a discussion of radiation injuries and the treatment thereof. Radiation injuries are mainly caused as a result of nuclear leaks or nuclear bomb explosions. Such an explosion is usually accompanied by a light flash, noise, heat radiation and nuclear radiation which can all caurse various types of injuries. The general effect of radioactive radiation is discussed. The seriousness of the situation where the whole body was exposed to nuclear radiation, depends on the total radiation dose received and varies from person to person. The progress of radiation sickness is described. Mention is also made of long term radiation effects. The emergency treatment of the injured before specialised aid is available, is discussed. The primary aim of treatment is to save life and to prevent further injuries and complications. Injured people must be removed as far as possible from the point of maximum radiation. Attention must also be given to decontamination

  2. Stability for a novel low-pH alkaline slurry during the copper chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guodong; Liu Yuling; Wang Chenwei; Liu Weijuan; Jiang Mengting; Yuan Haobo

    2014-01-01

    The stability of a novel low-pH alkaline slurry (marked as slurry A, pH = 8.5) for copper chemical mechanical planarization was investigated in this paper. First of all, the stability mechanism of the alkaline slurry was studied. Then many parameters have been tested for researching the stability of the slurry through comparing with a traditional alkaline slurry (marked as slurry B, pH = 9.5), such as the pH value, particle size and zeta potential. Apart from this, the stability of the copper removal rate, dishing, erosion and surface roughness were also studied. All the results show that the stability of the novel low-pH alkaline slurry is better than the traditional alkaline slurry. The working-life of the novel low-pH alkaline slurry reaches 48 h. (semiconductor technology)

  3. Planarization mechanism of alkaline copper CMP slurry based on chemical mechanical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengli; Yin Kangda; Li Xiang; Yue Hongwei; Liu Yunling

    2013-01-01

    The planarization mechanism of alkaline copper slurry is studied in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process from the perspective of chemical mechanical kinetics. Different from the international dominant acidic copper slurry, the copper slurry used in this research adopted the way of alkaline technology based on complexation. According to the passivation property of copper in alkaline conditions, the protection of copper film at the concave position on a copper pattern wafer surface can be achieved without the corrosion inhibitors such as benzotriazole (BTA), by which the problems caused by BTA can be avoided. Through the experiments and theories research, the chemical mechanical kinetics theory of copper removal in alkaline CMP conditions was proposed. Based on the chemical mechanical kinetics theory, the planarization mechanism of alkaline copper slurry was established. In alkaline CMP conditions, the complexation reaction between chelating agent and copper ions needs to break through the reaction barrier. The kinetic energy at the concave position should be lower than the complexation reaction barrier, which is the key to achieve planarization. (semiconductor technology)

  4. Chemical degradation of fluoroelastomer in an alkaline environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, S.; Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.; Kingshott, P.

    2004-01-01

    of this surface degradation is found to be strong enough to affect the bulk mechanical properties. The molecular mechanisms of the surface chemical degradation were determined using surface analysis (XPS and ATR-FTIR) where the initial degradation was found to proceed via dehydrofluorination. This leads to double...

  5. Chemical degradation of an uncrosslinked pure fluororubber in an alkaline environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, S.; Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.; Kingshott, P.

    2004-01-01

    The chemical degradation of an uncrosslinked pure fluoroelastomer (FKM; Viton A) in an alkaline environment (10% NaOH and 80 degreesC) was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that on a microscopic level, significant degradation substantially increased the surface roughness...

  6. High Temperature and Pressure Alkaline Electrochemical Reactor for Conversion of Power to Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2016-01-01

    for the sustainable production of chemicals 4-6. A novel type of alkaline electrochemical cell that can operate at elevated temperature and pressure has been developed that relies on corrosion resistant high temperature diaphragms, based on mesoporous ceramic membranes where aqueous KOH is immobilized by capillary...... densities. This work will provide an overview of our efforts to develop components of such high temperature alkaline electrochemical reactors for different applications. Low-cost large-scale production methods have been successfully employed for the production of ceramic diaphragms and full cells...

  7. Alkaline Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigant and Its Chemical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia P. Wright

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic irrigating solutions may interact chemically with one another. This is important, because even when solutions are not admixed, they will come into contact with one another during an alternating irrigation technique, forming unwanted by-products, which may be toxic or irritant. Mixing or alternating irrigants can also reduce their ability to clean and disinfect the root canal system of teeth by changing their chemical structure with subsequent loss of the active agent, or by inducing precipitate formation in the root canal system. Precipitates occlude dental tubules, resulting in less penetration of antimicrobials and a loss of disinfection efficacy. Sodium hypochlorite is not only a very reactive oxidizing agent, but is also the most commonly used endodontic irrigant. As such, many interactions occurring between it and other irrigants, chelators and other antimicrobials, may occur. Of particular interest is the interaction between sodium hypochlorite and the chelators EDTA, citric acid and etidronate and between sodium hypochlorite and the antimicrobials chlorhexidine, alexidine, MTAD and octenisept.

  8. Mechanism of alkalinity lowering and chemical equilibrium model of high fly ash silica fume cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Seiichi; Honda, Akira; Negishi, Kumi

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of alkalinity lowering of a High Fly ash Silica fume Cement (HFSC) under liquid/solid ratio conditions where the pH is largely controlled by the soluble alkali components (Region I) has been studied. This mechanism was incorporated in the chemical equilibrium model of HFSC. As a result, it is suggested that the dissolution and precipitation behavior of SO 4 2- partially contributes to alkalinity lowering of HFSC in Region I. A chemical equilibrium model of HFSC incorporating alkali (Na, K) adsorption, which was presumed as another contributing factor of the alkalinity lowering effect, was also developed, and an HFSC immersion experiment was analyzed using the model. The results of the developed model showed good agreement with the experiment results. From the above results, it was concluded that the alkalinity lowering of HFSC in Region I was attributed to both the dissolution and precipitation behavior of SO 4 2- and alkali adsorption, in addition to the absence of Ca(OH) 2 . A chemical equilibrium model of HFSC incorporating alkali and SO 4 2- adsorption was also proposed. (author)

  9. Feasibility study of an alkaline-based chemical treatment for the purification of polyhydroxybutyrate produced by a mixed enriched culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Y.; Mikova, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Cuellar Soares, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the feasibility of purifying polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from mixed culture biomass by alkaline-based chemical treatment. The PHB-containing biomass was enriched on acetate under non-sterile conditions. Alkaline treatment (0.2 M NaOH) together with surfactant SDS

  10. Chemically durable polymer electrolytes for solid-state alkaline water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Joo; Capuano, Christopher B.; Ayers, Katherine E.; Bae, Chulsung

    2018-01-01

    Generation of high purity hydrogen using electrochemical splitting of water is one of the most promising methods for sustainable fuel production. The materials to be used as solid-state electrolytes for alkaline water electrolyzer require high thermochemical stability against hydroxide ion attack in alkaline environment during the operation of electrolysis. In this study, two quaternary ammonium-tethered aromatic polymers were synthesized and investigated for anion exchange membrane (AEM)-based alkaline water electrolyzer. The membranes properties including ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling degree, and anion conductivity were studied. The membranes composed of all C-C bond polymer backbones and flexible side chain terminated by cation head groups exhibited remarkably good chemical stability by maintaining structural integrity in 1 M NaOH solution at 95 °C for 60 days. Initial electrochemical performance and steady-state operation performance were evaluated, and both membranes showed a good stabilization of the cell voltage during the steady-state operation at the constant current density at 200 mA/cm2. Although both membranes in current form require improvement in mechanical stability to afford better durability in electrolysis operation, the next generation AEMs based on this report could lead to potentially viable AEM candidates which can provide high electrolysis performance under alkaline operating condition.

  11. Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells for cogeneration of electricity and valuable chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z. F.; Chen, R.; An, L.; Li, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFCs) have received ever-increasing attentions due to the enhanced electrochemical kinetics and the absence of precious metal electrocatalysts, and thus great progress has been made in recent years. The alkaline anion exchange membrane based direct alcohol fuel cells, one type of alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells utilizing liquid alcohols as fuel that can be obtained from renewable biomass feedstocks, is another attractive point due to its ability to provide electricity with cogeneration of valuable chemicals. Significant development has been made to improve the selectivity towards high added-value chemicals and power output in the past few years. This review article provides a general description of this emerging technology, including fuel-cell setup and potential reaction routes, summarizes the products, performance, and system designs, as well as introduces the application of this concept in the removal of heavy-metal ions from the industrial wastewater. In addition, the remaining challenges and perspectives are also highlighted.

  12. Recovering lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by mechano-chemical extraction in alkaline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Wang, Jingwei; Bai, Jianfeng; Guan, Jie; Wu, Wenjie; Guo, Cuixiang

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluates the efficiency of lead (Pb) extraction from cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass in strongly alkaline solution using mechanical activation in a ball mill as the chemical breakage and defects formed in the inner structures will contribute to the easy dissolution of the activated Pb glass. The combination of mechanical activation and a chemical leaching process in a single operation (mechano-chemical leaching) is more effective than the mechanical activation and subsequent chemical leaching. More than 97% of Pb in the CRT funnel glass can be extracted with a stirring ball mill leaching process in 5 M sodium hydroxide at 70°C. The diameter of the stainless steel balls as the activation medium is 5 mm; the mass ratio of ball to raw materials is 25:1. Pb powder with a purity of 97% can be obtained by electrowinning from the leaching solution. The Pb-depleted solution can be recycled into the leaching step. After Pb is removed, the solid leaching residues can be used for preparation of foam glass. Thus, a novel hydrometallurgical process for recovering Pb from CRT funnel glass in alkaline solution is proposed.

  13. Interaction of ammonium with birnessite: Evidence of a chemical and structural transformation in alkaline aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaiza, Hella; Coustel, Romain; Despas, Christelle; Ruby, Christian; Bergaoui, Latifa

    2018-02-01

    The ammonium cation interaction with Na-birnessite in aqueous alkaline medium was studied. Solution and solid analysis give evidence that birnessite is not only acting as a cationic exchanger toward NH4+. The surface analysis performed by XPS showed that N1s spectra are characterized by the existence of two different environments: one assignable to an interlayer NH4+ and the second to a chemisorbed N-species. Structural and chemical transformations were observed on birnessite with nitrogen mass balance deficit. The monitoring of NH4+, Na+, Mn2+, NO3- and NO2- and solid changes (average oxidation state of Mn, cation exchange capacity, solid nitrogen content and symmetry evolution identified by XRD and FTIR) indicate unambiguously that NH4+ reacts chemically with the birnessite.

  14. Acute and subacute chemical-induced lung injuries: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akira, Masanori, E-mail: Akira@kch.hosp.go.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, 1180 Nagasone-cho, Kita-ku, Sakai City, Osaka 591-8555 (Japan); Suganuma, Narufumi [Department of Environmental Medicine, Kochi Medical School (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Lung injury caused by chemicals includes bronchitis, bronchiolitis, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease. Each chemical induces variable pathophysiology and the situation resembles to the drug induced lung disease. The HRCT features are variable and nonspecific, however HRCT may be useful in the evaluation of the lung injuries and so we should know about HRCT features of lung parenchymal abnormalities caused by chemicals.

  15. Patterns and trends in injuries due to chemicals based on OSHA occupational injury and illness statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, M. Sam; O'Connor, T. Michael; Keren, Nir

    2009-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) provide the Survey of Occupational Illness and Injury (SOII) statistics from 1992 to 2006, which is often used to measure the rate of injuries and illness in industry. The present system of gathering and classifying this data was implemented in 1992 with minor changes in 2002. It is hoped that using these statistics to measure safety progress and determine patterns of injury will guide further improvements in chemical safety. Recognizing such factors as what chemicals most frequently cause injury can help to focus safety efforts regarding that chemical. Factors such as what part of the body is most commonly affected by particular chemicals can lead to improved personnel protection practices. This paper provides a detailed analysis of injuries due to chemicals using OSHA's SOII data, which offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to reduce injuries due to chemicals

  16. Feasibility study of an alkaline-based chemical treatment for the purification of polyhydroxybutyrate produced by a mixed enriched culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Mikova, Gizela; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van der Wielen, Luuk Am; Cuellar, Maria C

    2015-12-01

    This study focused on investigating the feasibility of purifying polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from mixed culture biomass by alkaline-based chemical treatment. The PHB-containing biomass was enriched on acetate under non-sterile conditions. Alkaline treatment (0.2 M NaOH) together with surfactant SDS (0.2 w/v% SDS) could reach 99% purity, with more than 90% recovery. The lost PHB could be mostly attributed to PHB hydrolysis during the alkaline treatment. PHB hydrolysis could be moderated by increasing the crystallinity of the PHB granules, for example, by biomass pretreatment (e.g. freezing or lyophilization) or by effective cell lysis (e.g. adjusting alkali concentration). The suitability of the purified PHB by alkaline treatment for polymer applications was evaluated by molecular weight and thermal stability. A solvent based purification method was also performed for comparison purposes. As result, PHB produced by mixed enriched cultures was found suitable for thermoplastic applications when purified by the solvent method. While the alkaline method resulted in purity, recovery yield and molecular weight comparable to values reported in literature for PHB produced by pure cultures, it was found unsuitable for thermoplastic applications. Given the potential low cost and favorable environmental impact of this method, it is expected that PHB purified by alkaline method may be suitable for other non-thermal polymer applications, and as a platform chemical.

  17. Alkaline Phosphatase for the Prevention of Intestinal and Renal Injury in a Rat Model of Cardiopulmonary Bypass with Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0090 TITLE: Alkaline Phosphatase for the Prevention of Intestinal and Renal Injury in a Rat Model of Cardiopulmonary...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 8/15/2016—8/14/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Alkaline Phosphatase for the Prevention of Intestinal... prevention of intestinal and kidney injury after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. In this model, we place 5-10kg

  18. Further studies on the detection of chemical agents using an alkaline energy cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewchun, John

    2008-04-01

    The detection, classification and tracking of chemical agents (explosives) being surreptitiously smuggled into public areas, such as airports, for destructive purposes is difficult to solve by unobtrusive means. We propose the use of a novel Alkaline Energy Cell (AEC) with gas/vapor sniffing capability as a potential solution. Variants of such devices are routinely used by police to detect alcohol emanating from the breath of suspected impaired vehicle drivers. We reported previously at the SPIE Symposium in 2007 the details of our technology and results. We have continued to advanced this capability with the development of an AEC which is capable of detecting gaseous emissions ultimately in the parts per billion range. Our work is described in terms of detecting TATP (acetone peroxide). Other explosive materials have also been investigated and will be reported on.

  19. Suitable alkaline for graphene peeling grown on metallic catalysts using chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamat, S.; Sonuşen, S.; Çelik, Ü.; Uysallı, Y.; Oral, A.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene layers were grown on Pt and Cu foil via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition method and for the delicate removal of graphene from metal catalysts, electrolysis method was used by using different alkaline (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide and barium hydroxide). • The delamination speed of PMMA/graphene stack was higher during the KOH and LiOH electrolysis as compare to NaOH and Ba(OH) 2 . Ba(OH) 2 is not advisable because of the residues left on the graphene surface which would further trapped in between graphene and SiO 2 /Si surface after transfer. The average peeling time in case of Pt electrode is ∼6 min for KOH and LiOH and ∼15 min for NaOH and Ba(OH) 2 . • Electrolysis method also works for the Cu catalyst. The peeling of graphene was faster in the case of Cu foil due to small size of bubbles which moves faster between the stack and the electrode surface. The average peeling time was ∼3–5 min. • XPS analysis clearly showed that the Pt substrates can be re-used again. Graphene layer was transferred to SiO 2 /Si substrates and to the flexible substrate by using the same peeling method. - Abstract: In chemical vapor deposition, the higher growth temperature roughens the surface of the metal catalyst and a delicate method is necessary for the transfer of graphene from metal catalyst to the desired substrates. In this work, we grow graphene on Pt and Cu foil via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) method and further alkaline water electrolysis was used to peel off graphene from the metallic catalyst. We used different electrolytes i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and barium hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 for electrolysis, hydrogen bubbles evolved at the Pt cathode (graphene/Pt/PMMA stack) and as a result graphene layer peeled off from the substrate without damage. The peeling time for KOH and LiOH was ∼6 min and for Na

  20. The use of aldehyde indicators to determine glutaraldehyde and alkaline glutaraldehyde contamination in chemical protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Zhenzhen

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of aldehyde indicator pads for detection of glutaraldehyde and alkaline glutaraldehyde permeation through chemical protective gloves under simulated in-use conditions. The quantitative analysis of glutaraldehyde permeation through a glove material was determined for Metricide, Wavicide, and 50% glutaraldehyde following a solvent-desorption process and gas chromatographic analysis. All glutaraldehyde solutions exhibited >99% adsorption (including both the glutaraldehyde oligomers of the reaction product and the excess glutaraldehyde) on the pads over the spiking range 0.05-5.0 microL. Breakthrough times for protective gloves were determined using the Thermo-Hand test method, and found to range from 76 to 150, from 170 to 230, and from 232 to 300 min for Metricide, Wavicide, and 50% glutaraldehyde, respectively. Glutaraldehyde recovery was calculated and ranged from 61 to 80% for all glutaraldehyde solutions. The mass of glutaraldehyde in these solutions at the time of breakthrough detection ranged from 17 to 18, from 18 to 19, and from 19 to 20 microg/cm(2) for Wavicide, 50% glutaraldehyde solution, and Metricide, respectively. Aldehyde indicator pads and the Thermo-Hand test method together should find utility in detecting, collecting, and quantitatively analyzing glutaraldehyde permeation samples through chemical protective gloves under simulated in-use conditions.

  1. Chemical reactivity of {alpha}-isosaccharinic acid in heterogeneous alkaline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaus, M. A.; Loon, L. R. Van

    2009-05-15

    Cellulose degradation under alkaline conditions is of relevance for the mobility of many radionuclides in the near-field of a cementitious repository for radioactive waste, because metal-binding degradation products may be formed. Among these, {alpha}- isosaccharinic acid ({alpha}-ISA) is the strongest complexant. The prediction of the equilibrium concentration of {alpha}-ISA in cement pore water is therefore an important step in the assessment of the influence of cellulose degradation products on the speciation of radionuclides in such environments. The present report focuses on possible chemical transformation reactions of {alpha}-ISA in heterogeneous alkaline model systems containing either Ca(OH){sub 2} or crushed hardened cement paste. The transformation reactions were monitored by measuring the concentration of {alpha}-ISA by high performance anion exchange chromatography and the formation of reaction products by high performance ion exclusion chromatography. The overall loss of organic species from solution was monitored by measuring the concentration of non-purgeable organic carbon. The reactions were examined in diluted and compacted suspensions, at either 25 {sup o}C or 90 {sup o}C, and under anaerobic atmospheres obtained by various methods. It was found that {alpha}-ISA was transformed under all conditions tested to some extent. Reaction products, such as glycolate, formate, lactate and acetate, all compounds with less complexing strength than {alpha}-ISA, were detected. The amount of reaction products identified by the chromatographic technique applied was {approx} 50 % of the amount of {alpha}-ISA reacted. Sorption of {alpha}-ISA to Ca(OH){sub 2} contributed only to a minor extent to the loss of {alpha}-ISA from the solution phase. As the most important conclusion of the present work it was demonstrated that the presence of oxidising agents had a distinctive influence on the turnover of {alpha}-ISA. Under aerobic conditions {alpha}-ISA was

  2. Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A. S.; Mallon, S.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2002-01-01

    reacted differently in the two processes. The chemical composition changed little following enzyme treatment. After alkaline wet oxidation, fibers enriched in cellulose were obtained. With both materials, almost all hemicellulose (80%) together with a large portion of the lignin were solubilised......Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), were used to evaluate the effects of two pre-treatment processes (alkaline wet oxidation and enzyme treatment with laccase) on lignocellulosic materials for applications in particleboards and fiberboards. Wheat straw and beech fibers...... by alkaline wet oxidation, but essentially all cellulose remained in the solid fraction. Following enzyme treatment most material remained as a solid. For wheat straw, reaction with acetic anhydride indicated that both treatments resulted in more hydroxyl groups being accessible for reaction. The enzyme...

  3. Corneal regeneration by induced human buccal mucosa cultivated on an amniotic membrane following alkaline injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Rohaina Che; Yong, Then Kong; Hwei, Ng Min; Halim, Wan Haslina Wan Abdul; Zahidin, Aida Zairani Mohd; Ramli, Roszalina; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Hj

    2017-01-01

    Various clinical disorders and injuries, such as chemical, thermal, or mechanical injuries, may lead to corneal loss that results in blindness. PURPOSE : The aims of this study were to differentiate human buccal mucosa (BMuc) into corneal epithelial-like cells, to fabricate engineered corneal tissue using buccal mucosal epithelial cells, and to reconstruct a damaged corneal epithelium in a nude rat model. BMuc were subjected to 10 d of induction factors to investigate the potential of cells to differentiate into corneal lineages. Corneal stem cell markers β1-integrin, C/EBPδ, ABCG2, p63, and CK3 were upregulated in the gene expression analysis in induced BMuc, whereas CK3 and p63 showed significant protein expression in induced BMuc compared to the uninduced cells. BMuc were then left to reach 80% confluency after differential trypsinization. The cells were harvested and cultivated on a commercially available untreated air-dried amniotic membrane (AM) in a Transwell system in induction medium. The corneal constructs were fabricated and then implanted into damaged rat corneas for up to 8 weeks. A significant improvement was detected in the treatment group at 8 weeks post-implantation, as revealed by slit lamp biomicroscopy analysis. The structure and thickness of the corneal layer were also analyzed using histological staining and time-domain optical coherence tomography scans and were found to resemble a native corneal layer. The protein expression for CK3 and p63 were continuously detected throughout the corneal epithelial layer in the corneal construct. In conclusion, human BMuc can be induced to express a corneal epithelial-like phenotype. The addition of BMuc improves corneal clarity, prevents vascularization, increases corneal thickness and stromal alignment, and appears to have no adverse effect on the host after implantation.

  4. Chemical composition profiles during alkaline flooding at different temperatures and extended residence times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflaki, R.; Handy, L.L.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate whether or not caustic sweeps the major portion of the reservoir efficiently during an alkaline flood process. It was also the objective of this work to study the state of final equilibrium during a caustic flood through determination of the pH and chemical composition profiles along the porous medium. For this purpose, a long porous medium which provided extended residence times was required. It was necessary to set up the porous medium such that the changes in the pH and chemical composition of the solution could be monitored. Four Berea sandstone cores (8 in. length and1 in. diameter) placed in series provided the desired length and the opportunity for sampling in-between cores. This enabled establishment of pH and chemical composition profiles. The experiments were run at, temperatures up.to 180{degrees}C, and the flow rates varied from 4.8 to 0.2 ft/day. The samples were analyzed for pH and for Si and Al concentrations.The results show that caustic consumption is insignificant for temperatures up to 100{degrees}C. Above 100{degrees}C consumption increases and is accompanied by a significant decrease in pH. The sharp decline in pH also coincides with a sharp decline in concentration of silica in solution. The results also show that alumina is removed from the solution and solubility of alumina ultimately reaches zero. Sharp silica and pH declines take place even in the absence of any alumina in solution. As a result, removal of silica from solution is attributed to the irreversible caustic/rock interaction. This interaction is in the form of chemisorption reactions in which silica is adsorbed onto the rock surface consuming hydroxyl ion. Once these reactions were satisfied, caustic breakthrough occurs at a high pH. However, significant pore volumes of caustic must be injected for completion of the chemisorption.

  5. Chemical composition profiles during alkaline flooding at different temperatures and extended residence times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflaki, R.; Handy, L.L.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate whether or not caustic sweeps the major portion of the reservoir efficiently during an alkaline flood process. It was also the objective of this work to study the state of final equilibrium during a caustic flood through determination of the pH and chemical composition profiles along the porous medium. For this purpose, a long porous medium which provided extended residence times was required. It was necessary to set up the porous medium such that the changes in the pH and chemical composition of the solution could be monitored. Four Berea sandstone cores (8 in. length and1 in. diameter) placed in series provided the desired length and the opportunity for sampling in-between cores. This enabled establishment of pH and chemical composition profiles. The experiments were run at, temperatures up.to 180[degrees]C, and the flow rates varied from 4.8 to 0.2 ft/day. The samples were analyzed for pH and for Si and Al concentrations.The results show that caustic consumption is insignificant for temperatures up to 100[degrees]C. Above 100[degrees]C consumption increases and is accompanied by a significant decrease in pH. The sharp decline in pH also coincides with a sharp decline in concentration of silica in solution. The results also show that alumina is removed from the solution and solubility of alumina ultimately reaches zero. Sharp silica and pH declines take place even in the absence of any alumina in solution. As a result, removal of silica from solution is attributed to the irreversible caustic/rock interaction. This interaction is in the form of chemisorption reactions in which silica is adsorbed onto the rock surface consuming hydroxyl ion. Once these reactions were satisfied, caustic breakthrough occurs at a high pH. However, significant pore volumes of caustic must be injected for completion of the chemisorption.

  6. Alkaline phosphatase : a possible treatment for sepsis-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Esther; Heemskerk, Suzanne; Masereeuw, R.; Pickkers, Peter

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disease in the intensive care unit and accounts for high morbidity and mortality. Sepsis, the predominant cause of AKI in this setting, involves a complex pathogenesis in which renal inflammation and hypoxia are believed to play an important role. A new therapy

  7. Chemical injuries of the oesophagus: aetiopathological issues in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunleye Ezekiel O

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical injuries of the oesophagus occur worldwide. There is paucity of information on aetiopathological profile of chemical injuries of the oesophagus in Nigeria. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the aetiopathological pattern of chemical injuries of the oesophagus in Nigeria. Materials and methods This is a multi-centre hospital based study in Lagos metropolis spanning a period of 10 years. The patients' bio data, substances ingested, sources of corrosives, reasons for ingesting corrosives and patients' mental state were recorded. Results In all, there were 78 patients (61 Males, 17 Females. The offending agents were acids in 55.1% of cases and it was accidental ingestion in 62 patients. The highest incidence of 57.6% was found in the middle 1/3 of the oesophagus. Conclusion Accidental ingestion of acids is the commonest cause of oesophageal injuries in Nigeria. The incidence of severe strictures necessitating oesophageal substitution could be reduced if early management of corrosive oesophagitis improves in Nigeria.

  8. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Werner, Charles L; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. Other specific agents that cause chemical burns include white phosphorus, elemental metals, nitrates, hydrocarbons, and tar. Even though there are more than 65,000 chemicals available on the market, and an estimated 60,000 new chemicals produced each year, the potential deleterious effects of these chemicals on humans are still unknown. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to know about toxic chemical releases. Since 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has maintained an active, state-based Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system to describe the public health consequences risked by access to hazardous chemicals. Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as a result of an exothermic reaction when they come in contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for the most skin injury. Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact primarily determine degree of skin destruction. Hazardous materials (hazmats) are substances that may injure life and damage the environment if improperly handled. HAZMAT accidents are particularly dangerous for responding personnel, who are in danger from the moment of arrival on the scene until containment of the accident. Consequently, the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act mandates community preparedness for dealing with hazmat accidents. Paramedics and members of the hazmat response team

  9. Combined chemical and EIS study of the reaction of zinc coatings under alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkner, Sarah; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An electrochemical unit for automatic EIS and pH modulation is used. • ZnMg2Al2 and ZnAl53 are studied in alkaline solutions. • Amount of consumed sodium hydroxide allows following hydroxide formation and film thickness. • Cross sections of 13 μm show excellent agreement with consumed hydroxide. • ZnAl53 consumes more hydroxide due to soluble aluminate formation. - Abstract: Two different zinc coatings of composition ZnMg2Al2 (Zn + 2 wt.% Mg + 2 wt.% Al) and ZnAl53 (Zn + 53 wt.% Al) were investigated in aqueous solution at pH 12.0 with a novel setup, the so-called impedance titrator. This device is able to perform electrochemical measurements including, but not limited to, impedance spectroscopy in dependency of different pH-values. The setup allows holding the pH-value with a precision of at least 0.05 by dosing the required amount of titrating agent to the system. If the alkaline pH region is investigated, hydroxide ions are consumed in the course of passive layer formation. The amount of consumed hydroxide allows to quantitatively follow the formation of the hydroxide film and its thickness. Cross section SEM shows an excellent agreement of 13 μm after 7 h for ZnMg2Al2. At a constant pH value, the hydroxide concentration is constant and film formation is well defined and kinetically characterised. The consumption of hydroxide by the ZnAl53 coating is higher resulting from the solubility of the Al as aluminate under alkaline conditions. The composition of the precipitates contains less than 3 wt.% of Al. The observed processes and the formation of corrosion products are recorded and differences in the behaviour of the two coatings are discussed

  10. Effects of a human recombinant alkaline phosphatase on renal hemodynamics, oxygenation and inflammation in two models of acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Esther; Ergin, Bülent; Kandil, Asli; Gurel-Gurevin, Ebru; van Elsas, Andrea; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Pickkers, Peter; Ince, Can

    2016-12-15

    Two small clinical trials indicated that administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP) improves renal function in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), for which the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of a newly developed human recombinant AP (recAP) on renal oxygenation and hemodynamics and prevention of kidney damage and inflammation in two in vivo AKI models. To induce AKI, male Wistar rats (n=18) were subjected to renal ischemia (30min) and reperfusion (I/R), or sham-operated. In a second model, rats (n=18) received a 30min infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2.5mg/kg), or saline, and fluid resuscitation. In both models, recAP (1000U/kg) was administered intravenously (15min before reperfusion, or 90min after LPS). Following recAP treatment, I/R-induced changes in renal blood flow, renal vascular resistance and oxygen delivery at early, and cortical microvascular oxygen tension at late reperfusion were no longer significantly affected. RecAP did not influence I/R-induced effects on mean arterial pressure. During endotoxemia, recAP treatment did not modulate the LPS-induced changes in systemic hemodynamics and renal oxygenation. In both models, recAP did exert a clear renal protective anti-inflammatory effect, demonstrated by attenuated immunostaining of inflammatory, tubular injury and pro-apoptosis markers. Whether this renal protective effect is sufficient to improve outcome of patients suffering from sepsis-associated AKI is being investigated in a large clinical trial. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Soil chemical alterations of a Dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol treated with an alkaline effluent from a pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Esper Neto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from different industrial supply conglomerates are often discarded in the environment without proper treatment. The concern for an economically viable industrial production line, which is both environmentally sound and socially acceptable, is increasing. Some of these effluents are alkaline in nature and may be used as an alternative to chemical conditioners for acidic soils in agricultural systems. This research aimed to evaluate changes in the chemical attributes of a Dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol after application of an effluent from a pharmaceutical industry. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using PVC tubes of 1-m length and a 0.2-m diameter filled with soil and different doses of the effluent. After 3 days, 100 mm of water was applied to each treatment. The PVC tubes were incubated for 30 days; thereafter, the tubes disassembled, and soil chemical analyses were made at different soil depths: 0-0.2, 0.2-0.4, 0.4-0.6, 0.6-0.8, and 0.8-1.0 m. The effluent applications significantly altered the soil elements in the 0-0.2 m layer, increasing the concentrations of K+, P, Mn2+, Na+, Cu2+, H+, Ca2+, Al3+ and the soil pH. In the subsurface layers, the concentration of the elements Zn2+, Cu2+, K+, and Na+ also changed significantly. In general, the application of pharmaceutical industry residue improved soil chemical attributes.

  12. Chemical redox modulated fluorescence of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots for probing the activity of alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, JingJing; Tang, Duosi; Chen, Zhitao; Yan, Xiaomei; Zhong, Zhou; Kang, Longtian; Yao, Jiannian

    2017-08-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as an essential enzyme plays an important role in clinical diagnoses and biomedical researches. Hence, the development of convenient and sensitivity assay for monitoring ALP is extremely important. In this work, on the basis of chemical redox strategy to modulate the fluorescence of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs), a novel label-free fluorescent sensing system for the detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been developed. The fluorescence of NGQDs is firstly quenched by ultrathin cobalt oxyhydroxide (CoOOH) nanosheets, and then restored by ascorbic acid (AA), which can reduce CoOOH to Co 2+ , thus the ALP can be monitored based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (AAP) by ALP to generate AA. Quantitative evaluation of ALP activity in a range from 0.1 to 5U/L with the detection limit of 0.07U/L can be realized in this sensing system. Endowed with high sensitivity and selectivity, the proposed assay is capable of detecting ALP in biological system with satisfactory results. Meanwhile, this sensing system can be easily extended to the detection of various AA-involved analytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physico-Chemical, Biological and Therapeutic Characteristics of Electrolyzed Reduced Alkaline Water (ERAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Henry

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of alkaline reduced water produced by domestic electrolysis devices was approved in Japan in 1965 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare for the cure of gastro-intestinal disorders. Today, these devices are freely available in several countries and can be easily purchased without reserve. The commercial information included with the device recommends the consumption of 1–1.5 L of water per day, not only for gastro-intestinal disorders but also for numerous other illnesses such as diabetes, cancer, inflammation, etc. Academic research in Japan on this subject has been undergoing since 1990 only but has established that the active ingredient is dissolved dihydrogen that eliminates the free radical HO• in vivo. In addition, it was demonstrated that degradation of the electrodes during functioning of the device releases very reactive nanoparticles of platinum, the toxicity of which has not yet been clearly proven. This report recommends alerting health authorities of the uncontrolled availability of these devices used as health products, but which generate drug substances and should therefore be sold according to regulatory requirements.

  14. Chemical and structural changes associated with Cu-catalyzed alkaline-oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenglun; Bansal, Namita; Azarpira, Ali; Bhalla, Aditya; Chen, Charles H; Ralph, John; Hegg, Eric L; Hodge, David B

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment catalyzed by Cu(II) 2,2'-bipyridine complexes has previously been determined to substantially improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of woody plants including hybrid poplar as a consequence of moderate delignification. In the present work, cell wall morphological and lignin structural changes were characterized for this pretreatment approach to gain insights into pretreatment outcomes and, specifically, to identify the extent and nature of lignin modification. Through TEM imaging, this catalytic oxidation process was shown to disrupt cell wall layers in hybrid poplar. Cu-containing nanoparticles, primarily in the Cu(I) oxidation state, co-localized with the disrupted regions, providing indirect evidence of catalytic activity whereby soluble Cu(II) complexes are reduced and precipitated during pretreatment. The concentration of alkali-soluble polymeric and oligomeric lignin was substantially higher for the Cu-catalyzed oxidative pretreatment. This alkali-soluble lignin content increased with time during the catalytic oxidation process, although the molecular weight distributions were unaltered. Yields of aromatic monomers (including phenolic acids and aldehydes) were found to be less than 0.2 % (wt/wt) on lignin. Oxidation of the benzylic alcohol in the lignin side-chain was evident in NMR spectra of the solubilized lignin, whereas minimal changes were observed for the pretreatment-insoluble lignin. These results provide indirect evidence for catalytic activity within the cell wall. The low yields of lignin-derived aromatic monomers, together with the detailed characterization of the pretreatment-soluble and pretreatment-insoluble lignins, indicate that the majority of both lignin pools remained relatively unmodified. As such, the lignins resulting from this process retain features closely resembling native lignins and may, therefore, be amenable to subsequent valorization.

  15. Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhuang, Haifeng; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of different chemical modification of carbon nanotubes for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, Anca; Mamlouk, M.; Scott, K.

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of oxygen on chemically modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) electrodes in 1 M KOH solution has been studied using the rotating ring disc electrode (RDE). The surface modification of CNTs has been estimated by XPS and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of different oxygen functionalities on the surface of carbon nanotube for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is considered in terms of the number of electrons (n) involved. Electrochemical studies indicate that in the case of the modification of CNTs with citric acid and diazonium salts the n values were close to two in the measured potential range, and the electrochemical reduction is limited to the production of peroxide as the final product. In the case of the modification of carbon nanotubes with peroxymonosulphuric acid, in the measured potential range, the n value is close to 4 indicating the four-electron pathway for the ORR. By correlating ORR measurements with the XPS analysis, we propose that the increase in electrocatalytic activity towards the ORR, for CNT can be attributed to the increase in C-O groups on the surface of CNTs after modification with peroxymonosulphuric acid

  17. Pattern of chemical burns injuries to the face in Enugu, Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The face lends itself readily to attack, being the most accessible to an assailant. These injuries leave in their wake, formidable functional and aesthetic challenges to the victim and the surgeon. The pattern of chemical burns injuries to the face is hereby highlighted. Objective: The objective is to highlight the ...

  18. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  19. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  20. Methods of use of calcium hexa aluminate refractory linings and/or chemical barriers in high alkali or alkaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kenneth A; Cullen, Robert M; Keiser, James R; Hemrick, James G; Meisner, Roberta A

    2013-10-22

    A method for improving the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of a liner in contact with at least one of an alkali and/or alkaline environments is provided. The method comprises lining a surface that is subject to wear by an alkali environment and/or an alkaline environment with a refractory composition comprising a refractory aggregate consisting essentially of a calcium hexa aluminate clinker having the formula CA.sub.6, wherein C is equal to calcium oxide, wherein A is equal to aluminum oxide, and wherein the hexa aluminate clinker has from zero to less than about fifty weight percent C.sub.12A.sub.7, and wherein greater than 98 weight percent of the calcium hexa aluminate clinker having a particle size ranging from -20 microns to +3 millimeters, for forming a liner of the surface. This method improves the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of the liner.

  1. Chemical injuries from assaults: An increasing trend in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes chemical injuries, which presented to us and were managed at a burn unit in Nigeria. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the etiologies of these injuries, the extent of the injuries as well as to suggest possible ways to prevent chemical injuries in our environment. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of chemical burns treated at our center. Our sources of information were the burn unit admission registers, case notes of the patients and operation registers. The results were collated and then analyzed. Results: Twenty eight patients presented with chemical burn injuries during the study period between January 2000 and December 2003, constituting 5.7% of all patients with burns treated within that period. Seventeen (60.7% of the patients were males while 11 (29.3% were females with a mean age of 20.6 years. The injuries were sustained from assault in 21 (75%, armed robbery attacks in five (17.8% and suicide attempts in two (7.1%. The agents were usually unknown. Late presentation was observed in all the patients. Raw eggs, palm oil, gentian violet and engine oil were the substances applied immediately after the injuries. Complications observed included septicemia, respiratory distress, blindness, renal failure, mentosternal contractures, ectropion, axillary contractures, hypertrophic scars, keloids and skin depigmentation. Conclusion: Chemical burn injuries are mainly due to assaults in Nigeria and are usually extensive and presented late. Education of the people and penalty for any offender will reduce the current spate of such injuries.

  2. Experimental examination of the Mg-silicate-carbonate system at ambient temperature: Implications for alkaline chemical sedimentation and lacustrine carbonate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Tosca, Nicholas J.

    2018-03-01

    Despite their clear economic significance, Cretaceous presalt carbonates of the South Atlantic continental margins are not well-described by published facies models. This knowledge gap arises, in part, because the chemical processes that generate distinctive sedimentary products in alkaline, non-marine environments are poorly understood. Here, we use constraints inferred from reported mineralogical and geochemical features of presalt carbonate rocks to design and perform a suite of laboratory experiments to quantify the processes of alkaline chemical sedimentation. Using real-time observations of in-situ fluid chemistry, post-experiment analysis of precipitated solids, and geochemical modeling tools, we illustrate that spherulitic carbonates and Mg-silicate clays observed in presalt carbonates were likely precipitated from elevated pH (∼10-10.5) waters with high concentrations of silica and alkali cations typical of intermediate to felsic rocks, such as Na+ and K+. Charge balance constraints require that these cations were not counterbalanced to any significant degree by anions typical of seawater, such as Cl- and SO4-, which implies minimal seawater involvement in presalt deposition. Experimental data suggest that, at this alkaline pH, only modest concentrations (i.e., ∼0.5-1 mmol/kg) of Ca++ would have been required to precipitate spheroidal CaCO3. Given the rapid rates of CaCO3 nucleation and growth under such conditions, it is unlikely that Ca++ concentrations in lake waters ever exceeded these values, and sustained chemical fluxes are therefore required for extensive sediment accumulation. Moreover, our experiments indicate that the original mineralogy of presalt CaCO3 could have been calcite or aragonite, but the differing time scales of precipitation between CaCO3 and Mg-silicates would have tended to skew the Mg/Ca ratio in solution towards elevated values which favor aragonite. Mg-silicate nucleation and growth rates measured during our experiments

  3. "Tetracycline hydrochloride chemical burn" as self-inflicted mucogingival injury: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundoor Manjunath Dayakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to oral soft tissue can be accidental, iatrogenic, and factitious trauma. Chemical, thermal, and physical agents are the main causative agents for oral soft-tissue burns. The present case describes the chemical burn of oral mucosa caused by tetracycline hydrochloride and its management. Diagnosis was made on the basis of definitive history elicited from the patient. The early detection of the lesion by the patient and immediate institution of therapeutic measures ensure a rapid cure and possible prevention of further mucogingival damage. In addition, we believe that proper guidance and education of the patient is an important prophylactic measure in preventing this self-inflicting injury.

  4. Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simescu, Florica; Idrissi, Hassane

    2008-01-01

    We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating. PMID:27878037

  5. Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Simescu and Hassane Idrissi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO46(OH2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating.

  6. "Tetracycline hydrochloride chemical burn" as self-inflicted mucogingival injury: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mundoor Manjunath Dayakar; Prakash G Pai; Sanupa S Madhavan

    2012-01-01

    Injuries to oral soft tissue can be accidental, iatrogenic, and factitious trauma. Chemical, thermal, and physical agents are the main causative agents for oral soft-tissue burns. The present case describes the chemical burn of oral mucosa caused by tetracycline hydrochloride and its management. Diagnosis was made on the basis of definitive history elicited from the patient. The early detection of the lesion by the patient and immediate institution of therapeutic measures ensure a rapid cure ...

  7. Copper–zinc electrodeposition in alkaline-sorbitol medium: Electrochemical studies and structural, morphological and chemical composition characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.R.H. de [Faculdades Integradas Maria Imaculada, Rua Paula Bueno 240, Mogi Guaçu, SP (Brazil); Barbano, E.P.; Carvalho, M.F. de [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Via Washington Luís km 235, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Tulio, P.C. [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Av. Alberto Carazzai 1640, Cornélio Procópio, PR (Brazil); Carlos, I.A., E-mail: diac@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Via Washington Luís km 235, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Cu–Zn electrodeposition was investigated galvanostatically. • Coloration of Cu–Zn films were whitish golden, light golden, golden/gray. • Electrodeposits produced from Cu70/Zn30 bath showed higher Cu content at lower j. • Scanning electron microscopy showed that Cu–Zn electrodeposits were fine-grained. • X-ray analysis of the Cu–Zn electrodeposits suggested a mixture of phases. - Abstract: The galvanostatic technique was used to analyze the electrodeposition of Cu–Zn on to AISI 1010 steel electrode from an alkaline-sorbitol bath with various proportions of the metal ions in the bath: Cu70/Zn30, Cu50/Zn50 and Cu30/Zn70. Coloration of Cu–Zn films were whitish golden, light golden, golden/gray depending on the Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} ratios in the electrodeposition bath, deposition current density (j{sub dep}) and charge density (q{sub dep}). The highest current efficiency was ∼54.0%, at j{sub dep} −1.0 mA cm{sup −2} and q{sub dep} 0.40 C cm{sup −2} in the Cu70/Zn30 bath. Energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated that electrodeposits produced from the bath Cu70/Zn30 showed higher Cu content at lower j{sub dep}. Also, for same j{sub dep} the Cu content increased with q{sub dep}. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Cu–Zn electrodeposits of high quality were obtained from the Cu70/Zn30 bath, since the films were fine-grained, except the obtained at j{sub dep} −20.0 mA cm{sup −2} and q{sub dep} 10.0 C cm{sup −2}. Also, these electrodeposits did not present cracks. X-ray analysis of the Cu–Zn electrodeposits obtained at j{sub dep} −8.0, −20.0 and −40.0 mA cm{sup −2}, in each case, with q{sub dep} 2.0 and 10.0 C cm{sup −2}, in the Cu70/Zn30 bath, suggested the occurrence of a mixture of the following phases, CuZn, CuZn{sub 5} and Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8}. Galvanostatic electrodeposits of Cu–Zn obtained from sorbitol-alkaline baths exhibited whitish golden color, with good prospects for industrial applications

  8. Thin-Layer Chemical Modulations by a Combined Selective Proton Pump and pH Probe for Direct Alkalinity Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Majid Ghahraman; Crespo, Gastón A; Bakker, Eric

    2015-07-06

    We report a general concept based on a selective electrochemical ion pump used for creating concentration perturbations in thin layer samples (∼40 μL). As a first example, hydrogen ions are released from a selective polymeric membrane (proton pump) and the resulting pH is assessed potentiometrically with a second membrane placed directly opposite. By applying a constant potential modulation for 30 s, an induced proton concentration of up to 350 mM may be realized. This concept may become an attractive tool for in situ titrations without the need for sampling, because the thin layer eventually re-equilibrates with the contacting bulk sample. Acid-base titrations of NaOH and Na2 CO3 are demonstrated. The determination of total alkalinity in a river water sample is carried out, giving levels (23.1 mM) comparable to that obtained by standard methods (23.6 mM). The concept may be easily extended to other ions (cations, anions, polyions) and may become attractive for environmental and clinical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Enzymatic digestion of alkaline-sulfite pretreated sugar cane bagasse and its correlation with the chemical and structural changes occurring during the pretreatment step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fernanda M; Laurito, Debora F; Bazzeggio, Mariana; Ferraz, André; Milagres, Adriane M F

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, which hinders the efficient conversion of its polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment was used to overcome the sugar cane bagasse recalcitrance. Chemical and structural changes that occurred during the pretreatment were correlated with the efficiency of the enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharides. The first 30 min of pretreatment, which removed approximately half of the initial lignin and 30% of hemicellulose seemed responsible for a significant enhancement of the cellulose conversion level, which reached 64%. After the first 30 min of pretreatment, delignification increased slightly, and hemicellulose removal was not enhanced; however, acid groups continued to be introduced into the residual lignin. Water retention values were 145% to the untreated bagasse and 210% to the bagasse pretreated for 120 min and fiber widths increased from 10.4 to 30 μm, respectively. These changes were responsible for an additional increase in the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose, which reached 92% with the 120 min pretreated sample. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Cocktail of chemical compounds robustly promoting cell reprogramming protects liver against acute injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuewen Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue damage induces cells into reprogramming-like cellular state, which contributes to tissue regeneration. However, whether factors promoting the cell reprogramming favor tissue regeneration remains elusive. Here we identified combination of small chemical compounds including drug cocktails robustly promoting in vitro cell reprogramming. We then administrated the drug cocktails to mice with acute liver injuries induced by partial hepatectomy or toxic treatment. Our results demonstrated that the drug cocktails which promoted cell reprogramming in vitro improved liver regeneration and hepatic function in vivo after acute injuries. The underlying mechanism could be that expression of pluripotent genes activated after injury is further upregulated by drug cocktails. Thus our study offers proof-of-concept evidence that cocktail of clinical compounds improving cell reprogramming favors tissue recovery after acute damages, which is an attractive strategy for regenerative purpose.

