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Sample records for alkalic rock

  1. Selected references on alkalic igneous rocks of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C.R. (comp.)

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of references is presented providing background information on rock and mineral associations, geochemistry, geophysics, structural relationships, and geochronology of sialic, feldspathoidal, and some mafic alkalic igneous rock exposures in the US. Their locations and major characteristics are cited. No implication regarding U potential in these areas is intended. The first part of the bibliography provides general references to overall features of alkaline igneous rocks by region. The second part is a compilation of references on alkalic igneous rocks by state or groups of states. The third part provides information on rock type, age, and location for most of the references cited in part two. (JSR)

  2. Alkalic rock-carbonatite complexes of the Superior Structural Province northern Ontario,CANADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkinson, D. (Carleton Univ, Ottawa ON (CA). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Sage, R.P. (Ontario Geological Survey, Toronto,ON (CA))

    1991-09-01

    Alkalic rock-carbonatite complexes of the Superior Structural Province, Ontario, and adjacent parts of the Grenville and Southern Structural Provinces, are closely associated with long-lived regional fractures. The forty-one alkalic rock-carbonatite intrusions are lithologically and chemically zoned. Variable depths of emplacement are inferred from the relative widths of fenitic halo to carbonatite diameter and the relative ratio of carbonatite rich to silicate-rich rocks. Alkalic rock complexes ranging in lithology from alkalic gabbro to granite are ring complexes or massive stocks. Carbonatite complexes consist mainly of ijolite, malignite, pyroxenite and carbonate-rich rocks. Carbonatites are enriched in niobium, phosphorus, rare-earth elements and uranium, but the deposits are not economic. In spite of intense glacial scouring of the Superior Structural Province, residual caps containing concentrations of these elements remain above several of the carbonatites. Alkalic rock-carbonatite magmatism has occurred sporadically in different parts of the stable Superior craton. Migration of alkalic rock intrusive centres with time was not systematic and there has been no apparent decoupling of the source of magmas from the crust since Archean time.

  3. Preliminary analysis of thermal-infrared multispectral scanner data of the Iron Hill, Colorado carbonatite-alkalic rock complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Lawrence C.; Watson, Kenneth; Miller, Susanne H.

    1992-01-01

    The Iron Hill carbonatite-alkalic igneous rock complex is in the Powderhorn mining district, approximately 40 km south-southwest of Gunnison, Colorado. The complex, which occupies about 30 sq km, was emplaced in metasedimentay and metavolcanic rocks during the later Precambrian or early Cambrian. The main rock types in the complex, from oldest to youngest, are fenite, pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, ijolite, nepheline syenite, and dolomitic carbonatite. The carbonatite is limonitic and forms an elliptially shaped 4 sq km stock. Calcitic and dolomitic carbonatite dikes are also numerous throughout the complex and in the pre-existing rocks. Pyroxenite is the most widespread rock type within the complex, but pyroxene is extensively altered to biotite, phlogopite, and vermiculite. Fenite, which formed through Na, K-metasomatism of the country rocks, typically contains more feldspar and less quartz than the equivalent unaltered country rocks. The other alkalic rock types are less widespread and less well exposed. Parts of the complex are covered by Oligocene ash-flow tuff and alluvial, colluvial, and glacial deposits. Sagebrush and grass cover is moderately dense to very dense at low to intermediate elevations; coniferous tree cover is dense at high elevations and on some north-facing slopes at lower elevations. A new algorithm was used to compute spectral emissivity ratios, independent of any emissivity assumptions. This algorithm has the advantage that any of the possible emissivity ratios can be computed and, thus, a large variety of composite ratio images can be constructed, which permits examination of various geologic hypotheses based on the spectral properties of the surface materials.

  4. Spectral reflectance of carbonatites and related alkalic igneous rocks: selected samples from four North American localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Kingston, M.J.; Crowley, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory spectra in the 0.4-2.5 mu m wavelength range are reported and discussed for 1 cm2 samples of carbonatites and associated rocks from Mountain Pass, California; Oka, Quebec; Iron Hill, Colorado; and Gem Park, Colorado. The carbonatites showed carbonate, iron, and - locally - REE absorption bands. Reflectance measurements are notably sensitive to inherent compositional variations and to the effects of weathering and iron staining, but are useful for detecting high REE contents, and possibly in remote sensing applications, for detecting carbonatite bodies.-G.J.N.

  5. A metallogenic survey of alkalic rocks of Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paone, A.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.

    2001-01-01

    Somma-Vesuvius is an alkaline volcano whose products (pumice, scoria and lava) have alkaline (Na2O+K2O) contents between 6 and 16 wt%, Mg number <50, SiO2 59-47 wt% and MgO 0-7.8 wt% (more than 50% of the samples have a content <2 wt%). Immobile-element ratios (Th/Yb, Ta/Yb, Ce/Yb) indicate a shoshonitic character, while the K2O content (4-10 wt%) is characteristic of ultrapotassic rocks. The behavior of selected metals is discussed by grouping them on the basis of the stratigraphic sequence and differentiating the volcanic activity between plinian and interplinian (Rolandi et al., 1998; Ayuso et al., 1998). This allows observation of the variation within each formation from 25.000y. BP to the last historic eruptive cycle (1631-1944 AD). The main processes to explain the wide distribution of the data presented are fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma, magma mixing, and contamination with heterogeneous lower and/or upper crust. Variation diagrams distinguish different behavior for groups of metals: Ag (0.01-0.2 ppm), Mo (1-8.8 ppm), W (1.3-13 ppm), Pb (16-250 ppm), Sb (0.2-2.6 ppm), Sc (0.2-61 ppm), Li (15-140 ppm) and Be (1-31 ppm) increase with increasing differentiation and tend to correlate with the incompatible trace elements (Th, Hf, etc). Cu (10-380 ppm), Au (2-143 ppb), Co (0.7-35.1 ppm) and Fe (1.3-6.2 wt%) decrease towards advanced stage of differentiation. Iron also identifies three magmatic groups. The ratio Fe3+/Fe2+ ranges between 0.2 and 1.8, and Fe2O3/ (Fe2O3+FeO) ranges between 0.2 and 0.8, giving rise to an oxidized environment; exceptions are in the samples belonging to the interplinian formations: I, II, medieval and 1631-1994 AD. Fluorine ranges between 0.1 and 0.4 wt% for the complete Mt. Somma-Vesuvius activity, except for the Ottaviano and Avellino plinian (0.8 wt%) events. Chlorine has a wider range, from 0.1 wt% to 1.6 wt%. Mt Somma-Vesuvius has some features similar to those of mineralized alkaline magmatic systems which

  6. Post-collisional Tertiary–Quaternary mafic alkalic magmatism in the Carpathian–Pannonian region: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Seghedi, I.; Downes, Hilary; O. Vaselli; Szakács, A.; Balogh, K.; Z. Pécskay

    2004-01-01

    Mafic alkalic volcanism was widespread in the Carpathian–Pannonian region (CPR) between 11 and 0.2 Ma. It followed the Miocene continental collision of the Alcapa and Tisia blocks with the European plate, as subduction-related calc-alkaline magmatism was waning. Several groups of mafic alkalic rocks from different regions within the CPR have been distinguished on the basis of ages and/or trace-element compositions. Their trace element and Sr–Nd–Pb isotope systematics are consistent with deriv...

  7. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  8. The Porgera gold deposit, Papua, New Guinea, 1: association with alkalic magmatism in a continent-island-arc collision zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meso thermal to epithermal Porgera gold deposit is spatially and temporally associated with shallow level (≤ 2 km emplacement depth) stocks and dykes of the Porgera Intrusive Complex (PIC). Gold mineralization immediately followed emplacement of the PIC, and is dated between 5 and 6 Ma ago. The Porgera intrusive suite is comprised of fine- to medium-grained, porphyritic to euhedral granular, volatile-rich, sodic alkali basalts/gabbros, hawaiites, and mugearites (TAS chemical classification scheme). The rocks display chemical and isotopic characteristics similar to those of intra plate alkalic basalts, but their unusually high volatile contents result in stabilization of hornblende as a phenocryst and intergranular phase in more evolved rock types. The observed order of cotectic crystallization is olivine - clinopyroxene - hornblende -plagioclase, with ubiquitous spinel (chromite/magnetite) and fluor-apatite. (author)

  9. Petrology of the igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallum, I. S.

    1987-01-01

    Papers published during the 1983-1986 period on the petrology and geochemistry of igneous rocks are discussed, with emphasis on tectonic environment. Consideration is given to oceanic rocks, subdivided into divergent margin suites (mid-ocean ridge basalts, ridge-related seamounts, and back-arc basin basalts) and intraplate suites (oceanic island basalts and nonridge seamounts), and to igneous rocks formed at convergent margins (island arc and continental arc suites), subdivided into volcanic associations and plutonic associations. Other rock groups discussed include continental flood basalts, layered mafic intrusions, continental alkalic associations, komatiites, ophiolites, ash-flow tuffs, anorthosites, and mantle xenoliths.

  10. Alkalizing reactions streamline cellular metabolism in acidogenic microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Arioli

    Full Text Available An understanding of the integrated relationships among the principal cellular functions that govern the bioenergetic reactions of an organism is necessary to determine how cells remain viable and optimise their fitness in the environment. Urease is a complex enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbonic acid. While the induction of urease activity by several microorganisms has been predominantly considered a stress-response that is initiated to generate a nitrogen source in response to a low environmental pH, here we demonstrate a new role of urease in the optimisation of cellular bioenergetics. We show that urea hydrolysis increases the catabolic efficiency of Streptococcus thermophilus, a lactic acid bacterium that is widely used in the industrial manufacture of dairy products. By modulating the intracellular pH and thereby increasing the activity of β-galactosidase, glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase, urease increases the overall change in enthalpy generated by the bioenergetic reactions. A cooperative altruistic behaviour of urease-positive microorganisms on the urease-negative microorganisms within the same environment was also observed. The physiological role of a single enzymatic activity demonstrates a novel and unexpected view of the non-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that govern the bioenergetics of a bacterial cell, highlighting a new role for cytosol-alkalizing biochemical pathways in acidogenic microorganisms.

  11. Alkalizing Reactions Streamline Cellular Metabolism in Acidogenic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioli, Stefania; Ragg, Enzio; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Fessas, Dimitrios; Signorelli, Marco; Karp, Matti; Daffonchio, Daniele; De Noni, Ivano; Mulas, Laura; Oggioni, Marco; Guglielmetti, Simone; Mora, Diego

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the integrated relationships among the principal cellular functions that govern the bioenergetic reactions of an organism is necessary to determine how cells remain viable and optimise their fitness in the environment. Urease is a complex enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbonic acid. While the induction of urease activity by several microorganisms has been predominantly considered a stress-response that is initiated to generate a nitrogen source in response to a low environmental pH, here we demonstrate a new role of urease in the optimisation of cellular bioenergetics. We show that urea hydrolysis increases the catabolic efficiency of Streptococcus thermophilus, a lactic acid bacterium that is widely used in the industrial manufacture of dairy products. By modulating the intracellular pH and thereby increasing the activity of β-galactosidase, glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase, urease increases the overall change in enthalpy generated by the bioenergetic reactions. A cooperative altruistic behaviour of urease-positive microorganisms on the urease-negative microorganisms within the same environment was also observed. The physiological role of a single enzymatic activity demonstrates a novel and unexpected view of the non-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that govern the bioenergetics of a bacterial cell, highlighting a new role for cytosol-alkalizing biochemical pathways in acidogenic microorganisms. PMID:21152088

  12. Comprehensive analysis of plant rapid alkalization factor (RALF) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Hussain, Adil; Mun, Bong-Gyu; Imran, Qari Muhammad; Falak, Noreen; Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jae Young; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Loake, Gary John; Ali, Asad; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Receptor mediated signal carriers play a critical role in the regulation of plant defense and development. Rapid alkalization factor (RALF) proteins potentially comprise important signaling components which may have a key role in plant biology. The RALF gene family contains large number of genes in several plant species, however, only a few RALF genes have been characterized to date. In this study, an extensive database search identified 39, 43, 34 and 18 RALF genes in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and soybean, respectively. These RALF genes were found to be highly conserved across the 4 plant species. A comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal location, gene structure, subcellular location, conserved motifs, protein structure, protein-ligand interaction and promoter analysis was performed. RALF genes from four plant species were divided into 7 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In silico expression analysis of these genes, using microarray and EST data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Furthermore, RALF genes showed distinct expression patterns of transcript accumulation in vivo following nitrosative and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis. Predicted interaction between RALF and heme ligand also showed that RALF proteins may contribute towards transporting or scavenging oxygen moieties. This suggests a possible role for RALF genes during changes in cellular redox status. Collectively, our data provides a valuable resource to prime future research in the role of RALF genes in plant growth and development. PMID:27155375

  13. Early warning research on salt-alkalization desertification in western Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Desertification is an environmental issue in the world. The salt-alkalization desertification land area formed by both primary and secondary salt-alkalization has extended in a large scale, which has become a significant eco-environmental problem. Based on the characteristics of eco-environment and the situation ofdesertification in western Songnen plain, this paper reports the analyzes of its formation in background and cause. An early warning system on the salt-alkalization desertification is established and the GIS technology is used to abstract the information of desertification evaluation index. Supported by the integrated technology of the GIS and ANN, the orientation and quantitative result of desertification are gained, which is helpful to the eco-environment protection and resource development in western Songnen Plain.

  14. Use of ethanolamine for alkalization of secondary coolant. First experience at VVER reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarises preparatory work and results of six-week plant trial aimed at use of ethanolamine for alkalization of secondary coolant. Operational data in pre-test and test period are given and outage inspection results are commented. Future plans are outlined. (authors)

  15. Geochemical evolution of Pliocene-Recent post-subduction alkalic basalts from Seal Nunataks, Antarctic Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following more than 200 Ma of subduction of Pacific oceanic crust beneath the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, subduction ceased by a series of ridge crest-trench collisions. However, magmatism continued after the cessation of subduction with basaltic rocks of the intraplate alkalic association being erupted from centres scattered along the whole length of the peninsula. In the northeast, at Seal Nunataks, a suite of intraplate basalts ranging in composition from tholeiite to alkali basalt was erupted less than 4 Ma ago, almost synchronously with the cessation of subduction in that area (4-6 Ma). LREE-enrichment [(La/Yb)n 4.7-11.5] but consistency of HREE abundances for all the basalts suggest they were generated by partial melting in the garnet stability field of the mantle. A number of trace-element ratios [e.g. Zr/Nb (4.9-8.4), Hf/Ta (1.5-3.3), Sr/Nb (15-26), Ti/Nb (390-800)] are likely to have been fractionated during partial melting/melt extraction, although they do exhibit some correlation with isotope ratios, suggesting variations in these ratios may have been controlled by both partial melting and source heterogeneity. However, Th/Ta (0.87-2.31), La/Th (5.4-10.5) and K/Rb (275-1330) ratios also exhibit considerable variations within the suite and show strong correlations with 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7028-0.7033). These trace-element-isotope covariations are explained by a model involving mixing of a LILE-, 87Sr-depleted end-member, broadly similar to the source for non-Dupal OIB and N-type MORB, and upper-mantle material with high LILE/HFSE and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. This high-LILE/HFSE, high-87Sr component may represent mantle material which was enriched during the previous 200 Ma of subduction-related magmatism within the Antarctic Peninsula. Post-subduction high-Mg andesites (''bajaites''), which are associated with the cessation of subduction long other continental margins, are apparently absent within the Antarctic Peninsula. (orig./WB)

  16. Age and petrology of alkalic postshield and rejuvenated-stage lava from Kauai, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    At the top of the Waimea Canyon Basalt on the island of Kauai, rare flows of alkalic postshield-stage hawaiite and mugearite overlie tholeiitic flows of the shield stage. These postshield-stage flows are 3.92 Ma and provide a younger limit for the age of the tholeiitic shield stage. The younger Koloa Volcanics consist of widespread alkalic rejuvenated-stage flows and vents of alkalic basalt, basanite, nephelinite, and nepheline melilitite that erupted between 3.65 and 0.52 Ma. All the flows older than 1.7 Ma occur in the west-northwestern half of the island and all the flows younger than 1.5 Ma occur in the east-southeastern half. The lithologies have no spatial or chronological pattern. The flows of the Koloa Volcanics are near-primary magmas generated by variable small degrees of partial melting of a compositionally heterogeneous garnet-bearing source that has about two-thirds the concentration of P2O5, rare-earth elements, and Sr of the source of the Honolulu Volcanics on the island of Oahu. The same lithology in the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics is generated by similar degrees of partial melting of distinct source compositions. The lavas of the Koloa Volcanics can be generated by as little as 3 percent to as much as 17 percent partial melting for nepheline melilitite through alkalic basalt, respectively. Phases that remain in the residue of the Honolulu Volcanics, such as rutile and phlogopite, are exhausted during formation of the Koloa Volcanics at all but the smallest degrees of partial melting. The mantle source for Kauai lava becomes systematically more depleted in 87Sr/86Sr as the volcano evolves from the tholeiitic shield stage to the alkalic postshield stage to the alkalic rejuvenated stage: at the same time, the lavas become systematically more enriched in incompatible trace elements. On a shorter timescale, the lavas of the Koloa Volcanics display the same compositional trends, but at a lower rate of change. The source characteristics of the Koloa

  17. Effect of Cocoa Shell Ash as an Alkalizing Agent on Cocoa Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osundahunsi, O. F.; Bolade, M. K.; Akinbinu, A. A.

    Alkalized cocoa nibs were produced using cocoa shell ash as an alkalizing agent. Conventionally, imported alkalizing agents are used to produce alkalized/dutched nibs in cocoa processing industries. Cocoa powder and cocoa butter were produced from nibs treated with cocoa shell=s ash as an alkalizing agent and compared with products from two industries which used imported alkali as the dutching agent. Cocoa products made from cocoa nibs alkalized with ash for the shell were evaluated for physicochemical properties in comparison with product from Oluji and Stanmark Industries located in Southwestern Nigeria. Flame photometry method was used to determine components of the ash. The pH value of cocoa powder were 6.72 and 6.56 for Oluji and Stanmark samples respectively while 6.59 was reported for the Experimental cocoa powder sample. Percent fat content was 11.56 for Stanmark, 12.20 for Oluji and 10.56 for the Experimental sample. Colour reflectance was highest in Stanmark sample with 8.69 while the least was recorded for Experimental sample (7.18). Percent ash was 6.58, 8.16 and 7.13 for Stanmark, Oluji and Experimental samples respectively. Fat parameters for cocoa butter from the three samples were found to be within International standard for cocoa butter. Percent fatty acid ranged from 1.46 to 1.59. Saponification value was 193 mg KOH gG1 sample for Experimental sample, while Stanmark and Oluji cocoa butter had 196 and 198 mg KOH gG1, respectively. Percent unsaponifiable matter content was 0.30 each for Stanmark and Oluji with 0.39 for Experimental sample. Iodine value was between 35.11 and 38.07 Wij=s. Peroxide value ranged from 26-29 ME kgG1. Major components of cocoa shell ash were found to be potassium, 3.1 g/100 g and sodium, 7.2 g/100 g while sodium carbonate was 33.1 g/100 g. The pH of the ash was 10.8. There were no significant differences (pcocoa powder. Although, chocolate aroma was found to be less pronounced in the Experimental sample when assessed by

  18. Ecophysiological study of suitability of Picea mariana L. for afforestation in alkalized territories in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 30-40 years oil shale mining and processing enterprises, cement factories and power plants have emitted qualitatively and quantitatively different air pollution complexes with high dust and ash concentrations. This has caused alkalisation of the environment, physical and chemical changes in the soil, ground water and precipitation in Northeast Estonia. The aim of this study was to ascertain of responses of black spruce to alkalized environment and to estimate the suitability of black spruce in industrial regions in Northeast Estonia

  19. Intracellular alkalization causes pain sensation through activation of TRPA1 in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Fumitaka; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Moriyama, Tomoko; Shima, Asako; Shibasaki, Koji; Inada, Hitoshi; Sokabe, Takaaki; Tominaga, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate cells require a very narrow pH range for survival. Cells accordingly possess sensory and defense mechanisms for situations where the pH deviates from the viable range. Although the monitoring of acidic pH by sensory neurons has been attributed to several ion channels, including transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), the mechanisms by which these cells detect alkaline pH are not well understood. Here, using Ca2+ imaging and patch-clamp recording, we showed that alkaline pH activated transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) and that activation of this ion channel was involved in nociception. In addition, intracellular alkalization activated TRPA1 at the whole-cell level, and single-channel openings were observed in the inside-out configuration, indicating that alkaline pH activated TRPA1 from the inside. Analyses of mutants suggested that the two N-terminal cysteine residues in TRPA1 were involved in activation by intracellular alkalization. Furthermore, intraplantar injection of ammonium chloride into the mouse hind paw caused pain-related behaviors that were not observed in TRPA1-deficient mice. These results suggest that alkaline pH causes pain sensation through activation of TRPA1 and may provide a molecular explanation for some of the human alkaline pH–related sensory disorders whose mechanisms are largely unknown. PMID:19033673

  20. Mild Alkalization Acutely Triggers the Warburg Effect by Enhancing Hexokinase Activity via Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Park, Jin Won; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-01-01

    To fully understand the glycolytic behavior of cancer cells, it is important to recognize how it is linked to pH dynamics. Here, we evaluated the acute effects of mild acidification and alkalization on cancer cell glucose uptake and glycolytic flux and investigated the role of hexokinase (HK). Cancer cells exposed to buffers with graded pH were measured for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, lactate production and HK activity. Subcellular localization of HK protein was assessed by western blots and confocal microscopy. The interior of T47D breast cancer cells was mildly alkalized to pH 7.5 by a buffer pH of 7.8, and this was accompanied by rapid increases of FDG uptake and lactate extrusion. This shift toward glycolytic flux led to the prompt recovery of a reversed pH gradient. In contrast, mild acidification rapidly reduced cellular FDG uptake and lactate production. Mild acidification decreased and mild alkalization increased mitochondrial HK translocation and enzyme activity. Cells transfected with specific siRNA against HK-1, HK-2 and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)1 displayed significant attenuation of pH-induced changes in FDG uptake. Confocal microscopy showed increased co-localization of HK-1 and HK-2 with VDAC1 by alkaline treatment. In isolated mitochondria, acidic pH increased and alkaline pH decreased release of free HK-1 and HK-2 from the mitochondrial pellet into the supernatant. Furthermore, experiments using purified proteins showed that alkaline pH promoted co-immunoprecipitation of HK with VDAC protein. These findings demonstrate that mild alkalization is sufficient to acutely trigger cancer cell glycolytic flux through enhanced activity of HK by promoting its mitochondrial translocation and VDAC binding. This process might serve as a mechanism through which cancer cells trigger the Warburg effect to maintain a dysregulated pH. PMID:27479079

  1. High-pressure melting experiments on garnet clinopyroxenite and the alkalic to tholeiitic transition in ocean-island basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshav, Shantanu; Gudfinnsson, Gudmundur H.; Sen, Gautam; Fei, Yingwei

    2004-07-01

    It has been suggested, on the basis of recent high-pressure melting experiments, that high-Mg garnet clinopyroxenite is the most important lithology controlling the major-element budget of ocean-island lavas [Geology 31 (2003) 481-484]. To clarify these claims and further our understanding of the petrogenesis of ocean-island basaltic (OIB) lavas, we present the results of a high-pressure (2.0-2.5 GPa) melting study on a high-Mg garnet-clinopyroxenite mantle nodule (77SL-582) from Hawaii. Major-element compositions of the partial melts as a function of pressure ( P), temperature ( T), and degree of melting ( F), mineral chemistry of the coexisting crystalline phases, and the solidus/liquidus brackets of this particular garnet clinopyroxenite are reported. The solidus of 77SL-582, which resembles a tholeiitic picrite in terms of its bulk composition, is bracketed at 1295±15 and 1335±15 °C at 2.0 and 2.5 GPa, respectively, which is ˜60-70 °C lower than the solidus of mantle lherzolite at identical pressures [Geochem. Geophys. Geosystems 1 (2000) 2000GC000070]. The solidus of 77SL-582 is also lower by ˜30-40 °C than reported for a slightly alkalic, high-Mg garnet clinopyroxenite [Geology 31 (2003) 481]. At both pressures, the moderate degree (˜18-20%) partial melts of 77SL-582 are strongly alkalic with ˜8-12 wt.% nepheline in the norm. Even at a degree of melting as high as ˜60%, moderately alkalic basaltic liquids are produced. With further melting, however, partial melts become hypersthene-normative. In the CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 (CMAS) system, the eclogite surface is restricted to the tholeiitic part of the basalt tetrahedron [D.C. Presnall, Effect of pressure on fractional crystallization of basaltic magma, in: Y. Fei, C. Bertka, and B. Mysen (eds.) Mantle Petrology: Field observations and High Pressure Experimentation: A Tribute to Francis (Joe) R. Boyd, The Geochemical Society Special Publication no. 6, 1999, pp. 209-224.]. A comparison with high

  2. Effect of self-alkalization on nitrite accumulation in a high-rate denitrification system: Performance, microflora and enzymatic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Yao; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Li, Chen-Xu; Cai, Chao-Yang; Abbas, Ghulam; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Li-Dong; Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, He-Ping; Zheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The self-alkalization of denitrifying automatic circulation (DAC) reactor resulted in a large increase of pH up to 9.20 and caused a tremendous accumulation of nitrite up to 451.1 ± 49.0 mgN L(-1) at nitrate loading rate (NLR) from 35 kgN m(-3) d(-1) to 55 kgN m(-3) d(-1). The nitrite accumulation was greatly relieved even at the same NLR once the pH was maintained at 7.6 ± 0.2 in the system. Enzymatic assays indicated that the long-term bacterial exposure to high pH significantly inhibited the activity of copper type nitrite reductase (NirK) rather than the cytochrome cd1 type nitrite reductase (NirS). The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that the dominant denitrifying bacteria shifted from the NirS-containing Thauear sp. 27 to the NirK-containing Hyphomicrobium nitrativorans strain NL23 during the self-alkalization. The significant nitrite accumulation in the high-rate denitrification system could be therefore, due to the inhibition of Cu-containing NirK by high pH from the self-alkalization. The results suggest that the NirK-containing H. nitrativorans strain NL23 could be an ideal functional bacterium for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite, i.e. denitritation, which could be combined with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) to develop a new process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. PMID:26595097

  3. Trace Element Geochemistry of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道公; 李彬贤; 等

    1989-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rock of Shandong Province are mainly alkalic and strongly alkalic basaltic rocks.The Contents of major and trace elements including transitional,incompatible and rare-earth elements were determined.The chemical characterisitics of major and trace elements indicate that these basaltic rocks were derived from a mantle source and probably represent a primary magma,I,e.,unmodifiecd partical melts of mantle peridotite in terms of Mg values,correlatione between P2O5 and Ce,Sr,Ni and Rb concentrations,mantle xenoliths,etc.The abundances of trace elements vary systematically from west to east.The compatible transition elements such as Co,Ni,and Cr show a remarkable depletion,whereas the incompatible and rare-earth elements are abundant as viewed from the chondrite-nor-malized patterns.The chemical composition and correlation are consistent with the tectonic setting.According to the batch and fractional partial melting theory,the trace element contents of Shandong volcanic rocks can be calculated from the two-component mixing model.

  4. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of recurrent Cryogenian and Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician alkalic magmatism in central Idaho: Implications for Rodinian rift tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Evans, K.V.; duBray, E.A.; deWitt, E.H.; Unruh, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Composite alkalic plutonic suites and tuffaceous diamictite, although discontinuously exposed across central Idaho in roof pendants and inliers within the Idaho batholith and Challis volcanic-plutonic complex, define the >200-km-long northwest-aligned Big Creek-Beaverhead belt. Sensitive highresolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon dates on these igneous rocks provide direct evidence for the orientation and location of the Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic western Laurentian rift margin in the northern U.S. Cordillera. Dating delimits two discrete magmatic pulses at ca. 665-650 Ma and 500-485 Ma at the western and eastern ends, respectively, of this belt. Together with the nearby 685 Ma volcanic rocks of the Edwardsburg Formation, there is a 200 Ma history of recurrent extensional magmatic pulses along the belt. A similar history of recurrent uplift is reflected in the stratigraphic record of the associated miogeoclinal and cratonal platform basins, suggesting that the Big Creek-Beaverhead belt originated as a border fault during continental rift events. The magmatic belt is paired with the recurrently emergent Lemhi Arch and narrow miogeoclinal facies belts and it lies inboard of a northwest-striking narrow zone of thinned continental crust. These features define a northeast-extending upper-plate extensional system between southeast Washington and southeast Idaho that formed a segment of the Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic miogeocline. This segment was flanked on the north by the St. Mary-Moyie transform zone (south of a narrow southern Canadian upper-plate margin) and on the south by the Snake River transfer zone (north of a broad Great Basin lower-plate margin). These are the central segments of a zigzagshaped Cordilleran rift system of alternating northwest-striking extensional zones offset by northeast-striking transfers and transforms. The data substantiate polyphase rift and continental separation events that included (1) pre-and syn-Windermere rifting, (2) Windermere

  5. Distribution of alkalic elements and strontium in granitoids of SE Serbia and their important for metalogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of geochemical composition of rocks and particularly distribution of alkali elements and strontium in granitoid rocks, it is possible to divide them into formations of the potential ore bearing magmatic associations depending on the depth of origin or magmatic source respectively. During works in terrains of SE Serbia lasting several years (in the Surdulica eruptive massif district), the author has gathered and studied considerable materials on magmatic rocks, either of granodioritic-granitic or dacitic-quartzlatitic composition. In this paper the author would make effort, by use of the fund's documents related to petrochemical and geochemical studies according to actual criteria (Stavrov, 1975, 1981; Rub et al., 1981, 1983; Kovalenko, 1977, 1981; Vukov, 1995), to discriminate the ore bearing formations in granitoids of southeastern Serbia according to distribution of the mentioned elements and their relationship. (Original)

  6. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  7. KREEP Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2004-01-01

    KREEP rocks with high contents of K, REE and P were first recognized in Apollo-12 samples, and it was confirmed later that there were KREEP rock fragments in all of the Apollo samples, particularly in Apollo-12 and-14 samples. The KREEP rocks distributed on the lunar surface are the very important objects of study on the evolution of the moon, as well as to evaluate the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks. Based on previous studies and lunar exploration data, the authors analyzed the chemical and mineral characteristics of KREEP rocks, the abundance of Th on the lunar surface materials, the correlation between Th and REE of KREEP rocks in abundance, studied the distribution regions of KREEP rocks on the lunar surface, and further evaluated the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks.

  8. Studies on accelerated deactivation of ruthenium-promoted alumina-supported alkalized cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shohreh Tehrani; Mohamad Irani; Ahmad Tavasoli; Yadollah Mortazavi; Abbas A.Khodadadi; Ali Nakhaei Pour

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated deactivation of ruthenium-promoted alumina-supported alkalized cobalt(K-Ru-Co/-γ-Al2O3)Fischer-Tropsch(FT)synthesis catalyst along the catalytic bed over 120 h of time-on-stream(TOS)was investigated.Catalytic bed was divided into three parts and structural changes of the spent catalysts collected from each catalytic bed after FT synthesis were studied using different techniques.Rapid deactivation was observed during the reaction due to high reaction temperature and low feed flow rates.The physico-chemical properties of the catalyst charged in the Bed #1 of the reactor did not change significantly.Interaction of cobalt with alumina and the formation of CoAl2O4 increased along the catalytic bed.Reducibility percentage decreased by 4.5%,7.5% and 12.9% for the catalysts in the Beds #1,#2 and #3,respectively.Dispersion decreased by 8.8%,14.4% and 26.6% for the catalysts in the Beds #1,#2 and #3,respectively.Particle diameter increased by 0.6%,2.4% and 10.4% for the catalysts in the Beds #1,#2 and #3,respectively,suggesting higher rate of sintering at the last catalytic bed.The amount of coke at the last catalytic bed was significantly higher than those of Beds #1 and #2.

  9. Pyroxene zonation trends in mafic nepheline syenite and ijolite, Diamond Jo quarry, Magnet Cove igneous alkalic complex, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flohr, M.J.K.; Ross, M.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions of pyroxenes from mafic nepheline syenite and ijolite from Magnet Cove (NS and IJ) define zoning trends that reflect changing conditions in the crystallizing magmas and are used to contrast Magnet Cove with other alkalic complexes. The Na-Mg-Fe/sup 2 +/+Mn plot is used to compare NS and IJ pyroxenes with pyroxenes from nepheline syenites from S. Qoroq Centre, Greenland, and the Coldwell Complex intrusions, Ontario. Trends from the three areas are similar, but differences exists. Zoning in individual NS grains is greater than ranges for individual intrusions from S. Qoroq. Also, NS pyroxenes with compositions more magnesisan than Mg/sub 50/Nag are more Al-rich than S. Qoroq and Coldwell pyroxenes, indicating crystallization from a more undersaturated magma. These NS pyroxenes also contain 2-3 times more Ti and Fe/sup 3 +/. Despite different concentrations of Al, Ti, and Fe/sup 3 +/, the general crystallization trends shown by all elements considered are similar in NS and S. Qoroq pyroxenes. Sparse biotite and the absence of amphibole in NS indicate an H/sub 2/O-poor parent magma compared with those of the Coldwell and S. Qoroq nepheline syenites, which contain these phases. Mg-rich biotites and pyroxenes in IJ indicate that it formed from a less evolved liquid than NS.

  10. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of a potassic porphyritic calc-alkalic composite pluton: the Itaporanga batholith, state of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composite porphyritic, potassic calc-alkaline Itaporanga batholith was intruded between the metasediments of the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro groups and the gneisses of the basement, in the western portion of the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil. The close interaction of mafic (potassium diorite) with felsic porphyritic rocks (quartz monzonite to granite) forming hybrid ones (monzonite to granodiorite) developed migmatite-like structures (stromatic and, less often, agmatic) suggesting coexistence and mixing of magmas as a major process during the evolution of this pluton. Quartz, known for its resistence to weathering and subsequent oxygen isotope exchange, was used to compare the δ18O values among these rocks. (author)

  11. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  12. Glucocorticoid activity and metabolism with NaCl-induced low-grade metabolic acidosis and oral alkalization: results of two randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Remer, Thomas; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Heer, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Low-grade metabolic acidosis (LGMA), as induced by high dietary acid load or sodium chloride (NaCl) intake, has been shown to increase bone and protein catabolism. Underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, but from clinical metabolic acidosis interactions of acid-base balance with glucocorticoid (GC) metabolism are known. We aimed to investigate GC activity/metabolism under alkaline supplementation and NaCl-induced LGMA. Eight young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in two crossover designed interventional studies. In Study A, two 10-day high NaCl diet (32 g/d) periods were conducted, one supplemented with 90 mmol KHCO3/day. In Study B, participants received a high and a low NaCl diet (31 vs. 3 g/day), each for 14 days. During low NaCl, the diet was moderately acidified by replacement of a bicarbonate-rich mineral water (consumed during high NaCl) with a non-alkalizing drinking water. In repeatedly collected 24-h urine samples, potentially bioactive-free GCs (urinary-free cortisol + free cortisone) were analyzed, as well as tetrahydrocortisol (THF), 5α-THF, and tetrahydrocortisone (THE). With supplementation of 90 mmol KHCO3, the marker of total adrenal GC secretion (THF + 5α-THF + THE) dropped (p = 0.047) and potentially bioactive-free GCs were reduced (p = 0.003). In Study B, however, GC secretion and potentially bioactive-free GCs did not exhibit the expected fall with NaCl-reduction as net acid excretion was raised by 30 mEq/d. Diet-induced acidification/alkalization affects GC activity and metabolism, which in case of long-term ingestion of habitually acidifying western diets may constitute an independent risk factor for bone degradation and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:26349936

  13. Comparisons of venus surface compositions with terrestrial ocean floor rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, J.B.; Bryan, W.B.

    1987-10-01

    Statistical comparison of Venera and Vega lander x-ray fluorescence spectrometer measurements of the composition of the Venus surface with an extensive database of compositional data for terrestrial ocean floor rocks indicates that the Venera 14 data matches certain tholeiitic basalts from the Kane Fracture Zone (KFZ) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (22-25/sup 0/N) at high confidence levels. The tholeiites most similar to the Venera measurements are very primitive, low-calcium, high-alumina pillow basalts depleted in clinopyroxene, and are relatively unique to certain fracture zones in oceanic regions. If the Venera 14 analogy is valid, the implication is that certain Venus basaltic magmas have lost clinopyroxene at relatively high pressures by fractionation, perhaps within a deep source region. Comparisons of Venera 13 and Vega 2 data with oceanic rocks yield poorer matches. Venera 13 matches Loihi seamount alkali basalts, as well as potassic mafic rocks from oceanic island such as Tristan de Cunha. The best analogy to Vega 2 may be altered gabbros or basic lavas from terrestrial basic intrusions such as the Troodos ophiolite. The close similarity of a representative sample of Venera 14 material with distinctive ocean floor tholeiitic basalts suggests that deep magma storage regions exist on Venus, and that derivation of both tholeiitic and alkalic magmas from a single primitive parent may be an important process on Venus.

  14. Comparisons of venus surface compositions with terrestrial ocean floor rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical comparison of Venera and Vega lander x-ray fluorescence spectrometer measurements of the composition of the Venus surface with an extensive database of compositional data for terrestrial ocean floor rocks indicates that the Venera 14 data matches certain tholeiitic basalts from the Kane Fracture Zone (KFZ) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (22-250N) at high confidence levels. The tholeiites most similar to the Venera measurements are very primitive, low-calcium, high-alumina pillow basalts depleted in clinopyroxene, and are relatively unique to certain fracture zones in oceanic regions. If the Venera 14 analogy is valid, the implication is that certain Venus basaltic magmas have lost clinopyroxene at relatively high pressures by fractionation, perhaps within a deep source region. Comparisons of Venera 13 and Vega 2 data with oceanic rocks yield poorer matches. Venera 13 matches Loihi seamount alkali basalts, as well as potassic mafic rocks from oceanic island such as Tristan de Cunha. The best analogy to Vega 2 may be altered gabbros or basic lavas from terrestrial basic intrusions such as the Troodos ophiolite. The close similarity of a representative sample of Venera 14 material with distinctive ocean floor tholeiitic basalts suggests that deep magma storage regions exist on Venus, and that derivation of both tholeiitic and alkalic magmas from a single primitive parent may be an important process on Venus

  15. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP)

  16. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  17. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  18. Petrogenesis of late-Variscan high-K alkali-calcic granitoids and calc-alkalic lamprophyres: The Aber-Ildut/North-Ouessant complex, Armorican Massif, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Martial; Labry, Cyrill; Le Gall, Bernard; Authemayou, Christine; Grosjean, Denise Bussien; Guillong, Marcel

    2015-12-01

    The Aber-Ildut/North-Ouessant Variscan granitoid complex in the Armorican Massif is an example of high-K alkali-calcic zoned pluton, c. 304 Ma in age. A first magmatic batch intruded through a northern EW-trending sinistral transcurrent shear zone, before injecting southwards as a huge horizontal zoned sill, with moderately peraluminous muscovite-free granitoids in the north and strongly peraluminous muscovite-bearing leucogranites to the south. The second magmatic stage resulted in the intrusion of a large two-mica leucogranitic body from a root zone along the same shear zone, prior to the end of crystallization of the first injection. Finally, ultrapotassic dykes, including calc-alkalic lamprophyres (leucominettes), intrude the complex. The strongly peraluminous granites are interpreted as pure melting products of crustal clay-rich pelitic material. All the other petrographic types, including leucominettes, are thought to result from mixing of crustal melts and mantle-derived mafic liquids. Highly silicic tourmaline-bearing leucogranites are significantly affected by a tetrad effect, in relation with REE complexing behavior. Aber-Ildut/North-Ouessant granitoids probably formed during the Variscan late-orogenic stage associated with exhumation and lithospheric thinning, at low pressure and by advective heating of a ≤ 50 km-thick crust from hot metasomatized asthenosphere.

  19. Gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric investigation of triplex formation under weak alkalic pH environment with the aid of Ag +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Cen; Wu, Chengke; Zhang, Hong; Ling, Liansheng

    2011-09-01

    A novel colorimetric method for investigating triplex formation between oligonucleotide modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) under weak alkalic pH environment is developed based upon the specific recognition property of Ag + with CGC triads. Oligonucleotide 5'-SH-T 12-CTTCTTTCCTTTCTTC-3' (oligo-1) is modified on the surface of AuNPs. Upon addition of oligonucleotide 5'-GAAGAAAGGAAAGAAG-3' (oligo-2), triplex formation between oligo-1 modified AuNPs occurred at pH 8.0 with the aid of Ag +, triggers the aggregation of AuNPs, accompany with the solution color change from red to purple. The melting temperature demonstrates a 31 °C increase for the triplex DNA compose of 10 T•A∘T triads and 6 C•G∘C triads upon addition of Ag +, the disassociation constant ( Kd) between Ag + and C•G∘C triads is 3.6 μM. Moreover, triplex formation between AuNPs depending on Ag + can be used to recognize Ag + ion with the naked eye, as well as UV-vis absorption spectroscopy.

  20. 含酚、醛废水碱化过程研究%Study on the Alkalization Process of Phenolic Resin Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建国; 胡鸿雨; 曾燕; 俞立琼; 周大鹏

    2011-01-01

    介绍了碱化过程对含酚、醛废水处理的影响.通过对含酚、醛废水预处理,在游离酚、醛、COD降低的条件下,再进行碱化处理.在碱化处理之后,使废水中游离酚、醛、COD进一步降解,进而达到生化处理要求、适合微生物生长需要,最终满足国家排放标准.%The paper presents the influence of alkalizaton process to the synthesis of phenolic resin industrial wastewater treatment technologies. With the pretreatment to phenolic resin synthetic industrial wastewater and under the conditions of free phenol, free formaldehyde and lower COD in wastewater recycling, alkalization is adopted for further synthetic resin. Then the free phenol, free formaldehyde and COD are lowered to meet the needs of microbe growth and national emission standards.

