Sample records for alkali

  1. Photoionization in alkali lasers. (United States)

    Knize, R J; Zhdanov, B V; Shaffer, M K


    We have calculated photoionization rates in alkali lasers. The photoionization of alkali atoms in the gain medium of alkali lasers can significantly degrade the laser performance by reducing the neutral alkali density and with it the gain. For a ten atmosphere Rb laser and a Cs exciplex laser, the photoionization induced alkali atom loss rates are greater than 10(5) sec(-1). These high loss rates will quickly deplete the neutral alkali density, reducing gain, and may require fast, possibly, supersonic flow rates to sufficiently replenish the neutral medium for CW operation.

  2. Milk-alkali syndrome (United States)

    ... this page: // Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gasses. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a catalyst and the use of a catalyst for the selective removal of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia from gases containing a significant amount...... of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  4. The calcium-alkali syndrome


    Arroyo, Mariangeli; Fenves, Andrew Z.; Emmett, Michael


    The milk-alkali syndrome was a common cause of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal failure in the early 20th century. It was caused by the ingestion of large quantities of milk and absorbable alkali to treat peptic ulcer disease. The syndrome virtually vanished after introduction of histamine-2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors. More recently, a similar condition called the calcium-alkali syndrome has emerged as a common cause of hypercalcemia and alkalosis. It is usually caused b...

  5. Alkali Aggregate Reaction in Alkali Slag Cement Mortars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    By means of "Mortar Bar Method",the ratio of cement to aggregate was kept as a constant 1∶2.25,the water-cement ratio of the mixture was 0.40,and six prism specimens were prepared for each batch of mixing proportions with dimensions of 10×10×60mm3 at 38±2℃ and RH≥95%, the influences of content and particle size of active aggregate, sort and content of alkali component and type of slag on the expansion ratios of alkali-activated slag cement(ASC) mortars due to alkali aggregate reaction(AAR) were studied. According to atomic absorption spectrometry,the amount of free alkali was measured in ASC mortars at 90d.The results show above factors affect AAR remarkably,but no dangerous AAR will occur in ASC system when the amount of active aggregate is below 15% and the mass fraction of alkali is not more than 5% (Na2O).Alkali participated in reaction as an independent component, and some hydrates containing alkali cations were produced, free alkalis in ASC system can be reduced enormously.Moreover,slag is an effective inhibitor, the possibility of generating dangerous AAR in ASC system is much lower at same conditions than that in ordinary Portland cement system.

  6. Natural Alkali Shifts to the Methanol Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Inner Mongolia Yuanxing Natural Alkali Co., Ltd. (Natural Alkali SZ: 000683) established in 1997 is a large chemical enterprise with new energy as its leading business and natural gas chemicals and natural alkali chemicals as the supplement business.

  7. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.


    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  8. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard


    A method for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock. The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  9. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard


    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  10. Process for recovering alkali metals and sulfur from alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier


    Alkali metals and sulfur may be recovered from alkali monosulfide and polysulfides in an electrolytic process that utilizes an electrolytic cell having an alkali ion conductive membrane. An anolyte solution includes an alkali monosulfide, an alkali polysulfide, or a mixture thereof and a solvent that dissolves elemental sulfur. A catholyte includes molten alkali metal. Applying an electric current oxidizes sulfide and polysulfide in the anolyte compartment, causes alkali metal ions to pass through the alkali ion conductive membrane to the catholyte compartment, and reduces the alkali metal ions in the catholyte compartment. Liquid sulfur separates from the anolyte solution and may be recovered. The electrolytic cell is operated at a temperature where the formed alkali metal and sulfur are molten.

  11. A negative ion source for alkali ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van


    An ion source is described which delivers negative alkali ions. With this source, which consists of a duoplasmatron and a charge exchange canal with alkali vapour, negative Li, Na and K ions are produced. The oven in which alkali metals are evaporated can reach temperatures up to 575°C.

  12. Alkali binding in hydrated Portland cement paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Brouwers, H.J.H.


    The alkali-binding capacity of C–S–H in hydrated Portland cement pastes is addressed in this study. The amount of bound alkalis in C–S–H is computed based on the alkali partition theories firstly proposed by Taylor (1987) and later further developed by Brouwers and Van Eijk (2003). Experimental data

  13. Positron-alkali atom scattering (United States)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.


    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  14. Performance characterization of rigid polyurethane foam with refined alkali lignin and modified alkali lignin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-ming; YU Fei; FANG Gui-zhen; YANG Hui-jun


    The two kinds of rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared with respectively adding the refined alkali lignin and alkali lignin modified by 3-chloro-1,2-epoxypropane to be instead of 15% of the polyether glycol in weight. The indexes of mechanical performance, apparent density, thermal stability and aging resistance were separately tested for the prepared PU foams. The results show that the mechanical property, thermal insulation and thermal stability for PU foam with modified alkali lignin are excellent among two kinds of PU foams and control samples. The additions of the refined alkali lignin and modified alkali lignin to PU foam have little effect on the natural aging or heat aging resistance except for decreasing hot alkali resistance apparently. Additionally, the thermal conductivity of modified alkali lignin PU foam is lowest among two kinds of PU foams and control samples. The alkali lignin PU foam modified by 3-chloro-1,2-epoxypropane could be applied in the heat preservation field.

  15. Nanosized alkali-metal-doped ethoxotitanate clusters. (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Trzop, Elzbieta; Makal, Anna; Sokolow, Jesse D; Coppens, Philip


    The synthesis and crystallographic characterization of alkali-metal-doped ethoxotitanate clusters with 28 and 29 Ti atoms as well as a new dopant-free Ti28 cluster are presented. The light-metal-doped polyoxotitanate clusters in which the alkali-metal atom is the critical structure-determining component are the largest synthesized so far. Calculations show that doping with light alkali atoms narrows the band gap compared with the nondoped crystals but does not introduce additional energy levels within the band gap.

  16. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vladimír Živica


    Growing demands on the engineering properties of cement based materials and the urgency to decrease unsuitable ecologic impact of Portland cement manufacturing represent significant motivation for the development of new cement corresponding to these aspects. One category represents prospective alkali activated cements. A significant factor influencing their properties is alkali activator used. In this paper we present a new high effective alkali activator prepared from silica fume and its effectiveness. According to the results obtained this activator seems to be more effective than currently used activators like natrium hydroxide, natrium carbonate, and water glass.

  17. Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, E.; Tornos, J.


    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.

  18. Milk Alkali and Hydrochlorothiazide: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Parvez


    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia is a relatively common clinical problem in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Primary pathophysiology is the entry of calcium that exceeds its excretion into urine or deposition in bone into circulation. Among a wide array of causes of hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are the most common, accounting for greater than 90 percent of cases. Concordantly, there has been a resurgence of milk-alkali syndrome associated with the ingestion of large amounts of calcium and absorbable alkali, making it the third leading cause of hypercalcemia (Beall and Scofield, 1995 and Picolos et al., 2005. This paper centers on a case of over-the-counter calcium and alkali ingestion for acid reflux leading to milk alkali with concordant use of thiazide diuretic for hypertension.

  19. Selection of non-adsorbing alkali components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.


    This project consists of three phases of laboratory experimental study. In phase I (screening), eight candidate materials, 304SS (serves as a base material for comparison), Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy X, Haynes No. 188, Allonized 304SS, Pt-coated 304SS, and ceramic-coated 304SS, will be subjected to atmospheric TGA study under the simulated PFBC (oxidizing) environment with and without alkali vapor doping. Each candidate material will be evaluated for its resistance toward alkali-vapor capture. In addition, a post-test metallographic characterization of the sample will be performed to obtain a better understanding of the alkali capture mechanism and material behavior. The material(s) with little or no alkali-vapor adsorption will be selected as the promising material(s) for the Phase II study. In Phase II, the promising material(s) will be further tested in the TGA under elevated pressure to simulate the PFBC environment (in terms of temperature, pressure, and gas composition). The effect of pressure on the extent of alkali-vapor adsorption will be evaluated, and the test samples will be metallographically characterized. The most promising candidate material(s) will be identified and recommended for further tesfing in the actual PFBC environment. In Phase III, four materials will be selected from the eight candidate materials screened in the PFBC environment and will be evaluated for their alkali-vapor capture by atmospheric TGA under the coal gasification fuel gas (reducing) environment. The tested samples will also be metallographically characterized. The most promising material(s) will be identified and recommended for further testing in the actual coal gasification environment.

  20. Selection of non-adsorbing alkali components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.


    This project consists of three phases of laboratory experimental study. In phase I (screening), eight candidate materials, 304SS (serves as a base material for comparison), Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy X, Haynes No. 188, Allonized 304SS, Pt-coated 304SS, and ceramic-coated 304SS, will be subjected to atmospheric TGA study under the simulated PFBC (oxidizing) environment with and without alkali vapor doping. Each candidate material will be evaluated for its resistance toward alkali-vapor capture. In addition, a post-test metallographic characterization of the sample will be performed to obtain a better understanding of the alkali capture mechanism and material behavior. The material(s) with little or no alkali-vapor adsorption will be selected as the promising material(s) for the Phase II study. In Phase II, the promising material(s) will be further tested in the TGA under elevated pressure to simulate the PFBC environment (in terms of temperature, pressure, and gas composition). The effect of pressure on the extent of alkali-vapor adsorption will be evaluated, and the test samples will be metallographically characterized. The most promising candidate material(s) will be identified and recommended for further tesfing in the actual PFBC environment. In Phase III, four materials will be selected from the eight candidate materials screened in the PFBC environment and will be evaluated for their alkali-vapor capture by atmospheric TGA under the coal gasification fuel gas (reducing) environment. The tested samples will also be metallographically characterized. The most promising material(s) will be identified and recommended for further testing in the actual coal gasification environment.

  1. Positronium impact ionization of Alkali atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, D


    Target ionization processes of alkali atoms by Positronium impact are investigated. Calculations are performed in the frame work of model potential formalism using the Coulomb distorted eikonal approximation. Interesting qualitative features are noted both in the scattered Ps and the ejected electron distributions in differential as well as double differential levels of the collision cross sections.

  2. Local structure of alkalis in mixed-alkali borate glass to elucidate the origin of mixed-alkali effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomei Tokuda


    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium borate crystals and glasses using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. The composition dependence of NMR spectra of the borate was similar to that of the silicate: (1 the peak position of cesium borate crystals shifted to upfield for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers, (2 the MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-3B2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, x + y = 1 glass showed that the average coordination number (CN of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. However, the degree of decrement in borates is much smaller than that in silicates. We have considered that the small difference in CN is due to 4-coordinated B, because it is electrically compensated by the alkali metal ions resulting in the restriction of having various coordinations of O to alkali metal.

  3. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.


    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  4. Infrared spectra of FHF - in alkali halides (United States)

    Chunnilall, C. J.; Sherman, W. F.


    The bifluoride ion, FHF -, has been substitutionally isolated within single crystal samples of several different alkali halides. Infrared spectra of these crystals have been studied for sample temperatures down to 8K when half-bandwidths of less than 1 cm -1 have been observed. (Note that at room temperature ν 3 is observed to have a half-bandwidth of about 40 cm -1). The frequency shifts and half-bandwidth changes caused by cooling are considered together with the frequency shifts caused by pressures up to 10 k bar. The low temperature spectra clearly indicate that FHF - is a linear symmetrical ion when substitutionally isolated within alkali halides of either the NaCl or CsCl structure.

  5. Pyrolysis characteristic of kenaf studied with separated tissues, alkali pulp, and alkali li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kojima


    Full Text Available To estimate the potential of kenaf as a new biomass source, analytical pyrolysis was performed using various kenaf tissues, i.e., alkali lignin and alkali pulp. The distribution of the pyrolysis products from the whole kenaf was similar to that obtained from hardwood, with syringol, 4-vinylsyringol, guaiacol, and 4-vinylguaiacol as the major products. The phenols content in the pyrolysate from the kenaf core was higher than that from the kenaf cuticle, reflecting the higher lignin content of the kenaf core. The ratios of the syringyl and guaiacyl compounds in the pyrolysates from the core and cuticle samples were 2.79 and 6.83, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major pyrolysis product obtained from the kenaf alkali pulp, although glycol aldehyde and acetol were also produced in high yields, as previously observed for other cellulosic materials. Moreover, the pathways for the formation of the major pyrolysis products from alkali lignin and alkali pulp were also described, and new pyrolysis pathways for carbohydrates have been proposed herein. The end groups of carbohydrates bearing hemiacetal groups were subjected to ring opening and then they underwent further reactions, including further thermal degradation or ring reclosing. Variation of the ring-closing position resulted in the production of different compounds, such as furans, furanones, and cyclopentenones.

  6. Sulfate Resistance of Alkali Activated Pozzolans


    Bondar, Dali


    The consequence of sulfate attack on geopolymer concrete, made from an alkali activated natural pozzolan (AANP) has been studied in this paper. Changes in the compressive strength, expansion and capillary water absorption of specimens have been investigated combined with phases determination by means of X-ray diffraction. At the end of present investigation which was to evaluate the performance of natural alumina silica based geopolymer concrete in sodium and magnesium sulfate solution, the l...

  7. Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Alkali-Silica Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chengzhi; WANG Aiqin


    The influence of silica fume,slag and fly ash on alkali-silica reaction under the condition of 70℃ is studied.The results show that silica,slag and fly ash may inhibit alkali-silica reaction only under suitable content.When the content is less than 10%,silica fume does not markedly influence the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 15%-20%,silica fume only may delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 30%-70%,slag may only delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction,but cannot inhibit the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 10%,fly ash does not markedly influence the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 20%-30%,fly ash may only delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction,but cannot inhibit the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is over 50%,it is possible that fly ash can inhibit effectively alkali-silica reaction.

  8. Ion Pairing in Alkali Nitrate Electrolyte Solutions. (United States)

    Xie, Wen Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Yi Qin


    In this study, we investigate the thermodynamics of alkali nitrate salt solutions, especially the formation of contact ion pairs between alkali cation and nitrate anion. The ion-pairing propensity shows an order of LiNO3 activity coefficients and suggest that the empirical "law of matching water affinity" is followed by these alkali nitrate salt solutions. The spatial patterns of contact ion pairs are different in the three salt solutions studied here: Li(+) forms the contact ion pair with only one oxygen of the nitrate while Na(+) and K(+) can also be shared by two oxygens of the nitrate. In reproducing the salt activity coefficient using Kirkwood-Buff theory, we find that it is essential to include electronic polarization for Li(+) which has a high charge density. The electronic continuum correction for nonpolarizable force field significantly improves the agreement between the calculated activity coefficients and their experimental values. This approach also improves the performance of the force field on salt solubility. From these two aspects, this study suggests that electronic continuum correction can be a promising approach to force-field development for ions with high charge densities.

  9. Thermalization of different alkali and alkali-earth elements at the TRI{mu}P facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidling, P.D., E-mail: P.Shidling@rug.n [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Giri, G.S.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.L.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Santra, B.; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O.O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)


    Radioactive isotopes produced by the in-flight method are converted into low-energy ions with a thermal ionizer (TI) ion catcher, the operation of which is based on a hot cavity ion source. The extraction efficiency of the TI for different alkali and alkali-earth elements has been studied and compared to a model based on diffusion only. The model describes the stationary limit, i.e. the extraction efficiency, as well as the dynamic response of the TI output when the primary beam is switched on and off.

  10. Alkali cation specific adsorption onto fcc(111) transition metal electrodes. (United States)

    Mills, J N; McCrum, I T; Janik, M J


    The presence of alkali cations in electrolyte solutions is known to impact the rate of electrocatalytic reactions, though the mechanism of such impact is not conclusively determined. We use density functional theory (DFT) to examine the specific adsorption of alkali cations to fcc(111) electrode surfaces, as specific adsorption may block catalyst sites or otherwise impact surface catalytic chemistry. Solvation of the cation-metal surface structure was investigated using explicit water models. Computed equilibrium potentials for alkali cation adsorption suggest that alkali and alkaline earth cations will specifically adsorb onto Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces in the potential range of hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution catalysis in alkaline solutions.

  11. (abstract) Fundamental Mechanisms of Electrode Kinetics and Alkali Metal Atom Transport at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S. K.


    The mechanisms of electrode kinetics and mass transport of alkali metal oxidation and alkali metal cation reduction at the solid electrolyte/porous electrode boundary as well as alkali metal transport through porous metal electrodes has important applications in optimizing device performance in alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) cells which are high temperature, high current density electrochemical cells. Basic studies of these processes also affords the opportunity to investigate a very basic electrochemical reaction over a wide range of conditions; and a variety of mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. The temperature range of these investigations covers 700K to 1240K; the alkali metal vapor pressures range from about 10(sup -2) to 10(sup 2) Pa; and electrodes studied have included Mo, W, Mo/Na(sub 2)MoO(sub 4), W/Na(sub 2)WO(sub 4), WPt(sub x), and WRh(sub x) (1.0 alkali metal vapor and alkali metal vapor/solid electrolyte/vapor cells have been used to characterize the reaction and transport processes. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes.

  12. High-Order Dispersion Coefficients for Alkali-metal Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Shuai; DING Chi-Kun; CHEN Chang-Yong; WU Xue-Qing


    High-order dispersion coefficients C9,C11,C12,and C13 for the ground-state alkali-metals were calculated by combining the l-dependent model potential of alkali-metal atoms and linear variation method based on B-spline basis functions.The results were compared.

  13. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag (United States)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.


    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  14. Laser Spectroscopy of bi-alkali molecules (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Altaf, A.; Lorenz, J.; Elliott, D.; Chen, Yong


    We report a study of laser spectroscopy of bi-alkali molecules, such as Li2, Rb2 and LiRb (work is in progress). We have constructed a dual-species (Li/Rb) heat pipe oven with a side viewport. The molecular fluorescence is excited by a dye laser with Rh6G dye (operating between 564 nm and 610 nm) and various home-made diode lasers (operating near 635 nm and 665 nm). The fluorescence is recorded using a .5ex1 -.1em/ -.15em.25ex4 m monochromator with a 0.1 nm (˜ 3 cm-1) spectral resolution. Transitions to the X^1σg^+ in Li2 and Rb2 have been measured and studies on LiRb are in progress. Molecular parameters, such as force constant, may be obtained from the analysis of the data (which agree with previously known values to within ˜ 3%). Using the known values of dissociation energy De and harmonic frequency φe for the alkali dimers, we also demonstrate that simple calculations with Morse potential approximation can be used to estimate the molecular transition wavelengths to within a few (1-3) nanometers from the experimentally measured values. Such information will aid in creating cold molecules via photoassociation in a dual species magneto-optical trap (LiRb in our case).

  15. Pathways of birnessite formation in alkali medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xionghan; TAN Wenfeng; LIU Fan; HUANG Qiaoyun; LIU Xiangwen


    Birnessite is a common weathering and oxidation product of manganese-bearing rocks. An O2 oxidation procedure of Mn(OH)2 in the alkali medium has been used to synthesize birnessite. Fast and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), energy dispersed X-ray analysis (EDAX), infrared spectroscopy (IR) techniques and chemical composition analysis, Eh-pH equilibrium diagram approaches were employed to investigate the reaction process and pathways of birnessite formation. Results showed that the process of the birnessite formation could be divided into four stages: (1) formation stage for hausmannite and feitknechtite, (2) stage of transformation of hausmannite and feitknechtite to buserite, (3) buserite crystal growing stage, and (4) stage of conversion of buserite into birnessite. Mn(OH)2 was mainly present as amorphous state only for a short initial time of oxidation reaction. In the oxidation process, buserite formed following two pathways by recrystallization after dissolution of the intermediates, and the transformations of the minerals depended on the Eh determined by the dissolved O2 concentration on their surfaces. The results are fundamental in further exploration on the mechanism of birnessite formation in the alkali medium. A great practical significance would also be expected with respect to the areas of material sciences.

  16. IRMPD Action Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal Cation-Cytosine Complexes: Effects of Alkali Metal Cation Size on Gas Phase Conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Wu, R.R.; Polfer, N.C.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M.T.


    The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both simi

  17. Thermoluminescence of alkali halides and its implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartia, R.K., E-mail: [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Rey, L. [Aerial-CRT-parc d' Innovation, B.P. 40443, F-67412 Illkirch Cedex (France); Tejkumar Singh, Th. [Physics Department, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Basanta Singh, Th. [Luminescence Dating Laboratory, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India)


    Trapping levels present in some alkali halides namely NaCl, KCl, KBr, and KI are determined by deconvolution of the thermoluminescence (TL) curves. Unlike most of the studies undertaken over the last few decades, we have presented a comprehensive picture of the phenomenon of TL as an analytical technique capable of revealing the position of the trapping levels present in the materials. We show that for all practical purposes, TL can be described involving only the three key trapping parameters, namely, the activation energy (E), the frequency factor (s), and the order of kinetics (b) even for complex glow curves having a number of TL peaks. Finally, based on these, we logically infer the importance of TL in development and characterization of materials used in dosimetry, dating and scintillation.

  18. Alkali-activated cementitious materials: Mechanisms, microstructure and properties (United States)

    Jiang, Weimin

    The goal of this study was to examine the activation reaction, microstructure, properties, identify the mechanisms of activation, and achieve an enhanced understanding of activation processes occurring during the synthesis of alkali activated cementitious materials (AAC). The discussions classify the following categories. (1) alkali activated slag cement; (2) alkali activated portland-slag cement; (3) alkali activated fly ash-slag cement; (4) alkali activated pozzolana-lime cement; (5) alkali activated pozzolana cement. The activators involved are NaOH, KOH; Nasb2SOsb4;\\ Nasb2COsb3;\\ CaSOsb4, and soluble silicate of sodium and potassium. The effect of alkali activation on the microstructure of these materials were analyzed at the micro-nanometer scale by SEM, EDS, ESEM, and TEM. Also sp{29}Si and sp{27}Al MAS-NMR, IR, Raman, TGA, and DTA were performed to characterize the phase in these systems. Slag, fly ash, silica fume, as well as blended cements containing mixtures of these and other components were characterized. A set of ordinary portland cement paste samples served as a control. This study confirmed that AAC materials have great potential because they could generate very early high strength, greater durability and high performance. Among the benefits to be derived from this research is a better understanding of the factors that control concrete properties when using AAC materials, and by controlling the chemistry and processing to produce desired microstructures and properties, as well as their durability.

  19. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald


    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  20. Influence of alkalis from different sources than cement in the evolution of alkali-silica reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olague, C.


    Full Text Available A bibliographical revision of the existent literature allows showing symptoms of alkali-silica reaction (ASR in highways, and the practical and economic method uranyl acetate to confirm the presence of ASR. The existence of reaction in concrete pavements of Chihuahua City was verified by a visual observation of patterns cracks, examination of gel deposits and the presence of reactive materials. Considering that the cement used to construct this pavements with problems of ASR, was low alkalis cement, the research was devoted to study the influence of alkalis coming from different sources than cement in the evolution of reaction such as: a aggregates: gravel and sand, b mix water, c additives and d minerals additions The initial classification of cements like high and low alkalis concerned to ASR must be revised for accept the fact that there is not a unique maximum limit alkalis of cement under which the expansible reactivity cannot occur.

    Una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura existente permite mostrar las manifestaciones de reacción álcali-sílice (RAS en estructuras de carreteras y el método práctico y económico de acetato de uranilo para confirmar la presencia de RAS. La existencia de la reacción en pavimentos de hormigón de la ciudad de Chihuahua se pudo confirmar tras la observación visual de modelos de grietas, estudios de depósitos de gel y existencia de fuentes de materiales reactivos. Considerando que el cemento utilizado para construir los tramos de pavimento con problemas de RAS, era un cemento bajo en álcalis, se enfocó la investigación al estudio de la influencia de los álcalis provenientes de fuentes distintas al cemento en la evolución de la reacción tales como: a áridos gruesos y finos, b agua de mezclado, c aditivos y d adiciones minerales El concepto inicial de clasificación de cementos altos y bajos en álcalis con respecto a la RAS debe ser revisado para aceptar el hecho de que no hay un solo

  1. Pi resonance of chemisorbed alkali atoms on noble metals. (United States)

    Borisov, A G; Sametoglu, V; Winkelmann, A; Kubo, A; Pontius, N; Zhao, J; Silkin, V M; Gauyacq, J P; Chulkov, E V; Echenique, P M; Petek, H


    We have performed a joint experimental and theoretical study of the unoccupied electronic structure of alkali adsorbates on the (111) surfaces of Cu and Ag. Combining angle- and time-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy with wave packet propagation calculations we show that, along with the well known sigma resonance oriented along the surface normal, there exist long-lived alkali-localized resonances oriented parallel to the surface (pi symmetry). These new resonances are stabilized by the projected band gap of the substrate and emerge primarily from the mixing of the p and d Rydberg orbitals of the free alkali atom modified by the interaction with the surface.

  2. Important role of alkali atoms in A4C60


    Gunnarsson, O.; Erwin, S. C.; Koch, E.; Martin, R. M.


    We show that hopping via the alkali atoms plays an important role for the t1u band of A4C60 (A=K, Rb), in strong contrast to A3C60. Thus the t1u band is broadened by more than 40 % by the presence of the alkali atoms. The difference between A4C60 and A3C60 is in particular due to the less symmetric location of the alkali atoms in A4C60.

  3. Structure and electronic properties of alkali-C60 nanoclusters. (United States)

    Rabilloud, Franck


    I investigated the structural and electronic properties of both Na(n)C(60) and Li(n)C(60) (n alkali atoms over the C(60) surface is analyzed. The hypotheses for either an homogeneous coating of the C(60) surface by the alkali atoms or the growth of an alkali droplet not wetting the fullerene surface are discussed. Lithium atoms are found to coat homogeneously the fullerene on the C(60) surface via pentagonal sites, contrary to sodium atoms, which prefer to form 4-atom islands on the surface. The charge transfer, the energetics, and the dipole moments are discussed in relation with available results. The adsorption of alkali atoms on the C(60) surface considerably enhances the capacity of C(60) to accept electrons. The arrangement of lithium atoms seems more favorable for the hydrogen storage than that of sodium atoms.

  4. Hall Determination of Atomic Radii of Alkali Metals (United States)

    Houari, Ahmed


    I will propose here an alternative method for determining atomic radii of alkali metals based on the Hall measurements of their free electron densities and the knowledge of their crystal structure. (Contains 2 figures.)

  5. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)


    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  6. A Novel Eco-Alkali Chemistry in Newspaper Flotation Deinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plazonic


    Full Text Available Performance and efficiency of fresh offset-printed daily Croatian newspaper deinked by novel chemistry, named Eco-alkali, were investigated in this study. Eco-alkali is naturally gained alkali prepared from domestic by-product wood fly ash collected after hardwood ignition. Brightness, opacity and effective residual ink concentration (ERIC as optical properties were evaluated for the deinked pulp before and after flotation. Lingering ink particles and their total surface area were measured by image analysis method. Experimental results are compared to the pulp deinked with worldwide accepted method INGEDE Method 11 using identical steps through the whole deinking process. The findings obtained from present work, especially removing particle efficiency results before flotation, indicated that eco-alkali have potential to be used in flotation deinking of newspapers.

  7. Acid/alkali gated photochromism of two diarylperfluorocyclopentenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; ZiHui; ZHAO; ShengMin; LI; ZhongYu; ZHANG; Zhi; ZHANG; FuShi


    Two novel diarylfuorocyclopentenes, which underwent gated photochromism, were synthesized. It was found that the photochromic property of these diarylethenes could be switched by alternative addition of acids/alkalis, which could provide a new design strategy toward chemical threshold photoreaction.

  8. Near atomically smooth alkali antimonide photocathode thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jun; Nasiatka, James; Schubert, Susanne; Smedley, John; Padmore, Howard


    Nano-roughness limits the emittance of electron beams that can be generated by high efficiency photocathodes, such as the thermally reacted alkali antimonide thin films. However there is an urgent need for photocathodes that can produce an order of magnitude or more lower emittance than present day systems in order to increase the transverse coherence width of the electron beam. In this paper we demonstrate a method for producing alkali antimonide cathodes with near atomic smoothness with high reproducibility.

  9. Estimating the hydration enthalpies of neutral alkali metal atoms. (United States)

    Stace, A J


    Using existing data on the ionization energies of alkali metal atoms in small clusters of water, a thermodynamic cycle is proposed from which the hydration enthalpies of the neutral metal atoms can be estimated. Where comparisons are possible, the results are in reasonable agreement with those obtained using both experimental and ab initio methods. Application of the thermodynamic cycle to neutral alkali metal atoms solvated in ammonia yields solvation enthalpies that are significantly lower than those obtained for water.

  10. Alkali promotion of N-2 dissociation over Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    Using self-consistent density functional calculations, we show that adsorbed Na and Cs lower the barrier for dissociation of N2 on Ru(0001). Since N2 dissociation is a crucial step in the ammonia synthesis reaction, we explain in this way the experimental observation that alkali metals promote...... the ammonia synthesis reaction over Ru catalysts. We also show that the origin of this effect is predominantly a direct electrostatic attraction between the adsorbed alkali atoms and the dissociating molecule....

  11. Photoemission spectroscopy study of a multi-alkali photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Ettema, A R H


    In this paper a photoemission study of the highest core levels of the elements and the electron escape barrier (work function) in a multi-alkali photocathode are presented. The core levels indicate that the alkali atoms are in an oxidized state and therefore the compound Na sub 2 KSb can be regarded as an ionic semiconductor. The measured escape barrier of the Cs sub 2 O surface layer is determined as 2.3 eV.

  12. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.


    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  13. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.


    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites

  14. Absorption spectra of alkali-C₆₀ nanoclusters. (United States)

    Rabilloud, Franck


    We investigate the absorption spectra of alkali-doped C60 nanoclusters, namely C60Nan, C60Kn, and C60Lin, with n = 1, 2, 6, 12, in the framework of the time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). We study the dependence of the absorption spectra on the nature of the alkali. We show that in few cases the absorption spectra depend on the arrangement of the alkali atoms over the fullerene, though sometimes the absorption spectra do not allow us to distinguish between different configurations. When only one or two alkali atoms are adsorbed on the fullerene, the optical response of alkali-doped C60 is similar to that of the anion C60(-) with a strong response in the UV domain. In contrast, for higher concentration of alkali, a strong optical response is predicted in the visible range, particularly when metal-metal bonds are formed. The weak optical response of the I(h)-symmetry C60Li12 is proposed to be used as a signature of its structure.

  15. Alkali-metal azides interacting with metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Armata, Nerina; Cortese, Remedios; Duca, Dario; Triolo, Roberto


    Interactions between alkali-metal azides and metal-organic framework (MOF) derivatives, namely, the first and third members of the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) family, IRMOF-1 and IRMOF-3, are studied within the density functional theory (DFT) paradigm. The investigations take into account different models of the selected IRMOFs. The mutual influence between the alkali-metal azides and the π rings or Zn centers of the involved MOF derivatives are studied by considering the interactions both of the alkali-metal cations with model aromatic centers and of the alkali-metal azides with distinct sites of differently sized models of IRMOF-1 and IRMOF-3. Several exchange and correlation functionals are employed to calculate the corresponding interaction energies. Remarkably, it is found that, with increasing alkali-metal atom size, the latter decrease for cations interacting with the π-ring systems and increase for the azides interacting with the MOF fragments. The opposite behavior is explained by stabilization effects on the azide moieties and determined by the Zn atoms, which constitute the inorganic vertices of the IRMOF species. Larger cations can, in fact, coordinate more efficiently to both the aromatic center and the azide anion, and thus stabilizing bridging arrangements of the azide between one alkali-metal and two Zn atoms in an η(2) coordination mode are more favored.