  11. Cocktail of chemical compounds robustly promoting cell reprogramming protects liver against acute injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuewen; Cheng, Lin

    2017-04-01

    Tissue damage induces cells into reprogramming-like cellular state, which contributes to tissue regeneration. However, whether factors promoting the cell reprogramming favor tissue regeneration remains elusive. Here we identified combination of small chemical compounds including drug cocktails robustly promoting in vitro cell reprogramming. We then administrated the drug cocktails to mice with acute liver injuries induced by partial hepatectomy or toxic treatment. Our results demonstrated that the drug cocktails which promoted cell reprogramming in vitro improved liver regeneration and hepatic function in vivo after acute injuries. The underlying mechanism could be that expression of pluripotent genes activated after injury is further upregulated by drug cocktails. Thus our study offers proof-of-concept evidence that cocktail of clinical compounds improving cell reprogramming favors tissue recovery after acute damages, which is an attractive strategy for regenerative purpose.

  12. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Challenges of Dysphagia Management and Rehabilitation in Two Complex Cases Post Chemical Ingestion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Anna F; Cremer, Rebecca; Chatwood, Astra; Fink, Sari; Haider, Sadaf; Yee, Michelle

    2016-11-01

    Dysphagia is common sequelae of chemical ingestion injury, resulting from damage to critical swallowing structures. From a speech-language pathology perspective, this study outlines the physiological deficits in 2 individuals with severe injury (1 woman, acid; 1 man, alkali) and the pattern of dysphagia rehabilitation and recovery. A retrospective chart review of clinical and instrumental assessments was conducted to examine swallow characteristics and speech-language pathology management (compensatory and rehabilitation strategies) at multiple time points. Chemical ingestion injury resulted in severe pharyngeal dysphagia for both participants, warranting speech-language pathology management. Dysphagia was characterized by poor base of tongue mobility and reduced laryngeal excursion. Decreased airway patency and protection, secondary to mucosal sloughing, widespread edema, and structural deficits necessitated tracheostomy. Recovery was complicated by physical alterations of pharyngeal and laryngeal structures (e.g., interarytenoid adhesions) and esophageal strictures. Participant 1 was discharged (Day 135) consuming a texture-modified diet; Participant 2 remained nil by mouth (Day 329). Dysphagia recovery subsequent to chemical ingestion is protracted and complex. Clinical outcomes may be improved through individualized and intensive rehabilitation by speech-language pathologists.

  14. DNA damage induced in mouse peritoneal exudate cells after in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents as determined by alkaline elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshisuke; Miyanaga, Kumiko; Sato, Sei-ichi; Inui, Naomichi

    1990-01-01

    The alkaline elution technique for detecting DNA strand breaks has been applied to the study of DNA damage in mouse peritoneal exudate cells resulting from the in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents. The direct methylating agents methyl methanesulphonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced extensive breakage in samples taken 2 h after administration. The direct ethylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea also induced DNA strand breaks, but to a lesser extent than the methylating agents. The indirect methylating agent dimethylnitrosamine showed hardly any effect in this system. A weak but positive response was observed upon treatment with the anti-neoplastic alkylating agent procarbazine hydrochloride. The whole-body irradiation of mice with 60 Co γ-rays also induced DNA strand breaks. The elution profiles for γ-ray irradiation were different from those of alkylating agents, and indicate that alkylating agents produce many more secondary lesions leading to DNA strand breaks than γ-rays. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea produced slightly more DNA strand breaks in mutagen-sensitive mice, which are derived from the CD-1 strain, than in ICR mice. (Author)

  15. The radiolytic and chemical degradation of organic ion exchange resins under alkaline conditions: effect on radionuclide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, L. van; Hummel, W.

    1995-10-01

    The formation of water soluble organic ligands by the radiolytic and chemical degradation of several ion exchange resins was investigated under conditions close to those of the near field of a cementitious repository. The most important degradation products were characterised and their role on radionuclide speciation evaluated thoroughly. Irradiation of strong acidic cation exchange resins (Powdex PCH and Lewatite S-100) resulted in the formation of mainly sulphate and dissolved organic carbon. A small part of the carbon (10-20%) could be identified as oxalate. The identity of the remainder is unknown. Complexation studies with Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ showed the presence of two ligands: oxalate and ligand X. Although ligand X could not be identified, it could be characterised by its concentration, a deprotonation constant and a complexation constant for the NiX complex. The influence of oxalate and ligand X on the speciation of radionuclides is examined in detail. For oxalate no significant influence on the speciation of radionuclides is expected. The stronger complexing ligand X may exert some influence depending on its concentration and the values of other parameters. These critical parameters are discussed and limiting values are evaluated. In absence of irradiation, no evidence for the formation of ligands was found. Irradiation of strong basic anion exchange resins (Powdex PAO and Lewatite M-500) resulted in the formation of mainly ammonia, amines and dissolved organic carbon. Up to 50% of the carbon could be identified as methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamine. Complexation studies with Eu 3+ showed that the complexing capacity under near field conditions was negligible. The speciation of cations such as Ag, Ni, Cu and Pd can be influenced by the presence of amins. The strongest amine-complexes are formed with Pd and therefore, as an example, the aqueous Pd-ammonia system is examined in great detail. (author) 30 figs., 10 tabs., refs

  16. The radiolytic and chemical degradation of organic ion exchange resins under alkaline conditions: effect on radionuclide speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loon, L. van; Hummel, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    The formation of water soluble organic ligands by the radiolytic and chemical degradation of several ion exchange resins was investigated under conditions close to those of the near field of a cementitious repository. The most important degradation products were characterised and their role on radionuclide speciation evaluated thoroughly. Irradiation of strong acidic cation exchange resins (Powdex PCH and Lewatite S-100) resulted in the formation of mainly sulphate and dissolved organic carbon. A small part of the carbon (10-20%) could be identified as oxalate. The identity of the remainder is unknown. Complexation studies with Cu{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} showed the presence of two ligands: oxalate and ligand X. Although ligand X could not be identified, it could be characterised by its concentration, a deprotonation constant and a complexation constant for the NiX complex. The influence of oxalate and ligand X on the speciation of radionuclides is examined in detail. For oxalate no significant influence on the speciation of radionuclides is expected. The stronger complexing ligand X may exert some influence depending on its concentration and the values of other parameters. These critical parameters are discussed and limiting values are evaluated. In absence of irradiation, no evidence for the formation of ligands was found. Irradiation of strong basic anion exchange resins (Powdex PAO and Lewatite M-500) resulted in the formation of mainly ammonia, amines and dissolved organic carbon. Up to 50% of the carbon could be identified as methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamine. Complexation studies with Eu{sup 3+} showed that the complexing capacity under near field conditions was negligible. The speciation of cations such as Ag, Ni, Cu and Pd can be influenced by the presence of amins. The strongest amine-complexes are formed with Pd and therefore, as an example, the aqueous Pd-ammonia system is examined in great detail. (author) 30 figs., 10 tabs., refs.

  17. Extending injury prevention methodology to chemical terrorism preparedness: the Haddon Matrix and sarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Shawn; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Dischinger, Patricia; Mackenzie, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The Haddon Matrix offers a classic epidemiological model for studying injury prevention. This methodology places the public health concepts of agent, host, and environment within the three sequential phases of an injury-producing incident-pre-event, event, and postevent. This study uses this methodology to illustrate how it could be applied in systematically preparing for a mass casualty disaster such as an unconventional sarin attack in a major urban setting. Nineteen city, state, federal, and military agencies responded to the Haddon Matrix chemical terrorism preparedness exercise and offered feedback in the data review session. Four injury prevention strategies (education, engineering, enforcement, and economics) were applied to the individual factors and event phases of the Haddon Matrix. The majority of factors identified in all phases were modifiable, primarily through educational interventions focused on individual healthcare providers and first responders. The Haddon Matrix provides a viable means of studying an unconventional problem, allowing for the identification of modifiable factors to decrease the type and severity of injuries following a mass casualty disaster such as a sarin release. This strategy could be successfully incorporated into disaster planning for other weapons attacks that could potentially cause mass casualties.

  18. Multiple forms of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: chemical and enzymatic properties, and circulating clearances of the fast- and slow-moving enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoda, T.; Sakagishi, Y.; Sekine, T.

    1981-01-01

    Two forms of alkaline phosphatase orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum, EC 3.1.3.1) have been purified from human small intestine by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and tyraminyl derivative affinity gel, and by preparative disc gel electrophoresis. Intestinal phosphatases were electrophoretically separated into two components, fast- and slow-moving enzymes, with apparent molecular weights of 140000 and 168000 and with subunit weights of 68000 and 80000, respectively. Organ distribution of injected 125 I-labelled enzymes indicates that the desialylated hepatic enzyme was selectively distributed in liver, while the degalactosylated intestinal enzyme was incorporated into liver, lymph fluid, and small intestine. These results suggest that the pathway of circulating clearance of alkaline phosphatase has several routes. (Auth.)

  19. Systems toxicology of chemically induced liver and kidney injuries: histopathology‐associated gene co‐expression modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Jerez A.; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Organ injuries caused by environmental chemical exposures or use of pharmaceutical drugs pose a serious health risk that may be difficult to assess because of a lack of non‐invasive diagnostic tests. Mapping chemical injuries to organ‐specific histopathology outcomes via biomarkers will provide a foundation for designing precise and robust diagnostic tests. We identified co‐expressed genes (modules) specific to injury endpoints using the Open Toxicogenomics Project‐Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System (TG‐GATEs) – a toxicogenomics database containing organ‐specific gene expression data matched to dose‐ and time‐dependent chemical exposures and adverse histopathology assessments in Sprague–Dawley rats. We proposed a protocol for selecting gene modules associated with chemical‐induced injuries that classify 11 liver and eight kidney histopathology endpoints based on dose‐dependent activation of the identified modules. We showed that the activation of the modules for a particular chemical exposure condition, i.e., chemical‐time‐dose combination, correlated with the severity of histopathological damage in a dose‐dependent manner. Furthermore, the modules could distinguish different types of injuries caused by chemical exposures as well as determine whether the injury module activation was specific to the tissue of origin (liver and kidney). The generated modules provide a link between toxic chemical exposures, different molecular initiating events among underlying molecular pathways and resultant organ damage. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26725466

  20. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy Provides Cytoprotection from Chemical Hypoxia and Oxidant Injury and Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavya B Chandrika

    Full Text Available We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced autophagy provides cytoprotection from renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to oxidants and chemical hypoxia in vitro, as well as from ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in vivo. We demonstrate that the ER stress inducer tunicamycin triggers an unfolded protein response, upregulates ER chaperone Grp78, and activates the autophagy pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy accelerated caspase-3 activation and cell death suggesting a pro-survival role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Compared to wild-type cells, autophagy-deficient MEFs subjected to ER stress had enhanced caspase-3 activation and cell death, a finding that further supports the cytoprotective role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Induction of autophagy by ER stress markedly afforded cytoprotection from oxidants H2O2 and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and from chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A. In contrast, inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy or autophagy-deficient cells markedly enhanced cell death in response to oxidant injury and chemical hypoxia. In mouse kidney, similarly to renal epithelial cells in culture, tunicamycin triggered ER stress, markedly upregulated Grp78, and activated autophagy without impairing the autophagic flux. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy markedly ameliorated renal IR injury as evident from significant improvement in renal function and histology. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine markedly increased renal IR injury. These studies highlight beneficial impact of ER stress-induced autophagy in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Health impacts of chemical irritants used for crowd control: a systematic review of the injuries and deaths caused by tear gas and pepper spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini J. Haar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical irritants used in crowd control, such as tear gases and pepper sprays, are generally considered to be safe and to cause only transient pain and lacrimation. However, there are numerous reports that use and misuse of these chemicals may cause serious injuries. We aimed to review documented injuries from chemical irritants to better understand the morbidity and mortality associated with these weapons. Methods We conducted a systematic review using PRISMA guidelines to identify injuries, permanent disabilities, and deaths from chemical irritants worldwide between January 1, 1990 and March 15, 2015. We reviewed injuries to different body systems, injury severity, and potential risk factors for injury severity. We also assessed region, context and quality of each included article. Results We identified 31 studies from 11 countries. These reported on 5131 people who suffered injuries, two of whom died and 58 of whom suffered permanent disabilities. Out of 9261 total injuries, 8.7% were severe and required professional medical management, while 17% were moderate and 74.3% were minor. Severe injuries occurred to all body systems, with the majority of injuries impacting the skin and eyes. Projectile munition trauma caused 231 projectile injuries, with 63 (27% severe injuries, including major head injury and vision loss. Potentiating factors for more severe injury included environmental conditions, prolonged exposure time, and higher quantities of chemical agent in enclosed spaces. Conclusions Although chemical weapons may have a limited role in crowd control, our findings demonstrate that they have significant potential for misuse, leading to unnecessary morbidity and mortality. A nuanced understanding of the health impacts of chemical weapons and mitigating factors is imperative to avoiding indiscriminate use of chemical weapons and associated health consequences.

  2. Injury Rates, Limited Duty Days, Medically Not Ready Rates, and Injury Risk Factors in an Army Chemical Brigade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Please specify the sport causing the injury #1:  Football  Basketball  Soccer  Volleyball  Softball...0032423.3-15 C-10 Please specify the sport causing the injury #2:  Football  Basketball  Soccer  Volleyball  Softball

  3. Influence of alkaline (PH 8.3-12.0) and saline solutions on chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of two different bentonites - batch experiments at 25 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikola, Tiina; Vuorinen, Ulla; Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Kiviranta, Leena; Korkeakoski, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Construction of a spent fuel repository deep in the bedrock will need supporting structures using cement materials. A part of them can be removed before closure but still it is estimated that about 1000 tonnes will remain in the host rock. Degradation of cementitious materials produces leachates of high pH. If such an alkaline plume reaches the bentonite buffer, it may induce mineralogical and chemical changes in bentonite over long term, and further affect the safety functions of the buffer. Laboratory experiments were done with the objective to gain data of possible alterations in mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of bentonites contacted with high-pH saline solutions. Two untreated, high grade, Na- and Ca-bentonites, were used in batch experiments, which were carried out in an anaerobic glove-box at 25±1 deg. C for 554 days. Each bentonite sample (20 g) was leached with approximately 3.8 L of leaching solution, which equals 190 mL/g of bentonite. The bentonites were leached with three types of simulated cement waters (pH 9.7, 11.3 and 12.0) and one saline groundwater simulate (pH 8.3) as a reference. The leaching solutions were 0.3 M, and contained NaCl and CaCl 2 , and trace amounts of SiO 2 , K, Br, Mg and SO 4 . Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide were removed from leaching solutions before mixing of bentonite in PC bottles. The samples were placed on a platform shaker in order to allow better contact between bentonite and the leaching solution. The evolution of pH in the samples was followed by measuring the pH-value of each sample in the solution phase approximately twice a week and the solution was renewed when values of two to three consecutive measurements did not change. On average, the leaching solution was renewed once a month. For each renewal of the leaching solution the phases were separated, the reacted solution withdrawn, and the chemical composition analysed. Before analysis the

  4. 77 FR 41406 - Evaluation of In Vitro Tests for Identifying Eye Injury Hazard Potential of Chemicals and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ...-animal testing strategies proposed for identifying eye injury hazard potential of chemicals and products.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The development of in vitro alternatives to animals for eye safety... new, revised, and alternative safety testing methods and integrated testing strategies with regulatory...

  5. Processing Methods of Alkaline Hydrolysate from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Arefieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper devoted to finding processing methods of alkaline hydrolysate produced from rice husk pre-extraction, and discusses alkaline hydrolysate processing schemed and disengagement of some products: amorphous silica of various quality, alkaline lignin, and water and alkaline extraction polysaccharides. Silica samples were characterized: crude (air-dried, burnt (no preliminary water treatment, washed in distilled water, and washed in distilled water and burnt. Waste water parameters upon the extraction of solids from alkaline hydrolysate dropped a few dozens or thousand times depending on the applied processing method. Color decreased a few thousand times, turbidity was virtually eliminated, chemical oxygen demanded about 20–136 times; polyphenols content might decrease 50% or be virtually eliminated. The most prospective scheme obtained the two following solid products from rice husk alkaline hydrolysate: amorphous silica and alkaline extraction polysaccharide. Chemical oxygen demand of the remaining waste water decreased about 140 times compared to the silica-free solution.

  6. Mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effects of tamoxifen against drug-induced and chemical-induced acute liver injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Yukitaka; Miyashita, Taishi; Higuchi, Satonori [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan); Tsuneyama, Koichi [Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science for Research, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930‐0194 (Japan); Endo, Shinya [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan); Tsukui, Tohru [Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Yamane, Hidaka 350‐1241 (Japan); Toyoda, Yasuyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan); Yokoi, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tyokoi@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    Although estrogen receptor (ER)α agonists, such as estradiol and ethinylestradiol (EE2), cause cholestasis in mice, they also reduce the degree of liver injury caused by hepatotoxicants as well as ischemia–reperfusion. The functional mechanisms of ERα have yet to be elucidated in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. The present study investigated the effects of an ERα agonist, selective ER modulators (SERMs) and an ER antagonist on drug-induced and chemical-induced liver injuries caused by acetaminophen, bromobenzene, diclofenac, and thioacetamide (TA). We observed hepatoprotective effects of EE2, tamoxifen (TAM) and raloxifene pretreatment in female mice that were exposed to a variety of hepatotoxic compounds. In contrast, the ER antagonist did not show any hepatoprotective effects. DNA microarray analyses suggested that monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd2) protein, which has an unknown function, is commonly increased by TAM and RAL pretreatment, but not by pretreatment with the ER antagonist. In ERα-knockout mice, the hepatoprotective effects of TAM and the increased expression of Mmd2 mRNA were not observed in TA-induced liver injury. To investigate the function of Mmd2, the expression level of Mmd2 mRNA was significantly knocked down to approximately 30% in mice by injection of siRNA for Mmd2 (siMmd2). Mmd2 knockdown resulted in a reduction of the protective effects of TAM on TA-induced liver injury in mice. This is the first report of the involvement of ERα in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. Upregulation of Mmd2 protein in the liver was suggested as the mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of EE2 and SERMs. -- Highlights: ► Liver injury induced by drugs or chemicals was investigated in mice. ► Liver injury was suppressed by pretreatment with tamoxifen in female mice. ► Mmd2, whose function was unknown, could be a candidate gene for liver protection. ► Tamoxifen up-regulated Mmd2 mRNA expression

  7. Mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effects of tamoxifen against drug-induced and chemical-induced acute liver injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Yukitaka; Miyashita, Taishi; Higuchi, Satonori; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Endo, Shinya; Tsukui, Tohru; Toyoda, Yasuyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Although estrogen receptor (ER)α agonists, such as estradiol and ethinylestradiol (EE2), cause cholestasis in mice, they also reduce the degree of liver injury caused by hepatotoxicants as well as ischemia–reperfusion. The functional mechanisms of ERα have yet to be elucidated in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. The present study investigated the effects of an ERα agonist, selective ER modulators (SERMs) and an ER antagonist on drug-induced and chemical-induced liver injuries caused by acetaminophen, bromobenzene, diclofenac, and thioacetamide (TA). We observed hepatoprotective effects of EE2, tamoxifen (TAM) and raloxifene pretreatment in female mice that were exposed to a variety of hepatotoxic compounds. In contrast, the ER antagonist did not show any hepatoprotective effects. DNA microarray analyses suggested that monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd2) protein, which has an unknown function, is commonly increased by TAM and RAL pretreatment, but not by pretreatment with the ER antagonist. In ERα-knockout mice, the hepatoprotective effects of TAM and the increased expression of Mmd2 mRNA were not observed in TA-induced liver injury. To investigate the function of Mmd2, the expression level of Mmd2 mRNA was significantly knocked down to approximately 30% in mice by injection of siRNA for Mmd2 (siMmd2). Mmd2 knockdown resulted in a reduction of the protective effects of TAM on TA-induced liver injury in mice. This is the first report of the involvement of ERα in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. Upregulation of Mmd2 protein in the liver was suggested as the mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of EE2 and SERMs. -- Highlights: ► Liver injury induced by drugs or chemicals was investigated in mice. ► Liver injury was suppressed by pretreatment with tamoxifen in female mice. ► Mmd2, whose function was unknown, could be a candidate gene for liver protection. ► Tamoxifen up-regulated Mmd2 mRNA expression

  8. Direct, simple derivatization of disulfide bonds in proteins with organic mercury in alkaline medium without any chemical pre-reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo [National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organo Metallici-ICCOM- UOS Pisa, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Ferrari, Carlo [National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, INO-UOS Pisa, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); D’Ulivo, Alessandro [National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organo Metallici-ICCOM- UOS Pisa, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bramanti, Emilia, E-mail: bramanti@pi.iccom.cnr.it [National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organo Metallici-ICCOM- UOS Pisa, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-09-16

    Highlights: • A simple procedure for the derivatization of proteins disulfide bonds. • Cysteine groups in several proteins derivatised with pHMB in alkaline media. • 75–100% labelling of cysteines in proteins with pHMB. - Abstract: In this work we have studied the derivatization of protein disulfide bonds with p-Hydroxymercurybenzoate (pHMB) in strong alkaline medium without any preliminary reduction. The reaction has been followed by the determination of the protein–pHMB complex using size exclusion chromatography coupled to a microwave/UV mercury oxidation system for the on-line oxidation of free and protein-complexed pHMB and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (SEC–CVG–AFS) detection. The reaction has been optimized by an experimental design using lysozyme as a model protein and applied to several thiolic proteins. The proposed method reports, for the first time, that it is possible to label 75–100% cysteines of proteins and, thus, to determine thiolic proteins without the need of any reducing step to obtain reduced -SH groups before mercury labelling. We obtained a detection limit of 100 nmol L{sup −1} based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for unbound and complexed pHMB, corresponding to a detection limit of proteins ranged between 3 and 360 nmol L{sup −1}, depending on the number of cysteines in the protein sequence.

  9. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  10. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation injuries are acute injuries to your respiratory system and lungs. They can happen if you breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can also be caused by extreme heat; these are a type of thermal injuries. ...

  11. Topical ayurvedic ointment-induced chemical injury presenting as bilateral acute keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Pranita; Saluja, Gunjan; Maharana, Prafulla Kumar; Titiyal, Jeewan S

    2017-08-20

    A 40-years-old female patient was referred to the cornea clinic as a probable case of bilateral keratitis. The patient had a history of headache followed by acute onset of redness, pain and discharge from both eyes for 15 days. The patient was diagnosed as bilateral keratitis by the first contact physician and was started on topical antibiotics, cycloplegics and lubricating eye-drops. At presentation, both eyes had visual acuity of perception of light, conjunctival congestion, limbal blanching, diffuse corneal oedema and epithelial defect. A detailed history revealed application of Vicks VapoRub [topical ayurvedic analgesic which contains (per 100 g of product) menthol (2.82 g), camphor (5.25 g) and eucalyptol (1.49 mL) and excipients include thymol (0.1 g), turpentine oil (5.57 mL), nutmeg oil (0.54 mL), cedar wood oil and petrolatum)] on the forehead and eyelids for headache several times over 2-3 days before the onset. The patient further confirmed the accidental application of the ointment in the eyes. A provisional diagnosis of acute chemical injury with Vicks VapoRub was made and treatment with topical antibiotic, cycloplegic, steroid, lubricant and vitamin C was started. On follow-up, both eyes showed gradual resolution of corneal oedema and epithelial defect. Visual acuity improved in the left eye to 6/60 with no change in right eye due to corneal haze. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. 40 CFR 721.9680 - Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkaline titania silica gel (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9680 Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... alkaline titania silica gel (PMN P-95-529) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  13. PREPUBLICATION: From structure topology to chemical composition. XXIII. Revision of the crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, a seidozerite-supergroup mineral from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula, Russia

    KAUST Repository

    Sokolova, E.

    2017-04-02

    The crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, ideally Na2ZnTiNb2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 (H2O)4, a lamprophyllite-group mineral of the seidozerite supergroup from the type locality, Mt. Malyi Punkaruaiv, Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia have been revised. The crystal structure was refined with a new origin in space group C⎯1, a = 10.769(2), b = 14.276(3), c = 12.101(2) Å, α = 105.45(3), β = 95.17(3), γ = 90.04(3)°, V = 1785.3(3.2) Å3, R1 = 9.23%. The electron-microprobe analysis gave the following empirical formula [calculated on 22 (O + F)]:(Na0.75Ca0.09K0.04��1.12)Σ2 (Na1.12Zn0.88Mn0.17Fe2+0.04��0.79)Σ3(Nb1.68Ti1.25Al0.07)Σ3 (Si4.03O14)O2 [(OH)1.11F0.89]Σ2(H2O)4, Z = 4. Electron-diffraction patterns have prominent streaking along c* and HRTEM images show an intergrowth of crystalline zvyaginite with two distinct phases, both of which are partially amorphous. The crystal structure of zvyaginite is an array of TS (Titanium Silicate) blocks connected via hydrogen bonds between H2O groups. The TS block consists of HOH sheets (H = heteropolyhedral, O = octahedral) parallel to (001). In the O sheet, the [6]MO(1,4,5) sites are occupied mainly by Ti, Zn and Na and the [6]MO(2,3) sites are occupied by Na at less than 50%. In the H sheet, the [6]MH(1,2) sites are occupied mainly by Nb and the [8]AP(1) and [8]AP(2) sites are occupied mainly by Na and ��. The MH and AP polyhedra and Si2O7 groups constitute the H sheet. The ideal structural formula is Na��Nb2NaZn��Ti(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2(H2O)4. Zvyaginite is a Zn-bearing and Na-poor analogue of epistolite, ideally (Na��)Nb2Na3Ti(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2(H2O)4. Epistolite and zvyaginite are related by the following substitution in the O sheet of the TS-block: (Na+2)epi ↔ Zn2+ zvy + ��zvy. The doubling of the t1 and t2 translations of zvyaginite relative to those of epistolite is due to the order of Zn and Na along a (t1) and b (t2) in the O sheet of zvyaginite.

  14. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev [Latham, NY

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  15. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and…

  16. Nature of the chemical bond between metal atoms and oxide surfaces: new evidences from spin density studies of K atoms on alkaline earth oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Mario; Giamello, Elio; Di Valentin, Cristiana; Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Sojka, Zbigniew; Van Doorslaer, Sabine

    2005-12-07

    We have studied the interaction of K atoms with the surface of polycrystalline alkaline-earth metal oxides (MgO, CaO, SrO) by means of CW- and Pulsed-EPR, UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopies and DFT cluster model calculations. The K adsorption site is proposed to be an anionic reverse corner formed at the intersection of two steps, where K binds by more than 1 eV, resulting in thermally stable species up to about 400 K. The bonding has small covalent and large polarization contributions, and the K atom remains neutral, with one unpaired electron in the valence shell. The interaction results in strong modifications of the K electronic wave function which are directly reflected by the hyperfine coupling constant, (K)a(iso). This is found to be a very efficient "probe" to measure the degree of metal-oxide interaction which directly depends on the substrate basicity. These results provide an original and general model of the early stages of the metal-support interaction in the case of ionic oxides.

  17. Toxicity of alkalinity to Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Reinert, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity testing and chemical analyses of sediment pore water have been suggested for use in sediment quality assessments and sediment toxicity identification evaluations. However, caution should be exercised in interpreting pore-water chemistry and toxicity due to inherent chemical characteristics and confounding relationships. High concentrations of alkalinity, which are typical of sediment pore waters from many regions, have been shown to be toxic to test animals. A series of tests were conducted to assess the significance of elevated alkalinity concentrations to Hyalella azteca, an amphipod commonly used for sediment and pore-water toxicity testing. Toxicity tests with 14-d old and 7-d old animals were conducted in serial dilutions of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions producing alkalinities ranging between 250 to 2000 mg/L as CaCO3. A sodium chloride (NaCl) toxicity test was also conducted to verify that toxicity was due to bicarbonate and not sodium. Alkalinity was toxic at concentrations frequently encountered in sediment pore water. There was also a significant difference in the toxicity of alkalinity between 14-d old and 7-d old animals. The average 96-h LC50 for alkalinity was 1212 mg/L (as CaCO3) for 14-d old animals and 662 mg/L for the younger animals. Sodium was not toxic at levels present in the NaHCO3 toxicity tests. Alkalinity should be routinely measured in pore-water toxicity tests, and interpretation of toxicity should consider alkalinity concentration and test-organism tolerance.

  18. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  19. Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2012-11-01

    This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 μg g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 μg g-1). The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water

  20. Efecto del secado térmico y el tratamiento alcalino en las características microbiológicas y químicas de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas Effect of thermal drying and alkaline treatment on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Silva-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of thermal drying (60 to 75 ºC and times from 0 to 12.58 h and alkaline treatment (Ca(OH2 and CaO at doses from 8 to 10%. on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo WWTP. The results showed that in thermal drying all temperatures studied were sufficient to achieve the sanitation of biosolids. In the alkaline treatment the two types of lime showed the total elimination of fecal coliforms, E. coli and helminth eggs, however, the process of alkalization of biosolids had significant influences on organic carbon and calcium.

  1. Chemical aromatization of 19-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione with acid or alkaline: elimination of the 19-hydroxymethyl group as formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Yamashita, Kouwa; Kimura, Nao; Takahashi, Madoka

    2009-02-01

    In order to determine whether or not a 19-hydroxymethyl group of 19-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (2, 19-hydroxy ADD), an intermediate of aromatase-catalyzed estrone formation from ADD, a suicide substrate of aromatase, is eliminated as formaldehyde, we examine chemical nature of removal of the 19-hydroxymethyl group. 19-acetate 3 and 19-tert-butyldimethylsiloxy compound 4 are known to convert rapidly to estrone with treatment of NaOH or n-Bu4NF. Since compound 2 was unstable and unobtainable under these conditions, compounds 3 and 4 as equivalents to compound 2 were used in this study. The acetate 3 with 5 mol/l HCl in acetone and 10% KOH in MeOH along with the silyl ether 4 with 5 mol/l HCl in acetone and 1 mol/l n-Bu4NF in THF gave formaldehyde and estrone in which a ratio of the aldehyde to estrone was near 1. This result indicates that the 19-hydroxymethyl groups of compound 3 and 4 are eliminated as formaldehyde along with estrone derived from the steroid skeleton under the acid or base treatment. The findings suggest that a single hydroxylation at the 19 carbon of ADD (1) would be, chemically, all that was required for estrone formation.

  2. Alkaline phosphatase: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ujjawal; Pal, Deeksha; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; E.C.3.I.3.1.) is an ubiquitous membrane-bound glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters at basic pH values. Alkaline phosphatase is divided into four isozymes depending upon the site of tissue expression that are Intestinal ALP, Placental ALP, Germ cell ALP and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase or liver/bone/kidney (L/B/K) ALP. The intestinal and placental ALP loci are located near the end of long arm of chromosome 2 and L/B/K ALP is located near the end of the short arm of chromosome 1. Although ALPs are present in many mammalian tissues and have been studied for the last several years still little is known about them. The bone isoenzyme may be involved in mammalian bone calcification and the intestinal isoenzyme is thought to play a role in the transport of phosphate into epithelial cells of the intestine. In this review, we tried to provide an overview about the various forms, structure and functions of alkaline phosphatase with special focus on liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase.

  3. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  4. Collective evolution of submicron hillocks during the early stages of anisotropic alkaline wet chemical etching of Si(1 0 0) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, P.; Vázquez, Luis; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Sarkar, Subhendu

    2017-11-01

    We address experimentally the large-scale dynamics of Si(1 0 0) surfaces during the initial stages of anisotropic wet (KOH) chemical etching, which are characterized through atomic force microscopy. These systems are known to lead to the formation of characteristic pyramids, or hillocks, of typical sizes in the nanometric/micrometer scales, thus with the potential for a large number of applications that can benefit from the nanotexturing of Si surfaces. The present pattern formation process is very strongly disordered in space. We assess the space correlations in such a type of rough surface and elucidate the existence of a complex and rich morphological evolution, featuring at least three different regimes in just 10 min of etching. Such a complex time behavior cannot be consistently explained within a single formalism for dynamic scaling. The pyramidal structure reveals itself as the basic morphological motif of the surface throughout the dynamics. A detailed analysis of the surface slope distribution with etching time reveals that the texturing process induced by the KOH etching is rather gradual and progressive, which accounts for the dynamic complexity. The various stages of the morphological evolution can be accurately reproduced by computer-generated surfaces composed by uncorrelated pyramidal structures. To reach such an agreement, the key parameters are the average pyramid size, which increases with etching time, its distribution and the surface coverage by the pyramidal structures.

  5. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting under...

  6. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Stefania; Salvi, Paolo; Nelli, Paolo; Pesenti, Rachele; Villa, Marco; Berrettoni, Mario; Zangari, Giovanni; Kiros, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    A short review on the fundamental and technological issues relevant to water electrolysis in alkaline and proton exchange membrane (PEM) devices is given. Due to price and limited availability of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts they currently employ, PEM electrolyzers have scant possibilities of being employed in large-scale hydrogen production. The importance and recent advancements in the development of catalysts without PGMs are poised to benefit more the field of alkaline electrolysis rather than that of PEM devices. This paper presents our original data which demonstrate that an advanced alkaline electrolyzer with performances rivaling those of PEM electrolyzers can be made without PGM and with catalysts of high stability and durability. Studies on the advantages/limitations of electrolyzers with different architectures do show how a judicious application of pressure differentials in a recirculating electrolyte scheme helps reduce mass transport limitations, increasing efficiency and power density.

  7. [Advances of alkaline amylase production and applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-04-01

    Alkaline amylase is one of alkaline enzymes with optimum pH in the alkaline range, and it could keep stability and efficiently hydrolyze starch under alkaline conditions. Alkaline amylase finds wide applications in textile, detergent, pharmaceutical, food and other fields. Alkaline amylases could be produced by alkaliphilic microorganisms. In this work, the advances of alkaline amylase production and applications were reviewed.

  8. Hybrid in silico models for drug-induced liver injury using chemical descriptors and in vitro cell-imaging information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-Wei; Sedykh, Alexander; Liu, Shu-Shen

    2014-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major adverse drug reaction that accounts for one-third of post-marketing drug withdrawals. Several classifiers for human hepatotoxicity using chemical descriptors with limited prediction accuracies have been published. In this study, we developed predictive in silico models based on a set of 156 DILI positive and 136 DILI negative compounds for DILI prediction. First, models based on a chemical descriptor (CDK, Dragon and MOE) and in vitro cell-imaging endpoints [human hepatocyte imaging assay technology (HIAT) descriptors] were built using random forest (RF) and five-fold cross-validation procedure. Then three hybrid models were built using HIAT and a single type of chemical descriptors. Generally, the models based only on chemical descriptors were poor, with a correct classification rate (CCR) around 0.60 when the default threshold value (i.e. threshold = 0.50) was used. The hybrid models afforded a CCR of 0.73 with a specificity of 0.74 and a better true positive rate (sensitivity of 0.71), which is crucial in drug toxicity screening for the purpose of patient safety. The benefit of hybrid models was even more drastic when stricter classification thresholds were employed (e.g. CCR would be 0.83 when double thresholds (non-toxic 0.60) were used for the hybrid model). We have developed rigorously validated hybrid models which can be used in virtual screening of lead compounds with potential hepatotoxicity. Our study also showed a chemical structure and in vitro biological data can be complementary in enhancing the prediction accuracy of human hepatotoxicity and can afford rational mechanistic interpretation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the initial alkalinity. Acidity calculated from the pH and dissolved metals concentrations, assuming equivalents of 2 per mole of Fe and Mn and 3 per mole of Al, was equivalent to that calculated based on complete aqueous speciation of FeII/FeIII. Despite changes in

  10. Alkaline Activator Impact on the Geopolymer Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz Z.; Król, Maciej R.

    2017-10-01

    Concrete structures are constantly moving in the direction of improving the durability. Durability depends on many factors, which are the composition of concrete mix, the usage of additives and admixtures and the place, where material will work and carry the load. The introduction of new geopolymer binders for geopolymer structures adds a new aspect that is type of used activator. This substance with strongly alkaline reaction is divided because of the physical state, the alkaline degree and above all the chemical composition. Taking into account, that at present the geopolymer binders are made essentially from waste materials or by-products from the combustion of coal or iron ore smelting, unambiguous determination of the effect of the activator on the properties of the geopolymer material requires a number of trials, researches and observation. This paper shows the influence of the most alkaline activators on the basic parameters of the durability of geopolymer binders. In this study there were used highly alkaline hydroxides, water glasses and granules, which are waste materials in a variety of processes taking place in chemical plants. As the substrate of geopolymer binders there were used fly ash which came from coal and high calcareous ash from the burning of lignite.

  11. Ergonomics and Beyond: Understanding How Chemical and Heat Exposures and Physical Exertions at Work Affect Functional Ability, Injury, and Long-Term Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer A; Shipp, Eva M; Trueblood, Amber B; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2016-08-01

    To honor Tom Waters's work on emerging occupational health issues, we review the literature on physical along with chemical exposures and their impact on functional outcomes. Many occupations present the opportunity for exposure to multiple hazardous exposures, including both physical and chemical factors. However, little is known about how these different factors affect functional ability and injury. The goal of this review is to examine the relationships between these exposures, impairment of the neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems, functional outcomes, and health problems with a focus on acute injury. Literature was identified using online databases, including PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Google Scholar. References from included articles were searched for additional relevant articles. This review documented the limited existing literature that discussed cognitive impairment and functional disorders via neurotoxicity for physical exposures (heat and repetitive loading) and chemical exposures (pesticides, volatile organic compounds [VOCs], and heavy metals). This review supports that workers are exposed to physical and chemical exposures that are associated with negative health effects, including functional impairment and injury. Innovation in exposure assessment with respect to quantifying the joint exposure to these different exposures is especially needed for developing risk assessment models and, ultimately, preventive measures. Along with physical exposures, chemical exposures need to be considered, alone and in combination, in assessing functional ability and occupationally related injuries. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. Diabetes increases susceptibility of primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells to chemically induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qing; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we prepared primary cultures of proximal tubular (PT) cells from diabetic rats 30 days after an ip injection of streptozotocin and compared their susceptibility to oxidants (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, methyl vinyl ketone) and a mitochondrial toxicant (antimycin A) with that of PT cells isolated from age-matched control rats, to test the hypothesis that PT cells from diabetic rats exhibit more cellular and mitochondrial injury than those from control rats when exposed to these toxicants. PT cells from diabetic rats exhibited higher basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher mitochondrial membrane potential, demonstrating that the PT cells maintain the diabetic phenotype in primary culture. Incubation with either the oxidants or mitochondrial toxicant resulted in greater necrotic and apoptotic cell death, greater evidence of morphological damage, greater increases in ROS, and greater decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential in PT cells from diabetic rats than in those from control rats. Pretreatment with either the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or a catalase mimetic provided equivalent protection of PT cells from both diabetic and control rats. Despite the greater susceptibility to oxidative and mitochondrial injury, both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutathione concentrations were markedly higher in PT cells from diabetic rats, suggesting an upregulation of antioxidant processes in diabetic kidney. These results support the hypothesis that primary cultures of PT cells from diabetic rats are a valid model in which to study renal cellular function in the diabetic state.

  13. The Role of Microglia and Peripheral Monocytes in Retinal Damage Following Corneal Chemical Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Lei, Fengyang; Zhou, Chengxin; Kapoulea, Vassiliki; Thanos, Aristomenis; Dana, Reza; Vavvas, Demetrios; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H

    2018-04-06

    Eyes that have suffered alkali burn to the surface are excessively susceptible to subsequent severe glaucoma and retinal ganglion cell loss, despite maximal efforts to prevent or slow down the disease. Recently, we have shown in mice and rabbits, that such retinal damage is neither mediated by the alkali itself reaching the retina nor by intraocular pressure elevation. Rather, it is caused by the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) that rapidly diffuses posteriorly, causing retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and CD45 + cell activation. Here, we investigated the involvement of peripheral blood monocytes and microglia in retinal damage. Using CX3CR1 +/EGFP ::CCR2 +/RFP reporter mice and bone marrow chimeras, we show that peripheral CX3CR1 + CD45 hi CD11b + MHC-II + monocyte infiltrate into the retina from the optic nerve at 24 hours after the burn and release further TNF-α. A secondary source of peripheral monocyte response originates from a rare population of 'patrolling' myeloid CCR2 + cells of the retina that differentiate into CX3CR1 + macrophages within hours after the injury. As a result, CX3CR1 + CD45 lo CD11b + microglia become reactive at 7 days, causing further TNF-α release. Prompt TNF-α inhibition after corneal burn suppresses monocyte infiltration and microglia activation, and protects the retina. This study may prove relevant to other injuries of the central nervous system. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. MicroRNAs as Signaling Mediators and Biomarkers of Drug- and Chemical-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell R. McGill

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is major problem for both the drug industry and for clinicians. There are two basic categories of DILI: intrinsic and idiosyncratic. The former is the chief cause of acute liver failure in several developed countries, while the latter is the most common reason for post-marketing drug withdrawal and a major reason for failure to approve new drugs in the U.S. Although considerably more progress has been made in the study of intrinsic DILI, our understanding of both forms of drug hepatotoxicity remains incomplete. Recent work involving microRNAs (miRNAs has advanced our knowledge of DILI in two ways: (1 possible roles of miRNAs in the pathophysiological mechanisms of DILI have been identified, and (2 circulating miRNA profiles have shown promise for the detection and diagnosis of DILI in clinical settings. The purpose of this review is to summarize major findings in these two areas of research. Taken together, exciting progress has been made in the study of miRNAs in DILI. Possible mechanisms through which miRNA species contribute to the basic mechanisms of DILI are beginning to emerge, and new miRNA-based biomarkers have the potential to greatly improve diagnosis of liver injury and prediction of patient outcomes.

  15. P7C3 Neuroprotective Chemicals Block Axonal Degeneration and Preserve Function after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Terry C.; Britt, Jeremiah K.; De Jesús-Cortés, Héctor; Lu, Yuan; Genova, Rachel M.; Khan, Michael Z.; Voorhees, Jaymie R.; Shao, Jianqiang; Katzman, Aaron C.; Huntington, Paula J.; Wassink, Cassie; McDaniel, Latisha; Newell, Elizabeth A.; Dutca, Laura M.; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cui, Huxing; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Harper, Matthew M.; McKnight, Steven L.; Ready, Joseph M.; Pieper, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The P7C3 class of neuroprotective aminopropyl carbazoles has been shown to block neuronal cell death in models of neurodegeneration. We now show that P7C3 molecules additionally preserve axonal integrity after injury, before neuronal cell death occurs, in a rodent model of blast-mediated traumatic brain injury (TBI). This protective quality may be linked to the ability of P7C3 molecules to activate nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage. Initiation of daily treatment with our recently reported lead agent, P7C3-S243, one day after blast-mediated TBI blocks axonal degeneration and preserves normal synaptic activity, learning and memory, and motor coordination in mice. We additionally report persistent neurologic deficits and acquisition of an anxiety-like phenotype in untreated animals eight months after blast exposure. Optimized variants of P7C3 thus offer hope for identifying neuroprotective agents for conditions involving axonal damage, neuronal cell death, or both, such as occurs in TBI. PMID:25220467

  16. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  17. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes

  18. TAFA4, a Chemokine-like Protein, Modulates Injury-Induced Mechanical and Chemical Pain Hypersensitivity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claire Delfini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available C-low-threshold mechanoreceptors (C-LTMRs are unique among C-unmyelinated primary sensory neurons. These neurons convey two opposite aspects of touch sensation: a sensation of pleasantness, and a sensation of injury-induced mechanical pain. Here, we show that TAFA4 is a specific marker of C-LTMRs. Genetic labeling in combination with electrophysiological recordings show that TAFA4+ neurons have intrinsic properties of mechano-nociceptors. TAFA4-null mice exhibit enhanced mechanical and chemical hypersensitivity following inflammation and nerve injury as well as increased excitability of spinal cord lamina IIi neurons, which could be reversed by intrathecal or bath application of recombinant TAFA4 protein. In wild-type C57/Bl6 mice, intrathecal administration of TAFA4 strongly reversed carrageenan-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, suggesting a potent analgesic role of TAFA4 in pain relief. Our data provide insights into how C-LTMR-derived TAFA4 modulates neuronal excitability and controls the threshold of somatic sensation.