  1. Discrimination of alkalinity in granitoid Rocks: A potential TIMS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    In mineral exploration, the ability to distinguish and map petrochemical variations of magmatic rocks can be a useful reconnaissance tool. Alkalinity is one such petrochemical parameter and is used in the characterization of granitoid rocks. In quartz normative plutonic rocks, alkalinity is related to the composition and abundance of feldspars. Together with quartz abundance, knowledge of feldspar modes allows the classification of these igneous rocks according to the Streckeisen diagram. Alternative classification schemes rely on whole rock geochemistry instead of mineral identifications. The relative ease of obtaining whole rock analyses means that geochemical classifications tend to be favored in exploration geology. But the technique of thermal infrared spectroscopy of rocks yields information on mineralogy and is one that can be applied remotely. The goal of the current work then is to establish whether data from TIMS can be used to distinguish the mineralogical variations that relate to alkalinity. An ideal opportunity to test this thesis arises from the work presented in a paper by Dewitt (1989). This paper contains the results of mapping and analysis of Proterozoic plutonic rocks in north-central Arizona. The map resulting from this work delineates plutons according to alkalinity in an effort to establish a trend or polarity in the regional magmatism. Also contained within this paper are brief descriptions of the mineralogy of half of the region's plutons. This combination of mineralogical and geochemical information was the rationale behind choosing this area as a site for TIMS over flights. A portion of the region centered on the northern Bradshaw Mountains was selected because it contains plutons of all three alkalinity classifications (alkali-calcic, calc-alkalic, and calic) present on DeWitt's map within a relatively small area. The site was flown in August of 1994 and the data received a few days before the writing of this manuscript. Most of this

  2. The rock diet

    OpenAIRE

    Fordyce, Fiona; Johnson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    You may think there is little connection between rocks and our diet, indeed a serving of rocks may sound very unappetising! But rocks are a vital source of the essential elements and minerals we need to keep us healthy, such as calcium for healthy teeth and bones.

  3. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  4. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  5. Age and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the Hikurangi and Manihiki oceanic Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoernle, Kaj; Hauff, Folkmar; van den Bogaard, Paul; Werner, Reinhard; Mortimer, Nick; Geldmacher, Jörg; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Davy, Bryan

    2010-12-01

    Here we present the first radiometric age data and a comprehensive geochemical data set (including major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope ratios) for samples from the Hikurangi Plateau basement and seamounts on and adjacent to the plateau obtained during the R/V Sonne 168 cruise, in addition to age and geochemical data from DSDP Site 317 on the Manihiki Plateau. The 40Ar/ 39Ar age and geochemical data show that the Hikurangi basement lavas (118-96 Ma) have surprisingly similar major and trace element and isotopic characteristics to the Ontong Java Plateau lavas (ca. 120 and 90 Ma), primarily the Kwaimbaita-type composition, whereas the Manihiki DSDP Site 317 lavas (117 Ma) have similar compositions to the Singgalo lavas on the Ontong Java Plateau. Alkalic, incompatible-element-enriched seamount lavas (99-87 Ma and 67 Ma) on the Hikurangi Plateau and adjacent to it (Kiore Seamount), however, were derived from a distinct high time-integrated U/Pb (HIMU)-type mantle source. The seamount lavas are similar in composition to similar-aged alkalic volcanism on New Zealand, indicating a second wide-spread event from a distinct source beginning ca. 20 Ma after the plateau-forming event. Tholeiitic lavas from two Osbourn seamounts on the abyssal plain adjacent to the northeast Hikurangi Plateau margin have extremely depleted incompatible element compositions, but incompatible element characteristics similar to the Hikurangi and Ontong Java Plateau lavas and enriched isotopic compositions intermediate between normal mid-ocean-ridge basalt (N-MORB) and the plateau basement. These younger (˜52 Ma) seamounts may have formed through remelting of mafic cumulate rocks associated with the plateau formation. The similarity in age and geochemistry of the Hikurangi, Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus suggest derivation from a common mantle source. We propose that the Greater Ontong Java Event, during which ˜1% of the Earth's surface was covered with volcanism, resulted from a

  6. Hungry for Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard identification camera shows the rover's perspective just before its first post-egress drive on Mars. On Sunday, the 15th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey, engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet) toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack (not pictured). In the foreground of this image are 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi' - two rocks that scientists considered investigating first. Ultimately, these rocks were not chosen because their rough and dusty surfaces are ill-suited for grinding.

  7. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  8. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  9. CRITERIA FOR ROCK ENGINEERING FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUDeren; ZHANGYuzhuo

    1995-01-01

    A great number of underground rock projects are maintained in the rock mass which is subject to rock damage and failure development. In many cases, the rock. engineering is still under normal working conditions even though rock is already fails to some extent. This paper introduces two different concepts: rock failure and rock engineering failure. Rock failure is defined as a mechanical state under which an applicable characteristic is changed or lost.However, the rock engineering failure is an engineering state under which an applicable function is changed or lost. The failure of surrounding rocks is the major reason of rock engineering failure. The criterion of rock engineering failure depends on the limit of applicable functions. The rock engineering failure state possesses a corresponding point in rock failure state. In this paper, a description of rock engineering failure criterion is given by simply using a mechanical equation or expression. It is expected that the study of rock engineering failure criterion will be an optimal approach that combines research of rock mechanics with rock engineering problems.

  10. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  11. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  12. Rock magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978 the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program began the long task of site selection and evaluation for nuclear waste disposal. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, administered by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Research Company has provided the geophysicist with the unique opportunity to evaluate many modes of geophysical investigation in conjunction with detailed geologic mapping at a number of research areas. Of particular interest is research area RA-7, East Bull Lake, Algoma District, Ontario. Geophysical survey methods applied to the study of this included detailed gravity, ground magnetics, VLF, an airborne magnetic gradiometer survey and an airborne helicopter magnetic and EM survey. A comprehensive suite of rock property studies was also undertaken providing information on rock densities and magnetic rock properties. Preliminary modeling of the magnetic data sets assuming only induced magnetization illustrated the difficulty of arriving at a magnetic source geometry consistent with the mapped surficial and borehole geology. Integration of the magnetic rock properties observations and industry standard magnetic modelling techniques provides a source model geometry that is consistent with other geophysical/geological data sets, e.g. gravity and observed geology. The genesis of individual magnetic signatures in the East Bull Lake gabbro-anorthosite record the intrusion, metamorphism and fracture alteration of the pluton. As shown by this paper, only by understanding the rock magnetic signatures associated with each of these events is it possible to obtain geologically meaningful interpretative models

  13. Groundwater in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of published chemical analyses of ground waters found in granitic rocks from a variety of locations shows that their compositions fall into two distinct classes. Ground waters from shallow wells and springs have a high bicarbonate/chloride ratio resulting from the neutralization of carbonic acid (dissolved CO2) by weathering reactions. The sodium, potassium, and silica released by weathering reactions drive the solutions away from equilibrium with the dominant minerals in the granites (i.e., quartz, muscovite, potassium feldspar, and albite). On the other hand, ground waters from deep wells and excavations are rich in chloride relative to bicarbonate. Their Na, K, H, and silica activities indicate that they are nearly equilibrated with the granite minerals suggesting a very long residence time in the host rock. These observations furnish the basis for a powerful tool to aid in selecting sites for radioactive waste disposal in granitic rocks. When water-bearing fractures are encountered in these rocks, a chemical analysis of the solutions contained within the fracture can determine whether the water came from the surface, i.e., is bicarbonate rich and not equilibrated, or whether it is some sort of connate water that has resided in the rock for a long period, i.e., chloride rich and equilibrated. This technique should allow immediate recognition of fracture systems in granitic radioactive waste repositories that would allow radionuclides to escape to the surface

  14. Blue Mountain and The Gas Rocks: Rear-Arc Dome Clusters on the Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    Behind the single-file chain of stratovolcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, independent rear-arc vents for mafic magmas are uncommon, and for silicic magmas rarer still. We report here the characteristics, compositions, and ages of two andesite-dacite dome clusters and of several nearby basaltic units, all near Becharof Lake and 15 to 20 km behind the volcanic front. Blue Mountain consists of 13 domes (58-68 weight percent SiO2) and The Gas Rocks of three domes (62-64.5 weight percent SiO2) and a mafic cone (52 weight percent SiO2). All 16 domes are amphibole-biotite-plagioclase felsite, and nearly all are phenocryst rich and quartz bearing. Although the two dome clusters are lithologically and chemically similar and only 25 km apart, they differ strikingly in age. The main central dome of Blue Mountain yields an 40Ar/39Ar age of 632?7 ka, and two of the Gas Rocks domes ages of 25.7?1.4 and 23.3?1.2 ka. Both clusters were severely eroded by glaciation; surviving volumes of Blue Mountain domes total ~1 km3, and of the Gas Rocks domes 0.035 km3. Three basaltic vents lie close to The Gas Rocks, another lies just south of Blue Mountain, and a fifth is near the north shore of Becharof Lake. A basaltic andesite vent 6 km southeast of The Gas Rocks appears to be a flank vent of the arc-front center Mount Peulik. The basalt of Ukinrek Maars has been called transitionally alkalic, but all the other basaltic rocks are subalkaline. CO2-rich gas emissions near the eponymous Gas Rocks domes are not related to the 25-ka dacite dome cluster but, rather, to intracrustal degassing of intrusive basalt, one batch of which erupted 3 km away in 1977. The felsic and mafic vents all lie along or near the Bruin Bay Fault where it intersects a broad transverse structural zone marked by topographic, volcanologic, and geophysical discontinuities.

  15. Digital carbonate rock physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Erik H.; Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim; Uribe, David; Osorno, Maria; Duda, Mandy; Steeb, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Modern estimation of rock properties combines imaging with advanced numerical simulations, an approach known as digital rock physics (DRP). In this paper we suggest a specific segmentation procedure of X-ray micro-computed tomography data with two different resolutions in the µm range for two sets of carbonate rock samples. These carbonates were already characterized in detail in a previous laboratory study which we complement with nanoindentation experiments (for local elastic properties). In a first step a non-local mean filter is applied to the raw image data. We then apply different thresholds to identify pores and solid phases. Because of a non-neglectable amount of unresolved microporosity (micritic phase) we also define intermediate threshold values for distinct phases. Based on this segmentation we determine porosity-dependent values for effective P- and S-wave velocities as well as for the intrinsic permeability. For effective velocities we confirm an observed two-phase trend reported in another study using a different carbonate data set. As an upscaling approach we use this two-phase trend as an effective medium approach to estimate the porosity-dependent elastic properties of the micritic phase for the low-resolution images. The porosity measured in the laboratory is then used to predict the effective rock properties from the observed trends for a comparison with experimental data. The two-phase trend can be regarded as an upper bound for elastic properties; the use of the two-phase trend for low-resolution images led to a good estimate for a lower bound of effective elastic properties. Anisotropy is observed for some of the considered subvolumes, but seems to be insignificant for the analysed rocks at the DRP scale. Because of the complexity of carbonates we suggest using DRP as a complementary tool for rock characterization in addition to classical experimental methods.

  16. Rock Hellsinki, Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Roosa; Jalkanen, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative research about rock and heavy metal music tourism in the capital city of Finland, Helsinki. As Helsinki can be considered the city of contrasts, the silent nature city mixed with urban activities, it is important to also use the potential of the loud rock and heavy metal music contrasting the silence. Finland is known abroad for bands such as HIM, Nightwish, Korpiklaani and Children of Bodom so it would make sense to utilize these in the tourism sector as well. The...

  17. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  18. Rock engineering applications, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to underground space, from design approaches to underground housing and storage. And they cover the monitoring of storage caverns for liquid and gaseous products or toxic and radioactive wastes

  19. Rocking and Rolling Rattlebacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    A rattleback is a well-known physics toy that has a preferred direction of rotation. If it is spun about a vertical axis in the "wrong" direction, it will slow down, start rocking from end to end, and then spin in the opposite (i.e. preferred) direction. Many articles have been written about rattlebacks. Some are highly mathematical and…

  20. Stanford Rock Physics database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Hart, C. (Envision Systems, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States))

    The authors have developed a relational database for the Stanford Rock Physics (SRP) Laboratory. The database is a flexible tool for helping researchers find relevant data. It significantly speeds retrieval of data and facilitates new organizations of rock physics information to get answers to research questions. The motivation for a database was to have a computer data storage, search, and display capability to explore the sensitivity of acoustic velocities to changes in the properties and states of rocks. Benefits include data exchange among researchers, discovery of new relations in existing data, and identification of new areas of research. The authors' goal was to build a database flexible enough for the dynamic and multidisciplinary research environment of rock physics. Databases are based on data models. A flexible data model must: (1) Not impose strong, prior constraints on the data; (2) not require a steep learning curve of the database architecture; and (3) be easy to modify. The authors' choice of the relational data model reflects these considerations. The database and some hardware and software considerations were influenced by their choice of data model, and their desire to provide a user-friendly interface for the database and build a distributed database system.

  1. Rock solid energy solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists believe naturally radioactive rocks below the earth's surface could provide an inexhaustible and environmentally friendly power source. And Australia could be a geological hotbed should the concept get off the ground. Despite the scale, the concept itself is simple. The Earth's reserves of heat in naturally radioactive rocks could provide an effectively inexhaustible and environmentally friendly source of power. No greenhouse gas emissions, little water usage and minimal pollution. Natural hot springs are already used to make power in some parts of the world, such as Iceland, but creating artificial hot springs by drilling deep into granite -the hardest of rocks - is a much more ambitious concept. One cubic kilometre of hot granite at 250 deg C has the stored energy equivalent of 40 million barrels of oil. In a nutshell, water is pumped into the hot zone - some 3km to 5km down in Australian conditions - and spreads through a 'reservoir' of hot, cracked rocks. Once superheated, it returns to the surface as steam through a separate production well to spin turbines and generate electricity. The water can then be recaptured and reused, with test sites around the world recovering up to around 90 per cent

  2. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the e

  3. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  4. Joint Commission on rock properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    A joint commission on Rock Properties for Petroleum Engineers (RPPE) has been established by the International Society of Rock Mechanics and the Society of Petroleum Engineers to set up data banks on the properties of sedimentary rocks encountered during drilling. Computer-based data banks of complete rock properties will be organized for sandstones (GRESA), shales (ARSHA) and carbonates (CARCA). The commission hopes to access data sources from members of the commission, private companies and the public domain.

  5. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  6. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  7. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  8. Limados : Rock peruano

    OpenAIRE

    García Morete, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    Incentivado por la corriente nuevaolera que llegaba de México, fue señalado por especialistas como pionero del punk. Aunque el plan, era tocar con lo que hubiera. Un recodo ínfimo de un período breve pero sorprendentemente poderoso, los 60 en un país que hizo del rock una expresión propia de su cultura.

  9. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m2) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  10. Rock in Rio: forever young

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas; Flávio Lins Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark ...

  11. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  12. Rock bolts - Improved design and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas-Lepine, Capucine

    2012-01-01

    SummaryRock Bolts, improved design and possibilitiesMaster thesis NTNU 2012Student : Capucine Thomas-LepineSupervisor : Leif LiaKey words : rock foundation, small concrete dam, rock mass classification, rock joints, shear strength of rock discontinuities, fully grouted passive rock bolts designMasters Thesis : “Rock bolts, improved design and possibilities” is a continuation from the Masters Thesis NTNU 2011 “Rock bolts in dams, expected capacity” by Lars Kristian Neby. In...

  13. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrášik, Martin; Kopecký, Miloslav

    2014-03-01

    Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite. However, rock as any other material if exposed to exogenous processes starts to deteriorate. Especially mechanical weathering can be very intensive if rock with unsuitable rock properties is used. For long it had been believed that repeated freezing and thawing in relation to high absorption is the main reason of the rock deterioration. In Slovakia for many years the high water absorption was set as exclusion criterion for use of rocks and stones in building industry. Only after 1989 the absorption was accepted as merely informational rock property and not exclusion. The reason of the change was not the understanding of the relationship between the porosity and rock deterioration, but more or less good experiences with some high porous rocks used in constructions exposed to severe weather conditions and proving a lack of relationship between rock freeze-thaw resistivity and water absorption. Results of the recent worldwide research suggest that understanding a resistivity of rocks against deterioration is hidden not in the absorption but in the structure of rock pores in relation to thermodynamic properties of pore water and tensile strength of rocks and rock minerals. Also this article presents some results of research on rock deterioration and pore structure performed on 88 rock samples. The results divide the rocks tested into two groups - group N in which the pore water does not freeze

  14. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  15. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  16. Sealing of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of a presentation of the third phase of the Stripa Project. This phase was dedicated to fracture sealing. First of all it has been necessary to show that fine-grained grouts could effectively be injected in relatively fine cracks, and that the fluidity of bentonite could also be enhanced. The field tests comprised investigation of excavation-induced disturbance and attempts to seal disturbed rock, and, in separate tests, grouting of deposition holes and a natural fine-fracture zone. (TEC). 12 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  17. From stones to rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  18. Rock mechanics data package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data package provides a summary of available laboratory and in situ stress field test results from site characterization investigations by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project Modeling and Analysis Group. The objective is to furnish rock mechanics information for use by Rockwell Hanford Operations and their subcontractors in performance assessment and engineering studies. This release includes Reference Repository Location (RRL) site specific laboratory and field test data from boreholes RRL-2, RRL-6, and RRL-14 as well as previous Hanford wide data available as of April, 1985. 25 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs

  19. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology of granitic rocks in the Buqingshan tectonic mélange belt, northern Tibet Plateau, China and its implications for Prototethyan evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruibao; Pei, Xianzhi; Li, Zuochen; Pei, Lei; Liu, Chengjun; Chen, Youxin; Chen, Guochao; Liu, Zhanqing; Yang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    The Yikehalaer intrusives are distributed in the Buqingshan tectonic mélange belt at the southern margin of East Kunlun, China. They tectonically intruded the conglomerate of Permian Gequ Formation to the south and the marble of Mesoproterozoic Kuhai Group to the north. These intrusives mainly consist of off-white coarse- and fine-grained granodiorite and granite. U-Pb dating of zircons from the intrusive samples yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 436 ± 7 Ma and 437 ± 6 Ma, indicating Early Silurian crystallization age. The intrusives are high-silica, Na-rich, I-type calc-alkalic rocks. They are divisible into two subgroups on the basis of their trace element content: adakitic rocks in the northern part and normal calc-alkalic arc rocks in the southern part. Rocks in the northern part exhibit high Sr (280-493 ppm), low Y (3.8-11.7 ppm), high Sr/Y ratios (23.9-125.0), high light rare earth elements (LREE)/ heavy rare earth elements (HREE) (15.1-35.7), and invisible Eu/Eu∗. They resemble adakites formed by slab melting in subduction zones. However, the rocks in the southern part possess the attributes of normal arc rocks. In addition, the εHf(t) values of the intrusives are consistently positive (0.6-7.6), implying that they were generated by melting of an isotopically depleted mantle source, with insignificant contributions from crustal materials. The source residues likely contained 10-20% garnet and hornblende, and plagioclase was either absent or totally consumed during partial melting. Combining the regional tectonic data, we conclude that the Buqingshan paleo-ocean may have started to subduct in Middle Cambrian until Early Silurian (436 Ma), generating an important adakitic magma event during the late stage of oceanic crust subduction. Moreover, the Proto-Tethyan Ocean closed, and the Bayan Har, East Kunlun, and Qaidam blocks collided during the Middle-Late Silurian.

  20. Rock Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process

  1. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  2. Overview: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  3. Overview - Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, James C.

    1992-03-24

    The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

  4. Rock Properties Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Lum

    2004-09-16

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  5. Big Rock Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant is the second oldest operating nuclear power plant in the United States. Its 25-yr history is an embodiment of the history of commercial nuclear power. In some respects, its situation today - 5 yr past the midpoint of its design life - can provide operators of other nuclear plants a glimpse of where they will be in another decade. Construction on Big Rock Point began in 1960. It was completed just 2 1/2 yr later at a cost of $27 million. The plant is a General Electric (GE)-designed boiling water direct cycle, forced circulation, high power density reactor. Its construction was undertaken by Consumers Power under the third round of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC's) Power Demonstration Reactor Program. It was an advanced version of GE's Vallecitos boiling water reactor. The plant's fuel was GE's responsibility and, under contract with the AEC, it conducted a fuel research and development (RandD) program involving the plant. Although the plant was designed for research - its original electrical capacity was set at 50 MW(electric) - the unit was subsequently uprated to 69 MW(net electric). The original plant staff included only 44 people and minimal security. Mirroring the industry experience, the number of people on-site had quadrupled

  6. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  7. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Shepherd

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  8. [Hearing disorders and rock music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2008-12-15

    Only few studies have investigated the frequency of hearing disorders in rock musicians. Performing rock music is apparently associated with a hearing loss in a fraction of musicians. Tinnitus and hyperacusis are more common among rock musicians than among the background population. It seems as if some sort of resistance against further hearing loss is developed over time. The use of ear protection devices have not been studied systematically but appears to be associated with diminished hearing loss. PMID:19128557

  9. Ready to Rock and Roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard-identification camera shows the rover's perspective just before its first post-egress drive on Mars. On Sunday, the 15th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey, engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet)toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack (not pictured). In the foreground of this image are 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi' - two rocks that scientists considered investigating first. Ultimately, these rocks were not chosen because their rough and dusty surfaces are ill-suited for grinding.

  10. Electromagnetic emissions during rock blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, S. G.; Thiel, D. V.

    1991-05-01

    Radio emissions during quarry blasting have been recorded in the audio frequency band. Three distinct mechanisms are suggested to explain the observed results; rock fracture at the time of the explosion, charged rocks discharging on impact with the pit floor and micro-fracture of the remaining rock wall due to pressure adjustment of the bench behind the blast. The last mechanism was evident by a train of discrete impulses recorded for up to one minute after the blast. It is assumed that during this time the rock behind the blast was subjected to a significant change in pressure. This may be related to ELF observations during earthquakes.

  11. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  12. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  13. Rock and soil rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Euromech Colloquium 196 devoted to Rock and Soil Rheology is to review some of the main results obtained in the last years in this field of research and also to formulate some of the major not yet solved problems which are now under consideration. Exchange of opinions and scientific discussions are quite helpful mainly in those areas where some approaches are controversial and the progress made is quite fast. That is especially true for the rheology of geomaterials, domain of great interest for mining and petroleum engineers, engineering geology, seismology, geophysics, civil engineering, nuclear and industrial waste storage, geothermal energy storage, caverns for sports, culture, telecommunications, storage of goods and foodstuffs (cold, hot and refrigerated storages), underground oil and natural gas reservoirs etc. Some of the last obtained results are mentioned in the present volume. (orig./HP)

  14. Rock the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  15. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  16. Rock Segmentation through Edge Regrouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Rockster is an algorithm that automatically identifies the locations and boundaries of rocks imaged by the rover hazard cameras (hazcams), navigation cameras (navcams), or panoramic cameras (pancams). The software uses edge detection and edge regrouping to identify closed contours that separate the rocks from the background.

  17. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  18. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  19. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  20. 镁碱化盐土微生物生物量和土壤基础呼吸%Microbial Biomass and Basal Soil Respiration in Alkalized Magnesic Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元炳成; 刘权; 黄伟; 李凤成

    2011-01-01

    The effects of EC (electrical conductivity of soil saturation paste) and Mg2+ alkalinity on soil microbial biomass and basal soil respiration in alkalized magnesic soils were investigated. The study was conducted along the border area of the alluvial fan of Chang Ma of Shu Le He River. Ten sites were chosen and thirty soil samples were taken. The results showed that microbial biomass C(N) and basal soil respiration negatively correlated with EC, exchangeable Mg2+ percentage and Mg2+/Ca2+, while the metabolic quotient (qCO2) positively correlated with EC,exchangeable Mg2+ percentage and Mg2+/Ca2+, which indicated the adverse effect that salinity and Mg2+ alkalinity stressec on soil microbial community.%通过测定甘肃河西走廊疏勒河中游昌马冲积扇缘不同镁碱度条件下10个采样点30个土样的化学性质和生物化学性质指标,研究了电导率和镁碱度对土壤微生物生物量及其基础呼吸的影响.结果表明:微生物生物量碳(氮)和土壤基础呼吸与电导率、镁碱度和Mg2+/Ca2+之间显著负相关,表明盐度和镁碱度对土壤微生物群落有显著的抑制作用,而且盐度的抑制作用比镁碱度更大;微生物代谢熵(qCO2)和电导率、镁碱度、Mg2+/Ca2+之间为正相关关系.也说明镁碱化盐土对土壤微生物而言是一种严重的胁迫环境.

  1. Research on Mechanism of Rock Burst Generation and Development for High Stress Rock Tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高全臣; 赫建明; 王代华

    2001-01-01

    Through the investigation and analysis of high stress distribution in surrounding rock during the excavation of rock tunnels,the key factors to cause rock burst and the mechanism of rock burst generation and development are researched. The result shows that the scale and range of rock burst are related with elastic deformation energy storied in rock mass and the characteristics of unloading stress waves. The measures of preventing from rock burst for high stress rock tunnels are put forward.

  2. ACID ROCK DRAINAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ionce

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Acid rock drainage (ARD is an particularly important aspect for the evaluation of the decantation ponds’ safety, and which has been only once taken into consideration at the Tarnicioara decantation pond, year 2002, as a consequence of the apparition of a strong seepage on the deposit’s dump, that has chemically de-purified the water from the river Brateasa. We have observed ARD, which implies the release of acid solutions from the mining sterile deposits, from the underground mining works and from the quarries, in the following tailings dams: Tarnicioara, Valea Strajii, Poarta Veche- which served Tarniţa Preparation Enterprise and in the Dealu Negru and Paraul Cailor ponds- which, at their time served Fundu Moldovei Preparation Enterprise, both during the period of their functioning and the period after their closure. For the decantation pond Dumitrelu which served the Calimani preparation enterprise, acid seepages from the deposit were mentioned in a study made by SC ICPM SA Baia Mare in 1993. Subsequently to the closure of the objective such seepage did not take place anymore. Instead, by raining, there is a frequent plant sterile dragging from the contour retaining wall down to the trouble pond, situated upstream.

  3. They will rock you!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  4. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  5. Rock Dusting Leaves 'Mickey Mouse' Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock dubbed 'Humphrey' and the circular areas on the rock that were wiped off by the rover. The rover used a brush on its rock abrasion tool to clean these spots before examining them with its miniature thermal emission spectrometer. Later, the rover drilled into the rock with its rock abrasion tool, exposing fresh rock underneath.

  6. Dynamic rock fragmentation: thresholds for long runout rock avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Bowman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic fragmentation of rock within rock avalanches is examined using the fragmentation concepts introduced by Grady and co-workers. The analyses use typical material values for weak chalk and limestone in order to determine theoretical strain rate thresholds for dynamic fragmentation and resulting fragment sizes. These are found to compare favourably with data obtained from field observations of long runout rock avalanches and chalk cliff collapses in spite of the simplicity of the approach used. The results provide insight as to the energy requirements to develop long runout behaviour and hence may help to explain the observed similarities between large rock avalanches and much smaller scale chalk cliff collapses as seen in Europe.

  7. Teaching Poetry Through Rock Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Tony

    1971-01-01

    As a bridge process, to take unwilling classes onto more conventional poetry, the study of rock lyrics can be very useful. Article discusses methods, objectives, values and materials used. (Author/RB)

  8. Plastic deformations in mine rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryazantsev, N.A.; Nosach, A.K. (Donetskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1990-12-01

    Presents results of investigations into plastic deformation of sandstone and coal samples. Tests were conducted on a triaxial compression testing machine with unequal components. Graphs of rock strength and deformation depending on lateral pressure are shown. It was found that rock strength and plasticity increase and decrease periodically as lateral pressure rises. The indicator of deformation localization is analyzed and calculation formulae are given. Experimental data testify to the fact that in the process of plastic deformation the deformation vector rotates by an angle of up to 60 degrees. On the basis of the uncovered effects of differential rotation and directional mass transfer that result from deformation localization the progress of a rock burst process is explained. The regularities found can explain many processes that occur in rock body, e.g. occurrence of disintegration zones around workings.

  9. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the brittle

  10. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  11. Mantle evolution in the Variscides of SW England: Geochemical and isotopic constraints from mafic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Nicolle E.; Murphy, J. Brendan; Braid, James A.; Shail, Robin K.; Nance, R. Damian

    2016-06-01

    The geology of SW England has long been interpreted to reflect Variscan collisional processes associated with the closure of the Rhenohercynian Ocean and the formation of Pangea. The Cornish peninsula is composed largely of Early Devonian to Late Carboniferous volcanosedimentary successions that were deposited in pre- and syn-collisional basins and were subsequently metamorphosed and deformed during the Variscan orogeny. Voluminous Early Permian granitic magmatism (Cornubian Batholith) is broadly coeval with the emplacement of ca. 280-295 Ma lamprophyric dykes and flows. Although these lamprophyres are well mapped and documented, the processes responsible for their genesis and their relationship with regional Variscan tectonic events are less understood. Pre- to syn-collisional basalts have intra-continental alkalic affinities, and have REE profiles consistent with derivation from the spinel-garnet lherzolite boundary. εNd values for the basalts range from + 0.37 to + 5.2 and TDM ages from 595 Ma to 705 Ma. The lamprophyres are extremely enriched in light rare earth elements, large iron lithophile elements, and are depleted in heavy rare earth elements, suggesting a deep, garnet lherzolite source that was previously metasomatised. They display εNd values ranging from - 1.4 to + 1.4, initial Sr values of ca. 0.706, and TDM ages from 671 Ma to 1031 Ma, suggesting that metasomatism occurred in the Neoproterozoic. Lamprophyres and coeval granite batholiths of similar chemistry to those in Cornwall occur in other regions of the Variscan orogen, including Iberia and Bohemia. By using new geochemical and isotopic data to constrain the evolution of the mantle beneath SW England and the processes associated with the formation of these post-collisional rocks, we may be able to gain a more complete understanding of mantle processes during the waning stages of supercontinent formation.

  12. Institute for Rock Magnetism established

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subir K.

    There is a new focal point for cooperative research in advanced rock magnetism. The University of Minnesota in Minneapolis has established an Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) that will provide free access to modern equipment and encourage visiting fellows to focus on important topics in rock magnetism and related interdisciplinary research. Funding for the first three years has been secured from the National Science Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the University of Minnesota.In the fall of 1986, the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (GP) section of the AGU held a workshop at Asilomar, Calif., to pinpoint important and emerging research areas in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, and the means by which to achieve them. In a report of this workshop published by the AGU in September 1987, two urgent needs were set forth. The first was for interdisciplinary research involving rock magnetism, and mineralogy, petrology, sedimentology, and the like. The second need was to ease the access of rock magnetists and paleomagnetists around the country to the latest equipment in modern magnetics technology, such as magneto-optics or electronoptics. Three years after the publication of the report, we announced the opening of these facilities at the GP section of the AGU Fall 1990 Meeting. A classified advertisement inviting applications for visiting fellowships was published in the January 22, 1991, issue of Eos.

  13. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs

  14. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1996-06-01

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs.

  15. 30 CFR 57.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... grouting material shall not be used. (f) When rock bolts tensioned by torquing are used as a means of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock fixtures. 57.3203 Section 57.3203 Mineral... Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3203 Rock fixtures. (a) For rock bolts and accessories addressed...

  16. Engineering of Rocking Nut Maker Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Sulharman

    2016-01-01

    There had been mechanically conducted an engineering of Rocking Nut Maker Tools for rocking nut small industry. The objective is to engineer a maker tool for rocking nut which can work with the assistance of motor without using manpower, thus it will increase the production of rocking nut. Making method on rocking nut maker tool includes: (1) Designing tool; (2) tool making; (3) Tool testing. According to the result of engineering tool, there were obtained: frame for tray that was made from a...

  17. Silicate rock and rock forming mineral neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron-activation scheme for the determination of nine rare earths and other trace elements in various rock forming minerals (feldspars, ilmenite, magnetite, pyroxenes) and silicate rocks is presented. The procedure is based on three different irradiations involving three separate samples: - epithermal neutron irradiation (2 days) followed by nondestructive analysis; - thermal neutron irradiation (1 day) followed by instrumental analysis; - thermal neutron irradiation (1 week) followed by radiochemical analysis (precipitation, anion exchange separation, liquid-liquid extraction). Two USGS reference samples - granite G-2 and andesite AGV-1 - have been analysed in order to assess the accuracy of the proposed procedure. Our results agree with previous neutron-activation data. (orig.)

  18. Rocks in the Water : The Liancourt Rocks Dispute

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The Liancourt Rocks, known also by the name ‘Dokdo’ in Korean, and ‘Takeshima’ in Japanese, are two tiny islets situated between Japan and the Korean Peninsula in the Sea of Japan. The islets have been the source of bilateral tension and conflict due to the fact that both Japan and the Republic of Korea claim sovereign title. In a time of imperialist progress and expansionism, Japan incorporated Liancourt Rocks in its territory in 1905, well before the conclusion of the Shimonoseki and Eu...

  19. Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the characteristics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified. (author)

  20. Polygon/Cracked Sedimentary Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    4 December 2004 Exposures of sedimentary rock are quite common on the surface of Mars. Less common, but found in many craters in the regions north and northwest of the giant basin, Hellas, are sedimentary rocks with distinct polygonal cracks in them. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the floor of an unnamed crater near 21.0oS, 311.9oW. Such cracks might have formed by desiccation as an ancient lake dried up, or they might be related to ground ice freeze/thaw cycles or some other stresses placed on the original sediment or the rock after it became lithified. The 300 meter scale bar is about 328 yards long. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  1. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  2. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: e.schnug@tu-braunschweig.de [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.frossard@usys.ethz.ch [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  3. Some rock mass assessment procedures for discontinuous crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground radioactive waste repositories place especially stringent demands on rock mass assessment and excavation design methodologies. As part of the Building Research Establishment's programme of research into geotechnical site assessment methodology, experiments were undertaken at an underground test site in granite at Troon, Cornwall, and in the Imperial College Laboratories. The results of discontinuity surveys showed that the borehole impression packer probe technique can provide an important source of information for radioactive waste repository site assessment. Similarly, borehole pressure tests can provide valuable data on discontinuity apertures and hydraulic conductivities and on rock mass permeabilities. A versatile, modular borehole pressure test system for use from restricted underground locations was developed and used successfully. Field tests gave values of equivalent parallel plate apertures and discontinuity hydraulic conductivities in similar ranges to those measured in laboratory tests on samples recovered from the site. Discontinuity normal stiffnesses were also measured successfully using the Terra Tek Geothermal Rock Mechanics Test System which proved itself capable of providing laboratory test data required to support geotechnical site assessment procedures for radioactive waste repositories in discontinuous rock. (author)

  4. Pb, Nd, Sr and Os isotopic systematics of Brazilian cretaceous potassic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafic potassic rocks of the Alto Paranaiba (Minas Gerais), Juina (Mato Grosso), and Pimenta BUeno (Mato Grosso) belong to a large lineament of rocks that crosses from western to southeastern Brazil and have been associated to a hot spot track by several authors. These provinces intruded the Neoproterozoic Brasilia and Paraguay fold belts (Alto Paranaiba, Paranatinga), and the Mesoproterozoic Rio Negro-Jurema belt (Juina, Pimenta Vueno). Pb isotopic compositions of the studied provinces show a wide variation. 206 Pb/204 Pb of kimberlites (18.47-19.23) and kamafugities (17.79-18.71) from the Alto Paranaiba Province are close to the Tristaan/Walvis Ridge composition. The 206 Pb/204 Pb of the paranatinga (19.38-19.87) and Pimenta Bueno (19.78-21.00) provinces are similar to the South African Group I Kimberlite compositional fields, while Juina is displaced to higher Pb isotopic ratios (21.38.22.26), close to those shown ny HIMU ocean island +(OIB).Although the Pb isotopic composition of the more northern alkalic provinces ranges towards the values seen for HIMU OIB, the Sr andNd isotopic composition of these samples is not like HIMU, nor in combination with Pb, like any other ocean island basalt. With the exception of the limberlites from the Alto Paranaiba, which range to quite unradiogenic compositions, most of the samples have 187 Os/188 Os between 0.13 and 0.15. The Nd model ages of Juina kimberlites vary from 1.70-1.73 Ga, and could be indicating a prior accretion period into the mobile belt. Nd model ages for paranatinga kimberlites vary between 0.56 and 0.64 Ga and Pimenta Bueno kimberlites from 0.72 to 1.05 Ga. Minimum Re depletion model ages for Paranatinga kimberlites vary between 0.74 and 0.93 and Pimenta Bueno kimberlites from 0.9 to 1.3 Ga, indicating that the Nd isotopic signartures could have been affected by metasomatic overprint in Neoroterozoic. (author)

  5. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140786Deng Zhenping(Institute of Karst Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Guilin 541004,China);Yang Wen-qiong Application of Stripping Voltammetry with a Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Copper in a Tracer and Groundwater Tracing Experiment(Rock and Mineral Analy-

  6. Grouting methodology in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this paper, an initial literature review was conducted to investigate the potential applications of grouting technology for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (hereafter called geological disposal), and the potential grouting material for each application. The results show the necessity of using suspension grout, such as cement-based grout, during excavation work, especially deep underground. Next, the method to achieve highly effective seals in crystalline rock with cement grout is studied. To enhance the sealing quality, cement grout should penetrate into very fine fractures, e.g. less than 100 μm aperture. In the case of suspension grout, clogging with grout at the openings of rock fractures, especially fine fractures, tends to occur, which results in poor grout penetration. A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the clogging phenomenon; the results suggest that high injection pressures could be effective to prevent clogging. Finally, focusing on pre-excavation grouting for horizontal tunnels in crystalline rock, the effective grout hole patterns for achieving high quality sealing was studied. A series of theoretical calculations for water inflow and cost studies were conducted. The results indicate that a dense arrangement of grout holes in a relatively narrow area around a tunnel section, as practised in the Nordic countries, is favorable in hard crystalline rock. (author)

  7. Contaminant migration in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. A literature review of modelling approaches and methods for field investigations concerning flow and migration in fractured rock is given. The literature study on field observations shows that the water flow in fractured rock is unevenly distributed, which contradicts the porous medium approach. Some idealized examples are given to investigate where to find low hydraulic gradients. The ability of a laminar pipe-flow model to reproduce the hydrodynamic transport of contaminated groundwater in fractured rock is investigated. It is assumed that the cross-section areas in an ensemble of tubes have a gamma distribution. The model is applied to field tracer experiments at two sites. An attempt is made to model a fracture with irregular aperture as a two-dimensional stochastic process with known correlation structure. It is assumed that the fracture aperture is lognormally distributed, and that the flow is laminar. A particle following algorithm is applied. A comparison with the porous medium approach, and with the laminar pipe flow model is made. 135 refs, 41 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Texture of Rock at 'Jibsheet'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A bulbous texture is evident in this rock target at the outcrop called 'Jibsheet' in this view from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. Frames making up this mosaic image of a target dubbed 'Reef' were taken during the rover's 481st martian day, or sol (May 11, 2005).

  9. Gas migration through crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractured rocks have been considered as potential host rocks for the deep disposal of radioactive waste in a number of countries. The representative repository concepts involved: a) Low- and intermediate-level waste in water-saturated fractured rock. b) Spent fuel (or HLW) in water-saturated fractured rock. c) Spent fuel in unsaturated fractured tuff (Yucca Mountain). The key gas-related issues are likely to be different for these three repository concepts. Concept (a) typically involves the emplacement of packaged wastes in caverns or tunnels, probably backfilled with a cement grout, and perhaps involving structural concrete lining. The quantities of gas produced for a given volume of waste are expected to be larger than for spent fuel or high-level waste and may include radioactive gases whose release at the surface requires assessment for its potential radiological consequences. For this concept, understanding the mechanisms and effects of gas migration through the geosphere is important in repository performance assessment. For concept (b), the waste is typically contained in long-lasting canisters emplaced in holes lined with compacted bentonite. The bentonite barriers are intended to provide the main barrier to groundwater access to the waste, and the quantities of gas expected to be produced are predicted to be sufficiently small that the host rock is not expected to provide a serious obstacle to gas escape from the region of the canister. In this concept, the main barrier to gas migration is considered to be the bentonite buffer; gas migration through this is discussed in a companion paper. Concept (c) is unique in involving emplacement of wastes in unsaturated rock, well above the water table, in a semi-arid region at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. Here the two-phase flow issues relate primarily to the infiltration of water through the fractured rock from the surface, which may involve flow channelling and intermittent flow, and the generation of strongly heat

  10. Epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notions are explained, and technique for studying epigenetic alterations of sedimentary rocks at uranium deposits is described. Main types of epigenetic transformations and their mineralogic-geochemical characteristics are considered. Rock alterations, accompanying uranium mineralization, can be related to 2 types: oxidation and reduction. The main mineralogic-geochemical property of oxidation transformations is epigenetic limonitization. Stratal limonitization in primary grey-coloured terrigenic rocks and in epigenetically reduced (pyritized) rocks, as well as in rock, subjected to epigenetic gleying, are characterized. Reduction type of epigenetic transformations is subdivided into sulphidic and non-sulphidic (gley) subtypes. Sulphidic transformations in grey-coloured terrigenic rocks with organic substance of carbonic row, in rocks, containing organic substance of oil row, sulphide transformations of sedimentary rocks, as well as gley transformations, are considered

  11. Regulation of ROCK Activity in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wewer, Ulla M; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    , these findings demonstrate additional modes to regulate ROCK activity. This review describes the molecular mechanisms of ROCK activity regulation in cancer, with emphasis on ROCK isoform-specific regulation and interaction partners, and discusses the potential of ROCKs as therapeutic targets in cancer.......Cancer-associated changes in cellular behavior, such as modified cell-cell contact, increased migratory potential, and generation of cellular force, all require alteration of the cytoskeleton. Two homologous mammalian serine/threonine kinases, Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II), are key...... regulators of the actin cytoskeleton acting downstream of the small GTPase Rho. ROCK is associated with cancer progression, and ROCK protein expression is elevated in several types of cancer. ROCKs exist in a closed, inactive conformation under quiescent conditions, which is changed to an open, active...