  16. Two-phase alkali-metal experiments in reduced gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniak, Z.I.


    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. A literature search of relevant experiments in reduced gravity is reported on here, and reveals a paucity of data for such correlations. The few ongoing experiments in reduced gravity are noted. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. A similar situation exists regarding two-phase alkali-metal flow and heat transfer, even in normal gravity. Existing data are conflicting and indequate for the task of modeling a space reactor using a two-phase alkali-metal coolant. The major features of past experiments are described here. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from the two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Analyses undertaken here give every expectation that the correlations developed from this data base will provide a valid representation of alkali-metal heat transfer and pressure drop in reduced gravity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bwire S. Ndazi


    Full Text Available Chemical and thermal stability of rice husks against alkali treatment with 2 to 8% w/v NaOH are presented and discussed in this paper. The thermal stability of the rice husks was examined by using a thermal gravimetric analysis instrument. Chemical stability was evaluated by examining the organic components of rice husks using proximate analysis. The results indicated that the proportion of lignin and hemicellulose in rice husks treated with NaOH ranging from 4 to 8% decreased significantly by 96% and 74%, respectively. The thermal stability and final degradation temperatures of the alkali-treated rice husks were also lowered by 24-26°C due to degradation of hemicellulose and lignin during alkali treatment. Absence of the onset degradation zones in the alkali-treated rice husks was a further indication that hemicellulose and other volatile substances degraded during alkali treatment. This leads to a conclusion that alkali treatment of rice husks with more than 4% NaOH causes a substantial chemical degradation of rice husks, which subsequently decreases their thermal stability.

  18. Vibrations of alkali metal overlayers on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusina, G G; Eremeev, S V; Borisova, S D [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Echenique, P M; Chulkov, E V [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), 20018 San Sebastian/Donostia, Basque Country (Spain); Benedek, G [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)], E-mail:


    We review the current progress in the understanding of vibrations of alkalis adsorbed on metal surfaces. The analysis of alkali vibrations was made on the basis of available theoretical and experimental results. We also include in this discussion our recent calculations of vibrations in K/Pt(111) and Li(Na)/Cu(001) systems. The dependence of alkali adlayer localized modes on atomic mass, adsorption position and coverage as well as the dependence of vertical vibration frequency on the substrate orientation is discussed. The square root of atomic mass dependence of the vertical vibration energy has been confirmed by using computational data for alkalis on the Al(111) and Cu(001) substrates. We have confirmed that in a wide range of submonolayer coverages the stretch mode energy remains nearly constant while the energy of in-plane polarized modes increases with the increase of alkali coverage. It was shown that the spectrum of both stretch and in-plane vibrations can be very sensitive to the adsorption position of alkali atoms and substrate orientation.

  19. Vibrations of alkali metal overlayers on metal surfaces (United States)

    Rusina, G. G.; Eremeev, S. V.; Echenique, P. M.; Benedek, G.; Borisova, S. D.; Chulkov, E. V.


    We review the current progress in the understanding of vibrations of alkalis adsorbed on metal surfaces. The analysis of alkali vibrations was made on the basis of available theoretical and experimental results. We also include in this discussion our recent calculations of vibrations in K/Pt(111) and Li(Na)/Cu(001) systems. The dependence of alkali adlayer localized modes on atomic mass, adsorption position and coverage as well as the dependence of vertical vibration frequency on the substrate orientation is discussed. The square root of atomic mass dependence of the vertical vibration energy has been confirmed by using computational data for alkalis on the Al(111) and Cu(001) substrates. We have confirmed that in a wide range of submonolayer coverages the stretch mode energy remains nearly constant while the energy of in-plane polarized modes increases with the increase of alkali coverage. It was shown that the spectrum of both stretch and in-plane vibrations can be very sensitive to the adsorption position of alkali atoms and substrate orientation.

  20. Alkali and heavy metal emissions of the PCFB-process; Alkali- ja raskasmetallipaeaestoet PCFB-prosessista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, R.; Eriksson, T.; Lehtonen, P. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula (Finland)


    Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology has been developed in Karhula R and D Center since 1986. As part of the development, 10 MW PCFB test facility was built in 1989. The test facility has been used for performance testing with different coal types through the years 1990-1995 in order to gain data for design and commercialization of the high-efficiency low-emission PCFB combustion technology. The main object of the project was to measure vapor phase Na and K concentrations in the PCFB flue gas after hot gas filter and investigate the effects of process conditions and sorbents on alkali release. The measurements were performed using plasma assisted method of TUT Laboratory of Plasma Technology and wet absorption method of VTT Energy. The measurements were carried out during three test campaigns at PCFB Test Facility in Karhula. In autumn 1995 both VTT and TUT methods were used. The measurements of the following test period in spring 1996 were performed by VTT, and during the last test segment in autumn 1996 TUT method was in use. During the last test period, the TUT instrument was used as semi-continuous (3 values/minute) alkali analyzer for part of the time. The measured Na concentrations were below 30 ppb(w) in all measured data points. The results of K were below 10 ppb(w). The accuracies of the both methods are about +50 % at this concentration range. The scatter of the data covers the effects of different process variables on the alkali emission. The measured emissions are at the same order of magnitude as the guideline emission limits estimated by gas turbine manufacturers

  1. Relation between the electroforming voltage in alkali halide-polymer diodes and the bandgap of the alkali halide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jingxin; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J., E-mail: [Molecular Materials and Nanosystems and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gomes, Henrique L. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco, Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal and Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); De Leeuw, Dago M. [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany and King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)


    Electroforming of indium-tin-oxide/alkali halide/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes has been investigated by bias dependent reflectivity measurements. The threshold voltages for electrocoloration and electroforming are independent of layer thickness and correlate with the bandgap of the alkali halide. We argue that the origin is voltage induced defect formation. Frenkel defect pairs are formed by electron–hole recombination in the alkali halide. This self-accelerating process mitigates injection barriers. The dynamic junction formation is compared to that of a light emitting electrochemical cell. A critical defect density for electroforming is 10{sup 25}/m{sup 3}. The electroformed alkali halide layer can be considered as a highly doped semiconductor with metallic transport characteristics.

  2. Superconductivity in alkali-metal-doped picene. (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Ryoji; Suzuki, Yuta; Yamanari, Yusuke; Mitamura, Hiroki; Kambe, Takashi; Ikeda, Naoshi; Okamoto, Hideki; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Yamaji, Minoru; Kawasaki, Naoko; Maniwa, Yutaka; Kubozono, Yoshihiro


    Efforts to identify and develop new superconducting materials continue apace, motivated by both fundamental science and the prospects for application. For example, several new superconducting material systems have been developed in the recent past, including calcium-intercalated graphite compounds, boron-doped diamond and-most prominently-iron arsenides such as LaO(1-x)F(x)FeAs (ref. 3). In the case of organic superconductors, however, no new material system with a high superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) has been discovered in the past decade. Here we report that intercalating an alkali metal into picene, a wide-bandgap semiconducting solid hydrocarbon, produces metallic behaviour and superconductivity. Solid potassium-intercalated picene (K(x)picene) shows T(c) values of 7 K and 18 K, depending on the metal content. The drop of magnetization in K(x)picene solids at the transition temperature is sharp (<2 K), similar to the behaviour of Ca-intercalated graphite. The T(c) of 18 K is comparable to that of K-intercalated C(60) (ref. 4). This discovery of superconductivity in K(x)picene shows that organic hydrocarbons are promising candidates for improved T(c) values.

  3. Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Alkali Metal Ions. (United States)

    Kim, Youngsam; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G


    The common Group 1 alkali metals are indeed ubiquitous on earth, in the oceans and in biological systems. In this introductory chapter, concepts involving aqueous chemistry and aspects of general coordination chemistry and oxygen atom donor chemistry are introduced. Also, there are nuclear isotopes of importance. A general discussion of Group 1 begins from the prevalence of the ions, and from a comparison of their ionic radii and ionization energies. While oxygen and water molecule binding have the most relevance to biology and in forming a detailed understanding between the elements, there is a wide range of basic chemistry that is potentially important, especially with respect to biological chelation and synthetic multi-dentate ligand design. The elements are widely distributed in life forms, in the terrestrial environment and in the oceans. The details about the workings in animal, as well as plant life are presented in this volume. Important biometallic aspects of human health and medicine are introduced as well. Seeing as the elements are widely present in biology, various particular endogenous molecules and enzymatic systems can be studied. Sodium and potassium are by far the most important and central elements for consideration. Aspects of lithium, rubidium, cesium and francium chemistry are also included; they help in making important comparisons related to the coordination chemistry of Na(+) and K(+). Physical methods are also introduced.

  4. Superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (United States)

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Toshio; Hirata, Chika; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko


    Superconductivity in alkali metal-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs) was observed in K3.3C60NWs, Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs with transition temperatures at 17, 25 and 26 K, respectively. Almost full shielding volume fraction (~80%) was observed in K3.3C60NWs when subjected to thermal treatment at 200 °C for a duration of 24 h. In contrast, the shielding fraction of Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs were calculated to be 8% and 6%, respectively. Here we report on an extensive investigation of the superconducting properties of these AC60NWs (A  =  K3.3, Rb3.0 and Cs2.0Rb1.0). These properties are compared to the ones reported on the corresponding conventional (single-crystal or powder) K-doped fullerene. We also evaluated the critical current densities of these C60NWs using the Bean model under an applied magnetic field up to 50 kOe.

  5. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes;


    Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts were prepared using three different supports ZrO2, TiO2 and Mordenite zeolite. The majority of the catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a commercial support, with vanadium, copper or iron precursor, one catalyst was prepared...... by onepot sol–gel method. All catalysts were characterized by BET, XRPD and NH3-TPD. Initial SCR activities of 8 out of 9 catalysts showed higher NO conversion at least at one temperature in the temperature range 300–500 ◦C compared to the conventional V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. After potassium poisoning (100......–130 µmol of K/g of catalyst) the relative drop in SCR activity and acidity was lower for all the alternative catalysts compared to the industrial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. Furthermore, Cu/MOR and Nano-V2O5/Sul-TiO2 catalysts showed 8–16 times higher SCR activities than the conventional even after high...

  6. Alkali-aggregate reactivity of typical siliceious glass and carbonate rocks in alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymers (United States)

    Lu, Duyou; Liu, Yongdao; Zheng, Yanzeng; Xu, Zhongzi; Shen, Xiaodong


    For exploring the behaviour of alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) in alkali-activated geopolymeric materials and assessing the procedures for testing AAR in geopolymers, the expansion behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer mortars with pure silica glass and typical carbonate rocks were studied respectively by curing at various conditions, i.e. 23°C and 38°C with relative humidity over 95%, immersed in 1M NaOH solution at 80°C. Results show that, at various curing conditions, neither harmful ASR nor harmful ACR was observed in geopolymers with the criteria specified for OPC system. However, with the change of curing conditions, the geopolymer binder and reactive aggregates may experience different reaction processes leading to quite different dimensional changes, especially with additional alkalis and elevated temperatures. It suggests that high temperature with additional alkali for accelerating AAR in traditional OPC system may not appropriate for assessing the alkali-aggregate reactivity behaviour in geopolymers designed for normal conditions. On the other hand, it is hopeful to control the dimensional change of geopolymer mortar or concrete by selecting the type of aggregates and the appropriate curing conditions, thus changing the harmful AAR in OPC into beneficial AAR in geopolymers and other alkali-activated cementitious systems.

  7. Interactions and low energy collisions between an alkali ion and an alkali atom of different nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Rakshit, Arpita; Berriche, Hamid; Deb, Bimalendu


    We study theoretically interaction potentials and low energy collisions between different alkali atoms and alkali ions. Specifically, we consider systems like X + Y$^{+}$, where X(Y$^{+})$ is either Li(Cs$^+$) or Cs((Li$^+$), Na(Cs$^+$) or Cs(Na$^+$) and Li(Rb$^+$) or Rb(Li$^+$). We calculate the molecular potentials of the ground and first two excited states of these three systems using pseudopotential method and compare our results with those obtained by others. We calculate ground-state scattering wave functions and cross sections of these systems for a wide range of energies. We find that, in order to get convergent results for the total scattering cross sections for energies of the order $1$ K, one needs to take into account at least 60 partial waves. In the low energy limit ($< 1 \\mu$K), elastic scattering cross sections exhibit Wigner law threshold behavior while in the high energy limit the cross sections go as $E^{-1/3}$. We discuss qualitatively the possibilities of forming cold molecular ion by ...

  8. Hydrogen storage over alkali metal hydride and alkali metal hydroxide composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Yu; Yong Shen Chua; Hujun Cao; Zhitao Xiong; Guotao Wu; Ping Chen


    Alkali metal hydroxide and hydride composite systems contain both protic (H bonded with O) and hydridic hydrogen. The interaction of these two types of hydrides produces hydrogen. The enthalpy of dehydrogenation increased with the increase of atomic number of alkali metals, i.e.,-23 kJ/molH2 for LiOH-LiH, 55.34 kJ/molH2 for NaOH-NaH and 222 kJ/molH2 for KOH-KH. These thermodynamic calculation results were consistent with our experimental results. H2 was released from LiOH-LiH system during ball milling. The dehydrogenation temperature of NaOH-NaH system was about 150◦C; whereas KOH and KH did not interact with each other during the heating process. Instead, KH decomposed by itself. In these three systems, NaOH-NaH was the only reversible hydrogen storage system, the enthalpy of dehydrogenation was about 55.65 kJ/molH2 , and the corresponding entropy was ca. 101.23 J/(molH2 ·K), so the temperature for releasing 1.0 bar H2 was as high as 518◦C, showing unfavorable thermodynamic properties. The activation energy for hydrogen desorption of NaOH-NaH was found to be 57.87 kJ/mol, showing good kinetic properties.

  9. Alkali norite, troctolites, and VHK mare basalts from breccia 14304 (United States)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Keil, Klaus; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Warren, Paul H.


    Twelve clasts were separated from breccia 14304 for consortium study: six pristine highlands rocks, two mare basalts, and four nonpristine highlands rocks. The pristine highlands rocks include representatives of the magnesian troctolite-anorthosite and alkali suites, the two most common subgroups of the Mg suite found at the Apollo 14 site. Two troctolite clasts have olivine (~Fo 90) and plagioclase (~An 94) compositions similar to one group of Apolo 14 troctolites. One also contains spinel (Mg' 66-85). Incompatible element abundances in one are similar to those of 14305 troctolites, although the HREE (heavy rare earth elements) pattern is distinct among Apollo 14 troctolites. A dunite clast (~Fo 89) may be an unrepresentative piece of a troctolite. Alkali lithologies include an alkali anorthosite and an alkali norite, which is a rock type not previously described. The alkali norite has a pristine igneous texture and contains inverted pigeonite (Mg' 64), plagioclase (An82), K-feldspar, ternary feldspar, REE-rich phosphates, and silica. It resembles alkali gabbronorites from Apollo 14 and 67975 in mineralogy and mineral compositions. Alkali lithologies and phosphate-bearing magnesian anorthosites from Apollo 14 may have formed from Mg-rich magmas that assimilated various amounts of material rich in P and REE. This material could be a fractionated derivative of urKREEP. another pristine clast from 14304 is an Mg-gabbronorite. The two mare basalt clasts are very high potassium (VHK) basalts. They have 4 mg/g K and K/La ratios of 580 and 700. The parent magmas of VHK basalts could have formed from typical low-Ti, high-Al basaltic magmas by assimilation of K-rich material. This material could also be a fractionated derivative or urKREEP. Nonpristine 14304 clasts include melt-textured anorthosites and an augite-rich poikilitic melt rock. The latter is probably polymict, but its major component must be an Mg-suite gabbro.

  10. Molecular photons interfaced with alkali atoms. (United States)

    Siyushev, Petr; Stein, Guilherme; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja


    Future quantum communication will rely on the integration of single-photon sources, quantum memories and systems with strong single-photon nonlinearities. Two key parameters are crucial for the single-photon source: a high photon flux with a very small bandwidth, and a spectral match to other components of the system. Atoms or ions may act as single-photon sources--owing to their narrowband emission and their intrinsic spectral match to other atomic systems--and can serve as quantum nonlinear elements. Unfortunately, their emission rates are still limited, even for highly efficient cavity designs. Single solid-state emitters such as single organic dye molecules are significantly brighter and allow for narrowband photons; they have shown potential in a variety of quantum optical experiments but have yet to be interfaced with other components such as stationary memory qubits. Here we describe the optical interaction between Fourier-limited photons from a single organic molecule and atomic alkali vapours, which can constitute an efficient quantum memory. Single-photon emission rates reach up to several hundred thousand counts per second and show a high spectral brightness of 30,000 detectable photons per second per megahertz of bandwidth. The molecular emission is robust and we demonstrate perfect tuning to the spectral transitions of the sodium D line and efficient filtering, even for emitters at ambient conditions. In addition, we achieve storage of molecular photons originating from a single dibenzanthanthrene molecule in atomic sodium vapour. Given the large set of molecular emission lines matching to atomic transitions, our results enable the combination of almost ideal single-photon sources with various atomic vapours, such that experiments with giant single-photon nonlinearities, mediated, for example, by Rydberg atoms, become feasible.

  11. Nature of the Charge Localized Between Alkali Adatoms and Metal Substrates


    Wertheim, G. K.; Riffe, D. Mark; Citrin, P. H.


    Two previously unappreciated features in photoemission spectra from alkali atoms adsorbed on W(110), namely, the sign of the alkali-induced surface-atom core-level shift of the substrate at low coverage and the very large alkali shallow core-hole lifetime width at all coverages, show that the alkali-substrate interaction is not well described by a transfer of alkali charge. Instead, both features point to the formation of a charge cloud between the alkali adatom and substrate that is d...

  12. Multi-photon processes in alkali metal vapors (United States)

    Gai, Baodong; Hu, Shu; Li, Hui; Shi, Zhe; Cai, Xianglong; Guo, Jingwei; Tan, Yannan; Liu, Wanfa; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting


    Achieving population inversion through multi-photon cascade pumping is almost always difficult, and most laser medium work under 1-photon excitation mechanism. But for alkali atoms such as cesium, relatively large absorption cross sections of several low, cascading energy levels enable them properties such as up conversion. Here we carried out research on two-photon excitation alkali fluorescence. Two photons of near infrared region are used to excite alkali atoms to n 2 D5/2, n 2 D3/2 or higher energy levels, then the blue fluorescence of (n+1) 2 P3/2,(n+1) 2 P1/2-->n 2 S1/2 are observed. Different pumping paths are tried and by the recorded spectra, transition routes of cesium are deducted and concluded. Finally the possibility of two-photon style DPALs (diode pumped alkali laser) are discussed, such alkali lasers can give output wavelengths in the shorter end of visual spectroscopy (400-460 nm) and are expected to get application in underwater communication and material laser processing.

  13. Utilization of Mineral Wools as Alkali-Activated Material Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Yliniemi


    Full Text Available Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW and glass wool (GW were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated with a sodium aluminate solution. Compressive strengths of up to 30.0 MPa and 48.7 MPa were measured for RW and GW, respectively, with high flexural strengths measured for both (20.1 MPa for RW and 13.2 MPa for GW. The resulting alkali-activated matrix was a composite-type in which partly-dissolved fibers were dispersed. In addition to the amorphous material, sodium aluminate silicate hydroxide hydrate and magnesium aluminum hydroxide carbonate phases were identified in the alkali-activated RW samples. The only crystalline phase in the GW samples was sodium aluminum silicate. The results of this study show that mineral wool is a very promising raw material for alkali activation.

  14. Maternal exposure to alkali, alkali earth, transition and other metals: Concentrations and predictors of exposure. (United States)

    Hinwood, A L; Stasinska, A; Callan, A C; Heyworth, J; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø


    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children.

  15. Characterization of alkali-modified soy protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.


    Full Text Available To study the influence of the preparation mode, including mild alkali modification, of soy protein concentrate on soluble protein content and composition, some of its nutritive and functional properties were investigated. Soy protein concentrate prepared by aqueous alcohol leaching was modified in mild alkaline solutions (pH 8.0 at 40, 50 and 60° C for 60 minutes and compared with two principal types of commercial soy protein concentrate. Soluble protein content, composition and properties of soy protein concentrate, as well as their potential use are essentially determined by the preparation mode. Limited mild alkali hydrolysis increased protein solubility by 40-71%, while emulsion stability was increased by 18-56%. Major storage soybean proteins exhibited different stability to alcohol denaturation and mild alkali modification. The most susceptible were acidic -A3 - and -A5- subunits of glycinin.

  16. Orbital Feshbach Resonance in Alkali-Earth Atoms. (United States)

    Zhang, Ren; Cheng, Yanting; Zhai, Hui; Zhang, Peng


    For a mixture of alkali-earth atomic gas in the long-lived excited state ^{3}P_{0} and the ground state ^{1}S_{0}, in addition to nuclear spin, another "orbital" index is introduced to distinguish these two internal states. In this Letter we propose a mechanism to induce Feshbach resonance between two atoms with different orbital and nuclear spin quantum numbers. Two essential ingredients are the interorbital spin-exchange process and orbital dependence of the Landé g factors. Here the orbital degrees of freedom plays a similar role as the electron spin degree of freedom in magnetic Feshbach resonance in alkali-metal atoms. This resonance is particularly accessible for the ^{173}Yb system. The BCS-BEC crossover in this system requires two fermion pairing order parameters, and displays a significant difference compared to that in an alkali-metal system.

  17. Oscillation Frequencies for Simultaneous Trapping of Heteronuclear Alkali Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Arora, Bindiya


    We investigate oscillation frequencies for simultaneous trapping of more than one type of alkali atoms in a common optical lattice. For this purpose, we present numerical results for magic trapping conditions, where the oscillation frequencies for two different kind of alkali atoms using laser lights in the wavelength range 500-1200 nm are same. These wavelengths will be of immense interest for studying static and dynamic properties of boson-boson, boson-fermion, fermion-fermion, and boson-boson-boson mixtures involving different isotopes of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr alkali atoms. In addition to this, we were also able to locate a magic wavelength around 808.1 nm where all the three Li, K, and Rb atoms are found to be suitable for oscillating at the same frequency in a common optical trap.

  18. Properties of Hooked Steel Fibers Reinforced Alkali Activated Material Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M. A.


    Full Text Available In this study, alkali activated material was produced by using Class F fly ash from Manjung power station, Lumut, Perak, Malaysia. Fly ash then was activated by alkaline activator which is consisting of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Hooked end steel fibers were added into the alkali activated material system with percentage vary from 0 % – 5 %. Chemical compositions of fly ash were first analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF. All hardened alkali activated material samples were tested for density, workability, and compression after 28 days. Results show a slight increase of density with the addition of steel fibers. However, the workability was reduced with the addition of steel fibers content. Meanwhile, the addition of steel fibers shows the improvement of compressive strength which is about 19 % obtained at 3 % of steel fibers addition.

  19. Formation and Stability of High-Spin Alkali Clusters (United States)

    Schulz, C. P.; Claas, P.; Schumacher, D.; Stienkemeier, F.


    Helium nanodroplet isolation has been applied to agglomerate alkali clusters at temperatures of 380mK. The very weak binding to the surface of the droplets allows a selection of only weakly bound, high-spin states. Here we show that larger clusters of alkali atoms in high-spin states can be formed. The lack of strong bonds from pairing electrons makes these systems nonmetallic, vanderWaals like complexes of metal atoms. We find that sodium and potassium readily form such clusters containing up to 25atoms. In contrast, this process is suppressed for rubidium and cesium. Apparently, for these heavy alkalis, larger high-spin aggregates are not stable and depolarize spontaneously upon cluster formation.

  20. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, C.Y.


    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study.

  1. Low-frequency Raman scattering in alkali tellurite glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelos G Kalampounias


    Raman scattering has been employed to study the alkali-cation size dependence and the polarization characteristics of the low-frequency modes for the glass-forming tellurite mixtures, 0.1M2O–0.9TeO2 (M = Na, K, Rb and Cs). The analysis has shown that the Raman coupling coefficient alters by varying the type of the alkali cation. The addition of alkali modifier in the tellurite network leads to the conversion of the TeO4 units to TeO3 units with a varying number of non-bridging oxygen atoms. Emphasis has also been given to the lowfrequency modes and particular points related to the low-frequency Raman phenomenology are discussed in view of the experimental findings.

  2. Alkali control of high-grade metamorphism and granitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov


    Full Text Available We review petrologic observations of reaction textures from high-grade rocks that suggest the passage of fluids with variable alkali activities. Development of these reaction textures is accompanied by regular compositional variations in plagioclase, pyroxenes, biotite, amphibole and garnet. The textures are interpreted in terms of exchange and net-transfer reactions controlled by the K and Na activities in the fluids. On the regional scale, these reactions operate in granitized, charnockitized, syenitized etc. shear zones within high-grade complexes. Thermodynamic calculations in simple chemical systems show that changes in mineral assemblages, including the transition from the hydrous to the anhydrous ones, may occur at constant pressure and temperature due only to variations in the H2O and the alkali activities. A simple procedure for estimating the activity of the two major alkali oxides, K2O and Na2O, is implemented in the TWQ software. Examples of calculations are presented for well-documented dehydration zones from South Africa, southern India, and Sri Lanka. The calculations have revealed two end-member regimes of alkalis during specific metamorphic processes: rock buffered, which is characteristic for the precursor rocks containing two feldspars, and fluid-buffered for the precursor rocks without K-feldspar. The observed reaction textures and the results of thermodynamic modeling are compared with the results of available experimental studies on the interaction of the alkali chloride and carbonate-bearing fluids with metamorphic rocks at mid-crustal conditions. The experiments show the complex effect of alkali activities in the fluid phase on the mineral assemblages. Both thermodynamic calculations and experiments closely reproduce paragenetic relations theoretically predicted by D.S. Korzhinskii in the 1940s.

  3. A hidden history of heartburn: The milk-alkali syndrome. (United States)

    Swaminathan, Krishnan


    Milk-alkali syndrome was once considered to be of historic interest and a rare cause of hypercalcemia. Currently, it should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia, after malignancies and primary hyperparathyroidism. The resurgence is in part due to the easy availability of over the counter (OTC) calcium preparations. We describe a 50-year-old man who presented with severe hypercalcemia on two occasions associated with renal failure and metabolic alkalosis. Extensive investigations during the first admission failed to unravel a specific cause of hypercalcemia but a thorough history during his subsequent admission helped to confirm the diagnosis of milk-alkali syndrome.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; ZHANG Chengjiang; WU Dechao; LI Youguo


    Ultramafic hypoxenoliths found in the alkali-rich porphyry in the Liuhe Village, Heqing, Yunnan,China, are of great significance in understanding the origin and evolution of the porphyry. This paper discusses the mineralogical features of the hypoxenoliths. It shows that the xenoliths are characterized by the upper mantle rocks modified to certain extent by the enriched mantle fluid metasomatism in the mantle environment, with the enriched mantle property of Iow-degree partial melting. This constitutes the important mineralogical evidence for the petrogenesis and mineralization of alkali-rich porphyry.

  5. Assessment of concrete bridge decks with alkali silica reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kirsten; Jansson, Jacob; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Based on investigations of concrete from an approximately 40 years old bridge a procedure to support the management of maintenance and repair of alkali silica damaged bridges is proposed. Combined petrography and accelerated expansion testing were undertaken on cores from the Bridge at Skovdiget......, Bagsværd, Denmark to provide information on the damage condition as well as the residual reactivity of the concrete. The Danish Road Directory’s guidelines for inspection and assessment of alkali silica damaged bridges will be briefly presented, and proposed modifications will be describe...

  6. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard


    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  7. IRMPD action spectroscopy of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes: effects of alkali metal cation size on gas phase conformation. (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wu, R R; Polfer, N C; Berden, G; Oomens, J; Rodgers, M T


    The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both similar and distinctive spectral features over the range of ~1000-1900 cm(-1). The IRMPD spectra of the Li(+)(cytosine), Na(+)(cytosine), and K(+)(cytosine) complexes are relatively simple but exhibit changes in the shape and shifts in the positions of several bands that correlate with the size of the alkali metal cation. The IRMPD spectra of the Rb(+)(cytosine) and Cs(+)(cytosine) complexes are much richer as distinctive new IR bands are observed, and the positions of several bands continue to shift in relation to the size of the metal cation. The measured IRMPD spectra are compared to linear IR spectra of stable low-energy tautomeric conformations calculated at the B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level of theory to identify the conformations accessed in the experiments. These comparisons suggest that the evolution in the features in the IRMPD action spectra with the size of the metal cation, and the appearance of new bands for the larger metal cations, are the result of the variations in the intensities at which these complexes can be generated and the strength of the alkali metal cation-cytosine binding interaction, not the presence of multiple tautomeric conformations. Only a single tautomeric conformation is accessed for all five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes, where the alkali metal cation binds to the O2 and N3 atoms of the canonical amino-oxo tautomer of cytosine, M(+)(C1).

  8. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  9. Formation of alkali-metal nanoparticles in alkali-silicate glasses under electron irradiation and thermal processing (United States)

    Bochkareva, E. S.; Sidorov, A. I.; Ignat'ev, A. I.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Podsvirov, O. A.


    Experiments and numerical simulation show that the irradiation of alkali-containing glasses using electrons at an energy of 35 keV and the subsequent thermal processing at a temperature above the vitrification point lead to the formation of spherical metal (lithium, sodium, and potassium) nanoparticles with oxide sheaths that exhibit plasmon resonances in the visible spectral range. Glasses containing two alkali metals exhibit mutual effect of metals on the formation of nanoparticles with two compositions due to the difference of ion radii and mobilities of metal ions.

  10. A new mechanism for radiation damage processes in alkali halides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den


    We present a theory of radiation damage formation in alkali halides based on a new mechanism of dislocation climb, which involves the production of VF centers (self-trapped hole neighboring a cation vacancy) as a result of the absorption of H centers of dislocation lines. We consider the evolution o

  11. Powder X-ray diffraction study af alkali alanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Thao; Mosegaard Arnbjerg, Lene; Jensen, Torben René

    for mobile applications, new materials with high gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity of hydrogen have to be developed. Alkali alanates are promising for hydrogen storage materials. Sodium alanate stores hydrogen reversibly at moderate conditions when catalysed with, e.g. titanium, whereas potassium...

  12. Alkali and Halogen Chemistry in Volcanic Gases on Io

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, L


    We use chemical equilibrium calculations to model the speciation of alkalis and halogens in volcanic gases emitted on Io. The calculations cover wide temperature (500-2000 K) and pressure (10^-6 to 10^+1 bars) ranges, which overlap the nominal conditions at Pele (T = 1760 K, P = 0.01 bars). About 230 compounds of 11 elements (O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, I) are considered. We predict the major alkali and halogen species in a Pele-like volcanic gas and the major alklai and halogen condensates. We also model disequilibrium chemistry of the alkalis and halogens in the volcanic plume. Based on this work and our prior modeling for Na, K, and Cl in a volcanic plume, we predict the major loss processes for the alkali halide gases are photolysis and/or condensation onto grains. On the basis of elemental abundances and photochemical lifetimes, we recommend searching for gaseous KCl, NaF, LiF, LiCl, RbF, RbCl, CsF, and CsCl around volcanic vents during eruptions. Based on abundance considerations and observation...