  19. Physical and chemical caharacteristics of neurological injury in an avian model of primary generalized epilepsy:

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Zhao; Kendall, Edward; Obenaus, André; Tuchek, John

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if the epileptic chicken phenotype exhibited unique physical and chemical neurological changes. MethodsQuantitative 1H-MRI/MRS measurements were performed on adult control (Rr) and epileptic (rr) chickens. The metrics included nuclear relaxation rate, diffusion rate and concentration of metabolites associated with neuronalcells. Comparisons were performed using Students t or Mann-Whitney tests according to the data distribution. Results Proton density me...

  20. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NEUROLOGICAL INJURY IN AN AVIAN MODEL OF PRIMARY GENERALIZED EPILEPSY

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Kendall; Zhao Gong; John Tuchek; André Obenaus

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was undertaken to determine if the epileptic chicken phenotype exhibited unique physical and chemical neurological changes. Methods Quantitative 1H-MRI/MRS measurements were performed on adult control (Rr) and epileptic (rr) chickens. The metrics included nuclear relaxation rate, diffusion rate and concentration of metabolites associated with neuronal cells. Comparisons were performed using Students t or Mann-Whitney tests according to the data distribution. Results Proton ...

  1. The neuroprotective role of endocannabinoids against chemical-induced injury and other adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogopoulos, Panagiotis; Vasileiou, Ioanna; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2013-04-01

    Considerable progress has been made, recently, in understanding the role of the endocannabinoid system in regard to neuroprotection. Endogenous cannabinoids have received increasing attention as potential protective agents in several cases of neuronal injury. The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and proteins responsible for their metabolism. Endocannabinoids serve as retrograde signalling messengers in GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses, as well as modulators of post-synaptic transmission, interacting with other neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine and dopamine. Furthermore, endocannabinoids modulate neuronal, glial and endothelial cell function and exert neuromodulatory, anti-excitotoxic, anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory effects. Physiological stimuli and pathological conditions lead to differential increases in brain endocannabinoids that regulate distinct biological functions. The purpose of this review is to present the available in vivo and in vitro experimental data, up to date, regarding the endocannabinoid system and its role in neuroprotection, as well as its possible therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Using chemical-shift MR imaging to quantify fatty degeneration within supraspinatus muscle due to supraspinatus tendon injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokalp, Gokhan; Yildirim, Nalan; Yazici, Zeynep [Uludag University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Ercan, Ilker [Uludag University Medical Faculty, Department of Biostatistics, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    The objective of this study was to prospectively quantify the fatty degeneration of supraspinatus (SSP) muscle due to SSP tendon injuries by using chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI). Forty-one patients with suspected rotator cuff tear or impingement examined with MR arthrography were included in the study. The following images were obtained after injection of diluted gadolinium chelate into glenohumeral joint: fat-saturated T1-weighted spin echo in the coronal, axial, and sagittal-oblique plane; fat-saturated T2-weighted and intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo in the coronal-oblique plane; and T1-weighted spin echo in the sagittal-oblique plane. CS-MRI was performed in the coronal plane using a double-echo fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence. SSP tendon changes were classified as normal, tendinosis, and partial and complete tear according to MR arthrography findings. Fatty degeneration was quantified after measurement of signal intensity values within the region of interest (ROI) placed over SSP muscle. Signal intensity (SI) suppression ratio and SI index were calculated with the values obtained. Degrees of fatty degeneration depicted in normal subjects and subjects with rotator cuff injuries were compared. Median (min:max) was used as descriptive values. SI suppression ratio was -3.5% (-15.5:3.03) in normal subjects, whereas it was -13.5% (-28.55:-6.60), -30.7% (-41.5:-20.35), and -43.75% (-62:-24.90) in tendinosis, partial and complete tears, respectively. SI index was 0.75% (-6:11.5) in normal subjects. It was 10% (4.50:27), 26.5% (19.15:35.5), and 41% (23.9:57) in tendinosis, partial and complete tears, respectively. The increase in degree of fatty degeneration parallels the seriousness of tendon pathology. CS-MRI is a useful method for grading fat accumulation within SSP muscle. (orig.)

  3. Application of alkaline leaching to the extraction of uranium from shale of the Vosges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouret, P.; Pottier, P.; Le Bris, J.

    1958-01-01

    Description of chemical treatment of Vosges shales to obtain uranium by alkaline leaching. Mineralogy aspects of ore, physical and chemical conditions of leaching, solid/liquid separation, uranium recovery by either ion exchange process or electrolytic precipitation. (author) [fr

  4. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  5. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  6. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  7. The delayed effect of mustard gas on housekeeping gene expression in lung biopsy of chemical injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedardoost, Marzieh; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Askari, Nayereh; Sadeghipour, Alireza; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghafarpour, Sara; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) was used as a chemical weapon in Iraq-Iran war. Exposed people have major complications in important organs such as pulmonary system. Some studies have shown that SM could affect the expression of endogenous genes and non-housekeeping genes, time dependently. To understand the accurate molecular mechanism of the delayed effect of SM, the identification of the gene expression pattern in these patients is essential. Hence, we have evaluated mRNA expression of four common housekeeping genes (ACTIN, PGK1, β2m, GAPDH) in SM-exposed and non-exposed (control) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human lung tissues. Paraffin block of lung biopsy of SM-exposed people (11 cases) and people without exposure to SM as control group (9 cases) have been selected. The mRNA expression of four endogenous control genes has been evaluated by qRT-PCR. The stability value of each gene was calculated by different methods. It was found that ACTIN mRNA has the highest expression (30.26±2.87) and PGK1 has the lowest standard deviation (SD) (30.885±2.215) between pooled groups. The best correlation was between ACTIN and PGK1 expressions. The M value has shown that ACTIN and then PGK1 are the most stable housekeeping genes among. The results obtained from the GeNorm and NormFinder have indicated that the pair ACTIN- PGK1 is the most suitable choice for endogenous control genes. ACTIN and PGK1 genes are stable in studied lung tissues and are the better than two other housekeeping genes. In addition, mustard gas does not affect their expression in long term.

  8. Alkaline earth metal catalysts for asymmetric reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shū; Yamashita, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-18

    The group 2 alkaline earth metals calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) are among the most common elements on Earth, abundant in both the sea and the Earth's crust. Although they are familiar in our daily lives, their application to organic synthesis has, so far, been limited. Some particularly useful properties of these elements include (i) low electronegativity, (ii) a stable oxidation state of +2, meaning that they can potentially form two covalent bonds with anions, and (iii) the ability to occupy a variety of coordination sites due to their large ionic radius. Furthermore, the alkaline earth metals, found between the group 1 and group 3 elements, show mild but significant Lewis acidity, which can be harnessed to control coordinative molecules via a Lewis acid-base interaction. Taken together, these characteristics make the metals Ca, Sr, and Ba very promising components of highly functionalized acid-base catalysts. In this Account, we describe the development of chiral alkaline earth metal catalysts for asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. Recently prepared chiral alkaline earth metal complexes have shown high diastereo- and enantioselectivities in fundamental and important chemical transformations. We chose chiral bisoxazoline (Box) derivatives bearing a methylene tether as a ligand for chiral modification. These molecules are very useful because they can covalently coordinate to alkaline earth metals in a bidentate fashion through deprotonation of the tether portion. It was found that chiral calcium-Box complexes could successfully promote catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition and [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Both the calcium-Box complexes and chiral strontium-bis-sulfonamide and chiral barium-BINOLate complexes could catalyze asymmetric 1,4-addition reactions with high enantioselectivities. Furthermore, we designed a calcium-neutral coordinative ligand complex as a new type of chiral alkaline

  9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NEUROLOGICAL INJURY IN AN AVIAN MODEL OF PRIMARY GENERALIZED EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Kendall

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study was undertaken to determine if the epileptic chicken phenotype exhibited unique physical and chemical neurological changes. Methods Quantitative 1H-MRI/MRS measurements were performed on adult control (Rr and epileptic (rr chickens. The metrics included nuclear relaxation rate, diffusion rate and concentration of metabolites associated with neuronal cells. Comparisons were performed using Students t or Mann-Whitney tests according to the data distribution. Results Proton density measurements detected no significant difference in density among the cerebral hemispheres and optic lobes within the control and epi birds, nor between bird phenotypes. Thus, within experimental error it appears that brain tissue density is similar in adult control and epi birds. Volume calculation from images spanning the entire brain confirmed that a consistent feature of the epi genotype was megalencephaly. Nuclear relaxation (T2 values obtained for the control bird were within the normal variant range for neuronal tissue. However, T2's of the epi birds were significantly higher than that of the controls ((158 ms versus 123 ms. Similarly, in the diffusion data there was no apparent hemispheric bias. The optic lobes of the control animals exhibited an apparent diffusion coefficient significantly lower than that found for the cerebrum (Table 2. Interestingly, this differential was not apparent in the epi birds. The control birds across all regions of interest exhibited an ADC significantly less than that of the epi birds. Quantitative 1Hspectroscopy using tissue extracts collected immediately after sacrifice revealed phenotypic differences in lactate, glutamate, creatine and NAA but not GABA. A reduction in NAA was detected in the cerebrum of epi birds. This is in agreement with the generally held view that seizure activity causes loss of neurones, thus the loss of N-acetyl aspartate. HPLC data corroborated the spectroscopic NAA findings but also

  10. [Alkaline phosphatase activity and properties in the organs of cattle and sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, S

    1979-01-01

    Alkaline-phosphatase activity and the physico-chemical properties of the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, intestine, bone and placenta of 25 clinically healthy cattle and 30 clinically healthy sheep were investigated. High alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in kidneys and intestines. The alcaline phosphatase of cattle and sheep liver, spleen, kidney, lung, bone and placenta was thermo-labile and sensitive to l-arginine, l-homoarginine and imidazole, but was not sensitive to l-phenylalanine. Bone phosphatase of cattle and sheep was sensitive to urea. Intestinal phosphatase of cattle proved thermostable, sensitive to l-phenylalanine and not sensitive to l-arginine, l-homoarginine, imidasol and urea. Agarose gel electrophoresis of alkaline phosphatase indicated the presence of one fraction only and liver alkaline phosphatase proved to be the fastest. Sheep liver alkaline phosphatase had two fractions while sheep intestinal and placental alkaline phosphatase had three fractions and some of them were faster than liver alkaline phosphatase.

  11. Method of cleaning alkaline metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yukio; Naito, Kesahiro; Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Nakasuji, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of used sodium and aqueous alkaline solution when cleaning used sodium and metallic sodium adhering to equipment with an aqueous alkaline solution. Method: A sodium treating container is filled with an aqueous alkaline solution, and stainless steel gauze is sunk in the container. Equipment to be cleaned such as equipment with sodium adhering to it are retained under the gauze and are thus cleaned. On the other hand, the surface of the aqueous alkaline solution is covered with a fluid paraffin liquid covering material. Thus, the hydrogen produced by the reaction of the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution will float up, pass through the liquid covering material and be discharged. The sodium will pass through the gauze and float upwardly while reacting with the aqueous alkaline solution in a partic ulate state to the boundary between the aqueous alkaline solution and up to the covering material, and thus the theratment reaction will continue. Thus, the cover material prevents the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution from scattering. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, E.; Gonzalez, E. R.

    The faster kinetics of the alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells (ADAFCs), opening up the possibility of using less expensive metal catalysts, as silver, nickel and palladium, makes the alkaline direct alcohol fuel cell a potentially low cost technology compared to acid direct alcohol fuel cell technology, which employs platinum catalysts. A boost in the research regarding alkaline fuel cells, fuelled with hydrogen or alcohols, was due to the development of alkaline anion-exchange membranes, which allows the overcoming of the problem of the progressive carbonation of the alkaline electrolyte. This paper presents an overview of catalysts and membranes for ADAFCs, and of testing of ADAFCs, fuelled with methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol, formed by these materials.

  13. [Injuries from pepper spray used for self defense: analysis of 15 cases managed in an emergency chemical decontamination area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó, Montserrat; Fernández, Fuensanta; Velasco, Verónica; Nogué, Santiago

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, treatment received, and clinical course in cases of pepper spray injury treated in the chemical decontamination area of an emergency department over a 5-year period. A total of 15 patients with a mean (SD) age of 25 (8.3) years were included. Thirteen were men and 53% were foreign-born. All uses of pepper spray occurred during muggings that to place mainly in the early hours of the morning (66.7% between 4:30 and 6:30 AM). Two or more attackers were injured in 60% of the events. Seventy-three percent of the attacks took place on the street and the median delay in reaching the emergency department was 30 minutes. The face and eyes were usually injured, and symptoms included itching, irritation, burning, and pain. On arrival, the patients were treated immediately (mean delay, 3 minutes) with hypertonic saline, an amphoteric surfactant, and a chelating agent in 80% of the cases, in which improvement was substantial as mean pain scale scores changed from 7.2 on admission to 3 on discharge (P=.009). Patients spent an average of 40 minutes in the treatment area. Eleven patients required further care from an ophthalmologist and topical medication for symptoms. Outcomes were good and there were no complications in any of the cases. We conclude that pepper sprays are being used as an aid to self defense in muggings in our community. Decontamination measures have priority as they alleviate symptoms and prevent long-lasting effects.

  14. Geology and petrology of alkaline Massif from Ilha de Vitoria, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoki, A.

    1986-01-01

    Geological and petrological studies of the Vitoria Island Alkaline Complex, State of Sao Paulo, have been carried out by means of photo interpretation; field work, thin section studies, whole-rock chemical analysis, x-ray diffractometry, EPMA mineral analysis, and K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating. Radiometric dating indicates a late Cretaceous age for the Vitoria Island Alkaline Complex, which is concordant with the ages of other neighbouring alkaline bodies. (author)

  15. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  16. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriya, K.; Fujii, K.; Kubo, H.

    2002-02-01

    The chemical conditions of TRU waste repository were estimated as alkaline conditions effected by cementitious materials. And, some TRU wastes include soluble nitrate salt, we have to consider the repository conditions might be high ionic strength condition leaching of nitrate salt. In this study, experimental studies were carried out to evaluate hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions. The followings results were obtained for bentonite. 1) In the immersion experiments of bentonite in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, the disappearance of montmorillonite of bentonite was observed and CSH formation was found after 30 days. In hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate, minerals at θ=37 nm by XRD was identified. 2) Significant effects of hyper alkaline on hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite were not observed. However, hydraulic conductivities of hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate and ion exchanged bentonite increased. In hyper alkaline with nitrate, more higher hydraulic conductivities of exchanged bentonite were measured. The followings results were obtained for rock. 1) In the immersion experiments of crushed tuff in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, CSH and CASH phases were observed. 2) The hydraulic conductivity of tuff in hyper alkaline fluids decreased gradually. Finally, hyper alkaline flow in tuff stopped after 2 months and hyper alkaline flow with nitrate stopped shorter than without nitrate. In the results of analysis of tuff after experiment, we could identified secondary minerals, but we couldn't find the clogging evidence of pores in tuff by secondary minerals. (author)

  17. Effect of Alkaline Water on the Lipid Profile in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Salemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Alkaline water could be prepared through both electro-chemical and natural ways and previous studies have shown that alkaline water scavenges oxygen radicals in cell culture. It’s expected that alkaline water has positive and preventive effects on diseases related to stress oxidative like atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In recent study, we showed the effects of alkaline water on serum lipid profile in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this study 32 male wistar rats weighing 250-200 g were used. Rats divided randomly into four groups, namely control group, alkaline group 1, alkaline group 2 by adding sodium bicarbonate, and acidic group by adding acetic acid to their drinking water. After 32 weeks, blood samples were obtained and lipid profile was measured in all groups, the data was analyzed with SPSS statistical software. Results: Relay on obtained results, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in alkaline water group1 and 2 to control group and LDL concentrations in alkaline water group1 have been reduced significantly (p<0.5. While LDL concentration in alkaline water group2 and HDL concentrations in alkaline water group1 and 2 to control group have not significant changes. Conclusion: Results of this study declare that daily administration of alkaline water can improve serum lipid profile and maybe reduced risk of oxidative stress diseases.

  18. Study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial: Safety, Tolerability, efficacy and quality of life Of a human recombinant alkaline Phosphatase in patients with sepsis-associated Acute Kidney Injury (STOP-AKI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Mehta, R.L.; Murray, P.T.; Hummel, J.; Joannidis, M.; Kellum, J.A.; Arend, J.; Pickkers, P.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 55-60% of critically ill patients, and sepsis is the most common underlying cause. No pharmacological treatment options are licensed to treat sepsis-associated AKI (SA-AKI); only supportive renal replacement therapy (RRT) is available. One of the

  19. Hydrogen sulfide protects against chemical hypoxia-induced injury by inhibiting ROS-activated ERK1/2 and p38MAPK signaling pathways in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Lan

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has been proposed as a novel neuromodulator and neuroprotective agent. Cobalt chloride (CoCl(2 is a well-known hypoxia mimetic agent. We have demonstrated that H(2S protects against CoCl(2-induced injuries in PC12 cells. However, whether the members of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, in particular, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2(ERK1/2 and p38MAPK are involved in the neuroprotection of H(2S against chemical hypoxia-induced injuries of PC12 cells is not understood. We observed that CoCl(2 induced expression of transcriptional factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α, decreased cystathionine-β synthase (CBS, a synthase of H(2S expression, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to injuries of the cells, evidenced by decrease in cell viability, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP , caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, which were attenuated by pretreatment with NaHS (a donor of H(2S or N-acetyl-L cystein (NAC, a ROS scavenger. CoCl(2 rapidly activated ERK1/2, p38MAPK and C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. Inhibition of ERK1/2 or p38MAPK or JNK with kinase inhibitors (U0126 or SB203580 or SP600125, respectively or genetic silencing of ERK1/2 or p38MAPK by RNAi (Si-ERK1/2 or Si-p38MAPK significantly prevented CoCl(2-induced injuries. Pretreatment with NaHS or NAC inhibited not only CoCl(2-induced ROS production, but also phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK. Thus, we demonstrated that a concurrent activation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and JNK participates in CoCl(2-induced injuries and that H(2S protects PC12 cells against chemical hypoxia-induced injuries by inhibition of ROS-activated ERK1/2 and p38MAPK pathways. Our results suggest that inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and JNK or antioxidants may be useful for preventing and treating hypoxia-induced neuronal injury.

  20. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of yeast mutants lacking alkaline ceramidases YPC1 and YDC1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voynova, Natalia S; Mallela, Shamroop K; Vazquez, Hector M

    2014-01-01

    Humans and yeast possess alkaline ceramidases located in the early secretory pathway. Single deletions of the highly homologous yeast alkaline ceramidases YPC1 and YDC1 have very little genetic interactions or phenotypes. Here, we performed chemical-genetic screens to find deletions...

  2. Potentiodynamic characteristics of cadmium and silver in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidman, S.B.; Vilche, J.R.; Arvia, A.J.; Lopes Teijelo, M.

    1984-01-01

    The potentiodynamic and ellipsometric characteristics of cadmium and silver in alkaline solutions are studied. The phenomenology of both electrodes shows some common features which are interpreted in termo of a complex hydrated oxide anodic film structure resulting from simultaneous electrochemical and chemical reactions. The kinetics of film growth fits the predictions of nucleation and growth models. (C.L.B.) [pt

  3. Effects of Mixed Alkaline Earth Oxides in Potash Silicate Glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of mixed alkaline earth oxide in potash silicate glasses with regards to their physical properties. More recently; there has been an increase in the demand for light weight glasses which retains their physical and chemical properties for both domestic and industrial applications.

  4. Priming effect of abscisic acid on alkaline stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li-Xing; Lv, Bing-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Ming; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Yang, Hao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Saline-alkaline stress is characterized by high salinity and high alkalinity (high pH); alkaline stress has been shown to be the primary factor inhibiting rice seedling growth. In this study, we investigated the potential priming effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on tolerance of rice seedlings to alkaline stress simulated by Na2CO3. Seedlings were pretreated with ABA at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, and 50 μM by root-drench for 24 h and then transferred to a Na2CO3 solution that did not contain ABA. Compared to control treatment, pretreatment with ABA substantially improved the survival rate of rice seedlings and increased biomass accumulation after 7 days under the alkaline condition. ABA application at 10 μM also alleviated the inhibitory effects of alkaline stress on the total root length and root surface area. Physiologically, ABA increased relative water content (RWC) and decreased cell membrane injury degree (MI) and Na(+)/K(+) ratios. In contrast, fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) decreased the RWC and increased MI in shoots under the alkaline conditions. These data suggest that ABA has a potent priming effect on the adaptive response to alkaline stress in rice and may be useful for improving rice growth in saline-alkaline paddy fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Sodic alkaline stress mitigation by exogenous melatonin in tomato needs nitric oxide as a downstream signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Gong, Biao; Jin, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiufeng; Wei, Min; Yang, Fengjuan; Li, Yan; Shi, Qinghua

    2015-08-15

    The present study was designed to determine the interactive effect of exogenous melatonin and nitric oxide (NO) on sodic alkaline stress mitigation in tomato seedlings. It was observed that exogenous melatonin treatment elevated NO levels in alkaline-stressed tomato roots. However, exogenous NO had little effects on melatonin levels. Importantly, melatonin-induced NO generation was accompanied by increased tolerance to alkaline stress. Chemical scavenging of NO reduced melatonin-induced alkaline stress tolerance and defense genes' expression. However, inhibition of melatonin biosynthesis had a little effect on NO-induced alkaline stress tolerance. These results strongly suggest that NO, acting as a downstream signal, is involved in the melatonin-induced tomato tolerance to alkaline stress. This process creates a new signaling pathway for improving stress tolerance in plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L.; Smith, Charles D. [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Lemasters, John J., E-mail: JJLemasters@musc.edu [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca{sup 2+} uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and suppressed the Ca{sup 2+}-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake. • Cytoprotective

  7. Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson, R. A.

    1997-02-11

    This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

  8. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147 entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7 ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50 reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2. The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  9. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laurence J; George, Roy

    2017-10-23

    In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  10. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganley, Jason C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Howard University, 2013 Lewis K. Downing Hall, 2300 6th Street NW, Washington, DC 20059 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    This paper describes experimental work involving the direct-current electrolysis of highly concentrated potassium hydroxide solutions at high temperatures (up to 400 C) and under various pressures. A high-temperature alkaline electrolysis cell resistant to chemical attack from the highly corrosive electrolyte solution and capable of high-pressure operation was designed and tested. The cell was constructed with a Monel {sup registered} alloy housing and cathode, while various anode materials were compared. The anode materials tested included nickel, Monel alloy, lithiated nickel, and cobalt-plated nickel. The advantages of operating an alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures include increasing the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte and enhancing the rates of electrochemical reactions at the electrode surfaces. Cell operation with increasing steam partial pressure over the solution is also shown to enhance cell performance. The prudent selection of anode material also impacts the required terminal potential for a given current density, and consequently the cell's electric power efficiency. The best cell performance was achieved using a cobalt-plated nickel anode at a temperature of 400 C and a steam partial pressure of 8.7 MPa. (author)

  11. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Roy

    2017-01-01

    In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled. PMID:29065540

  12. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  13. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  14. Chemical recycling of post-consumer PET: structural characterization of terephthalic acid and the effect of Alkaline Hydrolysis at low temperature; Reciclagem quimica do PET pos-consumo: caracterizacao estrutural do acido tereftalico e efeito da hidrolise alcalina em baixa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Talitha Granja; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros Bastos de; Vinhas, Gloria Maria, E-mail: gmvinhas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2014-09-15

    Due to the environmental impact caused by PET packaging disposal, this material recycling has been thoroughly discussed and evaluated. In particular, chemical recycling enables achievement of the monomers that are used in PET resin manufacture: ethylene glycol (EG) and terephthalic acid (PTA). Therefore, studies for this process optimization are important from environmental and economic points of view. The present study investigated certain parameters that influence the depolymerization reaction of PET post-consumer via alkaline hydrolysis in order to obtain PTA. Assays were performed at 70 °C by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide and the reaction time. The best results were obtained at 10.82 mol L{sup -1} NaOH and 9 h reaction time. Consequently, it was possible to prove this process viability, once analyses by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed that PTA was obtained in all reactions performed. (author)

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and chemical bonding analysis of the lithium alkaline-earth metal gallide nitrides Li{sub 2}(Ca{sub 3}N){sub 2}[Ga{sub 4}] and Li{sub 2}(Sr{sub 3}N){sub 2}[Ga{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Manisha; Bobnar, Matej; Ormeci, Alim; Hoehn, Peter [Chemische Metallkunde, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Stoiber, Dominik; Niewa, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Ovchinnikov, Alexander [Chemische Metallkunde, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2017-11-17

    Large single crystals of Li{sub 2}(Ca{sub 3}N){sub 2}[Ga{sub 4}] and Li{sub 2}(Sr{sub 3}N){sub 2}[Ga{sub 4}] up to several mm in size were grown from mixtures of the respective elements and binary alkaline-earth metal nitrides in reactive lithium melts employing a modified high-temperature centrifugation-aided filtration (HTCAF) technique. The main structural features of these isotypic phases are stella quadrangula building units [Ga{sub 4}]Li{sub 4/2} and octahedra (Nae{sub 6/2}), which form two independent interpenetrating networks. The phases crystallize in the η-carbide structure and represent diamagnetic small bandgap semiconductors. Real-space chemical bonding analysis indicates predominantly ionic bonding. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Lars; Kjartansdóttir, Cecilia Kristin; Allebrod, Frank

    This report provides the results of the 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis project which was initiated in 2008. The project has been conducted from 2009-2012 by a consortium comprising Århus University Business and Social Science – Centre for Energy Technologies (CET (former HIRC)), Technical...

  17. Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBreen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

  18. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  19. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkind, A.J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve-type silver-zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO/sub 2/ - and several nickel electrodes for nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities detected by XPS and SAM. After the first discharge AgNiO/sub 2/ can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic-bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)/sub 2/ largely eliminate this

  20. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  1. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkind, A. J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W. A.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve type silver zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO2 and several nickel electrodes for nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities. After the first discharge AgNiO2 can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)2 largely eliminate this.

  2. Trash to Treasure: Waste Eggshells as Chemical Reactors for the Synthesis of Amorphous Co(OH)2Nanorod Arrays on Various Substrates for Applications in Rechargeable Alkaline Batteries and Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xinghua; Deng, Da

    2017-02-15

    Bioinspired synthesis has been attracting much attention. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach to directly use waste eggshells as a reactor system for controlled synthesis of nanostructures formed on different substrates. This approach can recycle and transform the "trash" of waste eggshells into "treasure" of unique reactor systems for nanofabrication. The eggshell reactor system can provide unique conditions for the formation of nanostructures on various substrates. Using Co(OH) 2 as a model, amorphous Co(OH) 2 nanorod arrays, which cannot be synthesized conventionally by direct mixing of precursors, have been successfully formed on various substrates, including Ni foam, metal foil, and glass. To illustrate their potential applications, we use the as-fabricated amorphous Co(OH) 2 nanorod arrays on Ni foam as (1) binder-free electrodes for rechargeable alkaline batteries, demonstrating impressively good electrochemical performances, and (2) electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction, demonstrating improved electrocatalytic performances as compared to their crystalline counterpart. We believe the idea outlined here, using eggshell reactor system, can be further expanded to synthesize many different functional materials and precursors which can find additional applications, including self-cleaning, catalysis, sensor, electrochromic devices, etc.

  3. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cyanide- plating bath for copper has been developed using alkaline trisodium citrate and triethanolamine solutions5. The present investigation presents cyclic voltammetric studies on the electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes, ...

  4. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.; Gordon, Richard K.; Rezk, Peter E.; Katos, Alexander M.; Wajda, Nikolai A.; Moran, Theodore S.; Steele, Keith E.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Sciuto, Alfred M.

    2007-01-01

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m 3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  5. Geology and petrology of Lages Alkaline District, Santa Catarina State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibe, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    A 1:100.000 geological map shows the main outcrops, covering about 50 Km 2 , of the leucocratic alkaline rocks, ultra basic alkaline rocks, carbonatites and volcanic breccias which intruded the Gondwanic sedimentary rocks within a short time interval and characterize the Alkaline District of Lages. Chemical analyses of 33 whole-rock samples confirm the petrographic classification, but the agpaitic indexes, mostly below 1.0, do not reflect the mineralogical variations of the leucocratic alkaline rocks adequately. Partial REE analyses indicate that the light as well as the heavy rare earth contents decrease from the basic to the more evolved rocks, the La/Y ratio remaining approximately constant. Eleven new K/Ar ages from porphyritic nepheline syenites porphyritic phonolites, ultra basic alkaline rocks and pipe-breccias, together with six already available ages, show a major concentration in the range 65 to 75 Ma, with a mode at ca. 70 Ma. But one Rb/Sr whole-rock reference isochron diagram gives an age of 82+-6 Ma for the agpaitic phonolites of the Serra Chapada, which are considered younger than the miaskitic porphyriric nepheline syenites. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of 0.705-0.706 are compatible with a sub continental mantelic origin, devoid of crustal contamination. A petrogenetic model based on subtraction diagrams and taking into consideration the geologic, petrographic, mineralogic and petrochemical characteristics of the alkaline rocks of Lages consists of limited partial melting with CO 2 , contribution of the previously metasomatized upper mantle, in a region submitted to decompression. (author)

  6. Synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C mimics is superior to single-peptide formulations in rabbits with chemical acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Walther

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chemical spills are on the rise and inhalation of toxic chemicals may induce chemical acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Although the pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS is well understood, the absence of specific antidotes has limited the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.Objectives. Surfactant inactivation and formation of free radicals are important pathways in (chemical ALI. We tested the potential of lipid mixtures with advanced surfactant protein B and C (SP-B and C mimics to improve oxygenation and lung compliance in rabbits with lavage- and chemical-induced ALI/ARDS.Methods. Ventilated young adult rabbits underwent repeated saline lung lavages or underwent intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid to induce ALI/ARDS. After establishment of respiratory failure rabbits were treated with a single intratracheal dose of 100 mg/kg of synthetic surfactant composed of 3% Super Mini-B (S-MB, a SP-B mimic, and/or SP-C33 UCLA, a SP-C mimic, in a lipid mixture (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight, the clinical surfactant Infasurf®, a bovine lung lavage extract with SP-B and C, or synthetic lipids alone. End-points consisted of arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance, and protein and lipid content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Potential mechanism of surfactant action for S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA were investigated with captive bubble surfactometry (CBS assays.Results. All three surfactant peptide/lipid mixtures and Infasurf equally lowered the minimum surface tension on CBS, and also improved oxygenation and lung compliance. In both animal models, the two-peptide synthetic surfactant with S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA led to better arterial oxygenation and lung compliance than single peptide synthetic surfactants and Infasurf. Synthetic surfactants and Infasurf improved lung function further in lavage- than in chemical-induced respiratory failure, with the difference probably due to greater capillary

  7. Chemical constituents from Phyllanthus emblica and the cytoprotective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cell injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Lijuan; Guo, Xiaojiang; Li, Chao; Li, Haizhen; Lou, Hongxiang; Ren, Dongmei

    2016-09-01

    Two new compounds (1-2), including a bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid (1), one new diphenyl ether derivative (2), together with 23 known compounds (3-25), were isolated from the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis. All the isolated compounds were screened for the DPPH scavenging effects and cytoprotective effects against H2O2 induced PC12 cells injury. Compounds 12-15 showed significant DPPH scavenging effects with the IC50 values in the range of 3.25-4.18 μM. Among these potential antioxidants, compound 14 improved the survival of PC12 cells after H2O2 exposure without showing any cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations.

  8. Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation – Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ssemmanda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120–9336 μg g−1 as well as for Sr (9–2150 μg g−1. The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel–dentin junction by a factor of 1.3–1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing

  9. FGF receptors 1 and 2 control chemically-induced injury and compound detoxification in regenerating livers of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Friederike; Speicher, Tobias; Hellerbrand, Claus; Dickson, Clive; Partanen, Juha M.; Ornitz, David M.; Werner, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 controls bile acid metabolism and protects the liver from fibrosis, but the roles of FGFR1 and FGFR2 in the adult liver are largely unknown. We investigated the functions and mechanisms of action of these receptors in liver homeostasis, regeneration, and fibrosis. Methods We generated mice with hepatocytes that lack FGFR1 and FGFR2 and subjected them to acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and partial hepatectomy; mice were also injected with FGF7. We performed histology, histomorphometry, real-time reverse transcription PCR, and immunoblot analyses. Results In hepatocytes, loss of FGFR1 and FGFR2 eliminated responsiveness to FGF7 and related FGF family members, but did not affect toxin-induced liver injury and fibrosis. However, mortality after partial hepatectomy increased because of severe hepatocyte necrosis. These effects appeared to be mediated by a failure of hepatocyes to induce the expression of the transcriptional regulators Dbp and Tef upon liver surgery; this affected expression of their target genes, which encode detoxifying cytochrome P450 enzymes. We found that Dbp and Tef expression was directly controlled by FGFR signalling in hepatocytes. As a consequence of the reduced expression of genes that control detoxification, the liver tissue that remained after partial hepatectomy failed to efficiently metabolize endogenous compounds and the drugs applied for anaesthesia/analgesia. Conclusions We identified a new, cytoprotective effect of FGFR1 and FGFR2 in the regenerating liver and suggest the use of recombinant FGF7 to increase survival of patients after surgical resection of large amounts of liver tissue. PMID:20603121

  10. Pollution control and resource reuse for alkaline hydrometallurgy of amphoteric metal hazardous wastes

    CERN Document Server

    Youcai, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of alkaline hydrometallurgy of amphoteric metal hazardous wastes. Topics focus on leaching of zinc and lead hazardous wastes, purification of leach solution of zinc and lead, electrowinning of zinc and lead from purified alkaline solutions, chemical reactions taking place in the production flowsheets, thermodynamic and spent electrolyte regeneration, alkaline hydrometallurgy of low-grade smithsonite ores, recovery of molybdenum and tungsten using ion flotation and solvent extraction processes and their application in chemical synthesis of Nb and Ta inorganic compounds, and industrial scale production of 1500-2000 t/a zinc powder using alkaline leaching–electrowinning processes. Processes described are cost-effective, generate lesser secondary pollutants, and have been applied widely in China. Readers that will find the book appealing include solid waste engineers, environmental managers, technicians, recycling coordinators, government officials, undergraduates ...

  11. Systems Toxicology of Chemically Induced Liver and Kidney Injuries: Histopathology-Associated Gene Co-Expression Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    are made. 11Introduction The release of toxic industrial chemicals in the environment, indus- trial accidents in manufacturing and transport , over-use...modules to different types of cellular and tissue damage caused by different classes of toxicants. In our previous work, wewere able to conceptually...nuclear) LM2 131 0.42 Anisonucleosis LM3 82 0.47 Cellular infiltration LM4 31 0.44 Foci ( cellular ) LM5 41 0.43 Granular degeneration (eosinophilic) LM6 20

  12. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  13. An alkaline separation method for detection of small amount of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Kazuo; Okada, Shigefumi

    1981-01-01

    An alkaline separation technique originally established by Ahnstroem is modified to detect small amount of DNA damage in X-irradiated mouse leukemic L5178Y cells. It is made quantitative by calibration with an alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation. The present method would make it possible to study DNA damage and its repair within a dose range of X-rays where cell survival and mutation are usually investigated. It is also useful for detecting DNA damage caused by chemicals. (author)

  14. Synthesis and influence of alkaline concentration on α-FeOOH ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Synthesis and influence of alkaline concentration on α-FeOOH nanorods shapes. ZHANG ENLEI*, WANG GUOSHENG, LONG XIAOZHU and WANG ZHUMIN. College of Chemical Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142,. People's Republic of China. MS received 13 March 2013; ...

  15. Chemical Analysis in the Corpus Callosum Following Traumatic Axonal Injury using Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Liu, Liang; Mu, Jiao; Yang, Tiantong; Zheng, Na; Dong, Hongmei

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating traumatic axonal injury remains challenging in clinical and forensic sciences as its identification is difficult using routine diagnostic methods. This study used Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy to detect TAI within the corpus callosum in an animal model. Protein conformational analysis revealed significantly increased β-sheet and β-turn contents paralleled by a decrease in α-helix content at 24 h postinjury, while the antiparallel β-sheet content was decreased at 12 h postinjury. Compared with the control group, the lipid/protein ratio was significantly reduced in all of the injured groups. At 24 h postinjury, there were increases in the olefinic=CH and CH3 group of lipids accompanied by the decreased CH2 group, but the results at 12 and 72 h were contrary to that at 24 h. Our study showed that FTIRM could differentiate injured from normal white matter at different time points following TBI via examination of these infrared spectral parameters. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. [Nanostructured bioplastic material for traumatic corneal injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyukov, V N; Stadnikov, A A; Trubina, O M; Yakhina, O M

    2015-01-01

    To substantiate the use of nanostructured bioplastic material for the treatment of traumatic eye injuries. The study enrolled 96 eyes of 48 rabbits and was carried out in 3 series of experiments, different in the type of induced corneal trauma: mechanical erosion, alkaline or acid burn. The animals were clinically monitored and sacrificed for morphological investigation at days 3, 7, 14, 30, and 90. The size of mechanical corneal erosions was repeatedly evaluated with fluorescein eye stain test. In the experimental group, Hyamatrix biomaterial was topically administered according to an original technique. In the controls, soft contact lenses were inserted and sutured. Complete closure of the epithelial defect with no impact on corneal properties was achieved in 3 days in the experimental group and in4 days in the control group. As for alkaline and acid corneal burns, experimental and control groups received Hyamatrix biomaterial and Solcoseryl eye gel correspondingly. In the experimental group of alkaline burn the defect closed by day 7, in the controls--by day 10-11. Acid-induced corneal edema also resolved by day 7 in the experimental group and by day 14 in the control group. 1. The results of this experimental and morphological study prove the hyaluronic acid-derived nanostructured bioplastic material effective in accelerating corneal re-epithelialization after mechanical erosions as compared with the controls. 2. Topical application of the hyaluronic acid-derived nanostructured bioplastic material shortens the exudative phase of inflammation, promotes corneal defect closure with formation of a more subtle opacification, and stimulates corneal restoration after chemical burns.

  17. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  18. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  19. Alkaline nanoparticle coatings improve resin bonding of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate-conditioned zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mengke; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Huaiqin; Xie, Haifeng

    Creating an alkaline environment prior to 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate (MDP) conditioning improves the resin bonding of zirconia. The present study evaluated the effects of four alkaline coatings with different water solubilities and pH values on resin bonding of MDP-conditioned zirconia. Two alkaline nanoparticle coatings were studied in particular. Thermodynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the strengths of MDP-tetragonal phase zirconia chemical bonds at different pH values. Zirconia surfaces with and without alkaline coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; alkaline coatings included NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 , nano-MgO, and nano-Zr(OH) 4 . A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed to evaluate the effects of the four alkaline coatings on bonding; the alkaline coatings were applied to the surfaces prior to conditioning the zirconia with MDP-containing primers. Gibbs free energies of the MDP-tetragonal zirconia crystal model coordination reaction in different pH environments were -583.892 (NaOH), -569.048 [Ca(OH) 2 ], -547.393 (MgO), and -530.279 kJ/mol [Zr(OH) 4 ]. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the alkaline coatings improved bonding in the following order: NaOH > Ca(OH) 2 > MgO > Zr(OH) 4 . Statistical analysis of SBS tests showed a different result. SBSs were significantly different in groups that had different alkaline coatings, but it was not influenced by different primers. All four alkaline coatings increased SBS compared to control groups. Of the four coatings, nano-Zr(OH) 4 and -MgO showed higher SBS. Therefore, preparing nano-Zr(OH) 4 or -MgO coatings prior to conditioning with MDP-containing primers may potentially improve resin bonding of zirconia in the clinic.

  20. Alkaline nanoparticle coatings improve resin bonding of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate-conditioned zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mengke; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Huaiqin; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Creating an alkaline environment prior to 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate (MDP) conditioning improves the resin bonding of zirconia. The present study evaluated the effects of four alkaline coatings with different water solubilities and pH values on resin bonding of MDP-conditioned zirconia. Two alkaline nanoparticle coatings were studied in particular. Thermodynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the strengths of MDP-tetragonal phase zirconia chemical bonds at different pH values. Zirconia surfaces with and without alkaline coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; alkaline coatings included NaOH, Ca(OH)2, nano-MgO, and nano-Zr(OH)4. A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed to evaluate the effects of the four alkaline coatings on bonding; the alkaline coatings were applied to the surfaces prior to conditioning the zirconia with MDP-containing primers. Gibbs free energies of the MDP-tetragonal zirconia crystal model coordination reaction in different pH environments were −583.892 (NaOH), −569.048 [Ca(OH)2], −547.393 (MgO), and −530.279 kJ/mol [Zr(OH)4]. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the alkaline coatings improved bonding in the following order: NaOH > Ca(OH)2 > MgO > Zr(OH)4. Statistical analysis of SBS tests showed a different result. SBSs were significantly different in groups that had different alkaline coatings, but it was not influenced by different primers. All four alkaline coatings increased SBS compared to control groups. Of the four coatings, nano-Zr(OH)4 and -MgO showed higher SBS. Therefore, preparing nano-Zr(OH)4 or -MgO coatings prior to conditioning with MDP-containing primers may potentially improve resin bonding of zirconia in the clinic. PMID:27785013

  1. Histochemistry of placental alkaline phosphatase in preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Shevade, Sapna Prashant; Arole, Vasanti; Paranjape, Vaishali Mohan; Bharambe, Vaishaly Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Placental alkaline phosphatase (PALP) is synthesized in placenta and increases with gestational age. Alkaline phosphatase supports pregnancy and could play an essential role in nutrient supply and growth of the fetus. Preeclampsia is a systemic disorder which affects 5 to 7 percent of women worldwide and is a major cause for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. As it has a major role in fetal growth, nutrition and defense mechanism study of alkaline phosphatase enzymatic...

  2. Alkaline Electrochemical Capacitor and Electrode Fabrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finello, D

    1999-01-01

    .... The subject low cost alkaline electrochemical capacitor designs are based upon titanium nitride electrodes which exhibit 125 mF/sq cm surface capacitance density and remarkable electrochemical...

  3. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark-Deaborg, David

    2001-01-01

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am--the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting their solubility and sorption behavior in tanks, determining whether chemical separations are needed for waste treatment, and designing separations processes. Baseline washing of tank sludges with NaOH solutions is being proposed to reduce the volume of HLW. Alkaline pretreatment of HLW will be needed to remove aluminum [as NaAl(OH) 4 ] because it significantly reduces the HLW volume; however, aluminate [Al(OH) 4 - ] enhances actinide solubility via an unknown mechanism. Thus, alkaline wash residues may require an additional treatment to remove actinides. The results of this research will determine the nature TRU (Np, Pu, Am) speciation with aluminate anions under alkaline, oxidizing tank-like conditions. Specific issues to be addressed include solubility of these actinides, speciation in aluminate-containing alkaline supernatants, the role of actinide redox states on solubility, and partitioning between supernatant and solid phases, including colloids. Studies will include thermodynamics, kinetics, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, etc. It is already known, for example, that certain high valent forms of NF and Pu are very soluble under alkaline conditions due to the formation of anionic hydroxo complexes, AnO 2 (OH) 4 2- and AnO 2 (OH) 5 3- . The presence of aluminate ions causes the actinide solubilities to increase, although the exact species have only been determined during this program. We are continuing to characterize high-valent TRU elements bound to oxo, water, OH - , under waste-like and sludge washing conditions. These conditions are in the range of 1-3 M excess hydroxide, ∼0.2 M carbonate, ∼0.5 M aluminate, for a total sodium of 2-4 mols/kg. Molecular structure-specific probes

  4. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weimin; Zheng Zhenji; Chen Bao; Chen Yonggui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  5. Radiolysis of actinides and technetium in alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    The {gamma}-radiolysis of aerated alkaline aqueous solutions of Np(V), Np(VI), Pu(VI), Tc(IV), Tc(V), and TC(VII) was studied in the absence of additives and in the presence of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, EDTA, formate, and other organic compounds. The radiolytic reduction of Np(V), Np(VI), Pu(VI), and TC(VII) under different experimental conditions was examined in detail. The addition of EDTA, formate, and alcohols was found to considerably increase the radiation-chemical reduction yields. The formation of the Np(V) peroxo complex was observed in the {gamma}-radiolysis of alkaline aqueous solutions of Np (VI) in the presence of nitrate.