  12. Palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar evidence for intrusion of dioritic and peralkaline rocks at Vredefort prior to overturning of the collar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive laboratory study has yielded consistent palaeomagnetic results from eight (out of 12) samples collected at two sites in the lamprophyric Lindequesdrift intrusion: n = 8, D = 221+-, I = -37+-, k = 13, α95 = 16+-. This subsidiary stable remanence, with high blocking temperature, is carried by the (titan) hematite coexisting with sphene formed by metasomatic alteration of ilmenite. This alteration is judged to be deuteric, and hence the stable magnetization was acquired penecontemporaneously with original crystallization. 40Ar/39Ar step heating of hornblende and feldspar separated from one of these lamprophyre samples yielded dates of 2163+-31 Ma and 1248+-22 Ma respectively. The hornblende (argon blocking temp. ≅500+-) gives a minimum age for the intrusion, while the feldspar (argon blocking temp. ≤250+-C) date reflects a later thermal disturbance. The orientation of this Lindequesdrift remanent vector, in relation to those previously obtained from the Rietfontein Complex, and the bronzite granophyre ring dyke, is consistent with the hypothesis that the alkalic plutons were intruded prior to overturning of their host collar rocks

  13. Differentiation and analysis on rock breaking characteristics of TBM disc cutter at different rock temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭青; 张桂菊; 夏毅敏; 李建芳

    2015-01-01

    In order to study rock breaking characteristics of tunnel boring machine (TBM) disc cutter at different rock temperatures, thermodynamic rock breaking mathematical model of TBM disc cutter was established on the basis of rock temperature change by using particle flow code theory and the influence law of interaction mechanism between disc cutter and rock was also numerically simulated. Furthermore, by using the linear cutting experiment platform, rock breaking process of TBM disc cutter at different rock temperatures was well verified by the experiments. Finally, rock breaking characteristics of TBM disc cutter were differentiated and analyzed from microscale perspective. The results indicate the follows. 1) When rock temperature increases, the mechanical properties of rock such as hardness, and strength, were greatly reduced, simultaneously the microcracks rapidly grow with the cracks number increasing, which leads to rock breaking load decreasing and improves rock breaking efficiency for TBM disc cutter. 2) The higher the rock temperature, the lower the rock internal stress. The stress distribution rules coincide with the Buzin Neske stress circle rules: the maximum stress value is below the cutting edge region and then gradually decreases radiant around; stress distribution is symmetrical and the total stress of rock becomes smaller. 3) The higher the rock temperature is, the more the numbers of micro, tensile and shear cracks produced are by rock as well as the easier the rock intrusion, along with shear failure mode mainly showing. 4) With rock temperature increasing, the resistance intrusive coefficients of rock and intrusion power decrease obviously, so the specific energy consumption that TBM disc cutter achieves leaping broken also decreases subsequently. 5) The acoustic emission frequency remarkably increases along with the temperature increasing, which improves the rock breaking efficiency.

  14. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  15. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  16. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  17. Punk rock as popular theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Double, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Punk rock performance consciously draws on popular theatre forms like music hall and stand-up comedy, as exemplified by the occasion when Max Wall appeared with Ian Dury at the Hammersmith Odeon. Oliver Double traces the historical and stylistic connections between punk, music hall and stand-up, and argues that punk shows can be considered a form of popular theatre in their own right. He examines a wide range of punk bands and performers- including Sex Pistols, Iggy Pop, Devo, ...

  18. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  19. Uranium deposits in volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-eight papers were presented at the meeting and two additional papers were provided. Three panels were organized to consider the specific aspects of the genesis of uranium deposits in volcanic rocks, recognition criteria for the characterization of such deposits, and approaches to exploration. The papers presented and the findings of the panels are included in the Proceedings. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these papers

  20. Gas migration through salt rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt as a host rock for a repository for radioactive waste may appear as a layered formation as observed at the WIPP site in the USA or as domed salt, which is abundant in the northern part of central Europe. Planned or actual repository sites like Gorleben, Morsleben or Asse in Germany are located in such salt domes. They have risen up in geological time from Permian salt beds until their upward movement has come to an end. Rock salt exists under geological conditions as an extremely dry material with a residual moisture content well below 1 %. Due to its crystalline nature, its permeability and porosity are very low. In addition, because of its plastic behaviour under stress salt has a high self-healing capacity. In fact, under undisturbed conditions, rock salt is considered as impermeable (permeability less than 10-22 m2). This is demonstrated impressively by brine inclusions which have been included millions of years ago and are kept in place until today. Thus, in considering conditions for two phase flow, undisturbed salt neither offers sufficient water nor appropriate hydraulic properties for scenarios involving normal two-phase flow to occur. Therefore, there is a fundamental difference to other host rock material, in that long term safety analyses for waste repositories in salt have, in general, to assume accident scenarios or some kind of faulted conditions to produce a scenario where gas production and two-phase flow become relevant. The main focus of those safety analyses is on compacted crushed salt as backfill material, possibly on seals and plugs for emplacement rooms or borehole closures and on the engineering disturbed zone (EDZ). (author)

  1. Martian rocks, minerals, and mantles

    OpenAIRE

    Albee, Arden

    2002-01-01

    The variable nature of Mars was first observed almost 400 years ago and modern observations began almost 40 years ago, culminating with the flotilla of spacecraft now at or heading for Mars. We now know that the atmosphere, which produced the visible variation of Mars, has also covered it with a mantle that makes difficult any detailed investigation of the rocks and minerals of Mars.

  2. Uranium leaching from phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium in phosphate rock was removed by means of alkaline leach solutions. Ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate solution produced a very stable uranyl carbonate compound which was separated by centrifugation. Radiometric analysis showed that about 40% of uranium was solubilized and it can be recuperated. This process could be used before the manufacture of phosphatic fertilizers and the final products would contain smaller uranium quantities. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs

  3. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  4. Dispersivity as an oil reservoir rock characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.

    1989-12-01

    The main objective of this research project is to establish dispersivity, {alpha}{sub d}, as an oil reservoir rock characteristic and to use this reservoir rock property to enhance crude oil recovery. A second objective is to compare the dispersion coefficient and the dispersivity of various reservoir rocks with other rock characteristics such as: porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. The dispersivity of a rock was identified by measuring the physical mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. 119 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. The physical principles of rock magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 5: The Physical Principles of Rock Magnetism explores the physical principles of rock magnetism, with emphasis on the properties of finely divided magnetic materials. It discusses the origin and stability of rock magnetizations, the role of remanent magnetism in interpreting magnetic surveys, magnetic anisotropy as an indicator of rock fabric, and the relationship between piezomagnetic changes and seismic activity. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume discusses the properties of solids, magnetite and hematite grains, and rocks with magnetite grains

  6. Thermal and chemical characterisation of charnockite rock formations of Kalpakkam as repository host rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock samples from Kokilamedu region near Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu have been examined using simultaneous TG-DTA-EGA and chemical analysis to characterise them as repository host rock formation. The studies undertaken revealed the presence of carbonate and sulphate minerals in the rock, which is essentially granitic in nature. These results are indicative of the presence of fractures or cracks in the rock through which water, carbon dioxide, etc. can diffuse into the rock and initiate chemical changes. (author)

  7. Rock support system development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Test Plan has been prepared to support design activities for the development of a rock support system for a Nuclear Waste Repository in Basalt (NWRB). The rock support system is assumed to consist of a combination of shotcrete and rock bolts. The seven testing activities include mix development and physical testing of shotcrete, durability testing of shotcrete, durability testing of rock bolt grouts, field tests on rock bolts, field testing of shotcrete, and heated room test. The objective of the Test Plan is to develop required data through combined laboratory, field, and office studies for design and design validation of the rock support system. The overall Test Plan is developed to provide a logical progression from laboratory tests performed to characterize fundamental thermomechanical properties of shotcrete and grouts, to field tests on rock bolts and shotcrete, and in situ performance tests. 21 refs., 15 figs., 33 tabs

  8. Diffusion in the matrix of granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A migration experiment in the rock matrix is presented. The experiment has been carried out in undisturbed rock, that is rock under its natural stress environment. Since the experiment was performed at the 360 m-level (in the Stripa mine), the rock had nearly the same conditions as the rock surrounding a nuclear waste storage. The results show that all three tracers (Uranine, Cr-EDTA and I-) have passed the disturbed zone from the injection hole and migrated into undisturbed rock. At the distance of 11 cm from the injection hole 5-10 percent of the injection concentration was found. The results also indicate that the tracer have passed through fissure filling material. These results indicate that it is possible for tracers (and therefore radionuclides) to migrate from a fissure, through fissure filling material, and into the undisturbed rock matrix. (Authors)

  9. Bimodal Silurian and Lower Devonian volcanic rock assemblages in the Machias-Eastport area, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Olcott; Moench, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Exposed in the Machias-Eastport area of southeastern Maine is the thickest (at least 8,000 m), best exposed, best dated, and most nearly complete succession of Silurian and Lower Devonian volcanic strata in the coastal volcanic belt, remnants of which crop out along the coasts of southern New Brunswick, Canada, and southeastern New England in the United States. The volcanics were erupted through the 600-700-million-year-old Avalonian sialic basement. To test the possibility that this volcanic belt was a magmatic arc above a subduction zone prior to presumed Acadian continental collision, samples representing the entire section in the Machias-Eastport area of Maine were chemically analyzed. Three strongly bimodal assemblages of volcanic rocks and associated intrusives are recognized, herein called the Silurian, older Devonian, and younger Devonian assemblages. The Silurian assemblage contains typically nonporphyritic high-alumina tholeiitic basalts, basaltic andesites, and diabase of continental characterand calc-alkalic rhyolites, silicic dacites, and one known dike of andesite. These rocks are associated with fossiliferous, predominantly marine strata of the Quoddy, Dennys, and Edmunds Formations, and the Leighton Formation of the Pembroke Group (the stratigraphic rank of both is revised herein for the Machias-Eastport area), all of Silurian age. The shallow marine Hersey Formation (stratigraphic rank also revised herein) of the Pembroke Group, of latest Silurian age (and possibly earliest Devonian, as suggested by an ostracode fauna), contains no known volcanics; and it evidently was deposited during a volcanic hiatus that immediately preceded emergence of the coastal volcanic belt and the eruption of the older Devonian assemblage. The older Devonian assemblage, in the lagoonal to subaerial Lower Devonian Eastport Formation, contains tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites, typically with abundant plagioclase phenocrysts and typically richer in iron and

  10. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  11. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10-14 m/s to 1x10-6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  12. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  13. Numerical study of rock blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation results on fracture of a concrete block due to dynamic explosive loads applied to the walls of a blast hole. Considered in the study is the influence of the pulse shape and rock properties on the pattern of irreversible deformation and cracking. It is found that a fractured zone bounded by a plastically deformed contour always arises around the explosion site. Comparison of elastoplastic deformation and fracture induced in the concrete block by explosion pulses of different durations and amplitudes shows that shorter pulses with higher amplitudes and steeper rise times provide a higher blasting efficiency.

  14. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    Brian Cox; John Barrowman; Eddie Izzard

    2008-01-01

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  15. Rock drain research program: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock drains are zones of coarse rockfill capable of transmitting normal streamflows which are commonly constructed in mountain valleys for conveying streams along the bottom of waste rock dumps at mines. This report describes research conducted to evaluate issues related to the long-term performance of rock drains in the mining industry. Field research and monitoring was conducted at the Manalta Coal Line Creek Mine in British Columbia, where the mine's main rock drain began construction in 1989. Baseline data were also collected prior to construction. Other research activities included examination of waste rock properties, streamflow monitoring, flow-through tracer tests, sampling of suspended solids and bed load, rock drain flow-through modeling, water temperature and chemistry monitoring, and sampling of aquatic invertebrates. The report findings are presented for three main areas of study: Physical characteristics of rock drains, including drain design and construction, waste rock properties, and geophysical investigation of rock dumps; flow-through characteristics, drain hydrology, water levels, and model results; and environmental effects of rock drains on water temperature, water chemistry, and aquatic invertebrates

  16. Microcraters on Apollo 15 and 16 rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Fruland, R. M.; Moore, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Microcrater frequency distributions, determined for 11 Apollo 16 rocks and three Apollo 15 rocks, fall into four categories. Category 1 rocks (68415, 68416, 62235) are angular, cratered on one side only, and have moderate crater densities. Category 2 rocks (60016, 66075, 61175) are subrounded, cratered on all sides, and have distributions suggestive of the steady state. Category 3 rocks (61015, 62295) are subangular and cratered on only one side, but the crater frequency distributions have some of the characteristics of category 2 rocks. Category 4 rocks (15015, 15017, 15076, 60335) are angular, cratered on only one side, and have moderated to very low crater densities. The crater frequency distributions of categories 1 and 4 have properties indicating the possibility of estimating the time they were exposed to micrometeor bombardment. Category 1 rocks appear to have been exposed for 2 to 3 m.y. These rocks, particularly 68415, 68416, and 69935, may be ejecta from South Ray Crater, indicating an age of 2 to 3 m.y. for South Ray Crater. Category 4 rocks have been exposed for much shorter periods.

  17. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy

  18. Aespoe hard rock laboratory Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory is to demonstrate state of the art of technology and evaluation methods before the start of actual construction work on the planned deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The nine country OECD/NEA project in the Stripa mine in Sweden has been an excellent example of high quality international research co-operation. In Sweden the new Aespoe hard rock laboratory will gradually take over and finalize this work. SKB very much appreciates the continued international participation in Aespoe which is of great value for the quality efficiency, and confidence in this kind of work. We have invited a number of leading experts to this first international seminar to summarize the current state of a number of key questions. The contributions show the great progress that has taken place during the years. The results show that there is a solid scientific basis for using this knowledge on site specific preparation and work on actual repositories. (au)

  19. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  20. Recent progress in rock magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, Vincent

    Availability of affordable high-performance computers has spurred research into the mathematical modelling of magnetic domain structures, stability of magnetic remanences and their experimental verification. Further, a recently substantially increased amount of observations of magnetic minerals other than magnetite in natural rocks has intitiated studies of their fundamental magnetic properties. To provide a forum for discussion of the latest developments covering these important subjects, two symposia were organized at the XXI General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (Boulder, Colorado, USA, July 2-14, 1995): New Approaches in Rock Magnetism (convened by S.L. Halgedahl and F. Heider) and Properties of minor magnetic minerals (convened by MJ. Dekkers and E. McClelland). In total 62 contributions were presented. This special section of Geophysical Research Letters comprises 19 papers, meeting, hopefully some of the most significant. The four convenors assisted me as associate-editors in preparing this special issue, and I would like to thank them. The time taken by many reviewers is also appreciated. I hope the reader will get a feeling of the excitement that was evident during the Boulder meeting and will find this a useful collection of articles for later use.

  1. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed

  2. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1994-05-01

    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed.

  3. Geochemical Characteristics and Metallogenesis of Volcanic Rocks as Exemplified by Volcanic Rocks in Ertix,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁庚; 叶霖

    1997-01-01

    Volcanic rocks in Ertix,Xinjiang,occurring in the collision zone between the Siberia Plate and the Junggar Plate,are distributed along the Eritix River Valley in northern Xinjiang.The volcanic rocks were dated at Late Paleozoic and can be divided into the spilite-keratophyre series and the basalt-andesite series.The spilite-keratophyre series volcanic rocks occur in the Altay orogenic belt at the southwest margin of the Siberia Plate.In addition to sodic volcanic rocks.There are also associated potassic-sodic volcanic rocks and potassic volcanic rocks.The potassic-sodic volcanic rocks occur at the bottom of the eruption cycle and control the distribution of Pb and Zn deposits.The potassic volcanic rocks occur at the top of the eruption cycle and are associated with Au and Cu mineralizations.The sodic volcanic rocks occur in the middle stage of eruption cycle and control the occurrence of Cu(Zn) deposits.The basalt-andesite series volcanic rocks distributed in the North Junggar orogenic belt at the north margin of the Junggar-Kazakstan Plate belong to the potassic sodic volcain rocks.The volcanic rocks distributed along the Ulungur fault are relatively rich in sodium and poor in potassium and are predominated by Cu mineralization and associated with Au mineralization.Those volcanic rocks distributed along the Ertix fault are relatively rich in K and poor in Na,with Au mineralization being dominant.

  4. ROCK GLACIERS IN THE KOLYMA HIGHLAND

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Galanin

    2015-01-01

    Based on remote mapping and field studies inGrand Rapids, Tumansky,Hasynsky,Del-Urechen Ridges as well as Dukchinsky and Kilgansky Mountain Massifs there were identified about 1160 landforms which morphologically are similar to the rock glaciers or they develop in close association with them. Besides tongue-shaped cirque rock glaciers originated due to ablation, a large number of lobate-shaped slope-associated rock glaciers were recognized. Significant quantity of such forms are developing wi...

  5. Wave generations from confined explosions in rocks

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. Liu; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to record P- and S-waves generated from confined explosions in rocks in the laboratory, a method is developed based on the interactions between incident P- and SV-waves and free-surfaces of rocks. The relations between particle displacements of incident P- and SV-waves, and the strains measured using strain gauges attached on free-surfaces of rocks are analytically derived. P- and SV-waves generated from confined explosions in Bedford limestone are recorded.

  6. Toe rock stability for rubble mound breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Baart, S.; Ebbens, R.; Nammuni-Krohn, J.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Present design tools, as found in the Rock Manual or Coastal Engineering Manual, for the determination of toe rock size for rubble mound breakwaters are based on test data with a large spread: data is relatively dispersed around the centre and descriptive equations have limited applicability ranges. New research has been undertaken to contribute to a more accurate description of toe rock stability. Flume tests have lead to an empirical design criterion for toe bunds in very shallow water base...

  7. The rock resources of the Northern Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive; Styles, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Rock Resources of the Northern Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has vast resources of limestone and hard rock in the northern Emirates. These are currently exploited by quarrying companies to produce construction aggregate and raw material for the manufacture of cement, with a small amount being used to produce rock wool, dimension stone and mineral filler. The demand by industry for higher value mineral products that could be produced from these resources is mostly met by impor...

  8. Roof sounding device - A loose rock detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed a method and device designed to detect loose rock material in underground mines. The technology is designed to be an aid to mine workers in detecting hazardous roof conditions in underground mines which can complement or replace the traditional roof sounding techniques where the miner relies on experience to determine whether rock conditions are sound. The leading cause of accidents and fatalities in underground mines is falls of loose rock pieces or rock slabs from the mine roof. In previous research the Bureau of Mines found that loose rock, when impacted, vibrates at a much lower frequency than intact rock material. A major problem in determining rock stability using this technique has been the repeatability of the impact signal. This difficulty has been greatly reduced in the current design by measuring the power spectra contained in two separate frequency bands of the signal produced by striking the rock in question. The ratio of the energy contained in each band is computed. This process minimizes any striking force differences, producing accurate, repeatable results for solid rock as well as loose, drummy material. The prototype has been successfully tested in a variety of underground environments including coal, uranium, molybdenum, silver, and salt. The technology has ben investigated by the US Mine Health and Safety Administration and the Department of Energy for use in detecting detached tunnel lining areas in nuclear repositories. The paper will discuss the technique, applicable results, and future applications

  9. Remarks on some rock neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to calculate the thermal neutron parameters (absorption cross-section, diffusion coefficient and diffusion length) of rocks is given. It is based on a proper energy averaging of cross-sections for all rock matrix and rock saturating liquid constituents. Special emphasis is given to the presence of hydrogen. The diffusion lengths in different lithologies in the function of the variable rock porosity have been calculated. An influence of the thermal neutron spectrum on the shape of the porosity calibration curves for the dual spacing neutron method is shown. This influence has been estimated on two porosity units, on average. (author)

  10. Kissing Mars Rocks with the Rover's RATs: An Educational Exercise to Understand Drilling Rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Whelley, P. L.; Bleacher, J. E.; Cave, S. R.; Zabala-Aliberto, V. A.; Zabala, A. A.; Greeley, R.

    2007-03-01

    This abstract discusses an E/PO exercise we created for elementary school children that uses Hershey Kisses and straws to simulate the drilling of different rocks on Mars by the MER Rock Abrasion Tool.

  11. Aperture distribution of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis concerns the properties of the fracture void geometry of single rock fractures. It is suggested that the parameter aperture be used to describe the fracture void geometry and a definition of the aperture is proposed. The relation between void geometry and other fracture properties such as roughness, stiffness, conductivity and channelling are discussed. Different experimental techniques for aperture measurement have been developed in this work. The methods are applicable to fractures of different nature and size. A compilation of measurement results indicates that the spatial correlation (range) of fracture apertures increases with increasing mean aperture and that the range is correlated with the coefficient of variation. The existing data from aperture measurements and fracture flow experiments are still very scarce, in particular for fractures with large apertures. For future research, additional aperture measurements from fractures of different types is recommended. A further development of aperture measurement techniques suitable for field investigation is also suggested. 31 refs, 18 figs

  12. Mesozoic magmatism and timing of epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska: Zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinkoff, J.N.; Day, W.C.; Mortensen, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Mesozoic magmatic history of the North American margin records the evolution from a more segmented assemblage of parautochthonous and allochthonous terranes to the more cohesive northern Cordilleran orogenic belt. We characterize the setting of magmatism, tectonism, and epigenetic mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska, where parautochthonous and allochthonous Paleozoic tectonic assemblages are juxtaposed, using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and feldspar Pb isotopes of Mesozoic intrusions and spatially associated mineral prospects. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages and published U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate four episodes of plutonism in the western Fortymile district: Late Triassic (216-208 Ma), Early Jurassic (199-181 Ma), mid-Cretaceous (112-94 Ma), and Late Cretaceous (70-66 Ma). All age groups have calc-alkalic arc compositions that became more evolved through time. Pb isotope compositions of feldspars from Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous igneous rocks similarly became more radiogenic with time and are consistent with the magmas being mantle derived but extensively contaminated by upper crustal components with evolving Pb isotopic compositions. Feldspar Pb isotopes from mid-Cretaceous rocks have isotopic ratios that indicate magma derivation from upper crustal sources, probably thickened mid-Paleozoic basement. The origin of the mantle component in Late Cretaceous granitoids suggested by Pb isotopic ratios is uncertain, but we propose that it reflects asthenospheric upwelling following slab breakoff and sinking of an inactive inner subduction zone that delivered the previously accreted Wrangellia composite terrane to the North American continental margin, after the outer Farallon subduction zone was established.

  13. On wettability of shale rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, H; Al-Yaseri, A Z; Sarmadivaleh, M; Iglauer, S

    2016-08-01

    The low recovery of hydraulic fracturing fluid in unconventional shale reservoirs has been in the centre of attention from both technical and environmental perspectives in the last decade. One explanation for the loss of hydraulic fracturing fluid is fluid uptake by the shale matrix; where capillarity is the dominant process controlling this uptake. Detailed understanding of the rock wettability is thus an essential step in analysis of loss of the hydraulic fracturing fluid in shale reservoirs, especially at reservoir conditions. We therefore performed a suit of contact angle measurements on a shale sample with oil and aqueous ionic solutions, and tested the influence of different ion types (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2), concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1M), pressures (0.1, 10 and 20MPa) and temperatures (35 and 70°C). Furthermore, a physical model was developed based on the diffuse double layer theory to provide a framework for the observed experimental data. Our results show that the water contact angle for bivalent ions is larger than for monovalent ions; and that the contact angle (of both oil and different aqueous ionic solutions) increases with increase in pressure and/or temperature; these increases are more pronounced at higher ionic concentrations. Finally, the developed model correctly predicted the influence of each tested variable on contact angle. Knowing contact angle and therefore wettability, the contribution of the capillary process in terms of water uptake into shale rocks and the possible impairment of hydrocarbon production due to such uptake can be quantified. PMID:27156090

  14. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs

  15. Toe rock stability for rubble mound breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, S.; Ebbens, R.; Nammuni-Krohn, J.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Present design tools, as found in the Rock Manual or Coastal Engineering Manual, for the determination of toe rock size for rubble mound breakwaters are based on test data with a large spread: data is relatively dispersed around the centre and descriptive equations have limited applicability ranges.

  16. Permeability Evolution and Rock Brittle Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experimental study of the evolution of permeability during rock brittle failure and a theoretical analysis of rock critical stress level. It is assumed that the rock is a strain-softening medium whose strength can be described by Weibull’s distribution. Based on the two-dimensional renormalization group theory, it is found that the stress level λ c (the ratio of the stress at the critical point to the peak stress depends mainly on the homogeneity index or shape parameter m in the Weibull’s distribution for the rock. Experimental results show that the evolution of permeability is closely related to rock deformation stages: the permeability has a rapid increase with the growth of cracks and their surface areas (i.e., onset of fracture coalescence point, and reaches the maximum at rock failure. Both the experimental and analytical results show that this point of rapid increase in permeability on the permeabilitypressure curve corresponds to the critical point on the stress-strain curve; for rock compression, the stress at this point is approximately 80% of the peak strength. Thus, monitoring the evolution of permeability may provide a new means of identifying the critical point of rock brittle fracture

  17. High-temperature carbidization of carboniferous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, B. A.; Grass, V. E.; Nadutkin, A. V.; Nazarova, L. Yu.

    2009-08-01

    Processes of thermal metamorphism of carboniferous rocks have been studied experimentally. The conditions of high-temperature interaction of shungite carbon with components of the contained rocks, leading to formation of carbide compounds, have been determined. The results of this investigation contribute to the works on searching for new raw material for prospective material production.

  18. Rock avalanches caused by earthquakes: source characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, D K

    1984-03-23

    Study of a worldwide sample of historical earthquakes showed that slopes most susceptible to catastrophic rock avalanches were higher than 150 meters and steeper than 25 degrees. The slopes were undercut by fluvial or glacial erosion, were composed of intensely fractured rock, and exhibited at least one other indicator of low strength or potential instability. PMID:17759365

  19. Rock Plasticity from Microtomography and Upscaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Liu; Reem Freij-Ayoub; Klaus Regenauer-Lieb

    2015-01-01

    We present a workflow for upscaling of rock properties using microtomography and percolation theory. In this paper we focus on a pilot study for assessing the plastic strength of rocks from a digital rock image. Firstly, we determine the size of mechanical representative volume ele-ment (RVE) by using upper/lower bound dissipation computations in accordance with thermody-namics. Then the mechanical RVE is used to simulate the rock failure at micro-scale using FEM. Two cases of different pressures of linear Drucker-Prager plasticity of rocks are computed to com-pute the macroscopic cohesion and the angle of internal friction of the rock. We also detect the criti-cal exponents of yield stress for scaling laws from a series of derivative models that are created by a shrinking/expanding algorithm. We use microtomographic data sets of two carbonate samples and compare the results with previous results. The results show that natural rock samples with irregular structures may have the critical exponent of yield stress different from random models. This unex-pected result could have significant ramifications for assessing the stability of solid materials with internal structure. Therefore our pilot study needs to be extended to investigate the scaling laws of strength of many more natural rocks with irregular microstructure.

  20. Sulphation capacity of Swedish carbonate rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamer, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    Eight carbonate rocks, which had been evaluated as SO/SUB/2 sorbents by the thermogravimetric analysis method at the Chalmers University of Technology, Goteburg, were evaluated at CANMET in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. Although the absolute values of the sulphation capacity were different for the two methods (the reactor results being lower), the ranking of the carbonate rocks was identical.

  1. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues in...

  2. Proceedings of hot dry rock geothermal workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, D.B. (comp.)

    1978-09-01

    Abstracts of 38 papers are included on the following subjects: rock mechanics, part 1: hydraulic fracturing; fracture imaging and borehole surveying; fluid flow-pressure analyses; rock mechanics, part 2: hydraulic fracturing and thermal cracking; geochemistry; heat extraction modeling; and economics and energy conversion. (MHR)

  3. Sorption of cesium in intact rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puukko, E. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The mass distribution coefficient K{sub d} is used in performance assessment (PA) to describe sorption of a radionuclide on rock. The R{sub d} is determined using crushed rock which causes uncertainty in converting the R{sub d} values to K{sub d} values for intact rock. This work describes a method to determine the equilibrium of sorption on intact rock. The rock types of the planned Olkiluoto waste disposal site were T-series mica gneiss (T-MGN), T-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (T-TGG), P-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (P-TGG) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). These rocks contain different amount of biotite which is the main sorbing mineral. The sorption of cesium on intact rock slices was studied by applying an electrical field to speed up migration of cesium into the rock. Cesium is in the solution as a noncomplex cation Cs{sup +} and it is sorbed by ion exchange. The tracer used in the experiments was {sup 134}Cs. The experimental sorption on the intact rock is compared with values calculated using the in house cation exchange sorption model (HYRL model) in PHREEQC program. The observed sorption on T-MGN and T-TGG rocks was close to the calculated values. Two PGR samples were from a depth of 70 m and three samples were from a depth of 150 m. Cesium sorbed more than predicted on the two 70 m PGR samples. The sorption of Cs on the three 150 m PGR samples was small which was consistent with the calculations. The pegmatitic granite PGR has the smallest content of biotite of the four rock types. In the case of P-TGG rock the observed values of sorption were only half of the calculated values. Two kind of slices were cut from P-TGG drill core. The slices were against and to the direction of the foliation of the biotite rims. The sorption of cesium on P-TGG rock was same in both cases. The results indicated that there was no effect of the directions of the electric field and the foliation of biotite in the P-TGG rock. (orig.)

  4. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza

    There are many examples of rock surfaces, rock art and stone structures whose ages are of great importance to the understanding of various phenomena in geology, climatology and archaeology. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is a well-established chronological tool that has successfully...... of rock surfaces is successfully tested by application to two different quartz-rich rock types (sandstone and quartzite). Together with the measurement of infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals as a function of depth into the surface of different granites it is clear that both OSL and IRSL can....... Based on the studies of residual luminescence as a function of depth into a rock surface discussed above, a model is developed that relates this increase in residual luminescence to the exposure time. The model is then further developed using the quartz OSL signal from buried quartzite cobbles...

  5. A study of rock bolting failure modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Chen; Jan Nemcik; Ren Ting; Naj Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Rock bolting has advanced rapidly during the past 4 decades due to a better understanding of load transfer mechanisms and advances made in the bolt system technology.Bolts are used as permanent and temporary support systems in tunnelling and mining operations.A review of has indicated that three systems of reinforcement devices have evolved as part of rock bolt and ground anchor while the rock is not generally thought of as being a component of the reinforcement system.A classification of rock bolting reinforcement systems is presented,followed by the fundamental theory of the load transfer mechanism.The failure mode of two phases of rock bolting system is formularised.The failure modes of cable bolting are discussed using a bond strength model as well as an iterative method.Finally,the interfacial shear stress model for ribbed bar is introduced and a closed form solution is obtained using a tri-line stress strain relationship.

  6. Rock avalanches: significance and progress (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    1. The probability distribution of landslide volumes follows a power-law indicating that large rock avalanches dominate the terrestrial sediment supply from mountains, and that their source area morphologies dominate mountain topography. 2. Large rock slope failures (~ 106 m3 or greater) often mobilise into rock avalanches, which can travel extraordinarily long distances with devastating effect. This hypermobility has been the subject of many investigations; we have demonstrated that it can be explained quantitatively and accurately by considering the energetics of the intense rock fragmentation that always occurs during motion of a large rock mass. 3. Study of rock avalanche debris psd shows that the energy used in creating new rock surface area during fragmentation is not lost to surface energy, but is recycled generating a high-frequency elastic energy field that reduces the frictional resistance to motion during runout. 4. Rock avalanches that deposit on glaciers can eventually form large terminal moraines that have no connection with any climatic event; unless these are identified as rock-avalanche-influenced they can confuse palaeoclimatic inferences drawn from moraine ages. Rock-avalanche-derived fines, however, can be identified in moraine debris up to ten thousand years old by the characteristic micron-scale agglomerates that form during intense fragmentation, and which are absent from purely climatically-induced moraines; there is thus a strong case for re-examining existing palaeoclimatic databases to eliminate potentially rock-avalanche-influenced moraine ages. 5. Rock avalanches (especially coseismic ones) are a serious hazard, being very destructive in their own right; they also block river valleys, forming landslide dams and potentially devastating dambreak floods, and subsequent severe decade-scale aggradation of downstream fans and floodplains. Rock avalanches falling into lakes or fiords can cause catastrophic tsunami that pose a serious risk to

  7. Turning Bread into Rocks: A Multisensory Unit Opener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaw

    2000-01-01

    Presents an earth science activity on rocks to demonstrate the vital links between minerals and rocks. Uses different kinds of breads to demonstrate that rocks, like breads, are composed of various ingredients in different proportions. (ASK)

  8. Rock stars for the day

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    After a two-year hiatus, the CERN Hardronic Festival is back! On 8 August, ten CERN MusiClub bands will take to the stage for the popular event. As usual, the non-stop show will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 3 and will run until after midnight.   The Canettes Blues Band, part of the CERN MusiClub, performing live on the Music In The Park stage at the Montreux Jazz Festival, on 18 July 2013. A large range of musical styles will entertain the audience: from Irish folk, via 70s/80s/90s rock, to pop, blues and R&B. Alongside the music there will be activities for kids and food and drink stands. This year, the income from food sales will be donated to charity. The spirit that has characterised the festival ever since the first event in 1989 is that of a staff party. Any band who volunteers to play also helps to organise the event and set up the stage. “This is a really good thing because a festival that has been growing for many years requires a considerable amount of har...

  9. Rock weathering and Carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozza, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    In the history of the Earth system, we can find indicators of hot or glacial periods, as well as brutal climatic change… How can we explain those climate variations on a geological timescale ? One of the causative agents is probably the fluctuation of atmospheric CO2 amounts, (gas responsible for the greenhouse effect). A concrete study of some CO2 fluxes between Earth system reservoirs (atmo, hydro and lithosphere) is proposed in this poster. Hydrogencarbonate is the major ion in river surface waters and its amount is so high that it can not be explained by a simple atmospheric Carbon diffusion. From a simple measurement of river HCO3- concentration, we can estimate the consumption of atmospheric CO2 that arises from carbonate and silicate weathering processes. Practical experiments are proposed. These are carried out in the local environment, and are conform to the curriculums of Chemistry and Earth sciences. These tests enable us to outline long-term Carbon cycles and global climatic changes. Key words : Erosion, rock weathering, CO2 cycle, Hydrogencarbonate in waters, climatic changes

  10. Rocks in motion: a one parameter description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, O. T.; Rosenau, M.; Leever, K.; Oncken, O.

    2013-12-01

    Rock fall, slide and avalanches are dynamically different phenomena of rocks in motion: falls are mostly dominated by free fall and elastic impacts, slides by friction at their base and avalanches by granular flow. Despite these dynamical differences, the properties of the material involved can be viewed similar, and the main (and only?) difference is typically the size of the systems (falls: 10 meters, slides: 102 meters, avalanches: 103 meters). If only size matters: can gravitational rock movements be described in a simple quantitative framework without losing any underlying physics? To explore the dynamics of gravitational rock movements we performed a dimensional analysis combined with experimental validation. Dimensional analysis suggests 9 dimensionless parameters that describe the system, one of which is Π = C/ρgh, where ρ is density, h height and C cohesion of the material and g is the gravitational acceleration. This dimensionless number describes how strong the material is compared to its size, and varies from falls to > 10-4 for rock avalanches. Can this parameter be used to describe the spectrum of dynamics for rocks in motions in a physically meaningful way? To test this, we performed experiments using labscale rock analogues. Gravitational rock movements are modeled under normal gravity conditions, by releasing material down a 1 meter planar slope at an angle of 45°. The material used is a cemented granular material, the cohesion of which can be controlled over several order of magnitude (101 to 106 Pa). The experiments are monitored using a 50 Hz digital camera. Surface velocities are quantified using a Particle Image Velocimetry while other physical parameters (fragment size distribution, position, friction) are measured using optical image analysis. We perform experiments where the initial value of Π (Π0) is varied over 7 orders of magnitude (10-2 to 104), mapping a parameters space large enough to study a wide range of gravitational rock

  11. Uranium deposits in magmatic and metamorphic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of uranium with certain types of magmatic and metamorphic rocks is well known. They have consequently been explored and studied quite extensively. In recent years interest in them has been eclipsed by the discovery of larger, lower cost deposits in other geological environments. Nonetheless, magmatic and metamorphic rocks continue to be important sources of uranium and large areas of the Earth's crust with such rocks are prospective locations for additional discoveries. As future exploration and development could be more difficult the full importance of individual deposits may not be recognized until after many years of investigation and experience. In addition to being important host rocks, magmatic and metamorphic rocks have been of considerable interest to uranium geologists as they are considered to be important source rocks for uranium and thus can lead to deposits nearby in other environments. Furthermore, these rocks provide important information on the geochemical cycle of uranium in the Earth's crust and mantle. Such information can lead to identification of uranium provinces and districts and to a basic understanding of processes of formation of uranium deposits. The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium Deposits in Magmatic and Metamorphic Rocks. The meeting was held in Salamanca, Spain, from 29 September to 3 October 1986. It was followed by a two day field trip to uranium deposits in the Ciudad Rodrigo and Don Benito areas. The meeting was attended by 48 participants from 22 countries. Two panels were organized for discussion of the following topics: (1) ore deposit genesis and characterization and (2) exploration and resource assessment. The technical papers together with the panel reports form this publication. The scope and variety of the papers included and the panel reports provide a good coverage of current knowledge and thinking on uranium in magmatic and metamorphic rocks

  12. Classifying rock lithofacies using petrophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omair, Osamah; Garrouch, Ali A.

    2010-09-01

    This study automates a type-curve technique for estimating the rock pore-geometric factor (λ) from capillary pressure measurements. The pore-geometric factor is determined by matching the actual rock capillary pressure versus wetting-phase saturation (Pc-Sw) profile with that obtained from the Brooks and Corey model (1966 J. Irrigation Drainage Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 61-88). The pore-geometric factor values are validated by comparing the actual measured rock permeability to the permeability values estimated using the Wyllie and Gardner model (1958 World Oil (April issue) 210-28). Petrophysical data for both carbonate and sandstone rocks, along with the pore-geometric factor derived from the type-curve matching, are used in a discriminant analysis for the purpose of developing a model for rock typing. The petrophysical parameters include rock porosity (phi), irreducible water saturation (Swi), permeability (k), the threshold capillary-entry-pressure (Pd), a pore-shape factor (β), and a flow-impedance parameter (n) which is a property that reflects the flow impedance caused by the irreducible wetting-phase saturation. The results of the discriminant analysis indicate that five of the parameters (phi, k, Pd, λ and n) are sufficient for classifying rocks according to two broad lithology classes: sandstones and carbonates. The analysis reveals the existence of a significant discriminant function that is mostly sensitive to the pore-geometric factor values (λ). A discriminant-analysis classification model that honours both static and dynamic petrophysical rock properties is, therefore, introduced. When tested on two distinct data sets, the discriminant-analysis model was able to predict the correct lithofacies for approximately 95% of the tested samples. A comprehensive database of the experimentally collected petrophysical properties of 215 carbonate and sandstone rocks is provided with this study.

  13. Determination and applications of rock quality designation (RQD)

    OpenAIRE

    Lianyang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of rock masses and evaluation of their mechanical properties are important and challenging tasks in rock mechanics and rock engineering. Since in many cases rock quality designation (RQD) is the only rock mass classification index available, this paper outlines the key aspects on determination of RQD and evaluates the empirical methods based on RQD for determining the deformation modulus and unconfined compressive strength of rock masses. First, various methods for determinin...

  14. THEORIES OF ROCK BREAKAGE WITH EXPLOSIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Škrlec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prediction and observation of the nature and dimensions of damaged zones in the surrounding rock mass and understanding the mechanisms of fracturing and crushing of the rock mass with explosives is one of the most important parameters in blasting design in order to obtain preferred granulation and reduce damaging effects of blasting on the environment. An overview of existing rock breakage theories with the energy released by the detonation of explosives is given in this paper (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Physical properties of rocks. Subvol. a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geophysical data of solid earth are compiled in the first two volumes of group V in the New Series of Landolt-Boernstein. V/1 contains a compilation of the physical properties of rocks while vol. V/2 treats physics of the earth as a whole. The present subvolume V/1a includes an introduction on the rocks of the earth, and data tables on the following properties of rocks and minerals: density, porosity, permeability, elasticity and inelasticity, thermal properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, melting points, radioactive heat generation). (GSCH)

  16. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues in...... Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  17. Laboratory measurements of rock thermal properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Balling, N.; Nielsen, S.B.

    The thermal properties of rocks are key elements in understanding and modelling the temperature field of the subsurface. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity can be measured in the laboratory if rock samples can be provided. We have introduced improvements to the divided bar and needle...... probe methods to be able to measure both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The improvements we implement include, for both methods, a combination of fast numerical finite element forward modelling and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion scheme for estimating rock thermal parameters...

  18. Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: first observation of rocks in motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Norris

    Full Text Available The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved > 60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, "windowpane" ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of -4-5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2-5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice.

  19. Volcanic and sedimentary-rock aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Volcanic and sedimentary-rock aquifers in the states of Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Nevada, California, Oregon, and...

  20. 1981 rock ptarmigan census, Adak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Most of the Aleutian Islands support populations of rock ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, where their abundance is believed to be greatly influenced by the abundance of...

  1. ROCK GLACIERS IN THE KOLYMA HIGHLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Galanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on remote mapping and field studies inGrand Rapids, Tumansky,Hasynsky,Del-Urechen Ridges as well as Dukchinsky and Kilgansky Mountain Massifs there were identified about 1160 landforms which morphologically are similar to the rock glaciers or they develop in close association with them. Besides tongue-shaped cirque rock glaciers originated due to ablation, a large number of lobate-shaped slope-associated rock glaciers were recognized. Significant quantity of such forms are developing within the active neotectonic areas, in zones of seismic-tectonic badland and in association with active earthquakes-controlling faults. Multiplication of regional data on volcanic-ash-chronology, lichenometry, Schmidt Hammer Test, pollen spectra and single radiocarbon data, most of the active rock glaciers were preliminary attributed to the Late Holocene.