  13. Effect of Pozzolanic Reaction Products on Alkali-silica Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Fengyan; LAN Xianghui; LV Yinong; XU Zhongzi


    The effect of fly ash on controlling alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in simulated alkali solution was studied. The expansion of mortar bars and the content of Ca(OH)2 in cement paste cured at 80 ℃ for 91 d were measured. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were employed to study the microstructure of C-S-H. TEM/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was then used to determine the composition of C-S-H. The pore structure of the paste was analyzed by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). The results show that the contents of fly ash of 30% and 45% can well inhibit ASR. And the content of Ca(OH)2 decreases with the increase of fly ash. That fly ash reacted with Ca(OH)2 to produce C-S-H with a low Ca/Si molar ratio could bind more Na+ and K+ ions, and produce a reduction in the amount of soluble alkali available for ASR. At the same time, the C-S-H produced by pozzolanic reaction converted large pores to smaller ones (gel pores smaller than 10 nm) to densify the pore structure. Perhaps that could inhibit alkali transport to aggregate for ASR.

  14. Chlor-Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach (United States)

    Sanchez-Sanchez, C. M.; Exposito, E.; Frias-Ferrer, A.; Gonzalez-Garaia, J.; Monthiel, V.; Aldaz, A.


    A laboratory experiment for students in the last year of degree program in chemical engineering, chemistry, or industrial chemistry is presented. It models the chlor-alkali process, one of the most important industrial applications of electrochemical technology and the second largest industrial consumer of electricity after aluminium industry.

  15. Influence of temperature on alkali stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes cells may induce alkali stress adaptation when exposed to sublethal concentrations of alkaline cleaners and sanitizers that may be frequently used in the food processing environment. In the present study, the effect of temperature on the induction and the stability of such alk...

  16. Assesment of Alkali Resistance of Basalt Used as Concrete Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-Swaidani Aref M.


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report a part of an ongoing research on the influence of using crushed basalt as aggregates on one of durability-related properties of concrete (i.e. alkali-silica reaction which is the most common form of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction. Alkali resistance has been assessed through several methods specified in the American Standards. Results of petrographic examination, chemical test (ASTM C289 and accelerated mortar bar test (ASTM C1260 have particularly been reported. In addition, the weight change and compressive strength of 28 days cured concrete containing basaltic aggregates were also reported after 90 days of exposure to 10% NaOH solution. Dolomite aggregate were used in the latter test for comparison. The experimental results revealed that basaltic rocks quarried from As-Swaida’a region were suitable for production of aggregates for concrete. According to the test results, the studied basalt aggregates can be classified as innocuous with regard to alkali-silica reaction. Further, the 10% sodium hydroxide attack did not affect the compressive strength of concrete.

  17. Effect of Anti-freezing Admixtures on Alkali-silica Reaction in Mortars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junzhe; LI Yushun; LV Lihua


    The influence of anti-freezing admixture on the alkali aggregate reaction in mortar was analyzed with accelerated methods. It is confirmed that the addition of sodium salt ingredients of anti-freezing admixture accelerates the alkali silica reaction to some extent, whereas calcium salt ingredient of anti-freezing admixture reduces the expansion of alkali silica reaction caused by high alkali cement. It is found that the addition of the fly ash considerably suppresses the expansion of alkali silica reaction induced by the anti-freezing admixtures.

  18. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue (United States)

    Sharp, David W.


    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  19. Generation and characterization of alkali metal clusters in Y-FAU zeolites. An ESR and MAS NMR spectroscopic study (United States)

    Hannus, István; Béres, Attila; Nagy, János B.; Halász, János; Kiricsi, Imre


    Charged and neutral metal clusters of various compositions and sizes can be prepared by controlling the alkali metal content by the decomposition of alkali azides and the composition of the host zeolite by ion-exchange. ESR signals show that electron transfer from alkali metal atoms to alkali metal cations does occur, but in a direction opposite to that predicted by the gas-phase thermochemistry. Alkali metal clusters proved to be very active basic catalytic centers.

  20. Coherent coupling of alkali atoms by random collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Or; Firstenberg, Ofer


    Random spin-exchange collisions in warm alkali vapor cause rapid decoherence and act to equilibriate the spin state of the atoms. In contrast, here we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a coherent coupling of one alkali specie to another specie, mediated by these random collisions. We show that, the minor specie (potassium) inherits the magnetic properties of the dominant specie (rubidium), including its lifetime (T1), coherence time (T2), gyromagnetic ratio, and SERF magnetic-field threshold. We further show that this coupling can be completely controlled by varying the strength of the magnetic field. Finally, we explain these phenomena analytically by modes-mixing of the two species via spin-exchange collisions.

  1. Alkali-helium snowball complexes formed on helium nanodroplets. (United States)

    Müller, S; Mudrich, M; Stienkemeier, F


    We systematically investigate the formation and stability of snowballs formed by femtosecond photoionization of small alkali clusters bound to helium nanodroplets. For all studied alkali species Ak = (Na,K,Rb,Cs) we observe the formation of snowballs Ak(+)He(N) when multiply doping the droplets. Fragmentation of clusters Ak(N) upon ionization appears to enhance snowball formation. In the case of Na and Cs we also detect snowballs Ak(2) (+)He(N) formed around Ak dimer ions. While the snowball progression for Na and K is limited to less than 11 helium atoms, the heavier atoms Rb and Cs feature wide distributions at least up to Ak(+)He(41). Characteristic steps in the mass spectra of Cs-doped helium droplets are found at positions consistent with predictions on the closure of the first shell of helium atoms around the Ak(+) ion based on variational Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Coherent coupling of alkali atoms by random collisions. (United States)

    Katz, Or; Peleg, Or; Firstenberg, Ofer


    Random spin-exchange collisions in warm alkali vapor cause rapid decoherence and act to equilibrate the spin state of the atoms in the vapor. In contrast, here we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a coherent coupling of one alkali species to another species, mediated by these random collisions. We show that the minor species (potassium) inherits the magnetic properties of the dominant species (rubidium), including its lifetime (T_{1}), coherence time (T_{2}), gyromagnetic ratio, and spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetic-field threshold. We further show that this coupling can be completely controlled by varying the strength of the magnetic field. Finally, we explain these phenomena analytically by mode mixing of the two species via spin-exchange collisions.

  3. Penetration of alkali atoms throughout a graphene membrane: theoretical modeling. (United States)

    Boukhvalov, D W; Virojanadara, C


    Theoretical studies of penetration of various alkali atoms (Li, Na, Rb, Cs) throughout a graphene membrane grown on a silicon carbide substrate are reported and compared with recent experimental results. Results of first principles modeling demonstrate a rather low (about 0.8 eV) energy barrier for the formation of temporary defects in the carbon layer required for the penetration of Li at a high concentration of adatoms, a higher (about 2 eV) barrier for Na, and barriers above 4 eV for Rb and Cs. Experiments prove migration of lithium adatoms from the graphene surface to the buffer layer and SiC substrate at room temperature, sodium at 100 °C and impenetrability of the graphene membrane for Rb and Cs. Differences between epitaxial and free-standing graphene for the penetration of alkali ions are also discussed.

  4. The optical properties of alkali nitrate single crystals (United States)

    Anan'ev, Vladimir; Miklin, Mikhail


    Absorption of non-polarized light by a uniaxial crystal has been studied. The degree of absorption polarization has been calculated as a function of the ratio of optical densities in the region of low and high absorbances. This function is proposed for analysis of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of uniaxial crystal absorption spectra. Non-polarized light spectra of alkali nitrate single crystals, both pure and doped with thallium, have been studied. It is shown that the absorption band at 300 nm is due to two transitions, whose intensities depend on temperature in various ways. There is a weak band in a short wavelength range of the absorption spectrum of potassium nitrate crystal, whose intensity increases with thallium doping. The band parameters of alkali nitrate single crystals have been calculated. Low-energy transitions in the nitrate ion have been located.

  5. Polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of the alkali metal atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentealba, P. (Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Mecanica Cuantica Aplicada (CMCA)); Reyes, O. (Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Fisica)


    The electric static dipole polarizability [alpha], quadrupole polarizability C, dipole-quadrupole polarizability B, and the second dipole hyperpolarizability [gamma] have been calculated for the alkali metal atoms in the ground state. The results are based on a pseudopotential which is able to incorporate the very important core-valence correlation effect through a core polarization potential, and, in an empirical way, the main relativistic effects. The calculated properties compare very well with more elaborated calculations for the Li atom, excepting the second hyperpolarizability [gamma]. For the other atoms, there is neither theoretical nor experimental information about most of the higher polarizabilities. Hence, the results of this paper should be seen as a first attempt to give a complete account of the series expansion of the interaction energy of an alkali metal atom and a static electric field. (author).

  6. Density functional study of ferromagnetism in alkali metal thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasenjit Sen


    Electronic and magnetic structures of (1 0 0) films of K and Cs, having thicknesses of one to seven layers, are calculated within the plane-wave projector augmented wave (PAW) formalism of the density functional theory (DFT), using both local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the PW91 generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Only a six-layer Cs film is found to have a ferromagnetic (FM) state which is degenerate with a paramagnetic (PM) state within the accuracy of these calculations. These results are compared with those obtained from calculations on a finite-thickness uniform jellium model (UJM), and it is argued that within LSDA or GGA, alkali metal thin films cannot be claimed to have an FM ground state. Relevance of these results to the experiments on transition metal-doped alkali metal thin films and bulk hosts are also discussed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝冬梅; 王新灵; 朱卫华; 唐小真; 刘成岑; 施凯


    Hollow polymer latex particles were prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization. A seed latex consisting of styrene (St), butyl acrylate(BA) copolymer was first prepared, and seeded terpolymerization of St-BA-MA(methacrylic acid) were then carried out in the absence of surfactant. Final latex was treated by a two-step treatment under alkaline and acidic conditions, thus, the particles with hollow structure were obtained. We discussed the effects of pH value, temperature and time in alkali and acid treatment processes on hollow structure within the polymer latex particles and amount of carboxylic group on particle surface. The results show that the hollow polymer latex particles with the largest hollow size can be obtained under a certain condition (pH12.5, 90°C, 3 h in alkali treatment stage and pH2.5, 85°C, 3 h in acid treatment stage).

  8. Alkali halide microstructured optical fiber for X-ray detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHaven, S. L., E-mail:, E-mail:; Wincheski, R. A., E-mail:, E-mail: [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Albin, S., E-mail: [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA 23504 (United States)


    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  9. Positronium-alkali atom scattering at medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Ajoy [Laban Hrad Vidyapith, AD-369, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Basu, Arindam [Department of Physics, Maheshtala College, Chandannagar, South 24 Parganas, Kolkata 700 140 (India); Sarkar, Nirmal K [Sodepur Chandrachur Vidyapith, 1, Desh Bandhu Nagar, Sodepur, 743 174 (India); Sinha, Prabal K [Department of Physics, Bangabasi College, 19, Raj Kumar Chakravorty Sarani, Kolkata 700 009 (India)


    We investigate the scattering of orthopositronium (o-Ps) atom off different atomic alkali targets (Na to Cs) at low and medium energies (up to 120 eV). Projectile-elastic and target-elastic close-coupling models have been employed to investigate the systems in addition to the static-exchange model. Elastic, excitation and total cross sections have been reported for all four systems. The magnitude of the alkali excitation cross section increases with increasing atomic number of the target atom while the position of the peak value shifts towards lower incident energies. The magnitudes of the Ps excitation and ionization cross sections increase steadily with atomic number with no change in the peak position. The reported results show regular behaviour with increasing atomic number of the target atom. Scattering parameters for the Ps-Rb and Ps-Cs systems are being reported for the first time.

  10. Alkali Halide Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection (United States)

    DeHaven, S. L.; Wincheski, R. A.; Albin, S.


    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  11. Solubility of 1:1 Alkali Nitrates and Chlorides in Near-Critical and Supercritical Water : 1 Alkali Nitrates and Chlorides in Near-Critical and Supercritical Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, Ingo; Metz, Sybrand J.; Rexwinkel, Glenn; Versteeg, Geert F.


    To increase the available data oil systems containing supercritical water and inorganic compounds, all experimental setup was designed to investigate the solubilities of inorganic compounds Ill supercritical water, In this work, three alkali chloride salts (LiCl, NaCl, KCl) and three alkali nitrate

  12. A hidden history of heartburn: The milk-alkali syndrome



    Milk-alkali syndrome was once considered to be of historic interest and a rare cause of hypercalcemia. Currently, it should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia, after malignancies and primary hyperparathyroidism. The resurgence is in part due to the easy availability of over the counter (OTC) calcium preparations. We describe a 50-year-old man who presented with severe hypercalcemia on two occasions associated with renal failure and metabolic alkalosis...

  13. Efficient potassium diode pumped alkali laser operating in pulsed mode. (United States)

    Zhdanov, Boris V; Rotondaro, Matthew D; Shaffer, Michael K; Knize, Randall J


    This paper presents the results of our experiments on the development of an efficient hydrocarbon free diode pumped alkali laser based on potassium vapor buffered by He gas at 600 Torr. A slope efficiency of more than 50% was demonstrated with a total optical conversion efficiency of 30%. This result was achieved by using a narrowband diode laser stack as the pump source. The stack was operated in pulsed mode to avoid limiting thermal effects and ionization.

  14. Composition and thermodynamic properties of dense alkali metal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabdullin, M.T. [NNLOT, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 al-Farabi Str., Almaty 050035 (Kazakhstan); Ramazanov, T.S.; Dzhumagulova, K.N. [IETP, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 al-Farabi Str., Almaty 050035 (Kazakhstan)


    In this work composition and thermodynamic properties of dense alkali metal plasmas (Li, Na) were investigated. Composition was derived by solving the Saha equations with corrections due to nonideality. The lowering of the ionization potentials was calculated on the basis of pseudopotentials by taking screening and quantum effects into account (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Engineering Properties of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Concrete



    This paper reports the results of experimental research on certain engineering properties of a new (portland cement-free) concrete made with alkali-activated fly ash. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine its (bending and compression) mechanical strength, modulus of elasticity, bond strength, and shrinkage. The results show that mortar and concrete made with portland cement-free activated fly ash develop a high mechanical strength in short periods of time, have a moderate modulus of el...

  16. Ultrafine microporous and mesoporous activated carbon fibers from alkali lignin



    A facile and sustainable approach has been successfully devised to fabricate ultrafine (100-500 nm) highly porous activated carbon fibers (ACFs) by electrospinning of aqueous solutions of predominantly alkali lignin (low sulfonate content) followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation at 850 °C under N2. Incorporating a polyethylene oxide (PEO) carrier with only up to one ninth of lignin not only enabled efficient electrospinning into fibers but also retained fibrous structures during...

  17. On-line alkali monitoring - Part 1; Kontinuerlig alkalimaetning - Etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Ljung, P.; Woxlin, H.


    As a consequence of the increased knowledge of the environmental impact of combustion based heat and power generation, the use of renewable biofuels will be increased. An obstacle associated to biofuel combustion compared to other fuels is the large release of alkali. Alkali compounds in flue gases are known to cause severe operational problems. Three of the major problems are; fouling of superheating tubes (causing reduced heat transfer and possibly corrosion), agglomeration of the bed material in fluidized beds, and poisoning of SCR catalysts. Yet another alkali related problem arises when, in order to increase the electric efficiency of combustion power plants, combined-cycle technology is used. Alkali vapour present in the fuel gas for the gas turbine is condensed to particles which increase corrosion and erosion of the turbine blades. The research on ash related operational problems has to be extended in order to ensure future use of biofuels in heat and power generation. In all successful research, adequate tools are necessary. To investigate ash related problems the key issue is to be able to perform continuous alkali measurements. This pilot study has investigated the need of continuous alkali measurements, which alkali species are harmful in the different applications and also available instrumentation capable of measuring the specific alkali species. The report gives a short summary presenting alkali related operational problems. In addition a schematic overview is given, showing the alkali species that possibly can exist in various parts of the power plant. 48 refs, 13 figs, 4 tabs

  18. The unexpected properties of alkali metal iron selenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL


    The iron-based superconductors that contain FeAs layers as the fundamental building block in the crystal structures have been rationalized in the past using ideas based on the Fermi surface nesting of hole and electron pockets when in the presence of weak Hubbard U interactions. This approach seemed appropriate considering the small values of the magnetic moments in the parent compounds and the clear evidence based on photoemission experiments of the required electron and hole pockets. However, recent results in the context of alkali metal iron selenides, with generic chemical composition AxFe2ySe2 (A alkali metal element), have challenged those previous ideas since at particular compositions y the low-temperature ground states are insulating and display antiferromagnetic order with large iron magnetic moments. Moreover, angle-resolved photoemission studies have revealed the absence of hole pockets at the Fermi level in these materials. The present status of this exciting area of research, with the potential to alter conceptually our understanding of the ironbased superconductors, is here reviewed, covering both experimental and theoretical investigations. Other recent related developments are also briefly reviewed, such as the study of selenide two-leg ladders and the discovery of superconductivity in a single layer of FeSe. The conceptual issues considered established for the alkali metal iron selenides, as well as several issues that still require further work, are discussed.

  19. Scattering of positrons and electrons by alkali atoms (United States)

    Stein, T. S.; Kauppila, W. E.; Kwan, C. K.; Lukaszew, R. A.; Parikh, S. P.; Wan, Y. J.; Zhou, S.; Dababneh, M. S.


    Absolute total scattering cross sections (Q sub T's) were measured for positrons and electrons colliding with sodium, potassium, and rubidium in the 1 to 102 eV range, using the same apparatus and experimental approach (a beam transmission technique) for both projectiles. The present results for positron-sodium and -rubidium collisions represent the first Q sub T measurements reported for these collision systems. Features which distinguish the present comparisons between positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's from those for other atoms and molecules (room-temperature gases) which have been used as targets for positrons and electrons are the proximity of the corresponding positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's over the entire energy range of overlap, with an indication of a merging or near-merging of the corresponding positron and electron Q sub T's near (and above) the relatively low energy of about 40 eV, and a general tendency for the positron-alkali atom Q sub T's to be higher than the corresponding electron values as the projectile energy is decreased below about 40 eV.

  20. Plasma formation in diode pumped alkali lasers sustained in Cs (United States)

    Markosyan, Aram H.; Kushner, Mark J.


    In diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), lasing action occurs on the resonant lines of alkali atoms following pumping by broadband semiconductor lasers. The goal is to convert the efficient but usually poor optical quality of inexpensive diode lasers into the high optical quality of atomic vapor lasers. Resonant excitation of alkali vapor leads to plasma formation through the excitation transfer from the 2P states to upper lying states, which then are photoionized by the pump and intracavity radiation. A first principles global model was developed to investigate the operation of the He/Cs DPAL system and the consequences of plasma formation on the efficiency of the laser. Over a range of pump powers, cell temperatures, excitation frequency, and mole fraction of the collision mixing agent (N2 or C2H6), we found that sufficient plasma formation can occur that the Cs vapor is depleted. Although N2 is not a favored collisional mixing agent due to large rates of quenching of the 2P states, we found a range of pump parameters where laser oscillation may occur. The poor performance of N2 buffered systems may be explained in part by plasma formation. We found that during the operation of the DPAL system with N2 as the collisional mixing agent, plasma formation is in excess of 1014-1015 cm-3, which can degrade laser output intensity by both depletion of the neutral vapor and electron collisional mixing of the laser levels.

  1. Heterometallic aluminates: alkali metals trapped by an aluminium aryloxide claw. (United States)

    Muñoz, M Teresa; Cuenca, Tomás; Mosquera, Marta E G


    A series of heterometallic aluminium-alkali metal species [AlMMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}2]n have been isolated for lithium, sodium and potassium. These compounds can be generated by the reaction of [AlMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}]2 with the metallated phenol [M{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}]n or through the reaction of the mixture of AlMe3 and the appropriate alkali metal alkyl base with two equivalents of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. In the heterometallic species obtained, the {AlMe2{2,6-(MeO)2C6H3O}2}(-) moiety is observed and could be described as a claw which fixes the alkali ion by the phenoxide oxygen atoms while the methoxy groups help to stabilize their coordination sphere. All compounds have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Catalytic studies reveal that these compounds are active in ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide.

  2. Electron densities and alkali atoms in exoplanet atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavvas, P. [GSMA, Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, CNRS UMR 7331, Reims, 51687 France (France); Koskinen, T.; Yelle, R. V., E-mail: [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)


    We describe a detailed study on the properties of alkali atoms in extrasolar giant planets, and specifically focus on their role in generating the atmospheric free electron densities, as well as their impact on the transit depth observations. We focus our study on the case of HD 209458b, and we show that photoionization produces a large electron density in the middle atmosphere that is about two orders of magnitude larger than the density anticipated from thermal ionization. Our purely photochemical calculations, though, result in a much larger transit depth for K than observed for this planet. This result does not change even if the roles of molecular chemistry and excited state chemistry are considered for the alkali atoms. In contrast, the model results for the case of exoplanet XO-2b are in good agreement with the available observations. Given these results we discuss other possible scenarios, such as changes in the elemental abundances, changes in the temperature profiles, and the possible presence of clouds, which could potentially explain the observed HD 209458b alkali properties. We find that most of these scenarios cannot explain the observations, with the exception of a heterogeneous source (i.e., clouds or aerosols) under specific conditions, but we also note the discrepancies among the available observations.

  3. Superconductivity in alkali-doped C{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Arthur P., E-mail:


    Highlight: • Superconductivity in alkali-doped C{sub 60} (A{sub 3}C{sub 60}) is well described by an s-wave state produced by phonon mediated pairing. • Moderate coupling of electrons to high-frequency shape-changing intra-molecular vibrational modes produces transition temperatures up to 33 K in single-phase material. • The good understanding of pairing in A{sub 3}C{sub 60} offers a paradigm for the development of new superconducting materials. - Abstract: Superconductivity in alkali-doped C{sub 60} (A{sub 3}C{sub 60}, A = an alkali atom) is well described by an s-wave state produced by phonon mediated pairing. Moderate coupling of electrons to high-frequency shape-changing intra-molecular vibrational modes produces transition temperatures (T{sub c}) up to 33 K in single-phase material. The good understanding of pairing in A{sub 3}C{sub 60} offers a paradigm for the development of new superconducting materials.

  4. Alkali metal cation-hexacyclen complexes: effects of alkali metal cation size on the structure and binding energy. (United States)

    Austin, C A; Rodgers, M T


    Threshold collision-induced dissociation (CID) of alkali metal cation-hexacyclen (ha18C6) complexes, M(+)(ha18C6), with xenon is studied using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry techniques. The alkali metal cations examined here include: Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). In all cases, M(+) is the only product observed, corresponding to endothermic loss of the intact ha18C6 ligand. The cross-section thresholds are analyzed to extract zero and 298 K M(+)-ha18C6 bond dissociation energies (BDEs) after properly accounting for the effects of multiple M(+)(ha18C6)-Xe collisions, the kinetic and internal energy distributions of the M(+)(ha18C6) and Xe reactants, and the lifetimes for dissociation of the activated M(+)(ha18C6) complexes. Ab initio and density functional theory calculations are used to determine the structures of ha18C6 and the M(+)(ha18C6) complexes, provide molecular constants necessary for the thermodynamic analysis of the energy-resolved CID data, and theoretical estimates for the M(+)-ha18C6 BDEs. Calculations using a polarizable continuum model are also performed to examine solvent effects on the binding. In the absence of solvent, the M(+)-ha18C6 BDEs decrease as the size of the alkali metal cation increases, consistent with the noncovalent nature of the binding in these complexes. However, in the presence of solvent, the ha18C6 ligand exhibits selectivity for K(+) over the other alkali metal cations. The M(+)(ha18C6) structures and BDEs are compared to those previously reported for the analogous M(+)(18-crown-6) and M(+)(cyclen) complexes to examine the effects of the nature of the donor atom (N versus O) and the number donor atoms (six vs four) on the nature and strength of binding.

  5. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, S.; Due-Hansen, J.; Putluru, S.S.R.; Kunov-Kruse, A.; Fehrmann, R.; Degn Jensen, A.


    The aim of the project is to identify, make and test possible alkali resistant deNO{sub x} catalysts for use in biomass, waste or fossil fuelled power plants, where the flue gas typically has a high level of potassium compounds, which rapidly de-activate the traditional V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst. Furthermore, new technologies are investigated based on a protective coating of the catalyst elements and selective reversible absorption of NO{sub x} with ionic liquids. Several promising alternative deNO{sub x} catalyst types have been made during the project: 1) V, Fe, CU based nano-TiO{sub 2} and nano-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} catalysts; 2) V/ZrO{sub 2}-SO{sub 2}- and V/ZrO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} catalysts; V, Fe, Cu based Zeolite catalysts; 4) V, Fe, Cu based Heteropoly acid catalysts. Several of these are promising alternatives to the state-of the art industrial reference catalyst. All catalysts prepared in the present project exhibit higher to much higher alkali resistance compared to the commercial reference. Furthermore, two catalysts, i.e. 20 wt% V{sub 2}O-3-TiO{sub 2} nano-catalyst and the 4 wt% CuO-Mordenite zeolite based catalyst have also a higher initial SCR activity compared to the commercial one before alkali poisoning. Thus, those two catalysts might be attractive for SCR deNO{sub x} purposes even under ''normal'' fuel conditions in power plants and elsewhere making them strong candidates for further development. These efforts regarding all the promising catalysts will be pursued after this project has expired through a one year Proof of Concept project granted by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation. Also the severe rate of deactivation due to alkali poisons can be avoided by coating the vanadium catalyst with Mg. Overall, the protective coating of SCR catalysts developed in the project seems promising and a patent application has been filed for this technology. Finally, a completely different approach to

  6. Electrical conduction and glass relaxation in alkali- silicate glasses (United States)

    Angel, Paul William

    Electrical response measurements from 1 Hz to 1 MHz between 50o and 540oC were made on potassium, sodium and lithium-silicate glasses with low alkali oxide contents. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and air quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Quenching was found to lower the dc conductivity, σdc, and activation energy as well as increase the pre-exponential term when compared to the corresponding annealed glass of the same composition. All of the glasses exhibited Arrhenius behavior in the log σdc against 1/T plots. A sharp decrease in σdc was observed for glasses containing alkali concentrations of 7 mol% or less. The σdc activation energy exhibited similar behavior when plotted as a function of alkali composition and was explained in terms of a mixture of the weak and strong electrolyte models. The depression angle for fits to the complex impedance data were also measured as a function of thermal history, alkali concentration and alkali species. These results were interpreted in terms of changes in the distribution of relaxation times. Annealed samples from a single melt of a 10 mol% K2O-90SiO2 glass were reheated to temperatures ranging from 450o to 800oC, held isothermally for 20 min, and then quenched in either air or silicon oil. The complex impedance of both an annealed and the quenched samples were then measured as a function of temperature from 120o to 250oC. The σdc was found to be remain unaffected by heat treatments below 450oC, to increase rapidly over an approximate 200oC range of temperatures that was dependent on cooling rate and to be constant for heat treatments above this range. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the mean structural relaxation time as a function of temperature and cooling rate near the glass transition temperature and glass transformation ranges. A more detailed definition for the transition and transformation temperatures and ranges was also provided.

  7. Path integral Monte Carlo study of 4He clusters doped with alkali and alkali-earth ions. (United States)

    Galli, D E; Ceperley, D M; Reatto, L


    Path integral Monte Carlo calculations of (4)He nanodroplets doped with alkali (Na(+), K(+) and Cs(+)) and alkali-earth (Be(+) and Mg(+)) ions are presented. We study the system at T = 1 K and between 14 and 128 (4)He atoms. For all studied systems, we find that the ion is well localized at the center of the droplet with the formation of a "snowball" of well-defined shells of localized (4)He atoms forming solid-like order in at least the first surrounding shell. The number of surrounding helium shells (two or three) and the number of atoms per shell and the degree of localization of the helium atoms are sensitive to the type of ion. The number of (4)He atoms in the first shell varies from 12 for Na(+) to 18 for Mg(+) and depends weakly on the size of the droplet. The study of the density profile and of the angular correlations shows that the local solid-like order is more pronounced for the alkali ions with Na(+) giving a very stable icosahedral order extending up to three shells.

  8. Structural analysis of alkali cations in mixed alkali silicate glasses by 23Na and 133Cs MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Minami


    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium silicate glasses by using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. In the NMR spectra of cesium silicate crystals, the peak position shifted to higher magnetic field for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers and to lower magnetic field for smaller Cs+ coordination numbers. The MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.33, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.0; x + y = 1 glass reveal that the average coordination number of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. In addition, the coordination number of Na+ in xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 glass is smaller than that of Cs+. This difference between the average coordination numbers of the alkali cations is considered to be one structural reason of the mixed alkali effect.

  9. Modifier interaction and mixed-alkali effect in bond constraint theory applied to ternary alkali metaphosphate glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno ePoletto Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Introducing an interaction parameter γ, we implement modifier interaction and the mixed-alkali effect into bond constraint theory, and apply this extension for simplistic property prediction on ternary phosphate glasses. The severity of the mixed alkali effect results from the interplay of two simultaneous contributions: Bond constraints on the modifier species soften or stiffen with decreasing or increasing γ, respectively. When the modifier size is not too dissimilar the decrease in γ reflects that the alkali ions can easily migrate between different sites, forcing the network to continuously re-accommodate for any subsequent distortions. With increasing size difference, migration becomes increasingly difficult without considerable network deformation. This holds even for smaller ions, where the sluggish dynamics of the larger constituent result in blocking of the fast ion movement, leading to the subsequent increase in γ. Beyond a certain size difference in the modifier pair, a value of γ exceeding unity may indicate the presence of steric hindrance due to the large surrounding modifiers impeding the phosphate network to re-accommodate deformation.

  10. Pretreatment of garden biomass by alkali-assisted ultrasonication: effects on enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrastructural changes. (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, Spm Prince; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Anand, Duraisamy; Wate, Satish


    The present investigation aims at studying the effectiveness of alkali-assisted ultrasonication on pretreatment of garden biomass (GB). Dry and powdered GB suspended in 1% NaOH was ultrasonicated for 15, 30 and 60 minutes at a frequency of 25 KHZ. The mode of action and effectiveness of alkali-assisted ultrasonication on GB was established through microscopic, scanning electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction studies. A perusal of results showed that alkali-assisted ultrasonication led to fibrillation of GB which ultimately facilitated enzymatic hydrolysis. The results also indicated that alkali-assisted ultrasonication is an efficient means of pretreatment of GB at moderate (45-50°C) working temperature and low (1%) concentration of alkali. The yield of reducing sugar after enzymatic hydrolysis increased almost six times as compared to control due to alkali-assisted ultrasonication.

  11. Effect of Alkali Stress on Soluble Sugar, Antioxidant Enzymes and Yield of Oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jian-hui; LIU Jing-hui; ZHANG Na; YANG Jun-heng; SA Ru-la; WU Lan


    Alkali stress can cause severe crop damage and reduce production. However, physiological processes involved in alkali stress in oat seedlings are not well understood. In this study, physiological responses and yield of oat to alkali stress were studied using the alkali-tolerant oat genotype Vao-9 and the alkali-sensitive oat genotype Baiyan 5. The results were:(i) low concentrations of alkali stress (25 and 50 mmol L-1) significantly reduced the yield and grain weight while increased the oat grain number per spike. A negative correlation between yield and malondialdehyde (MDA) content at the jointing and grain filling stages and positive correlations between yield on one hand and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) activities on the other at the jointing stage were observed. There was a positive correlation between MDA and soluble sugar at the grain filling stage;(ii) soluble sugar content was increased at the jointing and grain filling stages and decreased at the heading stage by alkali stress;(iii) alkali stress increased the SOD activity during the heading and grain filling stages, and increased the POD activity at the heading stage. As compared to the control, the increase of MDA contents in alkali-treated oat was observed, during the jointing, heading and grain filling stages;(iv) under alkali stress, the oat genotype Vao-9 showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower soluble sugar contents during the heading stage, and lower MDA contents than those in the oat genotype Baiyan 5 under alkali stress. The result suggested that the high ROS scavenging capacity and soluble sugar levels might play roles in oat response to alkali stress.