  6. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  7. Transition-state structures for enzymatic and alkaline phosphotriester hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, S.R.; Raushel, F.M.; Weiss, P.M.; Cleland, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    The primary and secondary 18 O isotope effects for the alkaline (KOH) and enzymatic (phosphotriesterase) hydrolysis of two phosphotriesters, O,O-diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (I) and O,O-diethyl O-(4-carbamoylphenyl) phosphate (II), are consistent with an associative mechanism with significant changes in bond order to both the phosphoryl and phenolic leaving group oxygens in the transition state. The synthesis of [ 15 N, phosphoryl- 18 O]-,[ 15 N, phenolic- 18 O]-, and [ 15 N]-O,O-diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate and O,O-diethyl O-(4-carbamoylphenyl)phosphate is described. The primary and secondary 18 O isotope effects for the alkaline hydrolysis of compound I are 1.0060 and 1.0063 ± 0.0001, whereas for compound II they are 1.027±0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002, respectively. These isotope effects are consistent with the rate-limiting addition of hydroxide and provide evidence for a S N 2-like transition state with the absence of a stable phosphorane intermediate. For the enzymatic hydrolysis of compound I, the primary and secondary 18 O isotope effects are very small, 1.0020 and 1.0021±0.0004, respectively, and indicate that the chemical step in the enzymatic mechanism is not rate-limiting. The 18 O isotope effects for the enzymatic hydrolysis of compound II are 1.036±0.001 and 1.0181±0.0007, respectively, and are comparable in magnitude to the isotope effects for alkaline hydrolysis, suggesting that the chemical step is rate-limiting. The relative magnitude of the primary 18 O isotope effects for the alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of compound II reflect a transition state that is more progressed for the enzymatic reaction

  8. Linkages between the life-history evolution of tropical and temperate birds and the resistance of cultured skin fibroblasts to oxidative and non-oxidative chemical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Harper, James M; Queenborough, Simon A; Williams, Joseph B

    2013-04-15

    A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is to understand how variation in life history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Thus, because tropical birds have higher annual survival and lower rates of metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would have greater cellular resistance to chemical injury than cells from temperate species. We cultured dermal fibroblasts from 26 tropical and 26 temperate species of birds and examined cellular resistance to cadmium, H(2)O(2), paraquat, thapsigargin, tunicamycium, methane methylsulfonate (MMS) and UV light. Using ANCOVA, we found that the values for the dose that killed 50% of cells (LD(50)) from tropical birds were significantly higher for H(2)O(2) and MMS. When we tested for significance using a generalized least squares approach accounting for phylogenetic relationships among species to model LD(50), we found that cells from tropical birds had greater tolerance for Cd, H(2)O(2), paraquat, tunicamycin and MMS than cells from temperate birds. In contrast, tropical birds showed either lower or no difference in tolerance to thapsigargin and UV light in comparison with temperate birds. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to be more resistant to forms of oxidative and non-oxidative stress than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  9. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit

    1990-01-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10 -6 , 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M) of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M 2

  10. Enhanced biogas production from penicillin bacterial residue by thermal-alkaline pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Weizhang; Li, Guixia; Gao, Yan; Li, Zaixing; Geng, Xiaoling; Li, Yubing; Yang, Jingliang; Zhou, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the orthogonal experimental design was used to determine the optimum conditions for the effect of thermal alkaline; pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of penicillin bacterial residue. The biodegradability of the penicillin; bacterial residue was evaluated by biochemical methane potential tests in laboratory. The optimum values of temperature,; alkali concentration, pretreatment time and moisture content for the thermal-alkaline pretreatment were determined as; 70 °C, 6% (w/v), 30 min, and 85%, respectively. Thermal-alkaline pretreatment could significantly enhance the soluble; chemical oxygen demand solubilization, the suspended solid solubilization and the biodegradability. Biogas production; was enhanced by the thermal-alkaline pretreatment, probably as a result of the breakdown of cell walls and membranes of; micro-organisms, which may facilitate the contact between organic molecules and anaerobic microorganisms.; Keywords: penicillin bacterial residue; anaerobic digestion; biochemical methane potential tests; pretreatment

  11. Numerical interdependence in pH, acidity and alkalinity of a polluted river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashi; Singh, J; Dwivedi, Anil K

    2009-09-01

    Acidity and alkalinity are independent parameters and they directly or indirectly regulate the pH of a medium. These are the prime factors which control the nature of the reactions in a medium. The present study was designed to explore the numerical interdependence of the three parameters and also, to develop the regression models. For physico-chemical analysis of the selected parameters, water quality of a polluted tropical river was analysed fortnightly, for complete one year. Correlation coefficients between pH-acidity and acidity-alkalinity were negative while that between pH and alkalinity were positive. The value calculated by the developed multiple regression models, explain pH, acidity and alkalinity up to 57, 65 and 79% respectively, suggesting their utility and relevance.

  12. catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Kinetics of ruthenium (III) catalyzed oxidation of atenolol by permanganate in alkaline medium at constant ionic strength of 0⋅30 mol dm3 has been studied spectrophotometrically using a rapid kinetic accessory. Reaction between permanganate and atenolol in alkaline medium exhibits 1 : 8 stoichiometry.

  13. Increased liver alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of daily, oral administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark (2mg/kg body weight) for 18days on the alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities of rat liver and serum were investigated. Compared with the control, the activities of liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ...

  14. Alkaline Phosphatases From Camel Small Intestine | Fahmy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camel intestinal alkaline phosphatase have been purified and characterized. The purification was carried out by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Five intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (IAP1 to IAP5) were obtained. IAP2 and IAP5 with the highest activity levels were purified to homogeneity by Sephacryl ...

  15. Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This book details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. The book discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant

  16. Evaluation of alkaline deconstruction processes for Brazilian new generation of eucalypt clones

    OpenAIRE

    Borges Gomes, Fernando José; Colodette, Jorge Luiz; Milanez, Augusto; Río Andrade, José Carlos del; dos Santos Muguet, Marcelo Coelho; Ribas Batalha, Larisse Aparecida; Gomez Gouvêa, Adriana de Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Wood utilization for pulp and paper and biorefinery applications requires some kind of mechanical and/or physical–chemical pretreatment. Among the chemical treatments the alkaline ones are the most used worldwide, although acid and solvent treatments have also being used. This paper deals with eucalypt wood deconstruction with alkaline processes including soda-AQ, soda-AQ-O2, soda-O2, and kraft. The kraft process is largely used by the pulp industry and is evaluated here only to serve as a re...

  17. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  18. Alkaline Phosphatase: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/alkalinephosphatase.html Alkaline Phosphatase To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Alkaline Phosphatase Test? An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures ...

  19. Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury. X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12–48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation. Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

  20. Multisystemic functions of alkaline phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchet, René; Millán, José Luis; Magne, David

    2013-01-01

    Human and mouse alkaline phosphatases (AP) are encoded by a multigene family expressed ubiquitously in multiple tissues. Gene knockout (KO) findings have helped define some of the precise exocytic functions of individual isozymes in bone, teeth, the central nervous system, and in the gut. For instance, deficiency in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in mice (Alpl (-/-) mice) and humans leads to hypophosphatasia (HPP), an inborn error of metabolism characterized by epileptic seizures in the most severe cases, caused by abnormal metabolism of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (the predominant form of vitamin B6) and by hypomineralization of the skeleton and teeth featuring rickets and early loss of teeth in children or osteomalacia and dental problems in adults caused by accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Enzyme replacement therapy with mineral-targeting TNAP prevented all the manifestations of HPP in mice, and clinical trials with this protein therapeutic are showing promising results in rescuing life-threatening HPP in infants. Conversely, TNAP induction in the vasculature during generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), type II diabetes, obesity, and aging can cause medial vascular calcification. TNAP inhibitors, discussed extensively in this book, are in development to prevent pathological arterial calcification. The brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an important role in fatty acid (FA) absorption, in protecting gut barrier function, and in determining the composition of the gut microbiota via its ability to dephosphorylate lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knockout mice (Akp3 (-/-)) deficient in duodenal-specific IAP (dIAP) become obese, and develop hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). These changes are accompanied by upregulation in the jejunal-ileal expression of the Akp6 IAP isozyme (global IAP, or gIAP) and concomitant upregulation of FAT/CD36, a phosphorylated fatty acid

  1. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    applications (for example, zinc-air for alkaline--if it is cost-effective), this is absolutely forbidden for secondary cells. Because of the differing cell voltages, charge characteristics and overcharge tolerance between different types of secondary cells, substituting a nickel-cadmium battery pack for the more expensive lithium-ion pack (if it is physically able to fit into the battery compartment), might appear to save money (e.g. $50 vs. $100) but it would be very ill advised. Since the cell characteristics are very different, it would be downright fatal to anyone within the 'kill radius' when the pack explodes. Those outside the kill radius would receive chemical burns from the electrolyte. Substitutions of secondary cell battery packs are generally not a good idea for biomeds to engage in. These are engineering decisions best left to either aftermarket battery pack manufacturers or the medical device manufacturer as a design engineering change.

  2. Hydrothermal alkaline stability of bentonite barrier by concrete interstitial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguey Jimenez, S.; Cuevas Rodriguez, J.; Ramirez Martin, S.; Vigil de la villa Mencia, R.; Martin Barca, M.

    2002-01-01

    At present, the main source of High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) is the electrical energy production during all the steps of developing. In almost all the countries with nuclear programs, the option for the final management of HLW is the Deep Geological Repository (DGR) based on the concept of multi barrier. According to this concept, the waste is isolated from biosphere by the interposition of confinement barriers. Two of the engineering barriers in the Spanish design of DGR in granitic rock are compacted bentonite and concrete. The bentonite barrier is the backfilling and sealing material for the repository gallery, because of its mechanical and physico-chemical properties. The main qualities of concrete as a component of a multi barrier system are its low permeability, mechanical resistance and chemical properties. With regard to chemical composition of concrete, the alkaline nature of cement pore water lowers the solubility of many radioactive elements. However, structural transformation in smectite, dissolution or precipitation of minerals and, consequently, changes in the bentonite properties could occurs in the alkaline conditions generated by the cement degradation. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the effect of concrete in the stability of Spanish reference bentonite (La Serrata of Nijar, Almeria, Spain) in conditions similar to those estimated in a DGR in granitic rock. Because of the main role of bentonite barrier in the global performance of the repository, the present study is essential to guarantee its security. (Author)

  3. Changes in lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in serum of mice after x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Yasuhiko

    1974-01-01

    Changes in the activities of LDH and alkaline phosphatase in the serum of mice were investigated in detail from the 2nd day to the 30th day after whole-body X-irradiation of 400 R, a dose which produces 13%, 30-day-mortality. Serum LDH levels were significantly decreased during the first 6 days after irradiation, but subsequently returned to a normal range by the 14th day. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were decreased to a minimum on the 12th day. They returned gradually to a level slightly below control level by the 22nd day. Serum LDH and alkaline phosphatase levels seem to be good indicators of radiation injury in mice during the 2-3 weeks after irradiation, even if they have been exposed to a sublethal dose. (auth.)

  4. Actinide-aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David C.; Krot, Nikolai N.

    2000-01-01

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am-the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting their solubility and sorption behavior in tanks, determining whether chemical separations are needed for waste treatment, and designing separations processes. Baseline washing of tank sludges with NaOH solutions is being proposed to reduce the volume of HLW. Alkaline pretreatment of HLW will be needed to remove aluminum [as NaAl(OH)4] because it significantly reduces the HLW volume; however, the aluminate ion [Al(OH)4 -] enhances actinide solubility via an unknown mechanism. Thus, alkaline wash residues may require an additional treatment to remove actinides. The results of this research will determine the nature TRU (U, Np, Pu, Am) speciation with aluminate anions under alkaline, oxidizing tank-like conditions. Specific issues to be addressed include solubility of these actinides, speciation in aluminate-containing alkaline supernatants, the role of actinide redox states on solubility, and partitioning between supernatant and solid phases, including colloids. Studies will include thermodynamics, kinetics, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and surface science. We have already determined, for example, that certain high valent forms of Np and Pu are very soluble under alkaline conditions due to the formation of anionic hydroxo complexes, AnO2(OH)4 2- and AnO2(OH)5 3-. The presence of aluminate ions causes the actinide solubilities to increase, although the exact species are not known. We are currently characterizing the high valent TRU elements bound to oxo, water, OH-, and Al(OH)4 -, ligands under waste-like conditions. These waste-like conditions are in the range of 1-3 M excess hydroxide, ∼0.2 M carbonate, ∼0.5 M aluminate, for a total sodium of 2-4 M. Molecular structure-specific probes

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin, humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a better understanding of the structure and properties of humin. However, the structural relationship between bulk humin and its alkaline-soluble (AS and alkaline-insoluble (AIS fractions is still unknown. In this study, we isolated bulk humin from two soils of Northeast China by exhaustive extraction (25 to 28 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH + 0.1 mol L-1 Na4P2O7, followed by the traditional treatment with 10 % HF-HCl. The isolated bulk humin was then fractionated into AS-humin and AIS-humin by exhaustive extraction (12 to 15 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. Elemental analysis and solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize and compare the chemical structures of bulk humin and its corresponding fractions. The results showed that, regardless of soil types, bulk humin was the most aliphatic and most hydrophobic, AS-humin was the least aliphatic, and AIS-humin was the least alkylated among the three humic components. The results showed that bulk humin and its corresponding AS-humin and AIS-humin fractions are structurally differed from one another, implying that the functions of these humic components in the soil environment differed.

  6. Stress-life interrelationships associated with alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Martin, Ronald E.; Stedman, James K.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented concerning the interrelationships between applied stress and the expected service life of alkaline fuel cells. Only the physical, chemical, and electrochemical phenomena that take place within the fuel cell stack portion of an overall fuel cell system will be discussed. A brief review will be given covering the significant improvements in performance and life over the past two decades as well as summarizing the more recent advances in understanding which can be used to predict the performance and life characteristics of fuel cell systems that have yet to be built.

  7. Role of dust alkalinity in acid mobilization of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by acid gases (e.g., SO2, HNO3, N2O5, and HCl may play a key role in the transformation of insoluble iron (Fe in the oxidized or ferric (III form to soluble forms (e.g., Fe(II, inorganic soluble species of Fe(III, and organic complexes of iron. On the other hand, mineral dust particles have a potential of neutralizing the acidic species due to the alkaline buffer ability of carbonate minerals (e.g., CaCO3 and MgCO3. Here we demonstrate the impact of dust alkalinity on the acid mobilization of iron in a three-dimensional aerosol chemistry transport model that includes a mineral dissolution scheme. In our model simulations, most of the alkaline dust minerals cannot be entirely consumed by inorganic acids during the transport across the North Pacific Ocean. As a result, the inclusion of alkaline compounds in aqueous chemistry substantially limits the iron dissolution during the long-range transport to the North Pacific Ocean: only a small fraction of iron (<0.2% dissolves from hematite in the coarse-mode dust aerosols with 0.45% soluble iron initially. On the other hand, a significant fraction of iron (1–2% dissolves in the fine-mode dust aerosols due to the acid mobilization of the iron-containing minerals externally mixed with carbonate minerals. Consequently, the model quantitatively reproduces higher iron solubility in smaller particles as suggested by measurements over the Pacific Ocean. It implies that the buffering effect of alkaline content in dust aerosols might help to explain the inverse relationship between aerosol iron solubility and particle size. We also demonstrate that the iron solubility is sensitive to the chemical specification of iron-containing minerals in dust. Compared with the dust sources, soluble iron from combustion sources contributes to a relatively marginal effect for deposition of soluble iron over the North

  8. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J; Fountain, Mackenzie; Ralph, John; Hodge, David B; Hegg, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10 h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar. This study demonstrated that the fed-batch, two-stage Cu-AHP pretreatment

  9. Paleochemistry of Plio-Pleistocene Lake Turkana, Kenya. [Alkalinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerling, T.

    1979-01-01

    The paleochemisry of Plio-Pleistocene Lake Turkana can be estimated by using the chemistry of lakes from the Eastern Rift of Africa as an analogue. Most modern East Africa lakes occupy closed basins; their chemistries follow an evaporation trend defined by the precipitation of certain mineral phases with increasing alkalinity. Estimates of paleoalkalinity can be used to closely estimate the chemical composition of ancient lakes. Three methods are used to estimate paleoalkalinity. Diatoms, molluscs, and fish have certain metabolic requirements that are dependent on pH, alkalinity, or calcium levels; thus fauna and flora can be used as paleoalkalinity indicators. Exchangeable cations on clay minerals can also be used because the relative concentrations of sodium and calcium in lake waters are related to alkalinity. Absence or presence of certain minerals also can serve as a paleoalkalinity indicator. Although the latter two techniques give estimates of paleoalkalinity that are averaged over several hundred or thousand years, their estimates agree with the instantaneous estimates based on biologic considerations. This study shows that the earliest lake phase was very fresh and contained until the end of the Kubi Algi Formation. The Lower Member of the Koobi Fora Formation is shown to have been a fresh- to brackish-water lake. From the beginning of Upper Member time (about 1.8 MY ago) to the present, the lake occupying the Turkana Depression has varied from a brackish lake that overflowed to a closed basin lake that fell below overflow level and whose alkalinity rose to about 200 meq/l.

  10. Geochemical features of the Cretaceous alkaline volcanics in the area of Morado hill, Jachal town, San Juan, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about the alkaline volcanic rocks that crop out at the Morado hill located in the southern end of the Mogna ranges, which are part of the Eastern border of the pre mountain in the San Juan province, Argentina.The petrography and geochemistry study of the alkaline volcanics has allowed to classify them as tephrite basanite or basanite nephelinite, with strong alkaline chemical affinity, showing a characteristic composition of within plate geochemistry environment. The radimetric analysis, K-Ar data, has shown an average 90 ∓ 8 m.y. age for this rocks, (Cingolani et al. 1984) pointing out the Upper Cretaceous (lower section) stratigraphical position for the suite. The discussion of the results makes conspicuous the relationships of these alkaline rocks with others of the central and northwestern regions of the country that allowed to establish an alkaline petrographic province

  11. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  12. Alkaline rocks and the occurrence of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Toens, P.D.

    1980-10-01

    Many alkaline complexes contain uranium and other minerals in low concentrations and are regarded as constituting valuable potential reserves. Certain complex metallurgical problems, however, remain to be solved. Alkaline rocks occur in a number of forms and environments and it is noted that they are generated during periods of geological quiescence emplaced mainly in stable aseismic areas. Many occur along the extensions of oceanic transform faults beneath the continental crust and the application of this concept to areas not currently known to host alkaline complexes may prove useful in identifying potential target areas for prospecting operations [af

  13. Acidic minespoil reclamation with alkaline biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drill, C.; Lindsay, B.J.; Logan, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of an alkaline stabilized biosolids product, N-Viro Soil (NVS), was studied at a wild animal preserve in Cumberland, OH. The preserve occupies land that was strip mined for high-sulfur coal. While most of the land has been conventionally reclaimed, several highly acidic hot spots remain. Two of these hot spots were studied through concurrent field, greenhouse, and laboratory projects. In April 1995, NVS was applied at rates ranging from 0--960 mt/ha (wet wt.) to plots at the two sites. The plots were seeded using a standard reclamation mix and soil samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics before and after application and also in 1996 and 1997. Soil pH increased from 3.5 to about 11 in the amended plots and soil EC values increased from 21.0 mmho/cm to a maximum of 6.0 mmho/cm in the amended plots immediately after application. Soil Cu and Zn concentrations also increased in the NVS amended plots, but this did not affect plant germination or growth. By the summer of 1996, soil pH values had decreased to 7.3--8.7 and EC values decreased to 0.34--1.36 mmho/cm to the amended plots. Soil samples were collected in September 1995 for physical analyses. N-Viro Soil improved the moisture retention and water conductivity properties of the spoil. The plots were monitored for growth during the summer of 1995 and plant biomass and soil samples were taken in 1996 and 1997 for trace element and nutrient analysis. NVS did not significantly increase trace element concentrations in the biomass. The addition of NVS to acid mine spoil improves the chemical and physical properties of the spoil material thus aiding vegetative establishment and growth. NVS improves the chemical nature of the spoil by increasing pH and providing micro and macronutrients and improves the physical properties of the spoil with the addition of organic matter

  14. Pb/Pb single-zircon dating of Paleoproterozoic calc-alkaline/alkaline magmatism in the southeastern Sao Francisco Craton region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna; Peres, Guilherme Gravina

    2000-01-01

    Two chemically and petrographically distinct intrusive bodies (a calc-alkaline trondhjemite and an alkaline quartz-syenite cut by granitic aplites) occur in the vicinity of Piranga (Minas Gerais State), near the southeastern border of the Sao Francisco craton, Brazil. They intrude the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt and the Mantiqueira complex, both of Archean age. Both intrusive bodies are variably deformed and mylonitized. Age determinations using the Pb/Pb single-zircon evaporation method yielded paleoproterozoic ages for the emplacement/crystallization of the trondhjemite (2058 ± 10 Ma, quartz-syenite (2036 ±4 Ma), as well as the younger aplites (2012 ± 8 Ma). These ages allow us to interpret the calc-alkaline as well as alkaline magmatism as manifestations of the Transamazonian event in the southeastern Sao Francisco craton region. Furthermore, the calc-alkaline trondhjemite is interpreted to have intrude during compressional deformation, while the alkaline quartz-syenite and its aplitic differentiates are post-orogenic, possibly extension-related In terms of the Rb vs. (Y+Nb) contents, the trondhjemite plots in the field of volcanic are granites, whereas the syenite and the aplites plot in the of post-collision granites. The mylonitic overprinting of the syenite and the trondhjemite is also Paleoproterozoic, as deduced from 2012± 8 Ma age of the undeformed younger aplitic dykes which cut the syenite. It is likely that this alkaline magmatism with a Paleoproterozoic post-collisional magmatic event well documented in the Transamazonian mobile belts of the northern Sao Francisco craton. (author)

  15. Experimental data developed to support the selection of a treatment process for West Valley alkaline supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Myers, T.R.; Richardson, G.M.; Wise, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    At the request of West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied alternative treatment processes for the alkaline PUREX waste presently being stored in Tank 8D2 at West Valley, New York. Five tasks were completed during FY 1983: (1) simulation and characterization of the alkaline supernatant and sludge from the tank. The radiochemical and chemical distributions between the aqueous and solid phase were determined, and the efficiency of washing sludge with water to remove ions such as Na + and SO 4 2- was investigated; (2) evaluation of a sodium tetraphenylboron (Na-TPB) precipitation process to recover cesium (Cs) and a sodium titanate (Na-TiA) sorption process to recover strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) from the West Valley Alkaline supernatant. These processes were previously developed and tested at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant; (3) evaluation of an organic cation-exchange resin (Duolite CS-100) to recover Cs and Pu from the alkaline supernatant followed by an organic macroreticular cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-718) to recover Sr; (4) evaluation of an inorganic ion exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95) to recover Cs, Sr, and Pu from the alkaline supernatant; and (5) evaluation of Dowex-1,X8 organic anion exchange resin to recover technetium (Tc) from alkaline supernatant. The findings of these tasks are reported. 21 references, 36 figures, 34 tables

  16. The Effect of Alkaline Concentration on Coconut Husk Crystallinity and the Yield of Sugars Released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangian, H. F.; Widjaja, A.

    2018-02-01

    This work was to analyze the effect of alkaline concentration on coconut coir husk crystallinity and sugar liberated enzymatically. The data showed that the employing of alkaline on lignocellulose transformed the crystallinity. The XRD peaks increased highly which indicated that cellulose was more opened and exposed. After pretreatment, the chemical compositions (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) were changed significantly. The employing 1% alkaline, the cellulosic content inclined if compared to that of non-pretreatment. When the alkaline concentration was added to 4%, the cellulose was decreased slightly which indicated that a part of cellulose and hemicellulose was dissolved into solution. It was found the alkaline pretreatment influenced by the biochemical reaction of treated substrates in producing the reducing sugars. The amounts of sugar liberated enzymatically of coconut husk treated by 1% and 4% alkaline increased to 0.26, and 0.24 g sugar/g (cellulose+hemicellulose), respectively, compared to that of native solid recorded at 0.18 g sugar/g (cellulose+hemicellulose).

  17. Alkalinity in oil field waters - what alkalinity is and how it is measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasa, B.; Oestvold, T.

    1996-01-01

    The alkalinity is an important parameter in the description of pH-behaviour, buffer capacity and scaling potentials in oil field waters. Although the alkalinity is widely used, it seems to be considerable confusion in connection with the concept. It is often used incorrectly and different authors define the concept in different ways. Several different methods for the determination of alkalinity can be found in the literature. This paper discusses the definition of alkalinity and how to use alkalinity in oil field waters to obtain data of importance for scale and pH predictions. There is also shown how a simple titration of oil field waters can give both the alkalinity and the content of organic acids in these waters. It is obvious from these findings that most of the methods used to day may give considerable errors when applied to oil field waters with high contents of organic acids. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Alkaline Electrochemical Capacitor and Electrode Fabrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finello, D

    1999-01-01

    .... With energy density in excess of 300 mJ/cc and the potential to exceed a power density of 100 W/cc, the alkaline electrochemical capacitor represents a significant advancement in technology for high power energy storage.

  19. Alkaline Electrochemical Capacitor and Electrode Fabrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finello, D

    1999-01-01

    Highly capacitive (high surface area) electrodes that are electrochemically stable in strong alkaline electrolyte will form the basis for a new generation of electrical and electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices...

  20. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 3. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium Ferricyanide. Sangeeta Pandita Saral Baweja. Classroom Volume 21 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 285-288 ...

  1. Alkaline Peroxide Delignification of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh [Biosciences; Katahira, Rui [National; Donohoe, Bryon S. [Biosciences; Black, Brenna A. [National; Pattathil, Sivakumar [Complex; Stringer, Jack M. [National; Beckham, Gregg T. [National

    2017-05-30

    Selective biomass fractionation into carbohydrates and lignin is a key challenge in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In the present study, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was investigated to fractionate lignin from polysaccharides in corn stover (CS), with a particular emphasis on the fate of the lignin for subsequent valorization. The influence of peroxide loading on delignification during AHP pretreatment was examined over the range of 30-500 mg H2O2/g dry CS at 50 degrees C for 3 h. Mass balances were conducted on the solid and liquid fractions generated after pretreatment for each of the three primary components, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. AHP pretreatment at 250 mg H2O2/g dry CS resulted in the pretreated solids with more than 80% delignification consequently enriching the carbohydrate fraction to >90%. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy of the AHP pretreated residue shows that, under high peroxide loadings (>250 mg H2O2/g dry CS), most of the side chain structures were oxidized and the aryl-ether bonds in lignin were partially cleaved, resulting in significant delignification of the pretreated residues. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis shows that AHP pretreatment effectively depolymerizes CS lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fragments in the aqueous fraction. Imaging of AHP pretreated residues shows a more granular texture and a clear lamellar pattern in secondary walls, indicative of layers of varying lignin removal or relocalization. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this pretreated residue at 20 mg/g of glucan resulted in 90% and 80% yields of glucose and xylose, respectively, after 120 h. Overall, AHP pretreatment is able to selectively remove more than 80% of the lignin from biomass in a form that has potential for downstream valorization processes and enriches the solid pulp into a highly digestible material.

  2. New cross-linked PVA based polymer electrolyte membranes for alkaline fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merle, Geraldine; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan; Wessling, Matthias; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report a cheap and easy method for the preparation of anion exchange membranes based on a KOH doped and crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for alkaline fuel cells. Ionic conductivity and thermal and chemical stability are investigated as a function of the crosslinking density.

  3. Light coupling and light trapping in alkaline etched multicrystalline silicon wafers for solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylton, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The reflection reducing and light trapping properties of alkaline etched multicrystalline silicon wafers are investigated experimentally. Following an overview of various chemical texturisation methods and their effect upon the surface morphology, a high concentration saw-damage etch and a low

  4. Recovery of silver from used X-ray film using alkaline protease from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane Erike-Etchie

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... Silver oxidation is followed by electrolysis or chemical treatment of the gelatin layers of X-ray films. All .... Gupta R, Beg K, Lorenz P (2002). Bacterial Alkaline Protease: Molecular approaches and industrial application. Appl. Micro. Biotechnol. 59:15-32. Kumaran E, Mahalakshmipriya A, Rajan S (2013).

  5. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis.

  6. Hybrid Alkaline Cements: Bentonite-Opc Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Garcia-Lodeiro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Moderately alkaline activators can be used to formulate cementitious binders with a high Supplemetary Cementitious Materials (SCMs and a low portland cement content (hybrid alkaline cements. This study aimed to prepare hybrid alkaline cements containing large percentages of dehydroxylated bentonite (BT and small Portland cement (OPC fractions, with 5% Na2SO4 as a solid alkaline activator. The hydration kinetics of the pastes hydrated in water in the presence and absence of the solid activator were assessed by isothermal conduction calorimetry, whilst the reaction products were characterised with X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD and Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The presence of the alkaline activator hastened OPC and BT/OPC hydration: more heat of hydration was released, favouring greater initial bentonite reactivity. The portlandite forming during cement hydration reacted readily with the Na2SO4, raising medium alkalinity and enhancing bentonite dissolution and with it reaction product precipitation (primarily (N,C-A-S-H-like gels that co-exist with C-S-H- or C-A-S-H-like gels. The presence of sulfate ions favoured the formation of AFm-like phases. Preceding aspects accelerated the hydration reactions, with the formation of more reaction product and matrix densification. As a result, the 28 days Na2SO4 activated systems developed greater mechanical strength than the water-hydrated systems, with the 60% BT/40% OPC blends exhibiting higher compressive strength than the 100% OPC pastes.

  7. Characterization and quantification of biochar alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, Rivka B; Laird, David A; Thompson, Michael L; Lawrinenko, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lack of knowledge regarding the nature of biochar alkalis has hindered understanding of pH-sensitive biochar-soil interactions. Here we investigate the nature of biochar alkalinity and present a cohesive suite of methods for its quantification. Biochars produced from cellulose, corn stover and wood feedstocks had significant low-pK a organic structural (0.03-0.34 meq g -1 ), other organic (0-0.92 meq g -1 ), carbonate (0.02-1.5 meq g -1 ), and other inorganic (0-0.26 meq g -1 ) alkalinities. All four categories of biochar alkalinity contributed to total biochar alkalinity and are therefore relevant to pH-sensitive soil processes. Total biochar alkalinity was strongly correlated with base cation concentration, but biochar alkalinity was not a simple function of elemental composition, soluble ash, fixed carbon, or volatile matter content. More research is needed to characterize soluble biochar alkalis other than carbonates and to establish predictive relationships among biochar production parameters and the composition of biochar alkalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    The overall purpose of this project has been to contribute to this load management by developing a 2{sup nd} generation of alkaline electrolysis system characterized by being compact, reliable, inexpensive and energy efficient. The specific targets for the project have been to: 1) Increase cell efficiency to more than 88% (according to the higher heating value (HHV)) at a current density of 200 mA /cm{sup 2}; 2) Increase operation temperature to more than 100 degree Celsius to make the cooling energy more valuable; 3) Obtain an operation pressure more than 30 bar hereby minimizing the need for further compression of hydrogen for storage; 4) Improve stack architecture decreasing the price of the stack with at least 50%; 5) Develop a modular design making it easy to customize plants in the size from 20 to 200 kW; 6) Demonstrating a 20 kW 2{sup nd} generation stack in H2College at the campus of Arhus University in Herning. The project has included research and development on three different technology tracks of electrodes; an electrochemical plating, an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and finally a high temperature and pressure (HTP) track with operating temperature around 250 deg. C and pressure around 40 bar. The results show that all three electrode tracks have reached high energy efficiencies. In the electrochemical plating track a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C has been shown. The APS track showed cell efficiencies of 97%, however, coatings for the anode side still need to be developed. The HTP cell has reached 100 % electric efficiency operating at 1.5 V (the thermoneutral voltage) with a current density of 1. 1 A/cm{sup 2}. This track only tested small cells in an externally heated laboratory set-up, and thus the thermal loss to surroundings cannot be given. The goal set for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser system, has been to generate 30 bar pressure in the cell stack. An obstacle to be

  9. Alkaline volcanic rocks from the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Ruff, S.W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Herkenhoff, K.; Gellert, Ralf; Stockstill, K.R.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Crisp, J.A.; Christensen, P.R.; McCoy, T.J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M.

    2006-01-01

    Irvine, Backstay, and Wishstone are the type specimens for three classes of fine-grained or fragmental, relatively unaltered rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra, found as float on the flanks of the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt, trachybasalt, and tephrite, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. The texture of Wishstone is consistent with a pyroclastic origin, whereas Irvine and Backstay are lavas or possibly dike rocks. Chemical compositions of these rocks plot on or near liquid lines of descent for most elements calculated for Adirondack class rocks (olivine-rich basalts from the Gusev plains) at various pressures from 0.1 to 1.0 GPa. We infer that Wishstone-, Backstay-, and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by fractionation of primitive, oxidized basaltic magma similar to Adirondack-class rocks. The compositions of all these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. The fact that differentiated volcanic rocks were not encountered on the plains prior to ascending Husband Hill may suggest a local magma source for volcanism beneath Gusev crater. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Hydroxylated derivatives of dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone as redox switchable earth-alkaline metal ligands and radical scavengers

    OpenAIRE

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Bogeski, Ivan; Mirceski, Valentin; Saul, Stephanie; Pasieka, Bastian; Haeri, Haleh H.; Stefova, Marina; Petreska Stanoeva, Jasmina; Mitrev, Sasa; Hoth, Markus; Kappl, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Benzoquinones (BQ) have important functions in many biological processes. In alkaline environments, BQs can be hydroxylated at quinoid ring proton positions. Very little is known about the chemical reaction leading to these structural transformations as well as about the properties of the obtained hydroxyl benzoquinones. We analyzed the behavior of the naturally occurring 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone under alkaline conditions and show that upon substitution of methoxy-groups, poly-hydroxyl-...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes (granular...

  12. Improved electrodes and gas impurity investigations on alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reissner, R.; Schiller, G.; Knoeri, T.

    Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved.......Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved....

  13. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  14. Hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose to bio-oil under acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) at acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► Bio-oil compositions varied with acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► Reaction mechanisms varied with acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► HTL should be classified to acidic, neutral and alkaline processes. -- Abstract: Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass to bio-oil under alkaline or neutral conditions has been widely reported in literature. However, there has been limited data available in literature on comparing HTL of biomass to bio-oil under acidic, neutral, and alkaline in terms of chemical compositions and yields by using the same reaction conditions and reactor. Using cellulose as a feedstock we conducted the comparative studies for pH = 3, 7 and 14 at temperatures of 275–320 °C with reaction residence times of 0–30 min. Results showed that the chemical compositions of the bio-oils were different for acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Under acidic and neutral conditions, the main composition of HTL bio-oil was 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF). Under alkaline conditions, the main compounds became C 2–5 carboxylic acids. For bio-oil yields, it was observed that high temperatures and long residence times had negative effects, regardless of the pH levels. However, the corresponding reaction mechanisms are different. Under acidic conditions, the decrease in the bio-oil yields was mainly caused by polymerization of 5-HMF to solids. Under neutral conditions, the bio-oil yields decreased because 5-HMF was converted to both solid and gaseous products. Under alkaline conditions, the bio-oil decomposed to gases through the formation of short chain acids and aldehydes. Therefore, although they were all referred to as HTL bio-oil in literature, they were formed by different reaction pathways and had different properties due to their different chemical compositions. Given these differences, different strategies are recommended in this study to

  15. Removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solution : a laboratory investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, S.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Various methods were investigated in the laboratory for the removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solutions of reprocessing plant origin. The methods included batch equilibration with different ion exchangers and sorbents, column testing and chemical precipitation. A column method using zinc-activated carbon mixture and a chemical precipitation method using ferrous salt along with sodium sulphite were found to be promising for plant scale application. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Prophylactic treatment with alkaline phosphatase in cardiac surgery induces endogenous alkaline phosphatase release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Seinen, Willem; Schamhorst, Volkher; Wulkan, Raymond W.; Schoenberger, Jacques P.; van Oeveren, Wim

    Introduction: Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP), an endotoxin detoxifier, on alkaline phosphatase levels

  17. Atributos químicos do solo e lixiviação de compostos fenólicos após adição de resíduo sólido alcalino Chemical attributes of soil and leaching of phenolic compounds after addition of alkaline solid residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina B. Branco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de resíduos alcalinos da indústria de papel e celulose (DREGS na agricultura como corretivo de acidez do solo, vem sendo amplamente empregada como alternativa de descarte no solo de forma a reduzir o impacto ambiental. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, determinar a influência da aplicação do dregs, rejeito da indústria de papel e celulose, nos atributos químicos do solo e na lixiviação de compostos fenólicos. As unidades experimentais foram constituídas por colunas de lixiviação preenchidas com solo incorporado com dregs nas doses de 0,0; 2,5; 5,0 e 10,0 g kg-1. Foram realizadas análises químicas nos solos estudados, um Camibissolo Húmico e um Neossolo Quartzarênico, testes de solubilização dos compostos fenólicos e ensaios de lixiviação visando determinar os teores totais de compostos fenólicos presentes nos lixiviados. O uso do dregs modificou os atributos químicos do Cambissolo Húmico e do Neossolo Quartzarênico. Os resultados obtidos nas análises dos lixiviados demonstraram que a aplicação do dregs levou ao incremento de compostos acima do máximo permitido pela legislação vigente, 0,01 mg L-1(ANBR, 2004a e de 0,5 mg L-1 (CONAMA, 2008.The use of alkaline residues from pulp and paper industry ('dregs' in agriculture as a corrective of soil acidity is being widely used as an alternative of ground disposal in order to reduce the environmental impact. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of application of the 'dregs', waste from pulp and paper industry, in soil chemical properties and leaching of phenolic compounds. The experimental units consisted of leaching columns filled with soil incorporated with 'dregs' at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g kg-1. Chemical analysis were performed in these soils, a Humic Camibissolo and a Typic Quartzipsamment soils, tests of solubilization of phenolic compounds and leaching tests were also carried out to determine the total content of phenolic

  18. Devonian alkaline magmatic belt along the northern margin of the North China Block: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Zhang, Shuan-Hong; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Jian-Min

    2018-03-01

    Some Devonian magmatic rocks have been identified from the northern margin of the North China Block (NCB) in recent years. However, their petrogenesis and tectonic setting are still highly controversial. Here we present new geochronological, Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic and whole-rock chemical data on several newly identified and previously reported Devonian alkaline complexes, including mafic-ultramafic rocks (pyroxenites and gabbros), alkaline rocks (syenites, monzonites) and alkaline granites in the northern NCB. We firstly identified some mafic-ultramafic rocks coeval with monzonite and quartz monzonite in the Sandaogou and Wulanhada alkaline intrusions. New zircon U-Pb dating of 16 samples from the Baicaigou, Gaojiacun, Sandaogou, Wulanhada and Chifeng alkaline intrusions combined with previous geochronological results indicate that the Devonian alkaline rocks emplaced during the early-middle Devonian at around 400-380 Ma and constitute an E-W-trending alkaline magmatic belt that extend ca. 900 km long along the northern margin of the NCB. Whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data reveal that the Devonian alkaline rocks were mainly originated from partial melting of a variably enriched lithospheric mantle with different involvement of ancient lower crustal component and fractional crystallization. The Devonian alkaline magmatic belt rocks in the northern NCB are characterized by very weak or no deformations and were most likely related to post-collision extension after arc-continent collision between the Bainaimiao island arc and the northern margin of North China Craton during the latest Silurian. Partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle to produce the Devonian alkaline magmatic rocks suggests that the northern North China Craton has an inhomogeneous, variably enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle and was characterized by significant vertical crustal growth during the Devonian period.

  19. Viscosity of Molten Alkaline-Earth Fluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Hoshino, Yosuke; Anbo, Yusuke; Yanagase, Kei-ichi; Aono, Masahiro; Sato, Yuzuru

    2015-04-01

    The viscosities of molten alkaline-earth fluorides were measured using the oscillating crucible method, which is especially suitable for measuring molten salts with low viscosity. The results showed a good Arrhenius linearity over a wide temperature range. The measured viscosities and activation energies increased in the following order: . Judging by the charge density, the viscosity of alkaline-earth fluorides should increase from molten to . However, the results indicate a different tendency, which may be explained by a Coulomb force that is very strong. The low viscosity of can be attributed to a decreased cohesive force, due to a partial loss of the Coulomb force caused by a higher charge density of the material. The viscosities were also compared to those of molten alkali fluorides and alkaline-earth chlorides. The viscosities of molten alkaline-earth fluorides were higher than those of molten alkali fluorides and alkaline-earth chlorides. The viscosity determined in this study was compared to literature values and showed a reasonable value in the relatively low-viscosity region.

  20. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part I: irritation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of potential chemical-induced eye injury through irritation and corrosion is required to ensure occupational and consumer safety for industrial, household and cosmetic ingredient chemicals. The historical method for evaluating eye irritant and corrosion potential of chemicals is the rabbit Draize test. However, the Draize test is controversial and its use is diminishing - the EU 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans marketing of new cosmetics having animal testing of their ingredients and requires non-animal alternative tests for safety assessments. Thus, in silico and/or in vitro tests are advocated. QSAR models for eye irritation have been reported for several small (congeneric) data sets; however, large global models have not been described. This report describes FDA/CFSAN's development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) to predict eye irritation using the ADMET Predictor program and a diverse training data set of 2928 chemicals. The 21 models had external (20% test set) and internal validation and average training/verification/test set statistics were: 88/88/85(%) sensitivity and 82/82/82(%) specificity, respectively. The new method utilized multiple artificial neural network (ANN) molecular descriptor selection functionalities to maximize the applicability domain of the battery. The eye irritation models will be used to provide information to fill the critical data gaps for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredient chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a Weight-of-Evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part II: corrosion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    This is part II of an in silico investigation of chemical-induced eye injury that was conducted at FDA's CFSAN. Serious eye damage caused by chemical (eye corrosion) is assessed using the rabbit Draize test, and this endpoint is an essential part of hazard identification and labeling of industrial and consumer products to ensure occupational and consumer safety. There is an urgent need to develop an alternative to the Draize test because EU's 7th amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (EC, 2003; 76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans animal testing on all cosmetic product ingredients and EU's REACH Program limits animal testing for chemicals in commerce. Although in silico methods have been reported for eye irritation (reversible damage), QSARs specific for eye corrosion (irreversible damage) have not been published. This report describes the development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) for assessing eye corrosion potential of chemicals using a large and diverse CFSAN data set of 504 chemicals, ADMET Predictor's three sensitivity analyses and ANNE classification functionalities with 20% test set selection from seven different methods. QSAR-21 models were internally and externally validated and exhibited high predictive performance: average statistics for the training, verification, and external test sets of these models were 96/96/94% sensitivity and 91/91/90% specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

  3. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero eSalminen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs. Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC. The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70 % molar yield towards citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

  4. Assessing ocean alkalinity for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renforth, Phil; Henderson, Gideon

    2017-09-01

    Over the coming century humanity may need to find reservoirs to store several trillions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel combustion, which would otherwise cause dangerous climate change if it were left in the atmosphere. Carbon storage in the ocean as bicarbonate ions (by increasing ocean alkalinity) has received very little attention. Yet recent work suggests sufficient capacity to sequester copious quantities of CO2. It may be possible to sequester hundreds of billions to trillions of tons of C without surpassing postindustrial average carbonate saturation states in the surface ocean. When globally distributed, the impact of elevated alkalinity is potentially small and may help ameliorate the effects of ocean acidification. However, the local impact around addition sites may be more acute but is specific to the mineral and technology. The alkalinity of the ocean increases naturally because of rock weathering in which >1.5 mol of carbon are removed from the atmosphere for every mole of magnesium or calcium dissolved from silicate minerals (e.g., wollastonite, olivine, and anorthite) and 0.5 mol for carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite). These processes are responsible for naturally sequestering 0.5 billion tons of CO2 per year. Alkalinity is reduced in the ocean through carbonate mineral precipitation, which is almost exclusively formed from biological activity. Most of the previous work on the biological response to changes in carbonate chemistry have focused on acidifying conditions. More research is required to understand carbonate precipitation at elevated alkalinity to constrain the longevity of carbon storage. A range of technologies have been proposed to increase ocean alkalinity (accelerated weathering of limestone, enhanced weathering, electrochemical promoted weathering, and ocean liming), the cost of which may be comparable to alternative carbon sequestration proposals (e.g., $20-100 tCO2-1). There are still many

  5. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  6. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  7. Catalytic oxidation of soot over alkaline niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecchi, G.; Cabrera, B.; Buljan, A.; Delgado, E.J.; Gordon, A.L.; Jimenez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► No previous reported studies about alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation. ► NaNbO 3 and KNbO 3 perovskite-type oxides show lower activation energy than other lanthanoid perovskite-type oxides. ► The alkaline niobate does not show deactivation by metal loss. - Abstract: The lack of studies in the current literature about the assessment of alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation has motivated this research. In this study, the synthesis, characterization and assessment of alkaline metal niobates as catalysts for soot combustion are reported. The solids MNbO 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) are synthesized by a citrate method, calcined at 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, 750 °C, and characterized by AAS, N 2 adsorption, XRD, O 2 -TPD, FTIR and SEM. All the alkaline niobates show catalytic activity for soot combustion, and the activity depends basically on the nature of the alkaline metal and the calcination temperature. The highest catalytic activity, expressed as the temperature at which combustion of carbon black occurs at the maximum rate, is shown by KNbO 3 calcined at 650 °C. At this calcination temperature, the catalytic activity follows an order dependent on the atomic number, namely: KNbO 3 > NaNbO 3 > LiNbO 3 . The RbNbO 3 solid do not follow this trend presumably due to the perovskite structure was not reached. The highest catalytic activity shown by of KNbO 3 , despite the lower apparent activation energy of NaNbO 3 , stress the importance of the metal nature and suggests the hypothesis that K + ions are the active sites for soot combustion. It must be pointed out that alkaline niobate subjected to consecutive soot combustion cycles does not show deactivation by metal loss, due to the stabilization of the alkaline metal inside the perovskite structure.