  2. Red Rock Lakes Wildlife Refuge : Reports : 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge during 1939 contains and inventory of migratory waterfowl, as well as weather reports, and general remarks...

  3. Device for determining permeability of rock massif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, A.A.; Svintsov, I.S.

    1982-01-01

    A technique and device are described for filtering tests of rocks in a massif. The technique is based on determination of consumption of air injected into the control section of the hermetically sealed well of small diameter.

  4. Mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles and evaluates the hydrogeologic parameters describing the flow of groundwater and transport of solutes in fractured crystalline rocks. This report describes the processes of mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rocks, and compiles and evaluates the dispersion parameters determined from both laboratory and field tracer experiments. The compiled data show that extrapolation of the reliable test results performed over intermediate scales (10's of m and 10's to 100's of hours) to larger spatial and temporal scales required for performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock is not justified. The reliable measures of longitudinal dispersivity of fractured crystalline rock are found to range between 0.4 and 7.8 m

  5. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  6. Pre-Eocene rocks of Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketner, Keith B.; Kastowo; Modjo, Subroto; Naeser, C.W.; Obradovich, J.D.; Robinson, Keith; Suptandar, Tatan; Wikarno

    1976-01-01

    The exposed pre-Eocene rocks of Java can be divided into two compound units for purposes of reconnaissance mapping and structural interpretation: a sedimentary sequence and melange. The sedimentary sequence consists of moderately deformed and little-metamorphosed conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, claystone, chert, and limestone. The melange consists of a chaotic mechanical mixture of rocks identical to those of the sedimentary sequence and their metamorphic equivalents, such as schist, phyllite, quartzite, and marble. In addition, it contains a large proportion of quartz porphyry and smaller amounts of granite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite, pyroxenite, and serpentinite. The sedimentary sequence is at least partly of Early Cretaceous age and the melange is of Early Cretaceous to very early Paleocene age. They are overlain unconformably by Eocene rocks. The presence in the melange of blocks of quartz porphyry and granite is not easily reconcilable with current plate tectonic concepts in which the sites of formation of melange and plutonic rocks should be hundreds of kilometres apart.

  7. Characterization and behaviour of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities concerning characterization and behaviour of argillaceous rocks and their environment are presented. The studies are related to the technico-economic feasibility and the long-term safety of disposal of radioactive waste in argillaceous media. (author)

  8. Geology and Geochemistry of Reworking Gold Deposits in Intrusive Rocks of China—Ⅰ. Features of the Intrusive Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀璋; 程景平; 等

    1998-01-01

    Most gold deposits in intrusive rocks were formed as a result of reworking processes.the intrusive rocks containing gold deposits and consisting of ultramafic-mafic,intermediateacid and alkaline rocks of the Archean,Proterozoic,Caledonian,Hercynian and Yenshanian periods occur in cratons,activated zones of cratons and fold belts.Among them,ultramaficmafic rocks,diorite,alkaline rocks,and anorthosite are products of remelting in the mantle or mantle-crust or mantle with crustal contamination,However,auriferous intermediate-acid rocks are products of metasomatic-remelting in auriferous volcainc rocks or auriferous volcanosedimentary rocks in the deep crust.

  9. Pore-scale analysis of electrical properties in thinly bedded rock using digital rock physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the electrical properties of laminated rock consist of macro-porous layers and micro-porous layers based on digital rock technology. Due to the bedding effect and anisotropy, traditional Archie equations cannot well describe the electrical behavior of laminated rock. The RI-Sw curve of laminated rock shows a nonlinear relationship. The RI-Sw curve can be divided into two linear segments with different saturation exponent. Laminated sand-shale sequences and laminated sands of different porosity or grain size will yield macroscopic electrical anisotropy. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis lead to the conclusion that electrical anisotropy coefficient of laminated rock is a strong function of water saturation. The function curve can be divided into three segments by the turning point. Therefore, the electrical behavior of laminated rock should be considered in oil exploration and development. (paper)

  10. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  11. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM). Version 2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haekkinen, T.; Merjama, S.; Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume includes the most important rock mechanics features and parameters at the Olkiluoto site. The main objective of the model is to be a tool to predict rock properties, rock quality and hence provide an estimate for the rock stability of the potential repository at Olkiluoto. The model includes a database of rock mechanics raw data and a block model in which the rock mechanics parameters are estimated through block volumes based on spatial rock mechanics raw data. In this version 2.3, special emphasis was placed on refining the estimation of the block model. The model was divided into rock mechanics domains which were used as constraints during the block model estimation. During the modelling process, a display profile and toolbar were developed for the GEOVIA Surpac software to improve visualisation and access to the rock mechanics data for the Olkiluoto area. (orig.)

  12. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM). Version 2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume includes the most important rock mechanics features and parameters at the Olkiluoto site. The main objective of the model is to be a tool to predict rock properties, rock quality and hence provide an estimate for the rock stability of the potential repository at Olkiluoto. The model includes a database of rock mechanics raw data and a block model in which the rock mechanics parameters are estimated through block volumes based on spatial rock mechanics raw data. In this version 2.3, special emphasis was placed on refining the estimation of the block model. The model was divided into rock mechanics domains which were used as constraints during the block model estimation. During the modelling process, a display profile and toolbar were developed for the GEOVIA Surpac software to improve visualisation and access to the rock mechanics data for the Olkiluoto area. (orig.)

  13. Rock Bar BTR -liiketoimintasuunnitelma baariyrityksen perustamiseksi

    OpenAIRE

    Rieppo, Jani

    2015-01-01

    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Laurea Leppävaara Hotelli- ja ravintola-alan liikkeenjohdon koulutusohjelma Rieppo, Jani Rock Bar BTR -liiketoimintasuunnitelma baariyrityksen perustamiseksi Vuosi 2015 Sivumäärä 58 Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on liiketoimintasuunnitelman laatiminen uudelle rock-baarille, jonka avaaminen Joensuuhun on suunnitelman laatijan toimesta mahdollista joskus tulevaisuudessa. Tavo...

  14. Rock mass response during high pressure grouting

    OpenAIRE

    Gothäll, Rikard

    2006-01-01

    The sealing of hard jointed rock by grouting involves several complicated mechanical systems. The result is a complex coupled system of hydro- logical and mechanical precesses. In order to determine the higher order effects of the resulting system the fracture deformations must be assessed. This requires a model that mimics the mechanical behaviour of not only fractures under normal load but also the entire rock mass system. This model indicates that there are two dominant regimes involved; a...

  15. Developing a Virtual Rock Deformation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and energy resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock deformation facilities. A virtual deformation laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock deformation. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual deformation laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial deformation apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual deformation machine to observe how deformation changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of deformed rocks are up-loaded and linked to different deformation tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the deformation data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In

  16. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned

  17. Nuclear power in rock. Principal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1975 the Swedish Government directed the Swedish State Power Board to study the question of rock-siting nuclear power plants. The study accounted for in this report aims at clarifying the advantages and disadvantages of siting a nuclear power plant in rock, compared to siting on ground level, considering reactor safety, war protection and sabotage. The need for nuclear power production during war situations and the closing down of nuclear power plants after terminated operation are also dealt with. (author)

  18. Seismic effect of destress rock blasting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníček, Petr; Ptáček, Jiří; Przeczek, A.

    Vol. 4/2. Katowice: Glowny Instytut Górnictwa, 2009 - (Lipowcan, A.), s. 110-119. (Prace naukowe GIG. Górnictwo i Śródowisko). ISSN 1643-7608. [Górnicze zagrozenia naturalne 2009. And rzychów (PL), 03.11.2009-06.11.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : underground coal mining * rock burst * destress rock blasting Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  19. Quantitative Chemical Indices of Weathered Igneous Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different weathering indices for characterising weathered igneous rocks of Hong Kong. Among eight chemical indices evaluated in this study, the Parker index has been found most suitable for a quantitative description of state of weathering. Based on geochemical results of 174 samples, the index decreases almost linearly with an increasing extent of weathering. The results enable a better understanding of the modification of geotechnical properties of igneous rocks associated with weathering processes.

  20. Petrologic and REE Geochemical Characters of Burnt Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lei; LIU Chiyang; YANG Lei; ZHAO Junfeng; FANG Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The study of burnt rocks is beneficial to the discussion on the tectonic movement,paleoclimate and paleogeography that coal seams are subjected to after they were formed. In order to obtain the basic data on the features of the burnt rocks, a systematic study of petrology and REE geochemistry on burnt rocks in Shenmu, Northern Shaanxi Province has been done, using the methods of SEM, EDS, susceptibility measurements and ICP-MS. The burnt rocks are divided into two series in the section: the melted rocks and the baked rocks. SEM and EDS analyses reveal that all the minerals show burnt and melted traces, and there are no clay minerals except iliite found in the burnt rocks. Susceptibility measurements reveal that the burnt rocks have abnormally high susceptibility values,whereas a geochemical analysis shows that the REE distribution pattern of burnt rocks is similar to that of sedimentary rocks (initial rocks). In the longitudinal section, with increasing degree of burning (from baked rocks to melted rocks), the ΣREE gradually decreases, and the total REE of melted rocks is obviously lower than that of baked rocks. Besides, the melted rocks show apparent negative Ce anomalies, while the baked rocks show no anomaly of Ce, and sometimes even show positive anomalies.

  1. Impact of rock anisotropy on fracture development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianbo Zeng; Jiyong Zhao; Shengju Zhu; Weiliang Xiong; Yonghong He; Jianwen Chen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments on uniaxial and triaxial rock mechanics and rock acoustic emissions have been conducted for research on the impact of rock anisotropy on the development of the fractures of different directions by taking as an example the ultra-low-permeability sandstone reservoir in the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation within the Ordos Basin. The experimental results prove the existence of anisotropy of the rock mechanical property in the different directions on the plane, which is the chief reason for the production of impacts on the development of different assemblages of fractures in the geological periods. The rock anisotropy usually restricts the development of one assemblage of conjugate shear fractures. The fractures in the Yanchang Formation within the Ordos Basin are mainly shear fractures that formed under two tectonic actions. Theoretically, here, four assemblages of shear fractures should have developed, but due to the effect of a strong rock anisotropy, in each period one assemblage of fractures chiefly developed. Thus, two assemblages of fractures are usually developed in every part at present.

  2. Investigation of the porosity of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for characterizing the nature of rock porosity in conjunction with diffusion experiments, are amongst the primary tools used in repository-site selection investigations. At this time no experimental method, alone, is capable of giving an unambiguous picture of the narrow-aperture pore space in crystalline rock. Methods giving information on overall properties must be complemented by those having high spatial resolution; then the lateral distribution of porosity within the matrix and its association with particular mineral phases or features, such as microfissures, fissure fillings, weathered or altered mineral phases etc, and the identification of diffusion pathways in inhomogeneous rock matrices can be determined. Nonsorbing, nonelectrolytic tracers should be used when one wants to determine rock-typical properties of the internal porosity without interference of interactions with surfaces. Preliminary information on a new method fulfilling these criteria is given. Impregnating rock samples with methylmethacrylate labeled with carbon-14 which, after impregnation, was polymerized by gamma radiation, gave specimens that made preparation of sections suitable for quantification by autoradiographic methods easy. Diffusion experiments can be conducted so that labeled MMA diffuses out of rock specimens into inactive free, MMA. Additional information may be gained by leaching PMMA fractions of lower molecular weight from the matrix

  3. Kinematics analysis of a robotic rock grinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the aim to discover water, life and resources in other planets, robotic sampling instrument is a crucial part of the space exploration robot. To remove dusty and weathered surfaces and expose the fresh rock underneath the planetary surface, a robotic rock grinder is considered to replace the geologist's rock hammer to carry out the geological investigation. A primary prototype of the robotic rock grinder with three degrees of freedom has been developed in this paper. Planetary transmission system is used in the grinding driving system with two inputs (rotation motor and revolution motor) and two outputs (grinding wheel and cutting brush). The grinding wheel with two teeth has been used to abrade the rock. The cutting brush is used to sweep the debris. The third actuator is to feed the grinding system. Kinematics of the grinding system has been analyzed. To get a continuous and smooth fresh face over the rock, grinding trajectory of the grinding wheel has been discussed and planned. Lastly, abrasion experiments have been made to testify the feasibility and the basic function of this system.

  4. Quantification of rock fall processes on recently deglaciated rock slopes, Gepatsch glacier, Tyrol (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehling, Lucas; Rohn, Joachim; Moser, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The recently deglaciated area in alpine glacier forefields is characterized by intensified mass movement processes in particular debris flows, shallow landslides and rockfalls. Due to enhanced geomorphic activity, rock slopes adjacent to shrinking glaciers contribute in a substantial way to the sediment budget. In this study, direct measurements of rock fall intensity are conducted by rock fall collector nets and natural sediment traps. The study area is a high mountain (1750-3520m a.s.l) catchment, which is recently about 30% glaciated. The extension of the Gepatsch glacier has been reducing since the little ice age maximum in the mid of the 19th century with an average annual shrinking rate of a few decameters at its tongue. The first results of the direct measurements demonstrate that on the recently deglaciated rock slopes, rock fall intensity is at least one order of magnitude higher (2,38-6,64 g/m2/d - corresponding backweathering rate: 0,3-0,9 mm/a) than on rock slopes which had has ice free since the last Pleistocene deglaciation (0,04-0,38 g/m2/d - backweathering rate: 0,005-0,05 mm/a). The highest rock fall intensity is attributed to the recent deglaciated rock slopes which are located close to larger fault systems (>60 g/m2/d - backweathering rate: >8 mm/a). Rock fall intensity shows also considerable intra-annual variations which are related to cold climate weathering processes and rainstorm activity.

  5. 再生水及盐溶液入渗与蒸发对土壤水盐和碱性的影响%Effects of infiltration and evaporation with treated wastewater and salt solutions on soil moisture and salinize-alkalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商放泽; 任树梅; 邹添; 杨培岭※

    2013-01-01

      In order to study the special effects of treated wastewater irrigation on soil salinize-alkalization, we built 5 large soil bins with length of 1.2 m, width of 1.2 m and height of 1.5 m, and filled with loam and sandy soil in 0~80 and 80-120 cm, respectively. Three infrared lamps and one electric fan were placed above the soil bin. After that, indoor large soil bins infiltration and evaporation experiments were conducted to research the effects of infiltration and evaporation with clear water, treated wastewater and salt solutions with SAR=3, 10 and 20 (mmolc/L)0.5 on soil, and soil solution salt and ions migration and accumulation, and soil alkalization. During the 10 times of infiltration and evaporation experiments (simulation field irrigation for 2 years), the electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), pH, K+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, and HCO3-in soil and soil solution were measured. The results showed that compared with the clear water irrigation, soil moisture in 0~40 cm loam were larger and the increasing of sandy soil moisture in 80-120 cm led to lagged effect. The reason was that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) and suspended solids in treated wastewater caused clay dispersion and blocked the soil pores, respectively,and Na+in treated wastewater and salt solutions with SAR=20 (mmolc/L)0.5 caused clay swelling and dispersion, during the infiltration and evaporation with treated wastewater and salt solution with SAR=20 (mmolc/L)0.5. The soil salt accumulated in treated wastewater and salt solutions treatments after 10 times of infiltration and evaporation, and the cumulant was between 9.54%and 51.83%, and the salt in leacheate was most in treated wastewater treatment, which was 1.09-1.42 times of other treatments. All treatments had similar effects on soil solution SAR value and soil pH, which were less than 3 (mmolc/L)0.5 and 8.5, respectively. The results showed a low possibility of soil alkalization during infiltration and

  6. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin. Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy. The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks. As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography to identify rocks and

  7. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (3-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin. Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy. The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks. As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography to identify rocks and

  8. Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 1 - Rocks and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All soil ultimately forms from rocks or their weathering products. Geologists classify rocks according to their origins. General rock types can weather to give soils with distinctive properties. The objectives of this lesson are: 1. To be able to classify rocks based on visual characteristics accord...

  9. Politics Revisited: Metatextual Implications of Rock and Roll Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James R.

    1988-01-01

    By viewing rock lyrics as a vehicle that demands a sociopolitical response, rock and roll critics place in the hands of rock artists a responsibility that is not warranted. Particularly with regard to political messages, rock and roll should be viewed from a more individualized perspective. (BJV)

  10. New Rock Physical Properties Assessments From the Mars Exploration Rover Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, P. W.; Basso, B.; Kusack, A.; Wilson, J.; Zacny, K.

    2005-12-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) serves as the sample preparation device on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) science payload. The RAT grinds a circular area 45 millimeter in diameter, and on the order of a few millimeters deep, into a rock face. This process removes surface fines and weathered layers in preparation for imaging and spectral observations of the rock. As of September 2005, 15 grinding operations have been performed at Gusev Crater and 26 at Meridiani Planum. Since the RAT performs a mechanical operation on a rock, deductions can be made via the RAT's engineering data about the rock's physical properties. For each grinding operation, the energy consumed while grinding is converted to provide a physically relevant Specific Grind Energy (SGE) in terms of Joules per cubic millimeter of rock removed. The calculation is performed over the last 0.25 millimeter of a grinding operation, where it is possible, by taking measurements from Microscopic Imager images of the abraded area, to make an accurate estimate of the volume of rock removed. Progress is presented on recent refinement of the SGE calculation methods including decoupling of artifacts. Environmental factors and differing parameters used to command the RAT operations are among the key artifacts recently analyzed. Progress is also presented on further characterization of the dynamics and wear mechanics involved in the grinding process, and how they influence SGE. A library of Earth rocks has been assembled and it is being used with the RAT Engineering Model to create a set of similar SGE data products that can be compared to Mars rocks in order to contribute to physical properties assessments of the Mars rocks. Initial results indicate that the Martian rocks are analogous to a range of Earth rocks, from gypsum to low-strength basalt in terms of grindability; however, caution needs to be exercised in making a direct comparison of grinding energies. This is because the grindability of rocks was found to

  11. Impact of fluid-rock chemical interactions on tracer transport in fractured rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Liu, H.-H.; Spycher, N.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of chemical interactions, in the form of mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, on tracer transport in fractured rocks. When a tracer is introduced in fractured rocks, it moves through the fracture primarily by advection and it also enters the stagnant water of the surrounding rock matrix through diffusion. Inside the porous rock matrix, the tracer chemically interacts with the solid materials of the rock, where it can precipitate depending on the local equilibrium conditions. Alternatively, it can be dissolved from the solid phase of the rock matrix into the matrix pore water, diffuse into the flowing fluids of the fracture and is advected out of it. We show that such chemical interactions between the fluid and solid phases have significant impact on tracer transport in fractured rocks. We invoke the dual-porosity conceptualization to represent the fractured rocks and develop a semi-analytical solution to describe the transient transport of tracers in interacting fluid-rock systems. To test the accuracy and stability of the semi-analytical solution, we compare it with simulation results obtained with the TOUGHREACT simulator. We observe that, in a chemically interacting system, the tracer breakthrough curve exhibits a pseudo-steady state, where the tracer concentration remains more or less constant over a finite period of time. Such a pseudo-steady condition is not observed in a non-reactive fluid-rock system. We show that the duration of the pseudo-state depends on the physical and chemical parameters of the system, and can be exploited to extract information about the fractured rock system, such as the fracture spacing and fracture-matrix interface area.

  12. Performance Assessment of Hard Rock TBM and Rock Boreability Using Punch Penetration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ho-Young; Cho, Jung-Woo; Jeon, Seokwon; Rostami, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    Rock indentation tests are often called punch penetration tests and are known to be related to penetration rates of drilling equipment and hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBMs). Various indices determined from analysis of the force-penetration plot generated from indentation tests have been used to represent the drillability, boreability, and brittleness of rocks. However, no standard for the punch penetration test procedure or method for calculating the related indices has been suggested or adopted in the rock mechanics community. This paper introduces new indices based on the punch test to predict the performance of hard rock TBMs. A series of punch tests was performed on rock specimens representing six rock formations in Korea with different dimensions, i.e., the core specimens had different lengths and diameters. Of the indices obtained from the punch tests, the peak load index and mean load index showed good correlations with the cutting forces measured in full-scale linear cutting machine tests on the same rock types. The indices also showed good linear correlations with the ratio of uniaxial strength to Brazilian tensile strength, which indicates the brittleness of rock. The scale effect of using core specimens was investigated, and a preferred dimension for the punch test specimens is proposed. This paper also discusses the results of the punch test and full-scale rock cutting tests using LCM. The results of this study confirm that the proposed indices from the punch tests can be used to provide a reliable prediction of the cutting forces that act on a disc cutter. The estimated cutting forces can then be used for optimization of cutter-head design and performance prediction of hard rock TBMs.

  13. Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)

  14. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the 'exclusion zone.' A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (Do) for 1291 and 14C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (Di) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs

  15. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO2, shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10−19 m2; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10−17 m2; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens’ permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure

  16. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanling; Xu, Weiya; Zuo, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO2, shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10-19 m2; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10-17 m2; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens' permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure.

  17. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan. PMID:26468217

  18. THM-coupled modeling of selected processes in argillaceous rock relevant to rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific investigations in European countries other than Germany concentrate not only on granite formations (Switzerland, Sweden) but also on argillaceous rock formations (France, Switzerland, Belgium) to assess their suitability as host and barrier rock for the final storage of radioactive waste. In Germany, rock salt has been under thorough study as a host rock over the past few decades. According to a study by the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, however, not only salt deposits but also argillaceous rock deposits are available at relevant depths and of extensions in space which make final storage of high-level radioactive waste basically possible in Germany. Equally qualified findings about the suitability/unsuitability of non-saline rock formations require fundamental studies to be conducted nationally because of the comparatively low level of knowledge. The article presents basic analyses of coupled mechanical and hydraulic properties of argillaceous rock formations as host rock for a repository. The interaction of various processes is explained on the basis of knowledge derived from laboratory studies, and open problems are deduced. For modeling coupled processes, a simplified analytical computation method is proposed and compared with the results of numerical simulations, and the limits to its application are outlined. (orig.)

  19. Heterogeneity of Parent Rocks and Its Constraints on Geochemical Criteria in Weathering Crusts of Carbonate Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shijie; FENG Zhigang

    2004-01-01

    Owing to the low contents of their acid-insoluble components, carbonate rocks tend to decrease sharply in volume in association with the formation of weathering crust. The formation of a 1 m-thick weathering crust would usually consume more than ten meters to several tens of meters of thickness of parent rocks. The knowledge of how to identify the homogeneity of parent rocks is essential to understand the formation mechanism of weathering crust in karst regions,especially that of thick-layered red weathering crust. In this work the grain-size analyses have demonstrated that the three profiles studied are the residual weathering crust of carbonate rocks and further showed that there objectively exists the heterogeneity of parent rocks in the three studied weathering crusts. The heterogeneity of parent rocks can also be reflected in geochemical parameters of major elements, just as the characteristics of frequency plot of grain-size distribution.Conservative trace element ratios Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta are proven to be unsuitable for tracing the heterogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust, but its geochemical mechanism is unclear. The authors strongly suggest in this paper that the identification of the homogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust in karst regions is of prime necessity.

  20. Resources of Kaolinite Rocks in China Coal Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The proved reserve of kaolinite rocks in China coal measures is about 1. 673 billion tons. The types of kaolinite rocks contain tonstein, flintclay and soft kaolin. Their origin modes include alteration of volcanic ash, terrigenous clay deposit and weathering of coal and adjacent rocks. The organic matter and organic acid play an important role in the formation of kaolinite rocks of coal measures. The difference in properties between kaolinite rock and traditional kaolin requires different processing technologies.

  1. Perception of the Hard Rock Brand by Czech University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Polák, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to understand perception of the Hard Rock brand in the Czech Republic among university students. Hard Rock Cafe Prague is a combination of a restaurant, bar, and rock club operated by the hospitality corporation Hard Rock International. The studied segment can be seen as a group of potential customers in long term, and this research should identify opportunities for growth of Czech guests. The thesis presents the process and results of Hard Rock brand research on th...

  2. Experimental Study on the Fractal Characteristics of Rocks Crushing

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Gaipin; Xiong Yang; Lin Longfei

    2015-01-01

    A fractal model for the size distribution was proposed based on the fractal character of the crushing granularity of rocks. The crushing tests of three different rocks were conducted. And the test results of rock size distribution were used to conduct a statistical analysis. The results indicate that the fractal characteristics of rock are universal. The fractal dimension is one of perfect indicators to evaluate crushing, reflecting the whole process of the rock crushing. Subsequently, the re...

  3. Theoretical Modeling of Rock Breakage by Hydraulic and Mechanical Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxiang Jiang; Changlong Du; Songyong Liu; Liping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Rock breakage by coupled mechanical and hydraulic action has been developed over the past several decades, but theoretical study on rock fragmentation by mechanical tool with water pressure assistance was still lacking. The theoretical model of rock breakage by mechanical tool was developed based on the rock fracture mechanics and the solution of Boussinesq’s problem, and it could explain the process of rock fragmentation as well as predicating the peak reacting force. The theoretical model o...

  4. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. PMID:26412420

  5. Mining technology development in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), under sponsorship of the Department of Energy through the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), has established a hard-rock research facility at its experimental mine. Even through this site will not become a nuclear waste repository, the CSM has established and maintains an underground test room for use by its own personnel and ONWI and its contractors to conduct in situ investigations. Furthermore, CSM is designing, conducting, and reporting on a series of field research programs to develop site evaluation procedures, excavation techniques, and instrumentation required for nuclear waste repository siting, construction, and monitoring (Hustrulid, 1981). This facility is presently being used to: evaluate and develop techniques for careful excavation of hard rock; develop the mapping techniques required to describe adequately the structural geology; evaluate the structural continuity in the granitic gneiss at the CSM site; evaluate the structural damage done to the rock mass by blasting; develop techniques for evaluating fracture permeability; evaluate permeability changes in the rock mass as a result of blasting. Although specifically oriented toward nuclear waste storage and disposal, the techniques and procedures being developed and evaluated have wide applicability to all underground excavations in hard rock

  6. NEW THEORY IN TUNNEL STABLILITY CONTROL OF SOFT ROCK ——MECHANICS OF SOFT ROCK ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何满朝

    1996-01-01

    Tunnel stability control is a world-wide difficult problem. For the sake of solving it,the new theory of soft rock engineering mechanics has been estabilished. Some key points,such as the definition and classification of soft rock, mechanical deformation mechanism of a soft rock tunnel, the critical support technique of soft rock tunnel and the new theory of the soft rock tunnel stability control are proposed in this paper.

  7. Rock displacements measured during URL shaft sinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During sinking of the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) shaft, borehole extensometers were used to obtain rock displacement measurements and a tape extensometer was used to measure total convergences. The instruments, instrument modifications, and methods used are described. The measurements are summarized and assessed, with particular emphasis on the influence of natural fractures on rock-mass response and the performance of the instrumentation. Displacements varied from 0.09 mm to 1.75 mm. The frequency of sub-vertical fractures in the rock appeared to be the main factor causing the variation in the measured displacements. Although the displacement instrumentation met certain operational requirement well, lack of precision was a problem. Displacement instrumentation used in future URL experiments should have more measuring points, greater sensitivity, and greater accuracy to better measure small displacements

  8. Rocks of the early lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, O. B.

    1980-01-01

    Data are summarized which suggest a model for the early evolution of the lunar crust. According to the model, during the final stages of accretion, the outer part of the moon melted to form a magma ocean approximately 300 km deep. This ocean fractionated to form mafic and ultramafic cumulates at depth and an overlying anorthositic crust made up of ferroan anorthosites. Subsequent partial melting in the primitive mantle underlying the crystallized magma ocean produced melts which segregated, moved upward, intruded the primordial crust, and crystallized to form layered plutons consisting of Mg-rich plutonic rocks. Intense impact bombardment at the lunar surface mixed and melted the rocks of the two suites to form a thick layer of granulated debris, granulitic breccias, and impact-melt rocks.

  9. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is being constructed in preparation for the deep geological repository of spent fuel in Sweden. This Annual Report 1993 for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of the detailed investigation methodology. Construction of the facility and investigation of the bedrock are carried out in parallel. As of December 1993, 2760 m of the tunnel had been excavated to a depth of 370 m below the surface. An important and integral part of the work is further refinement of conceptual and numerical models for groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. Detailed plans have been prepared for several experiments to be conducted after the end of the construction work. Eight organizations from seven countries are now participating in the work at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and are contributing in different ways to the results being achieved

  10. Musical Structure as Narrative in Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fernando Encarnacao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to take a fresh look at the analysis of form in rock music, this paper uses Susan McClary’s (2000 idea of ‘quest narrative’ in Western art music as a starting point. While much pop and rock adheres to the basic structure of the establishment of a home territory, episodes or adventures away, and then a return, my study suggests three categories of rock music form that provide alternatives to common combinations of verses, choruses and bridges through which the quest narrative is delivered. Labyrinth forms present more than the usual number of sections to confound our sense of ‘home’, and consequently of ‘quest’. Single-cell forms use repetition to suggest either a kind of stasis or to disrupt our expectations of beginning, middle and end. Immersive forms blur sectional divisions and invite more sensual and participatory responses to the recorded text. With regard to all of these alternative approaches to structure, Judy Lochhead’s (1992 concept of ‘forming’ is called upon to underline rock music forms that unfold as process, rather than map received formal constructs. Central to the argument are a couple of crucial definitions. Following Theodore Gracyk (1996, it is not songs, as such, but particular recordings that constitute rock music texts. Additionally, narrative is understood not in (direct relation to the lyrics of a song, nor in terms of artists’ biographies or the trajectories of musical styles, but considered in terms of musical structure. It is hoped that this outline of non-narrative musical structures in rock may have applications not only to other types of music, but to other time-based art forms.

  11. Radiometric dating of rocks. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the abundances and variations in the isotopes of several elements both stable and unstable has become an indispensable approach in earth sciences that helps in understanding the problems related to the age of the rocks and minerals, petrogenesis of a suite of rocks, provenance studies and others. In this article, some commonly used dating methods have been discussed with emphasis on their applications, experimental techniques and instrumentation. Zircon chronology which has now developed as a specialized branch of geochronology is discussed

  12. First look at rock & soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The earliest survey of spectral properties of the rocks and soils surrounding Pathfinder was acquired as a narrow strip covering the region just beyond the where the rover made its egress from the lander. The wavelength filters used, all in the binocular camera's right eye, cover mainly visible wavelengths. These data reveal at least five kinds of rocks and soil in the immediate vicinity of the lander. All of the spectra are ratioed to the mean spectrum of bright red drift to highlight the differences. Different occurrences of drift (pink spectra) are closely similar. Most of the rocks (black spectra) have a dark gray color, and are both darker and less red than the drift, suggesting less weathering. Typical soils (green spectra) are intermediate in properties to the rocks and drift. Both these data and subsequent higher resolution images show that the typical soil consists of a mixture of drift and small dark gray particles resembling the rock. However, two other kinds of materials are significantly different from the rocks and drift. Pinkish or whitish pebbles and crusts on some of the rocks (blue spectra) are brighter in blue light and darker in near-infrared light than is the drift, and they lack the spectral characteristics closely associated with iron minerals. Dark red soils in the lee of several rocks are about as red as the drift, but consistently darker. The curvature in the spectrum at visible wavelengths suggests either more ferric iron minerals than in the drift or a larger particle size.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of

  13. Correlation between roughness and porosity in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, M. A.; Hogert, E. N.; Albano, J.; Raffo, C. A.; Gaggioli, N. G.

    1996-02-01

    The porosity of rocks is a very important parameter in the determination of the performance of oil wells. Optical methods allow us to study surface roughness and different materials that have surface properties with random characteristics. Therefore, we have extended these applications to porosity analysis. In our method, we have used the speckle produced by the scattered light from a porous rock, illuminated by a laser beam, and found a linear relationship between the decorrelation of the speckle intensity distribution and the porosity magnitude. In this paper we present the results for samples extracted from oil wells in Argentina.

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  15. Petrological studies of plutonic rocks of Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feldspars of many tonalitic plutonic rocks in the coastal regions and West Andean regions are zoned. This leads to the conclusion that they are relatively flat intrusions and to some extent transition rocks in the subvulcanite direction. This is in accordance with the genetic and chronological relationship between plutonites and the surrounding vulcanites of the Basic Igreous Complex (BIC). The composition of representative minerals, e.g. alkali feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, biotite, chlorite, and amphibole has been determined as well as the age of plutonite samples by the K/Ar dating method. (DG)

  16. Monitoring and analysis of rock blocks deformations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cacoń, S.; Kontny, B.; Košťák, Blahoslav

    Lisbon: FIG, 2008, s. 1-12. [FIG 13th Symposium on Deformation Measurement and Analysis and the IAG 4th Symposium on Geodesy for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering. Lisbon, Portugal, 12-15 May 2008. Lisbon (PT), 12.05.2008-15.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1828 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rock deformation monitoring * rock deformation model Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure http://www.fig.net/commission6/lisbon_2008/.

  17. Migration of radionuclides in fissured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some computed results of radionuclide migration in fissured rock are presented. The computations are based on a model which describes flow as occurring in a multitude of independent fissures (stratified flow). This gives rise to strong dispersion of channeling. The radionuclide migration in the individual fissures is modelled by the advection equation on a parallel walled channel with porous walls. The nuclides may diffuse into the pores and sorb reversibly on the pore surfaces. The effluent rates of 23 important nuclides are presented as functions of distance and time for various of important parameters such as rock permeability, diffusion coefficients, release rates, time of first release, fissure spacing and fissure width distribution. (Author)

  18. Rock et Cinéma

    OpenAIRE

    Bart, Christian Le; Didelot, Jérôme; Eizykman, Claudine; Gorin, François; Grünberg, Serge; Jousse, Thierry; Juiller, Laurent; Le Guern, Philippe; Leveratto, Jean-Marc; Neyrat, Cyril; ribac, françois; Siclier, Sylvain

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of Volume ! is dedicated to the relationships between rock music and cinema. It was published during the second edition of the Paris-Cinéma Festival. Its articles analyze the use of rock 'n' roll in various films: Phantom of Paradise by Brian De Palma, Exploding Plastic Inevitable by Andy Warhol with The Velvet Underground's music, A Hard Day's Night by Richard Lester, David Lynch movies, as well as Frank Zappa, Aphex Twin and "kinok". Ce hors-série de Volume ! est consa­c...

  19. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The TRUE -1 experiment including tests with sorbing radioactive tracers in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m has been completed. Diffusion and sorption in the rock matrix is the dominant retention mechanism over the time scales of the experiments. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. In total six boreholes have been drilled into the experimental volume located at the 450 m level. The Long-Term Diffusion Experiment is intended as a complement to the dynamic in-situ experiments and the laboratory experiments performed in the TRUE Programme. Diffusion from a fracture into the rock matrix will be studied in situ. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. A new site for the CHEMLAB experiments was selected and prepared during 1999. All future experiment will be conducted in the J niche at 450 m depth. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. Characterisation of the rock mass in the area of the Prototype repository is completed and the six deposition holes have been drilled. The Backfill and

  20. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM). Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume is a description of the significant features and parameters related to rock mechanics. The main objective is to develop a tool to predict the rock quality and the potential for stress failure which can then be used for continuing design of the ONKALO and the repository. This is the first implementation of the Rock Mechanics Model and it includes submodels of the intact rock strength, rock mass spalling strength, in situ stress, potential for stress failure, seismic velocities, thermal properties, major fracture sets, rock mass quality and properties of the brittle deformation zones. Because of the varying quantities of available data for the different parameters, the types of presentations also vary: some data sets can be presented in the style of a 3D block model but, in other cases, a single distribution represents the whole rock volume hosting the ONKALO. (orig.)

  1. Influence Mechanism of Grouting on Mechanical Characteristics of Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jixun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouting technology has been widely used in all fields of geotechnical and civil engineering. Prospective engineering objectives including reinforcement of rock mass and groundwater leakage treatment can be achieved by grouting which will change the mechanical parameters of rock mass such as strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of permeability. In this paper, rock mass is assumed as a composite material consisting of rock particles and random microcracks initially. Since part or all of the cracks will be filled with cement slurry after grouting, rock mass consists of rock particles, grout condensate, and some or no random microcracks after grouting. The damage constitutional law of the mesoscopic element is established based on the theory of mesoscopic damage mechanics. With the heterogeneity of the components of rock mass considered, the variation of mechanical characteristics of rock mass is studied before and after grouting. And the influence mechanism of grouting on rock mass is investigated at mesoscale level.

  2. Integration of rock typing methods for carbonate reservoir characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reservoir rock typing is the most important part of all reservoir modelling. For integrated reservoir rock typing, static and dynamic properties need to be combined, but sometimes these two are incompatible. The failure is due to the misunderstanding of the crucial parameters that control the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock and thus selecting inappropriate methods for defining static rock types. In this study, rock types were defined by combining the SCAL data with the rock properties, particularly rock fabric and pore types. First, air-displacing-water capillary pressure curues were classified because they are representative of fluid saturation and behaviour under capillary forces. Next the most important rock properties which control the fluid flow and saturation behaviour (rock fabric and pore types) were combined with defined classes. Corresponding petrophysical properties were also attributed to reservoir rock types and eventually, defined rock types were compared with relative permeability curves. This study focused on representing the importance of the pore system, specifically pore types in fluid saturation and entrapment in the reservoir rock. The most common tests in static rock typing, such as electrofacies analysis and porosity–permeability correlation, were carried out and the results indicate that these are not appropriate approaches for reservoir rock typing in carbonate reservoirs with a complicated pore system. (paper)

  3. Interim rock mass properties and conditions for analyses of a repository in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of rock properties for generic crystalline rock is compiled from literature sources to provide the input data for analyses of a conceptual repository in crystalline rock. Frequency histograms, mean values and ranges of physical, mechanical, thermal, and thermomechanical properties, and the dependence of these properties on temperature are described. A description of the hydrogeologic properties of a crystalline rock mass and their dependence on depth is provided. In addition, the temperature gradients, mean annual surface temperature, and in situ stress conditions are summarized for the three regions of the United States currently under consideration to host a crystalline repository; i.e., the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern. Brief descriptions of the regional geology are also presented. Large-scale underground experiments in crystalline rock at Stripa, Sweden, and in Climax Stock in Nevada, are reviewed to assess whether the rock properties presented in this report are representative of in situ conditions. The suitability of each rock property and the sufficiency of its data base are described. 110 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Theoretical study of rock mass investigation efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Johan G.; Outters, Nils [Golder Associates, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The study concerns a mathematical modelling of a fractured rock mass and its investigations by use of theoretical boreholes and rock surfaces, with the purpose of analysing the efficiency (precision) of such investigations and determine the amount of investigations necessary to obtain reliable estimations of the structural-geological parameters of the studied rock mass. The study is not about estimating suitable sample sizes to be used in site investigations.The purpose of the study is to analyse the amount of information necessary for deriving estimates of the geological parameters studied, within defined confidence intervals and confidence level In other words, how the confidence in models of the rock mass (considering a selected number of parameters) will change with amount of information collected form boreholes and surfaces. The study is limited to a selected number of geometrical structural-geological parameters: Fracture orientation: mean direction and dispersion (Fisher Kappa and SRI). Different measures of fracture density (P10, P21 and P32). Fracture trace-length and strike distributions as seen on horizontal windows. A numerical Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) was used for representation of a fractured rock mass. The DFN-model was primarily based on the properties of an actual fracture network investigated at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The rock mass studied (DFN-model) contained three different fracture sets with different orientations and fracture densities. The rock unit studied was statistically homogeneous. The study includes a limited sensitivity analysis of the properties of the DFN-model. The study is a theoretical and computer-based comparison between samples of fracture properties of a theoretical rock unit and the known true properties of the same unit. The samples are derived from numerically generated boreholes and surfaces that intersect the DFN-network. Two different boreholes are analysed; a vertical borehole and a borehole that is

  5. Theoretical study of rock mass investigation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study concerns a mathematical modelling of a fractured rock mass and its investigations by use of theoretical boreholes and rock surfaces, with the purpose of analysing the efficiency (precision) of such investigations and determine the amount of investigations necessary to obtain reliable estimations of the structural-geological parameters of the studied rock mass. The study is not about estimating suitable sample sizes to be used in site investigations.The purpose of the study is to analyse the amount of information necessary for deriving estimates of the geological parameters studied, within defined confidence intervals and confidence level In other words, how the confidence in models of the rock mass (considering a selected number of parameters) will change with amount of information collected form boreholes and surfaces. The study is limited to a selected number of geometrical structural-geological parameters: Fracture orientation: mean direction and dispersion (Fisher Kappa and SRI). Different measures of fracture density (P10, P21 and P32). Fracture trace-length and strike distributions as seen on horizontal windows. A numerical Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) was used for representation of a fractured rock mass. The DFN-model was primarily based on the properties of an actual fracture network investigated at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The rock mass studied (DFN-model) contained three different fracture sets with different orientations and fracture densities. The rock unit studied was statistically homogeneous. The study includes a limited sensitivity analysis of the properties of the DFN-model. The study is a theoretical and computer-based comparison between samples of fracture properties of a theoretical rock unit and the known true properties of the same unit. The samples are derived from numerically generated boreholes and surfaces that intersect the DFN-network. Two different boreholes are analysed; a vertical borehole and a borehole that is

  6. Initial settlements of rock fills on soft clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Truls Martens

    2012-01-01

    Rock fills that hit the seabed will remold the underlying material. If this material is a clay with sufficiently low shear strength, it will adopt rheological properties, causing flow through the rock fill, and contributing to the initial settlements of the rock fill in addition to conventional consolidation theory. The settlements of the rocks depend upon the height of the rock fill and how the rocks have been laid out. This is due to the viscosity of the clay, and the fact that clay is thix...