  12. Calculation of Radiative Corrections to E1 matrix elements in the Neutral Alkalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapirstein, J; Cheng, K T


    Radiative corrections to E1 matrix elements for ns-np transitions in the alkali metal atoms lithium through francium are evaluated. They are found to be small for the lighter alkalis but significantly larger for the heavier alkalis, and in the case of cesium much larger than the experimental accuracy. The relation of the matrix element calculation to a recent decay rate calculation for hydrogenic ions is discussed, and application of the method to parity nonconservation in cesium is described.

  13. Decay curve analysis of alkali-silicate glass exposed to electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Gedeon, O


    Binary and ternary potassium, rubidium and caesium glasses were irradiated by an electron beam with energy varying from 10 to 50 keV. Alkali ion x-ray decays were recorded and afterward incubation periods were determined. The incubation period versus electron energy curves revealed thresholds, which are typical for each alkali species. The threshold ratios are proportional to the mass of the alkali species, consistent with the suggested elastic scattering assisted hopping mechanism. (author)

  14. Alkali-Silica Reaction Inhibited by LiOH and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A high alkali reactive aggregate-zeolitization perlite was used to test the long-term effectiveness of LiOH in inhibiting alkali-silica reaction.In this paper,the rigorous conditions were designed that the mortar bars had been cured at 80℃ for 3 years after autoclaved 24 hours at 150℃.Under this condition,LiOH was able to inhibit the alkali-silica reaction long-term effectiveness.Not only the relationship between the molar ratio of n(Li)/(Na) and the alkali contents in systems was established, but also the governing mechanism of such effects was also studied by SEM.

  15. Interaction of alkali and alkaline earth ions with Ochratoxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poor, Miklos [Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Kunsagi-Mate, Sandor; Matisz, Gergely; Li, Yin; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna [Department of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Janos Szentagothai Research Center, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Peles-Lemli, Beata [Department of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Koszegi, Tamas, E-mail: [Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary)


    The effect of alkali and alkaline earth ions on the chemical equilibrium of mono- and dianionic forms of the mycotoxin Ochratoxin A (OTA) and their bonding onto the surface of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization techniques. Our results show that alkali metal ions shift the chemical equilibrium towards formation of dianionic form of OTA. Furthermore, the alkaline earth ions can compete with BSA for binding to OTA when these ions are present in millimolar concentrations. Our data also highlight the possibility that the 'free' fraction of OTA (not bound onto the surface of albumin) or at least a part of it is present in cation-bound form in body fluids. These observations are supported by stability constants and quantum-chemical calculations. Among the studied alkaline metal ions magnesium showed the highest affinity towards OTA under physiological conditions. Further research is required to analyze the potential significance of Mg{sup 2+}-OTA complex in cellular uptake and/or elimination of the toxin in the human body. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence spectroscopy reveals cation-Ochratoxin A (OTA) interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkali ions shift the equilibrium of OTA to formation of a dianionic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline earth ions directly bind to OTA in the order: Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical calculations and logK values support our experimental data.

  16. Exotic s-wave superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerides. (United States)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Capone, Massimo; Arita, Ryotaro


    Alkali-doped fullerides (A3C60 with A = K, Rb, Cs) show a surprising phase diagram, in which a high transition-temperature (Tc) s-wave superconducting state emerges next to a Mott insulating phase as a function of the lattice spacing. This is in contrast with the common belief that Mott physics and phonon-driven s-wave superconductivity are incompatible, raising a fundamental question on the mechanism of the high-Tc superconductivity. This article reviews recent ab initio calculations, which have succeeded in reproducing comprehensively the experimental phase diagram with high accuracy and elucidated an unusual cooperation between the electron-phonon coupling and the electron-electron interactions leading to Mott localization to realize an unconventional s-wave superconductivity in the alkali-doped fullerides. A driving force behind the exotic physics is unusual intramolecular interactions, characterized by the coexistence of a strongly repulsive Coulomb interaction and a small effectively negative exchange interaction. This is realized by a subtle energy balance between the coupling with the Jahn-Teller phonons and Hund's coupling within the C60 molecule. The unusual form of the interaction leads to a formation of pairs of up- and down-spin electrons on the molecules, which enables the s-wave pairing. The emergent superconductivity crucially relies on the presence of the Jahn-Teller phonons, but surprisingly benefits from the strong correlations because the correlations suppress the kinetic energy of the electrons and help the formation of the electron pairs, in agreement with previous model calculations. This confirms that the alkali-doped fullerides are a new type of unconventional superconductors, where the unusual synergy between the phonons and Coulomb interactions drives the high-Tc superconductivity.

  17. Exotic s-wave superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerides (United States)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Capone, Massimo; Arita, Ryotaro


    Alkali-doped fullerides ({{A}3}{{\\text{C}}60} with A  =  K, Rb, Cs) show a surprising phase diagram, in which a high transition-temperature ({{T}\\text{c}} ) s-wave superconducting state emerges next to a Mott insulating phase as a function of the lattice spacing. This is in contrast with the common belief that Mott physics and phonon-driven s-wave superconductivity are incompatible, raising a fundamental question on the mechanism of the high-{{T}\\text{c}} superconductivity. This article reviews recent ab initio calculations, which have succeeded in reproducing comprehensively the experimental phase diagram with high accuracy and elucidated an unusual cooperation between the electron-phonon coupling and the electron-electron interactions leading to Mott localization to realize an unconventional s-wave superconductivity in the alkali-doped fullerides. A driving force behind the exotic physics is unusual intramolecular interactions, characterized by the coexistence of a strongly repulsive Coulomb interaction and a small effectively negative exchange interaction. This is realized by a subtle energy balance between the coupling with the Jahn-Teller phonons and Hund’s coupling within the {{\\text{C}}60} molecule. The unusual form of the interaction leads to a formation of pairs of up- and down-spin electrons on the molecules, which enables the s-wave pairing. The emergent superconductivity crucially relies on the presence of the Jahn-Teller phonons, but surprisingly benefits from the strong correlations because the correlations suppress the kinetic energy of the electrons and help the formation of the electron pairs, in agreement with previous model calculations. This confirms that the alkali-doped fullerides are a new type of unconventional superconductors, where the unusual synergy between the phonons and Coulomb interactions drives the high-{{T}\\text{c}} superconductivity.

  18. Fabrication method for microscopic vapor cells for alkali atoms. (United States)

    Baluktsian, T; Urban, C; Bublat, T; Giessen, H; Löw, R; Pfau, T


    A quantum network that consists of several components should ideally work on a single physical platform. Neutral alkali atoms have the potential to be very well suited for this purpose due to their electronic structure, which involves long-lived nuclear spins and very sensitive highly excited Rydberg states. In this Letter, we describe a fabrication method based on quartz glass to structure arbitrary shapes of microscopic vapor cells. We show that the usual spectroscopic properties known from macroscopic vapor cells are almost unaffected by the strong confinement.

  19. Electric dipole polarizabilities of Rydberg states of alkali atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Yerokhin, V A; Fritzsche, S; Surzhykov, A


    Calculations of the static electric-dipole scalar and tensor polarizabilities are presented for two alkali atoms, Rb and Cs, for the $nS$, $nP_{1/2, 3/2}$, and $nD_{3/2, 5/2}$ states with large principal quantum numbers up to $n = 50$. The calculations are performed within an effective one-electron approximation, based on the Dirac-Fock Hamiltonian with a semi-empirical core-polarization potential. The obtained results are compared with those from a simpler semi-empirical approach and with available experimental data.

  20. Integrated oil production and upgrading using molten alkali metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard


    A method that combines the oil retorting process (or other process needed to obtain/extract heavy oil or bitumen) with the process for upgrading these materials using sodium or other alkali metals. Specifically, the shale gas or other gases that are obtained from the retorting/extraction process may be introduced into the upgrading reactor and used to upgrade the oil feedstock. Also, the solid materials obtained from the reactor may be used as a fuel source, thereby providing the heat necessary for the retorting/extraction process. Other forms of integration are also disclosed.

  1. Magnesia Modification of Alkali-Activated Slag Fly Ash Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Weiguo; WANG Yiheng; ZHANG Tao; ZHOU Mingkai; LI Jiasheng; CUI Xiaoyu


    A new type of magnesia modification alkali-activated cement was prepared, the strength, setting time, shrinkage ratio and cracking behavior, as well as the composition and structure of the hydration product were investigated. The results indicate that the setting time of this cement is similar to that of the ordinary commercial cements; its strength reaches the standard of 42.5 degree cement, its cracking resistance has been remarkably improved because of the micro-aggregate effect of fly ash and shrinkage compensating of magnesia.

  2. Hypercalcemic encephalopathy due to milk alkali syndrome and injection teriparatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kharb


    Full Text Available An 82-year-old male, a known case of severe osteoporosis with vertebral fracture and prostatic carcinoma, was treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue, calcium carbonate, cholecalciferol sachet and injection teriparatide. His diet consisted of milk and curd. He developed altered behavior and generalized weakness, and on investigation, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis with low parathyroid hormone levels were detected. Injection teriparatide was stopped and he was managed with forced saline diuresis and injection zoledronic acid. He was diagnosed as a case of milk alkali syndrome in whom teriparatide and prolonged immobilization played a permissive role in the development of hypercalcemic encephalopathy.

  3. Chemical compatibility of structural materials in alkali metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R. [Argonne National Lab., Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others


    The objectives of this task are to (a) evaluate the chemical compatibility of structural alloys such as V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloy and Type 316 stainless steel for application in liquid alkali metals such as lithium and sodium-78 wt.% potassium (NaK) at temperatures in the range that are of interest for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER); (b) evaluate the transfer of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen between structural materials and liquid metals; and (c) evaluate the effects of such transfers on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the materials for long-term service in liquid-metal-environments.

  4. Analysis and modeling of alkali halide aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Kang, Jeong Won;


    A new model is proposed for correlation and prediction of thermodynamic properties of electrolyte solutions. In the proposed model, terms of a second virial coefficient-type and of a KT-UNIFAC model are used to account for a contribution of binary interactions between ion and ion, and water and ion...... on calculations for various electrolyte properties of alkali halide aqueous solutions such as mean ionic activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients, and salt solubilities. The model covers highly nonideal electrolyte systems such as lithium chloride, lithium bromide and lithium iodide, that is, systems...

  5. Precision two-photon spectroscopy of alkali elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Kiran Kumar; M V Suryanarayana


    In this paper, we have briefly reviewed the work on two-photon spectroscopy of alkali elements and its applications. The technique of Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy is briefly summarized. A review of various techniques adopted for measuring absolute frequencies of the atomic transitions and precision measurements of isotope shifts and hyperfine structures (HFS) is presented. Some of the recent works on precision measurements of HFS constants of 6 ${}^2S_{1/2}$ level of ${}^{39}$K and ${}^{41}$K, 9 ${}^2S_{1/2}$ level and 7 ${}^2D_{3/2}$ level of 133Cs are also discussed.

  6. Electrochemical synthesis of alkali-intercalated iron selenide superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申士杰; 应天平; 王刚; 金士锋; 张韩; 林志萍; 陈小龙


    Electrochemical method has been used to insert K/Na into FeSe lattice to prepare alkali-intercalated iron selenides at room temperature. Magnetization measurement reveals that KxFe2Se2 and NaxFe2Se2 are superconductive at 31 K and 46 K, respectively. This is the first successful report of obtaining metal-intercalated FeSe-based high-temperature superconductors using electrochemical method. It provides an effective route to synthesize metal-intercalated layered compounds for new superconductor exploration.

  7. Surface phonons on Al(111) surface covered by alkali metals (United States)

    Rusina, G. G.; Eremeev, S. V.; Borisova, S. D.; Sklyadneva, I. Yu.; Chulkov, E. V.


    We investigated the vibrational and structural properties of the Al(111)-(3×3)R30°-AM (AM=Na,K,Li) adsorbed systems using interaction potentials from the embedded-atom method. The surface relaxation, surface phonon dispersion, and polarization of vibrational modes for the alkali adatoms and the substrate atoms as well as the local density of states are discussed. Our calculated structural parameters are in close agreement with experimental and ab initio results. The obtained vibrational frequencies compare fairly well with the available experimental data.

  8. Alkali-silica reaction resistant concrete using pumice blended cement (United States)

    Ramasamy, Uma

    Durability of structures is a major challenge for the building industry. One of the many types of concrete deterioration that can affect durability is alkali-silica reaction (ASR). ASR has been found in most types of concrete structures, including dams, bridges, pavements, and other structures that are 20 to 50 years old. The degradation mechanism of ASR produces a gel that significantly expands in the presence of water as supplied from the surrounding environment. This expansion gel product can create high stresses and cracking of the concrete, which can lead to other forms of degradation and expensive structural replacement costs. The four essential factors that produce an expansive ASR gel in concrete are the presence of alkalis, siliceous aggregate, moisture, and free calcium hydroxide (CH). If concrete is starved of any one of these essential components, the expansion can be prevented. Reducing CH through the use of a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) such as natural pozzolan pumice is the focus of this research. By using a pozzolan, the amount of CH is reduced with time based on the effectiveness of the pozzolan. Many pozzolans exist, but one such naturally occurring pozzolanic material is pumice. This research focuses on determining the effect of a finely ground pumice as a SCM in terms of its resistance to ASR expansion, as well as improving resistance to other potential concrete durability mechanisms. In spite of having high alkali contents in the pumice, mixtures containing the SCM pumice more effectively mitigated the ASR expansion reaction than other degradation mechanisms. Depending on the reactivity of the aggregates and fineness of the pumice, 10-15% replacement of cement with the pumice was found to reduce the ASR expansion to the acceptable limits. The amount of CH remaining in the concrete was compared to the ASR expansion in order to improve understanding of the role of CH in the ASR reaction. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X

  9. Wave optics simulation of diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) (United States)

    Endo, Masamori; Nagaoka, Ryuji; Nagaoka, Hiroki; Nagai, Toru; Wani, Fumio


    A numerical simulation code for a diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) was developed. The code employs the Fresnel- Kirchhoff diffraction integral for both laser mode and pump light propagations. A three-dimensional rate equation set was developed to determine the local gain. The spectral divergence of the pump beam was represented by a series of monochromatic beams with different wavelengths. The calculated results showed an excellent agreements with relevant experimental results. It was found that the main channel of the pump power drain is the spontaneous emission from the upper level of the lasing transition.

  10. Theoretical determination of the alkali-metal superoxide bond energies (United States)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sodupe, Mariona; Langhoff, Stephen R.


    The bond dissociation energies for the alkali-metal superoxides have been computed using extensive Gaussian basis sets and treating electron correlation at the modified coupled-pair functional level. Our computed D0 values are 61.4, 37.2, 40.6, and 38.4 kcal/mol for LiO2, NaO2, KO2, and RbO2, respectively. These values, which are expected to be lower bounds and accurate to 2 kcal/mol, agree well with some of the older flame data, but rule out several recent experimental measurements.

  11. Effects of Heavy Metals and Saline-alkali on Growth, Physiology and Biochemistry of Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoai ZHANG; Zhihui WANG; Xinquan ZHANG; Mingyang Ll; Jing ZUO


    Abstract [Oh.jective] The aim was to study on effects of heavy metals and saline-al- kali on growth, physiology and biochemistry of Orychophragmus violaceus. [Method] Taken Orychophragmus violaceus as materials, growth, physiology and biochemistry were explored under stress of saline-alkali and heavy metals (light, moderate and se- vere saline-alkali, Pb, Pb + Cd, light saline-alkali + Pb, moderate saline-alkali + Pb, severe saline-alkali + Pb, light saline-alkali + Pb + Cd, moderate saline-alkali + Pb + Cd and severe saline-alkali + Pb + Cd) with control group set. [Result] Light stress of saline-alkali had little effect on membrane permeability, as follows: MDA contents in leaves and root systems declined by 25.6% and 9.0% compared with control group; Pb (500 mg/L) stress promoted synthetization of photosynthetic pigments, as follows: chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid increased by 0.86%, 0.69% and 6.25% than those of control group; combined stresses of Pb and Cd destroyed synthetization of photosynthetic pigments, among which carotenoid was more sensitive; under com- bined stresses of saline-alkali, Pb and Cd, POD and SOD activities, soluble saccha- rides and Pro content all increased and activities of POD and SOD in root system were both higher than those in leaves. [Conclusion] Orychophragmus violaceus is with resistance against light combined stresses of saline-alkali and Pb (500 mg/L).

  12. Food composition and acid-base balance: alimentary alkali depletion and acid load in herbivores. (United States)

    Kiwull-Schöne, Heidrun; Kiwull, Peter; Manz, Friedrich; Kalhoff, Hermann


    Alkali-enriched diets are recommended for humans to diminish the net acid load of their usual diet. In contrast, herbivores have to deal with a high dietary alkali impact on acid-base balance. Here we explore the role of nutritional alkali in experimentally induced chronic metabolic acidosis. Data were collected from healthy male adult rabbits kept in metabolism cages to obtain 24-h urine and arterial blood samples. Randomized groups consumed rabbit diets ad libitum, providing sufficient energy but variable alkali load. One subgroup (n = 10) received high-alkali food and approximately 15 mEq/kg ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) with its drinking water for 5 d. Another group (n = 14) was fed low-alkali food for 5 d and given approximately 4 mEq/kg NH4Cl daily for the last 2 d. The wide range of alimentary acid-base load was significantly reflected by renal base excretion, but normal acid-base conditions were maintained in the arterial blood. In rabbits fed a high-alkali diet, the excreted alkaline urine (pH(u) > 8.0) typically contained a large amount of precipitated carbonate, whereas in rabbits fed a low-alkali diet, both pH(u) and precipitate decreased considerably. During high-alkali feeding, application of NH4Cl likewise decreased pH(u), but arterial pH was still maintained with no indication of metabolic acidosis. During low-alkali feeding, a comparably small amount of added NH4Cl further lowered pH(u) and was accompanied by a significant systemic metabolic acidosis. We conclude that exhausted renal base-saving function by dietary alkali depletion is a prerequisite for growing susceptibility to NH4Cl-induced chronic metabolic acidosis in the herbivore rabbit.

  13. Dispersion coefficients for the interaction of inert gas atoms with alkali and alkaline earth ions and alkali atoms with their singly ionized ions

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Sukhjit; Sahoo, B K; Arora, Bindiya


    We report the dispersion coefficients for the interacting inert gas atoms with the alkali ions, alkaline earth ions and alkali atoms with their singly charged ions. We use our relativistic coupled-cluster method to determine dynamic dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities of the alkali atoms and singly ionized alkaline earth atoms, whereas a relativistic random phase approximation approach has been adopted to evaluate these quantities for the closed-shell configured inert gas atoms and the singly and doubly ionized alkali and alkaline earth atoms, respectively. Accuracies of these results are adjudged from the comparison of their static polarizability values with their respective experimental results. These polarizabilities are further compared with the other theoretical results. Reason for the improvement in the accuracies of our estimated dispersion coefficients than the data listed in [At. Data and Nucl. Data Tables 101, 58 (2015)] are discussed. Results for some of the atom-ion interacting systems were not...

  14. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems (United States)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.


    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  15. Effect of the Composite of Natural Zeolite and Fly Ash on Alkali-Silica Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiao-xin; FENG Nai-qian; HAN Dong


    The effect of the composite of natural zeolite and fly ash on alkali-silica reaction ( ASR ) was studied with natural alkali-reactive aggregate and quartz glass aggregate respecthvely. The expansive experiment of mortar bar and concrete prism was completed. The results show that ASR can be suppressed effectively by the composite of natural zeolite and fly ash.

  16. Hydration number of alkali metal ions determined by insertion in a conducting polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen


    . The solvation of alkali metal ions has been discussed for many years without a clear consensus. This work presents a systematic study of the hydration numbers of the 5 alkali metal ions, using the electrochemical insertion of the ions in a conducting polymer (polypyrrole containing the large immobile anion DBS...

  17. The Effects of Biochar on Germination and Growth of Wheat in Different Saline-alkali Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guijun; WANG; Zhenwen; XU


    Saline alkali soil can cause physiological drought on crops,so only some salinity tolerant crops can grow in saline alkali soil.Biochar can increase the utilize efficiency of nutrient and the water retention of the soil,and affect the growth of the plant.In this research,four different proportion of biochar was added in five different levels of saline-alkali soil for pot culture experiment.The pH of the soil increases as the proportion of biochar increase in same saline-alkali level soil,while the EC decrease as the proportion of biochar increase.The germination rate of wheat seeds varies as the different of soil’s saline-alkali level.Notable among these results is the germination of wheat seeds in the serious saline-alkali soil without biochar added is 0,while in 45%biochar added in serious saline-alkali soil,the germination rate get to as high as 48.9%.Also,biochar improve the growth of wheat seedling,while for mild saline alkali soil and normal soil.Biochar had no obvious effect on the growth of wheat seedling.

  18. In situ alkali-silica reaction observed by x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtis, K.E.; Monteiro, P.J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    In concrete, alkali metal ions and hydroxyl ions contributed by the cement and reactive silicates present in aggregate can participate in a destructive alkali-silica reaction (ASR). This reaction of the alkalis with the silicates produces a gel that tends to imbibe water found in the concrete pores, leading to swelling of the gel and eventual cracking of the affected concrete member. Over 104 cases of alkali-aggregate reaction in dams and spillways have been reported around the world. At present, no method exists to arrest the expansive chemical reaction which generates significant distress in the affected structures. Most existing techniques available for the examination of concrete microstructure, including ASR products, demand that samples be dried and exposed to high pressure during the observation period. These sample preparation requirements present a major disadvantage for the study of alkali-silica reaction. Given the nature of the reaction and the affect of water on its products, it is likely that the removal of water will affect the morphology, creating artifacts in the sample. The purpose of this research is to observe and characterize the alkali-silica reaction, including each of the specific reactions identified previously, in situ without introducing sample artifacts. For observation of unconditioned samples, x-ray microscopy offers an opportunity for such an examination of the alkali-silica reaction. Currently, this investigation is focusing on the effect of calcium ions on the alkali-silica reaction.

  19. Alkali chloride induced corrosion of superheaters under biomass firing conditions: Improved insights from laboratory scale studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming


    to the formation of corrosive deposits (rich in alkali chlorides) on the surfaces of the superheaters. Accordingly, an extensive number of fundamental investigations have been undertaken to understand the basic mechanisms behind the alkali chloride induced high temperature corrosion of superheaters (for example...

  20. Desorption of alkali atoms from 4He nanodroplets. (United States)

    Hernando, Alberto; Barranco, Manuel; Pi, Martí; Loginov, Evgeniy; Langlet, Marina; Drabbels, Marcel


    The dynamics following the photoexcitation of Na and Li atoms located on the surface of helium nanodroplets has been investigated in a joint experimental and theoretical study. Photoelectron spectroscopy has revealed that excitation of the alkali atoms via the (n + 1)s ←ns transition leads to the desorption of these atoms. The mean kinetic energy of the desorbed atoms, as determined by ion imaging, shows a linear dependence on excitation frequency. These experimental findings are analyzed within a three-dimensional, time-dependent density functional approach for the helium droplet combined with a Bohmian dynamics description of the desorbing atom. This hybrid method reproduces well the key experimental observables. The dependence of the observables on the impurity mass is discussed by comparing the results obtained for the (6)Li and (7)Li isotopes. The calculations show that the desorption of the excited alkali atom is accompanied by the creation of highly non-linear density waves in the helium droplet that propagate at supersonic velocities.

  1. Structure and Bonding in Small Neutral Alkali-Halide Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, A; López, J M; Alonso, J A


    The structural and bonding properties of small neutral alkali-halide clusters (AX)n, with n less than or equal to 10, A=Li, Na, K, Rb and X=F, Cl, Br, I, are studied using the ab initio Perturbed Ion (aiPI) model and a restricted structural relaxation criterion. A trend of competition between rock-salt and hexagonal ring-like isomers is found and discussed in terms of the relative ionic sizes. The main conclusion is that an approximate value of r_C/r_A=0.5 (where r_C and r_A are the cationic and anionic radii) separates the hexagonal from the rock-salt structures. The classical electrostatic part of the total energy at the equilibrium geometry is enough to explain these trends. The magic numbers in the size range studied are n= 4, 6 and 9, and these are universal since they occur for all alkali-halides and do not depend on the specific ground state geometry. Instead those numbers allow for the formation of compact clusters. Full geometrical relaxations are considered for (LiF)n (n=3-7) and (AX)_3 clusters, an...

  2. Thermal, mechanical and Raman studies on mixed alkali borotungstate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edukondalu, A. [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Sathe, Vasant [Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Rahman, Syed [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Siva Kumar, K., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India)


    Mixed alkali borotungstate glasses with xLi{sub 2}O–(30−x)Na{sub 2}O–10WO{sub 3}–60B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 30) composition were prepared by melt quench technique. The amorphous phase of the prepared glass samples was conformed from their X-ray diffraction and SEM studies. Differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopic studies were employed to investigate the structure of all the prepared glasses. The elastic moduli and Debye temperature were calculated in terms of Makishima–Mackenzie model. Acting as complementary techniques, Raman measurement revealed that the network structure of the present glasses is mainly based on BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} units placed in different structural groups. Raman spectra confirms the presence of tungsten ions mainly as WO{sub 6} groups. In the present work, the mixed alkali effect (MAE) has been investigated in the above glass system through modulated DSC studies.

  3. Alkali-metalated forms of thiacalix[4]arenes. (United States)

    Zeller, Jürgen; Radius, Udo


    The alkali metal salts [TCALi4] (1), [TCANa4] (2), and [TCALK4] (3) of fully deprotonated p-tert-butyltetrathiacalix[4]arene (H(4)TCA) are readily available from the reactions of thiacalix[4]arene and n-BuLi, NaH, or KH as deprotonating reagents. Crystals of the sodium salts 2 and the potassium salt 3 suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained in the form of the pyridine solvates [(TCA)2Na8.8py] (2.8py) and [(TCA)2K(8).8py] (3.8py). These molecules are dimers in the solid state but are structurally not related. In addition, the reaction of H(4)TCA and lithium hydroxide afforded the structurally characterized complex [(TCA)Li5(OH).4THF] (4). The molecular structure of 4 as well as the structures of 2.8py and 3.8py reveal a close relationship to the corresponding alkali metal salts of the calix[4]arenes.

  4. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Alkali Activated Colombian Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Criado


    Full Text Available Microstructural and mechanical properties of alkali activated binders based on blends of Colombian granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and fly ash (FA were investigated. The synthesis of alkali activated binders was conducted at 85 °C for 24 h with different slag/fly ash ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100. Mineralogical and microstructural characterization was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Mechanical properties were evaluated through the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio. The results show that two different reaction products were detected in the slag/fly ash mixtures, a calcium silicate hydrate with Al in its structure (C-A-S-H gel and a sodium aluminosilicate hydrate (N-A-S-H gel with higher number of polymerized species and low content in Ca. It was found that with the increase of the amount of added slag, the amount of C-A-S-H gel increased and the amount of N-A-S-H gel decreased. The matrix was more dense and compact with almost absence of pores. The predominance of slag affected positively the compressive strength, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, with 80% slag and 20% fly ash concrete being the best mechanical performance blend.

  5. Periodic DFT approaches to crystalline alkali metal azides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The energy bands, electronic structures andrelationship between structures and properties of the crys-talline alkali metal azides, LiN3, α-NaN3 and KN3, are investigated at the DFT-B3LYP level. The crystalline bulks arepredicted to be insulator, speculated from their band gaps ofca. 0.23-0.25 a.u. and from their level frontier bands. Theatomic overlaps and electron densities show that the metalsand the azides are combined by ionic bonds. The crystal lat-tice energies, being corrected for the basis set superpositionerrors, are -852.30, -771.45 and - 614.78 kJ @ mol-1 for LiN3,α-NaN3 and KN3 respectively. These values are similar tothose by Gray's approximate method. The frontier crystalorbital mainly consists of the atomic orbital of the terminalnitrogen of azides. The contribution of the metallic orbital tothe LUMO is very small. The electron transition from theHOMO to the LUMO is difficult to occur. Hence all the al-kali metal azides are expected to be insensitive explosives,according to the "principle of easiest electron transition".

  6. High and rapid alkali cation storage in ultramicroporous carbonaceous materials (United States)

    Yun, Young Soo; Lee, Seulbee; Kim, Na Rae; Kang, Minjee; Leal, Cecilia; Park, Kyu-Young; Kang, Kisuk; Jin, Hyoung-Joon


    To achieve better supercapacitor performance, efforts have focused on increasing the specific surface area of electrode materials to obtain higher energy and power density. The control of pores in these materials is one of the most effective ways to increase the surface area. However, when the size of pores decreases to a sub-nanometer regime, it becomes difficult to apply the conventional parallel-plate capacitor model because the charge separation distance (d-value) of the electrical double layer has a similar length scale. In this study, ultramicroporous carbonaceous materials (UCMs) containing sub-nanometer-scale pores are fabricated using a simple in situ carbonization/activation of cellulose-based compounds containing potassium. The results show that alkali cations act as charge carriers in the ultramicropores (<0.7 nm), and these materials can deliver high capacitances of ∼300 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and 130 F g-1, even at a high current rate of 65 A g-1 in an aqueous medium. In addition, the UCM-based symmetric supercapacitors are stable over 10,000 cycles and have a high energy and power densities of 8.4 Wh kg-1 and 15,000 W kg-1, respectively. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of ultramicropores in alkali cation storage.

  7. Injectable liquid alkali alloy based-tumor thermal ablation therapy. (United States)

    Rao, Wei; Liu, Jing


    The alkali metal was recently found to be a very useful agent for inducing minimally invasive tumor hyperthermia therapy. However, the solid-like metal makes it somewhat inconvenient to perform the surgery. Here, to overcome this drawback, the NaK alloy in liquid state at room temperature was proposed as a highly efficient thermal ablative agent for tumor treatment. For illustration purposes, the functionalized liquid NaK alloy at a mass ratio 1:1 was obtained and an amount of 0.35 ml was injected into in vitro pork. The sizes of the damage region and temperature response were measured. It was found that significant temperature increase by a magnitude of > 80 degrees C can easily be obtained. This produced a large coagulation and necrotic area within selected areas for in vitro tests and the necrotic region volume is three times that of the NaK injection quantity. Furthermore, for the in vivo experiment, breast EMT6 tumor in mouse was subjected to treatment by NaK alloy. Tumor was harvested after the experiment to assess its viability. Histological section showed complete necrosis at the target site. These conceptual results demonstrate that using injectable liquid alkali alloy to ablate tumor is rather promising. This study also raised interesting issues waiting for clarification in future technical and animal studies aiming to assess efficacy, side effects and safety of the new therapy.

  8. Dislocation unpinning model of acoustic emission from alkali halide crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P Chandra; Anubha S Gour; Vivek K Chandra; Yuvraj Patil


    The present paper reports the dislocation unpinning model of acoustic emission (AE) from alkali halide crystals. Equations are derived for the strain dependence of the transient AE pulse rate, peak value of the AE pulse rate and the total number of AE pulse emitted. It is found that the AE pulse rate should be maximum for a particular strain of the crystals. The peak value of the AE pulse rate should depend on the volume and strain rate of the crystals, and also on the pinning time of dislocations. Since the pinning time of dislocations decreases with increasing strain rate, the AE pulse rate should be weakly dependent on the strain rate of the crystals. The total number of AE should increase linearly with deformation and then it should attain a saturation value for the large deformation. By measuring the strain dependence of the AE pulse rate at a fixed strain rate, the time constant $_{\\text{s}}$ for surface annihilation of dislocations and the pinning time $_{\\text{p}}$ of the dislocations can be determined. A good agreement is found between the theoretical and experimental results related to the AE from alkali halide crystals.