  8. Separation of pig bone alkaline phosphatase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunis, J C; Vancraeynest, T; Brauman, J

    1977-01-01

    A simple method for the separation of alkaline phosphatase and pyrophosphatase activities of pig bone ribs is described. Using anionic exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose) and affinity chromatography on Concanavalin A sepharose (Con A) eluted by a step pH gradient and Na4P2O7, several activities were obtained. A pyrophosphatase containing very little alkaline phosphatase activity was isolated from Con A sepharose by elution with pyrophosphatase. Our data are consistent, with the hypothesis that cortical alcaline phosphatase and pyrophosphatase activities are not due to a single enzyme protein. The method was used on whole bone, on bone marrow and on cortical bone.

  9. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  10. Multiscale Alterations in Sugar Cane Bagasse and Straw Submitted to Alkaline Deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cleilton S. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rabelo, Sarita C. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Ciesielski, Peter N. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Roberto, Inês C. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rocha, George J. M. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Driemeier, Carlos [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    2018-01-31

    Alkaline deacetylation has emerged as a promising chemistry for pretreatments performed prior to enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. This process avoids complex pressurized reactors and opens new opportunities for lignin covalorization. In this work, we evaluate the chemical and morphological response of sugar cane bagasse and straw submitted to alkaline treatments. Alkaline solutions for deacetylation (0.4% w/w NaOH, 70 degrees C, 3 h) as well as proximal conditions (0.1-0.7% NaOH, 55-85 degrees C, 1-5 h) chosen by 23 experimental design were evaluated. The deacetylation treatment removes ~90% of the acetyl groups and 20-30% of the lignin from both bagasse and straw, while removal of ~20% of the xylan and glucan is observed in straw, but not in bagasse. Considering nanoscale structural alterations, neither cellulose cocrystallization (evaluated by X-ray diffraction) nor formation of lignin aggregates (evaluated by thermoporometric signature) are observed after the alkaline conditions, in contrast to observations after hydrothermal treatments. Furthermore, calorimetric thermoporometry as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopies show substantial introduction of nanoscale porosity and loosening of the tissue and cell wall structures, indicating desirable mechanical weakening and gains in enzyme accessibility. These results provide fundamental and practical knowledge for biorefineries based on alkaline deacetylation of sugar cane bagasse and straw.

  11. Determination of Acidity and Alkalinity of Food Materials

    OpenAIRE

    三浦,芳助; 福永,祐子; 瀧川,裕里子; 津田,真美; 渡辺,陽子; 瀨山,一正

    2006-01-01

    The acidity and alkalinity of food materials in various menus was determined to clarify the influence of food on physiological functions. Menus mainly containing alkaline food materials (alkaline menu) and acid ones (acid menu) were compared. Determination of acidity and alkalinity was performed for each food material in the alkaline menu and acid menu, and acidity and alkalinity of one meal and a day's one were estimated. 1. Most of food materials in acid menu were assessed to be...

  12. Enhancing boron rejection in FO using alkaline draw solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ning; Li, Weiyi; Wang, Rong; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2017-07-01

    This study provides a novel method to enhance boron removal in a forward osmosis (FO) process. It utilizes the reverse solute diffusion (RSD) of ions from alkaline draw solutions (DSs) and the concentration polarization of the hydroxyl ions to create a highly alkaline environment near the membrane active surface. The results show that boron rejection can be significantly enhanced by increasing the pH of NaCl DS to 12.5 in the active-layer-facing-feed-solution (AL-FS) orientation. The effect of RSD enhanced boron rejection was further promoted in the presence of concentration polarization (e.g., in the active-layer-facing-draw-solution (AL-DS) orientation). The current study opens a new dimension for controlling contaminant removal by FO using tailored DS chemistry, where the RSD-induced localized water chemistry change is taken advantage in contrast to the conventional method of chemical dosing to the bulk feed water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  14. Potentiometric assay for acid and alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncki, Robert; Ogonczyk, Dominika; Glab, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    Simple potentiometric kinetic assay for evaluation of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity has been developed. Enzymatically catalyzed hydrolysis of monofluorophosphate, the simplest inorganic compound containing P-F bond, has been investigated as the basis of the assays. Fluoride ions formed in the course of the hydrolysis of this specific substrate have been detected using conventional fluoride ion-selective electrode based on membrane made of lanthanum fluoride. The key analytical parameters necessary for sensitive and selective detection of both enzymes have been assessed. Maximal sensitivity of the assays was observed at monofluorophosphate concentration near 10 -3 M. Maximal sensitivity of acid phosphatase assay was found at pH 6.0, but pH of 4.8 is recommended to eliminate effects from alkaline phosphatase. Optimal pH for alkaline phosphatase assay is 9.0. The utility of the developed substrate-sensor system for determination of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in human serum has been demonstrated

  15. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    applications in the field of optical fibers, optoelectronic devices; radiation shields, surgical lasers and their glass ceramic counter parts have wide range of applications (Rajasree et al., 2011; Sharma et al., 2007, Limkitjaroenporn et al., 2010). Boric acid. (H3BO3) form stable glasses with alkaline earth oxides (R= MgO, CaO, ...

  16. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    and yellow colour appears. Initial colour remains but fades. Orange colour appears. Yellow colour appears. Carbohydrates. Monosaccharide. Disaccharide. + Alkaline ferricyanide (shake for 5 minutes). Colour disappears. Colour does not disappear. Put the test tube in boiling water for 10 seconds. Put the test tube in boiling.

  17. Optimization of alkaline protease production from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... the metal ions tested. Key words: Alkaline protease, casein agar, meat waste contaminated soil, Pseudomonas fluorescens. INTRODUCTION. Proteases are the most important industrial enzymes that execute a wide variety of functions and have various important biotechnological applications (Mohen et al.,.

  18. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  19. Combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis of polyvinylchloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the widespread aversion to burning polyvinylchloride (PVC) together with municipal waste, we have attempted an alternative approach to its decomposition. This paper describes a combined wet oxidation/alkaline hydrolysis yielding water soluble, biodegradable products. Experiments were...... carried out at temperatures from 180-260 degree C and reaction times of 8-24 min. The chloride liberated provides information on the rate constants. Considering the measured Cl- and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) values, we find hydrolysis and oxidation processes to be interdependent. The main products...... are Cl- and CO-2, the rest comprising a range of water-soluble compounds, a small, Cl-free residue, and a recognizable amount of H-2....

  20. Promiscuity and electrostatic flexibility in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabis, Anna; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic promiscuity, that is, the ability of single enzymes to facilitate the turnover of multiple, chemically distinct substrates, is a widespread phenomenon that plays an important role in the evolution of enzyme function. Additionally, such pre-existing multifunctionality can be harnessed in artificial enzyme design. The members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily have served extensively as both experimental and computational model systems for enhancing our understanding of catalytic promiscuity. In this Opinion, we present key recent computational studies into the catalytic activity of these highly promiscuous enzymes, highlighting the valuable insight they have provided into both the molecular basis for catalytic promiscuity in general, and its implications for the evolution of phosphatase activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. A constructed alkaline consortium and its dynamics in treating alkaline black liquor with very high pollution load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Yang

    Full Text Available Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial community was found accidentally in a black liquor storing pool in a paper pulp mill of China. The community was effective in pH decreasing, color and COD removing from the high alkaline and high COD black liquor.Thirty-eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the black liquor storing pool, and were grouped as eleven operational taxonomy units (OTUs using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles (RAPD. Eleven representative strains of each OTU, which were identified as genera of Halomonas and Bacillus, were used to construct a consortium to treat black liquor with a high pH value of 11.0 and very high COD pollution load of 142,600 mg l(-1. After treatment by the constructed consortium, about 35.4% of color and 39,000 mg l(-1 (27.3% COD(cr were removed and the pH decreased to 7.8. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis suggested a two-stage treatment mechanism to elucidate the interspecies collaboration: Halomonas isolates were important in the first stage to produce organic acids that contributed to the pH decline, while Bacillus isolates were involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives in the second stage under lower pH conditions.Tolerance to the high alkaline environment and good controllability of the simple consortium suggested that the constructed consortium has good potential for black liquor treatment. Facilitating the treatment process by the

  2. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) total protein levels were evaluated as indicators of bone turnover in twenty patients with sickle cell haemoglobinopathies and in twenty normal healthy individuals. The serum bonespecific alkaline phosphatase ...

  3. On performance capabilities of alkaline anolyte in wastewater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimkevich, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A concept for electric converting a saline wastewater into basic solution (pH > 7) with a positive RedOx potential (alkaline anolyte) is considered. Such the medium can be obtained in situ at flowing wastewater via a special electrochemical cell with strongly polarized cathode (generating hydroxide anions) and quasi-equilibrium anode which intensively discharges hydroxide ions to hydroxyl radicals into the wastewater. The radicals will oxidize anions of strong acid and convert them into weak-acid micro precipitates in the flowing basic solution. These renewable nano-sorbents will uninterruptedly co-precipitate radioactive contamination from wastewater and be agglomerated as corrosion by-products in the felt-like anode. The consideration of liquid water as a chemical compound with a wide band gap shows that the anolyte (as a hyper-stoichiometric water, H 2 O 1+|x| ) is a simple and effective tool for varying physical and chemical properties of the aqueous solution due to forced changing its RedOx potential as one needs. This potential as Fermi level in the band gap of liquid water is the most convenient parameter for monitoring and managing the electrochemical potential of the aqueous medium. Its hyper-stoichiometric state is realized when Fermi level is shifted to the top of a valence band. This electro-oxidized state as the alkaline anolyte is characterized by an acceptor level, OH/OH - , partially occupied by electrons. Then, the hydroxyl radical (OH • ) as the strongest oxidizer will oxidize intensively the metal anode and renew its surface for great removal of radio-nuclides from the wastewater due to their large specific area of renewable surface of hydroxide absorber on the felt-like anode. (author)

  4. Study of niobium corrosion in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, S.H. de.

    1987-01-01

    A comparative study of niobium electrochemical behaviour in NaOH and KOH solution, with concentrations between 0,5 and 6,1M is presented. The studies were done through electrochemicals assays, consisting in the corrosion potential and anodic and cathodic polarization curves, complemented by loss of mass experiments. The niobium anodic behaviour in alkaline medium is characterized by passivation occurrence, with a stable film formation. The Na oH solution in alkaline medium are more corrosible to niobium than the KOH solution. The loss of mass assays showed that the corrosion velocit is more dependente of hydroxide concentration in KOH medium than the NaOH medium. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. Photolysis of alkaline-earth nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriger, L. D.; Miklin, M. B.; Dyagileva, E. P.; Anan'ev, V. A.

    2013-02-01

    Peroxynitrite and nitrite ions are the diamagnetic products of photolysis (with light at a wavelength of 253.7 nm) of alkaline-earth nitrates; the paramagnetic products and hydrogen peroxide were not found. The structural water in alkaline-earth nitrate crystals did not affect the qualitative composition of the photodecomposition products. The quantum yield of nitrite ions was 0.0012, 0.0038, 0.0078, and 0.0091 quanta-1 and that of peroxynitrite ions was 0.0070, 0.0107, 0.0286, and 0.0407 quanta-1 for Sr(NO3)2, Ba(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O, and Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O, respectively.

  6. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  7. Development of alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding technology for recovery of Karazhanbas oil

    OpenAIRE

    Birzhan Zhappasbaev; Iskander Gussenov; Alexey Shakhvorostov; Nurxat Nuraje; Sarkyt Kudaibergenov

    2016-01-01

    The tertiary oil recovery methods like alkaline, surfactant and polymer (ASP) flooding are very perspective in order to achieve the synergetic effect out of the different impacts which are caused by these chemicals, which affect oil and water filtration in the reservoir and increase oil recovery. In this communication, we consider the applicability of hydrophobically modified polyampholyte – poly(hexadecylaminocrotonate)betaine (PHDACB) as ASP flooding agent for recovery of oil from Karazhanb...

  8. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2017-03-21

    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  9. Purification and characterisation of alkaline phosphotase enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'enzyme phosphatase alkaline était purifié de la bactérie Escherichia coli C90 cultivé dans un médium pauvre en phosphate comme phase stationnaire utilisant une colonne d'échange d'ion enveloppée avec une cellulose DEAE comme matrice et exclusion de taille chromographique utilisant le Sepharcryl S-300HR ...

  10. Influence of alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment on shrub wood Tamarix ramosissima: Characteristics of degraded lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Ling-Ping; Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Lu, Qiang; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of alkaline hydrothermal (AH) pretreatment on the physicochemical properties of the degraded lignins, attempt to upgrade the potential of lignin for value-added chemicals and fuel production. For this purpose, shrub wood Tamarix ramosissima lignin was fractionated using a two-stage process based on an AH pretreatment followed by an alkaline ethanol post-treatment. The recovered lignin fractions were investigated by comparison with milled wood lignin (MWL) in terms of fractionation yield, carbohydrate composition, gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 13 C and 2D heteronuclear single quantum correlation nuclear magnetic resonance, as well as pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The result showed that AH pretreatment led to the degradation of β-O-4 linkages and consequently the increased severity caused a release of more S-units lignin fractions with molecular weights between 1300 and 2500 g/mol in the liquid but higher molecular weights (3000–4400 g/mol) in the residues. Moreover, it was found that the lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratios from analytical pyrolysis slightly changed after AH pretreatment (S/G, 1.8–2.3) but higher than those of MWL (S/G, 1.7). Overall, the present study demonstrates that these lignins dissolved during AH pretreatment and those recovered from the solid residues isolated with alkaline ethanol post-treatment could be profitably exploited as feedstock in integrated forest biorefineries, rather than traditional use as low-value energy sources.- Highlights: • Alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment and alkaline ethanol post-treatment were proposed. • The influence of AH pretreatment on the lignin structural changes was characterized. • Aryl-O-ether linkages of lignin were extensively cleaved. • Lignin recovered from solid residue is a potential resource for the production of value-added chemicals

  11. Young calcareous soil chronosequences as a model for ecological restoration on alkaline mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Adam T; Lambers, Hans

    2017-12-31

    Tailings are artificial soil-forming substrates that have not been created by the natural processes of soil formation and weathering. The extreme pH environment and corresponding low availability of some macro- and micronutrients in alkaline tailings, coupled with hostile physical and geochemical conditions, present a challenging environment to native biota. Some significant nutritional constraints to ecosystem reconstruction on alkaline tailings include i) predominant or complete absence of combined nitrogen (N) and poor soil N retention; ii) the limited bioavailability of some micronutrients at high soil pH (e.g., Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu); and iii) potentially toxic levels of biologically available soil phosphorus (P) for P-sensitive plants. The short regulatory time frames (years) for mine closure on tailings landforms are at odds with the long time required for natural pedogenic processes to ameliorate these factors (thousands of years). However, there are similarities between the chemical composition and nutrient status of alkaline tailings and the poorly-developed, very young calcareous soils of biodiverse regions such as south-western Australia. We propose that basic knowledge of chronosequences that start with calcareous soils may provide an informative model for understanding the pedogenic processes required to accelerate soil formation on tailings. Development of a functional, stable root zone is crucial to successful ecological restoration on tailings, and three major processes should be facilitated as early as possible during processing or in the early stages of restoration to accelerate soil development on alkaline tailings: i) acidification of the upper tailings profile; ii) establishment of appropriate and resilient microbial communities; and iii) the early development of appropriate pioneer vegetation. Achieving successful ecological restoration outcomes on tailings landforms is likely one of the greatest challenges faced by restoration ecologists and the

  12. Degradation of polymers in an alkaline environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, P. G.; Thorpe, S. J.; Venter, R. D. [Toronto Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    To introduce widespread use of hydrogen as a source of fuel, it is essential to significantly reduce the cost of electrolysers and fuel cells, preferably by substituting degradation-resistant low cost alternatives for traditional materials. An experimental apparatus for evaluating short-term degradation characteristics of polymers in 25 per cent potassium hydroxide aqueous solution at 70 and at 85 degrees C was constructed to determine changes in physical appearance, weight, volume and dimensions as a function of immersion time from 0 to 670 hours. Polymers that were part of this test included chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polypropylene (PP),and a polyurethane/polyester blend. Polypropylene demonstrated the greatest degradation resistance to the alkaline environment at both temperatures. CPVC discolored and the polyurethane/polyester blend deteriorated into smaller pieces when subjected to identical conditions. Resistance to degradation in an alkaline environment is a primary requirement for the selection of polymers for use as structural materials in alkaline water analyzers, which in turn is fundamental to the widespread adoption of a hydrogen economy. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Alkaline Material Effects on Roots of Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Shetty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to identify and analyse all studies related to the effects of alkaline materials used in dentistry on roots of teeth. The first part of the review focused on mechanical property alterations of root dentine due to sodium hypochlorite (SH used as an irrigant solution based on MeSH (Medical Subject Heading terms from a previous study by Pascon et al in 2009. The second part reviewed literature on calcium hydroxide (CH, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and other alkaline materials used as root canal dressings or filling materials. Additional MeSH terms used included “compressive strength”, “elastic modulus” “flexural strength”, “fracture strength” and “fracture resistance”. The language filter was English. Of the initial 205 articles identified, 49 were included in this review, of which 29 were on SH, 21 on CH/MTA, and 1 relating to both. Many in vitro studies indicated a strong link between reduced mechanical properties of roots of teeth or radicular dentine treated with SH, and when sealers or root fillings with CH- or MTA-based materials were placed in contact with roots or radicular dentine. Recent literature indicates that the association between reduced mechanical properties and alkaline sealers and/or root-filling materials is not as straightforward as previously assumed, and requires further investigation using more valid experimental models.

  14. Comparative performance of enzymatic and combined alkaline-enzymatic pretreatments on methane production from ensiled sorghum forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollini, Manuela; Sambusiti, Cecilia; Musatti, Alida; Ficara, Elena; Retinò, Isabella; Malpei, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of enzymatic and combined alkaline-enzymatic pretreatments on chemical composition and methane production from ensiled sorghum forage. Four commercial enzymatic preparations were tested and the two yielding the highest sugars release were added to evaluate any hydrolytic effect on both untreated and alkaline pretreated samples. In the combined alkaline-enzymatic pretreatment trials, the highest sugar release was found with Primafast and BGL preparations (added at a final concentration 0.12 and 0.20 mL/g TS, respectively), with a total monomeric content of 12 and 6.5 g/L. Fibre composition analysis confirmed that the combined alkaline-enzymatic pretreatment led to cellulose (up to 32 %) and hemicelluloses (up to 56 %) solubilisation, compared to the enzymatic pretreatment alone. BMP tests were performed on both untreated and pretreated samples, and time courses of methane production were fitted. Both enzymatic and combined alkaline-enzymatic pretreatment led to a methane production increase (304 and 362 mL CH4/g VS), compared to that of untreated sorghum (265 mL CH4/g VS), as  +15 and  +37 %, respectively. Moreover, higher specific methane production rates, compared to that of untreated sorghum (20.31 mL CH4/g VS/d), were obtained by applying the enzymatic and combined alkaline-enzymatic pretreatment (33.94 and 31.65 mL CH4/g VS/d), respectively.

  15. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon supported Pd-Ni and Pd-Ru-Ni nanocatalysts for the alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, MK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon supported Pd-Ni and Pd-Ru-Ni nanocatalysts were prepared by the chemical reduction method, using sodium borohydride and ethylene glycol mixture as the reducing agent. The catalytic activity towards ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium...

  17. Carbon supported Pd-Sn and Pd-Ru-Sn nanocatalysts for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon supported Pd-Sn and Pd-Ru-Sn nanocatalysts were prepared by the chemical reduction method, using sodium borohydride and ethylene glycol mixture as the reducing agent. The catalytic activity towards ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium...

  18. Systematic Phase Behaviour Study and Foam Stability Analysis for Optimal Alkaline/Surfactant/Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nasab, S.M.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline-Surfactant-Foam (ASF) flooding is a recently introduced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. This paper presents laboratory study of this ASF to better understand its mechanisms. The focus is on the interaction of ASF chemical agents with oil and in the presence and absence of naphthenic

  19. Speciation and release kinetics of cadmium in an alkaline paddy soil under various flooding periods and draining conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the chemical forms in which Cd is present in paddy soils is needed to develop efficient and cost-effective strategies to clean up the soils, and/or minimize Cd uptake by rice. This study aims to determine Cd speciation and release kinetics in an alkaline paddy soil, at various flooding...

  20. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... numbness in the arms or legs. Loss of consciousness. Seizures. What causes a head injury? There are ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...

  1. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention. (2012). Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable . Retrieved August 23, 2012, from ... Disclaimer FOIA Privacy Policy Accessibility NIH...Turning Discovery ...

  2. Arsanilic acid modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for Purification of alkaline phosphatase from hen's egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi-Khajeh, Hamed; Safa, Kazem D; Dastmalchi, Siavoush

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies of magnetic carrier technology have focused on its applications in separation and purification technologies, due to easy separation of the target from the reaction medium by applying an external magnetic field. In the present study, Fe 3 O 4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles were prepared to utilize a chemical co-precipitation method, then the surfaces of the nanoparticles were modified with arsanilic acid derivatives which were used as the specific nanocarriers for the affinity purification of alkaline phosphatase from the hen's egg yolk. The six different types of magnetic nanocarriers with varied lengths of the linkers were obtained. All samples were characterized step by step and validated using FTIR, SEM, EDX, VSM and XRD analysis methods As the results were shown, the use of inflexible tags with long linkers on the surface of the nanocarrier could lead to better results for separation of alkaline phosphatase from the hen's egg yolk with 76.2% recovery and 1361.7-fold purification. The molecular weight of the purified alkaline phosphatase was estimated to be 68kDa by SDS-PAGE. The results of this study showed that the novel magnetic nanocarriers were capable of purifying alkaline phosphatase in a practically time and cost effective way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An alkaline approach to treating cooling towers for control of Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    States, S J; Conley, L F; Towner, S G; Wolford, R S; Stephenson, T E; McNamara, A M; Wadowsky, R M; Yee, R B

    1987-08-01

    Earlier field and laboratory studies have shown that Legionella species survive and multiply in the pH range 5.5 to 9.2. Additionally, the technical feasibility of operating cooling towers at elevated alkalinities and pH has previously been documented by published guidelines. The guidelines indicate that these conditions facilitate corrosion control and favor chlorine persistence which enhances the effectiveness of continuous chlorination in biofouling control. This information suggests that control of Legionella species in cooling towers can be accomplished by operating the towers under alkaline conditions. To test this possibility, we collected water samples over a period of months from a hospital cooling tower. The samples were analyzed for a variety of chemical parameters. Subsamples were pasteurized and inoculated with non-agar-passaged Legionella pneumophila which had been maintained in tap water. Correlation of subsequent Legionella growth with corresponding pH and alkalinity values revealed statistically significant inverse associations. These data support the hypothesis that operating cooling towers outside of the optimal conditions for Legionella growth (e.g., at elevated alkalinities and a pH greater than 9) may be a useful approach to controlling growth in this habitat.

  4. Alkaline approach to treating cooling towers for control of Legionella pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    States, S.J.; Conley, L.F.; Towner, S.G.; Wolford, R.S.; Stephenson, T.E.; McNamara, M.; Wadowsky, R.M.; Yee, R.B.

    1987-08-01

    Earlier field and laboratory studies have shown that Legionella species survive and multiply in the pH range 5.5 to 9.2. Additionally, the technical feasibility of operating cooling towers at elevated alkalinities and pH has previously been documented by published guidelines. The guidelines indicate that these conditions facilitate corrosion control and favor chlorine persistence which enhances the effectiveness of continuous chlorination in biofouling control. This information suggest that control of Legionella species in cooling towers can be accomplished by operating the towers under alkaline conditions. To test this possibility, we collected water samples over a period of months from a hospital cooling tower. The samples were analyzed for a variety of chemical parameters. Subsamples were pasteurized and inoculated with non-agar-passaged Legionella pneumophila which had been maintained in tap water. Correlation of subsequent Legionella growth with corresponding pH and alkalinity values revealed statistically significant inverse associations. These data support the hypothesis that operating cooling towers outside of the optimal conditions for Legionella growth (e.g., at elevated alkalinities and a pH greater than 9) may be a useful approach to controlling growth in this habitat.

  5. A proteomic investigation of Fusobacterium nucleatum alkaline-induced biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Jactty; Zilm, Peter S; Fuss, Janet M; Gully, Neville J

    2012-09-03

    The Gram negative anaerobe Fusobacterium nucleatum has been implicated in the aetiology of periodontal diseases. Although frequently isolated from healthy dental plaque, its numbers and proportion increase in plaque associated with disease. One of the significant physico-chemical changes in the diseased gingival sulcus is increased environmental pH. When grown under controlled conditions in our laboratory, F. nucleatum subspecies polymorphum formed mono-culture biofilms when cultured at pH 8.2. Biofilm formation is a survival strategy for bacteria, often associated with altered physiology and increased virulence. A proteomic approach was used to understand the phenotypic changes in F. nucleatum cells associated with alkaline induced biofilms. The proteomic based identification of significantly altered proteins was verified where possible using additional methods including quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), enzyme assay, acidic end-product analysis, intracellular polyglucose assay and Western blotting. Of 421 proteins detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, spot densities of 54 proteins varied significantly (p nucleatum cultured at pH 8.2 compared to growth at pH 7.4. Proteins that were differentially produced in biofilm cells were associated with the functional classes; metabolic enzymes, transport, stress response and hypothetical proteins. Our results suggest that biofilm cells were more metabolically efficient than planktonic cells as changes to amino acid and glucose metabolism generated additional energy needed for survival in a sub-optimal environment. The intracellular concentration of stress response proteins including heat shock protein GroEL and recombinational protein RecA increased markedly in the alkaline environment. A significant finding was the increased abundance of an adhesin, Fusobacterial outer membrane protein A (FomA). This surface protein is known for its capacity to bind to a vast number of bacterial species and human epithelial

  6. A proteomic investigation of Fusobacterium nucleatum alkaline-induced biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Jactty

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram negative anaerobe Fusobacterium nucleatum has been implicated in the aetiology of periodontal diseases. Although frequently isolated from healthy dental plaque, its numbers and proportion increase in plaque associated with disease. One of the significant physico-chemical changes in the diseased gingival sulcus is increased environmental pH. When grown under controlled conditions in our laboratory, F. nucleatum subspecies polymorphum formed mono-culture biofilms when cultured at pH 8.2. Biofilm formation is a survival strategy for bacteria, often associated with altered physiology and increased virulence. A proteomic approach was used to understand the phenotypic changes in F. nucleatum cells associated with alkaline induced biofilms. The proteomic based identification of significantly altered proteins was verified where possible using additional methods including quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, enzyme assay, acidic end-product analysis, intracellular polyglucose assay and Western blotting. Results Of 421 proteins detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, spot densities of 54 proteins varied significantly (p F. nucleatum cultured at pH 8.2 compared to growth at pH 7.4. Proteins that were differentially produced in biofilm cells were associated with the functional classes; metabolic enzymes, transport, stress response and hypothetical proteins. Our results suggest that biofilm cells were more metabolically efficient than planktonic cells as changes to amino acid and glucose metabolism generated additional energy needed for survival in a sub-optimal environment. The intracellular concentration of stress response proteins including heat shock protein GroEL and recombinational protein RecA increased markedly in the alkaline environment. A significant finding was the increased abundance of an adhesin, Fusobacterial outer membrane protein A (FomA. This surface protein is known for its capacity to bind to a

  7. Dechlorination of PVC wastes by hydrothermal treatment using alkaline additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peitao; Li, Tian; Yan, Weijie; Yuan, Longji

    2018-04-01

    Some chemicals were usually utilized in the hydrothermal dechlorination (HTD) of chlorine-containing wastes without revealing their roles. This work intends to investigate the role of chemical additives in the HTD of PVC (polyvinyl chloride). Several chemicals, including Na 2 CO 3 , KOH, NaOH, NH 3 ·H 2 O, CaO and NaHCO 3 , were added into the PVC HTD process, which was conducted in subcritical Ni 2+ -containing water at 220°C for 30 min. The results show the alkalinity of additives had notable effects on the dechlorination efficiency (DE) of PVC due to the neutralization between HCl and additives. The most effective additive is Na 2 CO 3 , with the maximum DE of 65.12% at a Na 2 CO 3 concentration of 0.025 M in this study. According to SEM, the hydrochar obtained from the HTD with Na 2 CO 3 become more porous and looser than the others did, which contributed to the acceleration of PVC dechlorination. The DE vibration with the concentration of additives was different. For Na 2 CO 3 , it was firstly increased and then decreased with Na 2 CO 3 concentration increasing from 0.01 to 0.04 M. For KOH and NaOH, it kept reducing with the concentration increasing from 0.02 to 0.08 M. The drop in DE was ascribed to surface poisoning and a loss in the supported active phase resulting from the formation of metal chloride species. FTIR analysis shows that the elimination of hydrogen chloride was the main route for HTD of PVC. All the results provide some fundamental data to find some cheap but efficient chemicals with aim to recycle the chlorinated organic wastes effectively.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Chemical Specialties, developed an alkaline copper quaternary wood preservative to replace chromated copper arsenate preservative phased out due to risk to children.

  9. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Effluents from Garri Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... temperature, alkalinity, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total solids, nitrate, sulphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, cyanide ion, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand using standard methods. Soil samples were obtained five metres away from each discharge point.

  10. Ion exchange pretreatment of alkaline radwaste for cesium removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    A cation exchange resin has been tested for its ability to remove the Cs ion from simulants of highly alkaline liquid nuclear wastes found at the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge, and Hanford. The resin is a condensation polymer of the K salt of resorcinol and formaldehyde. It removes milli- and micromolar amounts of Cs + from solutions that contain as high as 11 molar Na + . Small column tests indicate that approximately 200 column volumes of SRS simulant and 205 column volumes of OR Tank 25 supernatant simulant can be processed before the resin requires regeneration. For these two wastes, a carousel arrangement of two columns in series and a third in reserve can be used effectively in a process. Hanford 101-AW simulant generates a less sharp breakthrough profile with this resin, though an operation using a maximum of three columns in series with another column off-line for regeneration would be effective if the resin beds are allowed to reach about 90% breakthrough before taking them out of service. Parameters that effect the performance of the resin with a particular feed solution are the concentrations of the two primary ions of interest, Cs + and Na + , as well as the concentrations of K + and OH - . A further ramification of the hydroxide ion concentration is its role in assisting oxidation of the resin, thereby destroying its usefulness in cesium removal. Although the performance of the resin is unaffected at doses of 1 E+8 rad ionizing radiation, it shows noticeable degradation after storage for 100 hours in alkaline solutions, generating quinone and ketone groups, as determined from C-13 NMR and by an increase in total organic C content of the contacting solution. Gases detected from the radiolysis of the resin/simulant mixture are CO 2 from the resin, N 2 O from nitrate in the simulant, and H 2 possibly from resin and simulant. Oxygen depletion in the mixture results from radiolysis and chemical degradation

  11. Heparin and alkalinized lidocaine versus alkalinized lidocaine for treatment of interstitial cystitis symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C Lowell; Koziol, James A; Proctor, Jeffrey G; Zupkas, Paul; Argade, Sulabha

    2015-04-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC), sometimes referred to as IC/bladder pain syndrome, is a substantial health care problem. Once considered a rare, orphan disease, it is now believed to be relatively common. This pilot study was undertaken to determine if the combination of heparin and alkalinized lidocaine (heparin-lidocaine) was more efficacious than alkalinized lidocaine at relieving pain and urgency symptoms associated with IC and also capable of yielding higher lidocaine absorption. A single blind study was conducted on 14 IC patients with a heparin-lidocaine combination versus alkalinized lidocaine instilled intravesically. In a separate study serum lidocaine levels for heparin-alkalinized lidocaine combination versus USP lidocaine only were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Alkalinized lidocaine and heparin have been reported to provide relief from pain and urgency symptoms associated with IC. The heparin-lidocaine combination significantly reduced the % of bladder pain (38% versus 13%, p = 0.029) and urgency (42% versus 8% p = 0.003) compared to lidocaine. In addition the GAR was significantly better for the heparin-lidocaine combination at both 1 hr % improved (77% versus 50%, p = 0.04) and 24 hrs (57% versus 23%, p = 0.002) after study drug treatment. Serum lidocaine levels for the heparin-lidocaine combination were significantly higher compared to USP lidocaine (unalkalinized). The mean +/- SEM was 0.45 +/- 0.09 µg/mL and 0.20 +/- 0.05 µg/mL, respectively (p = 0.019). In this pilot study the heparin-lidocaine combination results in significantly better relief of IC symptoms compared to alkalinized lidocaine and the combination yields higher lidocaine absorption than USP lidocaine.

  12. Effects of Alkaline mineral waters on experimental Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on a natural therapeutic mineral water aim to obtain scientific data with which to substantiate its medical use in prevention and improving the health status of patients with various disorders. The natural mineral water used in our experiments has been recommended by physicians to treat various pathologies such as digestive disorders (chronic gastritis with hyperacidity, gastric and duodenal ulcers, chronic colitis, chronic constipation, hepatobiliary problems (biliary dyskinesia, chronic hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis, cholecystitis, associated diseases: neurasthenia, migraine disorder. These recommendations are based on the general chemical content and physical properties of the water, studied few decades ago. Natural water quality is determined generally by all mineral or organic substances, dissolved gases, particulate matter and living organisms present in it. The chemical content of the water reveals the presence of some trace minerals, such as Li or B. In the light of the new knowledge about the role of these trace elements in organism, we designed an controlled experiment to obtain data about the changes that are produced by the ingestion of the alkaline mineral water in the biological status of Wistar rats and to extrapolate our findings at the human organism.

  13. Management of a facial partial thickness chemical burn in a dog caused by bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalilak, Lukas T; Fransson, Boel A; Alessio, Terri L

    2017-03-01

    To describe the management and successful outcome of a late-recognition partial thickness bleach burn to the face and corneas of a dog. A 1-year-old male neutered Fox Terrier mix breed dog was evaluated for sloughing facial epithelium 5 days after coming into contact with an 8.25% household bleach cleaning solution. Severe erythema, edema, and crusting were noted around the muzzle and margins of both eyes, with moderate to severe alopecia in these areas. A partially detached, partial thickness eschar was present on the muzzle, while a firmly attached eschar was present in the region of both frontal sinuses. These injuries were consistent with a focal, superficial, and partial thickness chemical burn. Multiple ocular abnormalities, the most concerning of which was corneal ulceration, were also present. The patient's wounds were managed conservatively with limited surgical debridement of the affected epithelium 11 and 22 days after the initial exposure. Topical ocular medications, corneal debridement, and a superficial keratectomy were also used. All lesions resolved completely by 84 days postexposure, with no residual effects on the patient's quality of life. Chemical burns caused by contact with alkaline agents such as bleach (sodium hypochlorite) result in extensive necrosis of the skin and underlying structures. This is the first report of management alkaline facial burns in a dog. If inadequate or delayed hydrotherapy following exposure has resulted in superficial partial thickness burns, conservative management can be successful when traditional treatments, especially bandaging, are not feasible. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  14. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part 2. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumgalz, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Databases of alkaline and alkaline earth bromide solubilities in water at various temperatures were created using experimental data from publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluation of the created databases was produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluation. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed bromide minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions.

  15. Effect of organics and alkalinity on the sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The environmental risk assessment of toxic chemicals in stream water requires the use of a low cost standardized toxicity bioassay. Here, a biosensor for detection of toxic chemicals in stream water was studied using sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in continuous mode. The biosensor depends on the ability of SOB to oxidize sulfur particles under aerobic conditions to produce sulfuric acid. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. The biosensor is based on the inhibition of SOB in the presence of toxic chemicals by measuring changes in EC and pH. We found that the SOB biosensor can detect Cr(6+)at a low concentration (50 ppb) which is lower than many whole-cell biosensors. The effect of organic material in real stream water on SOB activity was studied. Due to the presence of mixotrophic SOB, we found that the presence of organic matter increases SOB activity which decreases the biosensor start up period. Low alkalinity (22 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)) increased effluent EC and decreased effluent pH which is optimal for biosensor operation. While at high alkalinity (820 mg L(-1) CaCO(3), the activity of SOB little decreased. We found that system can detect 50 ppb of Cr(6+) at low alkalinity (22 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)) in few hours while, complete inhibition was observed after 35 h of operation at high alkalinity (820 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sever Gastrointestinal Caustic Injury and Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bazrafshan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of caustic ingestions result in some degree of esophageal injury. Alkaline materials are the most frequent corrosive materials ingested.     The physical form and PH of ingested materials play a critical role in the site and type of gastrointestinal injury (PH > 12 or PH < 1.5, crystalline drain cleaners. Unlike Alkaline solutions, strong acids are bitter, burn on contact and usually produce vomiting but when swallowed pass rapidly through the esophagus and damage the antrum of the stomach. I will present the results of 5 cases of gastric out let obstruction after acid ingestion (subtotal gastrectomy and billroth 1 and 4 patients with extensive esophageal damage and perforation ( Total esophagectomy and gastric pull up.  

  17. Liquid ammonia injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A; Bang, R L; Lari, A R; Gang, R K; Kanjoor, J R

    2000-06-01

    The toxic effects of a gas depend on the time of exposure, concentration and its chemical nature. Pressurized liquids and gases exert an additional cold thermal injury and this may complicate the clinical picture. A patient who had an accidental exposure to liquid ammonia over a prolonged period, manifesting in cutaneous, respiratory and ocular damage in addition to a severe cold thermal injury (frostbite) with a fatal outcome is presented. The patient had flaccid quadriparesis and episodes of bradycardia, which has not been reported previously. These manifestations raise the possibility of the systemic toxicity in patients with prolonged exposure to ammonia.

  18. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... during hospitalization. His blood type was O, RH+, Le (a-, b+) and he was a secretor of H-substance, which may be associated with rising API activity after fat-loading. In this case API was unchanged after fat-loading. Neither intestinal nor liver diseases were found, and no other cause for the elevated...

  19. Alkaline erosion of CR 39 polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiman, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of erosion of CR 39 polymer in alkaline environments. We observed the kinetics of absorption of water and methanol into both unirradiated and γ-irradiated samples. We use a capillary model to interpret our results. We etched our samples in both KOH solutions, and KOH solutions doped with methanol. Etch rate was desensitizing to γ-irradiation when KOH concentration approached saturation, but KOH solutions doped with methanol were not desensitizing, unlike with nuclear tracks. We account for this difference

  20. RES Hydrogen: efficient pressurised alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    The RESelyser project addresses issues associated with coupling alkaline electrolysis to renewable energy sources such as electrode stability and gas purity by implementing improved electrodes and a new separator membrane concept. The project aims to improve performance, operation pressure...... and reduce system cost. The project supports DTU Energy's activities on electrodes within the larger FCH-JU project. The overall project demonstrated: improved electrode efficiency also during cyclic operation, safe gas purity at a system pressure of 30 bar, 10 kW stack operation and estimated system costs...

  1. Characterization of Laboratory Prepared Concrete Pastes Exposed to High Alkaline and High Sodium Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-30

    The objective of this study was to identify potential chemical degradation mechanisms for the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) concretes, which over the performance life of the structures may be exposed to highly alkaline sodium salt solutions containing sulfate, hydroxide, and other potentially corrosive chemicals in salt solution and saltstone flush water, drain water, leachate and / or pore solution. The samples analyzed in this study were cement pastes prepared in the SIMCO Technologies, Inc. concrete laboratory. They were based on the paste fractions of the concretes used to construct the Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs). SDU 1 and 4 concrete pastes were represented by the PV1 test specimens. The paste in the SDU 2, 3, 5, and 6 concrete was represented by the PV2 test specimens. SIMCO Technologies, Inc. selected the chemicals and proportions in the aggressive solutions to approximate proportions in the saltstone pore solution [2, 3, 5, and 6]. These test specimens were cured for 56 days in curing chamber before being immersed in aggressive solutions. After exposure, the samples were frozen to prevent additional chemical transport and reaction. Selected archived (retrieved from the freezer) samples were sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for additional characterization using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Characterization results are summarized in this report. In addition, a correlation between the oxide composition of the pastes and their chemical durability in the alkaline salt solutions is provided.

  2. Non-cellulosic heteropolysaccharides from sugarcane bagasse - sequential extraction with pressurized hot water and alkaline peroxide at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Protibha Nath; Pranovich, Andrey; Dax, Daniel; Willför, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    The xylan-rich hemicellulose components of sugarcane bagasse were sequentially extracted with pressurized hot-water extraction (PHWE) and alkaline peroxide. The hemicelluloses were found to contain mainly arabinoxylans with varying substitutions confirmed by different chemical and spectroscopic methods. The arabinoxylans obtained from PHWE were found to be more branched compared to those obtained after alkaline extraction. Sequential extraction could be useful for the isolation of hemicelluloses with different degree of branching, molar mass, and functional groups from sugarcane bagasse, which can be of high potential use for various industrial applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sequential eruption of alkaline and sub-alkaline magmas from a small monogenetic volcano in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, A. J.; Lindsay, J. M.; Smith, I. E. M.; Augustinus, P.; Shane, P. A.

    2011-04-01

    Rangitoto Volcano is the youngest and largest eruptive centre in the monogenetic intraplate Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). The stratigraphy of Rangitoto pyroclastic deposits that have been preserved in swamps on nearby Motutapu Island and in Lake Pupuke on the mainland reveals that the volcano erupted twice; radiocarbon dating of 10 samples from the two tephra units in the swamps indicates eruption ages of 553 ± 7 and 504 ± 5 Cal years BP, for the lower and upper tephra layers, respectively. Geochemistry of the lava field and various scoria cones on Rangitoto Island itself reveals two distinct compositional groups: an alkaline olivine basalt group (that correlates geochemically with the lower tephra layer) and a group that is sub-alkaline and transitional to tholeiite (that correlates geochemically with the upper tephra layer). Based on this data, we infer that, following a phreatomagmatic vent-clearing phase, the early magmatic eruption of Rangitoto Volcano was Strombolian in character and produced an alkaline olivine basalt scoria cone and an associated thick ash deposit on nearby Motutapu Island. This was followed by a time gap of up to several decades, after which a second eruptive phase built the current summit scoria cone together with an encircling lava field. We suggest this later, sub-alkaline eruptive period was associated with the deposition of the thin upper tephra layer on Motutapu Island. The two suites of Rangitoto samples are chemically quite distinct, and each is associated with a distinct parental composition. Trace element modelling indicates the alkaline and sub-alkaline parental melts could have been derived by ~ 1 and 6 wt.% partial melting of an anhydrous garnet peridotite source at ~ 80 and 65 km depth, respectively. The compositional range within each suite is similar, and can be explained by mainly olivine together with minor clinopyroxene fractionation within a relatively simple conduit system in which mixing and mingling were not

  4. Neutral alkaline-metal and alkaline-earth-metal derivatives of imidazole and benzimidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Lloyd, David G; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2014-06-12

    A theoretical study of the minima and connecting transition states of the neutral complexes formed by alkaline-metal and alkaline-earth-metal derivatives of imidazolate and benzimidazolate anions has been carried out using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p), B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p), and G3B3 methods. Two and three nondegenerated minima and two and four TS structures have been identified for imidazole and benzimidazole derivatives, respectively. The most stable minima of the alkaline-metal derivatives of both systems correspond to the metal interacting with the imidazole ring, whereas in the alkaline-earth-metal derivatives, the preferred minima depend on the substituent. A remarkable feature of some minima is the fact that some of the metal-aromatic interactions follow the classical π-cation pattern, even though the global structure corresponds to a neutral salt, constituting a class of noncovalent interaction of great interest in the chemistry of aromatic and heterocyclic complexes. A CSD search has confirmed that the two bonding modes, N-σ and π, are present in the solid phase. The π mode has been analyzed by comparison with other azoles.

  5. Membrane treatment of alkaline bleaching effluents from elementary chlorine free kraft softwood cellulose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Elizabeth; Rodríguez, Edgard; Bórquez, Rodrigo; Zaror, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the sequential use of ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to fractionate alkaline extraction bleaching effluents from kraft cellulose production. The aim was to unveil the way key pollutants are distributed when subjected to sequential UF/NF/RO membrane separation processes. Alkaline bleaching effluents were obtained from a local pinewood-based mill, featuring elementary chlorine free bleaching to produce high-brightness cellulose. The experimental system was based on a laboratory-scale membrane system, DSS LabStak® M20 Alfa Laval, using Alfa Laval UF and NF/RO membranes, operated at a constant transmembrane pressure (6 bar for UF membranes and 32 bar for NF/RO membranes), at 25°C. Results show that 78% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenols, 82% adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and 98% colour were retained by UF membranes which have molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) above 10 kDa. In all, 16% of original COD, total phenols and AOX, and the remaining 2% colour were retained by UF membranes within the 1 to 10 kDa MWCO range. Chloride ions were significantly present in all UF permeates, and RO was required to obtain a high-quality permeate with a view to water reuse. It is concluded that UF/NF/RO membranes offer a feasible option for water and chemicals recovery from alkaline bleaching effluents in kraft pulp production.

  6. High-Strength / High Alkaline Resistant Fe-Phosphate Glass Fibers as Concrete Reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano Velez

    2008-03-31

    Calcium-iron-phosphate glasses were developed whose chemical durabilities in alkaline solutions (pH 13) were comparable or superior to those of commercial alkaline-resistant (AR) silica-based glasses. However, the tensile strength of Ca-Fe-phosphate fibers, after being exposed to alkaline environments, including wet Portland cement pastes, is lower than that of current AR silicate fibers. Another series of Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses were developed with excellent chemical durability in strong acidic solutions (H2SO4, HF), indicating potential applications where silica-based fibers degrade very quickly, including E-glass. The new Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses can be melted and processed 300 to 500°C lower than silica-based glasses. This offers the possibility of manufacturing glass fibers with lower energy costs by 40-60% and the potential to reduce manufacturing waste and lower gas emissions. It was found that Ca-Fe-phosphate melts can be continuously pulled into fibers depending on the slope of the viscosity-temperature curve and with viscosity ~100 poise, using multi-hole Pt/Rh bushings.