  7. Fluorine geochemistry in volcanic rock series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A new analytical procedure has been established in order to determine low fluorine concentrations (30–100 ppm F) in igneous rocks, and the method has also proven successful for higher concentrations (100–4000 ppm F). Fluorine has been measured in a series of olivine tholeiites from the Reykjanes ...

  8. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Holmes, William M.

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models.

  9. Electromagnetic emission in mineral and rock dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikov, V.; Popov, V.; Terre, D.

    2016-03-01

    The article considers regularities of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from minerals and rocks, with samples being heated in a vacuum to 20° C- 1000° C. The examples of electromagnetic emission correlation with electric conductivity, thermoluminescence and thermographic analysis during physic-chemical processes resulting from diagenesis, catagenesis and metagenesis have been provided.

  10. Prestudy Oskarshamn. Soils, rocks and deformation zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil and geology of the Oskarshamn area are described, as well as deformation zones and seismicity. Several areas of the inland are judged to be potentially well suited for a spent fuel repository. In the Simpevarp peninsula, it may be difficult to locate a rock mass big enough, between the fracture zones, to host a repository

  11. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeota, Judith A; Napier, Julia E; Armstrong, Douglas L; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Rogers, Douglas G

    2009-07-01

    Seven juveniles and 3 adults from a closed group of 19 rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) housed in a zoo's indoor rock exhibit died or were euthanized after developing blepharoconjunctivitis and orofacial ulcers over a 2-week period. Histopathologic examination of dermal ulcers and ulcerated tongues revealed amphophilic to basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells bordering ulcers. Epithelial cells with inclusion bodies were often characterized by cytomegaly and karyomegaly, and many cells had formed syncytia. Examination of inclusion bodies in tongue epithelium by transmission electron microscopy revealed icosahedral nucleocapsids, approximately 80-95 nm in diameter, with morphologic features consistent with herpesvirus. Cytopathic effect (CPE) typical of alphaherpesvirus infection was seen in bovine turbinate, equine dermal, and Vero cell monolayers after inoculation with homogenates of the skin lesions, but CPE was not seen after inoculation onto Madin-Darby canine kidney or swine testicle cell monolayers. Polymerase chain reaction analysis using degenerate primers that targeted a portion of the herpesvirus polymerase gene generated a product of approximately 227 base pairs. The product was cloned, sequenced, and then analyzed using BLAST. At the nucleotide level, there was 86%, 77%, and 76% shared identity with Eidolon herpesvirus 1, Human herpesviruses 1 and 2, and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2, respectively. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes have not been characterized. The data presented in the current study suggest that a novel alphaherpesvirus caused the lesions seen in these rock hyraxes. The molecular characteristics of this virus would tentatively support its inclusion in the genus Simplexvirus. PMID:19564505

  12. Waste package performance in unsaturated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unsaturated rock and near-atmospheric pressure of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain present new problems of predicting waste package performance. In this paper we present some illustrations of predictions of waste package performance and discuss important data needs. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Uncertainty in hydraulic tests in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interpretation of hydraulic tests in fractured rock has uncertainty because of the different hydraulic properties of a fractured rock to a porous medium. In this study, we reviewed several interesting phenomena which show uncertainty in a hydraulic test at a fractured rock and discussed their origins and the how they should be considered during site characterisation. Our results show that the estimated hydraulic parameters of a fractured rock from a hydraulic test are associated with uncertainty due to the changed aperture and non-linear groundwater flow during the test. Although the magnitude of these two uncertainties is site-dependent, the results suggest that it is recommended to conduct a hydraulic test with a little disturbance from the natural groundwater flow to consider their uncertainty. Other effects reported from laboratory and numerical experiments such as the trapping zone effect (Boutt, 2006) and the slip condition effect (Lee, 2014) can also introduce uncertainty to a hydraulic test, which should be evaluated in a field test. It is necessary to consider the way how to evaluate the uncertainty in the hydraulic property during the site characterisation and how to apply it to the safety assessment of a subsurface repository. (authors)

  14. Simulation of failure process of jointed rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A modified discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) algorithm was proposed to simulate the failure behavior of jointed rock.In the proposed algorithm,by using the Monte-Carlo technique,random joint network was generated in the domain of interest.Based on the joint network,the triangular DDA block system was automatically generated by adopting the advanced front method.In the process of generating blocks,numerous artificial joints came into being,and once the stress states at some artificial joints satisfy the failure criterion given beforehand,artificial joints will turn into real joints.In this way,the whole fragmentation process of rock mass can be replicated.The algorithm logic was described in detail,and several numerical examples were carried out to obtain some insight into the failure behavior of rock mass containing random joints.From the numerical results,it can be found that the crack initiates from the crack tip,the growth direction of the crack depends upon the loading and constraint conditions,and the proposed method can reproduce some complicated phenomena in the whole process of rock failure.

  15. Diffusion of uranium in the granite rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal, a significant retardation factor of radionuclides leaking from an underground repository can be expected. When radionuclides released from an underground repository are transported with the moving groundwater along cracks in the rock, the radionuclides will be retarded by not only adsorption on the surface of the cracks but also by process diffusion into submicron pores of rock matrix. In this experiments have been performed by process diffusion of uranium in water saturated granite. The measured penetration profile of uranium was composed of two parts. This profile was successfully explained by considering two diffusion paths in granite rock. One diffusion path was possibly a fissure with a width of few microns and another was a submicron pores of granite rock. The orders of magnitude of diffusivities for uranium were 10-12 m2/sec through the fissure and 1015 m2/sec through the submicron pores. The difference between the diffusivities of two path is thought to be caused by small geometrical factor of submicron pores, if to compared with fissures. (author)

  16. Life Found Lurking under Arctic Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah Graham; 刘晓

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Arctic tundra② would not appear a welcoming environment for life. But a paper published today in the journal Nature suggests that polar deserts may house photosynthetic③ organisms in a very unlikely place--under rocks. The discovery of the photosynthetic cyanobacteria④ could potentially double estimates of the carbon sequestration⑤ potential in these extreme environments.

  17. Insights on surface spalling of rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Ali; Kao, Chu-Shu; Fakhimi, Ali; Labuz, Joseph F.

    2016-07-01

    Surface spalling is a complex failure phenomenon that features crack propagation and detachment of thin pieces of rock near free surfaces, particularly in brittle rock around underground excavations when large in situ stresses are involved. A surface instability apparatus was used to study failure of rock close to a free surface, and damage evolution was monitored by digital image correlation (DIC). Lateral displacement at the free face was used as the feedback signal to control the post-peak response of the specimen. DIC was implemented in order to obtain the incremental displacement fields during the spalling process. Displacement fields were computed in the early stage of loading as well as close to the peak stress. Fracture from the spalling phenomenon was revealed by incremental lateral displacement contours. The axial and lateral displacements suggested that the displacement gradient was uniform in both directions at early loading stages and as the load increased, the free-face effect started to influence the displacements, especially the lateral displacement field. A numerical approach, based on the discrete element method, was developed and validated from element testing. Damage evolution and localization observed in numerical simulations were similar to those observed in experiments. By performing simulations in two- and three-dimensions, it was revealed that the intermediate principal stress and platen-rock interfaces have important effects on simulation of surface spalling.

  18. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  19. Paleo, rock and environmental magnetism. Preface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhnel, H. (ed.); Hounslow, M. (ed.); Morris, A. (ed.); Petrovský, Eduard (ed.)

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 29, 13/14 (2004), s. 849-849. ISSN 1474-7065 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) MAGPROX EVK2-CT-1999-00019; EU(XE) MAGNET Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : rock magnetism * paleomagnetism * environmental magnetism Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2004

  20. The riddles of rock and roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.M. d' Anjou (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRock and roll has often been equated with rebellion. The genre, though, is just a form of popular music and many of the important players in the game of promoting it were, like the saying goes, only in it for the money. As a rule, music like that will be supportive of the social order ra

  1. Experimental deformation of polyphase rock analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis presents an investigation into the mechanical properties of ductile polyphase materials, which were studied by a number of different techniques. The first approach was to do creep tests and transparent deformation cell experiments with two-phase composites of organic crystalline rock-ana

  2. Diversity of cyanobacteria on rock surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hauer, Tomáš; Mühlsteinová, Radka; Bohunická, Markéta; Kaštovský, J.; Mareš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 759-779. ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11912S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cyanobacteria * diversity * rock surfaces Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014

  3. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  4. Investigation of sport rock climbers’ handgrip strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Gürer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate handgrip strengths of elite sportsmen who are involved in sport rock climbing. Study group was composed of 144 sportsmen from 22 countries who participated in Petzl Roc Trip sport rock climbing festival held in Turkey between 14 and 19 October 2014. Data were collected by using Takei Grip-D brand hand dynamometer. The data collected were analyzed and interpreted by statistical package programme (SPSS 16.0. Results show meaningful differences between sportsmen’s right handgrip strength and left handgrip strength. Sportsmen’s right handgrip strength was found to be higher. Results differed based on gender as well. Left and right handgrip strength of males was found to be higher to those of females. No significant relationships were detected based on nationality, age, history of climbing and period of experience in climbing. Relationships were observed between Turkish male and female climbers’ right and left handgrip strengths. As a result, it can be claimed that right hand is used more often in sport rock climbing compared to the left hand. It is also believed that fingers and technique are crucial in sport rock climbing. Practices to develop finger strength and techniques are suggested.

  5. Towards systematic revision of rock rats (Aethomys)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Ondřej; Mazoch, V.; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Šumbera, R.; Bryja, Josef

    Paris : Université P. et M. Curie, 2011. s. 80 [European Congress of Mammalogy /7./. 19.07.2011-23.07.2011, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : rock rats * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.alphavisa.com/ecm2011/pdf/ECM2011-Abstract_Book.pdf

  6. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Ole; Krogsbøll, Anette

    1997-01-01

    The main objectives of the project are to combine geological description of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties, and to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. Five chalk types, representing two outcrop localities: Stevns and...

  7. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables...

  8. Rock `n' Roll Physics Sing-Along

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like to learn new favorites? Wish you had some snappy songs that teach physics? Just want to sing and laugh or listen and laugh? Join us for an evening of fun physics tunes set to familiar rock, blues, and swing tunes. Light refreshments will be served.

  9. Youth, Rock 'n' Roll, and Electronic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Rock 'n' Roll as a form of electronic communication is central to youth culture. There are procedural rules similar to grammatical structures which allow meaningful interpretation of this musical experience. As new forms of communication appear both youth culture and the meaning of music are altered to encompass the changes. (VM)

  10. Measurement of Discontinuity Characteristics in Rock Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It ranges in the base rock discontinuity surface (insulation) until currently as one of the variation past record which is recorded in the objective base rock, specially in about these geometric school register distribution quality research depth it makes be from the enterprise which demands the underground water flow interpretation of epidemiology stability and adiabatic watch concept of the base rock and it is made to accomplish and it is come. Discontinuity surface us from geological features site records the thing so is not the simple task. Discontinuity surface first of all, with the directivity which it specifies spatial it has the size of grudge together, according to site circumstance the case where the full investigation is difficult is numerous. Also, discontinuity surface it is measured from site if data the index outcrop, discontinuity surface the tunnel wall panel or the drill nose Oh it intersects discontinuity surface as not passing these people it has optional directivity within space of the base rock an only thing in the part comes seeming it is. It joins in and interpretation process of data from the population of the data which is investigated with parameter by presenting a representative value in what kind of form about also the consideration is necessary

  11. Anthropometry of young competitive sport rock climbers

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, P.; Joubert, L; Lish, A; Van der Mast, J.; Wilkins, B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Adult elite competitive rock climbers are small in stature with low body mass and very low body fat percentage. These characteristics have generated concern that young climbers may attempt body mass reduction to extreme levels with adverse consequences for health and performance. No published anthropometry data for young competitive climbers exist.

  12. Alkalized Borazine: A Simple Recipe to Design Superalkali Species

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple yet effective route to the design of superalkalis, by successive alkali metal substitution in borazine (B3N3H6). Using Li atoms, our density functional calculations demonstrate that the vertical ionization energy (VIE) of B3N3H6-xLix decreases with the increase in x for x equals 1-6. For x equals 4, the VIE of B3N3H6-xLix becomes lower than that of Li atom, thereby indicating their superalkali nature. More interestingly, all these species are planar such that NICSzz value at the rings center is reduced. These novel superalkalis are expected to stimulate further interests in this field.

  13. Alkalization is responsible for antibacterial effects of corroding magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Eifler, Rainer; Rais, Bushra; Mueller, Peter P

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are presently investigated as potential medical implant materials for temporary applications. Magnesium has been reported to have antibacterial activities and could therefore be used to prevent antibiotic treatment-resistant bacterial implant infections. For characterizing the effects of magnesium on infectious bacteria, bioluminescent S. aureus or P. aeruginosa were employed. The proliferation of both types of bacteria was suppressed in the presence of metallic magnesium and also in aqueous magnesium corrosion extracts. Of the two soluble corrosion products, magnesium ions were well tolerated while antibacterial activities correlated with increased pH levels of the supernatants. The alkaline pH alone was sufficient for the antibacterial effects which were completely abolished when the pH of the corrosion supernatants was neutralized. These results demonstrate that pH increases are necessary and sufficient for the antibacterial activity of metallic magnesium. In an animal model magnesium implants showed an enhanced but variable resistance to bacterial colonization. PMID:25974048

  14. Experiments at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dress rehearsal is being held in preparation for the construction of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at SKB's underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) on Aespoe, outside Oskarshamn. Here we can test different technical solutions on a full scale and in a realistic environment. The Aespoe HRL is also used for field research. We are conducting a number of experiments here in collaboration with Swedish and international experts. In the Zedex experiment we have compared how the rock is affected around a drill-and-blast tunnel versus a bored tunnel. In a new experiment we will investigate how much the rock can take. A narrow pillar between two boreholes will be loaded to the point that the rock's ultimate strength is exceeded (Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment). In the Demo Test we are demonstrating emplacement of the copper canisters and the surrounding bentonite in the deposition holes. In the Prototype Repository we study what long-term changes occur in the barriers under the conditions prevailing in a deep repository. Horizontal deposition: Is it possible to deposit the canisters horizontally without compromising safety? Backfill and Plug Test: The tunnels in the future deep repository for spent nuclear fuel will be filled with clay and crushed rock and then plugged. Canister Retrieval Test: If the deep repository should not perform satisfactorily for some reason, we want to be able to retrieve the spent fuel. The Lot test is intended to show how the bentonite behaves in an environment similar to that in the future deep repository. The purpose of the TBT test is to determine how the bentonite clay in the buffer is affected by high temperatures. Two-phase flow means that liberated gas in the groundwater flows separately in the fractures in the rock. This reduces the capacity of the rock to conduct water. Lasgit: By pressurizing a canister with helium, we can measure how the gas moves through the surrounding buffer. Colloid Project: Can very small particles

  15. Definition and description of parameters for geologic, geophysical and rock mechanical mapping of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents how geologic parameters should be used in SKB rock mappings. Geologic parameters dominate, but some parameters can be seen as geophysical or mechanical. The report is structured in the main areas Rock type, Plastic structures and Brittle structures, according to the parameter grouping that specifies how the bedrock should be characterized at the SKB site investigations. Each parameter is presented in a common structure: Name in Swedish and English; Definition; Description; Determination; Classification; and Presentation form (in particular graphic)

  16. Petrological modeling of basaltic rocks from Venus: a case for the presence of silicic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of highly evolved igneous rocks on Venus is debated. The formation of highland terranes and pancake domes are the two principle tectonic and volcanic features which argue in favor of the presence of silicic igneous rocks; however, the lack of water on Venus casts doubt on whether or not granites and rhyolites can form. Data returned to Earth from the Venera 13 and 14 landers show that the surface of Venus is comprised of basaltic rocks similar in composition to those found on Earth. Here is it shown that anhydrous and hydrous fractional crystallization modeling using the Venera 13 and 14 data as starting materials can produce compositions similar to terrestrial phonolites and rhyolites. It is suggested that at shallow crustal levels (i.e. ≤ 0.1 GPa) mafic magmas can differentiate into silicic magmas resembling phonolites or rhyolites which may or may not erupt. Furthermore, the hydrous equilibrium partial melting models can produce rocks similar to terrestrial andesites and rhyolites whereas anhydrous models suggest there may be a uniquely Venusian type of silicic rock. The silicic rocks, if present, could act as ';continental nucleation' sites and/or their presence may facilitate preferential sites of shearing and deformation of the Venusian crust.

  17. Rock Drilling Performance Evaluation by an Energy Dissipation Based Rock Brittleness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    To reliably estimate drilling performance both tool-rock interaction laws along with a proper rock brittleness index are required to be implemented. In this study, the performance of a single polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutter cutting and different drilling methods including PDC rotary drilling, roller-cone rotary drilling and percussive drilling were investigated. To investigate drilling performance by rock strength properties, laboratory PDC cutting tests were performed on different rocks to obtain cutting parameters. In addition, results of laboratory and field drilling on different rocks found elsewhere in literature were used. Laboratory and field cutting and drilling test results were coupled with values of a new rock brittleness index proposed herein and developed based on energy dissipation withdrawn from the complete stress-strain curve in uniaxial compression. To quantify cutting and drilling performance, the intrinsic specific energy in rotary-cutting action, i.e. the energy consumed in pure cutting action, and drilling penetration rate values in percussive action were used. The results show that the new energy-based brittleness index successfully describes the performance of different cutting and drilling methods and therefore is relevant to assess drilling performance for engineering applications.

  18. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2009 is given below. Geoscience Geoscientific research is a basic activity at Aespoe HRL. The aim of the current studies is to develop geoscientific models of the Aespoe HRL and increase the understanding of the rock mass properties as well as knowledge of applicable methods of measurement. A main task within the geoscientific field is the development of the Aespoe Site Descriptive Model (SDM) integrating information from the different fields. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology evaluation of geological mapping techniques leading to the decision to develop a SKB mapping system and finalization of the mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics finalised the field tests on thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes and evaluated the effect of counterforce in the deposition holes. Natural barriers At Aespoe HRL, experiments are

  19. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory constitutes an important component of SKB's work to design, construct, and implement a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of selected repository sites. The retention effect of the rock has been studied by tracer tests in the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) and the TRUE Block Scale (TRUE BS). These tests are supplemented by the new Long Term Diffusion Experiment (LTDE). During year 2000 the field experiments of TRUE BS (50 m scale) were completed and preparations made for the LTDE (migration through a fracture wall and into the rock), including boring of approximately 10 m deep hole with 300 mm diameter. Laboratory investigations have difficulties in simulating natural conditions and need supplementary field studies to support validation exercises. A special borehole probe, CHEMLAB, has therefore been designed for different kinds of validation experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in-situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. During 2000 migration experiments were made with actinides (Am, Np and Pu) in CHEMLAB 2, the simplified supplement to CHEMLAB 1. Colloids of nuclides as well as of bentonite might affect the migration of released radionuclides and a separate project was planned during 2000 to assess the existence, stability and mobility of colloids. The development of numerical modelling tools continues with the general objective to improve the numerical models in terms of flow and transport and to update the site-scale and laboratory scale models for the Aespoe HRL. The Matrix Fluid Chemistry project aims at determining the origin and age of matrix fluids and the experiment has been designed to sample matrix fluids from predetermined, isolated borehole sections by specialised equipment. The Aespoe HRL also has the task to demonstrate and perform full scale tests of the function of different components of the

  20. Elu on Rock 'n' roll! / Mari Hiiemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiiemäe, Mari

    2007-01-01

    Üritusesarjast "The 1st Tallinn Rocknroll Weekend Party" (korraldaja Eero Palusalu) Tallinnas Rock Cafés. Inglise rockansamblitest Matchbox ja Crazy Cavan & The Rhythm Rockers (kontsert 15. sept. Rock Cafés)

  1. ONKALO rock mechanics model (RMM) - Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Paananen, M.; Laine, E. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-02-15

    The Rock Mechanics Model of the ONKALO rock volume is a description of the significant features and parameters related to rock mechanics. The main objective is to develop a tool to predict the rock properties, quality and hence the potential for stress failure which can then be used for continuing design of the ONKALO and the repository. This is the second implementation of the Rock Mechanics Model and it includes sub-models of the intact rock strength, in situ stress, thermal properties, rock mass quality and properties of the brittle deformation zones. Because of the varying quantities of available data for the different parameters, the types of presentations also vary: some data sets can be presented in the style of a 3D block model but, in other cases, a single distribution represents the whole rock volume hosting the ONKALO. (orig.)

  2. Deep xenoliths in alkalic porphyry,liuhe,Yunnan,and implications to petrogenesis of alkalic porphyry and associated mineralizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显凡; 战新志; 高振敏; 刘家军; 李朝阳; 苏文超

    1999-01-01

    Na-rich microlite-glass is first discovered in deep-source xenoliths in alkali-rich porphyry, Liuhe village, Heqing County, Yunnan Province. It is shown that the ultramafic xenoliths originated from partial melting of primary mantle and the glass resulted from metasomatism between the xenoliths and mantle fluid derived from mantle degassing. Mantle metasomatism not only resulted in the enrichment of alkaline, large-ion elements, ore metals and volatiles but also created a favorable condition for the generation of alkaline magmas. The mantle xenoliths and their characteristics of mantle metasomatism provide important evidence for a better understanding of the petrogenesis and mineralization of the Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry in western Yunnan.

  3. Biomarkers and Microbial Fossils In Antarctic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, J.; Ascaso, C.

    Lithobiontic microbial communities living within Antarctic rocks are an example of survival in an extremely cold and dry environment. Any unfavourable change in ex- ternal conditions can result in the death and disappearance of microscopic organisms, and this may be followed by the appearance of trace biomarkers and microbial fossils. The extinction of these microorganisms in some zones of the Ross Desert, probably provoked by the hostile environment, might be considered a good terrestrial analogue of the first stage of the disappearance of possible life on early Mars. Granite samples from maritime Antarctica (Granite Harbour) and sandstone rocks from the continental Ross Desert were collected with the aim of searching for biomarkers and microbial fossils at the microscopic level of observation. To this end, a novel in situ applica- tion of scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging was com- bined with the simultaneous use of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. Our findings confirm the existence of inorganic biomarkers in the form of physico- chemically bioweathered minerals within the granitic rocks. The presence of Fe-rich diagenetic minerals, such as iron hydroxide nanocrystals and biogenic clays around chasmoendolithic hyphae and bacterial cells was also observed. Others biomarkers, including inorganic deposits such as calcium oxalates and silica accumulations, are clear signs of endolithic microorganism activity. The interior of the sandstone rocks (Ross Desert, Mt. Fleming) reveal the presence of microbial fossils of algae and other endolithic microorganisms. These microbial fossils, detected for the first time within Antarctic rocks, contain well preserved and morphologically distinguishable relics of ultrastructural cytoplasm elements, such as cell walls, chloroplast membranes, and oc- casionally, pyrenoids and traces of organic matter. These structures are similar to those observed in live cells also found in Antarctic

  4. Microstructural insight into the nonlinear swelling of argillaceous rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L. L.; Bornert, Michel; Yang, D S; HERIPRE, E; CHANCHOLE, S; HALPHEN, B.; Pouya, Ahmad; Caldemaison, D

    2015-01-01

    Argillaceous rocks are chosen as possible host rocks for underground radioactive nuclear waste disposal. These rocks exhibit complex coupled thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical behavior, the description of which would strongly benefit from an improved experimental insight on micro-scale. In this work we present some recent observations of the evolution of these rocks upon swelling on the scale of their composite microstructure, essentially made of a clay matrix with embedded grains of calcite and q...

  5. Effect Of Drilling Fluids Contaminations On Saudi Reservoir Rock Wettability

    OpenAIRE

    El Sayed, Abdel Alim H.; Al-Awad, Mosaed N. J.; Al-Sadiqqi, M. A.; Al-Blehed, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Wettability is a key parameter that affects the petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks. Mud nitrate during drilling pay zone causes a significant change in rock wettability that will affect the oil production and enhanced oil recovery. This change depends on the mud filtrate and the oil rock systems studied. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of water base mud, oil base mud, and Partially Hydroxide Polyacrylamide (PHPA) mud filtrate on the reservoir rocks wettabi...

  6. GRAPHITIZATION OF METASEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN THE WESTERN KONYA

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin KURT; Yaşar EREN

    2000-01-01

    The Paleozoic-Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks in the study area are metacarbonate, metachert, metapelite, metasandstone and metaconglomerate. Graphite layers are 1cm to 2m thick, extend laterally for tens of meters and are intercalated with metasedimentary rocks. Generally, the graphite is black in color, with a well developed cleavage which is concordant with the cleavage of the host rocks. In addition, the crystal and flake graphites formed in metasedimentary rocks are mostly aligned paralle...

  7. Rock mass classification and tunnel support design in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wangh, SJ; Lee, CF; Kwong, AKL

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the two recently established rock mass classification systems in China, namely the Basic Quality (BQ) and Host Rock Rating (HRR) systems. The establishment of the BQ and HRR rock mass classification systems in China is based on huge amount of experiences gathered in the design stages and later verified in the construction of rock tunnels and underground structures in China. The BQ system was originally used for classification ...

  8. Latest progress of soft rock mechanics and engineering in China

    OpenAIRE

    Manchao He

    2014-01-01

    The progress of soft rock mechanics and associated technology in China is basically accompanied by the development of mining engineering and the increasing disasters of large rock deformation during construction of underground engineering. In this regard, Chinese scholars proposed various concepts and classification methods for soft rocks in terms of engineering practices. The large deformation mechanism of engineering soft rocks is to be understood through numerous experiments; and thus a co...

  9. Image Segmentation for rock fractures based on ARMA model

    OpenAIRE

    P. Seetal,; N.Natarajan

    2010-01-01

    Rock fracture mapping is very important in many applications related to rock mechanics. The toughest task is the extraction of the fractures from the images of the rocks. Time series model has been used in this paper for segmentation of fractures from the rock images. The model is compared with orthodox edge detection algorithms. A first order autoregressive image model has been implemented. The model has been applied for both rough as well as smooth fractures. The model was observed to perfo...

  10. Influence Mechanism of Grouting on Mechanical Characteristics of Rock Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jixun; Shu Jiaqing; Ren Xuhua; Ren Hongyun

    2013-01-01

    Grouting technology has been widely used in all fields of geotechnical and civil engineering. Prospective engineering objectives including reinforcement of rock mass and groundwater leakage treatment can be achieved by grouting which will change the mechanical parameters of rock mass such as strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of permeability. In this paper, rock mass is assumed as a composite material consisting of rock particles and random microcracks initially. Since part or all of ...

  11. Stress analysis of single joint rock mass under triaxial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin-rong(刘新荣); JIANG Shu-ping(蒋树屏); LI Xiao-hong(李晓红); BAO Tai(包太)

    2004-01-01

    Based on the fundamental principle of rock mechanics, the stresses of single joint rock mass under three-dimensional compression were analyzed. The effect of the intermediate principle stress on the strength of single joint rock mass were discussed in particular. It is found that the strength of single joint rock are affected by the intermediate principal stress, which may be the main factor in some conditions.

  12. Rock and Mineral Bingo: Applying and Assessing Student Rock and Mineral Knowledge and Identification Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    A rock and mineral "Bingo" that is based on knowledge and identification skills (not luck) was developed to help teachers and introductory as well as more advanced-level students develop and improve rock and mineral identification skills. The game was initially designed to use a rock and mineral kit provided to all students in Lab Classes, but could be adapted for any suite of samples. The rock and mineral kits include 13 mineral samples (olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, muscovite, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, galena, gypsum, hematite, pyrite, calcite), 7 igneous rock samples (rhyolite, granite, andesite, diorite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite), 3 sedimentary rock samples (sandstone, shale, limestone), and 5 metamorphic rock samples (slate, mica schist, gneiss, marble, quartzite). The kit also includes a small magnifying glass, a streak plate and a tempered steel nail. The Bingo cards are composed of 9 squares ("questions") each. A total of 8 groups of questions have been developed to encompass introductory through more advanced levels. The question sets developed so far are: (a) General distinction between rocks and minerals; (b) Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (c) Mineral luster; (d) Mineral fracture and cleavage; (e) Mineral crystal form; (f) Mineral chemistry; (g) General mineralogy; (h) Geologic Context. Each square on the card is numbered (1-9). The same card is used for each group of questions. The questions are written on a separate set of small question cards that are color-coded (according to question set) and numbered. These cards are pulled out of the `bag' by the caller, and a copy of the question is posted for all to see. The players need to choose the sample from their collection that best fits the question or description given by the caller. The questions are set up so that some samples fit more than one answer, which requires the students to review their choices. The first person or group to win presents their board and

  13. Study on interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide migration through natural granite fractures under in situ geochemical conditions and diffusion of radionuclides into rock matrix were studied. Assumptions used in analysis of radionuclide migration through fractured rocks surrounding a geologic disposal of radioactive wastes were examined. Thermodynamic data of radionuclides were obtained and compiled in a database, which provide scientific basis for understanding interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks. (author)

  14. Dredging Processes I: The Cutting of Sand, Clay & Rock - Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    This book gives an overview of cutting theories. It starts with a generic model, which is valid for all types of soil (sand, clay and rock) after which the specifics of dry sand, water saturated sand, clay, rock and hyperbaric rock are covered. For each soil type small blade angles and large blade a

  15. Destress rock blasting as a rockburst control technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koníček, Petr; Konečný, Petr; Ptáček, Jiří

    London : CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, Balkema, 2011 - (Qian, Q.; Zhou, Y.), s. 1-6 ISBN 978-0-415-80444-8. [International Congress on Rock Mechanics/12./. Beijing (CN), 18.10.2011-21.10.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : underground coal mining * rock burst * destress rock blasting Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  16. Study on mechanical parameters of fractured rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The equivalent strength parameters of fractured rock masses are prerequisite for stability analysis of geotechnical engineering projects constructed in fractured rock masses which are encountered frequently in western china.Based on generated mesh of fractured rock masses,combined with statistic damage constitutive model of intact rock and damage model of structural plane,progressive failure of fractured rock masses is studied using finite element method(FEM) .Furthermore,Scale effect and anisotropy of compressive strength of fractured rock masses are studied.Study results show that the strength decreases and tend towards stability rapidly from intact rock to fractured rock masses,and the anisotropy of strength of fractured rock masses is not significant.At last,based on numerical simulation conducted on 10 m scale rock masses under different confining pressures,the equivalent strength parameters of fractured rock masses are gained and the results are compared with Hoek-Brown criteria.The method developed is helpful for determination of strength parameters of fractured rock masses.

  17. Introduction to the Apollo collections. Part 1: Lunar igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, P. E.; Warner, J. L.; Simonds, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    The basic petrographic, chemical, and age data is presented for a representative suite of igneous rocks gathered during the six Apollo missions. Tables are given for 69 samples: 32 igneous rocks and 37 impactites (breccias). A description is given of 26 basalts, four plutonic rocks, and two pyroclastic samples. The textural-mineralogic name assigned each sample is included.

  18. Rock mechanics activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of rock mechanics at nuclear waste repositories is a true multidisciplinary effort. A description and historical summary of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is presented. Rock mechanics programs at the WIPP are outlined, and the current rock mechanics modeling philosophy of the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division is discussed

  19. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2010 is given below

  20. Calculation of gas migration in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations are presented for rock properties characteristic to the Forsmark area. The rock permeability was determined by flow tests in vertical boreholes. It is assumed that the permeability distribution obtained from these boreholes is representative also for the permeability distribution along the repository cavern. Calculations were worked out for two different types of boundary conditions, one in which a constant gas flow rate equivalent to a gas production of 33000 kg/year was assumed and the other in which a constant gas cushion of 0.5 metres was assumed. For the permeability distribution considered, the breakthrough at the sea bottom occurred within one hour. The gaswater displacement took place mainly through the fractures of high permeability and practically no flow took place in the fractures of low permeability. (orig./DG)

  1. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  2. Look! It's Rock'n'roll!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja

    2007-01-01

    third, the musicianship. I argue that television helped shape a heightened awareness of genre distinction within the field of popular music by emphasizing differences in visual impressions and performance attitudes, even before an awareness of genre became manifest stylistically in the music itself....... Project MUSE® - View CitationMLAAPAChicagoEndnote -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. "Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping the visual genre conventions of popular music." Music, Sound, and the Moving Image 1......, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. (2007). Look! it's rock'n'roll! how television participated in shaping the visual genre conventions of popular...

  3. The physics of rock failure and earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnaka, Mitiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the understanding of earthquake generation processes and derivation of underlying physical laws, controversy remains regarding the constitutive law for earthquake ruptures and how it should be formulated. Laboratory experiments are necessary to obtain high-resolution measurements that allow the physical nature of shear rupture processes to be deduced, and to resolve the controversy. This important book provides a deeper understanding of earthquake processes from nucleation to their dynamic propagation. Its key focus is a deductive approach based on laboratory-derived physical laws and formulae, such as a unifying constitutive law, a constitutive scaling law, and a physical model of shear rupture nucleation. Topics covered include: the fundamentals of rock failure physics, earthquake generation processes, physical scale dependence, and large-earthquake generation cycles. Designed for researchers and professionals in earthquake seismology, rock failure physics, geology and earthq...

  4. Organic Petrological Studies on Immature Source Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贤庆; 熊波; 钟宁宁; 马安来; 王铁冠; 张爱云

    2004-01-01

    Organic petrology is a marginal science that is quite practicable. At present, it has developed into a routine research tool that is widely applied in petroleum exploration and assessment. Based on several years' research of the authors, this paper presents the advances in organic petrological studies on immature source rocks, including the classification and characteristics of macerals, the composition of macerals and types of organic matter, the abundance and evolution of organic matter, oil-prone macerals, hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. All these results show that organic petrology is of considerable value pertaining to its application in the assessment of immature oil and gas. The immature source rocks consist of various macerals with obvious heterogeneity, contain different hydrocarbon-generating macerals with different oil thresholds and oil peaks, and show a two-staged evolutionary pattern of organic matter.

  5. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2010 is given below

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2011 is given below.

  7. Rupture by Damage Accumulation in Rocks

    CERN Document Server

    Amitrano, David

    2006-01-01

    The deformation of rocks is associated with microcracks nucleation and propagation, i.e. damage. The accumulation of damage and its spatial localization lead to the creation of a macroscale discontinuity, so-called "fault" in geological terms, and to the failure of the material, i.e. a dramatic decrease of the mechanical properties as strength and modulus. The damage process can be studied both statically by direct observation of thin sections and dynamically by recording acoustic waves emitted by crack propagation (acoustic emission). Here we first review such observations concerning geological objects over scales ranging from the laboratory sample scale (dm) to seismically active faults (km), including cliffs and rock masses (Dm, hm). These observations reveal complex patterns in both space (fractal properties of damage structures as roughness and gouge), time (clustering, particular trends when the failure approaches) and energy domains (power-law distributions of energy release bursts). We use a numerical...

  8. Radionuclide retardation in crystalline rock fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelttae, P.; Hakanen, M.; Siitari-Kauppi, M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Radiochemistry; Hautojaervi, A.

    1995-12-31

    Transport and retardation of slightly sorbing sodium was studied in Syyry area SY-KR7 mica gneiss and in altered porous tonalite. Experiments were performed using dynamic fracture and crushed rock column methods and the static batch method. Flow conditions in the column were determined using tritiated water and chloride as non-sorbing tracers. {sup 14}C-PMMA method was used to study the pore structure of matrices and the surface areas were determined by B.E.T. method. Sodium was retarded strongly in altered tonalite owing to homogeneous porous matrix structure and the composition of alteration minerals. An agreement between retardation values in batch and crushed rock column experiments as well as in fracture column experiments was good.

  9. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe hard rock laboratory is being constructed in preparation for the deep geological repository of spent fuel in Sweden. This Annual report 1992 for the Aespoe hard rock laboratory contains an overview of the work conducted. Present work is focused on verification of pre-investigation methods and development of the detailed investigation methodology. Construction of the facility and investigation of the bedrock are being carried out in parallel. December 1992 1925 m of the tunnel has been excavated to a depth of 255 m below surface. An important and integrated part of the work is further refinement of conceptual and numerical models for groundwater flow and radionuclide migration. This work is carried out in cooperation with seven organizations from six countries that participate in the project. (25 refs.)

  10. Relationship between carbonaceous rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between carboniferous materials in the rocks and the formation of hydrothermal uranium mineralization has been discussed with the example of super-large hydrothermal uranium deposits (such as Canada's Athabasca, Australia's East Alligator River, Germany's Schlema-Alberoda and Roenneberg, Gabon's Franceville). According to the thermodynamic data, it has been emphasized that the interaction between carbon and water causes the formation of gaseous reductants (such as CO2, CO, H2 and CH4) under the condition of higher temperature and lower pressure. It has been indicated that CH4 should be the main gaseous reductants under the temperature (150-200 degree C) and pressure (50-100 MPa) which are suitable to the uranium metallogenesis. This conclusion accords with the practical situation observed in the deposits mentioned above, at the same time disaffirms the traditional points of view that the carbonaceous rocks can be the uranium sources during the formation of hydrothermal uranium deposits. (authors)

  11. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2011 is given below

  13. Retention processes in clay-rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Tournassat, Christophe; Grangeon, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    International audience Within the context of the clay barrier concept for underground nuclear waste storage, montmorillonite and bentonite have been widely used as reference materials for radionuclides (RN) retention studies. Associated modeling work aims at understanding and predicting the retention of RN in clay-rocks where clay minerals are assumed to be representative of the most reactive phases. This " bottom-up " approach relies on a good confidence in the mechanistic understanding o...

  14. Mining technology development for hard rock excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research facility has been established in the granitic gneiss of the CSM Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado, for the purpose of evaluating/developing mining, geologic and geotechnical procedures appropriate for use in establishing nuclear waste repositories in hard rock. An experimental room has been excavated using careful blasting procedures. The extent and magnitude of blast damage is being evaluated. Structural geology is being mapped to assess continuity

  15. Rock Slopes from Mechanics to Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Einstein, H.H.; Sousa, R.L.; Karam, K.; Manzella, Irène; Kveldsvik, V.

    2010-01-01

    Rock slope instabilities are discussed in the context of decision making for risk assessment and management. Hence, the state of the slope and possible failure mechanism need to be defined first. This is done with geometrical and mechanical models for which recent developments are presented. This leads with appropriate consideration of uncertainties to risk determination and to the description of tools for risk management through active and passive countermeasures, including warning systems. ...

  16. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette; Jakobsen, Finn; Madsen, Lena

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to combine geological descriptions of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties in order to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. This report deals with 1) geological descriptions of outcrop locality ...... Hillerslev quarry, 2) Classification and description of all samples (normal and large scale) and 3) Evaluation of stress- and deformation history....

  17. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  18. El rock como conformador de identidades juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián de Garay

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza la relación entre el rock y las identidades juveniles, a partir del abordaje de cinco “estilos” que se pueden identificar como constitutivos de éstas identidades. Ellos son: la jerga, la estética, las producciones culturales, los no-lugares y el territorio. Finaliza el artículo señalando algunos hitos importantes de la culturarockera en la ciudad de México.

  19. Stoke's efficiency of temporally rocked ratchets

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Raishma; Chacko, Jim; Sahoo, Mamata; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the generalized efficiency of an adiabatically rocked ratchet with both spatial and temporal asymmetry. We obtain an analytical expression for the generalized efficiency in the deterministic case. Generalized efficiency of the order of 50% is obtained by fine tuning of the parameter range. This is unlike the case of thermodynamic efficiency where we could readily get an enhanced efficiency of upto 90%. The observed higher values of generalized efficiency is attributed to be due to th...

  20. Low Pore Connectivity in Natural Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    As repositories for CO₂ and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air–water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  1. Low pore connectivity in natural rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    As repositories for CO(2) and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air-water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior. PMID:22507286

  2. Low pore connectivity in natural rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    As repositories for CO2 and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air-water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  3. Radionuclide sorption on generic rock types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out of the sorption of the elements chlorine, nickel, selenium, iodine, lead, uranium and neptunium onto generic rock types. These elements all have isotopes that might be of radiological significance in the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes. The investigation has included preliminary work on the effects on sorption of near-field derived materials such as organic degradation products and high calcium and hydroxyl ion concentrations. (author)

  4. Sondierbohrung Boettstein: Hydrogeological testing of crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to comprehensive studies in geology, geophysics, hydrochemistry and rock mechanics, a three-phased program for (1) drilling (2) testing and (3) monitoring of the twelve boreholes was proposed. The Boettstein borehole is located in the central part of the target areas. It was the first borehole to be drilled. Drilling in the crystalline granitic basement rocks started at a depth of 315 m below ground surface in November 1982 and was completed in December 1983. The monitoring phase is on-going at this time. The study reported herein describes the hydrogeologic testing of the crystalline rocks and results of the work done by Gartner Lee AG (GLAG) in the Boettstein borehole on behalf of Nationale Genossenschaft Fuer Die Lagerung Radioaktiver Abfaelle (NAGRA). This report describes testing equipment and performance. Also included are sections on the testing and analysis methods that were used to determine the hydrogeologic results. Testing was conducted using single and double packer tools with associated down hole and surface electronic equipment. Down hole information from pressure transducers and thermistors were converted from frequency signals to pressure and temperature readings that were printed, plotted and stored on magnetic tape at the surface facility. All the testing equipment worked well. In summary, the hydrogeologic testing activities at the Boettstein borehole were successful in providing information for NAGRA's regional assessment of the crystalline basement rocks. In addition, water samples could be obtained from discrete intervals for geochemical characterization. Continuing ground water monitoring activities at this borehole will add to the data base provided by this report. (author)

  5. Rocks From Space: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2013-10-01

    The notion that rocks could fall to Earth from space was not seriously considered until the early nineteenth century. The impact origin of the lunar craters reached a scientific consensus only in the mid twentieth century and a wide understanding that the Earth’s neighborhood is crowded with millions of near-Earth asteroids that could cause impact damage to Earth is less than a few decades old. In the late seventeenth century, even such notable scientists as Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton ruled out the existence of small bodies in space. In 1794, the German physicist and father of acoustics Ernst F.F. Chladni published a short list of fireball events and effectively argued that these events and the meteorites they dropped could not have been atmospheric and were likely due to cosmic rocks entering the Earth’s atmosphere. In 1802 the British chemist Edward Charles Howard showed that several meteoritic stones had similar chemical compositions and that nickel, which is seldom present in terrestrial rocks except in trace amounts, was common to all of them. These two pivotal works, along with a number of early nineteenth century falls, slowly strengthened the notion that fireball events and the stones they dropped were of celestial, rather than atmospheric, origin. Even so, it was well into the mid twentieth century before Meteor Crater in particular and the obvious lunar craters in general were widely considered as impact phenomena rather than being due to volcanic eruptions or steam generated explosions. It seems that despite Mother Nature’s best attempts to point out the importance of impact events in the solar system and the existence of a vast population of near-Earth asteroids, much of the scientific community reached these viewpoints rather late. Likely reasons for this slow acceptance of rocks from space will be discussed.