  9. Surface modification by alkali and heat treatments in titanium alloys. (United States)

    Lee, Baek-Hee; Do Kim, Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hwan Lee, Kyu


    Pure titanium and titanium alloys are normally used for orthopedic and dental prostheses. Nevertheless, their chemical, biological, and mechanical properties still can be improved by the development of new preparation technologies. This has been the limiting factor for these metals to show low affinity to living bone. The purpose of this study is to improve the bone-bonding ability between titanium alloys and living bone through a chemically activated process and a thermally activated one. Two kinds of titanium alloys, a newly designed Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy and a commercially available Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy, were used in this study. In this study, surface modification of the titanium alloys by alkali and heat treatments (AHT), alkali treated in 5.0M NaOH solution, and heat treated in vacuum furnace at 600 degrees C, is reported. After AHT, the effects of the AHT on the bone integration property were evaluated in vitro. Surface morphologies of AHT were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical compositional surface changes were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Titanium alloys with surface modification by AHT showed improved bioactive behavior, and the Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy had better bioactivity than the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy in vitro.

  10. Study on the Structure and Properties of Polynosic Fiber Treated by Alkali

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Meng-yuan; XUE Wen-liang; CHENG Long-di


    The regenerated cellulose fibers, made from wood pulp, have excellent physical properties like cotton fiber. Especially polynosic fibers can be mercerized by alkali, but conventional Viscose fiber can not be treated or mercerized by alkali. The paper studies on behavior of polynosic fibers treated by alkali, including physical properties, such as weight loss, tensile strength and elongation, and fiber structures properties. In this paper, on the basis of study on polynosic fibers treated by alkali, the conclusions were drawn as following. Firstly, polynosic fiber is good at alkali resistance. Secondly, the changes of fiber structure and physical properties begin declining at 5 wt% NaOH concentration and reverse changes take place at 10 wt%.

  11. Influence of TiO2 on the Alkali Resistance and Structure of Invert Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-lin; WU Zheng-ming; BU Heng-zhi


    Through measuring the alkali resistance of the invert glass and the quantity of SiO2 and TiO2 migrating fron the glass into the solution,the influence of TiO2 on the alkali resistance of the glass is discussed and its structure is also analyzed by infrared spectroscopy.It is concluded that TiO2 has double functions for the alkali resistance of the invert glass.On the one hand ,both TiO2 polarizing the secondary ions in glass and TiO2 isomorphism replacement of SiO2 make the alkali resistance of the glass decrease.On the ther hand,TiO2 patching network and anti-erosion covering help to increase the alkali resistance.

  12. Adding nickel formate in alkali lignin to increase contents of alkylphenols and aromatics during fast pyrolysis. (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wang, Wen-Liang; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Chang, Jian-Min; Cai, Li-Ping; Shi, Sheldon Q


    The composition of pyrolysis vapors obtained from alkali lignin pyrolysis with the additive of nickel formate was examined using the pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Characterization of bio-chars was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the nickel formate significantly increased liquid yield, simplified the types of alkali lignin pyrolysis products and increased individual component contents. The additive of nickel formate increased contents of alkylphenols and aromatics from alkali lignin pyrolysis. With an increase in temperature, a greater amount of the relative contents can be achieved. The nickel formate was thermally decomposed to form hydrogen, resulting in hydrodeoxygenation of alkali lignin during pyrolysis. It was also found that Ni is in favor of producing alkylphenols. The analysis based on the experimental result provided evidences used to propose reaction mechanism for pyrolysis of nickel formate-assisted alkali lignin.

  13. Communication: Dimensionality of the ionic conduction pathways in glass and the mixed-alkali effect. (United States)

    Novy, Melissa; Avila-Paredes, Hugo; Kim, Sangtae; Sen, Sabyasachi


    A revised empirical relationship between the power law exponent of ac conductivity dispersion and the dimensionality of the ionic conduction pathway is established on the basis of electrical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements on crystalline ionic conductors. These results imply that the "universal" ac conductivity dispersion observed in glassy solids is associated with ionic transport along fractal pathways. EIS measurements on single-alkali glasses indicate that the dimensionality of this pathway D is ∼2.5, while in mixed-alkali glasses, D is lower and goes through a minimum value of ∼2.2 when the concentrations of the two alkalis become equal. D and σ display similar variation with alkali composition, thus suggesting a topological origin of the mixed-alkali effect.

  14. Illustration of alkali corrosion mechanisms in high temperature thermal insulation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneziris, C.G.; Fischer, U.; Schlegel, E. [Technical Univ. of Freiberg (Germany)


    Alkali attack is a chronic problem in the most popular high temperature applications such as blast furnaces, gasifiers, glass furnaces and cement kilns. Especially in the last years the problem of alkali corrosion is dramatically increased due to the waste burning and the combustion of the so called secondary fuels in kilns at high temperature processes. The German cement industry uses up to 100 percent of secondary fuels - a little or no coal, oil or gas- but mainly burnable waste. According to the literature destruction of the refractory can occur by the formation of low-melting low-viscosity liquids, or, more usually by the formation of dry expansive alkali-aluminosilicate compounds that result to chemical spalling. This work explores due to laboratory experiments supported partially by post mortem industrial trials the chemical interactions between alkali species and established refractory materials and illustrates four main alkali corrosion mechanisms. (orig.)

  15. First-principles study of ternary graphite compounds cointercalated with alkali atoms (Li, Na, and K) and alkylamines towards alkali ion battery applications (United States)

    Ri, Gum-Chol; Yu, Chol-Jun; Kim, Jin-Song; Hong, Song-Nam; Jong, Un-Gi; Ri, Mun-Hyok


    First-principles calculations were carried out to investigate the structural, energetic, and electronic properties of ternary graphite compounds cointercalated with alkali atoms (AM = Li, Na, and K) and normal alkylamine molecules (nCx; x = 1, 2, 3, 4), denoted as AM-nCx-GICs. From the optimization of the orthorhombic unit cells for the crystalline compounds, it was found that, with the increase in the atomic number of alkali atoms, the layer separations decrease in contrast to AM-GICs, while the bond lengths between alkali atoms and graphene layer, and nitrogen atom of alkylamine increase. The calculated formation energies and interlayer binding energies of AM-nC3-GICs indicate that the compounds is increasingly stabilized from Li to K, and the energy barriers for migration of alkali atoms suggest that alkali cation with larger ionic radius diffuses more smoothly in graphite, being similar to AM-GICs. Through the analysis of electronic properties, it was established that more extent of electronic charge is transferred from more electropositive alkali atom to the carbon ring of graphene layer, and the hybridization of valence electron orbitals between alkylamine molecules and graphene layer is occurred.

  16. Calculation of Interaction Parameters from Immiscible Phase Diagram of Alkali Metal or Alkali Earth Metal-Halide System by Means of Subregular Solution Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, the interaction parameters in the subregular solution model, λ1 and λ2, are regarded as a linear function of temperature, T. Therefore, the molar excess Gibbs energy of A-B binary system may be reexpressed as follows: The calculation of the model parameters, λ11, λ12, λ21 and λ22, was carried out numerically from the phase diagrams for 11 alkali metal-alkali halide or alkali earth metal-halide systems.In addition, artificial neural network trained by known data has been used to predict the values of these model parameters. The predicted results are in good agreement with the.calculated ones. The applicability of the subregular solution model to the alkali metal-alkali halide or alkali earth metal-halide systems were tested by comparing the available experimental composition along the boundary of miscibility gap with the calculated ones which were obtained by using genetic algorithm. The good agreement between the calculated and experimental results across the entire liquidus is valid evidence in support of the model.

  17. Behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds in coal gasification; Kaasumaisten alkaliyhdisteiden kaeyttaeytyminen kivihiilien kaasutuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykaenen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds emitting from CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}- and airblown gasification are studied. This research project is closely connected to an EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali emissions from a 1.6 MW pilot plant will be measured. The results from those measurements will be compared with the calculations performed in this LIEKKI 2 project. The equilibrium calculations show that the major gaseous alkali compounds emitting from combustion and gasification are chlorides and hydroxides. This applies both to air- and CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-blown processes. In all the cases studied the concentration of gaseous alkali compounds is determined mainly by the amount of chlorides. The key parameters, with respect to alkali behaviour, are the temperature of the process and chlorine content of the coal. By cooling the gases down to 600 deg C prior to a ceramic filter the alkali concentration can be kept about at 100 ppbv. In combustion, the addition of calcium carbonate increases the amount of gaseous alkali compounds by decreasing the amount of alkali sulphates. In the case of gasification the importance of limestone is negligible. The difference between air- and CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-blown processes, in terms of gaseous alkali emissions, is small. This is because CO{sub 2} concentration of the gas does not have a strong impact on alkali chlorides. Furthermore, the effect of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}-ratio of the recirculation process is negligible. (orig.)

  18. The action and interaction of calcium and alkali chlorides on eggs of Limnaea stagnalis and their chemical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geilenkirchen, W.L.M.


    1. 1. The action and interaction of CaCl2 and alkali chlorides on eggs of Limnaea stagnalis have been studied. 2. 2. CaCl2 antagonizes death caused by alkali chlorides. The number of normally developing embryos increases in all cases. 3. 3. Alkali chlorides antagonize death caused by CaCl2. With NaC

  19. Spectroscopic properties of alkali atoms embedded in Ar matrix. (United States)

    Jacquet, E; Zanuttini, D; Douady, J; Giglio, E; Gervais, B


    We present a theoretical investigation of visible absorption and related luminescence of alkali atoms (Li, Na, and K) embedded in Ar matrix. We used a model based on core polarization pseudopotentials, which allows us to determine accurately the gas-to-matrix shifts of various trapping sites. The remarkable agreement between our calculated results and the experimental spectra recorded by several authors allows us to establish a clear assignment of the observed spectra, which are made of contributions from crystalline sites on the one hand, and of grain boundary sites on the other hand. Our study reveals remarkably large Stokes shifts, up to 9000 cm(-1), which could be observed experimentally to identify definitely the trapping sites.

  20. The Effect of Radiation "Memory" in Alkali-Halide Crystals (United States)

    Korovkin, M. V.; Sal'nikov, V. N.


    The exposure of the alkali-halide crystals to ionizing radiation leads to the destruction of their structure, the emergence of radiation defects, and the formation of the electron and hole color centers. Destruction of the color centers upon heating is accompanied by the crystal bleaching, luminescence, and radio-frequency electromagnetic emission (REME). After complete thermal bleaching of the crystal, radiation defects are not completely annealed, as the electrons and holes released from the color centers by heating leave charged and locally uncompensated defects. Clusters of these "pre centers" lead to electric microheterogeneity of the crystal, the formation of a quasi-electret state, and the emergence of micro-discharges accompanied by radio emission. The generation of REME associated with residual defectiveness, is a manifestation of the effect of radiation "memory" in dielectrics.

  1. Electrochemical synthesis of alkali-intercalated iron selenide superconductors (United States)

    Shen, Shi-Jie; Ying, Tian-Ping; Wang, Gang; Jin, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Han; Lin, Zhi-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Long


    Electrochemical method has been used to insert K/Na into FeSe lattice to prepare alkali-intercalated iron selenides at room temperature. Magnetization measurement reveals that KxFe2Se2 and NaxFe2Se2 are superconductive at 31 K and 46 K, respectively. This is the first successful report of obtaining metal-intercalated FeSe-based high-temperature superconductors using electrochemical method. It provides an effective route to synthesize metal-intercalated layered compounds for new superconductor exploration. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51322211and 91422303), the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07020100), Beijing Nova Program of China (Grant No. 2011096), and K. C. Wong Education Foundation, Hong Kong, China.

  2. Structure and energetics of helium films on alkali substrates (United States)

    Boninsegni, Massimo; Szybisz, Leszek


    Low-temperature adsorption of He4 films on Alkali metal substrates is investigated theoretically by means of ground-state quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The most accurate potentials currently available are utilized to model the interaction of He4 atoms with the substrate. Continuous growth of film thickness as a function of chemical potential is observed on Li, Na, and K substrates. A superfluid monolayer forms on a Li substrate; on Na and K, thermodynamically stable films are a few layers thick. The uncertainties of the calculation and in the potentials, preclude a definitive conclusion on the existence of a stable He4 film on Rb. A comparison of the results of this calculation with those obtained using the Orsay-Trento density functional shows broad quantitative agreement.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    We propose a dark gravito-optical dipole trap, for alkali atoms, consisting of a blue-detuned, pyramidal-hollow laser beam propagating upward and the gravity field. When cold atoms from a magneto-optical trap are loaded into the pyramidal-hollow beam and bounce inside the pyramidal-hollow beam, they experience efficient Sisyphus cooling and geometric cooling induced by the pyramidal-hollow beam and the weak repumping beam propagating downward. Our study shows that an ultracold and dense atomic sample with an equilibrium 3D momentum of ~ 3hk and an atomic density above the point of Bose-Einstein condensation may be obtained in this pure optical trap.

  4. Reclamation and Management of Saline and Alkali Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Katiyar, D.; Agrawal, S.B.


    Soil is the most precious natural resource and thus requires proper management. Estimates show that the world as a whole is losing at least 3.0 ha of arable land every minute due to salinization or sodification. In India about 7.0 M ha land is affected by salinity and alkalinity. The problem...... to combat with the problem. The present review is an attempt to emphasize the problem of salinity and alkalinity of soils, its effect on plants and application of physical, chemical and biological methods of soil reclamation along with management issues...... of saline and alkali soils is old but its magnitude and intensity have been increasing because of poor land and water management practices. The proper land management by way of its reclamation involves physical, chemical and biological means, which are site specific and their integration is highly desirable...

  5. Effect of Cross Linking Agent on Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Ke; LU,Xiang-Guo


    Alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) multisystem flooding technique, which has an expansive application prospect,is one of the enhancing oil recovery (EOR) methods. By adding the organic chromium to the ASP, the molecular structure of polymer was made to change, and the capability of controlling mobility coefficient of ASP was improved. The results showed that multisystem could still keep ultra-low interfacial tension between the multisystem and crude oil after addition of Cr3+. The resistance factor and residual resistance factor, the indicator which describes the capability of controlling mobility, upgraded strikingly. However its storage modulus and loss modulus,the indicator which describes viscoelasticity, increased. The results of physical simulation experiment indicated that this type of improved ASP could increase the recovery ratio by 4.3% compared to common ASP multisystem.

  6. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references.

  7. Experimental study of the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) (United States)

    Endo, Masamori; Nagaoka, Ryuji; Nagaoka, Hiroki; Nagai, Toru; Wani, Fumio


    A small-scale cesium diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) apparatus has been developed for fundamental researches. A commercial laser diode with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. Both windows of the gain cell are set at Brewster's angle for minimum loss and maximum durability. Output coupling coefficient is continuously variable from 13% to 85% by the slanted quartz plate outcoupler inserted in the optical resonator. Small signal gain is measured with a laser diode probe at various gain cell temperatures. A 6.5 W continuouswave output with 56% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. A numerical simulation code is developed and its calculation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  8. Strong Turbulence in Alkali Halide Negative Ion Plasmas (United States)

    Sheehan, Daniel


    Negative ion plasmas (NIPs) are charge-neutral plasmas in which the negative charge is dominated by negative ions rather than electrons. They are found in laser discharges, combustion products, semiconductor manufacturing processes, stellar atmospheres, pulsar magnetospheres, and the Earth's ionosphere, both naturally and man-made. They often display signatures of strong turbulence^1. Development of a novel, compact, unmagnetized alkali halide (MX) NIP source will be discussed, it incorporating a ohmically-heated incandescent (2500K) tantulum solenoid (3cm dia, 15 cm long) with heat shields. The solenoid ionizes the MX vapor and confines contaminant electrons, allowing a very dry (electron-free) source. Plasma densities of 10^10 cm-3 and positive to negative ion mass ratios of 1 Fusion 4, 91 (1978).

  9. Radioluminescence of synthetic quartz related to alkali ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, M., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Fasoli, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Galli, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanostrutture, IFN-CNR (Italy); Villa, I. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Guibert, P. [IRAMAT-CRP2A (Institut de recherche sur les Archeomateriaux), UMR no. 5060, CNRS-Universite Bordeaux III, F-33607 Pessac (France)


    The radioluminescence (RL) of synthetic quartzes (GEMMA Quartz and Crystal Company) has been measured at room temperature. Some samples were treated by electrodiffusion ('sweeping') in order to change the concentrations of alkali ions, mainly Li{sup +} and Na{sup +}, which in quartz are known to be linked to Al ions, substitutional for Si ions. The RL emission spectra show evidence of a role of alkali ions in affecting some specific emissions. All the spectra could be analysed as composed of four bands in the blue and UV region. Specifically, the well known blue emission at around 470 nm was seen to be composed by two bands at 430 nm (2.86 eV) and at 485 nm (2.53 eV). Effects of irradiation, during the RL measurements, were clearly seen only in the 'Li swept in' sample, namely an increase in the 485 nm band intensity and a decrease in the 430 nm band one. The previously reported UV emission was detected at 355 nm (3.44 eV) in all the samples, being the most intense band in the 'swept out' sample. A further UV emission was detected at 315 nm (3.94 eV), more intense in untreated samples. Possible assignments of the detected emission bands are discussed in relation to the defects of quartz, specifically focusing on the Al centres that are most affected by sweeping procedures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contribution to the understanding of relationships between defects in quartz and luminescence emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of charge compensators at substitutional Al sites in the optical properties of quartz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of the double nature of the 'blue emission' (around 470 nm).

  10. The Structure and Thermodynamics of Alkali Halide Vapors. (United States)

    Hartley, John George

    A comprehensive set of electron diffraction experiments were performed on 16 of the alkali halides in the vapor phase. A 40kev electron beam was scattered from the vapor effusing out of the nozzle of a temperature controlled gas cell. The resulting data were analyzed at the University of Edinburgh with the program ED80. This resulted in values for the bond lengths of monomers and the dimers, the bond angle of the dimers and the monomer-dimer ratios. In several cases, it was possible to further refine the data to obtain information on the mean amplitudes of vibration. As a check on the accuracy of the results, the monomer bond distances obtained by electron diffraction were compared to values obtained previously by microwave spectroscopy. The average monomer bond length r_{a} is corrected to obtain the equilibrium bond distance r_{e}. This value is then compared to the value of r_{e } obtained from microwave spectroscopy and found to be in excellent agreement. The bond lengths and angles of the dimers were compared against model calculations. While no one model was found to accurately predict the dimer structure parameters of all of the alkali halides, the Rittner model of Gowda et al was found to accurately predict the structure of six of the dimers. Thermodynamical calculations were performed on the model data which resulted in theoretical curves of the monomer-dimer ratios. Comparison of these curves with the experimental monomer-dimer ratio permits an evaluation of the model vibration frequencies. The enthalpy of formation of the dimer, Delta H_sp{2}{f}(298) is examined with regard to the size of the variation necessary to bring about agreement of the experimental and model monomer-dimer ratios.

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Mistletoe Alkali on Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei-hua; WANG Yi-shu; ZHOU Hong-lan; LI Ya-juan; QIU Xin-ru; WANG Xue-yao; ZHAO Yu-yang


    Mistletoe alkali plays an important role in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma(SACC) cell proliferation,apoptosis and invasion.Mistletoe alkali shows potent anticaner property.In this paper,immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence staining were employed to evaluate the expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA),Caspase 3,Caspase 8 and Caspase 9.Apoptosis was detected by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining,cell invasion ability was assessed by Boyden Chamber assay.Pretreatment with mistletoe alkali markedly decreased PCNA expression in SACC cells in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.001) and also led to increase the expression of Caspase 3,Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 in SACC cells compared with control group(P<0.001).Number of apoptotic cells increased dramatically in mistletoe alkali group(P<0.001).In Boyden Chamber assay,mistletoe alkali treatment could inhibit SACC cells to penetrate the artificial basement membrane compared with control group(P<0.01).Mistletoe alkali remarkably inhibited the proliferation and invasion of SACC cells and induced the apoptosis of SACC cells.These results provide an insight into the mechanisms of anticancer effects of mistletoe alkali,and highlight the potential clinical application of it.

  12. Alkali-metal-supported bismuth polyhedra-principles and theoretical studies. (United States)

    Monakhov, Kirill Yu; Linti, Gerald; Wolters, Lando P; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias


    We have quantum chemically investigated the structure, stability, and bonding mechanism in highly aggregated alkali-metal salts of bismuthanediide anions [RBi](2-) using relativistic density functional theory (DFT, at ZORA-BP86/TZ2P) in combination with a quantitative energy decomposition analysis (EDA). Our model systems are alkali-metal-supported bismuth polyhedra [(RBi)(n)M(2n-4)](4-) with unique interpenetrating shells of a bismuth polyhedron and an alkali-metal superpolyhedron. Furthermore, we have analyzed the trianionic inclusion complexes [M'@{(RBi)(n)M(2n-4)}](3-) involving an additional endohedral alkali-metal ion M'. The main objective is to assist the further development of synthetic approaches toward this class of compounds. Our analyses led to electron-counting rules relating, for example, the number of bonding orbitals (N(bond)) of the cage molecules [(RBi)(n)M(2n+Q)](Q) to the number of bismuth atoms (n(Bi)), alkali-metal atoms (n(M)), and net charge Q as N(bond) = n(Bi) + n(M) - Q (R = one-electron donor ligand; M = alkali metal; n = 4-12; Q = -4, -6, -8). Finally, on the basis of our findings, we predict the next members in the 5-fold symmetrical row of alkali-metallobismaspheres with a macroicosahedral arrangement.

  13. Alkali extraction and in vitro antioxidant activity of Monascus mycelium polysaccharides. (United States)

    Wang, Pengrong; Chen, Danfeng; Jiang, Donghua; Dong, Xiameng; Chen, Panpan; Lin, Yaoxue


    In the present work, alkali extraction technology was used to optimize the extraction of Monascus mycelium polysaccharides for the first time. The extracting parameters of alkali extracted Monascus mycelium polysaccharides were optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimum conditions were extraction temperature 49 °C, alkali concentration 7%, solvent/material ratio 23:1 (ml/g) and extraction time 2.3 h with an enhanced yield of 10.1%, compared with the yield 4.76% of hot water extraction, indicating that alkali extraction is a more efficient way. In order to discuss the biological activity of alkali extracted polysaccharides, we compared the in vitro antioxidant activity of alkali extracted polysaccharides (AMP) with hot water extracted polysaccharides (HMP). The result showed that AMP have the similar capability of scavenging both superoxide radical and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical of HMP in vitro. Therefore, alkali extraction technology is not only a high-efficiency way to extract AMP, but also can retain the natural antioxidant activities of AMP, which can be used in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  14. Saline-alkali land in the Yellow River Delta:amelioration zonation based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Soil salinization is one of the major land degradation types andhas greatly influenced sustainable agricultural development. Zonation of saline-alkali land is the precondition for effective amelioration. The present situation of saline-alkali land is monitored by remote sensing image processing. Causes for land salinization are analyzed, especially the two key factors, ground water depth and its mineralization degree, are analyzed by using long-term observation data. Previously,zonation of saline-alkali soil was made descriptively and artificially. Based on the present situation of saline-alkali land, ground water depth and ground water mineralization degree, the zonation of salinealkali land for amelioration in the Yellow River Delta was completed quantitatively. Four different ypes of saline-alkali land amelioration zones are delineated, namely, easy ameliorated zone,elatively difficult ameliorated zone, difficult ameliorated zone and unfavorable ameliorated zone.Countermeasures for ameliorating saline-alkali soils are put forward according to ecological conditions of different saline-alkali land zones.

  15. Origin of alkali rocks in the light of data on the fluid mantle flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushev, V.G.; Mironov, A.G.


    The hypotheses on the alkali-basic melts as formed through partial fusion of either the hydroxyl-containing alkali peridotite (or pyroxenite), or the phlogopite- or amphibole-enriched rocks in the mantle turn out most relevant as for the alkali rock peculiarities. Still, the hypotheses do not explain the appearance of alkalies and water involved in fusion. It is supposed that the alkalies-enriched rocks result from the dynamometamorphic segregation of the mantle fluid (CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/, CO), which reacts with the mantle rocks (magnetite+olivine+pyroxene) with subsequent release of H/sub 2/O and liberation of K and Na from the gaseous phase and pyroxenes lattice. The start of fusion is induced by sharp decrease of pressure and heat incoming along the deep dislocation zones in the mantle. Once produced, the alkali melt evolved through differetiation or interaction with enclosing rocks. This method provides interpretation of most petrological and geochemical peculiarities of different series of alkali rocks. 65 references.

  16. Effect of alkali and heat treatments for bioactivity of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seo young, E-mail: [Dept. of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Bio degradable material, Institute of Oral Bioscience and BK21 plus project, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu kyoung, E-mail: [Dept. of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Bio degradable material, Institute of Oral Bioscience and BK21 plus project, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il song, E-mail: [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Center for Advanced Materials Development and Institute of Biodegradable Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang chun, E-mail: [Oral Medical College, Beihua University, Jilin City 132013 (China); Bae, Tae sung, E-mail: [Dept. of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Bio degradable material, Institute of Oral Bioscience and BK21 plus project, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min ho, E-mail: [Dept. of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Bio degradable material, Institute of Oral Bioscience and BK21 plus project, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes formed via anodization were treated by alkali and heat. • The surface roughness was increased after alkali treatment (p < 0.05). • After alkali and heat treatment, the wettability was better than before treatment. • Alkali treated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were shown higher HAp formation in SBF. • Heat treatment affected on the attachment of cells for alkali treated nanotubes. - Abstract: In this study, for improving the bioactivity of titanium used as an implant material, alkali and heat treatments were carried out after formation of the nanotubes via anodization. Nanotubes with uniform length, diameter, and thickness were formed by anodization. The alkali and heat-treated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were covered with the complex network structure, and the Na compound was generated on the surface of the specimens. In addition, after 5 and 10 days of immersion in the SBF, the crystallized OCP and HAp phase was significantly increased on the surface of the alkali-treated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (PNA) and alkali and heat-treated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (PNAH) groups. Cell proliferation was decreased due to the formation of amorphous sodium titanate (Na{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) layer on the surface of the PNA group. However, anatase and crystalline sodium titanate were formed on the surface of the PNAH group after heat treatment at 550 °C, and cell proliferation was improved. Thus, PNA group had higher HAp forming ability in the simulated body fluid. Additional heat treatment affected on enhancement of the bioactivity and the attachment of osteoblasts for PNA group.

  17. Use of precalciners to remove alkali from raw materials in the cement industry. Final report, July 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, E.M.


    The objective of this work was to develop an efficient means of removing alkali metal compounds (alkalies) from high-alkali aluminosilicate raw materials of the type commonly used as part of cement raw mixes in order to increase the energy efficiency of cement manufacture. The intention of this project was to determine whether the high-alkali raw materials could be pyroprocessed separately to remove the alkalies before they entered the rotary kiln, where they would be mixed with the other raw feed components. If this could be achieved, considerable savings could be made in the energy required to remove alkalies, compared to conventional methods in which the cement raw mix must be treated as a whole. Two different methods of alkali removal were examined, namely, vaporization of alkalies at relatively low temperatures; and alkali-rich melt separation at relativey high temperatures. The results showed that the removal of alkalies by pyroprocessing of high-alkali raw feed components separate from the other cement raw mix components is not likely to be a practical alternative to the best available conventional precalciner technology. (LCL)

  18. Communication: Dopant-induced solvation of alkalis in liquid helium nanodroplets (United States)

    Renzler, Michael; Daxner, Matthias; Kranabetter, Lorenz; Kaiser, Alexander; Hauser, Andreas W.; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Lindinger, Albrecht; Zillich, Robert; Scheier, Paul; Ellis, Andrew M.


    Alkali metal atoms and small alkali clusters are classic heliophobes and when in contact with liquid helium they reside in a dimple on the surface. Here we show that alkalis can be induced to submerge into liquid helium when a highly polarizable co-solute, C60, is added to a helium nanodroplet. Evidence is presented that shows that all sodium clusters, and probably single Na atoms, enter the helium droplet in the presence of C60. Even clusters of cesium, an extreme heliophobe, dissolve in liquid helium when C60 is added. The sole exception is atomic Cs, which remains at the surface.

  19. Field emission properties of capped carbon nanotubes doped by alkali metals:a theoretical investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Lei; Fu Hong-Gang; Xie Ying; Yu Hai-Tao


    The electronic structures and field emission properties of capped CNT55 systems with or without alkali metal atom adsorption were systematically investigated by density functional theory calculation.The results indicate that the adsorption of alkali metal on the center site of a CNT tip is energetically favorable.In addition,the adsorption energies increase with the introduction of the electric field.The excessive negative charges on CNT tips make electron emittance much easier and result in a decrease in work function.Furthermore,the inducing effect by positively charged alkali metal atoms can be reasonably considered as the dominant reason for the improvement in field emission properties.

  20. Pretreatment of garden biomass by alkali-assisted ultrasonication: effects on enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrastructural changes


    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, SPM Prince; Vaidya, Atul Narayan; Anand, Duraisamy; Wate, Satish


    The present investigation aims at studying the effectiveness of alkali-assisted ultrasonication on pretreatment of garden biomass (GB). Dry and powdered GB suspended in 1% NaOH was ultrasonicated for 15, 30 and 60 minutes at a frequency of 25 KHZ. The mode of action and effectiveness of alkali-assisted ultrasonication on GB was established through microscopic, scanning electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction studies. A perusal of results showed that alkali-assisted ultrasonication led to f...

  1. Alkali extraction and in vitro antioxidant activity of Monascus mycelium polysaccharides


    Wang, Pengrong; Chen, Danfeng; Jiang, Donghua; Dong, Xiameng; Chen, Panpan; Lin, Yaoxue


    In the present work, alkali extraction technology was used to optimize the extraction of Monascus mycelium polysaccharides for the first time. The extracting parameters of alkali extracted Monascus mycelium polysaccharides were optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimum conditions were extraction temperature 49 °C, alkali concentration 7%, solvent/material ratio 23:1 (ml/g) and extraction time 2.3 h with an enhanced yield of 10.1%, compared with the yield 4.76% of hot water extraction...

  2. Effect of Alkali Treatment on the Structure and Catalytic Properties of ZSM-5 Zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Yun LI; Xin SUN; Qiang XIAO; Shou He XIANG


    Catalytic properties of ZSM-5 zeolite samples pretreated with NaOH solution have been investigated. The samples are characterized by XRD, SEM, chemical analysis, and N2 adsorption.The results indicate that mesopores are created in ZSM-5 crystals under alkali treatment without change the microporous structure and acidic strength of the zeolite, but the crystallinity is greatly decreased under severe treatment. IR indicates that the concentration of silanol is greatly enriched by alkali treatment. The etherification activities of ZSM-5 zeolites are greatly increased by alkali-treatment. The noticeably improved catalytic activity of treated samples is ascribed to the formation of mesopores and greatly enriched silanol group.

  3. Trace Element Geochemistry of Hannuoba Ultramafic Inclusion—bearing Alkali Basalts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Presented in this paper are the trace element abundances of 16 samples of Hannuoba ultramafic inclusion-bearing aldali basalts,which were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.The Petrogenesis of the alkali basalt suite has been modeled by batch partial melting and and Rayleigh fractional crystallization processes,The geochemical characteristics of the mantle source from where alkali basalts were derived are described in terms of variations in trace element abundances of the alkali basalt suite.