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  9. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. JAYEETA BHATTACHARJEE. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 126 Issue 5 September 2014 pp 1463-1475 Special issue on Chemical Crystallography. Synthesis of monomeric and polymeric alkali and alkaline earth metal complexes using a ...

  10. Degradation rates and products of fluticasone propionate in alkaline solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadakazu Tokumura

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The apparent degradation rate constant of fluticasone propionate (FLT in 0.1 M NaOH:methanol=1:1 at 37 °C was previously reported to be 0.169±0.003 h−1, and four degradation products (products 1–4 were observed in the solution. The aims of the present study were to assess the degradation rates of FLT in other alkaline solutions and clarify the chemical structures of the four degradation products in order to obtain basic data for designing an enema for inflammatory bowel disease. The apparent degradation rate constants in 0.05 M NaOH and 0.1 M NaOH:CH3CN=1:1 were 0.472±0.013 h−1 and 0.154±0.000 h−1 (n=3, respectively. The chemical structures of products 1–4 in 0.1 M NaOH:methanol=1:1 were revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry data. The chemical structure of products 2 was that the 17-position of the thioester moiety of FLT was substituted by a carboxylic acid. The degradation product in 0.1 M NaOH:CH3CN=1:1 was found to be product 2 based on 1H NMR data. The degradation product in 0.05 M NaOH was considered to be product 2 based on the retention time of HPLC. These results are useful for detecting the degradation products of FLT by enzymes of the intestinal bacterial flora in the large intestine after dosing FLT as an enema.

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of alkaline earth uranyl carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amayri, Samer; Reich, Tobias; Arnold, Thuro; Geipel, Gerhard; Bernhard, Gert

    2005-01-01

    A series of alkaline uranyl carbonates, M[UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ].nH 2 O (M=Mg 2 , Ca 2 , Sr 2 , Ba 2 , Na 2 Ca, and CaMg) was synthesized and characterized by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after nitric acid digestion, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The molecular structure of these compounds was characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Crystalline Ba 2 [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ].6H 2 O was obtained for the first time. The EXAFS analysis showed that this compound consists of (UO 2 )(CO 3 ) 3 clusters similar to the other alkaline earth uranyl carbonates. The average U-Ba distance is 3.90+/-0.02A.Fluorescence wavelengths and life times were measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The U-O bond distances determined by EXAFS, TRLFS, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy agree within the experimental uncertainties. The spectroscopic signatures observed could be useful for identifying uranyl carbonate species adsorbed on mineral surfaces

  12. Increasing the Biological Stability Profile of a New Chemical Entity, UPEI-104, and Potential Use as a Neuroprotectant Against Reperfusion-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Saleh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated the utility of synthetic combinations of two naturally occurring, biologically active compounds. In particular, we combined two known anti-oxidant compounds, lipoic acid and apocynin, covalently linked via an ester bond (named UPEI-100. In an animal model of ischemia-reperfusion injury (tMCAO, UPEI-100 was shown to produce equivalent neuroprotection compared to each parent compound, but at a 100-fold lower dose. However, it was determined that UPEI-100 was undetectable in any tissue samples almost immediately following intravenous injection. Therefore, the present investigation was done to determine if biological stability of UPEI-100 could be improved by replacing the ester bond with a more bio cleavage-resistant bond, an ether bond (named UPEI-104. We then compared the stability of UPEI-104 to the original parent compound UPEI-100 in human plasma as well as liver microsomes. Our results demonstrated that both UPEI-100 and UPEI-104 could be detected in human plasma for over 120 min; however, only UPEI-104 was detectable for an average of 7 min following incubation with human liver microsomes. This increased stability did not affect the biological activity of UPEI-104 as measured using our tMCAO model. Our results suggest that combining compounds using an ether bond can improve stability while maintaining biological activity.

  13. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhi, H.; Ganji, F.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  14. Development of alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP flooding technology for recovery of Karazhanbas oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birzhan Zhappasbaev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary oil recovery methods like alkaline, surfactant and polymer (ASP flooding are very perspective in order to achieve the synergetic effect out of the different impacts which are caused by these chemicals, which affect oil and water filtration in the reservoir and increase oil recovery. In this communication, we consider the applicability of hydrophobically modified polyampholyte – poly(hexadecylaminocrotonatebetaine (PHDACB as ASP flooding agent for recovery of oil from Karazhanbas oilfield. As “polysoap”, the aqueous solution of PHDACB dissolved in aqueous KOH was used. This system combines the advantages of alkaline, surfactant and polymer and exhibits the synergistic effect. The laboratory results showed that the ASP flooding considerably increases the oil recovery in addition to water flooding. In perspective, the ASP flooding may substitute the steam injection and other thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies.

  15. Transport phenomena in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in ethanol directly into electricity, are one of the most promising energy-conversion devices for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a carbon-neutral, sustainable fuel and the electrocatalytic and membrane materials that constitute the cell are relatively inexpensive. As a result, the alkaline DEFC technology has undergone a rapid progress over the last decade. This article provides a comprehensive review of transport phenomena of various species in this fuel cell system. The past investigations into how the design and structural parameters of membrane electrode assemblies and the operating parameters affect the fuel cell performance are discussed. In addition, future perspectives and challenges with regard to transport phenomena in this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  16. Characterization of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Daiana de; Sbardelotto, Arthur Francisco; Ziegler, Denize Righetto; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina

    2016-01-15

    This study evaluated the characteristics of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method on rice flour (RF) derived from broken rice. The extraction was conducted using 0.18% NaOH at 30°C for 30min followed by centrifugation to separate the starch rich and the protein rich fractions. This fast extraction method allowed to obtain an isoelectric precipitation protein concentrate (IPPC) with 79% protein and a starchy product with low protein content. The amino acid content of IPPC was practically unchanged compared to the protein in RF. The proteins of the IPPC underwent denaturation during extraction and some of the starch suffered the cold gelatinization phenomenon, due to the alkaline treatment. With some modifications, the fast method can be interesting in a technological point of view as it enables process cost reduction and useful ingredients obtention to the food and chemical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 95. Alkaline Earth Carbonates in Aqueous Systems. Part 2. Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Visscher, Alex; Vanderdeelen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline earth carbonates are an important class of minerals. This article is part of a volume in the IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series that compiles and critically evaluates solubility data of the alkaline earth carbonates in water and in simple aqueous electrolyte solutions. Part 1 outlined the procedure adopted in this volume, and presented the beryllium and magnesium carbonates. Part 2, the current paper, compiles and critically evaluates the solubility data of calcium carbonate. The chemical forms included are the anhydrous CaCO 3 types calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, the monohydrate monohydrocalcite (CaCO 3 · H 2 O), the hexahydrate ikaite (CaCO 3 ·6H 2 O), and an amorphous form. The data were analyzed with two model variants, and thermodynamic data of each form consistent with each of the models and with the CODATA key values for thermodynamics are presented.

  18. Theoretical considerations and a simple method for measuring alkalinity and acidity in low-pH waters by gran titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Johnsson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Titrations for alkalinity and acidity using the technique described by Gran (1952, Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations, Part II: The Analyst, v. 77, p. 661-671) have been employed in the analysis of low-pH natural waters. This report includes a synopsis of the theory and calculations associated with Gran's technique and presents a simple and inexpensive method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations. However, potential sources of error introduced by the chemical character of some waters may limit the utility of Gran's technique. Therefore, the cost- and time-efficient method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations described in this report is useful for exploring the suitability of Gran's technique in studies of water chemistry.

  19. Alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl terephthalate in the presence of [LiAl2(OH)6]Cl.2H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Lixu; Zhang Weifeng; Hu Meng; Zheng Hegen

    2006-01-01

    The alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) in the presence of [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ]Cl has been investigated to demonstrate a possible application of anion exchange facility of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to control chemical reactions. The results show that (i) in the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT in the presence of [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ]Cl, most of the interlayer Cl - of [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ]Cl is quickly replaced by OH - in the alkaline solution because the LDH host favors OH - more; (ii) the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT in the presence of [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ]Cl is faster than the reaction of DMT and [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ]OH; (iii) The hydrolysis of DMT in a buffer solution of pH∼8 takes longer time to reach equilibrium than the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT in the presence of [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ]Cl. It is believed that the selective anion exchange chemistry of the LDH plays a key role in storage and controlled release of active reactant, that is, OH - , thus make the hydrolysis proceeds in a controlled way. - Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the solid products of the alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) in the presence of [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ]Cl at 70 deg. C halted at different time, which shows that [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ]Cl turns out to be [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ]OH, and [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ] 2 TP forms gradually. In this reaction, the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT is controlled by replacement of Cl - in [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ]Cl by OH - , and subsequent replacement of OH - in [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ]OH by terephthalate anion

  20. The Effects of Alkaline pH on Microleakage of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium Enriched Mixture Apical Plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhadi, Hossein; Moazzami, Fariborz; Rangani Jahromi, Saeed; Safarzade, Sareh

    2016-03-01

    Alkaline pH can affect the physical and chemical properties and sealing ability of apical plug material. Calcium hydroxide is used as an intracanal medication to complete disinfection of root canals. It raises the pH of environment to alkaline value. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of alkaline pH on the sealing ability of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plugs. Seventy single-rooted human maxillary anterior teeth were randomly divided to two experimental groups for Angelus MTA and CEM cement (n=30) and two control groups (n=5). Each group was divided into two subgroups of 15 for neutral and alkaline pH, and 1 negative and 1 positive control groups of 5. The root canals were cleaned and shaped by using ProTaper rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer; Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the terminal 3mm of the roots were resected. Then, MTA and CEM cement were condensed in apical region with 3mm thickness. The samples were exposed to two environments with different pH values of 13 and 7.4. The leakage was assessed by using the fluid filtration technique at 1, 7, 14, 30 days intervals. Data were analyzed by the repeated measures MANOVA. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of microleakage between neutral and alkaline pH of CEM cement and MTA (p> 0.05). The sealing ability of MTA in an alkaline pH of 13 was significantly less than CEM cement in this pH (palkaline pH had no adverse effect on the sealing ability of MTA and CEM cement used as apical plugs. CEM cement had better sealing ability in alkaline pH.

  1. Mutual independence of alkaline- and calcium-mediated signalling in Aspergillus fumigatus refutes the existence of a conserved druggable signalling nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Omar; Bertuzzi, Margherita; Yan, Yu; Fedorova, Natalie; McCann, Bethany L; Armstrong-James, Darius; Espeso, Eduardo A; Read, Nick D; Nierman, William C; Bignell, Elaine M

    2017-12-01

    Functional coupling of calcium- and alkaline responsive signalling occurs in multiple fungi to afford efficient cation homeostasis. Host microenvironments exert alkaline stress and potentially toxic concentrations of Ca 2+ , such that highly conserved regulators of both calcium- (Crz) and pH- (PacC/Rim101) responsive signalling are crucial for fungal pathogenicity. Drugs targeting calcineurin are potent antifungal agents but also perturb human immunity thereby negating their use as anti-infectives, abrogation of alkaline signalling has, therefore, been postulated as an adjunctive antifungal strategy. We examined the interdependency of pH- and calcium-mediated signalling in Aspergillus fumigatus and found that calcium chelation severely impedes hyphal growth indicating a critical requirement for this ion independently of ambient pH. Transcriptomic responses to alkaline pH or calcium excess exhibited minimal similarity. Mutants lacking calcineurin, or its client CrzA, displayed normal alkaline tolerance and nuclear translocation of CrzA was unaffected by ambient pH. Expression of a highly conserved, alkaline-regulated, sodium ATPase was tolerant of genetic or chemical perturbations of calcium-mediated signalling, but abolished in null mutants of the pH-responsive transcription factor PacC, and PacC proteolytic processing occurred normally during calcium excess. Taken together our data demonstrate that in A. fumigatus the regulatory hierarchy governing alkaline tolerance circumvents calcineurin signalling. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Alkaline activated slag cements. Determination of reaction degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate the validity of non-calorimetric different methods, used in the determination of reaction degree of alkaline activated slag pastes. The methods used were: (a chemical separation by methanol-salicylic acid; (b determination of the weight loss mass between 100-600°C in TG curves, associated to chemically combined water; (c quantification of the -74 ppm signal in 29Si MAS-NMR spectra. The parameters considered in the process were: nature of the alkaline activator (Waterglass, Na2CO3 and NaOH, activator concentration (4% and 3% Na2O in mass with respect to the slag, curing temperature (25 and 45°C, slag specific surface (460 and 900 m2/kg and time of reaction (from 7 days to 18 months. The results obtained indicate that none of the three methods is definitive but complementary and they provide to follow the reactive evolution of the alkaline activated slag cements. The method based on the quantification of the -74 ppm signal in the 29Si MAS NMR is the most suitable method.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la validez de diferentes métodos, no calorimétricos, utilizados en la determinación del grado de reacción de pastas de escoria activada alcalinamente. Los métodos utilizados fueron: (a método de separación química por disolución en metanol ácido-salicílico; (b determinación de las pérdidas de masa entre 100-600°C en las curvas de TG, pérdidas asociadas a la cantidad de agua químicamente combinada: (c cuantificación de la señal de -74 ppm de los espectros de 29Si RMN MAS. Las variables consideradas en el proceso fueron: naturaleza del activador alcalino (Waterglass, Na2CO3 y NaOH, concentración del activador (4% y 3% de Na2O en masa respecto a la escoria, temperatura de curado (25 y 45°C, superficie específica de la escoria (460 y 900 m2/kg y

  3. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat......-rowing populations. It has further expanded beyond its traditional flatwater format to include the discipline of open-water or coastal rowing, and an increased focus on indoor rowing. Rowing-specific injury research has similarly increased over the last decade since our last review, revealing areas of improved...... and prevent injuries in rowers....

  4. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS ...

  5. Effects of biochars on the availability of heavy metals to ryegrass in an alkaline contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guixiang; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Zhihua; He, Qiusheng; Wang, Shuifeng; Zhu, Yuen; Yan, Yulong; Liu, Xitao; Sun, Ke; Zhao, Ye; Qian, Tianwei

    2016-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochars on the availability of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) to ryegrass in an alkaline contaminated soil. Biochars only slightly decreased or even increased the availability of heavy metals assesses by chemical extractant (a mixture of 0.05 mol L -1 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium, 0.01 mol L -1 CaCl 2 , and 0.1 mol L -1 triethanolamine). The significantly positive correlation between most chemical-extractable heavy metals and the ash content in biochars indicated the positive role of ash in this extraction. Biochars significantly reduced the plant uptake of heavy metals, excluding Mn. The absence of a positive correlation between the chemical-extractable heavy metals and the plant uptake counterparts (except for Mn) indicates that chemical extractability is probably not a reliable indicator to predict the phytoavailability of most heavy metals in alkaline soils treated with biochars. The obviously negative correlation between the plant uptake of heavy metals (except for Mn) and the (O + N)/C and H/C indicates that biochars with more polar groups, which were produced at lower temperatures, had higher efficiency for reducing the phytoavailability of heavy metals. The significantly negative correlations between the plant uptake of Mn and ryegrass biomass indicated the "dilution effect" caused by the improvement of biomass. These observations will be helpful for designing biochars as soil amendments to reduce the availability of heavy metals to plants in soils, especially in alkaline soils. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Corrosion of copper in alkaline chloride environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    2002-08-01

    The available literature information on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of copper in alkaline environments has been reviewed. The purpose of the review was to assess the impact of an alkaline plume from cementitious material on the corrosion behaviour of a copper canister in an SKB-3 type repository. The effect of the evolution of the environmental conditions within the repository have been considered, including the effects of temperature, redox conditions, pore-water salinity and pH. If the pore-water pH increases prior to the establishment of anoxic conditions, the canister surface will passivate as the pore-water pH exceeds a value of ∼ pH 9. Passivation will result from the formation of a duplex Cu 2 O/Cu(OH) 2 film. The corrosion potential will be determined by the equilibrium potential for the Cu 2 O/Cu(OH) 2 couple under oxic conditions, or by the Cu/Cu 2 O redox couple under anoxic conditions (in the absence of sulphide). Pitting corrosion is only likely to occur early in the evolution of the repository environment, whilst the canister is still relatively cool ( 2 available to support localised corrosion, and prior to the increase in pore-water pH and salinity. The subsequent increase in canister surface temperature, pore-water pH and salinity, and decrease in O 2 will make pit initiation less likely, although the canister will remain passive provided the pore-water pH is maintained above pH 9. The higher the pore-water pH, the more strongly the canister is passivated and the less likely the surface is to undergo localised attack. If the pore-water salinity increases prior to the increase in pH, there could be a period of active canister corrosion before passivation occurs.Under these circumstances, the corrosion potential will be a true mixed potential, determine by the relative kinetics of Cu dissolution as CuCl 2 - and of the reduction of O 2 . The development of anoxic conditions and an increase in pore-water sulphide concentration will

  7. Alkaline lixiviation of uranium in granitic pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambor, S.

    1980-06-01

    The work described herein concerns the determination of the experimental optimum conditions for the alkaline lixiviation of uranium based on the following parameters: time, pH, temperature, density and grane size. The samples were obtained from the Supamo complex, near the Currupia river in the Piar District of the Bolivar State in Venezuela. They have a granitic composition and graphitic texture. The uranium was found in them as a secondary oxidized mineral of green-yellow colour localized in fractures fissures, intergranular spaces and also in the mica as. Secondary uranitite. The lixiviation process was carried out using Na 2 CO 3 /NaHCO 3 buffer solution and for 100 gr. samples the best values for an efficient process were found by using 170 mesh grane size and 500 ml of pH buffer at 70 0 C for a 24 hour time period. (author)

  8. Retention of alkaline earth elements in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.

    1990-06-01

    The data on human metabolism and long-term retention of alkaline earth elements ( 133 Ba injected into six healthy male volunteers at age 25-81 y and 45 Ca and 85 Sr received by one healthy male volunteer) are presented. Excreta were collected for 2-3 weeks after injection of the tracer into an antecubital vein. Activity in urine, ashed faeces and early samples of blood plasma was determined by gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry. Whole body retention has been assessed through serial measurements of body radioactivity. The injected 133 Ba apparently became mainly skeletal within several days, much earlier than predicted by the ICRP model. The whole-body retention at 32 d ranged from 5 to 14%, the rate of loss correlating with the excretory plasma clearance rate. No age-related trends were identified in the metabolism of Ca and Sr. 2 refs, 2 figs

  9. Reduction of Fumonisin Toxicity by Extrusion and Nixtamalization (Alkaline Cooking).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kenneth; Ryu, Dojin; Jackson, Lauren; Riley, Ronald; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee

    2017-08-23

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins found in corn. They are toxic to animals and cause cancer in rodents and neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. Reducing their concentrations in corn-based foods is therefore desirable. Chemical analysis or in vitro bioassays of food extracts might not detect toxic fumonisin reaction products that are unknown or unextractable from food matrices, thus potentially underestimating in vivo toxicity. The effectiveness of two common cooking methods, extrusion and nixtamalization (alkaline cooking), to reduce the toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits (extrusion) and whole kernel corn (nixtamalization) was shown by means of rat feeding bioassays using fumonisin-specific kidney effects as indicators of potential toxicity. A third bioassay showed that in contrast to fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ), hydrolyzed fumonisin B 1 (HFB 1 ; formed from FB 1 during nixtamalization) did not cause neural tube defects in LM/Bc mice. The findings indicate that extrusion and nixtamalization reduce the potential toxicity of FB 1 -contaminated corn.

  10. Enhanced oil recovery using local alkaline | Akpoturi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of the local alkaline (palm bunch ash) was compared with other conventional alkaline (NaOH, KOH, and Na2CO3). Eight cores (A1 – A$ and C1 – C4) were prepared, saturated with formation brine of 30, 000ppm salinity; crude (light and medium) were then flowed through sand samples. The samples were ...

  11. Waterbirds of alkaline lakes in Western Uganda | Pomeroy | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda's only alkaline lakes are found in the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area and the adjoining Kyambura Wildlife Reserve. Both are Important Bird Areas, a status to which the birds of the lakes contribute. A total of 179 waterbird counts were made between 1984 and 2000, covering eight of the nine alkaline lakes, ...

  12. based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cell; anion exchange membrane; PPO; homogeneous quaterni- zation. 1. Introduction. Presently, alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs) using anion exchange membranes have received an immense interest among researchers (Varcoe and Slade. 2005). The advantages of ...

  13. Dynamic Properties of the Alkaline Vesicle Population at Hippocampal Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röther, Mareike; Brauner, Jan M.; Ebert, Katrin; Welzel, Oliver; Jung, Jasmin; Bauereiss, Anna; Kornhuber, Johannes; Groemer, Teja W.

    2014-01-01

    In compensatory endocytosis, scission of vesicles from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm is a prerequisite for intravesicular reacidification and accumulation of neurotransmitter molecules. Here, we provide time-resolved measurements of the dynamics of the alkaline vesicle population which appears upon endocytic retrieval. Using fast perfusion pH-cycling in live-cell microscopy, synapto-pHluorin expressing rat hippocampal neurons were electrically stimulated. We found that the relative size of the alkaline vesicle population depended significantly on the electrical stimulus size: With increasing number of action potentials the relative size of the alkaline vesicle population expanded. In contrast to that, increasing the stimulus frequency reduced the relative size of the population of alkaline vesicles. Measurement of the time constant for reacification and calculation of the time constant for endocytosis revealed that both time constants were variable with regard to the stimulus condition. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of the alkaline vesicle population can be predicted by a simple mathematical model. In conclusion, here a novel methodical approach to analyze dynamic properties of alkaline vesicles is presented and validated as a convenient method for the detection of intracellular events. Using this method we show that the population of alkaline vesicles is highly dynamic and depends both on stimulus strength and frequency. Our results implicate that determination of the alkaline vesicle population size may provide new insights into the kinetics of endocytic retrieval. PMID:25079223

  14. Alkaline protease production on date waste by an alkalophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on isolation and characterization of a new strain of Bacillus sp. from alkaline soil, which was able to producing extracellular alkaline protease and amylase from date waste at pH ranging from 8 to 11 and temperatures of 20 to 50°C. Purification was conducted by fractionation, concentration, and cation ...

  15. A generally applicable sequential alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical double staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, Chris M.; Teeling, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A universal type of sequential double alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical staining is described that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and cryostat tissue sections from human and mouse origin. It consists of two alkaline phosphatase detection systems including enzymatic

  16. Partial purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline proteases from the digestive tract of anchovy were partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purification fold and yield were 6.23 and 4.49%, respectively. The optimum activities of partially purified alkaline proteases were observed at 60°C and at pH 11.0.

  17. Comparative Detection of Alkaline Protease Production in Exiguobacterium acetylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, O.M.; EI Shafey, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline protease is one of the most important enzymes in industry, medicine, and research. In the present work, a comparative detection for alkaline protease activity was established for instant detection of enzyme activity. Eight different alkalophilic bacterial isolates were compared based on the clear zone they produced on skim milk agar. One strain gave an absolute clear zone in 16 hours and was used for alkaline protease detection. The result of Phenotypic identification using Biology Microlog 3 identified the isolate as Exiguobacterium acetylicum. The isolate under study showed slightly different characteristics from a known Exiguobacterium acetylicum strain. The isolate tolerated alkaline conditions up to ph 11, while good growth was evident at ph 7, the maximum alkaline protease activity was observed at ph 9 which reached up to 109.01 U/ml. The alkaline activity assay using alkaline protease enzyme assay were coordinating with those obtained by conductivity; there was a relevant decrease in conductivity at the maximum increase in enzyme activity, which proved the cell membrane conductivity has a close relation to alkaline protease production. This isolate has tolerated gamma radiation, the increase in dose (up to 4 Gy) gave wider clear zones in terms of diameter and this was relevant to the conductivity measurements

  18. Application of alkaline waterflooding to a high acidity crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyouh, M.H. (King Sand Univ., Riyadh (SA). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Abdel-Waly, A.; Osman, A. (Cairo Univ. (EG). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Awara, A.Z. (Geisum Oil Company, Cairo (EG))

    The enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude) by alkaline solutions is studied. Acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, temperature and viscosity on recovery. The interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until a minimum, after which it increases again. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. At the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until a maximum at 4% by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. Oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until a maximum at 15% PV. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55{sup 0}C) and decreasing oil viscosity.

  19. Production of Thermostab Streptomyc ction of Thermostable Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence: onyi4bernardine@gmail.com. Introduction. Proteases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of protein into amino-acid. Proteases, especially alkaline type constitute about 60-65% of the global industrial enzyme market (Gupta et al., 2010). Among different proteases, alkaline proteases produced by.

  20. Production of alkaline protease by Teredinobacter turnirae cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conditions for immobilizing the new alkaline protease-producing bacteria strain Teredinobacter turnirae by entrapment in calcium alginate gel were investigated. The influence of alginate concentration (20, 25 and 30 g/l) and initial cell loading (ICL) on enzyme production were studied. The production of alkaline ...

  1. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. Soccer have seen positive results and fewer injuries with PEP. The Santa Monica Sports Medicine Foundation (SMSMF) created this program. There is no clear evidence that use of a knee brace prevents ACL injuries. There also is no ...

  2. Tourniquet associated chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuk Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

  3. Ethanol production from bamboo using mild alkaline pre-extraction followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Kapu, Nuwan Sella

    2018-01-01

    A sequential two-stage pretreatment process comprising alkaline pre-extraction and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHP) was investigated to convert bamboo carbohydrates into bioethanol. The results showed that mild alkaline pre-extraction using 8% (w/w) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 100°C for 180min followed by AHP pretreatment with 4% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was sufficient to generate a substrate that could be efficiently digested with low enzyme loadings. Moreover, alkali pre-extraction enabled the use of lower H 2 O 2 charges in AHP treatment. Two-stage pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with only 9FPU/g cellulose led to the recovery of 87% of the original sugars in the raw feedstock. The use of the pentose-hexose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8u strain enabled the utilization of 95.7% sugars in the hydrolysate to reach 4.6%w/v ethanol titer. The overall process also enabled the recovery of 62.9% lignin and 93.8% silica at high levels of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, and total alkalinity and other chemical and physical data obtained during the R/V Meteor cruise along the WOCE Section A02b in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-06-11 to 1997-07-03 (NODC Accession 0115159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115159 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Arabian Sea, Arctic Ocean, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of...

  5. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either 3 H-fatty acids or [ 3 H]ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the 3 H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of [ 3 H]ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from 3 H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the 3 H-fatty acid and the [ 3 H]ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the [ 3 H]ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The 3 H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from [ 3 H]ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic [ 3 H]ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the 3 H-fatty acid and [ 3 H]ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase

  6. The effect of irrigated rice cropping on the alkalinity of two alkaline rice soils in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.J.A.; Zelfde, van 't J.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Hammecker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Irrigated rice cropping is practiced to reclaim alkaline-sodic soils in many parts of the world. This practice is in apparent contrast with earlier studies in the Sahel, which suggests that irrigated rice cropping may lead to the formation of alkaline-sodic soils. Soil column experiments were done

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and ...

  8. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  9. Experimental Simulation of Long Term Weathering in Alkaline Bauxite Residue Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha C. Santini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite residue is an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of the Bayer process used for alumina refining. Developing effective plans for the long term management of potential environmental impacts associated with storage of these tailings is dependent on understanding how the chemical and mineralogical properties of the tailings will change during weathering and transformation into a soil-like material. Hydrothermal treatment of bauxite residue was used to compress geological weathering timescales and examine potential mineral transformations during weathering. Gibbsite was rapidly converted to boehmite; this transformation was examined with in situ synchrotron XRD. Goethite, hematite, and calcite all precipitated over longer weathering timeframes, while tricalcium aluminate dissolved. pH, total alkalinity, and salinity (electrical conductivity all decreased during weathering despite these experiments being performed under “closed” conditions (i.e., no leaching. This indicates the potential for auto-attenuation of the high alkalinity and salinity that presents challenges for long term environmental management, and suggests that management requirements will decrease during weathering as a result of these mineral transformations.

  10. Application of Resin in Pulp Technique for Ion Exchange Separation of Uranium from Alkaline Leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Rajan, K.C.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Resin-in-pulp technique was applied for purification and enrichment of uranium values from a finely ground uranium ore leach slurry of alkaline nature using strong base anion exchange resin (size 500 - 675μm). • The chemical composition of the solution phase of the alkaline leach slurry (pH 9.5) was consisting of about 40 g/L of total dissolved solutes (TDS) predominantly with Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 and minor levels of Na 2 SO 4 . The uranium content was only 730 mg/L and d50 of solids was 34μm. • Amongst the various commercially available resins studied PFA 4740 and 4783 having quaternary ammonium ion on polystyrene crosslink with divibyl benzez (DVB) gave best performance. The maximum loading capacity achieved in the RIP studies was about 60-65 g of U 3 O 8 /L of wet settled resin amounting to 98% of loading. This has necessitated 4 stages of counter-current extraction with overall contact time of 100 minutes at a resin to leach slurry volume ratio of about 1:50. Practically the entire uranium values loaded on the resin were eluted using NaCl. • The RIP process was found quite efficient for uranium bearing alkaline leach slurries.

  11. The stability of a novel weakly alkaline slurry of copper interconnection CMPfor GLSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caihong; Wang, Chenwei; Niu, Xinhuan; Wang, Yan; Tian, Shengjun; Jiang, Zichao; Liu, Yuling

    2018-02-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is one of the important machining procedures of multilayered copper interconnection for GLSI, meanwhile polishing slurry is a critical factor for realizing the high polishing performance such as high planarization efficiency, low surface roughness. The effect of slurry components such as abrasive (colloidal silica), complexing agent (glycine), inhibitor (BTA) and oxidizing agent (H2O2) on the stability of the novel weakly alkaline slurry of copper interconnection CMP for GLSI was investigated in this paper. First, the synergistic and competitive relationship of them in a peroxide-based weakly alkaline slurry during the copper CMP process was studied and the stability mechanism was put forward. Then 1 wt% colloidal silica, 2.5 wt% glycine, 200 ppm BTA, 20 mL/L H2O2 had been selected as the appropriate concentration to prepare copper slurry, and using such slurry the copper blanket wafer was polished. From the variations of copper removal rate, root-mean square roughness (Sq) value with the setting time, it indicates that the working-life of the novel weakly alkaline slurry can reach more than 7 days, which satisfies the requirement of microelectronics further development. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2016ZX02301003-004-007), the Professional Degree Teaching Case Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. KCJSZ2017008), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. F2015202267), and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (No. 16JCYBJC16100).

  12. Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Lignocellulosic Biomass under Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Łukajtis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment is a significant step in the production of second-generation biofuels from waste lignocellulosic materials. Obtaining biofuels as a result of fermentation processes requires appropriate pre-treatment conditions ensuring the highest possible degree of saccharification of the feed material. An influence of the following process parameters were investigated for alkaline pre-treatment of Salix viminalis L.: catalyst concentration (NaOH, temperature, pre-treatment time and granulation. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in accordance to the Box-Behnken design for four factors. In the saccharification process of the pre-treated biomass, cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on diatomaceous earth were used. Based on the obtained results, a mathematical model for the optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment prediction is proposed. The optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment are established as follows: granulation 0.75 mm, catalyst concentration 7%, pre-treatment time 6 h and temperature 65 °C if the saccharification efficiency and cost analysis are considered. An influence of the optimized pre-treatment on both the chemical composition and structural changes for six various lignocellulosic materials (energetic willow, energetic poplar, beech, triticale, meadow grass, corncobs was investigated. SEM images of raw and pre-treated biomass samples are included in order to follow the changes in the biomass structure during hydrolysis.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E.

    2012-05-01

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure HO due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80°C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

  14. Optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Evandro G T; do Carmo, Juliana R; Alves, José Guilherme L F; Menezes, Aline G T; Guimarães, Isabela C; Queiroz, Fabiana; Pimenta, Carlos J

    2014-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic raw materials in bioethanol production has been intensively investigated in recent years. However, for efficient conversion to ethanol, many pretreatment steps are required prior to hydrolysis and fermentation. Coffee stands out as the most important agricultural product in Brazil and wastes such as pulp and coffee husk are generated during the wet and dry processing to obtain green grains, respectively. This work focused on the optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp with the aim of making its use in the alcoholic fermentation. A central composite rotatable design was used with three independent variables: sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide concentrations and alkaline pretreatment time, totaling 17 experiments. After alkaline pretreatment the concentration of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin remaining in the material, the subsequent hydrolysis of the cellulose component and its fermentation of substrate were evaluated. The results indicated that pretreatment using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution, with no calcium hydroxide, and 25 min treatment time gave the best results (69.18% cellulose remaining, 44.15% hemicelluloses remaining, 25.19% lignin remaining, 38.13 g/L of reducing sugars, and 27.02 g/L of glucose) and produced 13.66 g/L of ethanol with a yield of 0.4 g ethanol/g glucose. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Evidence for the Formation of Benzacridine Derivatives in Alkaline-Treated Sunflower Meal and Model Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Bongartz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower extraction meal (SEM is an economically interesting protein source. During alkaline extraction of proteins, the presence of chlorogenic acid (CQA in the meal gives rise to the formation of o-quinones. Reactions with nucleophiles present in proteins can lead to green discoloration. Although such reactions have been known for a long time, there is a lack of information on the chemical nature of the reaction products. SEM and model systems consisting of amino acids and CQA were subjected to alkaline treatment and, for comparison, to oxidation of CQA by polyphenoloxidase (PPO. Several green trihydroxy benzacridine (TBA derivatives were tentatively identified in all samples by UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Surprisingly, in alkaline-treated samples of particular amino acids as well as in SEM, the same six TBA isomers were detected. In contrast, the enzymatically oxidized samples resulted in only three TBA derivatives. Contrary to previous findings, neither peptide nor amino acid residues were attached to the resultant benzacridine core. The results indicate that the formation of TBA derivatives is caused by the reaction between CQA quinones and free NH2 groups. Further research is necessary to elucidate the structure of the addition products for a comprehensive evaluation of food and feed safety aspects.

  16. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-11-20

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Delignification of EFB facilitated the hydrolysis of EFB-xylan by a pure endo-β-1,4-xylanase. Up to 91% (w/w) of the non-extracted xylan in the delignified EFB was hydrolysed compared to less than 4% (w/w) of that in untreated EFB. Alkaline extraction of EFB, without prior delignification, yielded only 50% of the xylan. The xylan obtained was hydrolysed only for 40% by the endo-xylanase used. Hence, delignification alone outperformed alkaline extraction as pretreatment for enzymatic fingerprinting of EFB xylans. From the analysis of the oligosaccharide-fingerprint of the delignified endo-xylanase hydrolysed EFB xylan, the structure was proposed as acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoarabinoxylan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective leaching of Zn from spent alkaline batteries using environmentally friendly approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam Sadeghi, S; Vanpeteghem, Guillaumme; Neto, Isabel F F; Soares, Helena M V M

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using microwave or ultrasound to assist the efficient and selective leaching of Zn from spent alkaline batteries and compare the results with those obtained using the conventional method. Two different strategies were applied: acid leaching of a washed residue and alkaline leaching of the original residue. In both (acid and alkaline) approaches, the use of microwave- or ultrasound-assisted leaching increased the extraction of Zn compared with the best results obtained using conventional leaching [acid leaching (1.5mol/L H 2 SO 4 , 3h, 80°C), 90% of Zn extracted; alkaline leaching (6mol/L NaOH, 3h, 80°C), 42% of Zn extracted]. With acid leaching, 94% of the Zn was extracted using microwave-assisted leaching (1 cycle, 30s, 1mol/L H 2 SO 4 ), and 92% of the Zn was extracted using ultrasound-assisted leaching (2min, 0.1p, 20% amplitude, 1mol/L H 2 SO 4 ). Ultrasound-assisted leaching resulted in a more selective (Zn/Mn ratio of 5.1) Zn extraction than microwave-assisted leaching (Zn/Mn ratio of 3.5); both processes generated a concentrated Zn solution (⩾18.7g/L) with a purity (83.3% and 77.7%, respectively) that was suitable for electrowinning. With alkaline leaching, microwave- (1 cycle, 3 min, 4mol/L NaOH) and ultrasound-assisted (14min, 0.1p, 20% amplitude, 4mol/L NaOH) leaching extracted about 80% of the Zn and less than 0.01% of the Mn, which resulted in lesser concentrated Zn solutions (approximately 16.5g/L) but with high purity (>99.5%) that was suitable for the recovery of Zn by precipitation. The microwave- and ultrasound-assisted leaching strategies used in this work proved to be efficient and environmentally-friendly approaches for the extraction of Zn from spent alkaline residues since a concentrated Zn solution with adequate purity for subsequent Zn recovery was obtained using significantly decreased leaching times and concentrations of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Kinetics of the mechanochemical synthesis of alkaline-earth metal amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garroni, Sebastiano; Takacs, Laszlo; Leng, Haiyan; Delogu, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    A phenomenological framework is developed to model the kinetics of the formation of alkaline-earth metal amides by the ball milling induced reaction of their hydrides with gaseous ammonia. It is shown that the exponential character of the kinetic curves is modulated by the increase of the total volume of the powder inside the reactor due to the substantially larger molar volume of the products compared to the reactants. It is claimed that the volume of powder effectively processed during each collision connects the transformation rate to the physical and chemical processes underlying the mechanochemical transformations.

  19. Extraction of uranium from alkaline medium by organic extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El - nadi, Y.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    A recent possible route for treatment of small amounts of neutron irradiated uranium from alkaline medium was addressed. This have some advantages related to the isolation of many troublesome fission products which forms insoluble carbonates or hydroxides upon alkaline carbonate dissolution of uranium oxide. In alkaline solution containing sodium carbonate and hydroxide, hexavalent uranium is expected to be dissolved in solution whereby most of the fission products transition elements exemplified by zirconium and niobium as well as trivalent lanthanides and actinides will be precipitated. Therefore, in this medium the solution will contain mainly alkali and alkaline earth metal such as Cs + and Sr 2+ and anionic fission products such as pertechnetates and antimonates, Which can be easily separted from uranium. Therefore, The present thesis is directed to investigate the following; 1 - solubility of uranium oxide in alkaline medium consists of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide in presence of oxidizing agent. 2 - Extraction of uranium from the aforementioned alkaline medium by immiscible organic diluent containing different amine extractants. 3 - Extraction behaviour of uranium by the macroporous anion exchanger, amberlite IRA - 410, from alkaline solution

  20. Biomaterials in the repair of sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, Paul; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal stimulation of tissue regeneration in bone, cartilage and spinal cord injuries involves a judicious selection of biomaterials with tailored chemical compositions, micro- and nanostructures, porosities and kinetic release properties for the delivery of relevant biologically active molecules.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters. The study indicated that the mean value of studied parameters, except electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total alkalinity, calcium ion, sulphate ion, and total phosphorus of the river water samples were within the permissible limit of WHO for drinking water ...

  2. Development of anionic membranes produced by radiation-grafting for alkaline fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Clotilde Coppini

    2017-01-01

    Anion Exchange Membranes (AEMs) are a promising alternative to the development of more efficient electrolytes for alkaline fuel cells. In general, the AEMs are ionomeric membranes able to conduct hydroxide ions (OH - ) due to the quaternary ammonium groups, which confer high pH equivalent to the AEM. In order to develop alkaline membranes with high chemical and thermal stability, besides satisfactory ionic conductivity for alkaline fuel cells, membranes based on low density polyethylene (LDPE), ultrahigh weight molecular weight polyethylene (UHWHPE), poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (PETFE) and poly(hexafluoropropylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (PFEP) previously irradiated by using 60 Co gamma and electron beam sources, have been synthesized by styrene-grafting, and functionalized with trimethylamine to introduced quaternary ammonium groups. The resulting membranes were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The determination of the grafting degree and water uptake were conducted by gravimetry and ion exchange capacity, by titration. The membranes synthesized with PELD and PEUHMW polymers pre-irradiated at 70 kGy and stored at low temperature (-70 deg C), up to 10 months, showed ionic conductivity results, in hydroxide form (OH - ), of 29 mS.cm -1 and 14 mS.cm -1 at 65 deg C, respectively. The PFEP polymers irradiated by the simultaneous process showed insufficient grating levels for the membrane synthesis, requiring more studies to improve the irradiation and grafting process. The styrene-grafted PETFE membranes, pre-irradiated at 70 kGy and stored at low temperature (-70 deg C), up to 10 months, showed ionic conductivity results, in hydroxide form (OH - ), of 90 mS.cm -1 to 165 mS.cm -1 , in the temperature range 30 to 60 deg C. Such results have demonstrated that LDPE, UHMWPE and PETFE based AEMs are promising electrolytes for alkaline fuel cell

  3. Investigation on application of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis for alkaline waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilov, V.P.; Bessonov, A.A.; Garnov, A.Y.; Gelis, A.V.

    1997-09-01

    The stabilization of neptunium(IV) in alkaline solution by chemical reductants under various conditions was studied. Testing showed that neptunium(V) is slowly reduced to Np(IV) by V(IV) at room temperature in alkaline solutions. Increasing temperature accelerates reduction. Complete reduction of 2 x 10 -4 M Np(V) occurs in three hours at 80 degrees C in 1 M NaOH with 0.02 M VOSO 4- . Under similar conditions, but in 5 M NaOH, only 15 to 20% of the Np(V) was reduced in 5 hours. In all cases, about 98 % of the initial neptunium was found in the precipitate. Thus V(IV) acts both as a reductant and as a precipitation carrier. Tests showed Np(V) reduction by hydrazine hydrate could be catalyzed by Pd(II). Reduction increased with temperature and catalyst concentration and decreased with hydroxide concentration. Reduction of Np(V) also takes place in 1 M NaOH solutions containing 1 M sodium formate and palladium. Increasing temperature accelerates reduction; with three hours' treatment in 5 M NaOH solution at 90 degrees C, about 95 % of the initial 2 x 10 -4 M neptunium(V) is transformed to Np(IV). Organic complexants and organic acid anions hinder the decontamination of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium by coprecipitation with d-element hydroxides (the Method of Appearing Reagents). It was found that ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetate (HEDTA) are decomposed by H 2 O 2 in alkaline solution in the presence of cobalt compounds with heating and by Na2S208 at moderate temperatures. Citrate, glycolate, and oxalate are decomposed by Na 2 S 2 O 8 with heating. Oxidant amounts must be increased when NaNO 2 also is present in solution. 8 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Efficient utilization of licorice root by alkaline extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hirokazu; Miyoshi, Shozo; Araho, Daisuke; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Tsuda, Tadashi; Sunaga, Katsuyoshi; Amano, Shigeru; Ohkoshi, Emika; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kazue; Yamamoto, Masaji

    2014-01-01

    Compared to studies of water extracts of plants, those utilising alkaline extracts are limited. Both water and alkaline extracts from licorice root were compared regarding their biological activities. Licorice root was successively extracted first with water or alkaline solution (pH 9 or 12), and the alkaline (pH 12.0) extract was further separated into 50% ethanol-soluble and -insoluble fractions. Viable cell number was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 was determined by turbidity assay. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP)3A4 activity was measured by β-hydroxylation of testosterone using human recombinant CYP3A4. Radical intensity of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Alkaline extraction yielded slightly higher amounts of dried materials compared to water extraction. Alkaline extract showed higher anti-HIV and antibacterial activities, and similar magnitudes of CYP3A4 inhibitory and superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, compared to water extract. When alkaline extract was fractionated by 50% ethanol, anti-HIV activity was recovered from the insoluble fraction representing approximately 3% of the alkaline extract, whereas antibacterial activity was concentrated in the soluble fraction rich in glycyrrhizid acid, flavanones and chalcones. All extracts and sub-fractions led to bimodal hormetic dose-response (maximum hormetic response=238%) on the bacterial growth. The present study demonstrated the superiority of alkaline extraction over water extraction for preparing anti-HIV and antibacterial agents at higher yield from licorice root. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of alkaline xylanases from Bacillus pumilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Marta Cristina Teixeira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline xylanases produced by four different strains of Bacillus pumilus were characterized. The optimal pH and temperature were pH 9.0 and 60ºC for strain 13a, and pH 8.0 and 55ºC for strains 5(2, 5(14, and 4a. Under these conditions the following activities were found after 10 min in the presence of 1% xylan (birchwood: 328 U.ml-1, 131 U.ml-1, 90 U.ml-1, and 167 U.ml-1, respectively, for the four strains. The enzymes were stable at 40ºC, with 40% of the xylanase activity remaining after 2 hours for the enzymes of strain 5(2 and 60% for the other three strains. Stability at 50ºC was improved by addition of glycerol. Taking into account the conditions under which kraft pulps are bleached during the manufacture of paper, xylanases from B. pumilus exhibit favorable potential for application to bleaching in the paper making process.

  6. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  7. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model

  8. Alkaline Phosphatase, an Unconventional Immune Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A. Rader

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (APs, revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP (hAP proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP and intestinal AP (IAP. This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes, including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism, and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharide, and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant bovine APs and recombinant hAPs are currently being explored for their potential as pharmacological agents to treat AP-associated diseases and mitigate multiple sources of inflammation. Continued research on these versatile proteins will undoubtedly provide insight into human pathophysiology, biochemistry, and the human holobiont.