  6. Rock cutting by pulsing water jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Martinec, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Jekl, Pavel; Mlynarczuk, M.

    Leiden : A.A.Balkema Publishers, 2005 - (Konečný, P.), s. 129-134 ISBN 04-1538-042-1. [Eurock 2005. Impact of Human Activity on the Geological Environment. Brno (CZ), 18.05.2005-20.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/03/0183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rock cutting * pulsing water jet Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  7. Influence of heating to rock samples fracturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajev, Vladimír; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Vasin, R.N.; Nikitin, A. N.

    Prague : Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2011 - (Rudajev, V.; Živor, R.). s. 23-23 ISBN 978-80-87443-04-0. [Polish-Czech-Slovak Symposium on Mining and Environmental Geophysics /33./. 19.09.2011-22.09.2011, Staré Splavy] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : acoustic emission * ultrasonic wave velocity * rock heating Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  8. Argillaceous rock as host rock for final storage of radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology (BMWi), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials (BGR) in a study described argillaceous rock formations as potential host rock for repositories in some areas of Germany, and evaluated them. The study was based on available and usable data derived from maps, archives, and approx. 25,000 drillings. No additional field tests or laboratory examinations were conducted. The study was published in April 2007 under the title of 'Untersuchung und Bewertung von Tongesteinsformationen' (www.bgr.bund.de). The exclusion criteria and minimum requirements recommended by the Working Group on Repository Sites (AkEnd) in 2002 served as a basis for defining the subareas eligible for further study. In addition, internationally acknowledged selection criteria as well as weighting criteria to be taken into account especially under German conditions were applied. The result of the study is not a representation of repository sites. However, the investigations show that argillaceous rock meeting host rock requirements occurs in the Lower Cretacious as well as in rock formations of the Lower and Middle Jurassic of Northern Germany. In Southern Germany, rock of the Middle Jurassic was found to be worthy of examination. The clay formations of the Tertiary are not considered in the study because of their relatively adverse mechanical properties in Germany. The areas highlighted are situated mainly in Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony-Anhalt, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also im Bavaria, Brandenburg, and North Rhine-Westphalia. Other regional restrictions are mentioned in the study. Any further assessment of the argillaceous rock in the study would require an extensive program of investigations with a view to selecting sites for the final storage of high-level radioactive waste. (orig.)

  9. Thermal conductivity of the rocks in the Bureau of Mines Standard Rock Suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal conductivities of eight rocks from the Bureau of Mines Standard Rock Suite were measured in air over the temperature range 373 to 5330K (100 to 2600C). The thermal conductivities of these rocks were measured to furnish standards for future comparisons with host rock from prospective nuclear waste repository sites. The thermal conductivity at a given temperature decreased by as much as 9% after a specimen had been heated to the maximum temperature (5330K), but additional heating cycles had no further effect. This decrease was smallest in the igneous rocks and largest in the sedimentary types. Variations due to orientation were within the precision of measurements (+- 5%). In most cases the thermal conductivities were linear with the reciprocal of the temperature and were within 14% of published data obtained by other methods. Measurements were made by a cut-bar comparison method in which the sample was sandwiched between two reference or metering bars made of Pyroceram 9606 glass-ceramic. The apparatus consisted of a Dynatech Model TCFCM-N20 comparative thermal conductivity analyzer controlled by a Hewlett Packard Model 3052A data acquisition system. A program was written to increment and cycle the temperature in steps between predetermined initial and maximum values. At each step the thermal conductivity was measured after steady-state conditions were established. The rocks furnished by the Bureau of Mines were quarried in large and fairly homogeneous lots for use by researchers at various laboratories. To investigate any anisotropy, cores were taken from each rock cube perpendicular to each of the cube faces. Samples 2 in. in diameter and approx. 0.75 in. thick were prepared from the cores and were dried in a vacuum oven for at least one month prior to taking measurements

  10. No Reprieve for Tasmanian Rock Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Sims

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian State of Tasmania, at latitude 42 degrees south, became an island about 8,000 years ago when the sea rose to its present level, following the melting of polar and glacial ice that covered much of the land mass. After that time, the Tasmanian Aboriginal rock art developed independently of mainland Australia, with its form being basically linear with some naturalistic figures and a predominance of cupules. The petroglyphs with one lithophone site occur on various rock substrates varying in hardness from granite to sandstone. Many sites exist along the western coastline that borders the Southern Ocean where the landscape in some places has changed little since the arrival of Europeans in 1803. The significance of this Tasmanian Aboriginal cultural heritage along what is now known as the Tarkine Coast, named after an Aboriginal band that once inhabited this area, was recognised by the Australian Government in February 2013 when a 21,000 ha strip, 2 km wide, was inscribed on its National Heritage Register, being one of 98 special places listed in the country. However, politics and racism hamper its management. This paper is based on the results of 40 years of field recording of the Tasmanian Aboriginal rock art sites, many of which remain unpublished.

  11. Diffusivity and porosity studies in rock matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion of radionuclides in the pores of rock adjacent to fractures is an important retardation mechanism in the far-field of the repository of nuclear waste. The nature of diffusivity and porosity in rock was studied as a function of various parameters. The phenomena of main interest were dead-end porosity, ion-exclusion and sorption. The rock types studied were rapakivi granite, granite and gneiss, tracer techniques was used as a research method. An analytical solution for outdiffusion from a porous cylinder was developed by applying a corrected form of Fick's second law for a case where part of the pores are so-called dead-end pores. With this model the theoretical curve could be closely fitted to the measured values. Matrix diffusion was studied in the nature in the island of Haestholmen on the coast of the Gulf of Finland, which due to postglacial land uplift started to rise from the Baltic Sea some 5000 years ago; the land uplift is some 3 mm per year. Rainwater has formed a layer of fresh groundwater floating on top of the saline layer. The coarse- grained granite bedrock of Haestholmen has been investigated for suitability of an underground repository for reactor wastes

  12. Rock bed thermal storage: Concepts and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenneth; von Backström, Theodor; Joubert, Eugene; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Thermal storage enables concentrating solar power (CSP) plants to provide baseload or dispatchable power. Currently CSP plants use two-tank molten salt thermal storage, with estimated capital costs of about 22-30 /kWhth. In the interests of reducing CSP costs, alternative storage concepts have been proposed. In particular, packed rock beds with air as the heat transfer fluid offer the potential of lower cost storage because of the low cost and abundance of rock. Two rock bed storage concepts which have been formulated for use at temperatures up to at least 600 °C are presented and a brief analysis and cost estimate is given. The cost estimate shows that both concepts are capable of capital costs less than 15 /kWhth at scales larger than 1000 MWhth. Depending on the design and the costs of scaling containment, capital costs as low as 5-8 /kWhth may be possible. These costs are between a half and a third of current molten salt costs.

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. The work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2006 is in this report described in six chapters: Geo-science - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the surrounding rock; Natural barriers - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the repository barriers under natural conditions; Engineered barriers - demonstration of technology for and function of important engineered parts of the repository barrier system; Aespoe facility - operation, maintenance, data management, monitoring, public relations etc; Environmental research; and finally, International co-operation.

  14. CERN’s Summer of Rock

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    When a rock star visits CERN, they don’t just bring their entourage with them. Along for the ride are legions of fans across the world – many of whom may not be the typical CERN audience. In July alone, four big acts paid CERN a visit, sharing their experience with the world: Scorpions, The Script, Kings of Leon and Patti Smith.   @TheScript tweeted: #paleofestival we had the best time! Big love. #CERN (Image: Twitter).   It all started with the Scorpions, the classic rock band whose “Wind of Change” became an anthem in the early 1990s. On 19 July, the band braved the 35-degree heat to tour the CERN site on foot – visiting the Synchrocyclotron and the new Microcosm exhibition. The rockers were very enthusiastic about the research carried out at CERN, and talked about returning in the autumn during their next tour stop. The Scorpions visit Microcosm. Two days later, The Script rolled in. This Irish pop-rock band has been hittin...

  15. Mathematical simulation of a waste rock heap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model has been developed to simulate the generation of acidic drainage in waste rock piles. The model considers the kinetic rates of biological and chemical oxidation of sulfide minerals (pyrite, pyrrhotite) present as fines and rock particles, as well as chemical processes such as dissolution (kinetic or equilibrium controlled), complexation (from equilibrium and stoichiometry of several complexes), and precipitation (formation of complexes and secondary minerals). Through mass balance equations and solubility constraints (e.g., pH, phase equilibria) the model keeps track of the movement of chemical species through the waste pile and provides estimates of the quality of seepage (pH, sulfate, iron, acidity, etc.) leaving the heap. The model has been expanded to include the dissolution (thermodynamic and sorption equilibrium), adsorption and coprecipitation of uranium and radium. The model was applied to simulate waste rock heaps in British Columbia, Canada and in Thueringia, Germany. To improve the accuracy and confidence of long-term predictions of seepage quality, the entire history of the heaps was simulated. Cumulative acidity loads and water treatment considerations were used as a basis for evaluation of various decommissioning alternatives. Simulation of the technical leaching history of a heap in Germany showed it will generate contaminated leachate requiring treatment for acidity and radioactivity for several hundred years; cover installation was shown to provide a significant reduction of potential burdens, although chemical treatment would still be required beyond 100 years

  16. The effects of bacteria on crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many reactions involving inorganic minerals at water-rock interfaces have now been recognized to be bacterially mediated; these reactions could have a significant effect in the excavation of vaults for toxic and radioactive waste disposal. To investigate the role that bacteria play in the natural aqueous environment of crystalline rock the microbial growth factors of nutrition, energy and environment are described. Microbial activity has been investigated in Atomic Energy of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL), situated in the Archean granitic Lac du Bonnet Batholith, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Faults, initiated in the Early Proterozoic, and later-formed fractures, provide ground-water pathways. Planktonic bacteria, free-swimming in the groundwater, have been observed in over 100 underground borehole samples. The number of bacteria varied from 103 to 105 mL-1 and appeared to decrease with depth and with increased salinity of the water. However, in the natural environment of deep (100-500 m) crystalline rocks, where nutrition is limited, formation of biofilms by sessile bacteria is a successful survival strategy. Natural biofilms at the URL and biofilms grown in bioreactors have been studied. The biofilms can accumulate different elements, depending upon the local environment. Precipitates of iron have been found in all the biofilms studied, where they are either passively accumulated or utilized as an energy source. Within the biofilm active and extensive biogeochemical immobilization of dissolved elements is controlled by distinct bacterial activities which are sufficiently discrete for hematite and siderite to be precipitated in close proximity

  17. Surface energy characterization of sandstone rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalan, Naveed; Palayangoda, Sujeewa S.; Burnett, Daniel J.; Buiting, Johannes J.; Nguyen, Quoc P.

    2013-08-01

    The fundamental forces of adhesion are responsible for the spreading of fluids such as crude oil/brine on the reservoir rock surface. These physico-chemical interactions determine the surface energetics of a reservoir and thus their wetting phenomena. Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) is introduced to characterize the surface energy of sandstones (Ottawa sand and Berea sandstone). The surface chemistry of the sandstone rocks is further elucidated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The behavior of the polar and non-polar interaction forces was investigated at varying water coverage and at different temperatures. The results indicated that in general as the water coverage increased, the Lifshitz-van der Waals component of surface energy decreased to nearly that of the bulk water, while the acid-base component also showed a decreasing trend. The Lifshitz-van der Waals component of surface energy always decreased with increase in temperature, while the acid-base properties showed contrasting trends in line with changes in surface chemistry of the sandstones, due to the change in temperature. Finally, the wetting properties arising in reservoir sandstones were related to the surface chemistry of the reservoir fluids and their interactions with the reservoir rock surface.

  18. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and the associated research, development, and demonstration tasks, have so far attracted considerable interest. A summary of work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2003 is given below. Seven organisations from six countries participated in the co-operation at Aespoe HRL during 2003 in addition to SKB. Most of the organisations are interested in groundwater flow, radionuclide transport and rock characterisation. Several of the organisations are participating in the experimental work as well as in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes. SKB is through Repository Technology co-ordinating three EC contracts and takes part in several EC projects of which the representation in five projects is channelled through Repository Technology. SKB takes also part in work within the IAEA framework.

  20. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) constitutes an important part of SKB's work to design and construct a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of a suitable site for a deep repository. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and the associated research, development, and demonstration tasks, have so far attracted considerable interest. A summary of work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2003 is given below. Seven organisations from six countries participated in the co-operation at Aespoe HRL during 2003 in addition to SKB. Most of the organisations are interested in groundwater flow, radionuclide transport and rock characterisation. Several of the organisations are participating in the experimental work as well as in the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes. SKB is through Repository Technology co-ordinating three EC contracts and takes part in several EC projects of which the representation in five projects is channelled through Repository Technology. SKB takes also part in work within the IAEA framework

  1. Rocking response of tanks containing two liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the dynamic response of upright circular cylindrical liquid storage tanks containing two different liquids under a rocking base motion with an arbitrary temporal variation is presented. Only rigid tanks were studied. The response quantities examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, the sloshing wave height and associated frequencies, and the base shear and moments. Each of these response quantities is expressed as the sum of the so-called impulsive component and convective component. Unlike the case of tanks containing one liquid, in which the response is controlled by one parameter, the height-to-radius ratio, the response of tanks containing two different liquids is controlled by three parameters: the height-to-radius ratio and the mass density ratio and height ratio of the two liquids. The interrelationship of the responses of the tank-liquid system to rocking and lateral base excitations is established by examining numerical results extensively. It is found that some of the response quantities for a tank-liquid system under a rocking base motion can be determined from the corresponding response quantities for an identical tank under a horizontal base motion. ((orig.))

  2. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. The work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2006 is in this report described in six chapters: Geo-science - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the surrounding rock; Natural barriers - experiments, analysis and modelling to increase the knowledge of the repository barriers under natural conditions; Engineered barriers - demonstration of technology for and function of important engineered parts of the repository barrier system; Aespoe facility - operation, maintenance, data management, monitoring, public relations etc; Environmental research; and finally, International co-operation

  3. Flow and Transport Through Unsaturated Fractured Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel D.; Nicholson, Thomas J.; Rasmussen, Todd C.

    This monograph is an update and revision of the first edition, Geophysical Monograph 42, on ground-water flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock, published by AGU in 1987. The first edition evolved from a special symposium held during the American Geophysical Union fall meetings in San Francisco in December 1986. Invited and contributed papers at that AGU session, as well as panel presentations, focused on conceptualizing, measuring and modeling flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock. As noted in the preface to the first edition, "the expanded interest in the topic (water flow and contaminant transport through unsaturated fractured rock) was initiated when the U.S. Geological Survey proposed that deep unsaturated zones in arid regions be considered in the site selection for the first high-level, commercially generated radioactive waste repository." Much of the research reported in that first edition was motivated by the U.S. Department of Energy's program to investigate Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site as a possible geologic repository for commercially generated, high-level radioactive waste. As noted in the overview paper of the first edition, "characterization methods and modeling are in their developmental stage with the greatest lack of knowledge being the interaction between fracture and matrix flow and transport properties." Although the first edition of this monograph reflected the state-of-the science, laboratory and field experimental programs were novel and limited and, in general, followed from the principles and methods developed in the soil science community.

  4. Prediction of grout penetration in fractured rocks by numerical simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, MJ; Yue, ZQ; Lee, PKK; Su, B; Tham, LG

    2002-01-01

    As fractures in rock significantly reduce the strength as well as the stiffness of the rock mass, grouting may be required to improve the performance of the rock mass in engineering or mining projects. During grouting, mortar of cement or other materials is injected into the rock mass so that the fractures can be filled up and the rock mass can act as an integral unit. Unlike water, grouts are usually viscous and behave as non-Newtonian fluids. Therefore, the equations describing the flow of ...

  5. Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit Rover in Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H. Y.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N. A.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. C.; Crisp, J. A.; Crumpler, L. S.; DesMarais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Gellert, R.; Ghosh, A.; Gorevan, S.; Graff, T.; Grant, J.; Haskin, L. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B. L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater on Mars contains dark, fine-grained, vesicular rocks interpreted as lavas. Pancam and Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) spectra suggest that all of these rocks are similar but have variable coatings and dust mantles. Magnified images of brushed and abraded rock surfaces show alteration rinds and veins. Rock interiors contain Particle X-ray Spectrometer are consistent with picritic basalts, containing normative olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclase, and accessory FeTi oxides. Mossbauer, Pancam, and Mini-TES spectra confirm the presence of olivine, magnetite, and probably pyroxene. These basalts extend the known range of rock compositions composing the martian crust.

  6. Rock Burst Mechanics: Insight from Physical and Mathematical Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Vacek, J.; J. Chocholoušová

    2008-01-01

    Rock burst processes in mines are studied by many groups active in the field of geomechanics. Physical and mathematical modelling can be used to better understand the phenomena and mechanisms involved in the bursts. In the present paper we describe both physical and mathematical models of a rock burst occurring in a gallery of a coal mine.For rock bursts (also called bumps) to occur, the rock has to possess certain particular rock burst properties leading to accumulation of energy and the pot...

  7. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The surface and borehole investigations and the research work performed in parallel with construction have provided a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The experimental results of the first tracer test with sorbing radioactive tracers have been obtained. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. The manufacturing of the CHEMLAB probe was completed during 1996, and the first experiments were started early in 1997. During 1997 three experiments on diffusion in bentonite using {sup 57}Co, {sup 114}Cs,{sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 131}I were conducted. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. The characterization of the rock mass in the area of the prototype repository is in progress. The objectives of the Demonstration of Repository Technology are to develop, test, and demonstrate methodology and equipment for encapsulation and deposition of spent nuclear fuel. The demonstration of handling and deposition will be made in a new drift. The Backfill and Plug Test includes tests of backfill materials and emplacement methods and a test of a full scale plug. The backfill and rock will be instrumented with about 230 transducers for measuring the thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. The

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The surface and borehole investigations and the research work performed in parallel with construction have provided a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. The experimental results of the first tracer test with sorbing radioactive tracers have been obtained. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. The manufacturing of the CHEMLAB probe was completed during 1996, and the first experiments were started early in 1997. During 1997 three experiments on diffusion in bentonite using 57Co, 114Cs,85Sr, 99Tc, and 131I were conducted. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and instrumented. The characterization of the rock mass in the area of the prototype repository is in progress. The objectives of the Demonstration of Repository Technology are to develop, test, and demonstrate methodology and equipment for encapsulation and deposition of spent nuclear fuel. The demonstration of handling and deposition will be made in a new drift. The Backfill and Plug Test includes tests of backfill materials and emplacement methods and a test of a full scale plug. The backfill and rock will be instrumented with about 230 transducers for measuring the thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. The Retrieval Test is aiming at

  9. Properties of Flow Zones in Fractured Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, R.

    2004-12-01

    Observations over the last 25 years from various field studies suggest that preferential flow is common in soils and rocks. Despite this realization, very little is known about the large-scale properties (e.g., structure, distribution, continuity) of such flow regimes. This information is important for predictive models, but it remains elusive, mainly because of the difficulties involved in characterizing flow that has substantial spatial (both vertical and horizontal) and temporal variability. To better understand preferential flow in fractured rock, we carried out an in situ field experiment in the Topopah Spring tuff found in Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This experiment involved the release of ~22 m3 of ponded water (at a pressure head of ~0.04 m) over a period of 7 months, directly onto a 12 m2 infiltration plot. As water was released, changes in moisture content were monitored along horizontal boreholes located in the formation ~19-22 m below. Distinct flow zones, with significant differences in flow velocity, size, and extent of lateral movement, intercepted the 6-9 m long monitoring boreholes. Further, in some flow zones saturation levels persisted for the time period in which water was released, while in others there were periodic fluctuations. There was also evidence of water being diverted above the ceiling of a cavity in the immediate vicinity of the monitoring boreholes. Observations from this field experiment suggested that inconsistencies exist in present conceptual models of flow in fractured rock. Particularly, these observations suggest that isolated conduits within the fractured rock formation encompass a large number of fractures to form preferential flow paths that persist if there is a continuous supply of water. It appears that in fractured welded tuffs, the propensity for vertical dispersion and fracture-matrix interactions may be significantly greater than suggested by existing conceptual models. These observations

  10. ROCK PROPERTIES MODEL ANALYSIS MODEL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) is to document Rock Properties Model (RPM) 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties models are intended principally for use as input to numerical physical-process modeling, such as of ground-water flow and/or radionuclide transport. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. This work was conducted in accordance with the following planning documents: WA-0344, ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1998'' (SNL 1997, WA-0358), ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1999'' (SNL 1999), and the technical development plan, Rock Properties Model Version 3.1, (CRWMS MandO 1999c). The Interim Change Notice (ICNs), ICN 02 and ICN 03, of this AMR were prepared as part of activities being conducted under the Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, ''Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01'' (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The purpose of ICN 03 is to record changes in data input status due to data qualification and verification activities. These work plans describe the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and implementing procedures for model construction. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The work scope for this activity consists of the following: (1) Conversion of the input data (laboratory measured porosity data, x-ray diffraction mineralogy, petrophysical calculations of bound water, and petrophysical calculations of porosity) for each borehole into stratigraphic coordinates; (2) Re-sampling and merging of data sets; (3) Development of geostatistical simulations of porosity; (4

  11. ROCK PROPERTIES MODEL ANALYSIS MODEL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton Lum

    2002-02-04

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) is to document Rock Properties Model (RPM) 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties models are intended principally for use as input to numerical physical-process modeling, such as of ground-water flow and/or radionuclide transport. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. This work was conducted in accordance with the following planning documents: WA-0344, ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1998'' (SNL 1997, WA-0358), ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1999'' (SNL 1999), and the technical development plan, Rock Properties Model Version 3.1, (CRWMS M&O 1999c). The Interim Change Notice (ICNs), ICN 02 and ICN 03, of this AMR were prepared as part of activities being conducted under the Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, ''Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The purpose of ICN 03 is to record changes in data input status due to data qualification and verification activities. These work plans describe the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and implementing procedures for model construction. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The work scope for this activity consists of the following: (1) Conversion of the input data (laboratory measured porosity data, x-ray diffraction mineralogy, petrophysical calculations of bound water, and petrophysical calculations of porosity) for each borehole into stratigraphic coordinates; (2) Re-sampling and merging of data sets; (3

  12. Rock shape, restitution coefficients and rockfall trajectory modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, James; Christen, Marc; Bühler, Yves; Bartelt, Perry

    2014-05-01

    Restitution coefficients are used in rockfall trajectory modelling to describe the ratio between incident and rebound velocities during ground impact. They are central to the problem of rockfall hazard analysis as they link rock mass characteristics to terrain properties. Using laboratory experiments as a guide, we first show that restitution coefficients exhibit a wide range of scatter, although the material properties of the rock and ground are constant. This leads us to the conclusion that restitution coefficients are poor descriptors of rock-ground interaction. The primary problem is that "apparent" restitution coefficients are applied at the rock's centre-of-mass and do not account for rock shape. An accurate description of the rock-ground interaction requires the contact forces to be applied at the rock surface with consideration of the momentary rock position and spin. This leads to a variety of rock motions including bouncing, sliding, skipping and rolling. Depending on the impact configuration a wide range of motions is possible. This explains the large scatter of apparent restitution coefficients. We present a rockfall model based on newly developed hard-contact algorithms which includes the effects of rock shape and therefore is able to reproduce the results of different impact configurations. We simulate the laboratory experiments to show that it is possible to reproduce run-out and dispersion of different rock shapes using parameters obtained from independent tests. Although this is a step forward in rockfall trajectory modelling, the problem of parametersing real terrain remains.

  13. Characteristics and genesis of porphyroclastic lava rock in Xiangshan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the transitional characteristics of porphyroclastic lava rock in Xiangshan of Jiangxi province, there are a variety of views on its genesis, petrographic attribution. This is because the marginal facies of the porphyroclastic lava is with ignimbrite and tuff characteristics, its transition phase has the characteristics of lava, and its intermediate phase has the feature of sub-volcanic rocks, further more, different texture of the rocks bears transition relationship. By the study of mineral composition, REE pattern, trace elements, isotopes, we put forward that the porphyroclastic lava is formed by the remelting of basement metamorphic rocks. The rocks was believed to be formed in the environment similar to volcanics and subvolcanics, and quite different to plutonic rocks due to the features of low-structure of potassium feldspar phenocrysts and solution mechanism, because the porphyroclastic lava phenocrysts occurs as fragments and maybe related to cryptoexplosion. Therefore the rocks was believed to belong to the volcano extrusive facies. (authors)

  14. Tautochrone and Brachistochrone Shape Solutions for Rocking Rigid Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Glaschke, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rocking rigid bodies appear in several shapes in everyday life: As furniture like rocking chairs and rocking cradles or as toys like rocking horses or tilting dolls. The familiar rocking motion of these objects, a non-linear combination of a rigid rotation and a translation of the center of mass, gives rise to a number of interesting dynamical properties. However, their study has received little attention in the literature. This work presents a comprehensive introduction to the dynamics of rocking rigid bodies, including a concise derivation of the equations of motion as well as a general inversion procedure to construct rocking rigid body shapes with specified dynamical properties. Moreover, two novel rigid body shapes are derived - the tautochrone shape and the brachistochrone shape - which represent an intriguing generalization of the well-know tautochrone and brachistochrone curves. In particular, tautochrone shapes offer an alternative construction of a tautochrone pendulum, in addition to Huygens' cyclo...

  15. "DEAR ROCK, WHAT'S YOUR DESTINY? Ancient and modern uses of rocks in industry, building and art."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    The project is for students of first grade of secondary school. The activity is a game, virtual or real of associations between rock and soil samples with their uses in industry, building and art. The students, alone or in a team, have to form pairs having available various samples of rocks, soils and building materials as bags of cement, tiles.. They have images of colonnades, staircases of famous churches, cave paintings and colors. The project is multidisciplinary. During the activity, the teachers of art and technical education are involved with and the teacher of sciences. The game can be used as an introduction for the rocks' classification. The inquiry in team, is a good way to learn the several uses of mineral resources.

  16. Hard rock hydrogeology in the construction of the ONKALO underground rock characterisation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of at Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki. A rock facility, named as ONKALO, shall be designed and constructed by Posiva Oy to enable further characterisation and research of the host rock without jeopardising the favourable properties of the repository site. Posiva has organised a project 'Control of Groundwater' to identify and develop the ways to control the foreseen disturbances caused by groundwater inflow into the ONKALO and the deep repository. The project has resulted in a preliminary conception of the amount and the distribution of the water inflow as well as of grouting conditions at Olkiluoto. The main technical way foreseen to control the leakages is pregrouting of the rock. Since the target inflows are very low and there are limitations for activities and materials, the problems in water-inflow control culminate in the very small fracture apertures and high hydrostatic pressure in the deep bedrock. (orig.)

  17. Analysis profile of the fully grouted rock bolt in jointed rock using analytical and numerical methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghadimi Mostafa; Shahriar Kourosh; Jalalifar Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bolt profile on load transfer mechanism of fully grouted bolts in jointed rocks using analytical and numerical methods. Based on the analytical method with development of methods, a new model is presented. To validate the analytical model, five different profiles modeled by ANSYS software. The profile of rock bolts T3 and T4 with load transfer capacity, respectively 180 and 195 kN in the jointed rocks was selected as the optimum profiles. Finally, the selected profiles were examined in Tabas Coal Mine. FLAC analysis indicates that patterns 6+7 with 2NO flexi bolt 4 m better than other patterns within the faulted zone.

  18. Radionuclide transport and retardation in rock fracture and crushed rock column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höltä, P.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Hakanen, M.; Huitti, T.; Hautojärvi, A.; Lindberg, A.

    1997-04-01

    Transport and retardation of non-sorbing tritiated water and chloride and slightly sorbing sodium was studied in Syyry area SY-KR7 mica gneiss, in altered porous tonalite and in fresh tonalite. Experiments were performed using dynamic fracture and crushed rock column methods. Static batch method for sodium was introduced to compare retardation values from static and dynamic experiments. The 14C-PMMA method was used to study the pore structure of matrices. The pore aperture distribution was evaluated from Hg-porosimetry determinations and the surface areas were determined using the B.E.T. method. The flow characteristics and transport behavior of tracers were interpreted using a numerical compartment model for dispersion. The effect of matrix diffusion was calculated using an analytical solution to the advection-matrix diffusion problem in which surface retardation was taken into account. Radionuclide transport behavior in rock fractures was explained on the basis of rock structure.

  19. Prediction of Fracture Behavior in Rock and Rock-like Materials Using Discrete Element Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaga, T.; Young, P.

    2009-05-01

    The study of fracture initiation and propagation in heterogeneous materials such as rock and rock-like materials are of principal interest in the field of rock mechanics and rock engineering. It is crucial to study and investigate failure prediction and safety measures in civil and mining structures. Our work offers a practical approach to predict fracture behaviour using discrete element models. In this approach, the microstructures of materials are presented through the combination of clusters of bonded particles with different inter-cluster particle and bond properties, and intra-cluster bond properties. The geometry of clusters is transferred from information available from thin sections, computed tomography (CT) images and other visual presentation of the modeled material using customized AutoCAD built-in dialog- based Visual Basic Application. Exact microstructures of the tested sample, including fractures, faults, inclusions and void spaces can be duplicated in the discrete element models. Although the microstructural fabrics of rocks and rock-like structures may have different scale, fracture formation and propagation through these materials are alike and will follow similar mechanics. Synthetic material provides an excellent condition for validating the modelling approaches, as fracture behaviours are known with the well-defined composite's properties. Calibration of the macro-properties of matrix material and inclusions (aggregates), were followed with the overall mechanical material responses calibration by adjusting the interfacial properties. The discrete element model predicted similar fracture propagation features and path as that of the real sample material. The path of the fractures and matrix-inclusion interaction was compared using computed tomography images. Initiation and fracture formation in the model and real material were compared using Acoustic Emission data. Analysing the temporal and spatial evolution of AE events, collected during the

  20. Extraction of whole versus ground source rocks: Fundamental petroleum geochemical implications including oil-source rock correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, L.C.; Clayton, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In petroleum geochemistry, extractable hydrocarbons (HCs) in source rocks have typically been studied by grinding the rock to a fine powder (???100 mesh) and then extracting the HCs from the rock with a solvent. This procedure carries the implicit assumption that the HCs are homogeneously distributed throughout the rock. However, sequential Soxhlet extractions of whole (unpowdered) source rocks have shown that progressive extracts from the same rock can be quite different and may not even correlate with each other. A crude oil-like material clearly has been fractionated from indigenous bitumen in these rocks, has moved to cracks and parting laminae in the rocks, is ready for expulsion from the rocks, and is thus most accessible to the first extracting solvents. This process, which we believe is largely due to HC gases and carbon dioxide generated over all maturation ranks in source rocks, carries petroleum geochemical implications of a fundamental nature for oil-source rock correlations and gives insight into primary migration mechanisms, origin of oil deposits, and use of maturity and organic-facies indices. ?? 1992.

  1. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. Experiments with sorbing radioactive tracers have been completed in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. Breakthrough of sorbing tracers in the TRUE-I tests is retarded more strongly than would be expected based on laboratory data alone. Results are consistent for all tracers and tracer tests. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. The total duration of the project is approximately 4.5 years with a scheduled finish at the end of the year 2000. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. The project Degassing of groundwater and two phase flow was initiated to improve our understanding of observations of hydraulic conditions made in drifts and interpretation of experiments performed close to drifts. The analysis performed so far shows that the experimentally observed flow reductions indeed are consistent with the degassing hypothesis. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and

  2. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models that are intended to be used in the licensing of a deep repository for spent fuel. Experiments with sorbing radioactive tracers have been completed in a single fracture over a distance of about 5 m. These tests have been subject to blind predictions by the Aespoe Task Force on groundwater flow and transports of solutes. Breakthrough of sorbing tracers in the TRUE-I tests is retarded more strongly than would be expected based on laboratory data alone. Results are consistent for all tracers and tracer tests. The main objective of the TRUE Block Scale Experiment is to increase understanding and our ability to predict tracer transport in a fracture network over spatial scales of 10 to 50 m. The total duration of the project is approximately 4.5 years with a scheduled finish at the end of the year 2000. The REX project focuses on the reduction of oxygen in a repository after closure due to reactions with rock minerals and microbial activity. Results show that oxygen is consumed within a few days both for the field and laboratory experiments. The project Degassing of groundwater and two phase flow was initiated to improve our understanding of observations of hydraulic conditions made in drifts and interpretation of experiments performed close to drifts. The analysis performed so far shows that the experimentally observed flow reductions indeed are consistent with the degassing hypothesis. The Prototype Repository Test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function. A full-scale prototype including six deposition holes with canisters with electric heaters surrounded by highly compacted bentonite will be built and

  3. Effect of Rocking Movements on Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Omlin

    Full Text Available For centuries, rocking has been used to promote sleep in babies or toddlers. Recent research suggested that relaxation could play a role in facilitating the transition from waking to sleep during rocking. Breathing techniques are often used to promote relaxation. However, studies investigating head motions and body rotations showed that vestibular stimulation might elicit a vestibulo-respiratory response, leading to an increase in respiration frequency. An increase in respiration frequency would not be considered to promote relaxation in the first place. On the other hand, a coordination of respiration to rhythmic vestibular stimulation has been observed. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of different movement frequencies and amplitudes on respiration frequency. Furthermore, we tested whether subjects adapt their respiration to movement frequencies below their spontaneous respiration frequency at rest, which could be beneficial for relaxation. Twenty-one healthy subjects (24-42 years, 12 males were investigated using an actuated bed, moving along a lateral translation. Following movement frequencies were applied: +30%, +15%, -15%, and -30% of subjects' rest respiration frequency during baseline (no movement. Furthermore, two different movement amplitudes were tested (Amplitudes: 15 cm, 7.5 cm; movement frequency: 0.3 Hz. In addition, five subjects (25-28 years, 2 males were stimulated with their individual rest respiration frequency. Rocking movements along a lateral translation caused a vestibulo-respiratory adaptation leading to an increase in respiration frequency. The increase was independent of the applied movement frequencies or amplitudes but did not occur when stimulating with subjects' rest respiration frequency. Furthermore, no synchronization of the respiration frequency to the movement frequency was observed. In particular, subjects did not lower their respiration frequency below their resting frequency. Hence, it

  4. Reaction-driven fracturing of porous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulven, O. I.; Jamtveit, B.; Malthe-Sørenssen, A.

    2014-10-01

    A 2-D computer model has been developed to investigate fluid-mediated transformation processes such as chemical weathering, mineral carbonation, and serpentinization that require transport of H2O and/or CO2 into reacting rock volumes. Hydration and carbonation cause local volume expansion, and the resulting nonuniform stresses may drive fracturing, which increases both the rate of transport and the accessible reactive surface area in the system and thus accelerates the rate of the transformation process. The model couples reactions, fracturing, and fluid transport for systems with a range of initial porosities, assumed constant throughout the process. With low initial porosity, a sharp reaction front between completely reacted material and unreacted material propagates into unaltered rock, while for high porosities, diffuse reaction fronts are formed in which a large fraction of the initial volume is partly reacted. When diffusive transport is rate limiting, the total reaction rate depends on porosity to a power N, where N is in the range 0.45-2. The exponent N increases as the reaction-generated expansion decreases. In high-porosity rocks, the total reaction rate is limited by reaction kinetics, and it is thus insensitive to porosity variations. As the volume increasing reaction proceeds, fracturing divides the unreacted porous material into subdomains, which may undergo further subdivision as they are consumed by the reaction. The total reaction rate and progress depend on the initial geometry of a reacting domain, and this significantly affects the weathering profiles for systems that evolve from an initial assembly of blocks with different sizes and shapes.

  5. Stability of bentonite gels in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present, extended study comprises a derivation of a simple rock model as a basis for calculation of the penetration rate of bentonite and of the groundwater flow rate, which is a determinant of the erodibility of the protruding clay film. This model, which is representative of a gross permeability of about 10-8 - 10-9 m/s, implies a spectrum of slot-shaped joints with apertures ranging between 0.1 and 0.5 mm. It is concluded that less than 2percent of the highly compacted bentonite will be lost into traversing joints in 106 years. A closer analysis, in which also Poiseuille retardation and short-term experiments were taken into account, even suggests that the penetration into the considered joints will be less than that. The penetration rate is expected to be 1 decimeter in a few hundred years. The risk of erosion by flowing groundwater was estimated by comparing clay particle bond strength, evaluated from viscometer tests, and theoretically derived drag forces, the conclusion being that the maximum expected water flow rate in the widest joints of the rock model (4 times 10-4 m/s) is not sufficient to disrupt the gel front or the large individual clay flocs that may exist at this front. The experiments support the conclusion that erosion will not be a source of bentonite loss. A worst case scenario with a shear zone being developed across deposition holes is finally considered and in addition to this, the conditions in the fracture-rich tunnel floor at the upper end of the deposition holes are also analysed. This study shows that even if the rock is much more fractured than normal conditions would imply, the bentonite loss is expected to be very moderate and without substantial effect on the barrier functions of the remaining clay cores in the deposition holes. (author)

  6. Iodine and selenium migration through argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep argillaceous formations are considered as potential host rock for high-level radioactive waste repository. Based on safety assessment calculations, active selenium (79Se) and iodine (129I) from high level radioactive waste might be ones of the major dose contributors due to their longevity and their anionic character. However, because of their high sensitivity to redox condition, a special attention to the oxidation state of these elements is required. A comparative study on the diffusion properties of selenium and iodine through argillaceous rocks was realized with the aim to determine the effects of both the redox conditions and the mineralogy on the migration of these two elements. For these purposes, we have studied two argillaceous rocks: Toarcian argillite from Tournemire (France) and Opalinus clay (OPA) from the Mont-Terri (Switzerland). The study of the iodide migration allowed to confirm the control on the iodide retention of both oxidized pyrite and natural organic matter. A kinetic control of the iodide sorption is also suspected. We focus the selenium study on the more oxidized species, Se(IV) and Se(VI). The Se(IV) migration is strongly dependant from oxido-reduction processes. Indeed, the Se(IV) diffusion experiments through Tournemire argillite and OPA indicated a significant reduction associated to Fe(II). The Se(VI) study evidenced a behavior dependant from the initial concentration: at the highest concentration, no significant retention was observed while the retention is significant at the lowest concentration. Furthermore, spectroscopic analyses tend to show a low Se(VI) reduction at the Fe contact. However, biotic origin cannot be excluded. (author)

  7. Laboratory rock mechanics testing manual. Public draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuri, F S; Cooper, J D; Hamill, M L

    1981-10-01

    Standardized laboratory rock mechanics testing procedures have been prepared for use in the National Terminal Waste Storage Program. The procedures emphasize equipment performance specifications, documentation and reporting, and Quality Assurance acceptance criteria. Sufficient theoretical background is included to allow the user to perform the necessary data reduction. These procedures incorporate existing standards when possible, otherwise they represent the current state-of-the-art. Maximum flexibility in equipment design has been incorporated to allow use of this manual by existing groups and to encourage future improvements.

  8. Nuclear analytical study of rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exfoliated fragment of a rock painting from Lesotho was analyzed by differentiated backscatter spectrometry to obtain the paint thickness, which ranged from about 2 to 6.5 μm, and its empirical formula for stopping power calculations. Elemental composition was determined by PIXE. Fe-rich paint spots were red in color and Ca-rich ones, pinkish. Because of the chemical mobility of calcium, this paint component should become the focus to which conservation techniques should be directed. (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs

  9. A rock characterisation facility consultative document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This U.K. Nirex Ltd., consultative document describes a proposed underground rock characterisation facility, east of Sellafield, for conducting geophysical surveys as a basis for refining long-term safety analysis of an underground repository for intermediate-level and low-level radioactive wastes. Planning application will be submitted in 1993. The construction of shafts and galleries is described and the site's geologic, topographical, climatic and archaeological features discussed. The effects to the local environment and on local populations and other socio-economic factors are discussed. (UK)

  10. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  11. Ship Grounding on Rock - I. Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of analytical expressions which can be used to calculate the reaction force on a ship bottom deformed by a conical rock with a rounded tip. Closed form solutions are given for the resistance of inner and outer bottom plating, longitudinal stiffeners, girders and bulkheads...... and transverse frames, floors and bulkheads. The expressions are derived by use of an energy method or a type of 'upper bound' method which rigorously takes into account the effects of large plastic deformations, friction and fracture. A high level of generality for the methodology has been obtained...

  12. TAPAHTUMAMARKKINOINNIN KEHITTÄMISSUUNNITELMA JYRKKÄ ROCK FESTIVALILLE

    OpenAIRE

    Kaihua, Anssi; Mustakangas, Joonas

    2013-01-01

    Nykyään Suomessa järjestetään kesäisin suuri määrä eri festivaaleja. Pienemmät festivaalit, kuten Jyrkkä Rock Festival, saattavat jäädä suurempien tapahtumien alle. Pienemmällä budjetilla markkinoivan festivaalin täytyy tällöin käyttää markkinoinnissaan hyväksi valtavirrasta poikkeavia keinoja. Opinnäytetyön aihe syntyi toimeksiantajan tarpeesta. Opinnäytetyön tekeminen oli tärkeää, koska toimeksiantajalla ei ollut valmista markkinointisuunnitelmaa. Markkinointisuunnitelma on toteutettu...