  4. Behavior of Alkali Metals and Ash in a Low-Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed (LTCFB) Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narayan, Vikas; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    A low-temperature circulating fluidized bed system (LTCFB) gasifier allows for pyrolysis and gasification to occurat low temperatures, thereby improving the retention of alkali and other inorganic elements within the system and minimizingthe amount of ash species in the product gas. In addition......, the low reactor temperature ensures that high-alkali biomass fuels canbe used without risk of bed defluidization. This paper presents the first investigation of the fate of alkali metals and ash in lowtemperaturegasifiers. Measurements on bed material and product gas dust samples were made on a 100 k...

  5. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Pressure Broadened Alkali-Metal Atom Resonance Lines (United States)

    Shindo, F.; Zhu, C.; Kirby, K.; Babb, J. F.


    We are carrying out a joint theoretical and experimental research program to study the broadening of alkali atom resonance lines due to collisions with helium and molecular hydrogen for applications to spectroscopic studies of brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets.

  6. Is electronegativity a useful descriptor for the pseudo-alkali metal NH4? (United States)

    Whiteside, Alexander; Xantheas, Sotiris S; Gutowski, Maciej


    Molecular ions in the form of "pseudo-atoms" are common structural motifs in chemistry, with properties that are transferrable between different compounds. We have determined one such property--the electronegativity--for the "pseudo-alkali metal" ammonium (NH(4)), and evaluated its reliability as a descriptor versus the electronegativities of the alkali metals. The computed properties of ammonium's binary complexes with astatine and of selected borohydrides confirm the similarity of NH(4) to the alkali metal atoms, although the electronegativity of NH(4) is relatively large in comparison to its cationic radius. We have paid particular attention to the molecular properties of ammonium (angular anisotropy, geometric relaxation and reactivity), which can cause deviations from the behaviour expected of a conceptual "true alkali metal" with this electronegativity. These deviations allow for the discrimination of effects associated with the molecular nature of NH(4).

  7. The ecology and genetics of alkali bulrush (Schoenoplectus maritimus) : Management implications (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alkali bulrush (Schoenoplectus maritimus) is an important wetland plant species, in the Intermountain West. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how best to...

  8. Use of Fly Ash in the Mitigation of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete (United States)


    crystallinity of the silica and its solubility. Common reactive minerals susceptible to ASR include strained quartz, cristobalite , opal, obsidian, chert, and...residues, whereas alkali-silica reactive components include opal, cristobalite , tridymite, siliceous and some intermediate volcanic glass, chert

  9. Studies of Alkali Sorption Kinetics for Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion by High Pressure Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, K.J.; Willenborg, W.; Fricke, C.; Prikhodovsky, A.; Hilpert, K.; Singheiser, L.


    This work describes the first approach to use High Pressure Mass Spectrometry (HPMS) for the quantification and analysis of alkali species in a gas stream downstream a sorbent bed of different tested alumosilicates.

  10. Fluid Composititon and Carbon & Oxygen Isotope Geochemistry of Cenozoic Alkali Basalts in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭杰; 王先彬; 等


    The fluid compositions of Cenozoic alkali basalts in eastern China have been determined by the pyrolysis-MS method,meanwhile the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of CO2 released from these samples at different heating temperatures have been analyzed by the vacuum step-heating method.The data show the volatiole heterogeneity in upper-mantle sources and different evolution trends of alkali basaltic magmas in eastern China,and these alkali basaltic magmas may be generated in the oxidizing milieu,as compared with mantle-derived xenoliths in these alkali basalts,and exotic volatile components were mixed into these magmas in the process of their formation and development.

  11. Enhancement of tensile strength of lignocellulosic jute fibers by alkali-steam treatment. (United States)

    Saha, Prosenjit; Manna, Suvendu; Chowdhury, Sougata Roy; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Debasis; Adhikari, Basudam


    The physico-chemical properties of jute fibers treated with alkali (NaOH) solution have been investigated in this study. The treatments were applied under ambient and elevated temperatures and high pressure steaming conditions. To the knowledge of these authors the influence of alkali-steam treatment on the uniaxial tensile strength of natural ligno-cellulosic fibers, such as jute, has not been investigated earlier. The results from this investigation indicate that a 30 min dipping of the fibers in 0.5% alkali solution followed by 30 min alkali-steam treatment leads to an increase in the tensile strength of up to 65%. The increase appears to be due to fiber separation and removal of non-cellulosic materials, which, in turn, resulted in an increased crystallinity.

  12. Improvement of a polarized alkali ion source by means of optical pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreves, W.; Koch, E.; Jaensch, H.; Kamke, W.; Broermann, W.; Fick, D.


    A source for polarized alkali ions can be improved considerably by optical pumping of the atom beam in combination with a modified weak field transition. M-level populations were investigated using laser induced fluorescence in a magnetic field.

  13. A contribution to the surface characterization of alkali metal sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantauzzi, Marzia; Rigoldi, Americo; Elsener, Bernhard; Atzei, Davide; Rossi, Antonella, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Full electronic characterization of alkali metals sulfates by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy. • Curve-fitting of SKLL signals makes possible to clarify the role of the cation in the series of alkali metal sulfates. • Differences in the binding energies and Auger parameter are discussed in terms of the electronic properties and the polarizability of the cation. • The line intensities are analyzed and a thorough quantitative analysis is presented. - Abstract: The analytical characterization of surfaces of sulfur-bearing samples that present sulfides, polysulfides and/or elemental sulfur as reaction products can be difficult by simply relying on the binding energy of the S2p X-ray photoelectron signals, due to the small chemical shifts. In such cases the Auger parameter concept can be used to distinguish among different chemical states, but this requires a model to curve fit complex Auger SKLL signals in order to resolve the contributions arising from sulfur in different chemical states on the surface. With this scope a detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray induced Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES) surface analytical study of the group IA sulfates is presented in this paper. Sulfates were chosen as model compounds for curve fitting the X-ray induced SKLL spectra since in these compounds sulfur is present in a unique chemical state. For the first time the multicomponent SKLL spectra are fitted with model functions consisting of an intense {sup 1}D and a low intensity {sup 1}S contribution with constant energy difference of 8 eV. It was found that the kinetic energy of the SK{sub 2,3}L{sub 2,3} ({sup 1}D) line increases from 2105.1 ± 0.1 to 2107.5 ± 0.2 eV whereas the corresponding S2p{sub 3/2} binding energy decreases from 169.5 ± 0.1 eV for Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to 167.8 ± 0.1 eV for Cs{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Shifts to lower binding energy values are observed also for S2p, S2s and O1

  14. "Textbook" adsorption at "nontextbook" adsorption sites: Halogen atoms on alkali halide surfaces


    Li, B.; Michaelides, A.; Scheffler, M.


    Density-functional theory (DFT) and second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations indicate that halogen atoms bond preferentially to halide substrate atoms on a series of alkali halide surfaces, rather than to the alkali atoms as might be anticipated. An analysis of the electronic structures in each system reveals that this novel adsorption mode is stabilized by the formation of textbook two-center three-electron covalent bonds. The implications of these findings to, for exampl...

  15. Cold three-body collisions in hydrogen-hydrogen-alkali atomic system

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yujun; Esry, B D


    We have studied hydrogen-hydrogen-alkali three-body systems in the adiabatic hyperspherical representation. For the spin-stretched case, there exists a single $X$H molecular state when $X$ is one of the bosonic alkali atoms: $^7$Li, $^{23}$Na, $^{39}$K, $^{87}$Rb and $^{133}$Cs. As a result, the {\\em only} recombination process is the one that leads to formation of $X$H molecules, H+H+$X

  16. Impact of Alkali Pretreatment on the Chemical Component Distribution and Ultrastructure of Poplar Cell Walls


    Zhe Ji; Zhe Ling; Xun Zhang; Gui-Hua Yang; Feng Xu


    Alkali pretreatment is one of the leading pretreatment technologies for biofuel applications. The histochemical and structural characteristics of poplar cell walls were investigated before and after sodium hydroxide pretreatment (121 oC, 2%) to understand the alterations in biomass cellular structure, which were correlated with saccharification yield. Results showed that alkali pretreatment preferentially removed lignin from the S2 of fibers, which was similar to the behaviors of coniferyl al...

  17. Endoscopic pyloroplasty for severe gastric outlet obstruction due to alkali ingestion in a child


    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Aldaghi, Mitra; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir


    A common belief is that alkali ingestion causes severe esophageal damage and limited gastric injury due to the buffering action of acid. Gastric injury has been observed in patients who ingested alkali. Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) secondary to caustic ingestion occurs due to fibrosis after resolution of the acute injury and inflammation, most commonly 6 to 12 weeks after initial ingestion. The traditional treatment for GOO related to ingestion of corrosive agents is surgery. Experience w...

  18. Properties of Hydrated Alkali Metals Aimed at the Ion Channel Selectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Hai-Long; LIU Yu-Zhi; ZHANG Su-Hua; ZHAN Yong; ZHANG Hai-Lin


    The hydration structure properties of different alkali metal ions with eight water molecules and potassium ions with different numbers of water molecules are studied using the mixed density functional theory, B3LYP, with 6-311G basis set. The hydration structures are obtained from structure optimization and the optimum numbers of water molecules in the innermost hydration shell for the alkali metal ions are found. Some useful information about the ion channel selectivity is presented.

  19. Alkali Metal-incorporated Mesoporous Smectites:Crystallinity and Textural Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yan-feng; Shinichiro Fujita; Nobuhiro Iwasa; Bhalchandra M. Bhanage; Masahiko Arai


    A series of mesoporous smectite-like materials incorporated with alkali metals such as Li, Na, K and Cs has been synthesized with the hydrothermal method. The crystalline and the pore structures of the materials synthesized significantly change with the introduction of alkali metals. The addition of Li gives highly ordered layer phases, while the incorporation of Cs yields much less crystalline structures. Although Na or K has little effect on the crystalline structure, they modify the pore structure.

  20. The Feasibility of ASP Flooding with Low Alkali Concentration in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HouJirui; ZhangShufen; YangJinzong; YueXiang'an


    In this paper, as far as the ASP flooding in the pilot area of Daqing oilfield is concerned, the effect of apparent viscosity of ASP solution on enhanced oil recovery have been studied by comparison of experiments on artificial heterogeneous cores with on natural cores.The results showed that the decrease in the concentration of alkali could increase tile apparent viscosity of ASP solutions, namely, the apparent viscosity increased and the IFF couldn't get ultra low, and the oil recovery efficiency by ASP solution with a reasonably lower concentration of alkali was not less than that with a higher concentration of alkali and ultra low IFF. The experiments with models having impermeable interlayers between adjacent layers, and by means of “co-injection and separate production” showed that the ASP solution with a higher viscosity and a lower alkali concentration was more beneficial to starting-up medium and low permeability layers and enhancing total oil recovery. Therefore, to heterogeneous reservoir, as factors of affecting oil recovery, the apparent viscosity may be more important than the ultralow IFF. Furthermore, on the premise that the concentration of surfactant and the concentration of polymer keep constant, ASP flooding with low alkali concentration not only enlarges the selectable range of surfactants and decreases the cost of ASP flooding, but also solves the problem of alkali scales. Finally, a dynamic absorption experiment was performed with a 0.5 meter long linked-up natural core to determine alkali wastage in formation. The result being accord with the application case in the pilot confirmed that it was not necessary to add the alkali too much in ASP flooding from a new direction.

  1. Impact of alkali salts on the kinetics and microstructural development of cementitious systems


    Mota Gassó, Berta


    Supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) lower the environmental impact of cement and concrete but react more slowly than Portland cement, which therefore limits the levels of substitution possible as reasonable early strengths are necessary. One of the main factors affecting the reaction of the SCMs is the alkalinity of the pore solution. However, alkalis do not only affect SCMs, but also the clinker phases. It is generally accepted that alkalis accelerate the hydration of Portland cement ...

  2. Thermochemical Ablation Therapy of VX2 Tumor Using a Permeable Oil-Packed Liquid Alkali Metal



    Objective Alkali metal appears to be a promising tool in thermochemical ablation, but, it requires additional data on safety is required. The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of permeable oil-packed liquid alkali metal in the thermochemical ablation of tumors. Methods Permeable oil-packed sodium–potassium (NaK) was prepared using ultrasonic mixing of different ratios of metal to oil. The thermal effect of the mixture during ablation of muscle tissue ex vivo was evaluat...

  3. Calculated Pressure Induced BCC-FCC Phase Transitions in Alkali Metals


    DAĞISTANLI, Hamdi; MUTLU, R. Haluk


    The partial occupation numbers and density of states (DOS), and the total DOS at the Fermi level are calculated as a function of reduced atomic volume for bcc and fcc alkali metals employing the linear-muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) method. By means of the abrupt changes obtained in the partial and total DOS values at the Fermi level, good agreement with regard to experiment were found in predicting the bcc-fcc transition volumes of the alkali metals.

  4. Geochronology of Ailaoshan-Jinshajiang alkali- rich intrusive rocks and their Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉泉; 谢应雯


    Twenty-nine isotopic ages, ranging from 41 to 27 Ma, are presented for the alkali-rich intrusive rocks and their coexisting alkaline volcanic rocks, lamprophyres and acidic porphyries, indicating that they are Tertiary in age. The alkali-rich intrusive rocks have 143Nd/144Nd ratios from 0. 512 415 to 0. 512 544, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.705 4 to 0.706 8, suggesting that their material originates from an enriched mantle source.





    Sodium and potassium combinations existing in phosphogypsum are highly soluble and remain in the filtrate, their amount increasing with each recycle. It has been determined that the amount of alkalis in the recycling filtrate depends on an amount of alkalis in uncleaned phosphogypsum, a number of recycles in the filtrate, the technology of the phosphogypsum pulp preparation and an amount of soluble phosphates. New phosphate formations composed in an acid medium (pH = 4.5-5) are well crystaliz...

  6. An optical criterion to obtain miscible mixed crystals in alkali halides



    This work gives a novel criterion to predict the formation of alkali halide solid solutions and discusses some results obtained in the development of ternary and quaternary miscible crystalline dielectric mixtures of alkali halides. These mixtures are miscible in any concentration of their components. The miscibility of these mixed crystals is quite related to the F center through the behavior observed in the spectral position of the optical absorption F band as a function of the lattice cons...

  7. The influence of alkali treatment on banana fibre’s mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Mejía Osorio


    Full Text Available This work analyses the effect of alkali treatment on the mechanical properties of banana fibre (Musa Paradisiaca. Fibres were extracted from the pseudostem by a defibring machine; they were mercerised and modified by 5% NaOH (w/v alkali treatment. Morphological characterisation showed that treated fibres’ surface was rougher than that of untreated fibres. Mechanical characterisation indicated that Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength and strain became decreased by increasing both treated and untreated fibres’ diameter.

  8. Wavelength diversity in optically pumped alkali vapor lasers (United States)

    Perram, Glen P.


    Alternative wavelengths for optically pumped alkali vapor lasers have been developed using single photon excitation of higher lying P-states, stimulated Raman processes, two-photon excitation of S and D states, and electric quadruple excitation on S-D transitions. Two photon excitation of Cs 72D leads to competing and cascade lasing producing red and infrared lasers operating on the D-P transitions, followed by ultraviolet, blue, the standard near infrared DPAL transitions operating on P-S transitions. The S-D pump transitions are fully bleached at pump intensities exceeding 1 MW/cm2, allowing for lasing transitions that terminate on the ground state. The kinetics of these systems are complex due to competition for population inversion among the many optical transitions. An optically pumped mid-infrared rubidium pulsed, mirrorless laser has also been demonstrated in a heat pipe along both the 62P3/2 - 62S1/2 transition at 2.73 μm and the 62P1/2 - 62S1/2 transition at 2.79 μm with a maximum energy of 100 nJ. Performance improves dramatically as the rubidium vapor density is increased, in direct contradiction with the prior work. No scaling limitations associated with energy pooling or ionization kinetics have been observed. Practical application for infrared counter measures depends on the further development of blue diode pump sources. Finally, stimulated electronic Raman scattering and hyper-Raman processes in potassium vapor near the D1 and D2 lines have been observed using a stable resonator and pulsed laser excitation. First and second order Stokes and anti-Stokes lines were observed simultaneously and independently for a pump laser tuning range exceeding 70 cm-1. When the pump is tuned between the K D1 and D2 lines, an efficient hyper-Raman process dominates with a slope efficiency that exceeds 10%. Raman shifted laser may be useful as a target illuminator or atmospheric compensation beacon for a high power diode pumped alkali laser.

  9. Mistletoe alkali inhibits peroxidation in rat liver and kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Ming Shi; Ping Feng; Dong-Qiao Jiang; Xue-Jiang Wang


    AIM: To explore the antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties of mistletoe alkali (MA).METHODS: The antioxidant effect of mistletoe alkali on the oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats was investigated. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): CCl4-treated group (1 mL/kg body weight), MA -treated group (90 mg/kg), CCl4+MA-treated group and normal control group. After 4 wk of treatment,the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product (LPO) was measured in serum and homogenates of liver and kidney. Also, the level of glutathione (GSH),and activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver and kidney were determined. Scavenging effects on hydroxyl free radicals produced in vitro by Fenton reaction were studied by ESR methods using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxidesource. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by competitive ELISA.RESULTS: In CCl4-treated group, the level of LPO in serum of liver and kidney was significantly increased compared to controls. The levels of GSH and enzyme activities of SOD, GSPx and GR in liver and kidney were significantly decreased in comparison with controls. In CCl4+MA-treated group, the changes in the levels of LPO in serum of liver and kidney were not statistically significant compared to controls. The levels of SOD, GSPx and GR in liver and kidney were significantly increased in comparison with controls. There was a significant difference in urinary excretion of 8-OHdG between the CCl4-treated and MA-treated groups.CONCLUSION: Oxidative stress may be a major mechanism for the toxicity of CCl4. MA has a protective www.wjgnet.comeffect against CCl4 toxicity by inhibiting the oxidative damage and stimulating GST activities. Thus, clinical application of MA should be considered in cases with carbon tetrachloride-induced injury.

  10. Zintl cluster chemistry in the alkali-metal-gallium systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Robert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Previous research into the alkali-metal-gallium systems has revealed a large variety of networked gallium deltahedra. The clusters are analogues to borane clusters and follow the same electronic requirements of 2n+2 skeletal electrons for closo-deltahedra. This work has focused on compounds that do not follow the typical electron counting rules. The first isolated gallium cluster was found in Cs8Ga11. The geometry of the Ga117- unit is not deltahedral but can be described as a penta-capped trigonal prism. The reduction of the charge from a closo-Ga1113- to Ga117- is believed to be the driving force of the distortion. The compound is paramagnetic because of an extra electron but incorporation of a halide atom into the structure captures the unpaired electron and forms a diamagnetic compound. A second isolated cluster has been found in Na10Ga10Ni where the tetra-capped trigonal prismatic gallium is centered by nickel. Stabilization of the cluster occurs through Ni-Ga bonding. A simple two-dimensional network occurs in the binary K2Ga3 Octahedra are connected through four waist atoms to form a layered structure with the potassium atoms sitting between the layers. Na30.5Ga60-xAgx is nonstoichiometric and needs only a small amount of silver to form (x ~ 2-6). The structure is composed of three different clusters which are interconnected to form a three-dimensional structure. The RbGa3-xAux system is also nonstoichiometric with a three-dimensional structure composed of Ga8 dodecahedra and four-bonded gallium atoms. Unlike Na30.5Ga60-xAgx, the RbGa3 binary is also stable. The binary is formally a Zintl phase but the ternary is not. Some chemistry in the alkali-metal-indium system also has been explored. A new potassium-indium binary

  11. Chlorine behavior during co-hydrothermal treatment of high alkali coal and PVC (United States)

    Huang, N.; Zhao, P. T.; Li, Z. Z.; Li, T.


    The hydrothermal treatment (HT) is an effective method to remove chlorine from chlorinated wastes under mild conditions. However, the alkali was required to improve the dechlorination efficiency. Meanwhile, the alkalis contents removed was necessary to realize the clean and highly efficient utilization of coal. This work was trying to investigate the feasibility of simultaneously removal alkalis and chlorine by co-hydrothermal treatment of PVC and high-alkali coal. The effect of operating conditions including the HT temperature, the holding time and particle sizes of coal on the dechlorination efficiency (DE) of PVC during the HT process was experimentally studied in this work. The results show that the DE increased with the rise of: 1) particle sizes (0.054~0.22mm), 2) holding time (30~90 min) and 3) temperature (240~300 °C). In detail, under 300 °C and 60min of holding time, the 85.18% of DE with first PS was lower than the 93.93% of DE with second PS and 100% of DE with third PS. The organic chlorine mainly transferred into chloridion in aqueous solution in HT process. All the results indicate that it is a prospective way to simultaneously removal alkalis and chlorine by co-hydrothermal treatment of chlorinated wastes and high-alkali coal.

  12. Promoting Effect of Inorganic Alkali on Carbon Dioxide Adsorption in Amine-Modified MCM-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Teng


    Full Text Available Three kinds of inorganic alkali are introduced into tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA and polyethyleneimine (PEI-modified MCM-41 as the CO2 adsorbents. X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, fourier-transform infrared and thermo gravimetric analysis are used to characterize the surface structures and the thermal stability of adsorbents. Chemical titration method is used to measure the alkali amounts of adsorbents. Thermo-gravimetric analysis with 10% CO2/90% N2 as the simulated flue gas is used to test the CO2 adsorption performance of adsorbents. The results show that all three kinds of inorganic alkali-containing adsorbents exhibit higher CO2 adsorption capability than traditional TEPA and PEI modified samples. Ca(OH2 and PEI modified samples exhibit the highest adsorption capacity and recyclable property. The introduction of inorganic alkali changes the chemical adsorption mechanism between CO2 and adsorbent surface due to the increased hydroxyl groups. The CO2 adsorption capacities have a linear dependence relation with the alkali amounts of adsorbents, indicating that alkali amount is a critical factor for the exploration of novel adsorbents.

  13. Alkali production in the mouth and its relationship with certain patient's characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Veiga GORDAN


    Full Text Available Objectives To assess the relationships among alkali production, diet, oral health behaviors, and oral hygiene. Methods Data from 52 subjects including demographics, diet, and oral hygiene scores were analyzed against the level of arginine and urea enzymes in plaque and saliva samples. An oral habit survey was completed that included: use of tobacco (TB, alcohol (AH, sugary drinks (SD, and diet. Alkali production through arginine deiminase (ADS and urease activities were measured in smooth-surface supragingival dental plaque and un stimulated saliva samples from all subjects. ADS and urease activities were measured by quantification of the ammonia generated from the incubation of plaque or saliva samples. Spearman correlations were used to compute all associations. Results Participants in the lowest SES (Socio-economic status group had the habit of consuming sugary drinks the most and had the highest rate of tobacco use. Males consumed significantly more alcohol than females. No significant relationship was found between age or gender and alkali production. Higher rates of sugary drink consumption and tobacco use were significantly related to lower alkali production. Conclusion The study showed a relationship between alkali production and oral hygiene, diet, and certain oral health behaviors. Poor oral hygiene was significantly associated with age, lower SES, tobacco use, and alcohol, and sugary drinks consumption. Clinical relevance Certain oral health behaviors have an impact on oral hygiene and on alkali production; it is important to address these factors with patients as a strategy for caries control.

  14. Design strategies for development of SCR catalyst: improvement of alkali poisoning resistance and novel regeneration method. (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Li, Junhua; Shi, Wenbo; Xu, Jiayu; Hao, Jiming


    Based on the ideas of the additives modification and regeneration method update, two different strategies were designed to deal with the traditional SCR catalyst poisoned by alkali metals. First, ceria doping on the V(2)O(5)-WO(3)/TiO(2) catalyst could promote the SCR performance even reducing the V loading, which resulted in the enhancement of the catalyst's alkali poisoning resistance. Then, a novel method, electrophoresis treatment, was employed to regenerate the alkali poisoned V(2)O(5)-WO(3)/TiO(2) catalyst. This novel technique could dramatically enhance the SCR activities of the alkali poisoned catalysts by removing approximately 95% K or Na ions from the catalyst and showed less hazardous to the environment. Finally, the deactivation mechanisms by the alkali metals were extensively studied by employing both the experimental and DFT theoretical approaches. Alkali atom mainly influences the active site V species rather than W oxides. The decrease of catalyst surface acidity might directly reduce the catalytic activity, while the reducibility of catalysts could be another important factor.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sodium and potassium combinations existing in phosphogypsum are highly soluble and remain in the filtrate, their amount increasing with each recycle. It has been determined that the amount of alkalis in the recycling filtrate depends on an amount of alkalis in uncleaned phosphogypsum, a number of recycles in the filtrate, the technology of the phosphogypsum pulp preparation and an amount of soluble phosphates. New phosphate formations composed in an acid medium (pH = 4.5-5 are well crystalized crystals. They do not alter the filtrability of the phosphogypsum pulp. The new combinations formed in an alkaline medium (pH = 7-11 are colloidal. They settle down on the surface of the hard particles and make the filtration of the phosphogypsum pulp complicated. The filtrated phosphogypsum is more humid which causes the growth of the amount of alkalis carried out together with moisture and thus the lower alkali concentration is observed in the recycling filtrate. In the discussed case, the larger amount of soluble phosphates of uncleaned phosphogypsum is formed the larger amount of the colloidal particles in the neutralized phosphogypsum pulp which results in complicated filtration. In all the cases, the alkali concentration in the recycling filtrate approaches the maximum degree which would take place if alkalis existing in uncleaned phosphogypsum were thawed in humidity of cleaned phosphogypsum.

  16. pH dependency of hydrogen fermentation from alkali-pretreated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Batch tests were carried out to study the possibility of hydrogen production from alkali-pre- treated sludge without seed and the pH dependency of hydrogen fermentation from alkali-pretreated sludge. Experimental results showed that the sewage sludge with alkali-pretreatment could be successfully applied to biologically producing hydrogen without seed and extra-feed. The results also showed that the initial pH value of sewage sludge was an important factor throughout the hydrogen fermentation of alkali-pretreated sludge. The maximum hydrogen yield was obtained at initial pH value of 11.0 (14.4 mL·g VS-1). The hydrogen yield of alkali-pretreated sludge at alkaline initial pH value was much higher than that of acidic or neutral initial pH value. The optimal pH value of hydrogen production from alkali- pretreated sludge was approximately 9.5. The consumption of hydrogen could be inhibited when the pH value of sludge was above 8.5. The change of hydrogen yield at various initial pH values was similar to that of sludge SCOD. The change of sludge pH value was slow and acetate was the major component of volatile fatty acids produced in the process of hydrogen production. The yield and the constitution of volatile fatty acids were sensitive to the initial pH value.

  17. Alkalis in Coal and Coal Cleaning Products / Alkalia W Węglu I Productach Jego Wzbogacania (United States)

    Bytnar, Krzysztof; Burmistrz, Piotr


    In the coking process, the prevailing part of the alkalis contained in the coal charge goes to coke. The content of alkalis in coal (and also in coke) is determined mainly by the content of two elements: sodium and potasium. The presence of these elements in coal is connected with their occurrence in the mineral matter and moisture of coal. In the mineral matter and moisture of the coals used for the coke production determinable the content of sodium is 26.6 up to 62. per cent, whereas that of potassium is 37.1 up to 73.4 per cent of the total content of alkalis. Major carriers of alkalis are clay minerals. Occasionally alkalis are found in micas and feldspars. The fraction of alkalis contained in the moisture of the coal used for the production of coke in the total amount of alkalis contained there is 17.8 up to 62.0 per cent. The presence of sodium and potassium in the coal moisture is strictly connected with the presence of the chloride ions. The analysis of the water drained during process of the water-extracting from the flotoconcentrate showed that the Na to K mass ratio in the coal moisture is 20:1. Increased amount of the alkalis in the coal blends results in increased content of the alkalis in coke. This leads to the increase of the reactivity (CRI index), and to the decrease of strength (CSR index) determined with the Nippon Steel Co. method. W procesie koksowania przeważająca część zawartych we wsadzie węglowym alkaliów przechodzi do koksu. Zawartość alkaliów w węglu, a co za tym idzie i w koksie determinowana jest głównie zawartością dwóch pierwiastków: sodu i potasu. Obecność tych pierwiastków w węglu wiąże się z występowaniem ich w substancji mineralnej i wilgoci węgla. W substancji mineralnej oraz wilgoci węgli stosowanych do produkcji koksu, oznaczona zawartość sodu wynosi od 26.6 do 62.9%, a zawartość potasu od 37.1 do 73.4% alkaliów ogółem. Głównymi nośnikami alkaliów w substancji mineralnej są minera

  18. Alternative concrete based on alkali-activated slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.


    Full Text Available This article reports the results of related to on the performance of concrete made with waterglass (Na2SiO3•nH2O + NaOH-activated Colombian granulated blast furnace slag. The mechanical strength and durability properties this alkali-activated slag concrete (AAS were compared to the properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPC with the same proportion of binder, which ranged from 340 to 512 kg per m3 of concrete. The results indicated that increasing the proportion of slag led to improvements in the properties studied.El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer los resultados de la evaluación del comportamiento de mezclas de hormigón producidas a partir de la activación con waterglass (Na2SiO3•nH2O + NaOH de una escoria siderúrgica granulada de alto horno colombiana. Las propiedades mecánicas y de durabilidad de los hormigones activados alcalinamente (AAS se comparan con las correspondientes mezclas de hormigón de cemento Portland (OPC producidas con igual proporción de ligante. Estas proporciones variaron entre 340 y 512 kg por m3 de hormigón. Los resultados obtenidos indican que incrementos en la proporción de la escoria contribuye a la mejora de las propiedades evaluadas.

  19. Investigating the Intercalation Chemistry of Alkali Ions in Fluoride Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Tanghong; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Lei; Bayliss, Ryan D.; Lin, Feng; Plews, Michael R.; Nordlund, Dennis; Doeff, Marca M.; Persson, Kristin A.; Cabana, Jordi


    Reversible intercalation reactions provide the basis for modern battery electrodes. Despite decades of exploration of electrode materials, the potential for materials in the nonoxide chemical space with regards to intercalation chemistry is vast and rather untested. Transition metal fluorides stand out as an obvious target. To this end, we report herein a new family of iron fluoride-based perovskite cathode materials AxK1–xFeF3 (A = Li, Na). By starting with KFeF3, approximately 75% of K+ ions were subsequently replaced by Li+ and Na+ through electrochemical means. X-ray diffraction and Fe X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed the existence of intercalation of alkali metal ions in the perovskite structure, which is associated with the Fe2+/3+ redox couple. A computational study by density functional theory showed agreement with the structural and electrochemical data obtained experimentally, which suggested the possibility of fluoride-based materials as potential intercalation electrodes. This study increases our understanding of the intercalation chemistry of ternary fluorides, which could inform efforts toward the exploration of new electrode materials.

  20. Improved hydrogen desorption from lithium hydrazide by alkali metal hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang, E-mail: [Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Miyaoka, Hiroki [Institute for Sustainable Sciences and Development, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Ichikawa, Takayuki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu [Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)


    Highlights: •LiH can dramatically improve the hydrogen desorption properties of LiNHNH{sub 2}. •KH doping had positive effect in promoting the hydrogen desorption properties of LiNHNH{sub 2}–LiH mixture. •The reaction mechanism between LiNHNH{sub 2} and LiH was studied and discussed. -- Abstract: Lithium hydrazide (LiNHNH{sub 2}), which is a white solid with 8.0 mass% of theoretical hydrogen content, was synthesized from a reaction between anhydrous hydrazine and n-butyllithium in diethyl ether. The thermodynamic properties of this compound and its detailed decomposition pathways had been investigated in our previous work. However, a number of undesired gaseous products such as hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were generated during the thermal decomposition of LiNHNH{sub 2}. In this work, alkali metal hydride was used to suppress the impurities in the desorbed hydrogen and improved the hydrogen desorption properties. The reaction mechanism between LiNHNH{sub 2} and LiH was also studied and discussed in this paper.