  9. Alkaline Materials and Regenerative Endodontics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Kahler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periapical health is the primary goal of endodontic treatment in mature and immature teeth. In addition, the goals of treatment of immature teeth with arrested root development include root growth to length and maturation of the apex, as well as thickening of the canal wall. These goals are valid for immature teeth that have been subjected to trauma and dental caries or that are the result of developmental anomalies that expose the tooth to the risk of pulp necrosis and consequently result in the cessation of root maturation. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs have been described as a “paradigm shift” in the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis and underdeveloped roots, as there is the potential for further root maturation and return of vitality. Treatment with REPs is advocated as the treatment of choice for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. REP protocols involve the use of alkaline biomaterials, primarily sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates and Biodentine, and are the essential components of a successful treatment regimen.

  10. Lightning Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Lightning Injuries By Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME, Assistant Clinical ...

  11. Urethral Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Urethral Injuries By Noel A. Armenakas, MD, Clinical Professor of ...

  12. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  13. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  14. Corneal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001017.htm Corneal injury To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  15. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how quickly you get treatment. Causes of electrical injuries include Lightning strikes Faulty electrical appliances Work-related exposures Contact with household wiring or power lines Accidents in small children, when they bite or suck on electrical cords, ...

  16. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis or a similar sport that involves sprinting ... may not be able to bear the full force of the action required during certain activities. Muscle ...

  17. Testicular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can happen when the testicle receives a forceful direct blow or when the testicle is crushed against ... to avoid testicular injuries, especially if you play sports, exercise a lot, or just live an all- ...

  18. Crush injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, Ragazzoni L, Djatali A, Della Corte F. Introduction to structural collapse (crush injury and crush syndrome). ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  20. Immobilization of alkaline phosphatase on magnetic particles by site-specific and covalent cross-linking catalyzed by microbial transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kousuke; Sung, Kyunga; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was site-specifically and covalently immobilized on magnetic particles (MPs) using the enzymatic reaction of microbial transglutaminase (MTG). Immobilization efficiency was affected by the chemical surface treatment of MPs and immobilized BAP exhibited more than 90% of the initial activity after 10 rounds of recycling. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Estimation Formation Alkaline In The Proses Desalination MSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latiffah, Siti Nurul

    2000-01-01

    Already to go on estimation phenomena formation alkaline scale of a seawater. In desalination system seawater on MSF to go on scale by a thermal decomposition HCO sub.3- ion and hydrolysis carbonate ion with water on the temperature operation. The varieties alkaline scale in attached on tube surface, while reduced efficiency heat transfer and to raise corrosion attack to structure material is caused all this high cost. Estimation to take please which a sum step by step decomposition ion bicarbonate from then information scale which carbonate and hydroxyl ion. The various scale maximal is alkaline form is a calcium carbonate = 116,5 gram per meter cubic the various sedimentation is alkaline and magnesium hydroxide = 67,57 gram per meter cubic

  2. Microbial alkaline pectinases and their industrial applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoondal, G S; Tiwari, R P; Tewari, R; Dahiya, N; Beg, Q K

    2002-08-01

    The biotechnological potential of pectinolytic enzymes from microorganisms has drawn a great deal of attention from various researchers worldwide as likely biological catalysts in a variety of industrial processes. Alkaline pectinases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in the current biotechnological arena with wide-ranging applications in textile processing, degumming of plant bast fibers, treatment of pectic wastewaters, paper making, and coffee and tea fermentations. The present review features the potential applications and uses of microbial alkaline pectinases, the nature of pectin, and the vast range of pectinolytic enzymes that function to mineralize pectic substances present in the environment. It also emphasizes the environmentally friendly applications of microbial alkaline pectinases thereby revealing their underestimated potential. The review intends to explore the potential of these enzymes and to encourage new alkaline pectinase-based industrial technology.

  3. Microbial alkaline proteases: Optimization of production parameters and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanupriya Miglani Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are hydrolytic enzymes capable of degrading proteins into small peptides and amino acids. They account for nearly 60% of the total industrial enzyme market. Proteases are extensively exploited commercially, in food, pharmaceutical, leather and detergent industry. Given their potential use, there has been renewed interest in the discovery of proteases with novel properties and a constant thrust to optimize the enzyme production. This review summarizes a fraction of the enormous reports available on various aspects of alkaline proteases. Diverse sources for isolation of alkaline protease producing microorganisms are reported. The various nutritional and environmental parameters affecting the production of alkaline proteases in submerged and solid state fermentation are described. The enzymatic and physicochemical properties of alkaline proteases from several microorganisms are discussed which can help to identify enzymes with high activity and stability over extreme pH and temperature, so that they can be developed for industrial applications.

  4. Palladium-based nanocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation in alkaline media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct alcohol alkaline fuel cells (DAAFCs) are potential power sources for a variety of portable applications as they provide unique advantages over hydrogen-based fuel cell devices. Alcohols (such as methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol...

  5. Effects of alkaline treatment for fibroblastic adhesion on titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam Cuellar-Flores

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The treatment of Ti plates with NaOH enhances cell adhesion and the proliferation of HPLF cells. Clinically, the alkaline treatment of Ti-based implants could be an option to improve and accelerate osseointegration.

  6. Kinetics of the Fading of Phenolphthalein in Alkaline Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lois

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment which illustrates pseudo-first-order kinetics in the fading of a common indicator in an alkaline solution. Included are background information, details of materials used, laboratory procedures, and sample results. (CW)

  7. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. S T Nandibewoor. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 121 Issue 3 May 2009 pp 275-281 Full Papers. Mechanistic study of ruthenium (III) catalysed oxidation of L-lysine by diperiodatoargentate (III) in aqueous alkaline medium · R R Hosamani S T ...

  8. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Shweta J Malode. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 124 Issue 2 March 2012 pp 421-430. Mechanistic aspects of Os(VIII) catalysed oxidation of loop diuretic drug furosemide by Ag(III) periodate complex in aqueous alkaline medium · Shweta J Malode ...

  9. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  10. Imaging of alkaline phosphatase activity in bone tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P Gade

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a paradigm for quantitative molecular imaging of bone cell activity. We hypothesized the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of the osteoblast enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP using a small imaging molecule in combination with (19Flourine magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((19FMRSI. 6, 8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP, a fluorinated ALP substrate that is activatable to a fluorescent hydrolysis product was utilized as a prototype small imaging molecule. The molecular structure of DiFMUP includes two Fluorine atoms adjacent to a phosphate group allowing it and its hydrolysis product to be distinguished using (19Fluorine magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((19FMRS and (19FMRSI. ALP-mediated hydrolysis of DiFMUP was tested on osteoblastic cells and bone tissue, using serial measurements of fluorescence activity. Extracellular activation of DiFMUP on ALP-positive mouse bone precursor cells was observed. Concurringly, DiFMUP was also activated on bone derived from rat tibia. Marked inhibition of the cell and tissue activation of DiFMUP was detected after the addition of the ALP inhibitor levamisole. (19FMRS and (19FMRSI were applied for the non-invasive measurement of DiFMUP hydrolysis. (19FMRS revealed a two-peak spectrum representing DiFMUP with an associated chemical shift for the hydrolysis product. Activation of DiFMUP by ALP yielded a characteristic pharmacokinetic profile, which was quantifiable using non-localized (19FMRS and enabled the development of a pharmacokinetic model of ALP activity. Application of (19FMRSI facilitated anatomically accurate, non-invasive imaging of ALP concentration and activity in rat bone. Thus, (19FMRSI represents a promising approach for the quantitative imaging of bone cell activity during bone formation with potential for both preclinical and clinical applications.

  11. Geochemical aspects of alkaline massif of Banhadao, PR, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C.B.; Dutra, C.V.

    1987-01-01

    The alkaline massif of Banhadao, located near Cerro Azul, State of Parana, southern Brazil, occupies an area of about 8 Km 2 and is constituted by three magnetic associations: a group of mesocratic to leucocratic coarse nepheline syenites (NeS) (melanite NeS, NeS I, and light reddish and grey varieties of NeS II); a second group of medium to fine-grained ultrabasic to basic rocks (phlogopite melteigites and petrologically related malignites and feldspar-melanite ijolites); and a group of fine-grained to aphanitic phonolotic dikes, cutting NeS. The rocks of the complex are miaskitic, showing low concentrations of trace elements (V, Th and mainly REE), lack of rare metal silicates, and relative abundance of apatite and sphene. NeS are distinguished by a differentiation trend in which highly differentiated end members are enriched in alkalis and Al 2 O 3 , with decrease in MgO, FeO (total), CaO and TiO 2 . The less differentiated melanite-rich rocks show higher concentrations in Zr, Nb, Y and V. Phlogopite melteigites and associated rocks show the highest contents of MgO, FeO (total), CaO and TiO 2 , and the lowest concentration of alkalis and Al 2 O 3 ; they are significantly enriched in Ba and are the only rocks with detectable amounts of Ni, Cu and Cr. The phonolites are chemically similar to NeS. The Banhadao rocks were probably formed during successive intrusions of two different magmas types. The source of NeS and phonolites was probably a nephelinitic magma, while phlogopite melteigites and related rocks were probably derived from an alkali-enriched ferromagnesian magna. Both parent magmas probably derived by melting of rocks of the lower crust or upper mantle. (author) [pt

  12. Fluorescence quenching based alkaline phosphatase activity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yaqi; Hu, Qiong; Zhou, Baojing; Zhang, Yonghui; He, Minhui; Xu, Ting; Li, Feng; Kong, Jinming

    2018-01-01

    Simple and fast detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is of great importance for diagnostic and analytical applications. In this work, we report a turn-off approach for the real-time detection of ALP activity on the basis of the charge transfer induced fluorescence quenching of the Cu(BCDS) 2 2- (BCDS = bathocuproine disulfonate) probe. Initially, ALP can enzymatically hydrolyze the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate to release ascorbic acid (AA). Subsequently, the AA-mediated reduction of the Cu(BCDS) 2 2- probe, which displays an intense photoluminescence band at the wavelength of 402nm, leads to the static quenching of fluorescence of the probe as a result of charge transfer. The underlying mechanism of the fluorescence quenching was demonstrated by quantum mechanical calculations. The Cu(BCDS) 2 2- probe features a large Stokes shift (86nm) and is highly immune to photo bleaching. In addition, this approach is free of elaborately designed fluorescent probes and allows the detection of ALP activity in a real-time manner. Under optimal conditions, it provides a fast and sensitive detection of ALP activity within the dynamic range of 0-220mUmL -1 , with a detection limit down to 0.27mUmL -1 . Results demonstrate that it is highly selective, and applicable to the screening of ALP inhibitors in drug discovery. More importantly, it shows a good analytical performance for the direct detection of the endogenous ALP levels of undiluted human serum and even whole blood samples. Therefore, the proposed charge transfer based approach has great potential in diagnostic and analytical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Photovoltaic hydrogen production with commercial alkaline electrolysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursua, A.; Lopez, J.; Gubia, E.; Marroyo, L.; Sanchis, P. [Public Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources and Electrolysis generate the so-called green Hydrogen, a zero-emission and potentially fossil fuel independent energy source. However, the inherent variability of the renewable energy sources implies a mode of operation for which most current electrolysers have not been designed. This paper analyses the operation of a water electrolyser fed with photovoltaic (PV) generator electric profile. The system, Integrated by a 1 Nm{sup 3}/h Hydrogenics alkaline electrolyser and a 5100 W PV generator with 60 BP585 modules, is installed at the Public University of Navarra (Spain). The PV generator profile fed to the electrolyser is emulated by a custom-made apparatus designed and built by the authors of this paper. The profile is designed according to real irradiance data measured by a calibration cell. The irradiance data are converted to the electric power profile that the PV generator would have delivered in case of having been connected to the electrolyser by means of a DC/DC converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Finally, from previously measured power-current electrolyser characteristic curves, the current profile to be delivered to the electrolyser is obtained and programmed to the electronic device. The electrolyser was tested for two types of days. During the first day, the irradiance was very stable, whereas during the second day, the irradiance was very variable. The experimental results show an average power consumption rate and an efficiency of 4908 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 72.1%, on the first day, and 4842 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 73.3% on the second day. The electrolyser performance was particularly good in spite of the high variability of the electric supply of the second day. (orig.)

  14. Chlorine solubility in evolved alkaline magmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Carroll

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of Cl solubility in trachytic to phonolitic melts provide insights into the capacity of alkaline magmas to transport Cl from depth to the earth?s surface and atmosphere, and information on Cl solubility variations with pressure, temperature and melt or fluid composition is crucial for understanding the reasons for variations in Cl emissions at active volcanoes. This paper provides a brief review of Cl solubility experiments conducted on a range of trachytic to phonolitic melt compositions. Depending on the experimental conditions the melts studied were in equilibrium with either a Cl-bearing aqueous fluid or a subcritical assemblage of low- Cl aqueous fluid + Cl-rich brine. The nature of the fluid phase(s was identified by examination of fluid inclusions present in run product glasses and the fluid bulk composition was calculated by mass balance. Chlorine concentrations in the glass increase with increasing Cl molality in the fluid phase until a plateau in Cl concentration is reached when melt coexists with aqueous fluid + brine. With fluids of similar Cl molality, higher Cl concentrations are observed in peralkaline phonolitic melts compared with peraluminous phonolitic melts; overall the Cl concentrations observed in phonolitic and trachytic melts are approximately twice those found in calcalkaline rhyolitic melts under similar conditions. The observed negative pressure dependence of Cl solubility implies that Cl contents of melts may actually increase during magma decompression if the magma coexists with aqueous fluid and Cl-rich brine (assuming melt-vapor equilibrium is maintained. The high Cl contents (approaching 1 wt% Cl observed in some melts/glasses from the Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei areas suggest saturation with a Cl-rich brine prior to eruption.

  15. Economic Analysis of Improved Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm; Ketelaer, Thomas; Koj, Jan Christian

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is a mature hydrogen production technology and there exists a range of economic assessments for available technologies. For advanced AWEs, which may be based on novel polymer-based membrane concepts, it is of prime importance that development comes along with new configurations and technical and economic key process parameters for AWE that might be of interest for further economic assessments. This paper presents an advanced AWE technology referring to three different sites in Europe (Germany, Austria, and Spain). The focus is on financial metrics, the projection of key performance parameters of advanced AWEs, and further financial and tax parameters. For financial analysis from an investor’s (business) perspective, a comprehensive assessment of a technology not only comprises cost analysis but also further financial analysis quantifying attractiveness and supply/market flexibility. Therefore, based on cash flow (CF) analysis, a comprehensible set of metrics may comprise levelised cost of energy or, respectively, levelized cost of hydrogen (LCH) for cost assessment, net present value (NPV) for attractiveness analysis, and variable cost (VC) for analysis of market flexibility. The German AWE site turns out to perform best in all three financial metrics (LCH, NPV, and VC). Though there are slight differences in investment cost and operation and maintenance cost projections for the three sites, the major cost impact is due to the electricity cost. Although investment cost is slightly lower and labor cost is significantly lower in Spain, the difference can not outweigh the higher electricity cost compared to Germany. Given the assumption that the electrolysis operators are customers directly and actively participating in power markets, and based on the regulatory framework in the three countries, in this special case electricity cost in Germany is lowest. However, as electricity cost is profoundly influenced by political decisions as

  16. The heterogeneous reactions of silica, titania and zirconia with alkaline-earth metal oxides in metal chloride melts - to form alkaline-earth metal silicates titanates and zirconates. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packter, A.; Zaidi, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility versus temperature phase diagrams, for calcium, strontium and barium oxide (silicate and titanate) solutions in the metal chloride melts at 800 to 1400 0 C, have been analysed. The alkaline-earth metal oxide solutions are binary mixtures with solvate formation and the liquid phases probably contain [O . 4 MCl 2 ] 2- , [O . MCl 2 ] 2- and O 2- anions. The alkaline-earth metal metsilicate solutions are non-ideal binary mixtures and the liquid phases probably contain mainly Si 3 O 9 6- anions: the orthosilicate solutions probably contain [SiO 4 . MCl 2 ] 4- and SiO 4 4- anions. The alkaline-earth metal titanate solutions are ideal binary mixtures upto titanate mole fraction 0.3-0.6 and the liquid phases probably contain only TiO 3 2- anions. The overall ionic equilibria, occurring in the liquid phases during the chemical reactions of silica (and titania) with alkaline-earth metal oxides in metal chloride melts in this temperature range, were thence assessed. (author)

  17. Protective and/or recovering effects of various kinds of chemicals and drugs to the hemopoietic injuries caused by the irradiation of 60Co γ-rays in the mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagimoto, Akio

    1987-01-01

    We have injected eleven kinds of chemical substances and drugs intraperitoneally in the male ddN mice, and studied the relative protective and/or recovering effects of them to the hemopoietic injuries caused by the whole body irradiation of 600R of 60 Co γ-rays. Good radioprotective activity on bone marrow cells in the irradiated mice was found, when we administered AET (S, 2-aminoethylisothiuronium Br. HBr) before irradiation, 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophane) in low dosage before irradiation, Glutathione before irradiation, or Serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) in high dosage before irradiation. Good radioprotective or recovering activity was observed on the weight of the spleen, by Serotonin in high and low dosage before irradiation, or DBCC (5,6-dimethyl benzimidazolyl cobamide coenzyme; Vitamin B 12 ) after irradiation. Positive responses of reticulocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were obtained in the irradiated mice, when we administered Serotonin in high dosage before irradiation, MET (S-Methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide) before irradiation, a cocktail of Periactin (Cyproheptadine hydrochloride) and Serotonin before irradiation, MET before and after irradiation or Nucleo (a mixture of products made by degrading yeast-RNA) after irradiation respectively. A good response in leukocyte count was observed when Serotonin in high dosage before irradiation was administered, and in granulocyte count by Serotonin in high dosage before or 5-HTP in low dosage before irradiation. Lymphocyte count was protected or recovered by Serotonin in high dosage before or Nucleo after irradiation. Thrombocyte count was protected by Serotonin in high and low dosage before, Glutathione before, or AET before irradiation.(author)

  18. Emplacement of Amba Dongar Carbonatite-alkaline Complex at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40Ar-39Ar analyses of three fresh alkaline rock samples and a phlogopite separate from a carbonatite from Amba Dongar carbonatite-alkaline complex of the Deccan Flood Basalt Province, India, yield indistinguishable precise plateau ages of 64.8 ± 0.6, 64.7 ± 0.5, 65.5 ± 0.8 and 65.3 ± 0.6 Ma, giving a mean plateau age ...

  19. Processes determining the marine alkalinity and carbonate saturation distributions

    OpenAIRE

    B. R. Carter; J. R. Toggweiler; R. M. Key; J. L. Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a composite tracer, Alk*, that has a global distribution primarily determined by CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution. Alk* also highlights riverine alkalinity plumes that are due to dissolved calcium carbonate from land. We estimate the Arctic receives approximately twice the riverine alkalinity per unit area as the Atlantic, and 8 times that of the other oceans. Riverine inputs broadly elevate Alk* in the Arctic surface and particularly near ri...

  20. A bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water protects from ethanol-induced hemorrhagic gastric lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassini, Romina; Andrè, Eunice; Gazzieri, David; De Siena, Gaetano; Zanasi, Alessandro; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Materazzi, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of elevated amounts of ethanol in humans and rodents induces hemorrhagic gastric lesions, at least in part by increasing oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the influence of a bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water (Uliveto on ethanol-induced hemorrhagic gastric lesions in mice. Lesions were evaluated by both macroscopic and microscopic analysis. In a first set of experiments, mice were allowed to drink Uliveto or reference water ad libitum until 3 h prior to intragastric (i.g.) ethanol (23 ml/kg) administration. Neither Uliveto nor reference water did afford any protection. In a second set of experiments, acute exposure to reference water (35 ml/kg, i.g.), given 30 min before ethanol, did not inhibit gastric lesions. However, administration of the same amount of Uliveto caused a remarkable reduction in ethanol-evoked gastric lesions. Ethanol administration increased 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal levels, a byproduct of oxidative stress, in the luminal part of the gastric mucosa. This response was substantially reduced by about 70% by Uliveto, but not by reference water. Reference water, added with the bicarbonate content, present in the Uliveto water, protected against ethanol-induced lesions. Thus, acute pre-exposure to bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water (Uliveto) protects from both oxidative stress and hemorrhagic gastric lesions caused by ethanol. The elevated bicarbonate content of Uliveto likely accounts for the protection against ethanol-induced gastric injury.

  1. From Geochemistry to Biochemistry: Simulating Prebiotic Chemistry Driven by Geochemical Gradients in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    Planetary water-rock interfaces generate energy in the form of redox, pH, and thermal gradients, and these disequilibria are particularly focused in hydrothermal vent systems where the reducing, heated hydrothermal fluid feeds back into the more oxidizing ocean. Alkaline hydrothermal vents have been proposed as a likely location for the origin of life on the early Earth due to various factors: including the hydrothermal pH / Eh gradients that resemble the ubiquitous electrical / proton gradients in biology, the catalytic hydrothermal precipitates that resemble inorganic catalysts in enzymes, and the presence of electron donors and acceptors in hydrothermal systems (e.g. H2 + CH4 and CO2) that are thought to have been utilized in the earliest metabolisms. Of particular importance for the emergence of metabolism are the mineral "chimneys" that precipitate at the vent fluid / seawater interface. Hydrothermal chimneys are flow-through chemical reactors that form porous and permeable inorganic membranes transecting geochemical gradients; in some ways similar to biological membranes that transect proton / ion gradients and harness these disequilibria to drive metabolism. These emergent chimney structures in the far-from-equilibrium system of the alkaline vent have many properties of interest to the origin of life that can be simulated in the laboratory: for example, they can generate electrical energy and drive redox reactions, and produce catalytic minerals (in particular the metal sulfides and iron oxyhydroxides - "green rust") that can facilitate chemical reactions towards proto-metabolic cycles and biosynthesis. Many of the factors prompting interest in alkaline hydrothermal vents on Earth may also have been present on early Mars, or even presently within icy worlds such as Europa or Enceladus - thus, understanding the disequilibria and resulting prebiotic chemistry in these systems can be of great use in assessing the potential for other environments in the Solar

  2. Production of Steel Casts in Two-Layer Moulds with Alkaline Binders Part 1. Backing sand with the alkaline inorganic binder RUDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel casts in Z.N. POMET were produced in moulds made of the moulding sand Floster. This sand did not have good knocking outproperties, required a significant binder addition (4.5-5.0 parts by weight, and the casting surface quality gave rise to clients objections.Therefore a decision of implementing two-layer moulds, in which the facing sand would consist of the moulding sand with an alkalineorganic binder while the backing sand would be made of the moulding sand with an inorganic binder also of an alkaline character - wasundertaken. The fraction of this last binder in the moulding sand mass would be smaller than that of the binder used up to now (waterglass. The application of two moulding sands of the same chemical character (highly alkaline should facilitate the reclamation processand improve the obtained reclaimed material quality, due to which it would be possible to increase the reclaim fraction in the mouldingsand (up to now it was 50%. The results of the laboratory investigations of sands with the RUDAL binder are presented in the paper.

  3. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  4. Associations between renal hyperfiltration and serum alkaline phosphatase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Won Oh

    Full Text Available Renal hyperfiltration, which is associated with renal injury, occurs in diabetic or obese individuals. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP level is also elevated in patients with diabetes (DM or metabolic syndrome (MS, and increased urinary excretion of ALP has been demonstrated in patients who have hyperfiltration and tubular damage. However, little was investigated about the association between hyperfiltration and serum ALP level. A retrospective observational study of the 21,308 adults in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-V databases (2008-2011 was performed. Renal hyperfiltration was defined as exceeding the age- and sex-specific 97.5th percentile. We divided participants into 4 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: >120, 90-119, 60-89, and 120 mL/min/1.73 m2 showed the highest risk for MS, in the highest ALP quartiles (3.848, 95% CI, 1.876-7.892, compared to the lowest quartile. Similarly, the highest risk for DM, in the highest ALP quartiles, was observed in participants with eGFR >120 ml/min/1.73 m2 (2.166, 95% CI, 1.084-4.329. ALP quartiles were significantly associated with albuminuria in participants with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The highest ALP quartile had a 1.631-fold risk elevation for albuminuria with adjustment of age and sex. (95% CI, 1.158-2.297, P = 0.005. After adjustment, the highest ALP quartile had a 1.624-fold risk elevation, for renal hyperfiltration (95% CI, 1.204-2.192, P = 0.002. In addition, hyperfiltration was significantly associated with hemoglobin, triglyceride, white blood cell count, DM, smoking, and alcohol consumption (P<0.05. The relationship between serum ALP and metabolic disorders is stronger in participants with an upper-normal range of eGFR. Higher ALP levels are significantly associated with renal hyperfiltration in Korean general population.

  5. Fabrication of MCM-41 fibers with well-ordered hexagonal mesostructure controlled in acidic and alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadeh, A.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh., E-mail: sohrabnezhad@guilan.ac.ir; Zanjanchi, M.A.; Arvand, M.

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, synthesis and characterization of two type morphologies of the MCM-41mesoporous material, nano and microfibers, were investigated by electrospinning technique. The synthesis was performed in acidic and alkaline media, separately. The MCM-41 morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used as silica and template sources for the synthesis of MCM-41 morphologies, respectively. The SEM results showed that MCM-41 nanofibers were spun in acidic media and microfibers of MCM-41 were produced in alkaline media. The XRD study revealed a long range structural ordering of mesoporous materials. The TEM results indicated rough surfaces with uniform average diameter 200 nm for nanofibers and 2 µm for microfibers. The pore diameter and surface area of calcined MCM-41 nanofibers were 2.2 nm and 970 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. For the MCM-41 microfibers, pore sizes of 2.7 nm and surface areas 420 m{sup 2}/g was measured. - Graphical abstract: Electrospinning method was used for fabricating of MCM-41 microfibers from TEOS in alkaline media (top) and MCM-41 nanofibers in acidic media (bottom). - Highlights: • Synthesis of MCM-41 nanofibers and microfibers by electrospinning technique. • MCM-41 nanofibers were synthesized in acidic media. • MCM-41 manofibers spun in alkaline media. • Electrospinning was a simple method for preparing of fibers with respect to chemical method.

  6. Micromechanical Characterization of Hydrogels Undergoing Swelling and Dissolution at Alkaline pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The swelling of polyelectrolyte hydrogels usually depends on the pH, and if the pH is high enough degradation can occur. A microindentation device was developed to dynamically test these processes in whey protein isolate hydrogels at alkaline pH 7–14. At low alkaline pH the shear modulus decreases during swelling, consistent with rubber elasticity theory, yet when chemical degradation occurs at pH ≥ 11.5 the modulus decreases quickly and extensively. The apparent modulus was constant with the indentation depth when swelling predominates, but gradients were observed when fast chemical degradation occurs at 0.05–0.1 M NaOH. In addition, these profiles were constant with time when dissolution rates are also constant, the first evidence that a swollen layer with steady state mechanical properties is achieved despite extensive dissolution. At >0.5 M NaOH, we provide mechanical evidence showing that most interactions inside the gels are destroyed, gels were very weak and hardly swell, yet they still dissolve very slowly. Microindentation can provide complementary valuable information to study the degradation of hydrogels.

  7. Speciation and Oxidative Stability of Alkaline Soluble, Non-Pertechnetate Technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Amity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cho, Herman M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The long half-life, complex chemical behavior in tank waste, limited incorporation in mid- to high-temperature immobilization processes, and high mobility in subsurface environments make technetium (Tc) one of the most difficult contaminants to dispose of and/or remediate. Technetium exists predominantly in the liquid tank waste phase as the relatively mobile form of pertechnetate, TcO4-. However, based on experimentation to date a significant fraction of the soluble Tc cannot be effectively separated from the wastes and may be present as a non- pertechnetate species. The presence of a non-pertechnetate species significantly complicates disposition of low-activity waste (LAW), and the development of methods to either convert them to pertechnetate or to separate directly is needed. The challenge is the uncertainty regarding the chemical form of the alkaline-soluble low-valent non-pertechnetate species in the liquid tank waste. This report summarizes work done in fiscal year (FY) 2014 exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium(I) species, [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants.

  8. Stability Modification of SPR Silver Nano-Chips by Alkaline Condensation of Aminopropyltriethoxysilane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorbanpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Silver SPR chip was modified by alkaline-silane condensation with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES in NaOH aqueous solution at different times. Silver sputtered slides coated with APTES were immersed in NaOH solution, enabling us to produce silver surfaces homogeneously covered with APTES. The surface properties of grafted APTES on sputtered silver surface as a occasion of time were studied using SPR analysis, AFM and contact angle measurement. The mechanical and chemical stability of samples was assayed by tape test and NaCl test. The answers show that hydrolysis and condensation of APTES are activated in alkaline solution and lead to formation of a protective APTES layer on the surface of silver. The morphology of APTES on silver surface is a function of coverage density that is altered by changing time. At short times (< 30 min, APTES molecules physically adsorb to the surface leads to weak protection. At higher condensation times, APTES molecules chemically bond to the surface and each other leads to better protection.

  9. Electrocatalytic behaviour of NiBi coatings for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mert, Mehmet Erman; Kardas, Guelfeza

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The electrocatalysis for the hydrogen evolution reaction were investigated. → For this purpose, nickel-bismuth binary coatings with various chemical compositions were galvanostatically deposited on the copper electrode. → The trace amount of Bi additives in Ni coatings, improve the properties of coating and enhance the surface roughness and catalytic activity. - Abstract: The nickel-bismuth binary coatings with various chemical compositions were galvanostatically deposited on the copper electrode in view of their possible applications as electrocatalytic materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solution. The HER activity of coatings was tested with the help of potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The electrochemical characterization was achieved by the means of cyclic voltammetry (CV). The surface morphology and surface composition of coatings were determined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The potentiodynamic measurements show that, the binary coatings decrease the hydrogen over potential and increase the current density values for HER. The EIS analysis confirms, the charge transfer resistances decrease and the double layer capacitance values increase for binary coatings. The EDX results in sign that the composition of binary coating changes by using coating bath. The Cu/NiBi-2 coating (Ni 2+ /Bi 3+ is 99.71:0.29 molar ratio) is the best suitable cathode composition for the HER in alkaline media under these experimental conditions.

  10. Involvement of membrane potential in alkaline band formation by internodal cells of Chara corallina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmen, Teruo; Wakabayashi, Akiko

    2008-10-01

    Internodal cells of Chara corallina form alkaline bands on their surface upon illumination via photosynthesis. In the present study, the effect of KCl on alkaline band formation was analyzed. When the extracellular KCl concentration was increased, alkaline band formation was extensively inhibited. Electrophysiological analysis unequivocally showed the need for inner negative membrane potential for alkaline band formation.

  11. 40 CFR 420.110 - Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alkaline cleaning subcategory. 420.110 Section 420.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.110 Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory... alkaline cleaning baths to remove mineral and animal fats or oils from the steel, and those rinsing...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system... Test Systems § 862.1050 Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. An alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure alkaline phosphatase or its isoenzymes...

  13. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  14. The reactivity of the electron formed in the radiolysis of aerated alkaline aqueous solutions containing tetracycline hydrochloride, at 77 Ksup(+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, S.M.L.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The radiolysis of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in aerated alkaline aqueous solutions containing 0.1, 0.5 and 1M NaOH at 77 K, followed by ESR is reported. The rate constants for the reactions between the electron and physical or chemical traps which are present in these solutions are calculated. The reactivity of electrons that are formed in the radiolysis of water decreases in the following proportions: physical traps: chemical traps: molecules of water (4.8x10sup(14) : 6.5x10sup(8) : 1.0). The electrons react preferentially with the solute instead of the solvent. (author)

  15. Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Jin, Shuguang; Li, Dongyi; Zhang, Meixia; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion efficiency, combination pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization was applied to pretreat sewage sludge. Effect of alkaline dosage on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated in detail. SCOD of sludge supernatant significantly increased with the alkaline dosage increase after the combined pretreatment because of sludge disintegration. Organics were significantly degraded after the anaerobic digestion, and the maximal SCOD, TCOD and VS removal was 73.5%, 61.3% and 43.5%, respectively. Cumulative biogas production, methane content in biogas and biogas production rate obviously increased with the alkaline dosage increase. Considering both the biogas production and alkaline dosage, the optimal alkaline dosage was selected as 0.04 mol/L. Relationships between biogas production and sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas was mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration. The methane yield linearly increased with the DDCOD increase as Methane yield (ml/gVS)=4.66 DDCOD-9.69. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alkaline phosphatase in boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, D; Isani, G; Giaretta, E; Spinaci, M; Tamanini, C; Ferlizza, E; Galeati, G

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) catalyses the detachment of phosphate residues from different substrates. Its activity has been demonstrated in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from porcine and other mammalian species; anyway, the role of AP in male reproduction has not been clarified yet and the aim of this study was to determine AP function in boar sperm capacitation and in vitro fertilization (IVF). AP activity was assayed in seminal plasma and in uncapacitated and in vitro capacitated (IVC) spermatozoa; in addition, capacitation was studied in presence of different doses of AP (1.2 and 2.5 IU/mL). The effect of different doses of AP (1.2 and 2.5 IU/mL) on several sperm parameters after IVC (viability, acrosome integrity with FITC-PSA, capacitation status with CTC staining, tyrosine phosphorylation) and on fertilizing ability during IVF were also evaluated. High AP activity was detected in seminal plasma, in particular in sperm-rich fraction; a lower activity was detected in uncapacitated spermatozoa while a significant decrease was evidenced after IVC. Viability was not changed by AP supplementation of the capacitating medium, whereas acrosome integrity and capacitation status were significantly affected by 1.2 and 2.5 doses, with a dose-dependent decrease in acrosome-reacted cells as well as in CTC B pattern displaying cells. As for sperm head protein phosphorylation, a decrease in relative fluorescence was detected in AP 2.5 group, if compared with capacitated one. After IVF, a dose-dependent decrease in penetrated oocytes was recorded, with an increase in monospermic zygote rate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that AP activity decreases under capacitating condition and that addition of AP to spermatozoa during capacitation results in a depression of the capacitating process and IVF. We can infer that AP plays a role in keeping spermatozoa quiescent until they are ejaculated and in modulating the acquisition of the fertilizing ability. © 2013 American Society of

  17. Protection of Si photocathode using TiO2 deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering for H2 evolution in alkaline media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Dowon; Shayestehaminzadeh, Seyedmohammad; Thorsteinsson, Einar B.

    2016-01-01

    Si is an excellent absorber material for use in photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production. Only a few studies have been done using Si in alkaline electrolyte for hydrogen evolution due to its poor chemical stability in high pH electrolyte, indicating that a chemically stable protection layer...

  18. Degradation of mangrove tissues by arboreal termites (Nasutitermes acajutlae) and their role in the mangrove C cycle (Puerto Rico): Chemical characterization and organic matter provenance using bulk δ13C, C/N, alkaline CuO oxidation-GC/MS, and solid-state 13C NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Christopher H.; Kim, Alexander W.; Moss-Hayes, Vicky; Snape, Colin E.; Diaz, Miguel Castro; Khan, Nicole S.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2013-08-01

    Arboreal termites are wood decaying organisms that play an important role in the first stages of C cycling in mangrove systems. The chemical composition of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia racemosa leaf, stem, and pneumatophore tissues as well as associated sediments was compared to that of nests of the termite Nasutitermes acajutlae. Nests gave δ13C values of -26.1 to -27.2‰ (±0.1) and C/N of 43.3 (±2.0) to 98.6 (±16.2) which were similar to all stem and pneumatophores but distinct from mangrove leaves or sediments. Organic matter processed by termites yielded lignin phenol concentrations (Λ, lambda) that were 2-4 times higher than stem or pneumatophores and 10-20 times higher than that of leaves or sediments, suggesting that the nests were more resistant to biodegradation than the mangrove vegetation source. 13C NMR revealed that polysaccharide content of mangrove tissues (50-69% C) was higher than that of the nests (46-51% C). Conversely, lignin accounted for 16.2-19.6% C of nest material, a threefold increase relative to living mangrove tissues; a similar increase in aromatic methoxyl content was also observed in the nests. Lipids (aliphatic and paraffinic moieties) were also important but rather variable chemical components of all three mangrove species, representing between 13.5 and 28.3% of the C content. Termite nests contained 3.14 Mg C ha-1 which represents approximately 2% of above ground C storage in mangroves, a value that is likely to increase upon burial due to their refractory chemical composition.

  19. Cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Wm J; Jenabzadeh, Kamrun; Ahrenholz, David H

    2009-11-01

    The pathophysiology of true frostbite reveals that the direct injury produced during the initial freeze process has a minor contribution to the global tissue damage. However, rapid rewarming to reverse the tissue crystallization has essentially been the lone frostbite intervention for almost half a century. The major pathologic process is the progressive microvascular thrombosis following reperfusion of the ischemic limb, with the cold-damaged endothelial cells playing a central role in the outcome of these frozen tissues. Newer interventions offer the opportunity to combat this process, and this article offers a scientific approach to frostbite injuries of the upper extremities.

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  2. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  6. Alkaline glass as induced fission fragment detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, A.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The slide glass, registered trade marks INLAB, INVICT and PERFECTA were compared. For the three kinds of glasses the following studies were done: chemical composition; general dissolution rate for hydrofluoric acid solutions of concentrations between 1 and 10M, at 30 0 C and ultrasound shaking; relative efficiency for recording fission fragment tracks from 252 Cf. The INLAB glass was selected due to the better quality of its surface after chemical etching. The HF concentration 2.5M was determined for chemical etching of INLAB glass, and the optimum etching time was chosen between 8 and 10 minutes. The thermal attenuation of latent tracks in the environmental temperature was observed for intervals uo to 31 days between the detector exposure to the fission fragment source and etching of tracks. Several methods were used for determining the detector parameters, such as: critical angle, angle of the cone and efficiency of etching. The effects of gamma irradiation from 60 Co and reactor neutrons in material properties as track detector were studied. Attenuation of latent tracks and saturation of color centers were observed for doses over 100M Rad. Since this kind of material contains uranium as impurity, uniformely distributed, slide glass were calibrated to be applied as a monitor of thermal neutron flux in nuclear reactor. (Author) [pt

  7. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, S.; Barrakzai, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Methodology: Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels of greater or equal to 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D/sub 3/ < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 +- 68.14I U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Conclusion: Serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  8. Conditioning alkaline coolant radioactive waste from research reactor BR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir, Smykov; Mikhail, Kononyuk; Kirill, Butov

    2014-01-01

    In the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russia) has developed and was successfully demonstrated a technology of solid-phase oxidation of alkaline metal by slag from the copper-smelting industry. Neutralization of alkaline metal in the solid-phase oxidation process occurs in a single phase. The solid-phase oxidation process does not result in the generation of hydrogen. The product of alkaline metal radioactive waste processing is solid mineral-like sinter of reaction products, contained inside a steel reaction container, which is immediately shipped for dry storage in a solid radioactive waste storage facility. The presence of a mercury admixture in the research reactor BR-10 (BR-10) reactor alkaline metals radioactive waste makes conditioning of that waste considerably more complicated. Laboratory research demonstrated that mercury could be effectively removed from alkaline metal by pushing the Na-K alloy through chips of metallic magnesium in elevated temperatures. For neutralization of non-drainable sodium residues and admixtures in individual equipment (cold traps, pipe lines, tanks) of the research reactor BR-10 has developed a method for neutralization of non-drainable residues of alkaline liquid metal coolants with a gaseous sub oxide of nitrogen, which is characterized by absence of hydrogen generation, improving the safety of the technology. Currently, the reactor building is undergoing installation of the experimental-industrial plant 'Magma', the purpose of which is processing of accumulated alkaline metals radioactive waste. In according with concept of 'experimental polygon for testing the decommissioning technologies of the BN series of reactors' based on the BR-10 installation, it would appear sensible to start the development of the installation for conditioning by solid-phase oxidation of up to 1000 liters of radioactive waste per loading. (author)

  9. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chenju; Lin, Ya-Ting; Shiu, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline ascorbic acid (a.k.a. vitamin C) is capable of reductively degrading NB. • The pH above the pK a2 of ascorbic acid increases reductive electron transfer to NB. • The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA is determined. • NSB, AZOXY, and AZO are identified as intermediates and aniline as a final product. • Alkaline pH is essential for AA remediation of NB contaminated soils. - Abstract: Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO 2 − ) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pK a2 of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r = ((0.89 ± 0.11) × 10 −4 mM 1−(a + b) h −1 ) × [NB] a = 1.35 ± 0.10 [AA] b = 0.89 ± 0.01 . The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  10. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  11. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis. Task 2 summary report. Model for alkaline water electrolysis systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, M.R.; Murray, J.N.

    1980-04-01

    Task 2 involved the establishment of an engineering and economic model for the evaluation of various options in water electrolysis. The mode, verification of the specific coding and four case studies are described. The model was tested by evaluation of a nearly commercial technology, i.e., an 80-kW alkaline electrolyte system, operating at 60/sup 0/C, which delivers approximately 255 SLM, hydrogen for applications such as electrical generation cooling or semiconductor manufacturing. The calculated cost of hydrogen from this installed non-optimized case system with an initial cost to the customer of $87,000 was $6.99/Kg H/sub 2/ ($1.67/100 SCF) on a 20-yr levelized basis using 2.5 cents/kWh power costs. This compares favorably to a levelized average merchant hydrogen cost value of $9.11/Kg H/sub 2/ ($2.17/100 SCF) calculated using the same program.

  12. Permeability Change of Crystalline Silicate Mineral-Packed Bed Column by Highly Alkaline Plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideo Usui; Yuichi Niibori; Hitoshi Mimura; Osamu Tochiyama

    2007-01-01

    For the construction of the geological disposal system, the use of the cementitious material may change the permeability of the natural barrier around the repository. Cementitious materials may alter the pH of ground water to highly alkaline. Also, the potential permeability change of the natural barrier is one of the notable factors for performance assessments of geological disposal systems. In the high pH region, the solubility of silica is very high compared to that in the natural pH (around 8). Therefore, highly alkaline groundwater would dissolve and alter a part of rock surface. Usui et al. (2005) reported that the change of mineral pore structure due to chemical reaction is the key factor to consider the change of the permeability [5-6]. Moreover, such a change of the pore structure was considered to be the result of the spatial heterogeneity of chemical composition. Since such spatial heterogeneity exists also in the sedimentary rocks consisting of crystalline minerals such as quartz and feldspar, we need to examine natural rock, in order to obtain more reliable understanding about the change of permeability induced by highly alkaline groundwater (plume). In this study, silica sand as crystalline mineral was packed in the column, and the effect of dissolution induced by the highly alkaline plume on the permeability-change was examined. The silica sand particles mainly consist of SiO 2 and include Al 2 O 3 , FeO, and K 2 O. The volumetric flow rate and the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the column were measured, and the permeability was calculated. At the same time, the concentrations of elements in the fluid were measured by ICP-AES. The experimental result showed that permeability decreased gradually, although the silica sand was continuously dissolved in the column. The behavior of the permeability is considered to be the result from the rearrangement of the particles, or precipitation of secondary mineral. In the column test using

  13. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  14. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    Ophthalmologist (NOG) that protective polycarbonate glasses be worn while lighting and watching of fire-works is also advocated (7). Banger-related ocular injuries result in significant ocular morbidity and unilateral visual loss. Public education regarding proper use of bangers along with strict legislation regulating their use ...

  15. Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Robey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular pH (pHe of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs. We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (. Tumor pHe buffering may reduce optimal conditions for enzymes involved in tumor invasion such as cathepsins and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs. To address this, we tested the effect of transient alkalinization on cathepsin and MMP activity using enzyme activatable fluorescence agents in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 mammary xenografts. Transient alkalinization significantly reduced the fluorescent signal of protease-specific activatable agents in vivo (. Alkalinization, however, did not affect expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX. The findings suggest a possible mechanism in a live model system for breast cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion.

  16. Elevated serum level of human alkaline phosphatase in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rehman; Awan, Fazli Rabbi; Najam, Syeda Sadia; Islam, Mehboob; Siddique, Tehmina; Zain, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass. normal weight (27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Of the 197 subjects, 97(49%) were obese and 100(51%) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity.

  17. Elevated Serum Level of Human Alkaline Phosphatase in Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Awan, F. R.; Najam, S. S.; Islam, M.; Siddique, T.; Zain, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass index: normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Results: Of the 197 subjects, 97(49 percent) were obese and 100(51 percent) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Conclusion: Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity. (author)

  18. Synergistic degradation of konjac glucomannan by alkaline and thermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weiping; Mei, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Xu, Wei; Li, Jing; Zhou, Bin; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The application of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in the food industry is always limited by its high viscosity. Hereby, low-viscosity KGM was prepared by alkaline-thermal degradation method. This process was demonstrated by the changes of average molecular weight and a kinetic model was developed. The results revealed that high alkalinity and high temperature had a synergetic effect on degradation. The structure of hydrolysates was evaluated by periodate oxidation and their fluidly properties were researched by rheology measurements. The degradation was divided into two regimes. The rate of the first regime (within 1h) is higher than that of the second one (last 1h). It is found that alkaline hydrolysis and deacetylation have a synergistic effect on the degradation under high alkalinity (pH 9.2) and low temperature condition (25 °C). Finally, rheology parameters showed alkaline-thermal degradation is a promising way that can be applied in practice to degrade KGM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of an Alkaline Solution on the Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Sorption Properties of a Typic Rhodudult Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Alves de Almeida Calábria

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The preferred option for disposal of short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive wastes is a near surface disposal facility in which soil is one of the barriers that avoid radionuclide migration outside the controlled area. For construction of that kind of facility, concrete is widely used, and its interaction with water induces its degradation, resulting in a high pH solution. The alkaline solution may affect the near-field environment of radioactive waste repositories, including the soil, promoting mineralogical alterations that result in significant changes in key properties of materials, compromising their performance as safety components. In this study, a sample of a Brazilian Typic Rhodudult soil, previously investigated concerning its performance for Cs sorption, was subjected to interaction with the alkaline solution for 24 h and for 7, 14, and 28 days in order to evaluate the impact on its chemical, mineralogical, and sorption properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and electron microprobe analysis were performed before and after each alteration period. Results indicated dissolution of minerals, such as kaolinite and quartz, associated with incorporation of K and Ca from the alkaline solution, likely resulting in the formation of hydrated calcium silicate phases (CSH, which are expected to be worse sorbents for alkaline elements (e.g., Cs than the original minerals. The Kd values for Cs in the altered samples also decreased according to the alteration period, demonstrating that alkaline interaction effectively modifies the soil sorption properties for Cs.