  13. Visualization of pore space in the rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staš, Lubomír; Zajícová, Vendula; Georgiovská, Lucie; Souček, Kamil

    Krakow: Akademia górniczo-hutnicza Im. Stanislawa Staszica w Krakowie, 2015 - (Tomach, P.), s. 44-51 ISBN 978-83-930353-5-9. [Międzynarodowa Konferencja - TECHNIKI URABIANIA /9./. Krynica (PL), 29.09.2015-02.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : X-ray CT analysis * pore space * rocks Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  14. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory constitutes an important component of SKB's work to design, construct, and implement a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and to develop and test methods for characterisation of selected repository sites. The retention effect of the rock has been studied by tracer tests in the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) and the TRUE Block Scale (TRUE BS). These tests are supplemented by the new Long Term Diffusion Experiment (LTDE). During year 2000 the field experiments of TRUE BS (50 m scale) were completed and preparations made for the LTDE (migration through a fracture wall and into the rock), including boring of approximately 10 m deep hole with 300 mm diameter. Laboratory investigations have difficulties in simulating natural conditions and need supplementary field studies to support validation exercises. A special borehole probe, CHEMLAB, has therefore been designed for different kinds of validation experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in-situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. During 2000 migration experiments were made with actinides (Am, Np and Pu) in CHEMLAB 2, the simplified supplement to CHEMLAB 1. Colloids of nuclides as well as of bentonite might affect the migration of released radionuclides and a separate project was planned during 2000 to assess the existence, stability and mobility of colloids. The development of numerical modelling tools continues with the general objective to improve the numerical models in terms of flow and transport and to update the site-scale and laboratory scale models for the Aespoe HRL. The Matrix Fluid Chemistry project aims at determining the origin and age of matrix fluids and the experiment has been designed to sample matrix fluids from predetermined, isolated borehole sections by specialised equipment. The Aespoe HRL also has the task to demonstrate and perform full scale tests of the function of different components of

  15. Spectroscopy of Moses Rock Kimberlite Diatreme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.; Mustard, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of remote sensing data (Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy (AIS), NS001, Zeiss IR-photographs) were obtained for the Moses Rock kimberlite dike in southern Utah. The goal is to identify and characterize the mantle derived mafic component in such volcanic features. The Zeiss and NS001 images provide information on the regional setting and allow units of the dike to be distinguished from surrounding material. A potential unmapped satellite dike was identified. The AIS data provide characterizing information of the surface composition of the dike. Serpentized olivine-bearing soils are (tentatively) identified from the AIS spectra for a few areas within the dike.

  16. Rock stress measurements in Stripa Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock stress measurements at 340 m levels of the Stripa Mine have been carried out with the Leeman tri-axial equipment. The largest principel stress is found to be 20.0 MPa and directed parallel with the strike of the granite. The intermediate principal stress is 11.5 MPa and directed almost horizontal and perpendicular to the contact. The minor principel stress has a magnitude of 5.4 MPa. The deduced vertical stress is approximately of the same value as can be theoretically calculated. (author)

  17. The state of stress in British rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When designing underground works, it is necessary to take account of not only the vertical stresses arising predictably from the weight of the rock overhead, but also horizontal stresses which may vary from one direction to another as a result of past tectonic action. This report discussed the techniques that have been used to measure such stresses. Few determinations have been made in Great Britain, so it has been necessary to augment what little is known by reference to fault systems, relying on correlations between the measured magnitude and direction of maximum horizontal stress with local tectonic history. This has enabled general conclusions to be reached for Great Britain. (author)

  18. Water flow characteristics of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been worked out within the project 'Groundwater flow and dispersion processes in fractured rock' supported by the National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) in Sweden, dnr 96/85. This project is attached to the safety problems involved in the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the report is to give a survey of the knowledge of fracture characteristics and to discuss this knowledge in relation to the modelling of flow and dispersion of radioactive substances in the fractures

  19. Memory-Efficient Onboard Rock Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Michael C.; Thompson, David R.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; deGranville, Charles K.

    2013-01-01

    Rockster-MER is an autonomous perception capability that was uploaded to the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in December 2009. This software provides the vision front end for a larger software system known as AEGIS (Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science), which was recently named 2011 NASA Software of the Year. As the first step in AEGIS, Rockster-MER analyzes an image captured by the rover, and detects and automatically identifies the boundary contours of rocks and regions of outcrop present in the scene. This initial segmentation step reduces the data volume from millions of pixels into hundreds (or fewer) of rock contours. Subsequent stages of AEGIS then prioritize the best rocks according to scientist- defined preferences and take high-resolution, follow-up observations. Rockster-MER has performed robustly from the outset on the Mars surface under challenging conditions. Rockster-MER is a specially adapted, embedded version of the original Rockster algorithm ("Rock Segmentation Through Edge Regrouping," (NPO- 44417) Software Tech Briefs, September 2008, p. 25). Although the new version performs the same basic task as the original code, the software has been (1) significantly upgraded to overcome the severe onboard re source limitations (CPU, memory, power, time) and (2) "bulletproofed" through code reviews and extensive testing and profiling to avoid the occurrence of faults. Because of the limited computational power of the RAD6000 flight processor on Opportunity (roughly two orders of magnitude slower than a modern workstation), the algorithm was heavily tuned to improve its speed. Several functional elements of the original algorithm were removed as a result of an extensive cost/benefit analysis conducted on a large set of archived rover images. The algorithm was also required to operate below a stringent 4MB high-water memory ceiling; hence, numerous tricks and strategies were introduced to reduce the memory footprint. Local filtering

  20. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  1. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  2. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Aespoe HRL is located in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create opportunities for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. A summary of the work performed at Aespoe HRL during 2009 is given below. Geoscience Geoscientific research is a basic activity at Aespoe HRL. The aim of the current studies is to develop geoscientific models of the Aespoe HRL and increase the understanding of the rock mass properties as well as knowledge of applicable methods of measurement. A main task within the geoscientific field is the development of the Aespoe Site Descriptive Model (SDM) integrating information from the different fields. The main activities in the geoscientific fields have been: (1) Geology evaluation of geological mapping techniques leading to the decision to develop a SKB mapping system and finalization of the mapping of rock surfaces in the new tunnel, (2) Hydrogeology monitoring and storage of data in the computerised Hydro Monitoring System, (3) Geochemistry sampling of groundwater in the yearly campaign and for specific experiments and (4) Rock Mechanics finalised the field tests on thermally-induced spalling in deposition holes and evaluated the effect of counterforce in the deposition holes. Natural barriers At Aespoe HRL

  3. Geophysical methods for evaluation of plutonic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geophysical methods are systematically described according to the physical principle and operational mode of each method, the type of information produced, limitations of a technical and/or economic nature, and the applicability of the method to rock-mass evaluation at Research Areas of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The geophysical methods fall into three categories: (1) airborne and other reconnaissance surveys, (2) detailed or surface (ground) surveys, and (3) borehole or subsurface surveys. The possible roles of each method in the site-screening and site-evaluation processes of disposal vault site selection are summarized

  4. Laboratory rock mechanics testing manual. Public draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standardized laboratory rock mechanics testing procedures have been prepared for use in the National Terminal Waste Storage Program. The procedures emphasize equipment performance specifications, documentation and reporting, and Quality Assurance acceptance criteria. Sufficient theoretical background is included to allow the user to perform the necessary data reduction. These procedures incorporate existing standards when possible, otherwise they represent the current state-of-the-art. Maximum flexibility in equipment design has been incorporated to allow use of this manual by existing groups and to encourage future improvements

  5. Permeability of rock salt - theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the nuclear repository Morsleben (ERAM), Germany, various sealing system have been designed. One element of these sealing concepts is the sealing of the shafts of the repository. An essential condition for the design of an effective shaft seal is the knowledge of the permeability in the disturbed rock zone that has developed around the shafts. For this purpose, permeability tests have been conducted in situ. This article deals with the test equipment and its investigation in the laboratory, with the theoretic basis of the interpretation of test results as well as with the carrying out and interpretation of selected in-situ-permeability tests. (orig.)

  6. Cultura rock: sujetos "codeando" su lugar

    OpenAIRE

    Vicentini, Leila

    2010-01-01

    El interés por comprender los modos en que los jóvenes se relacionan con la música en la ciudad de La Plata nos ubica en la dimensión de la cultura rock, uno de los fenómenos más notorios de las culturas contemporáneas urbanas. Este artículo propone recorrer las principales vertientes teóricas de las ciencias sociales que, desde el campo de los estudios de la comunicación y la cultura, permiten proponer una perspectiva epistemológica para indagar en las subjetividades juveniles y los consumos...

  7. A case of misconstrued Rock Military Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The motives behind the bona fide uniform derivation represented by The Rolling Stones lead, Mick Jagger, in his white 'frock-dress' worn in 1969 are complex. Jagger wore the white voile, Michael Fish-designed frock at the July 5 memorial concert in Hyde Park, just 48 hours after the death of fell...... Richard, Mick Jagger and Brian Jones back in 1967), Jagger's wearing the costume on the occasion of a memorial concert for Jones was also meant to be symbolic, drawing on English romanticism in a special pleading on behalf of the rock star as a persecuted artist....

  8. Modelling of THM processes in rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaheta, Radim; Kohut, Roman; Neytcheva, M.; Starý, Jiří

    Vol. 2. Ostrava : Ústav geoniky AV ČR, v.v Ostrava, 2007 - (Kožušníková, A.), s. 49-55 ISBN 978-80-86407-18-0. [Geonics 2007. Ostrava (CZ), 23.05.2007-25.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Grant ostatní: Uppsala Univ.(SE) UPPMAX project p2004009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : mathematical modelling methods * THM processes in rocks * waste disposal Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Alkaline rocks and the occurrence of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many alkaline complexes contain uranium and other minerals in low concentrations and are regarded as constituting valuable potential reserves. Certain complex metallurgical problems, however, remain to be solved. Alkaline rocks occur in a number of forms and environments and it is noted that they are generated during periods of geological quiescence emplaced mainly in stable aseismic areas. Many occur along the extensions of oceanic transform faults beneath the continental crust and the application of this concept to areas not currently known to host alkaline complexes may prove useful in identifying potential target areas for prospecting operations

  10. Rock mechanics models evaluation report: Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the evaluation of the thermal and thermomechanical models and codes for repository subsurface design and for design constraint analysis. The evaluation was based on a survey of the thermal and thermomechanical codes and models that are applicable to subsurface design, followed by a Kepner-Tregoe (KT) structured decision analysis of the codes and models. The end result of the KT analysis is a balanced, documented recommendation of the codes and models which are best suited to conceptual subsurface design for the salt repository. The various laws for modeling the creep of rock salt are also reviewed in this report. 37 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  11. AeSPoe HARD ROCK LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (AEHRL) has been constructed in virgin bedrock as part of the development of a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden, the role being to provide input to the performance assessment, to test engineered barrier systems and to develop and refine full scale methods and machines for construction and operation of the real repository. The AEHRL extends down to 460 m depth with access via both ramp and shaft. Work in the laboratory has been separated into 4 different stage goals: (1) Verification of site investigation methods. (2) Development of detailed investigation methodology. (3) Testing of models for description of the barrier function of the host rock. (4) Demonstration of technology for and function of important parts of the repository system Stage goals 1 and 2 were in focus during the period 1986-95 and are now completed. Stage goal 1 concerns investigations carried out from ground surface and stage goal 2 investigations carried out underground, in this case during excavation of the ramp. The present work is focused on the two operative stage goals 3 and 4. The activities on barrier function of the host rock comprises primarily in-situ tests with tracer migration in natural fractures and migration of actinides in small samples of rock or bentonite inside a chemical laboratory probe installed in a borehole. The data collected from the tests are used for model development and verification. The demonstration of technology includes studies of engineered barriers and comprises tests of copper stability, bentonite buffer, backfill, plugging and practical development of the main disposal sequences. Up today five full scale deposition holes with buffer and canister, and one full-scale test of backfill and plugging have been installed. The prototype for the deposition machine is in operation. The work is conducted in an international environment and altogether eight organizations from seven countries besides Sweden take

  12. The rock mechanical stability of the VLJ repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to determine the rock mechanical stability around the VLJ repository based on the rock mechanical monitoring and rock mechanical modeling. Rock mechanical calculations were made in order to calculate the rock mass displacements and to analyze the stability around the VLJ repository The calculations were performed with three diiferent methods: continuum finite difference code FLAC, distinct element code UDEC and three dimensional distinct element code 3DEC. The first analyses were based on preliminary site investigations. The final modeling was based on investigations and rock mechanical monitoring done during the excavation. Some sensitive analyses were also performed. The modelled rock mass behaviour and the measured behaviour are generally close to each other. Both results show that the VLJ repository is rock mechanically stable. The modelled displacements and stresses were small enough to cause no instability around the rock caverns. The measured values do not indicate any discontinuous deformations like block movements or joint slip. The measured displacements in the extensometers during excavation indicates that the rock mass is even stiffer than anticipated

  13. An electrostatic beam rocking system on the Surrey nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of two sets of magnetic dipoles, producing opposite fields, to rock a focused MeV ion beam over the surface of a crystalline sample is now well established in several nuclear microprobe laboratories. Such a 'beam rocking' system allows ion channeling analysis from micron-size regions of the sample to be measured, with a beam displacement over the sample surface as small as a few microns, and no requirements for an automated goniometer. While magnetic beam rocking systems are ideal for many applications, they are limited in the speed at which the beam can be rocked in angle owing to hysteresis effects. This may also cause problems of non-reproducibility of the beam displacement on a micron scale. Also, heavier ions are more difficult to rock through a given angle using a magnetic beam rocking system, whereas an electrostatic beam rocking system gives a rocking angle which is independent of the ion mass. This paper describes the construction and uses of a fast electrostatic beam rocking system, which uses two sets of high voltage plates driven in opposition at high frequencies. Ion optics simulations are used to model the performance of the system. The optics of this beam rocking system, in which both sets of deflection plates are located before the quadruplet lens formation are discussed. The uses of this system to rapidly image the location of crystal planes and axes, and to carry out rapid channeling analysis are presented

  14. Energy analysis for damage and catastrophic failure of rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development history and current state of studies on the characteristics and mechanisms of deformation and failure of rock materials were briefly reviewed from the viewpoint of energy.The main scope and the achievable objectives of the energy-based research system were expatiated.It was validated by experiments that the damage process of rocks can be well described by the rock damage evolution equation established based on energy dissipation.It was found from the uniaxial compression and biaxial compression tests that only a small proportion of the total input energy in hard rocks is dissipated before peak load and a large proportion in soft rocks is dissipated before peak load.For both hard and soft rocks,the energy dissipated after peak load accounts for a greater proportion.More energy would be required for rock failure under equal biaxial compression than under unequal biaxial compression.The total absorbed energy is different for rock failure under high-rate loading and low-rate loading.More fragmented failure pattern usually corresponds to higher energy absorption.The mesoscopic analysis on the damage and failure of bedded salt rocks showed that the energy dissipation is prominent and the total absorbed energy for rock failure is low when cracks propagate in the weak mud interlayer while it is contrary when cracks propagate in the salt rock.The energy accumulation,transfer,dissipation and release during the failure process of tunnel with impending failure under disturbance were analyzed theoretically based on the elastoplastic mechanics theory.Furthermore,the spatial distribution of energy dissipation and energy release of fractured rocks under unloading was simulated numerically.It was demonstrated that energy is likely to be released from the weakest surface under compression,which triggers the global failure of rocks.

  15. Mechanical changes in thawing permafrost rocks and their influence on rock stability at the Zugspitze summit, Germany - a research concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamot, Philipp; Scandroglio, Riccardo; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    During the last century, alpine permafrost warmed up by 0.5 to 0.8 °C in the upper decameters. Its degradation can influence the stability of rock slopes in alpine environments. An increasing number of rockfalls and rockslides of all magnitudes are reported to originate from permafrost-affected rock faces which reveal massive ice at their detachment scarps after failure. Discontinuity patterns and their mechanical properties present a key control of rock slope stability. These fractures are considered to experience considerable mechanical changes during transition from frozen to unfrozen state: the shear resistance of rocks is reduced in terms of decreased critical fracture toughness of intact rock bridges and shear strength; compressive strength and tensile strength of the intact rock are reduced in the same way. The impact of rising rock temperature on rock-mechanical properties which control early stages of destabilization remains poorly understood. In this study we combine rock-mechanical testing in the laboratory with geotechnical, kinematic and geophysical monitoring at the Zugspitze summit, Germany, to investigate the influence of thawing rock on its rock-mechanical properties focusing on mechanisms of destabilization along discontinuities. Our investigations will contribute to a better rock-ice-mechanical process understanding of degrading permafrost rocks. To assess stability conditions at the Zugspitze summit we conduct field work at an unstable area of about 104 m3 of rock at the crest at 2885 m a.s.l. that is affected by degrading permafrost. This is indicated by a persistent ice filled cave with direct contact to the area of instability. Our preliminary work consists of i) continuous and discontinuous fracture displacement measurements since 2009 which reveal deformation rates of 0.06 to 1.7 cm/year, ii) electrical resistivity (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) in the August of 2014 and iii) uniaxial compressive strength and tensile

  16. Effect of crustal heterogeneities and effective rock strength on the formation of HP and UHP rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuber, Georg; Kaus, Boris; Schmalholz, Stefan; White, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The formation of high pressure and ultra-high pressure rocks has been controversially discussed in recent years. Most existing petrological interpretations assume that pressure in the Earth is lithostatic and therefore HP and UHP rocks have to come from great depth, which usually involves going down a subduction channel and being exhumed again. Yet, an alternative explanation points out that pressure in the lithosphere is often non-lithostatic and can be either smaller or larger than lithostatic as a function of location and time. Whether this effect is tectonically significant or not depends on the magnitude of non-lithostatic pressure, and as a result a number of researchers have recently performed numerical simulations to address this. Somewhat disturbingly, they obtained widely differing results with some claiming that overpressures as large as a GPa can occur (Schmalholz et al. 2014), whereas others show that overpressures of exhumed rocks are generally less than 20% and thus insignificant (Li et al. 2010; Burov et al. 2014). In order to understand where these discrepancies come from, we reproduce the simulations of Li et al (2010) of a typical subduction and collision scenario, using an independently developed numerical code (MVEP2). For the same model setup and parameters, we confirm the earlier results of Li et al. (2010) and obtain no more than ~20% overpressure in exhumed rocks of the subduction channel. Yet, a critical assumption in their models is that the subducted crust is laterally homogeneous and that it has a low effective friction angle that is less than 7o. The friction angle of (dry) rocks is experimentally well-constrained to be around 30o, and low effective friction angles require, for example, high-fluid pressures. Whereas high fluid pressures might exist in the sediment-rich upper crust, they are likely to be much lower or absent in the lower crust from which melt has been extracted or in rocks that underwent a previous orogenic cycle. In a

  17. Zonal disintegration of rocks around underground workings. Part II. Rock fracture simulated in equivalent materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, E.I.; Fisenko, G.L.; Kurlenya, M.V.; Oparin, V.N.; Reva, V.N.; Glushikhin, F.P.; Rozenbaum, M.A.; Tropp, E.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.S.

    1987-05-01

    For a detailed testing of the effects discovered in situ, analysis of the patterns and origination conditions of fractured rock zones inside the bed around workings, and ways explosions affect the surrounding rocks, a program and a method of study on models of equivalent materials have been developed. The method of simulation on two- and three-dimensional models involved building in a solid or fissured medium a tunnel of a circular or arched cross section. The tests were done for elongate adit-type workings. At the first stage, three models were tested with different working support systems: anchor supports, concrete-spray supports and no supports. Zone formation is shown and described. Tests were continued on two groups of three-dimensional models to bring the model closer to in situ conditions. The presence of gaping cracks and heavily fractured zones deep in the interior of the bed with a quasicylindrical symmetry indicates that the common views concerning the stressed-strained state of rocks around underground workings are at variance with the actual patterns of deformation and destruction of rocks near the workings in deep horizons.

  18. Ring complexes and related rocks in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, J. R.

    Over 625 igneous complexes throughout Africa and Arabia have been selected and classified on the basis of petrographic association and chronology into six broad age groups forming 29 provinces. The groups range from Mid-Proterozoic to Tertiary and include gabbro, granite, syenite, foid syenite and carbonatite plutonic rocks, the majority in the form of ring-dykes, cone-sheets, plugs, circular intrusions, and their associated extrusive phases. Pan-African late or post-orogenic complexes (720-490 Ma) are common in the Arabian-Nubian and Tuareg shields of north Africa originating from subduction zone derived magmatism. Anorogenic complexes in Egypt, NE and central Sudan, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaïre-Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Angola span 550 to 50 Ma and are dominantly alkali granites and foid syenites. Many groups occur as en-echelon bands within linear arrays, and show migrating centres of intrusion in variable directions. In W. Africa there was a progressive shift of emplacement southwards during early Ordovician to Mid-Cretaceous times. Distribution patterns suggest thatdeep seated features, such as shear zones associated with lithospheric plate movements,controlled melting, and the resultant location of the complexes. Economic mineralization is not widespread in the rocks of the African ring complexes and is mainly restricted to small deposits of Sn, W, F, U and Nb.

  19. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  20. Radon in groundwater in magmatic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the specifics of groundwater in magmatic rocks is a high level of radioactive components, such as radon and radium. First of all, radon has a negative influence on human health and leads to ecological and geological problems for territories with high levels of radon in groundwater. Radon-rich water has the highest therapeutic effect among curative mineral waters. Radon water is widespread in the world and is used in spas and sanatoriums very actively. Thirdly, radon is a very informative indicator of hydrogeological and geological processes. The Baltic Shield is the region with a high level of radon concentration. In Russia, the fi ssured water of the Baltic Shield is spread in Karelia, Murmansk and St.Petersburg region. Many of samples contain high levels of radon (200 Bq/l), sometimes more than 1700 Bq/l. Water from uranium-rich rock with maximum concentration of radon, e.g. uranium-rich granites and pegmatite, commonly have radon concentrations in excess of 500 Bq/l. The same situation as in Karelia can also be observed in Finland. Thus, the geochemical properties of fissured groundwater and their isotopic composition could be useful identificator to research the and to analyze the time of water circulation. (orig.)

  1. FAME: Software for analysing rock microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Daniel M.; Peternell, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Determination of rock microstructures leads to a better understanding of the formation and deformation of polycrystalline solids. Here, we present FAME (Fabric Analyser based Microstructure Evaluation), an easy-to-use MATLAB®-based software for processing datasets recorded by an automated fabric analyser microscope. FAME is provided as a MATLAB®-independent Windows® executable with an intuitive graphical user interface. Raw data from the fabric analyser microscope can be automatically loaded, filtered and cropped before analysis. Accurate and efficient rock microstructure analysis is based on an advanced user-controlled grain labelling algorithm. The preview and testing environments simplify the determination of appropriate analysis parameters. Various statistic and plotting tools allow a graphical visualisation of the results such as grain size, shape, c-axis orientation and misorientation. The FAME2elle algorithm exports fabric analyser data to an elle (modelling software)-supported format. FAME supports batch processing for multiple thin section analysis or large datasets that are generated for example during 2D in-situ deformation experiments. The use and versatility of FAME is demonstrated on quartz and deuterium ice samples.

  2. Coupled triaxial testing of rock salt specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an apparatus that permits simultaneous measurement of several coupled geomechanical and geophysical parameters on intact specimens of rock salt saturated with brine and subjected to triaxial test conditions. Representative experimental results are presented for hydraulic permeability, electrical resistivity, and p-wave velocity which were determined while the test specimen equilibrated at a confining pressure of 6.2 MPa (900 psi) and a pore pressure of 2.75 MPa (400 psi), during axial loading and deformation. The results are cross-correlated with the applied (differential) axial stress. The electrical resistivity measurements involved phase-sensitive detection with a 4-terminal electrode configuration, thus permitting determination of absolute values as well as relative changes in electrical resistivity of the salt. The extremely low permeability of rock salt and corrosive nature of saturated brine required development of special sample preparation and jacketing techniques, as well as wetted apparatus parts made from Hastelloy, and the use of the transient pulse technique for permeability determinations

  3. Digital image processing applied Rock Art tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero Ruiz, Ignacio

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Adequate graphic recording has been one of the main objectives of rock art research. Photography has increased its role as a documentary technique. Now, digital image and its treatment allows new ways to observe the details of the figures and to develop a recording procedure which is as, or more, accurate than direct tracing. This technique also avoid deterioration of the rock paintings. The mathematical basis of this method is also presented.

    La correcta documentación del arte rupestre ha sido una preocupación constante por parte de los investigadores. En el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas de registro, directas e indirectas, la fotografía ha ido adquiriendo mayor protagonismo. La imagen digital y su tratamiento permiten nuevas posibilidades de observación de las figuras representadas y, en consecuencia, una lectura mediante la realización de calcos indirectos de tanta o mayor fiabilidad que la observación directa. Este sistema evita los riesgos de deterioro que provocan los calcos directos. Se incluyen las bases matemáticas que sustentan el método.

  4. Rock mechanics contributions from defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made at illustrating the many contributions to rock mechanics from US defense programs, over the past 30-plus years. Large advances have been achieved in the technology-base area covering instrumentation, material properties, physical modeling, constitutive relations and numerical simulations. In the applications field, much progress has been made in understanding and being able to predict rock mass behavior related to underground explosions, cratering, projectile penetration, and defense nuclear waste storage. All these activities stand on their own merit as benefits to national security. But their impact is even broader, because they have found widespread applications in the non-defense sector; to name a few: the prediction of the response of underground structures to major earthquakes, the physics of the earth's interior at great depths, instrumentation for monitoring mine blasting, thermo-mechanical instrumentation useful for civilian nuclear waste repositories, dynamic properties of earthquake faults, and transient large-strain numerical modeling of geological processes, such as diapirism. There is not pretense that this summary is exhaustive. It is meant to highlight success stories representative of DOE and DOD geotechnical activities, and to point to remaining challenges

  5. Rock mechanics contributions from defense programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    An attempt is made at illustrating the many contributions to rock mechanics from US defense programs, over the past 30-plus years. Large advances have been achieved in the technology-base area covering instrumentation, material properties, physical modeling, constitutive relations and numerical simulations. In the applications field, much progress has been made in understanding and being able to predict rock mass behavior related to underground explosions, cratering, projectile penetration, and defense nuclear waste storage. All these activities stand on their own merit as benefits to national security. But their impact is even broader, because they have found widespread applications in the non-defense sector; to name a few: the prediction of the response of underground structures to major earthquakes, the physics of the earth`s interior at great depths, instrumentation for monitoring mine blasting, thermo-mechanical instrumentation useful for civilian nuclear waste repositories, dynamic properties of earthquake faults, and transient large-strain numerical modeling of geological processes, such as diapirism. There is not pretense that this summary is exhaustive. It is meant to highlight success stories representative of DOE and DOD geotechnical activities, and to point to remaining challenges.

  6. Nitrogen determination in micas of metamorphic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micas are minerals that provide large amounts of information regarding geological processes, because of the sensitivity of their chemical composition to temperature, pressure and deformation of rocks in which they form. Rocks under analysis are formed of different minerals with variable grain size. Mica grain size may vary between 5 and 10 μm and approximately correspond to the chemical formula (Si3.2Al0.8)O10(Al1.9Fe0.05Mg0.1)(OH)2(K0.75Na0.05), being distinguishable from other minerals because of their composition and their morphology in secondary electron images and specially backscattered electron (BSE) images. NH4, when present, would partially substitute K in the previous formula. In some cases NH4-rich micas (tobelites) have been described coexisting with the corresponding K-rich micas, but the actual NH4 content of normal K-rich micas is still unknown. Low N content makes necessary to use nuclear reactions such as 14N(d, pγ)15N at 1.4 MeV and its cascade of intense γ-rays. For the quantification and localization of nitrogen on the surface of the samples, PIGE analysis was carried out in the vacuum microprobe line of the CNA, together with simultaneous micro-RBS and micro-PIXE analyses, giving a more comprehensive picture of sample structure and composition.

  7. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The Aespoe HRL was opened in 1994 as a research centre and underground laboratory. The experiments performed in Aespoe HRL are related to the rock, its properties, and in situ environmental conditions. Tests of models for groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical/biological processes are some of the main purposes of the Aespoe HRL. The programme includes projects with the aim to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of different models and to develop and test methods for determination of parameters required as input to conceptual and numerical models. The retardation in rock is studied at different experiment scales in a programme called Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE). The Long Term Diffusion Experiment constitutes a complement to performed diffusion and sorption laboratory experiments, and is a natural extension of the experiments conducted as part of the TRUE experiments. Radionuclide retention experiments are carried out with the aim to confirm result from laboratory experiments in situ, where conditions representative for the properties of groundwater at repository depth prevail. In CHEMLAB 1 two kinds of experiments to study the influence of radiolysis on the mobility of technetium in bentonite were started in the end of 2002. Experiments to study migration of actinides in natural fractures in drill cores are being carried out in CHELMAB 2. The findings of potential transport of solutes by colloids and access to more sensitive instruments for colloid measurements motivated a Colloid Project at Aespoe HRL. There are presently four specific microbial process areas identified that are of importance for proper repository functions and that are studied in the Microbe Project. The process areas are; biomobilisation of radionuclides, bioimmobilisation of radionuclides, microbial effects on the chemical stability, and microbial corrosion of copper. The main objectives of the Matrix Fluid Chemistry experiment are to understand the

  8. GRAPHITIZATION OF METASEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN THE WESTERN KONYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin KURT

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic-Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks in the study area are metacarbonate, metachert, metapelite, metasandstone and metaconglomerate. Graphite layers are 1cm to 2m thick, extend laterally for tens of meters and are intercalated with metasedimentary rocks. Generally, the graphite is black in color, with a well developed cleavage which is concordant with the cleavage of the host rocks. In addition, the crystal and flake graphites formed in metasedimentary rocks are mostly aligned parallel to the cleavage planes. These metamorphic rocks are subjected to shearing and granulation providing structural control for the development of graphite. It was probably this phenomenon that first led to emphasize the relationship between graphite and metasedimentary rocks. Graphite mineralization has been controlled by bedding, microfractures and granulations. Briefly, the metamorphism has converted carbonaceous matter into graphite .

  9. Rock Art Research in Southeast Asia: A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Hidalgo Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rock art has been known in Southeast Asia since the early 19th century, but relatively little attention has been paid to this class of archaeological material. This paper attempts to correct the perception that there is little rock art known in the region; especially in the light of intensified research efforts over the last 30 years that have led to the discovery of numerous new sites. Over a thousand rock art sites are known in the form of rock paintings, petroglyphs and megaliths in Southeast Asia, and their distribution across the various territories are uneven. This paper summarises the state of rock art research in Southeast Asia and discusses some of the challenges of studying rock art in this region, research trends and new finds from recent research.

  10. Plagioclase twin laws in lunar highland rocks - Possible petrogenetic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowty, E.; Keil, K.; Prinz, M.

    1974-01-01

    Plagioclases in different types of lunar highland rocks (all highly feldspathic) are twinned according to different laws and in different styles. Carlsbad and Carlsbad-albite twins, presumed to be growth twins, occur mainly in rocks which show igneous texture, and which have not been severely brecciated. These two twin laws appear to be absent from cataclastic rocks, including cataclastic anorthosite, possibly because the original twins were preferentially broken up in cataclasis (the composition plane being a plane of weakness). Pericline and lamellar albite twins, presumed to be deformation twins (except for some albite growth twins) occur in all types of rocks, and obvious deformation features, such as bending of lamellae, are well shown in many cataclastic rocks. Surprisingly, some Carlsbad and Carlsbad-albite twins are found in rocks with granoblastic texture, which presumably recrystallized in the solid state.

  11. Latest progress of soft rock mechanics and engineering in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchao He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The progress of soft rock mechanics and associated technology in China is basically accompanied by the development of mining engineering and the increasing disasters of large rock deformation during construction of underground engineering. In this regard, Chinese scholars proposed various concepts and classification methods for soft rocks in terms of engineering practices. The large deformation mechanism of engineering soft rocks is to be understood through numerous experiments; and thus a coupled support theory for soft rock roadways is established, followed by the development of a new support material, i.e. the constant resistance and large deformation bolt/anchor with negative Poisson's ratio effect, and associated control technology. Field results show that large deformation problems related to numbers of engineering cases can be well addressed with this new technology, an effective way for similar soft rock deformation control.

  12. A Refined Model for Solid Particle Rock Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momber, A. W.

    2016-02-01

    A procedure for the estimation of distribution parameters of a Weibull distribution model K 1 = f( K Ic 12/4 / σ C 23/4 ) for solid particle erosion, as recently suggested in Rock Mech Rock Eng, doi: 10.1007/s00603-014-0658-x, 2014, is derived. The procedure is based on examinations of elastic-plastically responding rocks (rhyolite, granite) and plastically responding rocks (limestone, schist). The types of response are quantified through SEM inspections of eroded surfaces. Quantitative numbers for the distribution parameter K 1 are calculated for 30 rock materials, which cover a wide range of mechanical properties. The ranking according to the parameter K 1 is related to qualitative rock classification schemes. A modified proposal for the erosion of schist due to solid particle impingement at normal incidence is introduced.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of GSI based mechanical characterization of rock mass

    CERN Document Server

    Ván, P

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the rock mechanical and rock engineering designs and calculations are frequently based on Geological Strength Index (GSI) method, because it is the only system that provides a complete set of mechanical properties for design purpose. Both the failure criteria and the deformation moduli of the rock mass can be calculated with GSI based equations, which consists of the disturbance factor, as well. The aim of this paper is the sensitivity analysis of GSI and disturbance factor dependent equations that characterize the mechanical properties of rock masses. The survey of the GSI system is not our purpose. The results show that the rock mass strength calculated by the Hoek-Brown failure criteria and both the Hoek-Diederichs and modified Hoek-Diederichs deformation moduli are highly sensitive to changes of both the GSI and the D factor, hence their exact determination is important for the rock engineering design.

  14. Elastic wave velocities and thermal diffusivities of Apollo 14 rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, H.; Fujii, N.; Hamano, Y.; Osako, M.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional- and shear-wave velocities of Apollo 14 lunar rocks 14311,50 and 14313,27 as functions of pressure up to 10 kb and the thermal diffusivity of sample 14311,50 over the temperature range 100 to 550 K have been measured. Both samples 14311 and 14313 are polymict fragmental rocks. The overall elastic and anelastic behavior of the Apollo 14 samples are similar to those of Apollo 11 and 12 samples; low velocity and low Q at pressures below 1 kb and rapid increase of velocity and Q with pressure are also typical of the Apollo 14 rocks. The available data of P- and S-wave velocities of lunar rocks show that Birch's law holds for the lunar rocks. The thermal diffusivity of a lunar rock in vacuum is found to be significantly lower than that in air at one atmospheric pressure.

  15. Why is there no Universal Law for Rock Wall Retreat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautblatter, Michael; Moore, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Comparing studies of rock slope erosion and soil slope erosion, we find no governing equation similar to the universal soil loss equation for rock slopes. Rock masses in contact with the atmosphere are affected by a suite of physical, chemical and biological processes which degrade intact rock, creating new fractures and extending existing flaws. Complex feedbacks must be explored between changing slope boundary conditions, stress redistribution and fracturing, and weathering by external mechanisms. Rock slope systems are distinguished from soil slope systems by the fundamental nonlinear properties of rock masses. Rock masses represent discontinuous, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and nonlinearly elastic materials, and contain a record of millions of years of thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. The origin and evolution of rock mass strength over time can significantly affect bedrock erodibility and engineering performance, the study of which represents a major chance and challenge for the geoscience community. The imprint of THMC processes on rock properties begins with the geological genesis of rocks; however, a significant degree of material behaviour evolves coincidently with the exhumation and evolution of topography. Thus, fracture generation has been investigated as the result of the environmental stress history in geology and geomorphology, partly modulated by incision and topographic stress evolution. Resultant fracture patterns control the degree of discontinuity heterogeneity, anisotropy, and nonlinear mechanical behaviour over millions of years. Here we discuss important novel conceptual approaches to temporally and spatially decipher nonlinear effects on rock slope erosion including incision-related topographic stresses, rock fatigue, paraglacial and paracratering effects etc. and how they could contribute to a more uniform understanding of rockwall retreat.

  16. Failure Behavior and Constitutive Model of Weakly Consolidated Soft Rock

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-ming Wang; Zeng-hui Zhao; Yong-ji Wang; Xin Gao

    2013-01-01

    Mining areas in western China are mainly located in soft rock strata with poor bearing capacity. In order to make the deformation failure mechanism and strength behavior of weakly consolidated soft mudstone and coal rock hosted in Ili No. 4 mine of Xinjiang area clear, some uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were carried out according to the samples of rocks gathered in the studied area, respectively. Meanwhile, a damage constitutive model which considered the initial damage was establis...

  17. L’Ontologie du rock de Roger Pouivet

    OpenAIRE

    Guesdon, Maël

    2010-01-01

    Dans « L’Ontologie du rock », Roger Pouivet définit ontologiquement les œuvres rock comme enregistrements-artefacts. Nous nous proposons d’examiner les présupposés théoriques implicites sur lesquels se fonde cette thèse et de souligner quelques interrogations concernant ses choix épistémologiques et la détermination de son objet, le rock.

  18. Cuttability Assessment of Selected Rocks Through Different Brittleness Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Arif Emre; Gokay, M. Kemal

    2016-04-01

    Prediction of cuttability is a critical issue for successful execution of tunnel or mining excavation projects. Rock cuttability is also used to determine specific energy, which is defined as the work done by the cutting force to excavate a unit volume of yield. Specific energy is a meaningful inverse measure of cutting efficiency, since it simply states how much energy must be expended to excavate a unit volume of rock. Brittleness is a fundamental rock property and applied in drilling and rock excavation. Brittleness is one of the most crucial rock features for rock excavation. For this reason, determination of relations between cuttability and brittleness will help rock engineers. This study aims to estimate the specific energy from different brittleness values of rocks by means of simple and multiple regression analyses. In this study, rock cutting, rock property, and brittleness index tests were carried out on 24 different rock samples with different strength values, including marble, travertine, and tuff, collected from sites around Konya Province, Turkey. Four previously used brittleness concepts were evaluated in this study, denoted as B 1 (ratio of compressive to tensile strength), B 2 (ratio of the difference between compressive and tensile strength to the sum of compressive and tensile strength), B 3 (area under the stress-strain line in relation to compressive and tensile strength), and B 9 = S 20, the percentage of fines (University of Science and Technology (NTNU) model as well as B 9p (B 9 as predicted from uniaxial compressive, Brazilian tensile, and point load strengths of rocks using multiple regression analysis). The results suggest that the proposed simple regression-based prediction models including B 3, B 9, and B 9p outperform the other models including B 1 and B 2 and can be used for more accurate and reliable estimation of specific energy.

  19. Design approaches for grouting of rock fractures; Theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghoobi Rafi, Jalaleddin

    2013-01-01

    Currently, cement base grout is used widely for sealing of the rock fractures in order to decrease the permeability of rock mass. Grouting procedure is one of the main tasks in cycle of rock excavation. In addition, huge amount of grout should be used during dam construction in order to seal the bedding and embankment walls. Therefore, considering the effect of grouting in duration and cost of the project, improving the design methods seems essential. In successful grouting the goal is to ach...

  20. Erosion of clay-based grouts in simulated rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a laboratory study on the erosion of clay-based grouts in a simulated rock fracture and in a simulated rock fracture network. The apparatus specially constructed for these experiments and the testing procedure are described. The testing results have shown that a partially eroded clay-based grout may still be effective in sealing rock fractures and that the addition of cement in a clay grout can minimize erosion

  1. Evolving fracture arrays and associated changes in rock mass properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a boundary element technique, we relate changes in rock mass properties associated with an evolving fracture array by quantifying the effect of fracture network changes on rock mass strength and deformability. The growth of a crack array is modeled using a two-dimensional displacement discontinuity computer algorithm. During each iteration cycle, each crack in the network is evaluated against a propagation criterion, and changes in the elastic properties of the rock mass are monitored

  2. Connection of nuclear magnetic and infiltration parameters of porous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infiltration parameters of porous rocks are determined among others by the specific pore surface. In the case of the sandostones the nuclear magnetic behaviour of the water influx is also influenced by the specific surface of the pores. On this basis the nuclear magnetic and the infiltration parameters of the rocks can be brought into connection with each other. The paper deals with the rock-physics of the nuclear magnetic logging. (author)

  3. Controlling Effects of Surrounding Rock to Coal Seam Gas Occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Laibin Wang; Shiwen Zhang; Jinshan Shen; Zhongwen Zhang; Xiaotong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Surrounding rock of coal seam was one of the important factors to gas occurrence. The coal seam gas occurrence was studied by the index of roof strata thickness or sand content rate; we found that there were certain shortcomings. In order to reasonably evaluate the influence of coal seam surrounding rock on gas occurrence in Panji mining area, we quantitatively evaluated the effect of coal seam surrounding rock on gas occurrence by influence coefficient of roof strata thickness, and built si...

  4. Numerical modelling of tunnel construction in anisotropic foliated soft rock

    OpenAIRE

    Markovič, Jernej

    2009-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence on tunnelling in the anisotropic foliated soft rock. The excavation initiates stress redistribution around an opening and thus causes the deformation to occur. The numerical problem of the tunnel excavation was modelled in the Plaxis 2D code using different soil constitutive models for modelling the rock mass behaviour. A parametric study was performed to obtain the model response to alteration of the rock mass parameters. The analysis was divided int...