  1. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass (United States)

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar


    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  2. A Survey of Alkali Line Absorption in Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Adam G; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D; Koesterke, Lars; Barman, Travis S


    We obtained over 90 hours of spectroscopic observations of four exoplanetary systems with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Observations were taken in transit and out of transit, and we analyzed the differenced spectra---i.e., the transmission spectra---to inspect it for absorption at the wavelengths of the neutral sodium (\\ion{Na}{1}) doublet at $\\lambda\\lambda5889, 5895$ and neutral potassium (\\ion{K}{1}) at $\\lambda7698$. We used the transmission spectrum at \\ion{Ca}{1} $\\lambda6122$---which shows strong stellar absorption but is not an alkali metal resonance line that we expect to show significant absorption in these atmospheres---as a control line to examine our measurements for systematic errors. We use an empirical Monte Carlo method to quantity these systematic errors. In a reanalysis of the same dataset using a reduction and analysis pipeline that was derived independently, we confirm the previously seen \\ion{Na}{1} absorption in HD 189733b at a level of $(-5.26\\pm1.69)\\times10^{-4}$ (the average val...

  3. Collisional broadening of alkali doublets by helium perturbers

    CERN Document Server

    Mullamphy, D F T; Peach, G; Venturi, V; Whittingham, I B


    We report results for the Lorentzian profiles of the Li I, Na I and K I doublets and the Na I subordinate doublet broadened by helium perturbers for temperatures up to 3000 K They have been obtained from a fully quantum-mechanical close-coupling description of the colliding atoms, the Baranger theory of line shapes and new ab initio potentials for the alkali-helium interaction. For all lines except the 769.9 nm K I line, the temperature dependence of the widths over the range 70 < T < 3000 K is accurately represented by the power law form w=aT^b with 0.37 < b < 0.43. The 769.9 K I line has this form for 500 < T < 3000 K with b = 0.49. Although the shifts have a more complex temperature dependence, they all have the general feature of increasing with temperature above T=500 K apart from the 769.9 K I line whose shift decreases with temperature.

  4. Structural properties of low-density liquid alkali metals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Akande; G A Adebayo; O Akinlade


    The static structure factors of liquid alkali metals have been modelled at temperatures close to their melting points and a few higher temperatures using the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method. The positions of 5000 atoms in a box, with full periodicity, were altered until the experimental diffraction data of the structure factor agrees with the associated model structure factor within the errors. The model generated is then analysed. The position of the first peak of the pair distribution function () does not show any significant temperature dependence and the mean bond lengths can be approximated within an interval of 3.6–5.3 Å, 4.5–6.6 Å, 4.8–6.7 Å and 5.1–7.3 Å for Na, K, Rb and Cs respectively. The cosine bond distributions show similar trend with the flattening up of the first peak with increase in temperature. In addition, the coordination numbers of these liquid metals are high due to the presence of non-covalent bonding between them. On the average, we surmise that the coordination number decreases with increase in temperature.

  5. Effect of alkali treated jute fibres on composite properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipa Ray; B K Sarkar; A K Rana; N R Bose


    Jute fibres were subjected to a 5% alkali (NaOH) solution treatment for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h at 30°C. An improvement in the crystallinity in the jute fibres increased its modulus by 12%, 68% and 79% after 4, 6 and 8 h of treatment respectively. The tenacity of the fibres improved by 46% after 6 and 8 h treatment and the % breaking strain was reduced by 23% after 8 h treatment. For the 35% composites with 4 h treated fibres, the flexural strength improved from 199.1 MPa to 238.9 MPa by 20%, modulus improved from 11.89 GPa to 14.69 GPa by 23% and laminar shear strength increased from 0.238 MPa to 0.2834 MPa by 19%. On plotting the different values of slopes obtained from the rates of improvement of the flexural strength and modulus, against the NaOH treatment time, two different failure modes were apparent before and after 4 h of treatment. In the first region between 0 and 4 h, fibre pull out was predominant whereas in the second region between 6 and 8 h, transverse fracture occurred with a minimum fibre pull out. This observation was well supported by the SEM investigations of the fracture surfaces.

  6. Alkali-crown ether complexes at metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thontasen, Nicha; Deng, Zhitao; Rauschenbach, Stephan [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Levita, Giacomo [University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Malinowski, Nikola [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Kern, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Crown ethers are polycyclic ethers which, in solution, selectively bind cations depending on the size of the ring cavity. The study of a single host-guest complex is highly desirable in order to reveal the characteristics of these specific interactions at the atomic scale. Such detailed investigation is possible at the surface where high resolution imaging tools like scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can be applied. Here, electrospray ion beam deposition (ES-IBD) is employed for the deposition of Dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8)-H{sup +}, -Na{sup +} and -Cs{sup +} complexes on a solid surface in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Where other deposition techniques have not been successful, this deposition technique combines the advantages of solution based preparation of the complex ions with a highly clean and controlled deposition in UHV. Single molecular structures and the cation-binding of DB24C8 at the surface are studied in situ by STM and MALDI-MS (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry). The internal structure of the complex, i.e. ring and cavity, is observable only when alkali cations are incorporated. The BD24C8-H{sup +} complex in contrast appears as a compact feature. This result is in good agreement with theoretical models based on density functional theory calculations.

  7. The structure of alkali silicate gel by total scattering methods

    KAUST Repository

    Benmore, C.J.


    The structure of the alkali silicate gel (ASR) collected from the galleries of Furnas Dam in Brazil was determined by a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy X-ray diffraction data. Since this method is relatively new to concrete structure analysis a detailed introduction on the PDF method is given for glassy SiO2. The bulk amorphous structure of the dam material is confirmed as no Bragg peaks are observed in the scattered intensity. The real space results show that the local structure of the amorphous material is similar to kanemite (KHSi2O5:3H2O) however the long range layer structure of the crystal is broken up in the amorphous state, so that ordering only persists of the length scale of a few polyhedra. The silicate layer structure is a much more disordered than predicted by molecular dynamics models. The X-ray results are consistent with the molecular dynamics model of Kirkpatrick et al. (2005) [1] which predicts that most of the water resides in pores within the amorphous network rather than in layers. The total scattering data provide a rigorous basis against which other models may also be tested. © 2010.

  8. Electrochemistry of ytterbium (III) in molten alkali metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolenski, V.; Novoselova, A. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Science, Ekaterinburg, 620219 (Russian Federation); Osipenko, A. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk Region, 433010 (Russian Federation); Caravaca, C. [High Level Waste Unit, Nuclear Fission Division, CIEMAT, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Cordoba, G. de [High Level Waste Unit, Nuclear Fission Division, CIEMAT, Madrid, 28040 (Spain)], E-mail:


    This work presents the electrochemical study of Yb(III) ions in molten alkali metal chlorides in the temperature range 723-1073 K. Transient electrochemical techniques such as linear sweep, cyclic and square wave voltammetry, and potentiometry at zero current have been used to investigate the reduction mechanism, transport parameters and thermodynamic properties of the reaction YbCl{sub 2} + 1/2Cl{sub 2} = YbCl{sub 3} The results obtained show that the reduction reaction Yb(III) + e{sup -} {r_reversible} Yb(II) is reversible being controlled by the rate of the mass transfer. The diffusion coefficient of [YbCl{sub 6}]{sup 3-} complex ions has been determined at different temperatures in the fused eutectic LiCl-KCl, the equimolar NaCl-KCl and the CsCl media. The apparent standard potential of the soluble-soluble redox system Yb(III)/Yb(II) has been obtained by cyclic voltammetry. The influence of the nature of the solvent on the electrochemical and thermodynamic properties of ytterbium compounds is discussed.

  9. Modelling Alkali Line Absorption and Molecular Bands in Cool DAZs

    CERN Document Server

    Homeier, D; Allard, F; Hauschildt, P H; Schweitzer, A; Stancil, P C; Weck, P F; Homeier, Derek; Allard, Nicole F.; Allard, France; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Schweitzer, Andreas; Stancil, Phillip C.; Weck, Philippe F.


    Two peculiar stars showing an apparent extremely broadened and strong NaI D absorption have been discovered in surveys for cool white dwarfs by Oppenheimer et al. (2001) and Harris et al. (SDSS, 2003). We discuss the nature of these objects using PHOENIX atmosphere models for metal-poor brown dwarfs/very low mass stars, and new white dwarf LTE and NLTE models for hydrogen- and helium-dominated atmospheres with metals. These include complete molecular formation in chemical equilibrium and a model for the alkali resonance line broadening based on the damping profiles of Allard et al. (2003), as well as new molecular line opacities for metal hydrides. First results of our calculations indicate good agreement with a hydrogen-dominated WD atmosphere with a Na abundance roughly consistent with a state of high accretion. We analyse deviations of the abundances of Na, K, Mg and Ca from the cosmic pattern and comment on implications of these results for standard accretion scenarios.

  10. Hydride encapsulation by molecular alkali-metal clusters. (United States)

    Haywood, Joanna; Wheatley, Andrew E H


    The sequential treatment of group 12 and 13 Lewis acids with alkali-metal organometallics is well established to yield so-called ''ate' complexes, whereby the Lewis-acid metal undergoes nucleophilic attack to give an anion, at least one group 1 metal acting to counter this charge. However, an alternative, less well recognised, reaction pathway involves the Lewis acid abstracting hydride from the organolithium reagent via a beta-elimination mechanism. It has recently been shown that in the presence of N,N'-bidentate ligands this chemistry can be harnessed to yield a new type of molecular main-group metal cluster in which the abstracted LiH is effectively trapped, with the hydride ion occupying an interstitial site in the cluster core. Discussion focuses on the development of this field, detailing advances in our understanding of the roles of Lewis acid, organolithium, and amine substrates in the syntheses of these compounds. Structure-types are discussed, as are efforts to manipulate cluster geometry and composition as well as hydride-coordination. Embryonic mechanistic studies are reported, as well as attempts to generate hydride-encapsulation clusters under catalytic control.

  11. Three Alkali-Rich Intrusive Rock Belts Newly Discovered in the Mt. Kunlun-Mt. Altun Region, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笑青; 王元龙; 毕华; 王中刚


    The newly discovered three alkali-rich intrusive rock belts in the Mt. Kunlun Mt.Altun region of southern Xinjiang are the Lapeiquan-Yitunbulak alkali-rich intrusive rock belt,the Gez-Taxkorgan alkali-rich intrusive rock belt and the Beilisai-Abulash alkali-rich intrusive rock belt. The former two belts were formed during the Yanshanian period, and the third one was formed during the Himalayan period, which is the youngest alkali-rich intrusive rock belt in China. The discovery of the alkali-rich intrusive rock belts is of great significance in shedding light on the history of tectono-magmatic activities in this region.

  12. Hg soil pollution around the Flix chlor-alkali plant (United States)

    Esbrí, José Maria; López-Berdoces, Miguel Angel; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Fernández-Calderon, Sergio; Díez, Sergi; León Higueras, Pablo


    Main mercury consumer in industrialized countries is the chlor-alkali industry. In Spain, this industry declares 2.54 tons of mercury emissions to the atmosphere per year, but the losses of mercury in this industrial process seem to be higher than this. In the next 15 years, these industries are going to make a technology change to a free mercury based technology. This study has been applied to the Flix (Tarragona, NE Spain) plant, located very near the Ebro River. Local industrial activity started in the late 18th Century, being the first Spanish industrial precinct in activity. Technology used in this plant is obsolete, and produces important emissions to the atmosphere. Besides, it has also produced an important pollution problem in the Ebro River. The aim of this work is the characterization of mercury soil pollution around the oldest chlor-alkali plant (CAP), actually in process of decommissioning. For this porpoises, we provided data of mercury in soils and in olive oil leaves, in order to assess the extent of this pollution, and the consequences in terms of transferring to local agricultural biota. We present data from two soils geochemistry surveys, one centered in the general area, and a second one centered in an anomalous area identified by the first survey, at the Ebro margins downstream the town area. A total of 126 surface soil samples were taken and analyzed for total mercury by means of a Lumex RA-915+ device with RP- 91C pyrolysis attachment. Soil-plant transfer was studied based on mercury contents in olive leaves, the most ubiquitous plant species in the area; these biological samples were thoroughly clean and freeze-dried before its total mercury analysis in a Lumex RA-915+ device with its RP-91c pyrolysis attachment. Mercury contents in soils reach maximum levels in the vicinity of CAP (495 mg kg-1), much higher than baseline levels found in the area (0.18 mg kg-1, in average). These polluted soils are located near CAP and the riverbanks of Ebro

  13. Hydrogen Adsorption by Alkali Metal Graphite Intercalation Compounds (United States)

    Purewal, Justin

    Adsorption occurs whenever a solid surface is exposed to a gas or liquid, and is characterized by an increase in fluid density near the interface. Adsorbents have drawn attention in the current effort to engineer materials that store hydrogen at high densities within moderate temperature and pressure regimes. Carbon adsorbents are a logical choice as a storage material due to their low costs and large surface areas. Unfortunately, carbon adsorbents suffer from a low binding enthalpy for H2 (about 5 kJ mol-1), well below the 15 to 18 kJ mol-1) that is considered optimal for hydrogen storage systems. Binding interactions can be increased by the following methods: (1) adjusting the graphite interplanar separation with a pillared structure, and (2) introducing dopant species that interact with H2 molecules by strong electrostatic forces. Graphite intercalation compounds are a class of materials that contain both pillared structures and chemical dopants, making them an excellent model system for studying the fundamentals of hydrogen adsorption in nanostructured carbons. Pressure-composition-temperature diagrams of the MC24(H 2)x graphite intercalation compounds were measured for M = (K, Rb, Cs). Adsorption enthalpies were measured as a function of H2 concentration. Notably, CsC24 had an average adsorption enthalpy of 14.9 kJ mol-1), nearly three times larger than that of pristine graphite. The adsorption enthalpies were found to be positively correlated with the alkali metal size. Adsorption capacities were negatively correlated with the size of the alkali metal. The rate of adsorption is reduced at large H2 compositions, due to the effects of site-blocking and correlation on the H2 diffusion. The strong binding interaction and pronounced molecular-sieving behavior of KC24 is likely to obstruct the translational diffusion of adsorbed H2 molecules. In this work, the diffusion of H2 adsorbed in KC24 was studied by quasielastic neutron scattering measurements and molecular

  14. Comparison of ionomic and metabolites response under alkali stress in old and young leaves of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo


    Full Text Available Soil salinization is an important agriculture-related environmental problem. Alkali stress and salt stress strongly influence the metabolic balance in plants. Salt and alkali stresses exert varied effects on old and young tissues, which display different adaptive strategies. In this study, we used cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. plants as experimental material to investigate whether alkali stress exerts varied effects on ion balance and metabolism in old and young leaves of cotton plants exposed to alkali stress. Moreover, we compared the functions of young and old leaves in alkali tolerance. Results showed that alkali stress exerted a considerably stronger growth inhibition on old leaves than on young leaves. Under alkali stress, young leaves can maintain low Na and high K contents and retain relatively stable pigment accumulation and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, resulting in greater accumulation of photosynthetic metabolites. In terms of metabolic response, the young and old leaves clearly displayed different mechanisms of osmotic regulation. The amounts of inositol and mannose significantly increased in both old and young leaves of cotton exposed to alkali stress, and the extent of increase was higher in young leaves than in old leaves. In old leaves, synthesis of amino acids, such as GABA, valine, and serine, was dramatically enhanced, and this phenomenon is favorable for osmotic adjustment and membrane stability. Organs at different developmental stages possibly display different mechanisms of metabolic regulation under stress condition. Thus, we propose that future investigations on alkali stress should use more organs obtained at different developmental stages.

  15. Novel, inorganic composites using porous, alkali-activated, aluminosilicate binders (United States)

    Musil, Sean

    Geopolymers are an inorganic polymeric material composed of alumina, silica, and alkali metal oxides. Geopolymers are chemical and fire resistant, can be used as refractory adhesives, and are processed at or near ambient temperature. These properties make geopolymer an attractive choice as a matrix material for elevated temperature composites. This body of research investigated numerous different reinforcement possibilities and variants of geopolymer matrix material and characterized their mechanical performance in tension, flexure and flexural creep. Reinforcements can then be chosen based on the resulting properties to tailor the geopolymer matrix composites to a specific application condition. Geopolymer matrix composites combine the ease of processing of polymer matrix composites with the high temperature capability of ceramic matrix composites. This study incorporated particulate, unidirectional fiber and woven fiber reinforcements. Sodium, potassium, and cesium based geopolymer matrices were evaluated with cesium based geopolymer showing great promise as a high temperature matrix material. It showed the best strength retention at elevated temperature, as well as a very low coefficient of thermal expansion when crystallized into pollucite. These qualities made cesium geopolymer the best choice for creep resistant applications. Cesium geopolymer binders were combined with unidirectional continuous polycrystalline mullite fibers (Nextel(TM) 720) and single crystal mullite fibers, then the matrix was crystallized to form cubic pollucite. Single crystal mullite fibers were obtained by the internal crystallization method and show excellent creep resistance up to 1400°C. High temperature flexural strength and flexural creep resistance of pollucite and polycrystalline/single-crystal fibers was evaluated at 1000-1400°C.

  16. Crystallization Behaviour and Nanostructuring in Alkali Niobiosilicate Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Fanelli; P.Pernice; M.Xiao; A.Aronne; V.N.Sigacv


    23K2O·27Nb2O5·50SiO2 (KNS), 13K2O·10Na2O·27Nb2C5·50SiO2 (KNaNS) and 15K2O·12Li2O·27Nb2O5· 46SiO2 (KLiNS) transparent glasses were synthesized by melt-quenching technique, and studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to reveal the effect of the devitrification behaviour on transparent nanostructure.Just above the glass transition temperature Tg in the KNS glass, an unidentified phase was formed, while in KNaNS and KLiNS, mixed-alkali niobate phases with tungsten bronze structure were obtained by bulk crystallization.Heat treatments at Tg performed on the KNS glass resulted in the transparent nanostructure with second order harmonic generation (SHG) activity.Heat treatment for 10 h on KNaNS and KLiNS decreased the first DTA exothermic peaks (at least 24℃), indicating the bulk nucleation, which was confirmed by the DTA in comparison with the powdered as-quenched samples.KNaNS and KLiNS showed similar XRD profiles as the K3Li2Nb5O15 crystal with the five most intense peaks at 22.7, 29.4, 32.3, 46.3 and 52.0 deg.HRTEM micrograph showed clear-cut nano-sized circular domains and spherical nanocrystals dispersed into the amorphous matrix.

  17. On the origin of alkali metals in Europa exosphere (United States)

    Ozgurel, Ozge; Pauzat, Françoise; Ellinger, Yves; Markovits, Alexis; Mousis, Olivier; LCT, LAM


    At a time when Europa is considered as a plausible habitat for the development of an early form of life, of particular concern is the origin of neutral sodium and potassium atoms already detected in its exosphere (together with magnesium though in smaller abundance), since these atoms are known to be crucial for building the necessary bricks of prebiotic species. However their origin and history are still poorly understood. The most likely sources could be exogenous and result from the contamination produced by Io's intense volcanism and/or by meteoritic bombardment. These sources could also be endogenous if these volatile elements originate directly from Europa's icy mantle. Here we explore the possibility that neutral sodium and potassium atoms were delivered to the satellite's surface via the upwelling of ices formed in contact with the hidden ocean. These metallic elements would have been transferred as ions to the ocean at early epochs after Europa's formation, by direct contact of water with the rocky core. During Europa's subsequent cooling, the icy layers formed at the top of the ocean would have kept trapped the sodium and potassium, allowing their future progression to the surface and final identification in the exosphere of the satellite. To support this scenario, we have used chemistry numerical models based on first principle periodic density functional theory (DFT). These models are shown to be well adapted to the description of compact ice and are capable to describe the trapping and neutralization of the initial ions in the ice matrix. The process is found relevant for all the elements considered, alkali metals like Na and K, as well as for Mg and probably for Ca, their respective abundances depending essentially of their solubility and chemical capabilities to blend with water ices.

  18. Assessment of alkali metal coolants for the ITER blanket (United States)

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Mattas, R. F.


    The blanket system is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The blanket comparison and selection study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of different blanket concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water, and helium. This paper will discuss the ITER requirements for a self-cooled blanket concept with liquid lithium and for indirectly cooled concepts that use other alkali metals such as NaK. The paper addresses the thermodynamics of interactions between the liquid metals (e.g., lithium and NaK) and structural materials (e.g., V-base alloys), together with associated corrosion/compatibility issues. Available experimental data are used to assess the long-term performance of the first wall in a liquid metal environment. Other key issues include development of electrical insulator coatings on the first-wall structural material to MHD pressure drop, and tritium permeation/inventory in self-cooled and indirectly cooled concepts. Acceptable types of coatings (based on their chemical compatibility and physical properties) are identified, and surface-modification avenues to achieve these coatings on the first wall are discussed. The assessment examines the extent of our knowledge on structural materials performance in liquid metals and identifies needed research and development in several of the areas in order to establish performance envelopes for the first wall in a liquid-metal environment.

  19. Communication: angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets. (United States)

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine


    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He)200, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe200 studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

  20. Animal study on expression of laminin and fibronectin in cornea during wound healing following alkali burn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂秋; 马轶群; 梁涛; 姜涛; 王传富; 张妍霞


    Objective: To observe the expression of laminin and fibronectin in alkali-burned corneas in rats.Methods: A total of 18 normal Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=3 in each group). For each rat, one eye was injured by alkali burn, the other one was taken as the normal control. Then all the corneas were surgically removed and the expression of laminin and fibronectin was observed with immunohistochemistry respectively at 7 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days and 28 days after alkali burn. Results: Compared with that of the normal controls, the expression of laminin and fibronectin of the burned eyes was dramatically higher at 7 hours, reached peak at 14 days and decreased to the normal level at 28 days after alkali burn. Conclusions: In the process of wound healing after alkali burn, the expression of laminin and fibronectin increases dramatically, which suggests that laminin and fibronectin may participate in the process of corneal wound healing.

  1. Microwave-based alkali pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass for bioethanol production. (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak R; Cheng, Jay J


    Switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass are promising lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioethanol production. However, pretreatment of lignocelluloses is required to improve production of fermentable sugars from enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave-based alkali pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass was investigated in this study. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute alkali reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 W for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 min. Simons' stain method was used to quantify changes in biomass porosity as a result of the pretreatment. Pretreatments were evaluated based on yields of total reducing sugars, glucose, and xylose. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent for microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass. 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass pretreated under optimal conditions. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared with solid losses, lignin reduction, and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments.

  2. Effect of Alkali Treatment of Wheat Straw on Adsorption of Cu(II under Acidic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Guo


    Full Text Available The convenient and feasible pretreatment method of alkali treatment is very common in the degradation process of wheat straw. However, its utilization in the pretreatment of wheat straw as alternative adsorbents for aqueous heavy metals remediation is rarely reported. The present study investigated the removal efficiency of Cu(II ions using wheat straw with alkali pretreatment. The condition of alkali treatment on wheat straw was optimized with the adsorption capacity of Cu(II as indicator using single-factor experiments. The influences of wheat straw dosages, pH values, contact time, and temperatures on adsorption performance for both untreated wheat straw (UWS and alkali-treated wheat straw (AWS were investigated. Results showed that the relatively large removal rate of Cu(II could be obtained, and chemical behavior occurred during the adsorption process. Characteristic analysis found that the major function of alkali treatment to wheat straw was to introduce the hydroxy group, which resulted in the increase of -C-O- group. Although the adsorption capacity is not as high as the one of ligands supported adsorbents, the method is easy to operate and has a wide range of application; at the same time, it could realize both purposes of treating heavy metal pollution and solid wastes.

  3. Effects of Alkali Concentration and Conching Temperature on Flavour, Hardness and Colour of Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati


    Full Text Available Alkalization is an addition of alkali into cocoa mass to improve product quality in terms of flavour and colour appearance. Sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate are usual to be added into cocoa cotyledon prior to roasting. A study has been carried out to evaluate the effects of alkalization proceeded upon conching on chocolate sensory properties, hardness and colour. Re sponse Surface Methodology design at alkali concentrations of 1—15 g kg -1 and conching temperature of 40—80 oC have been used in the study. Parameters evaluated were sensory properties, particle size, hardness and colour. Results of the study showed that alkali concentration significantly influenced aroma, overall preference, particle size and hardness; meanwhile, conching temperature showed significant influence on aroma, taste, appearance, overall preference and texture of chocolate. Alkali concentration and conching temperature showed interactively influence on aroma and overall preference. A good quality of chocolate could be found at the alkali concentration of 8—15 g kg -1 and conching temperature of 74—80 oC. Key words: cocoa bean, chocolate, flavour, conching, alkalization, colour, particle size, texture.

  4. The Durability and Performance of Short Fibers for a Newly Developed Alkali-Activated Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Funke


    Full Text Available This study reports the development of a fiber-reinforced alkali-activated binder (FRAAB with an emphasis on the performance and the durability of the fibers in the alkaline alkali-activated binder (AAB-matrix. For the development of the matrix, the reactive components granulated slag and coal fly ash were used, which were alkali-activated with a mixture of sodium hydroxide (2–10 mol/L and an aqueous sodium silicate solution (SiO2/Na2O molar ratio: 2.1 at ambient temperature. For the reinforcement of the matrix integral fibers of alkali-resistant glass (AR-glass, E-glass, basalt, and carbon with a fiber volume content of 0.5% were used. By the integration of these short fibers, the three-point bending tensile strength of the AAB increased strikingly from 4.6 MPa (no fibers up to 5.7 MPa (carbon after one day. As a result of the investigations of the alkali resistance, the AR-glass and the carbon fibers showed the highest durability of all fibers in the FRAAB-matrix. In contrast to that, the weight loss of E-glass and basalt fibers was significant under the alkaline condition. According to these results, only the AR-glass and the carbon fibers reveal sufficient durability in the alkaline AAB-matrix.

  5. Dissolution Process of Palladium in Hydrochloric Acid: A Route via Alkali Metal Palladates (United States)

    Kasuya, Ryo; Miki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Hisashi; Tai, Yutaka


    To improve the safety of the Pd recovery processes that use toxic oxidizers, dissolution of Pd in hydrochloric acid with alkali metal palladates was investigated. Alkali metal palladates were prepared by calcining a mixture of Pd black and alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) carbonates in air. Almost the entire amount of Pd was converted into Li2PdO2 after calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Li2CO3. In contrast, PdO was obtained by calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Na and K carbonates. Our results indicated that Li2CO3 is the most active reagent among the examined alkali metal carbonates for the formation of palladates. In addition, dissolution of the resulting Li2PdO2 in HCl solutions was evaluated under various conditions. In particular, Li2PdO2 rapidly dissolved in diluted (0.1 M) HCl at ambient temperature. Solubility of Pd of Li2PdO2 was found to be 99 pct or larger after dissolution treatment at 353 K (80 °C) for 5 minutes; in contrast, PdO hardly dissolved in 0.1 M HCl. The dissolution mechanism of Li2PdO2 in HCl was also elucidated by analysis of crystal structures and particulate properties. Since our process is completely free from toxic oxidizers, the dissolution process via alkali metal palladates is much safer than currently employed methods.

  6. Thermal history effects on electrical relaxation and conductivity for potassium silicate glass with low alkali concentrations (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.; Cooper, Alfred R.


    Electrical response measurements from 10 Hz to 100 kHz between 120 and 540 C were made on potassium-silicate glasses with alkali oxide contents of 2, 3, 5 and 10 mol percent. Low alkali content glasses were chosen in order to try to reduce the Coulombic interactions between alkali ions to the point that frozen structural effects from the glass could be observed. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Lower DC conductivity (sigma(sub DC)) activation energies were measured for the quenched compared to the annealed glasses. The two glasses with the lowest alkali contents exhibited a non-Arrhenius concave up curvature in the log(sigma(sub DC)) against 1/T plots, which decreased upon quenching. A sharp decrease in sigma(sub DC) was observed for glasses containing K2O concentrations of 5 mol percent or less. The log modulus loss peak (M'') maximum frequency plots against 1/T all showed Arrhenius behavior for both annealed and quenched samples. The activation energies for these plots closely agreed with the sigma(sub DC) activation energies. A sharp increase in activation energy was observed for both series as the potassium oxide concentration decreased. Changes in the electrical response are attributed to structural effects due to different alkali concentrations. Differences between the annealed and quenched response are linked to a change in the distribution of activation energies (DAE).

  7. Communication: Angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J. Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine [LCAR-IRSAMC, Université Toulouse 3 - Paul Sabatier and CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)


    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He){sub 200}, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe{sub 200} studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

  8. The Composition of the Fluids in Alkali Basalts and Mantle-Derived Xenoliths in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Minjie; WANG Xianbin; LIU Gang; LI Liwu


    The components of the fluids released from alkali basalts and mantle-derived Iherzolite xenoliths in eastern China have been determined by the vacuum pyrolysis-mass spectrometric (MS) method in the present study. The results show that mantle-derived lherzolites formed in fluids composed mainly of reducing gases such as H2 and CO, and their fluid composition is characterized by a higher H2 content and a lower total content of volatiles. The fluids in alkali basalts are composed mainly of oxidizing gases, such as CO2 an SO2 and characterized by higher contents of SO2 and volatiles,implying that the extraneous oxidized fluids which are composed mainly of SO2 mixed with primary alkali basaltic magmas during their formation and evolution. The fluid compositions of alkali basalts and Iherzolite xenoliths show high nonhomogeneity in the upper mantle source region and difference in alkali basaltic magma evolution in different districts. It can be deduced that the region with higher PH2 could exist in the upper mantle beneath eastern China.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang


    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse was delignified with alkali and peracetic acid in a two-stage process to obtain pulps with high yield and low kappa number. The experimental results indicated that alkali pretreatment prior to peracetic acid (PAA delignification could significantly reduce PAA loading by partially removing lignin and swelling the fibers. An optimum condition for the two-stage delignification was obtained for pulping of sugarcane bagasse. The pulps were further characterized by chemical composition analysis, strength property tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA. It was found that the alkali-PAA process could be conducted under milder conditions with resulting higher pulping selectivity, higher degree of polymerization (DP, and superior mechanical properties of pulps, compared to the kraft pulping process. Both kraft pulps and alkali-PAA pulp had similar FTIR spectra, XRD spectra, and TGA (DTG curves. However, further analysis indicated that the alkali-PAA pulp had higher infrared crystallization index and cellulose crystallinity.

  10. Removal of Mercury from chlor-alkali Industry Wastewater using Acetobacter xylinum Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rezaee


    Full Text Available In this study, the removal of mercury ions by cellulose of Acetobacter xylinum was investigated in the synthetic and chlor-alkali wastewater. Biofilms of Acetobacter xylinum were grown in laboratory column bioreactors. The biofilms were continuously treated with sterile synthetic model wastewater or nonsterile, neutralized chloralkali wastewater.The extent of adsorption was studied as function of pH, adsorbent dose and contact time. Efficiency of mercury ion removal from chlor-alkali industry wastewater by aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride was also determined. Under acidic condition the adsorption of mercury by cellulose was quite low and increasing processing time more than 10min has no remarkably effect on the adsorption rate. Adsorption capacity of cellulose under dynamic condition for chlor-alkali wastewater was 65mg/µg which was less than the value (80mg/µg that obtained from batch adsorption experiments for synthetic wastewater.