  20. Two-step purification of a highly thermostable alkaline protease from salt-tolerant alkaliphilic Streptomyces clavuligerus strain Mit-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumar, Jignasha; Singh, S P

    2007-07-01

    An alkaline protease from a salt-tolerant alkaliphilic Streptomyces clavuligerus was purified to homogeneity by 141-fold with a yield of 12% using two-step method of salt precipitation and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The apparent molecular mass was 49+/-2 kDa and the enzyme appeared as monomer based on SDS and Native-PAGE. The temperature optimum was 70 degrees C with significant stability at 60-80 degrees C for more than 60 min. The enzyme was active over the pH range of 8.5-11, with an optimum at 10-11. The serine nature of the protease was confirmed by PMSF inhibition. The enzyme was highly resistant against chemical denaturation and displayed varied effects towards metal ions. The results are significant as extremozymes are difficult to purify and therefore, a two-step purification of alkaline protease from relatively less explored group of actinomycetes is quite appealing.

  1. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev

    2001-12-21

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

  2. Decadal Variability of Total Alkalinity in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. N.; Carter, B. R.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.; Dickson, A. G.; Feely, R. A.; Mathis, J. T.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Talley, L. D.

    2016-02-01

    Recent observations of acidification-driven shoaling of the calcium carbonate saturation horizon in the North Pacific have prompted new interest in carbonate cycling in this region, particularly related to impacts on biogenic calcification at the surface layer. Some estimates project that the impacts of OA on alkalinity cycling are beginning to emerge. Here, we present total alkalinity concentrations along a meridional transect of the North Pacific (WOCE, CLIVAR, and US GO-SHIP line P16N; 152 °W) over a period of three decades. The largest source of variability in alkalinity concentrations is related to North Pacific circulation, particularly in the surface mixed layer. Precise normalization of these data reveal some small spatial and temporal variability in the background. We explore these decadal trends in the context of decadal oscillations, ocean biogeochemical cycles, and global change processes such as ocean acidification.

  3. Americium extraction by alkylpyrocatechin from alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karalova, Z.K.; Rodionova, L.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    Effect of iron, aluminium, calcium, and sodium nitrates on americium extraction by 0.1 mol/l DOP solution [4-(α-α dioctylethyl) pyrocatechin] in toluene from a mixture of 2 mol/l NaOH with 0.1 mol/l EDTA has been investigated. It has been shown that americium extraction does not change essen-- tially in the presence of salts that permits to use DOP for Am extraction from alkaline solutions in the presence of outside salts. Verification of the above method of extraction of radioactive isotopes has been carried out. According to the data obtained double extraction provides a preparation of alkaline solutions practically free from radioactive isotopes. DOP application for Am extraction from alkaline salt solutions allows one to carry out repeated Am concentration and separation from accompanying elements. Conditions, under which Fe(3)-Am(3) pair separation coefficient achieves nx10 2 -10 4 , have been found out

  4. Neutral and alkaline cellulases: Production, engineering, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hmad, Ines; Gargouri, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Neutral and alkaline cellulases from microorganisms constitute a major group of the industrial enzymes and find applications in various industries. Screening is the important ways to get novel cellulases. Most fungal cellulases have acidic pH optima, except some fungi like Humicola insolens species. However, new applications require the use of neutral and alkaline cellulases in food, brewery and wine, animal feed, textile and laundry, pulp and paper industries, agriculture as well in scientific research purposes. Indeed, the demand for these enzymes is growing more rapidly than ever before, and becomes the driving force for research on engineering the cellulolytic enzymes. Here, we present an overview of the biotechnological research for neutral and alkaline cellulases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Mineral CO2 sequestration in alkaline solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a promising sequestration route for the permanent and safe storage of carbon dioxide. In addition to calcium- or magnesium-containing primary minerals, suitable alkaline solid residues can be used as feedstock. The use of alkaline residues has several advantages, such as their availability close to CO2 sources and their higher reactivity for carbonation than primary minerals. In addition, the environmental quality of residues can potentially be improved by carbonation. In this study, key factors of the mineral CO2 sequestration process are identified, their influence on the carbonation process is examined, and environmental properties of the reaction products with regard to their possible beneficial utilization are investigated. The use of alkaline solid residues forms a potentially attractive alternative for the first mineral sequestration plants

  6. Enhanced alkaline hydrolysis and biodegradability studies of nitrocellulose-bearing missile propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhoum, Mohammed; Christodoulatos, Christos; Su, Tsan-Liang; Redis, Mercurios

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of energetic materials which have been accumulated over the years in various manufacturing and military installations must be disposed of in an environmentally sound manner. Historically, the method of choice for destruction of obsolete or aging energetic materials has been open burning or open detonation (OB/OD). This destruction approach has become undesirable due to air pollution problems. Therefore, there is a need for new technologies which will effectively and economically deal with the disposal of energetic materials. Along those lines, we have investigated a chemical/biological process for the safe destruction and disposal of a double base solid rocket propellant (AHH), which was used in several 8 inch projectile systems. The solid propellant is made of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin as energetic components, two lead salts which act as ballistic modifiers, triacetin as a plasticizer and 2-Nitrodiphenylamine (2-NDPA) as a stabilizer. A process train is being developed to convert the organic components of the propellant to biodegradable products and remove the lead from the process stream. The solid propellant is first hydrolyzed through an enhanced alkaline hydrolysis process step. Following lead removal and neutralization, the digested liquor rich in nitrates and nitrites is found to be easily biodegradable. The digestion rate of the intact ground propellant as well as the release of nitrite and nitrate groups were substantially increased when ultrasound were supplied to the alkaline reaction medium compared to the conventional alkaline hydrolysis. The effects of reaction time, temperature, sodium hydroxide concentration and other relevant parameters on the digestion efficiency and biodegradability have been studied. The present work indicates that the AHH propellant can be disposed of safely with a combination of physiochemical and biological processes.

  7. Separation, Concentration, and Immobilization of Technetium and Iodine from Alkaline Supernate Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Harvey; Michael Gula

    1998-12-07

    Development of remediation technologies for the characterization, retrieval, treatment, concentration, and final disposal of radioactive and chemical tank waste stored within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex represents an enormous scientific and technological challenge. A combined total of over 90 million gallons of high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) are stored in 335 underground storage tanks at four different DOE sites. Roughly 98% of this waste is highly alkaline in nature and contains high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite salts along with lesser concentrations of other salts. The primary waste forms are sludge, saltcake, and liquid supernatant with the bulk of the radioactivity contained in the sludge, making it the largest source of HLW. The saltcake (liquid waste with most of the water removed) and liquid supernatant consist mainly of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide salts. The main radioactive constituent in the alkaline supernatant is cesium-137, but strontium-90, technetium-99, and transuranic nuclides are also present in varying concentrations. Reduction of the radioactivity below Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits would allow the bulk of the waste to be disposed of as LLW. Because of the long half-life of technetium-99 (2.1 x 10 5 y) and the mobility of the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) in the environment, it is expected that technetium will have to be removed from the Hanford wastes prior to disposal as LLW. Also, for some of the wastes, some level of technetium removal will be required to meet LLW criteria for radioactive content. Therefore, DOE has identified a need to develop technologies for the separation and concentration of technetium-99 from LLW streams. Eichrom has responded to this DOE-identified need by demonstrating a complete flowsheet for the separation, concentration, and immobilization of technetium (and iodine) from alkaline supernatant waste.

  8. Alkaline phosphatase-fused repebody as a new format of immuno-reagent for an immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyo-Deok; Lee, Joong-jae [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu Jung [Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hantschel, Oliver [School of Life Sciences, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Lee, Seung-Goo [Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: hskim76@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Enzyme-linked immunoassays based on an antibody-antigen interaction are widely used in biological and medical sciences. However, the conjugation of an enzyme to antibodies needs an additional chemical process, usually resulting in randomly cross-linked molecules and a loss of the binding affinity and enzyme activity. Herein, we present the development of an alkaline phosphatase-fused repebody as a new format of immuno-reagent for immunoassays. A repebody specifically binding to human TNF-α (hTNF-α) was selected through a phage display, and its binding affinity was increased up to 49 nM using a modular engineering approach. A monomeric alkaline phosphatase (mAP), which was previously isolated from a metagenome library, was genetically fused to the repebody as a signal generator, and the resulting repebody-mAP fusion protein was used for direct and sandwich immunoassays of hTNF-α. We demonstrate the utility and potential of the repebody-mAP fusion protein as an immuno-reagent by showing the sensitivity of 216 pg mL{sup −1} for hTNF-α in a sandwich immunoassay. Furthermore, this repebody-mAP fusion protein enabled the detection of hTNF-α spiked in a serum-supplemented medium with high accuracy and reproducibility. It is thus expected that a mAP-fused repebody can be broadly used as an immuno-reagent in immunoassays. - Highlights: • A human TNF-α (hTNF-α)-specific repebody was selected using a phage display. • A monomeric alkaline phosphatase (mAP) was genetically fused to the repebody. • mAP-fused repebody enabled detection of hTNF-α with high sensitivity and accuracy. • mAP-fused repebody can be widely used as a new immuno-reagent in immunoassays.

  9. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sports_Injuries/sports_injuries_ff.asp. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for ... cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/overuse-injury.aspx. ...

  10. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Alexandra M F; Malkin, Sairah Y; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J R

    2014-07-05

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O 2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO 3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  11. Primary cilia: the chemical antenna regulating human adipose-derived stem cell osteogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine C Bodle

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC are multipotent stem cells that show great potential as a cell source for osteogenic tissue replacements and it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of lineage specification. Here we explore the role of primary cilia in human ASC (hASC differentiation. This study focuses on the chemosensitivity of the primary cilium and the action of its associated proteins: polycystin-1 (PC1, polycystin-2 (PC2 and intraflagellar transport protein-88 (IFT88, in hASC osteogenesis. To elucidate cilia-mediated mechanisms of hASC differentiation, siRNA knockdown of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 was performed to disrupt cilia-associated protein function. Immunostaining of the primary cilium structure indicated phenotypic-dependent changes in cilia morphology. hASC cultured in osteogenic differentiation media yielded cilia of a more elongated conformation than those cultured in expansion media, indicating cilia-sensitivity to the chemical environment and a relationship between the cilium structure and phenotypic determination. Abrogation of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 effected changes in both hASC proliferation and differentiation activity, as measured through proliferative activity, expression of osteogenic gene markers, calcium accretion and endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity. Results indicated that IFT88 may be an early mediator of the hASC differentiation process with its knockdown increasing hASC proliferation and decreasing Runx2, alkaline phosphatase and BMP-2 mRNA expression. PC1 and PC2 knockdown affected later osteogenic gene and end-product expression. PC1 knockdown resulted in downregulation of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin gene expression, diminished calcium accretion and reduced alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity. Taken together our results indicate that the structure of the primary cilium is intimately associated with the process of hASC osteogenic differentiation and that its associated proteins are critical

  12. Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO{sub 3}, quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite.

  13. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  14. The mechanism of radiolysis of alkaline-earth nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'ev, V.; Kriger, L.; Miklin, M.

    2015-04-01

    The formation of peroxynitrite and nitrite in crystalline alkaline-earth nitrates under γ-irradiation at 310 K by optical reflectance spectroscopy has been studied. The radiolysis of Sr(NO3)2 and Ba(NO3)2 results in nitrite and peroxynitrite, Mg(NO3)2·6H2O and Ca(NO3)2·4H2O - nitrite. The mechanism for nitrite and peroxynitrite formation under γ-irradiation of crystalline alkaline-earth nitrates has been discussed.

  15. Spectrum Estimation of Density Operators with Alkaline-Earth Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverland, Michael E.; Haah, Jeongwan; Alagic, Gorjan; Campbell, Gretchen K.; Rey, Ana Maria; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2018-01-01

    We show that Ramsey spectroscopy of fermionic alkaline-earth atoms in a square-well trap provides an efficient and accurate estimate for the eigenspectrum of a density matrix whose n copies are stored in the nuclear spins of n such atoms. This spectrum estimation is enabled by the high symmetry of the interaction Hamiltonian, dictated, in turn, by the decoupling of the nuclear spin from the electrons and by the shape of the square-well trap. Practical performance of this procedure and its potential applications to quantum computing and time keeping with alkaline-earth atoms are discussed.

  16. Extravasation injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, D T

    1993-03-01

    The leakage of cytotoxic drugs, intravenous nutrition, solutions of calcium, potassium, bicarbonate and even 10% dextrose outside the vein into which they are delivered is known not only to cause skin necrosis but also to precipitate significant scarring around tendons, nerves and joints. In this review of 96 patients with extravasation injuries seen between 1987 and 1992 at St Thomas' Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital and The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, several patients required extensive reconstruction and in some, despite this, extravasation injury has rendered a limb virtually useless. Two techniques, liposuction and saline flushout, are described to remove extravasated material while conserving the overlying skin. Analysis of flushout material confirmed that the extravasated material was actually being removed. Forty four of the study group in whom noxious materials were known to have extravasated underwent such early treatment. The results in this group were quite striking--the majority (86%) healed without any soft tissue loss at all. The early referral and treatment of extravasation injuries is, therefore, recommended.

  17. Novel fluoropolymer anion exchange membranes for alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmei; Fang, Jun; Wu, Yongbin; Xu, Hankun; Chi, Xianjun; Li, Wei; Yang, Yixu; Yan, Ge; Zhuang, Yongze

    2012-09-01

    A series of novel fluoropolymer anion exchange membranes based on the copolymer of vinylbenzyl chloride, butyl methacrylate, and hexafluorobutyl methacrylate has been prepared. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques are used to study the chemical structure and chemical composition of the membranes. The water uptake, ion-exchange capacity (IEC), conductivity, methanol permeability, and chemical stability of the membranes are also determined. The membranes exhibit high anionic conductivity in deionized water at 65 °C ranging from 3.86×10(-2) S cm(-1) to 4.36×10(-2) S cm(-1). The methanol permeability coefficients of the membranes are in the range of 4.21-5.80×10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) at 65 °C. The novel membranes also show good chemical and thermal stability. An open-circuit voltage of 0.7 V and a maximum power density of 53.2 mW cm(-2) of alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) with the membrane C, 1 M methanol, 1 M NaOH, and humidified oxygen are achieved at 65 °C. Therefore, these membranes have great potential for applications in fuel cell systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequential Washing with Electrolyzed Alkaline and Acidic Water Effectively Removes Pathogens from Metal Surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Nakano

    Full Text Available Removal of pathogenic organisms from reprocessed surgical instruments is essential to prevent iatrogenic infections. Some bacteria can make persistent biofilms on medical devices. Contamination of non-disposable equipment with prions also represents a serious risk to surgical patients. Efficient disinfection of prions from endoscopes and other instruments such as high-resolution cameras remains problematic because these instruments do not tolerate aggressive chemical or heat treatments. Herein, we develop a new washing system that uses both the alkaline and acidic water produced by electrolysis. Electrolyzed acidic water, containing HCl and HOCl as active substances, has been reported to be an effective disinfectant. A 0.15% NaCl solution was electrolyzed and used immediately to wash bio-contaminated stainless steel model systems with alkaline water (pH 11.9 with sonication, and then with acidic water (pH 2.7 without sonication. Two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a fungus (Candida albicans were effectively removed or inactivated by the washing process. In addition, this process effectively removed or inactivated prions from the stainless steel surfaces. This washing system will be potentially useful for the disinfection of clinical devices such as neuroendoscopes because electrolyzed water is gentle to both patients and equipment and is environmentally sound.

  19. Model-Based Assessment of the CO2 Sequestration Potential of Coastal Ocean Alkalinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, E. Y.; Koeve, W.; Keller, D. P.; Oschlies, A.

    2017-12-01

    The potential of coastal ocean alkalinization (COA), a carbon dioxide removal (CDR) climate engineering strategy that chemically increases ocean carbon uptake and storage, is investigated with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity. The CDR potential and possible environmental side effects are estimated for various COA deployment scenarios, assuming olivine as the alkalinity source in ice-free coastal waters (about 8.6% of the global ocean's surface area), with dissolution rates being a function of grain size, ambient seawater temperature, and pH. Our results indicate that for a large-enough olivine deployment of small-enough grain sizes (10 µm), atmospheric CO2 could be reduced by more than 800 GtC by the year 2100. However, COA with coarse olivine grains (1000 µm) has little CO2 sequestration potential on this time scale. Ambitious CDR with fine olivine grains would increase coastal aragonite saturation Ω to levels well beyond those that are currently observed. When imposing upper limits for aragonite saturation levels (Ωlim) in the grid boxes subject to COA (Ωlim = 3.4 and 9 chosen as examples), COA still has the potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 by 265 GtC (Ωlim = 3.4) to 790 GtC (Ωlim = 9) and increase ocean carbon storage by 290 Gt (Ωlim = 3.4) to 913 Gt (Ωlim = 9) by year 2100.

  20. Treating electrolytic manganese residue with alkaline additives for stabilizing manganese and removing ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Changbo; Wang, Jiwei; Wang, Nanfang

    2013-01-01

    Electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) from the electrolytic manganese industry is a solid waste containing mainly calcium sulfate dihydrate and quartzite. It is impossible to directly use the EMR as a building material due to some contaminants such as soluble manganese, ammonia nitrogen and other toxic substances. To immobilize the contaminants and reduce their release into the environment, treating EMR using alkaline additives for stabilizing manganese and removing ammonia was investigated. The physical and chemical characteristics of the original EMR were characterized by XRFS, XRD, and SEM. Leaching test of the original EMR shows that the risks to the environment are the high content of soluble manganese and ammonia nitrogen. The influence of various alkaline additives, solidifying reaction time, and other solidifying reaction conditions such as outdoor ventilation and sunlight, and rain flow on the efficiencies of Mn 2+ solidification and ammonia nitrogen removal was investigated. The results show that with mass ratio of CaO to residue 1 : 8, when the solidifying reaction was carried out indoors for 4 h with no rain flow, the highest efficiencies of Mn 2+ solidification and ammonia nitrogen removal (99.98% and 99.21%) are obtained. Leaching test shows that the concentration and emission of manganese and ammonia nitrogen of the treated EMR meets the requirements of the Chinese government legislation (GB8978-1996)

  1. Experimental and analytical analysis of polarization and water transport behaviors of hydrogen alkaline membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Sen; Zhou, Jiaxun; Wang, Tianyou; Chen, Rui; Jiao, Kui

    2018-04-01

    Experimental test and analytical modeling are conducted to investigate the operating behavior of an alkaline electrolyte membrane (AEM) fuel cell fed by H2/air (or O2) and explore the effect of various operating pressures on the water transfer mechanism. According to the experimental test, the cell performance is greatly improved through increasing the operating pressure gradient from anode to cathode which leads to significant liquid water permeation through the membrane. The high frequency resistance of the A901 alkaline membrane is observed to be relatively stable as the operating pressure varies based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method. Correspondingly, based on the modeling prediction, the averaged water content in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) does not change too much which leads to the weak variation of membrane ohmic resistance. This reveals that the performance enhancement should give the credit to better electro-chemical reaction kinetics for both the anode and cathode, also prone by the EIS results. The reversion of water back diffusion direction across the membrane is also observed through analytical solution.

  2. Geographic distance and pH drive bacterial distribution in alkaline lake sediments across Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Liu, Yongqin; Lin, Xiangui; Zhang, Huayong; Zeng, Jun; Hou, Juzhi; Yang, Yongping; Yao, Tandong; Knight, Rob; Chu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Continent-scale biogeography has been extensively studied in soils and marine systems, but little is known about biogeographical patterns in non-marine sediments. We used barcode pyrosequencing to quantify the effects of local geochemical properties and geographic distance for bacterial community structure and membership, using sediment samples from 15 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (4–1670 km apart). Bacterial communities were surprisingly diverse, and distinct from soil communities. Four of 26 phyla detected were dominant: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, albeit 20.2% of sequences were unclassified at the phylum level. As previously observed in acidic soil, pH was the dominant factor influencing alkaline sediment community structure, phylotype richness and phylogenetic diversity. In contrast, archaeal communities were less affected by pH. More geographically distant sites had more dissimilar communities (r = 0.443, P = 0.030). Variance partitioning analysis showed that geographic distance (historical contingencies) contributed more to bacterial community variation (12.2%) than any other factor, although the environmental factors explained more variance when combined (28.9%). Together, our results show that pH is the best predictor of bacterial community structure in alkaline sediments, and confirm that both geographic distance and chemical factors govern bacterial biogeography in lake sediments. PMID:22676420

  3. Electrochemical Deposition and Characterization of Ni-Mo Alloys as Cathode for Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manazoğlu, Mert; Hapçı, Gökçe; Orhan, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Ni-Mo alloy coatings were electrochemically deposited on a copper plate in citrate solutions. The effects of Ni/Mo mole ratio in the electrolyte and pH value on hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as well as the electrochemical stability were investigated in the alkaline solution for electrodeposited NiMo. The electrocatalytic activity of the fabricated NiMo alloys for HER in alkaline solutions was investigated by the polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The morphology and chemical composition of the electrodeposited Ni-Mo were investigated using SEM and EDS analyses. It was found that NiMo electrode with the highest molybdenum content (ca. 38 wt.%) and high surface area show high electrocatalytic activity in the HER. This was produced from a bath with a pH of 9.5, Ni/Mo ratio of 1/10 and 0.5 M sodium citrate concentration. The stability of this coating was tested by polarization measurements after different anodic and cathodic treatment in 1 M NaOH solution. The open circuit potential ( E ocp) of the electrode as a function of immersion time was also measured.

  4. Actinides in Hanford Tank Waste Simulants: Chemistry of Selected Species in Oxidizing Alkaline Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Laszak, Ivan; Borkowski, Marian; Hancock, Melissa; Rao, Linfeng; Reed, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    To enhance removal of selected troublesome nonradioactive matrix elements (P, Cr, Al, S) from the sludges in radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford site, various chemical washing procedures have been evaluated. It is intended that leaching should leave the actinides in the residual sludge phase for direct vitrification. Oxidative treatment with strongly alkaline solutions has emerged as the best approach to accomplishing this feat. However, because the most important actinide ions in the sludge can exist in multiple oxidation states, it is conceivable that changes in actinide oxidation state speciation could interfere with hopes and plans for actinide insolubility. In this presentation, we discuss both the impact of oxidative alkaline leachants on actinide oxidation state speciation and the chemistry of oxidized actinide species in the solution phase. Actinide oxidation does occur during leaching, but the solubility behavior is complex. Mixed ligand complexes may dominate solution phase speciation of actinides under some circumstances. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Offices of Science and Waste Management, Environmental Management Science Program under Contract DEAC03- 76SF0098 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Contract W-31-109- ENG-38 at Argonne National Laboratory

  5. Hydrogeochemistry of Big Soda Lake, Nevada: An alkaline meromictic desert lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Robinson, S.W.; Law, L.M.; Carothers, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    Big Soda Lake, located near Fallon, Nevada, occupies an explosion crater rimmed by basaltic debris; volcanic activity apparently ceased within the last 10,000 years. This lake has been selected for a detailed multidisciplinary study that will ultimately cover the organic and inorganic hydrogeochemistry of water and sediments because the time at which chemical stratification was initiated is known (~1920) and chemical analyses are available for a period of more than 100 years. Detailed chemical analyses of the waters show that the lake is at present alkaline (pH = 9.7), chemically stratified (meromictic) and is extremely anoxic (total reduced sulfur-410 mg/L as H2S) below a depth of about 35 m. The average concentrations (in mg/L) of Na, K, Mg, Ca, NH3, H2S, alkalinity (as HCO3), Cl, SO4, and dissolved organics (as C) in waters of the upper layer (depth 0 to 32 m) are 8,100, 320, 150, 5.0, < 0.1, < 0.5, 4,100, 7,100, 5,800, and 20 respectively; in the deeper layer (depth 37 to 64 m) they are 27,000, 1,200, 5.6, 0.8, 45, 410, 24,000, 27,500, 6,800, and 60, respectively. Chemical and stable isotope analyses of the waters, ??13C and ??14C values of dissolved total carbonate from this lake and surface and ground waters in the area together with mineral-water equilibrium computations indicate that the waters in the lake are primarily meteoric in origin with the present chemical composition resulting from the following geochemical processes: 1. (1) evaporation and exchange with atmosphere, the dominant processes, 2. (2) mineral-water interactions, including dissolution, precipitation and ion exchange, 3. (3) inflow and outflow of ground water and 4. (4) biological activity of macro- and microorganisms, including sulfate reduction in the water column of the deeper layer at a very high rate of 6.6 ??mol L-1 day-1. ?? 1984.

  6. The rheological evolution of alkaline Vesuvius magmas and comparison with alkaline series from the Phlegrean Fields, Etna, Stromboli and Teide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, D.; Ardia, P.; Romano, C.; Dingwell, D. B.; Di Muro, A.; Schmidt, M. W.; Mangiacapra, A.; Hess, K.-U.

    2009-11-01

    Somma-Vesuvius is considered one of the highest-risk volcanic systems in the world due to its high population density and record of highly destructive explosive activity. Eruptive style at Vesuvius varies greatly, alternating between effusive and explosive activities, and is likely strongly controlled by the evolution of the physical and chemical properties of the magma. Nevertheless, with the exception of the 1631 eruption, the rheological properties of Vesuvius magmas remain largely unconstrained. Here, we investigate the Newtonian shear viscosity ( η) of dry and hydrous melts from the Mercato (plinian) and 1906 (violent strombolian) eruptions. These eruptions differ in size, eruptive style and magma chemistry (from phonolite to phono-tephrite). To evaluate the dry liquid viscosity variation covered by the eruptive products of the recent activity at Vesuvius, we measured the melt viscosities of bulk rock compositions and, for highly crystalline samples, of the separated groundmasses of tephras from the Pollena and 1906 eruptions. Hydrated samples with up to 4.24 wt% dissolved water were synthesised in a piston cylinder apparatus at confining pressure up to 10 kbar. The dry high temperature and the dry and hydrous low-temperature viscosities were obtained by combining the concentric cylinder and micropenetration techniques. The measured viscosities were parameterized by a modified Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation, accounting for the effect of water content, and were compared with previous measurements and models. At magmatic temperatures, the viscosities of Mercato samples are about four orders of magnitude higher than that of the least viscous investigated products from the 1906 eruption. Complex numerical models to forecast eruptive scenarios and their environmental impact are extremely sensitive to the accuracy of the input parameters and constitutive equations of magma properties. As a consequence, the numerical expressions obtained here are of particular

  7. The electrochemistry of SIMFUEL in dilute alkaline hydrogen peroxide solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldik, Jon

    The work described in this thesis is a study of the electrochemistry of SIMFUEL (SIMulated nuclear FUEL) in dilute, alkaline hydrogen peroxide solutions. In the first set of experiments, the reaction of H2O 2 on SIMFUEL electrodes was studied electrochemically and under open circuit conditions in 0.1 mol L-1 NaCl solutions at pH 9.8. The composition of the oxidized UO2 surface was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hydrogen peroxide reduction was found to be catalyzed by the formation of a mixed UIV/UV (UO 2+x) surface layer, but to be blocked by the accumulation of UVI species (UO3· yH2O or adsorbed (UO2)2+) on the electrode surface. The formation of this UVI layer blocks both H2O2 reduction and oxidation, thereby inhibiting the potentially rapid H2O2 decomposition reaction to H2O and O2. Decomposition is found to proceed at a rate controlled by the desorption of the adsorbed (UO2)2+ or reduction of adsorbed O2 species. Reduction of (O2) ads is coupled to the slow oxidative dissolution of UO2 and formation of a corrosion product deposit of UO3· yH2O. In the second series of experiments, the electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide on SIMFUEL was studied using the steady-state polarization technique. Kinetic parameters for the reaction, such as Tafel slopes and reaction orders, were determined. The results were interpreted in terms of a chemical-electrochemical mechanism involving UIV/UV donor-acceptor reduction sites. The large values of the Tafel slopes and the fractional reaction orders with respect to H2O2 can be understood in terms of the potential-dependent surface coverage of active sites, similar to that observed in the reduction of hydrogen peroxide on oxidized copper surfaces. The effects of pH over the range 10-13 were also investigated. The H2O 2 reduction currents were nearly independent of pH in the range 10-11, but were slowed at more alkaline values. The change in pH dependence appears to be related to the acid-base properties

  8. Alkalinity and hardness: Critical but elusive concepts in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total alkalinity and total hardness are familiar variables to those involved in aquatic animal production. Aquaculturists – both scientists and practitioners alike – tend to have some understanding of the two variables and of methods for adjusting their concentrations. The chemistry and the biolog...

  9. Isolation of alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis AKRS3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ashok

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... This research study was mainly focused on phenotypic, biochemical characterization, 16s rRNA sequence based species level identification of isolate and determination of the higher production of alkaline protease through optimization study (carbon, nitrogen, incubation period, temperature, pH and.

  10. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 6, November 2002, pp. 505–507. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 505. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline hydrolysis of In(III) and Sn(IV) salts. NIMAI CHAND ... et al 1996; Yanagisawa and Udawatte 2000; Denoy and. Pradeep 1997) with low Sn content (In : Sn ≥ 90 ...

  11. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... detergent industries (Moon and Parulekar, 1991). Proteases of commercial importance are produced from microbial, animal and plant sources (Patel, 1985). Almost all living organisms can produce alkaline protease at 32 to 45°C and pH 8 to 9 (Akcan and Uyar, 2011). Microbial proteases are produced ...

  12. Secondary Structures Associated With Alkaline Transition of Horse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: The spectra of amide I region (1700-1600cm-1) of horse heart ferricytochrome c at. 20oC are reported at low ionic strength at of pH values between 7.0 and 11.5 encompassing the alkaline transition. The mid-infrared spectra can probe the protein secondary structures. The Fourier transform infrared ...

  13. Synthesis of monomeric and polymeric alkali and alkaline earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5, September 2014, pp. 1463–1475. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Synthesis of monomeric and polymeric alkali and alkaline earth metal complexes using a phosphinoselenoic amide ligand in metal coordination sphere. JAYEETA BHATTACHARJEE, RAVI K KOTTALANKA, HARINATH ADIMULAM and TARUN K PANDA.

  14. Activation of Rat Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase by Taurine May be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    targets for the gut mucosal defense factor intestinal alkaline phosphatase. American Journal of. Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology,. 299(2): G467–G475. Corrigan, J.J., Ray, W.L and May, N. (1968). Changes in the blood coagulation system associated with septicemia. The New England Journal of Medicine,.

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese-doped alkaline earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The intensity and frequency variations for the characteristic phosphate group vibrations have been correlated with the changes of the structural units present in these glasses. Depolymerization of the phosphate chains in all the glasses is observed with replacement of alkaline earth content by spectroscopic studies.

  16. Dephosphorylation of endotoxin by alkaline phosphatase in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Bakker, W.W; Klok, P.A; Kamps, J.AAM; Hardonk, M.J; Meijer, D.K F

    1997-01-01

    Natural substrates for alkaline phosphatase (AP) are at present not identified despite extensive investigations. Difficulties in imagining a possible physiological function involve its extremely high pH optimum for the usual exogenous substrates and its localization as an ecto-enzyme. As endotoxin

  17. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses | Rao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borate glasses containing fixed concentrations of heavy metal oxides (MO= ZnO, PbO, TeO2, Bi2O3) and alkaline earth oxides (R= Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) are prepared by melt quenching technique. The optical band gap values are estimated from the optical absorption spectra using absorption spectrum fitting (ASF) method.

  18. Lipid accumulation and alkaline phosphatase activity in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) controls intracellular lipid accumulation in human preadipocytes, but it is not known whether ALP is expressed in all body fat depots, or whether it has a similar role at all sites. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting and subjects: Subjects undergoing breast reduction and abdominal fat ...

  19. Secondary Structures Associated With Alkaline Transition of Horse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Wasagu et al.; Secondary Structures Associated With Alkaline Transition of Horse Heart Ferricytochrome C: An FTIR Study. 251 above mentioned enhancement techniques. In contrast with single band observed in the primary spectrum, second derivative in the amide I region (1700 and 1600 cm-1), was characterized by ...

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese-doped alkaline earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses doped with Mn(II) are characterized by spectroscopic techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman. Optical absorption spectrum exhibits four ...

  1. Structural variations in layered alkaline earth metal cyclohexyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    because of the entrance of the guest molecules between the layers, there will be a change in the interlayer distance (Alberti 1978). Although M(IV) organo-phos- phonates are well documented, the chemistry of M(II) organophosphonates especially the alkaline earth metal organophosphonates has been explored marginally ...

  2. Synthesis and infrared spectra of alkaline earth metal carbonates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    investigations deal with the synthesis and characteriza- tion of complexes of urea with transition metals (Penland et al 1957; Schafer and Curran 1966; Barbier and Hugel. 1974, 1977; Srivastava and Aravindakshan 1983). How- ever, studies on the nature of the reaction of urea with alkaline earth metals are very rare and ...

  3. Isolation and screening of alkaline protease producing bacteria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples from different habitats including tanneries, soap industries, garden soil and soil compost were screened for the presence of alkalophilic Bacillus isolates capable of producing alkaline protease in large quantities. One hundred and eighteen (118) isolates were found having proteolytic activity on skim milk agar ...

  4. Chromatographic separation of alkaline phosphatase from dental enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S; Salling, E

    1989-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) was prepared from partly mineralized bovine enamel by extraction in phosphate buffer, centrifugation and various chromatographic techniques. Chromatofocusing showed that the enamel enzyme possessed five isoelectric points at the acid pH level ranging from pH 5.7 to pH 4...

  5. Isolation of alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis AKRS3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was mainly focused on phenotypic, biochemical characterization, 16s rRNA sequence based species level identification of isolate and determination of the higher production of alkaline protease through optimization study (carbon, nitrogen, incubation period, temperature, pH and sodium chloride ...

  6. Production of Thermostable Alkaline Protease from Streptomyces sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial extracellular alkaline proteases have been found to have broad spectrum industrial applications because of their stability characteristics among the bacteria. The Actinomyces are of enormous importance as they can be recovered easier than other bacteria after fermentation. Thus, the study was aimed at sourcing ...

  7. Kinetic Studies of Alkaline Phosphatase from the Liver of Agama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic studies were carried out on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) extracted from the liver of Agama agama lizard. Incubation of ALP extract with para – nitrophenyl phosphate formed the basis for the determination of enzyme activity. Spectrophotometric method was used to assay the enzyme, and the kinetic constants: ...

  8. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. Claudia Elena Soto Alvarez, Javier López Miranda, Gustavo Pérez Verdín, Mario A. Rodríguez Pérez, Isaías Chairez Hernández ...

  9. Biochemical Investigation on the activities of Acid and Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were investigated in two varieties of ripening Carica papaya fruit; Oblong-shaped variety which is also known as 'Agric pawpaw' and Pear-shaped variety which is also known as 'Local pawpaw'. Acid phosphatase activity decreased significantly (p < 0.01) ...

  10. Optimization of alkaline α-amylase production by thermophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Starch‐degrading amylase enzyme is important in biotechnological applications as food, fermentation, textile, paper and pharmaceutical purposes. The aim of current study to isolate alkaline thermostable α-amylase bacteria and then study the composition of medium and culture conditions to optimize cells ...

  11. Secondary Structures Associated With Alkaline Transition of Horse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spectra of amide I region (1700-1600cm-1) of horse heart ferricytochrome c at 20oC are reported at low ionic strength at of pH values between 7.0 and 11.5 encompassing the alkaline transition. The mid-infrared spectra can probe the protein secondary structures. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic technique ...

  12. Regulatory effect of divalent cations on rat liver alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration-dependent stimulation of rat liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalyzed hydrolysis of para- nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) was studied. ALP displayed some activity even in the absence of exogenous Mg2+. Kinetic analyses show that activation by Mg2+ is exerted at the Vmax level without necessarily ...

  13. Alkaline Protease from Bacillus firmus 7728 | Rao | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracellular alkaline protease producing Bacillus firmus MTCC 7728 was isolated from the soil samples taken from the leather factories in Nacharam industrial area, Hyderabad. Maximum activity was found after 48 h of fermentation. Optimum pH and temperature for maximum enzyme activity were 9 and 40°C, respectively.

  14. Histochemical Study Of The Effect Of Ethanol On Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimental investigation of the mechanisms of action of this toxic agent was conducted in the femoral bones of the foetal Wistar rat by the histochemical assessment of the activity of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme present within the osteoblasts and actively involved in the mineral deposition in bones during ...

  15. Electrochemical oxidation and detection of sodium urate in alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical behaviour of copper oxides electrode in the presence of sodium urate was investigated. The correlation between the anodic oxidation and the amperometric detection of sodium urate in the alkaline medium on copper oxides electrode was analysed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical ...

  16. Production of thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An alkaliphilic bacterium producing organic solvent-tolerant and thermostable alkaline protease was isolated from poultry litter site and identified as Bacillus coagulans PSB-07. Protease production under different submerged fermentation conditions were investigated with the aim of optimizing yield of enzyme. B. coagulans ...

  17. Effect of alkaline treated soybean meal on the performance, protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alkaline treated soybean seeds on the performance, protein and energy efficiency of starter broilers. Soybean seeds were divided into 4 batches. The first batch was autoclaved at 100°C and the other batches soaked in aqueous solution of 3% concentration of sodium ...

  18. Response to alkaline stress by root canal bacteria in biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez de Paz, L E; Bergenholtz, G; Dahlén, G; Svensäter, G

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether bacteria isolated from infected root canals survive alkaline shifts better in biofilms than in planktonic cultures. Clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus paracasei, Olsenella uli, Streptococcus anginosus, S. gordonii, S. oralis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in biofilm and planktonic cultures were stressed at pH 10.5 for 4 h, and cell viability determined using the fluorescent staining LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit. In addition, proteins released into extracellular culture fluids were identified by Western blotting. Enterococcus faecalis, L. paracasei, O. uli and S. gordonii survived in high numbers in both planktonic cultures and in biofilms after alkaline challenge. S. anginosus, S. oralis and F. nucleatum showed increased viability in biofilms compared with planktonic cultures. Alkaline exposure caused all planktonic cultures to aggregate into clusters and resulted in a greater extrusion of cellular proteins compared with cells in biofilms. Increased levels of DnaK, HPr and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase were observed in culture fluids, especially amongst streptococci. In general, bacteria isolated from infected roots canals resisted alkaline stress better in biofilms than in planktonic cultures, however, planktonic cells appeared to use aggregation and the extracellular transport of specific proteins as survival mechanisms.

  19. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, A.M.F.; Malkin, S.Y.; Montserrat, F; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete

  20. Field screening of cowpea cultivars for alkaline soil tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  1. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  2. Normal serum alkaline phosphatase in the presence of extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal serum alkaline phosphatase in this patient in the presence of extensive skeletal metastases may be due to the combination of the following factors: relative hypogonadism, osteoporosis, low serum zinc and magnesium. This case report may provide a possible explanation for the observation that about 10% of men ...

  3. Stability and selectivity of alkaline proteases in hydrophilic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haastrup; Ritthitham, Sinthuwat; Pleissner, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Hydrophilic, organic solvents can be used as co-solvents with water to produce one phase systems sustaining optimal mass transfer of substrates and products of mixed polarity in biocatalysed processes. At concentrations below 50 % hydrophilic solvents can even have a stabilising effect on alkalin...

  4. ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE IS A PROTECTIVE ENZYME DURING LIVER FIBROGENESIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Marlies; Post, E.; Cetintas, A.; Reker-Smit, C.; Beljaars, L.; Poelstra, K.

    Background and Aim: Serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels serve as a marker for many liver diseases. Recent studies indicate that AP may act as a protective enzyme by dephosphorylation of LPS because dephosphorylation blocks toxicity of this product. Gut-derived LPS is known to aggravate liver

  5. based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Hydroxyl ion (OH–) conducting anion exchange membranes based on modified poly (phenylene oxide) are fabricated for their application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). In the present study, chloromethylation of poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) is performed by aryl substitution rather than benzyl.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in response to alkaline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Shujun; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Zhe; Liang, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs) for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections.

  7. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.M.

    1970-01-01

    In the summers of 1964 to 1968 a study was made of soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, under the auspices of the Konya Project, a research and training programme of the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University, Wageningen.

    The Great

  8. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R; Marcec, Matthew J; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists ( Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea ) and fungi ( Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes ). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes.

  9. On the variation of alkalinity during phytoplankton photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkalinity of the organic constituents of marine phytoplankton and their participation in the total alkalinity (TA change of seawater during photosynthesis are carefully assessed. Quantification of the contribution of phytoplankton chlorophyll, proteins and phosphorus compounds to the hydrogen ion balance of seawater in terms of total inorganic nitrogen (∆[NT] = ∆[NH4 +] + ∆[N2] + ∆[NO2 –] + ∆[NO3 –] and total inorganic phosphorus (∆[PT] changes during photosynthesis yielded that the organic components of marine phytoplankton are alkaline by –0.06 × ∆[NT] – 0.49 × ∆[PT], and that the potential total alkalinity (TAP during photosynthesis is TAP = TA – [NH4 –] + 0.93 × [NO2 –] + [NO3 –] + 0.08 × [NT] + 0.23 × [PT] for unfiltered seawater samples and TAP = TA – [NH4 –] + 0.93 × [NO2 –] + [NO3 –] + 0.02 × [NT] + 0.26 × [PT] for filtered seawater samples. These equations correct the traditionally used expression TAP = TA + [NO3 –]. The TAP anomalies are produced, in order of increasing importance, by N2 fixation, DMSP production and CaCO3 fixation.

  10. High Iridium concentration of alkaline rocks of Deccan and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan, Krishtel eMaging Solutions

    We report here an unusually high concentration of iridium in some alkali basalts and alkaline rocks of Deccan region having an age of about 65Ma, similar to the age of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The alkali basalts of Anjar, in the western periphery of Deccan province, have irid- ium concentration as high as 178pg/g ...

  11. Lipid accumulation and alkaline phosphatase activity in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-03

    Oct 3, 2012 ... Background: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) controls intracellular lipid accumulation in human preadipocytes, but it is not known whether ALP .... glutamine, supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum and 100 U/ml penicillin ..... by a cascade of transcription factor gene expression.34. Evidence that ALP acts ...

  12. Effect of alkaline hydrolysis on the quantity of extractable protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Key words: Prolamin, albumin, globulin, glutelin, alkaline hydrolysis. INTRODUCTION. Oil seeds are major source of vegetable proteins. The presence of toxins and antinutrients in some of them has limited their use as food and animal feed source. Such antinutrients include glucosinolate in rape seed, ...

  13. Preliminary note on the utitization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHp) treatment and urea supplementation on the feeding value of wheat straw was investigated in a 2x2 factorial experiment with sheep. Bales of wheat straw were dipped for a period of 24 h in an. AHP solution consisting of 1"/" hydrogen peroxide and 0,55% sodium hydroxide ...

  14. High-level expression of alkaline protease using recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apr gene was cloned into plasmid pUB110, resulting in the recombinant plasmid pUB-apr, which was then transformed into Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CICIM B4803. The protease productivity was significantly improved in the transformants of B. amyloliquefaciens CICIM B4803. A transformant with high alkaline ...

  15. An oxidant, detergent and salt stable alkaline protease from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel soil bacterium, Bacillus cereus SIU1 was earlier isolated from non-saline, slightly alkaline soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolate B. cereus SIU1 was grown in modified glucose yeast extract (modified GYE) medium at pH 9.0 and 45°C. It produced maximum protease at 20 h incubation. The enzyme was ...

  16. Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit ( Lepus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out to ascertain some kinetic properties of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) extracted from Lepus townsendii liver. Incubation of ALP extract with 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) formed the basis for determination of enzyme activity. Spectrophotometric method was used to assay the enzyme activity, and the ...

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in Response to Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran eshujun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available E. faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing.We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections.

  18. Alkalinity Analysis. Training Module 5.220.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, John L.; Davidson, Arnold C.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the acid-base titrimetric procedure for determining the hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity of a water sample. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. A video tape is also…

  19. Alkaline-earth metal phenylphosphonates and their intercalation chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melánová, Klára; Beneš, L.; Svoboda, J.; Zima, Vítězslav; Pospíšil, M.; Kovář, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 9 (2018), s. 2867-2880 ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-10639S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : intercalation * layered compounds * alkaline-earth metal phenylphosphonates Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.029, year: 2016

  20. High-level expression of alkaline protease using recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... compared with that of wild-type B. licheniformis CICIM B5102. Key word: Alkaline protease, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis. INTRODUCTION. Proteases are one of the most important industrial enzyme groups, accounting for approximately 60% of the total enzyme sales (Beg et al., 2003).