  5. Xenon NMR Measurements of Permeability and Tortuosity in Reservoir Rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, R.; Pavlin, T.; Rosen, M. S.; Mair, R. W.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we present measurements of permeability, effective porosity and tortuosity on a variety of rock samples using NMR/MRI of thermal and laser-polarized gas. Permeability and effective porosity are measured simultaneously using MRI to monitor the inflow of laser-polarized xenon into the rock core. Tortuosity is determined from measurements of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient using thermal xenon in sealed samples. The initial results from a limited number of rocks indicate inv...

  6. Numerical modelling investigation of rock mass behaviour under gravity dams

    OpenAIRE

    Alshkane, Younis Mustafa Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study of rock mass behaviour is a broad subject in the rock mechanics field which still needs more research and investigation, especially for geotechnical issues associated with dam construction. Since it is difficult to study rock mass behaviour at a large scale in the laboratory, the numerical modelling technique is an alternative method which can be used efficiently in this field. In this thesis two codes have been selected for this purpose. The first code was a continuum code FLAC (Fa...

  7. Determination of magnetic susceptibility of sedimentation rock in Java island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of magnetic susceptibility of sedimentation rock in java island. It has been done a research on detemlination of magnetic susceptibility of sedimentation and intrusion rock. A simple magnetic separation method was used to separate material with high contain magnetic mineral from the low contain magnetic mineral. Besides a data measurement from magnetic susceptibility and intensity there are also X-ray diffraction data available as suppolling data. The result shown that every material has magnetic mineral In it with different contain. And sedimentation rock has higher magnetic mineral than the intrusion rock

  8. EFFECTS OF ROCK BEHAVIOR AND STRESS CONDITIONON FIELD STRESS DETERMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.H.(Steve)Zou

    1995-01-01

    Non-consistency of stress results is often observed during field measurements. In some cases, even the measurements are made at the same location in a massive rockmass, the results can vary widely. In order to solve the problem, extensive research has been carried out to study the major factors which may affect stress determination. They include the rock behaviour and the stress state. For rocks showing non-isotropic behaviour, the values of Young's modulus and Poisson ratio vary with the orientation of loading and measurement. Stress condition in the rock affects the rock behaviour. Furthermore, the loading condition on rock samples during laboratory tests is different from in the field and therefore the determined elastic constants may not represent the field condition. In general, the Young's modulus may depend on the orientation, the loading path, the stress magnitude and the stress ratio. This paper examines in detail the effects of those factors, especially for rocks showing transversely isotropic behaviour. It is found that the discrepancy of stress results from fieldts in this type of rock is mainly due to over simplification of the rock behavior and inadequate use of elastic constants of the rock during stress calculation. A case study is given, which indicates the significance of these factors and demonstrates the proper procedure for stress calculation from

  9. Research on Complexity of Surface Undulating Shapes of Rock Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The surface undulating shapes of rock joints have been described qualitatively or experimental-quantitatively for a long time. The non-determined describing method can not fit quantitative evaluation of mechanical parameters of rock joints in engineering. In this paper, relative amplitude (RA) is chosen as a quantitative-describing index of surface measurement of 1 023 surface undulating curves which conducted by profile curve device(PCD). We discuss the nonuniformity,anisotropy and unhomogeneity of surface undulating shapes of joints. A new method that analyzes the complexity of surface undulating shapes of rock joints directional-statistically in various rock joints is also put forward.

  10. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  11. Alkaline volcanic rocks from the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Ruff, S.W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F., III; Herkenhoff, K.; Gellert, Ralf; Stockstill, K.R.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Crisp, J.A.; Christensen, P.R.; McCoy, T.J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M.

    2006-01-01

    Irvine, Backstay, and Wishstone are the type specimens for three classes of fine-grained or fragmental, relatively unaltered rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra, found as float on the flanks of the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt, trachybasalt, and tephrite, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. The texture of Wishstone is consistent with a pyroclastic origin, whereas Irvine and Backstay are lavas or possibly dike rocks. Chemical compositions of these rocks plot on or near liquid lines of descent for most elements calculated for Adirondack class rocks (olivine-rich basalts from the Gusev plains) at various pressures from 0.1 to 1.0 GPa. We infer that Wishstone-, Backstay-, and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by fractionation of primitive, oxidized basaltic magma similar to Adirondack-class rocks. The compositions of all these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. The fact that differentiated volcanic rocks were not encountered on the plains prior to ascending Husband Hill may suggest a local magma source for volcanism beneath Gusev crater. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Contrasting responses of Central Asian rock glaciers to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Annina; Kääb, Andreas; Roesch, Andrea; Bigler, Christof; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While the responses of Tien Shan glaciers--and glaciers elsewhere--to climatic changes are becoming increasingly well understood, this is less the case for permafrost in general and for rock glaciers in particular. We use a novel approach to describe the climate sensitivity of rock glaciers and to reconstruct periods of high and low rock glacier activity in the Tien Shan since 1895. Using more than 1500 growth anomalies from 280 trees growing on rock glacier bodies, repeat aerial photography from Soviet archives and high-resolution satellite imagery, we present here the world's longest record of rock glacier movements. We also demonstrate that the rock glaciers exhibit synchronous periods of activity at decadal timescales. Despite the complex energy-balance processes on rock glaciers, periods of enhanced activity coincide with warm summers, and the annual mass balance of Tuyuksu glacier fluctuates asynchronously with rock glacier activity. At multi-decadal timescales, however, the investigated rock glaciers exhibit site-specific trends reflecting different stages of inactivation, seemingly in response to the strong increase in air temperature since the 1970s. PMID:25657095

  13. Constitutive model of rock based on microstructures simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zhou-yuan; HONG Liang; LIU Xi-ling; YIN Tu-bing

    2008-01-01

    The constitutive model of rock can be built by mechanics elements because there are many kinds of damages in rock under varied loads. It is resumed that rock contains many microstructures and a structure of Bingham. The microstructure consists of two embranchments that are the unit of a spring and a gliding slice in series and the unit of a spring and a cementation bar in series, the two units connect each other in parallel. These microstructures are arranged disorderly or in the order of a certain state. A certain distribution of microstructures represents one type of rock. Two kinds of rock's constitutive relationship were deduced by using the model. One is the model in which many parallel microstructures and a structure of Bingham connect in series. And it is used to homogeneous rock. The other is the model in which many microstructures and a structure of Bingham connect in series. And it is used to the rock with much crack or microcrack in a certain direction. The two kinds of constitutive relationship were verified by the studied cases. The constitutive model of rock built by using mechanics elements is verified to be reasonable. Moreover, different types of rocks may be described with mechanics elements with different distributions.

  14. Compressible fluid flow through rocks of variable permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of course-grained igneous rocks as shelters for burying radioactive waste can be assessed by determining the rock permeabilities at their in situ pressures and stresses. Analytical and numerical methods were used to solve differential equations of one-dimensional fluid flow through rocks with permeabilities from 104 to 1 nD. In these calculations, upstream and downstream reservoir volumes of 5, 50, and 500 cm3 were used. The optimal size combinations of the two reservoirs were determined for measurements of permeability, stress, strain, acoustic velocity, and electrical conductivity on low-porosity, coarse-grained igneous rocks

  15. Roadway deformation during riding mining in soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guozhen; Ma Zhanguo; Zhu Qinghua; Mao Xianbiao; Feng Meimei

    2012-01-01

    "Riding mining" is a form of mining where the working face is located above the roadway and advances parallel to it.Riding mining in deep soft rock creates a particular set of problems in the roadway that include high stresses,large deformations,and support difficulties.Herein we describe a study of the rock deformation mechanism of a roadway as observed during riding mining in deep soft rock.Theoretical analysis,numerical simulations,and on site monitoring were used to examine this problem.The stress in the rock and the visco-elastic behavior of the rock are considered.Real time data,recorded over a period of 240 days,were taken from a 750 transportation roadway.Stress distributions in the rock surrounding the roadway were studied by comparing simulations to observations from the mine.The rock stress shows dynamic behavior as the working face advances.The pressure increases and then drops after peaking as the face advances.Both elastic and plastic deformation of the surrounding rock occurs.Plastic deformation provides a mechanism by which stress in the rock relaxes due to material flow.A way to rehabilitate the roadway is suggested that will help ensure mine safety.

  16. Exact effective-stress rules in rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard paradigm for analysis of rock deformation arises from postulating the existence of ''an equivalent homogeneous porous rock.'' However, data on the pore-pressure dependence of fluid permeability for some rocks cannot be explained using any equivalent homogeneous porous medium. In contrast, a positive result shows that deformation measurements on both high-porosity sandstones and low-porosity granites can be explained adequately in terms of an equivalent two-constituent model of porous rocks, for which exact results have recently been discovered

  17. Cutting capacity of PDC cutters in very hard rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental programm of investigating the cutting capacity of PDC flat cutters in very hard rock has been performed.Experiments include both the cutting of PDC fixed at different angles on the granite core or bar and linear cutting with different static thrust on the block of granite.The effects of the rough degree of rock surface,cutting angles,and static thrust on the cutting capacity of PDC in very hard rock were investigated and analyzed.The results show that the single mode of rotary drilling using PDC cutters is not applied for very hard rocks.

  18. The doctor-patient relationship in rock and roll music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of rock songs in which physicians are central characters, combined with archival events and commentary from the singers and songwriters, sheds light on doctor-patient relationships as seen through popular culture. Rock and roll music attributes special psychological significance to physicians. Musicians project their personal problems through love songs and songs that deal with sex, drugs, and death. In rock songs, physicians frequently represent a cure for lovesickness. Rock musicians often die prematurely from self-inflicted behaviors, reaffirming the connection between their music and the medical profession. PMID:17260915

  19. A numerical study of flexural buckling of foliated rock slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, D. P.; Mühlhaus, H.-B.; Dyskin, A. V.

    2001-08-01

    The occurrence of foliated rock masses is common in mining environment. Methods employing continuum approximation in describing the deformation of such rock masses possess a clear advantage over methods where each rock layer and each inter-layer interface (joint) is explicitly modelled. In devising such a continuum model it is imperative that moment (couple) stresses and internal rotations associated with the bending of the rock layers be properly incorporated in the model formulation. Such an approach will lead to a Cosserat-type theory. In the present model, the behaviour of the intact rock layer is assumed to be linearly elastic and the joints are assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic. Condition of slip at the interfaces are determined by a Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut off at zero normal stress. The theory is valid for large deformations. The model is incorporated into the finite element program AFENA and validated against an analytical solution of elementary buckling problems of a layered medium under gravity loading. A design chart suitable for assessing the stability of slopes in foliated rock masses against flexural buckling failure has been developed. The design chart is easy to use and provides a quick estimate of critical loading factors for slopes in foliated rock masses. It is shown that the model based on Euler's buckling theory as proposed by Cavers (Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 1981; 14:87-104) substantially overestimates the critical heights for a vertical slope and underestimates the same for sub-vertical slopes.

  20. APPLICATIONS OF BOREHOLE-ACOUSTIC METHODS IN ROCK MECHANICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic-logging methods using a considerable range of wavelengths and frequencies have proven very useful in the in situ characterization of deeply buried crystalline rocks. Seismic velocities are useful in investigating the moduli of unfractured rock, and in producing a continuous record of rock quality for comparison with discontinuous intervals of core. The considerable range of frequencies makes the investigation of scale effects possible in both fractured and unfractured rock. Several specific methods for the characterization of in situ permeability have been developed and verified in the field.

  1. The initiation of brittle faults in crystalline rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Juliet G.

    2015-08-01

    Faults in the upper crust initiate from pre-existing (inherited) or precursory (early-formed) structures and typically grow by the mechanical interaction and linkage of these structures. In crystalline rock, rock architecture, composition, cooling, and exhumation influence the initiation of faults, with contrasting styles observed in plutonic rocks, extrusive igneous rocks, and foliated metamorphic rocks. Brittle fault growth in granitic rock is commonly controlled by the architecture of inherited joints or preexisting dikes. In basalt, abundant joints control the surface expression of faulting, and enhanced compliance due to abundant joints leads to folding and deformation asymmetry in the fault zone. Highly reactive mafic minerals likely become rapidly evolving fault rocks. In foliated metamorphic rocks, fault initiation style is strongly influenced by strength anisotropy relative to the principal stress directions, with fracturing favored when the foliation is aligned with the directions of principal stress. The continuity of micas within the foliation also influences the micromechanics of fault initiation. Brittle kink bands are an example of a strain-hardening precursory structure unique to foliated rock. Each of these fault initiation processes produces different initial fault geometry and spatial heterogeneity that influence such properties as fault permeability and seismogenesis.

  2. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe HRL was opened in 1994 as a research centre and underground laboratory. The experiments performed in Aespoe HRL are related to the rock, its properties, and in situ environmental conditions. Tests of models for groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical/biological processes are some of the main purposes of the Aespoe HRL. The programme includes projects with the aim to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of different models and to develop and test methods for determination of parameters required as input to conceptual and numerical models. The retardation in rock is studied at different experiment scales in a programme called Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE). The Long Term Diffusion Experiment constitutes a complement to performed diffusion and sorption laboratory experiments, and is a natural extension of the experiments conducted as part of the TRUE experiments. Radionuclide retention experiments are carried out with the aim to confirm result from laboratory experiments in situ, where conditions representative for the properties of groundwater at repository depth prevail. In CHEMLAB 1 two kinds of experiments to study the influence of radiolysis on the mobility of technetium in bentonite were started in the end of 2002. Experiments to study migration of actinides in natural fractures in drill cores are being carried out in CHELMAB 2. The findings of potential transport of solutes by colloids and access to more sensitive instruments for colloid measurements motivated a Colloid Project at Aespoe HRL. There are presently four specific microbial process areas identified that are of importance for proper repository functions and that are studied in the Microbe Project. The process areas are; biomobilisation of radionuclides, bioimmobilisation of radionuclides, microbial effects on the chemical stability, and microbial corrosion of copper. The main objectives of the Matrix Fluid Chemistry experiment are to understand the

  3. A Rock Mechanics and Coupled Hydro mechanical Analysis of Geological Repository of High Level Nuclear Waste in Fractured Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces a few case studies on fractured hard rock based on geological data from Sweden, Korea is one of a few countries where crystalline rock is the most promising rock formation as a candidate site of geological repository of high level nuclear waste. Despite the progress made in the area of rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanics, extensive site specific study on multiple candidate sites is essential in order to choose the optimal site. For many countries concerned about the safe isolation of nuclear wastes from the biosphere, disposal in a deep geological formation is considered an attractive option. In geological repository, thermal loading continuously disturbs the repository system in addition to disturbances a recent development in rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanical study using DFN(Discrete Fracture Network) - DEM(Discrete Element Method) approach mainly applied in hard, crystalline rock containing numerous fracture which are main sources of deformation and groundwater flow

  4. Seismic and Acoustic Investigations of Rock Fall Initiation, Processes, and Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Valerie Louise

    2011-01-01

    Rock falls were monitored in Yosemite Valley using seismic and infrasound sensors in order to gain insights into the feasibility of rock fall detection and rock fall processes. The research objectives were to characterize the rock fall seismic signal and use that data to study the initiation, triggering, and dynamics of rock falls, correlate the data with physical and environmental conditions, and to search for potential rock fall precursors. Yosemite Valley has approximately one rock fall ...

  5. Fracture Reactivation in Chemically Reactive Rock Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhubl, P.; Hooker, J. N.

    2013-12-01

    Reactivation of existing fractures is a fundamental process of brittle failure that controls the nucleation of earthquake ruptures, propagation and linkage of hydraulic fractures in oil and gas production, and the evolution of fault and fracture networks and thus of fluid and heat transport in the upper crust. At depths below 2-3 km, and frequently shallower, brittle processes of fracture growth, linkage, and reactivation compete with chemical processes of fracture sealing by mineral precipitation, with precipitation rates similar to fracture opening rates. We recently found rates of fracture opening in tectonically quiescent settings of 10-20 μm/m.y., rates similar to euhedral quartz precipitation under these conditions. The tendency of existing partially or completely cemented fractures to reactivate will vary depending on strain rate, mineral precipitation kinetics, strength contrast between host rock and fracture cement, stress conditions, degree of fracture infill, and fracture network geometry. Natural fractures in quartzite of the Cambrian Eriboll Formation, NW Scotland, exhibit a complex history of fracture formation and reactivation, with reactivation involving both repeated crack-seal opening-mode failure and shear failure of fractures that formed in opening mode. Fractures are partially to completely sealed with crack-seal or euhedral quartz cement or quartz cement fragmented by shear reactivation. Degree of cementation controls the tendency of fractures for later shear reactivation, to interact elastically with adjacent open fractures, and their intersection behavior. Using kinematic, dynamic, and diagenetic criteria, we determine the sequence of opening-mode fracture formation and later shear reactivation. We find that sheared fracture systems of similar orientation display spatially varying sense of slip We attribute these inconsistent directions of shear reactivation to 1) a heterogeneous stress field in this highly fractured rock unit and 2

  6. Fracture toughness measurements on igneous rocks using a high-pressure, high-temperature rock fracture mechanics cell

    OpenAIRE

    Balme, M.R.; Rocchi, V; Jones, C.; Sammonds, P.R.; Meredith, P.G.; Boon, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sound knowledge of mechanical properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures is essential for modelling volcanological problems such as fracture of lava flows and dike emplacement. In particular, fracture toughness is a scale-invariant material property of a rock that describes its resistance to tensile failure. A new fracture mechanics apparatus has been constructed enabling fracture toughness measurements on large (60 mm diameter) rock core samples at temperatures up to 750–C and ...

  7. Wall-rock metasomatism of carbonaceous terrigenous rocks in the Lena gold district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinov, V. L.; Rusinova, O. V.; Kryazhev, S. G.; Shchegol'Kov, Yu. V.; Alysheva, E. I.; Borisovsky, S. E.

    2008-02-01

    The Lena gold district is situated in the fold-and-shear belt of the southern framework of the Siberian Platform. The gold deposits are hosted in the Riphean-Vendian Khomolkho and Aunakit formations, revealing the strict control of ore mineralization by folding and shearing. The microstructure of metasomatically altered ore-bearing carbonaceous sedimentary rocks at the Sukhoi Log, Golets Vysochaishy, and Verninsky deposits (the latter includes the Pervenets vein zone) testifies to parallelism in the development of shearing, foliation, and ore-forming metasomatism. The local pressure gradients are marked by removal of silica from pressured zones into opened cleavage fractures and pockets. Two metasomatic stages are recognized: (1) early sodic metasomatism, which is characterized by the assemblage of magnesian siderite and paragonite, and (2) late potassic metasomatism, with formation of muscovite in association with sideroplesite and ankerite. The rocks altered at the early stage are distinguished by elevated Ni, Cr, and probably PGE contents. The second stage, close in age to the emplacement of Hercynian granitic plutons, was accompanied by the gain of chalcophile metals and deposition of the bulk of gold. In mineral composition, the metasomatic rocks are close to beresites, but the alteration differed in somewhat elevated alkalinity, so that microveinlets of albite and potassium feldspar occur in the ore zone together with muscovite. The ratio of modal muscovite to paragonite contents in orebodies is substantially higher than in the surrounding metasomatized rocks. This ratio directly depends on the degree of rock permeability and the intensity of the flow of ore-forming solutions. Carbonaceous matter (CM) in the ore zone underwent reworking and redeposition. CM is graphitized to a lesser extent than in the rocks affected by regional metamorphism. The spatial distribution of CM containing nitro and amino groups indicates more oxidizing conditions in the zone of

  8. Rock fracture by ice segregation: linking laboratory modelling and rock slope erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murton, J.

    2009-04-01

    It has been unclear until recently if ice can fracture intact bedrock subject to natural freezing regimes, or whether it simply enlarges existing fractures or does both. This question is important, because if ice segregation in bedrock permafrost is widespread, then there may be considerable potential for significantly increased rock slope instability as ice-cemented discontinuities warm and active layers thicken. Laboratory modelling has now begun to elucidate the process of ice segregation in bedrock. Laboratory experiments indicate that moist, porous rock behaves remarkably like moist, frost-susceptible soil, with both substrates experiencing ice enrichment and fracture / fissuring of near-surface permafrost. It appears that significant concentrations of segregated ice are most likely in the transition zone between the active layer and the permafrost, as a result of downward migration of water in summer and upward advance of freezing at the beginning of the winter. Laboratory modelling indicates that given adequate water supply, ice segregation produces a zone of ice-bonded fractured bedrock immediately below the permafrost table. In general, the importance of ice segregation relative to in situ volume expansion increases with decreasing thermal gradients and increasing duration of freezing. Recent theoretical developments suggest that the maximum possible disjointing pressure is governed by the temperature depression below the bulk-melting point, even in the absence of large temperature gradients, and therefore slow ice segregation in bedrock may be possible at greater depths where the frozen permeability of rock limits the actual amount of heave produced. Thus, over long timescales, ice segregation may be highly significant in frozen steep bedrock slopes where the presence of ice-rich fractured bedrock may be critically important in releasing rock falls and rock slides during climate-induced warming and permafrost degradation. With recent climate warming

  9. Pore Type Classification on Carbonate Reservoir in Offshore Sarawak using Rock Physics Model and Rock Digital Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been recognized that carbonate reservoirs are one of the biggest sources of hydrocarbon. Clearly, the evaluation of these reservoirs is important and critical. For rigorous reservoir characterization and performance prediction from geophysical measurements, the exact interpretation of geophysical response of different carbonate pore types is crucial. Yet, the characterization of carbonate reservoir rocks is difficult due to their complex pore systems. The significant diagenesis process and complex depositional environment makes pore systems in carbonates far more complicated than in clastics. Therefore, it is difficult to establish rock physics model for carbonate rock type. In this paper, we evaluate the possible rock physics model of 20 core plugs of a Miocene carbonate platform in Central Luconia, Sarawak. The published laboratory data of this area were used as an input to create the carbonate rock physics models. The elastic properties were analyzed to examine the validity of an existing analytical carbonate rock physics model. We integrate the Xu-Payne Differential Effective Medium (DEM) Model and the elastic modulus which was simulated from a digital carbonate rock image using Finite Element Modeling. The results of this integration matched well for the separation of carbonate pore types and sonic P-wave velocity obtained from laboratory measurement. Thus, the results of this study show that the integration of rock digital image and theoretical rock physics might improve the elastic properties prediction and useful for more advance geophysical techniques (e.g. Seismic Inversion) of carbonate reservoir in Sarawak

  10. Rock-ravintolatoiminta : elävää rock-musiikkia ravintolaympäristössä

    OpenAIRE

    Sipilä, Esa; Väyliö, Jari

    2006-01-01

    Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia rock-ravintolatoimintaa ja elävää rock-musiikkia ravintolaympäristössä ravintolan, artistin ja asiakkaan näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään rock-ravintolayrittämisen toimintatapoja ja kartoittamaan alan tämän hetkistä tilaa. Työssä tutustuttiin syvemmin suomalaiseen rock-ravintolatoimintaan yhtenä ravintolaelinkeinon haarana. Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin lomakehaastattelujen, teemahaastattelujen, osallistuvan havainnoinnin sekä kyselyjen avulla. T...

  11. Agronomic Effectiveness of Partially Acidulated Phosphate Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENIAN-ZU; SUNQI-WEI

    1994-01-01

    Laboratorial incubation and field experiments were conducted on soils ranging in texture from sandy loam to clay and in pH from 3.6 to 9.0 to determine the agronomic effectiveness of single superphosphate (SSP).fused magnesium phosphate(FMP) and partially acidulated phosphate rock(PAPR) on 8 field crops.The results showed that the pattern of available P released from SSP was fixing-releasing-fixing-steady state,while that of PAPR was shortly fixing-slowly releasing-fixing steady state.And the PAPR,SSP and FMP were equally effective as judged by yield Puptake by phants and extractable P in soils after crop harvesting,The PAPR used as basal fertilizer was more effective than that as top dressing,and its residual effect was also obvious.

  12. Grouting Rock Fractures with Cement Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tani, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    The radial flow rate of a cement grout in a rock fracture is obtained from Bingham's relation and the fact that the power expended by the injection mechanism is the energy dissipated by viscous effects. The energy balance reveals that the advance ratio is of fundamental importance in the grouting process and is inherently related to the rest and advance phases of a cement grout. This allows giving a precise definition of the zero flow path that divides the energy diagram into two distinct domains for advancing and non-advancing grout. The advance ratio and the zero flow path are used to explore the grouting of one or more fractures, analyze the GIN model in the context of the SL dispute, draw a terminal sequence considering the energy interval alternative, and reformulate the refusal criterion of the North American grouting method. Secondary grouting effects are also investigated.

  13. Pooh Bear rock and Mermaid Dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the two forward cameras aboard Sojourner imaged this area of Martian terrain on Sol 26. The large rock dubbed 'Pooh Bear' is at far left, and stands between four and five inches high. Mermaid Dune is the smooth area stretching horizontally across the top quarter of the image. The Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument aboard Sojourner will be deployed on Mermaid Dune, and the rover will later use its cleated wheels to dig into it.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages and Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn constitutes an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its associated research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Demonstration addresses the performance of the engineered barriers and practical means of constructing and operating a repository for spent fuel. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RD and D work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL: 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop, and at repository depth, test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important parts of the

  15. Flow and contaminant transport in fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a compilation of nine articles dealing with various aspect of flow in fractured media. Articles range from radionuclide waste to multiphase flow in petroleum reservoirs to practical field test methods. Each chapter contains copious figures to aid the reader, but is also a detailed in-depth analysis of some major flow problem. The subjects covered are as follows: an introduction to flow and transport models; solute transport in fractured rock with application to radioactive waste repositories; solute transport models through fractured networks; theoretical view of stochastic models of fracture systems; numerical models of tracers; multiphase flow models in fractured systems and petroleum reservoirs; unsaturated flow modeling; comparative analysis of various flow modeling techniques in fractured media; and, a summary of field methods for measuring transfers of mass, heat, contaminant, momentum, and electrical charge in fractured media

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), in the Simpevarp area in the municipality of Oskarshamn constitutes an important part of SKB's work with the design and construction of a deep geological repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental reasons behind SKB's decision to construct an underground laboratory was to create an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed rock environment down to repository depth. The underground part of the laboratory consists of a tunnel from the Simpevarp peninsula to the southern part of Aespoe where the tunnel continues in a spiral down to a depth of 460 m. Aespoe HRL has been in operation since 1995 and considerable international interest has been shown in its associated research, as well as in the development and demonstration tasks. Most of the research is focused on processes of importance for the long-term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Demonstration addresses the performance of the engineered barriers and practical means of constructing and operating a repository for spent fuel. To meet the overall time schedule for SKB's RD and D work, the following stage goals were initially defined for the work at the Aespoe HRL: 1. Verify pre-investigation methods. Demonstrate that investigations on the ground surface and in boreholes provide sufficient data on essential safety-related properties of the rock at repository level. 2. Finalise detailed investigation methodology. Refine and verify the methods and the technology needed for characterisation of the rock in the detailed site investigations. 3. Test models for description of the barrier functions at natural conditions. Further develop, and at repository depth, test methods and models for description of groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical conditions during operation of a repository and after closure. 4. Demonstrate technology for and function of important

  17. Superhard nanophase materials for rock drilling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadangi, R.K.; Voronov, O.A.; Tompa, G.S. [Diamond Materials Inc., Pisctaway, NJ (United States); Kear, B.H. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Diamond Materials Incorporated is developing new class of superhard materials for rock drilling applications. In this paper, we will describe two types of superhard materials, (a) binderless polycrystalline diamond compacts (BPCD), and (b) functionally graded triphasic nanocomposite materials (FGTNC). BPCDs are true polycrystalline diamond ceramic with < 0.5 wt% binders and have demonstrated to maintain their wear properties in a granite-log test even after 700{degrees}C thermal treatment. FGTNCs are functionally-graded triphasic superhard material, comprising a nanophase WC/Co core and a diamond-enriched surface, that combine high strength and toughness with superior wear resistance, making FGTNC an attractive material for use as roller cone stud inserts.

  18. Ground Water movement in crystalline rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water movement studies were performed in crystalline rock aquifers from the upper Acarau River hydrographic basin, state of Ceara, Brazil. The studies included carbon-14, 18O/16O and tritium measurements as well as chemical analysis. A total of 35 wells were surveyed during drought seasons. Carbon-14 values displayed little variation which implied that the water use was adequate despite of the slower recharge conditions. Fairly constant isotopic 18O/16O ratio values in the wells and their similarity with rainwater values indicated that the recharge is done exclusively by pluvial waters. A decreasing tendency within the tritium concentration values were interpreted as a periodic rainwater renewal for these aquifers. The chemical analysis demonstrated that there is in fact no correlation between salinity and the time the water remains in the aquifer itself. (D.J.M.)

  19. Symmetric Rock Fall on Waste Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the Naval SNF (spent nuclear fuel) Waste Package (WP) and the emplacement pallet (EP) subjected to the rock fall DBE (design basis event) dynamic loads. The scope of this calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities and residual stresses in the WP, and stress intensities and maximum permanent downward displacements of the EP-lifting surface. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP and EP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for those designs only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and is performed by the Waste Package Design Section in accordance with Reference 24. AP-3.124, ''Calculations'', is used to perform the calculation and develop the document

  20. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  1. Dike rocks of the Apishapa Quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Whitman

    1915-01-01

    The Apishapa quadrangle, the geographic relations of which are shown by Plate IV, is situated on the plains south of Arkansas River, in Colorado, about 24 miles east of the mountain front. The geology of the Pueblo, Walsenburg, Spanish Peaks, and Elmoro quadrangles, adjoining it on the northwest, west, southwest, and south, respectively, has been described in folios of the Geologic Atlas. G. K. Gilbert, assisted by F. P. Gulliver and G. W. Stose, took up the survey of the Apishapa area in 1894. The Apishapa folio was completed by Stose and was issued in 1913. The rocks to be described in this paper were collected by Gilbert and his assistants, the present writer never having visited the area. The following description of the occurrence of the has been kindly furnished by Mr. Stose.

  2. Progress in hot dry rock technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.; Brown, D.W.; House, L.; Robinson, B.R.; Ponden, R.

    1990-01-01

    The hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy program at Los Alamos is directed toward demonstrating the viability of HDR as a practical energy source. Recently, reservoir characterization experiments have been carried out to evaluate water loss and reservoir inflation under pressurized conditions over a long time period. In addition, advances have been made in reservoir engineering, seismic modeling, and tracer development. Preparations are being made to conduct a long term flow test (LTFT) to evaluate the thermal power potential of the existing Phase 2 reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The reservoir is located 12,000 ft below the surface and has an estimated capacity of about a million gallons. The LTFT is scheduled to start in 1991 and will run for 1--2 years. This paper summarizes recent developments in all of the above areas. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, B.; O`Connor, S. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Division of Archaeology and Natural History; Pittelkow, Y. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Coombs Computing Unit

    1997-12-31

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people.

  4. TOPOGRAPHIC SITE RESPONSE AT HARD ROCK SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, A. K.; Hough, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    Site (material impedance) and topographic (geometric form) effects are known to be key factors that influence seismic ground motions. To characterize site effects, Yong et al. (2009) developed a terrain-based Vs30 prediction model using an automated classification method (Iwahashi and Pike, 2007) that relied on taxonomic criteria (slope gradient, local convexity and surface texture) developed from geomorphometry to identify 16 terrain types from a 1-km spatial resolution (SRTM30 data) digital elevation model of California. On the basis that the underlying framework for this model contains parameters (esp., local convexity) which aptly describe the geometry (i.e., base to height ratio) of relief features that are known to also control the behavior of ground motions (Bouchon, 1973), we extend our investigation to study topographic effects. Focusing on sites that would generally be considered “hard rock,” the classification scheme distinguishes 7 separate terrain types ranging from “moderately eroded mountains” to “well dissected alpine summits.” Observed 1-Hz amplification factors at Southern California Seismographic Network sites reveal a weak but systematic correlation with these 7 terrain types. Significant scatter is also found within each terrain type; typical standard deviations of logarithmic amplification factors are 0.2-0.3. Considering stations that have high amplification factors, we find some that have apparently been misclassified due to data resolution limitations. Many of the remaining stations with higher than expected amplifications are located on or near topographic peaks or ridges. The unusually high amplification factors at hard-rock sites, typically factors of 1.5-2, can most plausibly be explained as a topographic effect.

  5. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people

  6. Geometry, mechanics and transmissivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis work investigates methods and tools for characterising, testing and modelling the behaviour of rock fractures. Using a 3D-laser-scanning technique, the topography of the surfaces and their position with respect to one another are measured. From the fracture topography, fracture roughness, angularity and aperture are quantified; the major features used for characterisation. The standard deviations for the asperity heights, surface slopes and aperture are determined. These statistical parameters usually increase/decrease according to power laws of the sampling size, and sometimes reach a sill beyond which they become constant. Also the number of contact spots with a certain area decreases according to a power-law function of the area. These power-law relations reveal the self affine fractal nature of roughness and aperture. Roughness is 'persistent' while aperture varies between 'persistent' and 'anti-persistent' probably depending on the degree of match of the fracture walls. The fractal models for roughness, aperture and contact area are used to develop a constitutive model, based on contact mechanics, for describing the fracture normal and shear deformability. The experimental testing results of normal deformability are simulated well by the model whereas fracture shear deformability is not as well modelled. The model predicts well fracture dilation but is too stiff compared to rock samples. A mathematical description of the aperture pattern during shearing is also formulated. The mean value and covariance of the aperture in shearing is calculated and verifies reported observations. The aperture map of samples is inserted in a numerical program for flow calculation. The 'integral transform method' is used for solving the Reynolds' equation; it transforms the fracture transmissivity pattern into a frequency-based function. This closely resembles the power laws that describe fractals. This function can be described directly from the fractal properties of

  7. Fluid flow along faults in carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Valentina; Battaglia, Maurizio; Bigi, Sabina

    2015-04-01

    The study of fluid flow in fractured rocks plays a key role in reservoir management, including CO2 sequestration and waste isolation. We present a mathematical model of fluid flow in a fault zone, based on field data acquired in Majella Mountain, in the Central Apennines (Italy). The Majella is a thrust related, asymmetric, box shaped anticline. The mountain carbonate outcrops are part of a lower Cretaceous-Miocene succession, covered by a siliciclastic sequence of lower Pliocene age. We study a fault zone located in the Bolognano Formation (Oligo-Miocene age) and exposed in the Roman Valley Quarry near the town of Lettomanoppello, in the northern sector of the Majella Mountain. This is one of the best places in the Apennines to investigate a fault zone and has been the subject of numerous field studies. Faults are mechanical and permeability heterogeneities in the upper crust, so they strongly influence fluid flow. The distribution of the main components (core, damage zone) can lead a fault zone to act as a conduit, a barrier or a combined conduit-barrier system. We integrated existing and our own structural surveys of the area to better identify the major fault features (e.g., kind of fractures, statistical properties, geometry and pertrophysical characteristics). Our analytical model describe the Bolognano Formation using a dual porosity/dual permeability model: global flow occurs through the fracture network only, while rock matrix contain the majority of fluid storage and provide fluid drainage to the fractures. Pressure behavior is analyzed by examining the pressure drawdown curves, the derivative plots and the effects of the characteristic parameters. The analytical model has been calibrated against published data on fluid flow and pressure distribution in the Bolognano Formation.

  8. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aespoe HRL has been constructed as part of the preparations for the deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began 1986. Since then, bedrock conditions have been investigated by several deep boreholes. The Aespoe research village has been built and extensive underground construction work has been undertaken in parallel with comprehensive research. This has resulted in a thorough test of methods for investigation and evaluation of bedrock conditions for construction of a deep repository. The objective of the ZEDEX project is to compare the mechanical disturbance to the rock for excavation by tunnel boring and blasting. The results indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The tracer retention understanding experiments are made to gain a better understanding of radionuclide retention in the rock and create confidence in the radionuclide transport models. During 1996 a series of tracer experiments in radially converging and dipole flow configuration have been performed. A special borehole probe has been designed for different kinds of retention experiments where data can be obtained representative for the in situ properties of groundwater at repository depth. The prototype repository test is focused on testing and demonstrating repository system function, and includes backfill and plug tests and demonstration of methods for deposition and retrieval of canisters in a new tunnel at the 420 m level. The long term tests of buffer material aim to validate models of buffer performance and at quantifying clay buffer alteration processes at adverse conditions. 80 refs, 53 figs, 16 tabs

  9. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The Aespoe HRL was opened in 1994 as a research centre and underground laboratory. The experiments performed in Aespoe HRL are related to the rock, its properties, and in situ environmental conditions. Tests of models for groundwater flow, radionuclide migration and chemical/biological processes are some of the main purposes of the Aespoe HRL. The programme includes projects with the aim to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of different models and to develop and test methods for determination of parameters required as input to conceptual and numerical models. The retardation in rock is studied at different experiment scales in a programme called Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE). The Long Term Diffusion Experiment constitutes a complement to performed diffusion and sorption laboratory experiments, and is a natural extension of the experiments conducted as part of the TRUE experiments. Radionuclide retention experiments are carried out with the aim to confirm result from laboratory experiments in situ, where conditions representative for the properties of groundwater at repository depth prevail. In CHEMLAB 1 two kinds of experiments to study the influence of radiolysis on the mobility of technetium in bentonite were started in the end of 2002. Experiments to study migration of actinides in natural fractures in drill cores are being carried out in CHELMAB 2. The findings of potential transport of solutes by colloids and access to more sensitive instruments for colloid measurements motivated a Colloid Project at Aespoe HRL. There are presently four specific microbial process areas identified that are of importance for proper repository functions and that are studied in the Microbe Project. The process areas are; biomobilisation of radionuclides, bioimmobilisation of radionuclides, microbial effects on the chemical stability, and microbial corrosion of copper. The main objectives of the Matrix Fluid Chemistry experiment are to understand the

  10. Rock Art Paintings (Rock Inscriptions) At Gebel Abraq, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents rock art painting in an area located at the scarp face of Wadi Abraq (Latitude 230 28' N and Longitude 340 45' E). The site is a sandstone protruding ledge rising about 30m. above the ground level. The Gebel Abraq paintings depict a tropical fauna including Elephants, Giraffes, Cows and Ostrich denoting that the area was previously subjected to intensive rainfall during the last pluvial periods. The result was a savana type of land. During recent times, the climate became dry and the communities were forced to move to other areas wher natural springs are still flowing such as Ain Abraq and Bir Abu-Safa. The present founding of the prehistoric paintings (Graffiti) has revealed a mass of evidence that many of the concepts regarding Sahara rock art should be studied

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up two uranium mill tailings processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, in San Miguel County. The purpose of the cleanup is to reduce the potential health effects associated with the radioactive materials remaining on the sites and on vicinity properties (VP) associated with the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contained measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial actions at the Slick Rock sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  12. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future.

  13. Rock in the East : Expectations Towards a Finnish Rock Festival in the Russian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Puhkala, Jonna; Heiskanen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Competition amongst rock festivals in Finland is a notable pushing factor towards seeking growth from international festival-goers. In a country the size of Finland, festival organizers are bound to compete for the same audience, and thus increasing the amount of international visitors may fill this gap. Currently, the share of festival-goers from abroad totals only 5%. Joensuu Pop Musicians’ Association, which organizes Ilosaarirock, are increasingly interested in the benefits that internati...

  14. Rock sealing - interim report on the rock seealing project (stage 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Sealing Project is to find ways of sealing finely fractured rock by grouting. This requires development of new injection technique as well as to identify materials which are sufficiently fluid to be groutable and acceptably low-previous and physically and chemically stable. The present report describes the results of the first two years of investigation (stage 1), which gave very positive results as concluded from a large field-scale test. (orig.)

  15. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U3O8 whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future

  16. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Slick Rock sites, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Slick Rock sites in order to revise the October 1977 engineering radioactive uranium mill tailings at Slick Rock, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 387,000 tons of tailings at the Slick Rock sites constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment include millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, consolidation of the piles, and removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings sites. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $6,800,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $11,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 6.5 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Slick Rock tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be over $800/lb of U3O8 whether by conventional or heap leach plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is not economically attractive at present, nor for the foreseeable future

  17. Effect of rock microfabric on the brittle failure process of rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, R.; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Klíma, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), ---. ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 02.04.2006-07.04.2006, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0088; GA ČR GA205/06/0906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : rock microfabric * brittle fracturing Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU06/06876/EGU06-J-06876.pdf

  18. Analysis of soft rock mineral components and roadway failure mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie

    2001-01-01

    The mineral components and microstructure of soft rock sampled from ro adway floor in Xiagou pit are determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning elec t ron microscope. Combined with the test of expansion and water softening prop erty of the soft rock, the roadway failure mechanism is analyzed, and the reason able repair supporting principle of roadway is put forward.

  19. The Uses of and Attention to Rock's Lurid Lyrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouner, Donna

    Noting that efforts at restraining rock music may be quite limiting to the free expression of artists and the reception of the music by individuals who strongly value their musical experiences, a study investigated the uses of rock music by young adults and its effect on them. Subjects, 128 college students, indicated on a self-report survey (1)…

  20. Rock opening design and analyses for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report assesses the uniqueness of the radioactive waste disposal when viewed from the standpoint of design, construction, and operation of underground cavities dedicated for that use. Underground excavations design and construction for mining and civil engineering projects are reviewed and their application to the waste repository problem are considered. The particular subjects addressed in some detail are underground layouts, opening criteria and construction procedures for supported and unsupported rock, and opening protection practices. These subjects are addressed for applications only to igneous and metamorphic rock (hard rocks) and a limited class of basically nonplastic competent sedimentary rock (soft rock). The main threat to, repository failure, appears to be in the possibility that waste induced thermal stresses could eventually open pathways for water to pass into and out of the repository area. It is found that highly elaborate stress analysis and in-situ thermal tests may not be completely appropriate to the waste repository design and construction. Further, it is found that certain grain sized igneous rocks should be more appropriate to repository designs than others. Protection of the excavation openings both through the use of structural supports and through the use of rock face sealing methods may be quite advantageous in promoting the longevity of the waste repository. Particular attention is given to spreading of the heat sources (canisters) in the underground repository and possibly also to diluting the waste matrix with more inert materials to lessen the local rock thermal stresses