  11. The ChlorOut concept. A method to reduce alkali-related problems during combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassman, Haakan [ChlorOut AB c/o Vattenfall AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Wollner, Lothar [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH und Co. KG, Ingelheim am Rhein (Germany); Berg, Magnus [ChlorOut AB c/o Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Combustion of biomass with a high content of alkali and chlorine (Cl) can result in operational problems including deposit formation and superheater corrosion. The strategies applied to reduce such problems include co-combustion and the use of additives. Ammonium sulphate is a part of the ChlorOut concept which is applied in a range of commercial boilers. This concept is based on dosing of sulphate-containing additives to the flue gases and a unique measurement device for on-line measurement of gaseous alkali chlorides called IACM (in-situ alkali chloride monitor). The focus of the present paper is on evaluation of long-term experiences from two full-scale boilers. The operational problems with deposit formation and superheater corrosion decreased in these boilers after installing the ChlorOut concept. (orig.)

  12. Hyperfine-frequency shifts of alkali-metal atoms during long-range collisions

    CERN Document Server

    McGuyer, B H


    Collisions with chemically inert atoms or molecules change the hyperfine coupling of an alkali-metal atom through the hyperfine-shift interaction. This interaction is responsible for the pressure shifts of the microwave resonances of alkali-metal atoms in buffer gases, is an important spin interaction in alkali-metal--noble-gas van der Waals molecules, and is anticipated to enable the magnetoassociation of ultracold molecules such as RbSr. An improved estimate is presented for the long-range asymptote of this interaction for Na, K, Rb, and Cs. To test the results, the change in hyperfine coupling due to a static electric field is estimated and reasonable agreement is found.

  13. Facile Precursor for Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Alkali Treated Maize Starch (United States)

    El-Rafie, M. H.; Ahmed, Hanan B.; Zahran, M. K.


    Silver nanoparticles were prepared by using alkali treated maize starch which plays a dual role as reducer for AgNO3 and stabilizer for the produced AgNPs. The redox reaction which takes a place between AgNO3 and alkali treated starch was followed up and controlled in order to obtain spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with mean size 4–6 nm. The redox potentials confirmed the principle role of alkali treatment in increasing the reducibility of starch macromolecules. The measurements of reducing sugars at the end of reaction using dinitrosalicylic acid reagent (DNS) were carried out in order to control the chemical reduction reaction. The UV/Vis spectra show that an absorption peak, occurring due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), exists at 410 nm, which is characteristic to yellow color of silver nanoparticles solution. The samples have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which reveal the nanonature of the particles. PMID:27433508

  14. High-Temperature Alkali Vapor Cells with Anti-Relaxation Surface Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Seltzer, S J


    Anti-relaxation surface coatings allow long spin relaxation times in alkali-metal cells without buffer gas, enabling free motion of the alkali atoms and giving larger signals due to narrower optical linewidths. Effective coatings were previously unavailable for operation at temperatures above 80 C. We demonstrate that octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) can allow potassium or rubidium atoms to experience hundreds of collisions with the cell surface before depolarizing, and that an OTS coating remains effective up to about 170 C for both potassium and rubidium. We consider the experimental concerns of operating without buffer gas at high vapor density, studying the stricter need for effective quenching of excited atoms and deriving the optical rotation signal shape for atoms with resolved hyperfine structure in the spin-temperature regime. As an example of a high-temperature application of anti-relaxation coated alkali vapor cells, we operate a spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) atomic magnetometer with sensitivi...

  15. Alkali-ions diffusion, mullite formation, and crystals dissolution during sintering of porcelain bodies: Microstructural approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonelli, C.; Kamseu, E.; Boccaccini, Dino


    The effect of alkali-silicate glassy matrix as replacement for feldspar in soft and hard porcelain compositions was studied. SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to evidence phase evolution. For each composition, the influence of soaking time was evaluated. The difference in chemical...... composition (amount of alkali and alumina) between the two types of porcelain studied influenced the final microstructure: density, pore size and shape, and mullite content. Quartz dissolution was more important in soft porcelain where the mullitization was limited by the low amount of alumina compared...... to hard porcelain. Replacing the feldspar by alkali-silicate glassy matrices with similar chemical composition, the amount of secondary mullite and mechanical properties increased in both soft and hard compositions....

  16. Nanoscale Charge Balancing Mechanism in Alkali Substituted Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate Gels

    CERN Document Server

    Özçelik, V Ongun


    Alkali-activated materials and related alternative cementitious systems are sustainable material technologies that have the potential to substantially lower CO$_2$ emissions associated with the construction industry. However, the impact of augmenting the chemical composition of the material on the main binder phase, calcium-silicate-hydrate gel, is far from understood, particularly since this binder phase is disordered at the nanoscale. Here, we reveal the presence of a charge balancing mechanism at the molecular level, which leads to stable structures when alkalis (i.e., Na or K) are incorporated into a calcium-silicate-hydrate gel, as modeled using crystalline 14{\\AA} tobermorite. These alkali containing charge balanced structures possess superior mechanical properties compared to their charge unbalanced counterparts. Our results, which are based on first-principles simulations using density functional theory, include the impact of charge balancing on the optimized geometries of the new model phases, format...

  17. Influence of curing conditions on durability of alkali-resistant glass fibres in cement matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arabi Nourredine


    Glass fibres in concrete material often increase the flexural strength. However, these fibres when in contact with cement are altered by alkali reactions due to the presence of portlandite. This study presents the results of investigation to show the effect of curing conditions on the durability of alkali-resistant glass fibres in cement matrix. Test results show that even alkali resistant fibres treated with zirconium oxide present the same degradation phenomenon. They also show that the nature of the cement has a large influence on the protection of the fibres: the Portland CEM II is less damaging than the CEM I. The substitutions of a part of cement by silica fume gave no substantial improvements to the mechanical strength of the glass fibre reinforced cement (GFRC). However, the observed microstructures in the samples show that the degradation is weakened with the addition of silica fumes. The analytical techniques used in this study are scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction.

  18. Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer Flooding in the Daqing Oilfield Class II Reservoirs Using Associating Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Sen Feng


    Full Text Available Hydrophobically modified associating polyacrylamide (HAPAM has good compatibility with the Daqing heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant. The HAPAM alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP system can generate ultralow interfacial tension in a wide range of alkali/surfactant concentrations and maintain stable viscosity and interfacial tension for 120 days. The HAPAM ASP system has good injectivity for the Daqing class II reservoirs (100–300 × 10−3 μm2 and can improve oil recovery by more than 25% on top of water flooding. In the presence of both the alkali and the surfactant, the surfactant interacts with the associating groups of the polymer to form more micelles, which can significantly enhance the viscosity of the ASP system. Compared with using HPAM (Mw = 2.5 MDa, using HAPAM can reduce the polymer use by more than 40%.

  19. Ionic conductivity of polymer gels deriving from alkali metal ionic liquids and negatively charged polyelectrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogihara, Wataru; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Ohno Hiroyuki [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Dept. of Biotechnology; Sun, Jiazeng; Forsyth, M. [Monash University, Clayton (Australia). School of Materials Engineering; MacFarlane, D.R. [Monash University, Clayton (Australia). School of Chemistry


    We have prepared polymer gel electrolytes with alkali metal ionic liquids (AMILs) that inherently contain alkali metal ions. The AMIL consisted of sulfate anion, imidazolium cation, and alkali metal cation. AMILs were mixed directly with poly(3-sulfopropyl acrylate) lithium salt or poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) lithium salt to form polymer gels. The ionic conductivity of these gels decreased with increasing polymer fraction, as in general ionic liquid/polymer mixed systems. At low polymer concentrations, these gels displayed excellent ionic conductivity of 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature. Gelation was found to cause little change in the {sup 7}Li diffusion coefficient of the ionic liquid, as measured by pulse-field-gradient NMR. These data strongly suggest that the lithium cation migrates in successive pathways provided by the ionic liquids. (author)

  20. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurised combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    In this project the continuous alkali measurement method plasma excited alkali resonance line spectroscopy (PEARLS) was developed, tested and demonstrated in pressurised combustion facilities. The PEARLS method has been developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT). During 1994-1996 the PEARLS method was developed from the laboratory level to an industrial prototype. The alkali measuring instrument has been tested and used for regular measurements in four different pressurised combustion installations ranging up to industrial pilot scale. The installations are: (1) a pressurised entrained flow reactor (PEFR) at VTT Energy in Jyvaeskylae, Finland (2) a pressurised fluidised bed combustion facility, called FRED, at DMT in Essen, Germany. (3) a 10 MW pressurised circulating fluidised bed combustion pilot plant at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in Karhula, Finland (4) PFBC Research Facility at ABB Carbon in Finspaang, Sweden

  1. A hetero-alkali-metal version of the utility amide LDA: lithium-potassium diisopropylamide. (United States)

    Armstrong, David R; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; Robertson, Stuart D


    Designed to extend the synthetically important alkali-metal diisopropylamide [N(i)Pr(2); DA] class of compounds, the first example of a hetero-alkali-metallic complex of DA has been prepared as a partial TMEDA solvate. Revealed by an X-ray crystallographic study, its structure exists as a discrete lithium-rich trinuclear Li(2)KN(3) heterocycle, with TMEDA only solvating the largest of the alkali-metals, with the two-coordinate lithium atoms being close to linearity [161.9(2)°]. A variety of NMR spectroscopic studies, including variable temperature and DOSY NMR experiments, suggests that this new form of LDA maintains its integrity in non-polar hydrocarbon solution. This complex thus represents a rare example of a KDA molecule which is soluble in non-polar medium without the need for excessive amounts of solubilizing Lewis donor being added.

  2. Principle, calibration, and application of the in situ alkali chloride monitor. (United States)

    Forsberg, Christer; Broström, Markus; Backman, Rainer; Edvardsson, Elin; Badiei, Shahriar; Berg, Magnus; Kassman, Håkan


    The extended use of biomass for heat and power production has caused increased operational problems with fouling and high-temperature corrosion in boilers. These problems are mainly related to the presence of alkali chlorides (KCl and NaCl) at high concentrations in the flue gas. The in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) was developed by Vattenfall Research and Development AB for measuring the alkali chloride concentration in hot flue gases (less than or approximately 650 degrees C). The measurement technique is based on molecular differential absorption spectroscopy in the UV range. Simultaneous measurement of SO(2) concentration is also possible. The measuring range is 1-50 ppm for the sum of KCl and NaCl concentrations and 4-750 ppm for SO(2). This paper describes the principle of the IACM as well as its calibration. Furthermore, an example of its application in an industrial boiler is given.

  3. Remote Sensing of CO2 Absorption by Saline-Alkali Soils: Potentials and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Wang


    Full Text Available CO2 absorption by saline-alkali soils was recently demonstrated in the measurements of soil respiration fluxes in arid and semiarid ecosystems and hypothetically contributed to the long-thought “missing carbon sink.” This paper is aimed to develop the preliminary theory and methodology for the quantitative analysis of CO2 absorption by saline-alkali soils on regional and global scales. Both the technological progress of multispectral remote sensing over the past decades and the conjectures of mechanisms and controls of CO2 absorption by saline-alkali soils are advantageous for remote sensing of such absorption. At the end of this paper, the scheme for remote sensing is presented and some unresolved issues related to the scheme are also proposed for further investigations.

  4. Design and Implementation of Alkali Activated Cement For Sustainable Development (United States)

    Moseson, Alexander James

    Herein, progress is presented on the design and implementation of technology for sustainable development in general and international development in particular. Necessarily interdisciplinary, the work draws upon the tools and techniques of Mechanical, Materials, and Civil Engineering; and History & Politics. The work was conducted along two paths, the first being the theory and methodology of sustainable development. A flexible design and dissemination framework was developed, Technology Seeding, defined as: development by the transfer and participatory adaptation of appropriate proven conceptual designs. The methodology was developed in part through two case studies which implemented, respectively, wood-turning lathes in Tanzania and upland rice planters in Thailand. The second path is the design and investigation of alkali-activated cements (AACs) for practical use. Those developed herein, for US markets, comprise ground granulated blast furnace slag, soda ash (sodium carbonate), and up to 68 wt.% granular limestone. Mixture Design of Experiment (DOE) was utilized to guide empirical and theoretical analysis of performance (e.g. compressive strength), economic & ecological aspects (e.g. cost, CO2 production, energy consumption), and chemistry (e.g. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffractograms). Models were derived to understand the impact of mix design on performance and for optimization. Successful formulations are hydraulic and cure at room temperature, with strengths as high as 41 MPa at 3 days and 65 MPa at 28 days. Some of these formulations, compared to OPC, are competitive in performance, reduce cost by up to 40%, and reduce both CO2 production and energy consumption by up to 97%. Major chemical products include calcium silicate hydrates / calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (C-(A)-S-H), gaylussite, and calcite (both newly formed and remaining from limestone). Calcite/dolomite and C-(A)-S-H both contribute to strength. A fraction of the limestone is consumed

  5. In Situ Measurement of Alkali Metals in an MSW Incinerator Using a Spontaneous Emission Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yan


    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental investigations of the in situ diagnosis of the alkali metals in the municipal solid waste (MSW flame of an industrial grade incinerator using flame emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame were obtained using a spectrometer. A linear polynomial fitting method is proposed to uncouple the continuous spectrum and the characteristic line. Based on spectra processing and a non-gray emissivity model, the flame temperature, emissivity, and intensities of the emission of alkali metals were calculated by means of measuring the spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame. Experimental results indicate that the MSW flame contains alkali metals, including Na, K, and even Rb, and it demonstrates non-gray characteristics in a wavelength range from 500 nm to 900 nm. Peak intensities of the emission of the alkali metals were found to increase when the primary air was high, and the measured temperature varied in the same way as the primary air. The temperature and peak intensities of the lines of emission of the alkali metals may be used to adjust the primary airflow and to manage the feeding of the MSW to control the alkali metals in the MSW flame. It was found that the peak intensity of the K emission line had a linear relationship with the peak intensity of the Na emission line; this correlation may be attributed to their similar physicochemical characteristics in the MSW. The variation trend of the emissivity of the MSW flame and the oxygen content in the flue gas were almost opposite because the increased oxygen content suppressed soot formation and decreased soot emissivity. These results prove that the flame emission spectroscopy technique is feasible for monitoring combustion in the MSW incinerator in situ.

  6. Alkali-explosion pretreatment of straw and bagasse for enzymic hydrolysis. (United States)

    Puri, V P; Pearce, G R


    Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at 200 degrees C for 5 min and at 3.45 MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility. The treatment resulted in the solubilization of 40-45% of the components and in the production of a pulp that gave saccharification yields of 80 and 65% in 8 h for bagasse and wheat straw, respectively. By comparison, alkali steaming at 200 degrees C (1.72 MPa) for 5 min gave saccharification yields of only 58 and 52% in 48 h. The increase in temperature from 140 to 200 degrees C resulted in a gradual increase in in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) for both the substrates. Also, the extent of alkalinity during pretreatment appears to effect the reactivity of the final product towards enzymes. Pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 60 caused a progressive decline in the IVOMD of bagasse and wheat straw by the alkali explosion method and this was accompanied by a progressive decrease in pH values after explosion. In the alkali-steaming method, pretreatment time had no apparent effect with either substrate. An analysis of the alkali-exploded products showed that substantial amounts of hemicellulose and a small proportion of the lignin were solubilized. The percentage crystallinity of the cellulose did not alter in either substrate but there was a substantial reduction in the degree of polymerization. The superiority of the alkali-explosion pretreatment is attributed to the efficacy of fiber separation and disintegration; this increases the surface area and reduces the degree of polymerization.

  7. Alkali basalts and enclosed ultramafic xenoliths near Ushuaia, Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina. (United States)

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel


    At the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego a few outcrops and erratic boulders of alkali basaltic rocks with ultramafic enclaves have been studied. Alkali basalt plugs or pipes hitherto identified are scarce, and host rocks are constituted by slates that belong to Mesozoic deposition. The petrography, texture and composition of the basalt and xenoliths were investigated by petrographic microscope and electron microprobe analysis. Xenocrysts of amphibole and alkali feldspar, phenocrysts of nepheline, olivine, spinel, phlogopite and Fe-Ti minerals (10 %) and a diversity of xenoliths, mainly lherzolitic, pyroxenite and wehrlitic nodules (15 %), but also from metamorphic rocks provenance, are contained in the basalt groundmass (75 %). This finer-grained material is made up of laths or needles of plagioclase, pyroxene, opaque minerals, apatite and glass, with intersertal, hyalopilitic and pilotaxitic. Locally, rock has an even granoblastic texture. Former amygdules are filled by analcite, zeolites, sodalite and calcite. The normative classification, based on nepheline content, conclude that this rock is an alkali basalt. The chemical classification, considering immobile elements as Zr/TiO2 versus Nb/Y indicate an alkali basalt too and plots over the TAS diagram fall in the foidite (Na-rich or nephelinite) and basanite fields. The REE patterns are fractionated (La/Yb primitive mantle normalized is approximately 30). The K-Ar isotopic technique on individual macrocrysts gave ages of 146 ± 5 Ma (amphibole) and 127 ± 4 Ma (alkali feldspar); and K-Ar whole rock datum reported 8.3 ± 0.3 Ma. Nevertheless, fertile samples show geochemical features typical of deep derived material thus, based on the position in the actual tectonic setting, indicate that the basalt is older than its isotopic age.

  8. Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulfur species from combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Mwabe, P.O.


    Experimental work was carried out on a 17 kW, 600 cm long, gas laboratory combustor, to investigate the post flame reactive capture of alkali species by kaolinite. Emphasis was on alkali/sorbent interactions occurring in flue gas at temperatures above the alkali dewpoint and on the formation of water insoluble reaction products. Time-temperature studies were carried out by injecting kaolinite at different axial points along the combustor. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on alkali capture was investigated by doping the flame with SO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} gases to simulate coal flame environments. Particle time and temperature history was kept as close as possible to that which would ordinarily be found in a practical boiler. Experiments designed to extract apparent initial reaction rates were carried using a narrow range, 1-2 {mu}m modal size sorbent, while, a coarse, multi size sorbent was used to investigate the governing transport mechanisms. The capture reaction has been proposed to be between alkali hydroxide and activated kaolinite, and remains so in the presence of sulfur and chlorine. The presence of sulfur reduces sodium capture by under 10% at 1300{degree}C. Larger reductions at lower temperatures are attributed to the elevated dewpoint of sodium ({approximately}850{degree}C) with subsequent reduction in sorbent residence time in the alkali gas phase domain. Chlorine reduces sodium capture by 30% across the temperature range covered by the present experiments. This result has been linked to thermodynamic equilibria between sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and water.

  9. Density functional theory based screening of ternary alkali-transition metal borohydrides: A computational material design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Landis, David; Voss, Johannes


    We present a computational screening study of ternary metal borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage based on density functional theory. We investigate the stability and decomposition of alloys containing 1 alkali metal atom, Li, Na, or K (M1); and 1 alkali, alkaline earth or 3d/4d transition...

  10. Microstructure and Engineering Properties of Alkali Activated Fly Ash -as an environment friendly alternative to Portland cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.


    Alkali activated fly ash (AAFA), also named “geopolymer”, has emerged as a novel engineering material in the construction industry. This material is normally formed by the reaction between fly ash and aqueous hydroxide or alkali silicate solution. With proper mix design, AAFA can present comparable

  11. Development and testing of on-line analytical instrumentation for alkali and heavy metal release in pressurised conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V.; Oikari, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    The purpose of the project is to demonstrate in industrial conditions and further develop the continuous alkali measurement method plasma excited alkali resonance line spectroscopy (PEARLS) developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT). The demonstration takes place in joint measuring campaigns, where two other continuous alkali measurement methods, ELIF and surface ionisation, are being simultaneously demonstrated. A modification of PEARLS will also be developed for the continuous measurement of heavy metal concentrations. A market study of continuous measuring techniques for alkali and heavy metals is further part of the project. The method will be demonstrated in two pressurised fluidised bed combustion facilities. One of these is the 10 MW PCFB of Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in Karhula. The second one is yet to be decided. The first measuring campaign is scheduled for the spring of 1997 in Karhula. In 1996 the group at TUT participated in the performance of a market study regarding continuous measuring techniques for alkali and heavy metal concentrations. A draft report was submitted to and approved by the EC. Development work on PEARLS in 1996 has centered around the construction of a calibration device for alkali measurements. The device can be used by all three measuring techniques in the project to check readings against a known alkali concentration at controlled and known conditions. In 1996 PEARLS was applied for alkali measurement at several pressurised combustion installations of laboratory and industrial pilot scale

  12. Economic assessment of biodiesel production: Comparison of alkali and biocatalyst processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegannathan, Kenthorai Raman [Department of Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology and Health sciences, Karunya University, Coimbatore, 641114 (India); Eng-Seng, Chan; Ravindra, Pogaku [Centre of Materials and Minerals, School of Engineering and Information Technology, University Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kotakinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)


    This study deals with the economic assessment of biodiesel production using three catalytic processes (1) alkali (2) soluble enzyme and (3) immobilized enzyme. All the processes were considered to be operated at batch mode with a production capacity of 10{sup 3} tonne. Biodiesel production cost using alkali catalyst process was found to be lowest ($ 1166.67/tonne) compared to soluble lipase catalyst ($ 7821.37/tonne) and immobilized lipase catalyst ($ 2414.63/tonne) process. The higher production cost was due to the higher cost of the enzyme and the higher reaction time of enzymatic process. However, reuse of immobilized catalyst decreased the production cost drastically unlike soluble enzyme catalyst. (author)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANYufang; CHENBingren; 等


    The absorption of free alkali at low concentration by subacid resin was traced with electric conductance method,the effect of temperature on the adsorption,the activation energy of adsorption (Ea) and interaction energy(U) was studied.The result showed that,the process of low concentration alkali adsorption by subacid resin was in accordance with mechanism of monomolecular layer absorption,in addition,with the increasing of temperature,the interaction energy between adsorbate and sorbent increase,so did the surface adsorption rate(k),and linear correlation existed between interaction energy(U) and temperature(T).

  14. Refined potentials for rare gas atom adsorption on rare gas and alkali-halide surfaces (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.


    The utilization of models of interatomic potential for physical interaction to estimate the long range attractive potential for rare gases and ions is discussed. The long range attractive force is calculated in terms of the atomic dispersion properties. A data base of atomic dispersion parameters for rare gas atoms, alkali ion, and halogen ions is applied to the study of the repulsive core; the procedure for evaluating the repulsive core of ion interactions is described. The interaction of rare gas atoms on ideal rare gas solid and alkali-halide surfaces is analyzed; zero coverage absorption potentials are derived.

  15. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena


    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion......The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate...

  16. "Textbook" adsorption at "nontextbook" adsorption sites: halogen atoms on alkali halide surfaces. (United States)

    Li, Bo; Michaelides, Angelos; Scheffler, Matthias


    Density-functional theory and second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations indicate that halogen atoms bond preferentially to halide substrate atoms on a series of alkali halide surfaces, rather than to the alkali atoms as might be anticipated. An analysis of the electronic structures in each system reveals that this novel adsorption mode is stabilized by the formation of textbook two-center three-electron covalent bonds. The implications of these findings to, for example, nanostructure crystal growth, are briefly discussed.

  17. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.


    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  18. Measurement of background gas in paraffin-coated alkali vapor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Sekiguchi, Naota


    We measured the rate of velocity-changing collisions (VCCs) between alkali atoms and background gas in buffer-gas-free anti-spin-relaxation-coated cells. The average VCC rate in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells prepared in this work was $1 \\times 10^{6}$ s$^{-1}$, which corresponds to $\\sim$1 mm in the mean free path of rubidium atoms. This short mean free path indicates that alkali atoms do not travel freely between the cell walls. In addition, we found that a heating process known as "ripening" increases the VCC rate, and also confirmed that ripening improves the anti-relaxation performance of the coatings.

  19. Effect of high-energy radiation and alkali treatment on the properties of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foeldvary, Cs.M. E-mail:; Takacs, E.; Wojnarovits, L


    The effect of the treatment with NaOH or tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide solutions on preirradiated cotton-cellulose was investigated. Both the radiation and the treatment with alkali solutions caused loss of weight in cellulose; however, there was a synergism, a high weight loss was observed during alkali treatment of preirradiated samples. The radiation caused scissions of the cellulose chains and during the treatment with aqueous alkaline solutions some smaller fragments dissolved, resulting in a strong absorbance of the solutions with maximum at around 268 nm. It was attributed to the absorbance of aldehyde/keto groups.

  20. An exploratory study of alkali sulfate aerosol formation during biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løj, Lusi Hindiyarti; Frandsen, Flemming; Livbjerg, Hans;


    It is still in discussion to what extent alkali sulfate aerosols in biomass combustion are formed in the gas phase by a homogeneous mechanism or involve heterogeneous or catalyzed reactions. The present study investigates sulfate aerosol formation based on calculations with a detailed gas phase...... mechanism. The modeling predictions are compared to data from laboratory experiments and entrained flow reactor experiments available in the literature. The analysis support that alkali sulfate aerosols are formed from homogeneous nucleation following a series of steps occurring in the gas phase. The rate...

  1. Oxidation of the Boltysh deposit shale with atmosperic oxygen in a water-alkali medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, V.A.; Soloveichik, Z.V.; Yakovlev, V.I.


    Conditions for obtaining organic acids from Boltysh oil shale containing 43.12 percent organic matter were studied by oxidizing the shale with air in a water-alkali medium at different temperatures, oxidation times, and alkali consumptions. Maximum yield of 42.6 percent of high molecular acids was obtained at 175/sup 0/C; the yield of dibasic acids increased to 22 percent with increasing temperature. The degree of oxidation of shale kerogen increased from 55.6 to 79.6 percent with increase in oxidation time from 1 to 5 hours, the reaction proceeding stepwise from shale kerogen to high-molecular acids to dibasic acids.

  2. Investigation of radial temperature gradients in diode pumped alkali lasers using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Fox, Charles D.; Perram, Glen P.


    Heat loads in Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPAL) have been investigated using a diode laser to probe the radial dependence of the absorbance. A TiS pump laser heats the medium in a T=50-100°C cesium heat pipe with 5 Torr nitrogen used for quenching. A tunable diode laser probes the spectral absorbance of the cesium cell. Local alkali concentration, temperature, and saturation broadening modify Voigt lineshapes in the wing of the hyperfine split lines. The temperature within the pumped volume exceeds the wall temperature by almost 200 C.

  3. Physical and Thermal Characterization of Alkali Treated Rice Husk Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismat Zerin Luna


    Full Text Available Rice husk (RH reinforced polypropylene- (PP- based composites were prepared by compression molding. The RH was treated with sodium hydroxide solution (1 wt%; then composites were prepared using varying percentages of RH (5 to 20 wt%. The thermomechanical, spectroscopic, and morphological properties of the prepared composites (RH-PP were investigated. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM analysis showed better interfacial adhesion between alkali treated RH and the matrix PP. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectra confirmed the chemical bonding.The results revealed that physical properties as well as thermal stability of the composites improved significantly with the addition of alkali treated RH in PP matrix.

  4. Chemical modelling of Alkali Silica reaction: Influence of the reactive aggregate size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyet, S. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME/LECBA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Sellier, A. [UPS, LMDC, INSA Toulouse, F-33077 Bordeaux 4, (France); Capra, B. [Oxand SA, F-77210 Avon (France); Foray, G. [Univ Lyon 1, L2MS, PETRA GC, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Torrenti, J.M. [IRSN, F-92262 Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Cognon, H. [EdF/DER Les Renardieres, F-77818 Moret Sur Loing (France); Bourdarot, E. [CIH Savoie Technolac, F-73373 Le Bourget du Lac (France)


    This article presents a new model which aims at predicting the expansion induced by Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) and describing the chemical evolution of affected concretes. It is based on the description of the transport and reaction of alkalis and calcium ions within a Relative Elementary Volume (REV). It takes into account the influence of the reactive aggregate size grading on ASR, i.e. the effect of the simultaneous presence of different sized reactive aggregates within concrete. The constitutive equations are detailed and fitted using experimental results. Results from numerical simulations are presented and compared with experiments. (authors)

  5. Mechanisms for lowering of interfacial tension in alkali/acidic oil systems; Effect of added surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, J. Wasan, D.T. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)


    This paper reports that experimental studies are conducted in order to determine the physicochemical mechanism responsible for lowering of interfacial tension in alkali, surfactant, and surfactant-enhanced alkali/acidic oil systems. A well-defined model oil is chosen to examine the influence of various surfactants and surfactant mixtures, such as oleic acid and its ionic counterpart, sodium dodecyl sulfate, petroleum sulfonate, and isobutanol, on equilibrium interfacial tension. With added surfactant alone, the interfacial tension goes through an ultralow minimum with increasing acid concentration. This proves for the first time that the un-ionized acid species plays a major role in affecting interfacial tension, and the ionized acid species.

  6. Present situation and tendency of saline-alkali soil in west Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Taking west Jilin Province as an example, this paper put forwardthe assessment index of salinization, and based on it, the authors present the distribution characteristics of saline-alkali soil in the 1980s and the 1990s in west Jilin and analyze its physical and chemical properties in detail. The developing tendency of salinization was also inferred by comparing the saline-alkali soil of the 1980swith that of the 1990s. Finally, the natural and human factors leading to salinization are analyzed.

  7. Study of alkali halide/FHF - systems at 10 - 290 K, 0 - 8 kBAR (United States)

    Chunnilall, C. J.; Sherman, W. F.; Wilkinson, G. R.


    The bifluoride ion FHF -, (and FDF -), has been substitutionally isolated within single crystal samples of several alkali halides. Infrared and Raman spectra of these crystals have been studied at variable temperature and pressure. The infrared absorptions are strong, whereas the Raman is weak. At low temperatures the bands are very sharp with halfwidths less than 1 cm -1. On applying pressure, ν3 increases in frequency whereas ν2 decreases. On reducing temperature, ν3 decreases in frequency whereas ν2 increases. Hence the effect of volume contraction is overridden in the temperature dependent case. The deuterated spectra confirm that the bifluoride ion is well isolated within the alkali halide matrix.

  8. Experimental study on crystallization kinetics of alkali feldspar under high T-P conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the granite-NaF-H2O system, there exists a nucleation lag in the course of alkali feldspar crystallization indicated by experiments on crystallization kinetics. The nucleation lag time is about 18 h at 700℃ and about 6 h at 650℃. Meanwhile, both nucleation rate and crystal-growth rate of alkali feldspar are not constant during the crystallization process, but vary with crystal- lization time. Here we suggest that the lag time should be taken into account in the calculation formula of nucleation rate and crystal-growth rate to obtain more reliable parameters.

  9. Interference Effects in the Optical Second Harmonic Generation from Ultrathin Alkali Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Rubahn, Horst-Günter


    second harmonic dependencies can be interpreted in terms of interference between frontside and rearside adsorbed islands or by taking into account the morphology of the adsorbed alkali islands. By the use of different polarization combinations of both pump and reflected second harmonic wave we obtain......Interference effects are shown to strongly modulate the transmission second harmonic signal (fundamental wavelength 1067 nm) from rough alkali island films grown on insulating substrates if one varies the angle of incidence. Depending on growth conditions and substrate thickness, the measured...

  10. Dielectric-breakdown and conduction-mechanism in a thinned alkali-free glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hoikwan; Lanagan, Michael T. [The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)


    The leakage current in alkali-free glass was analyzed to understand the dielectric breakdown behavior and the potential conduction mechanism. The dielectric breakdown strength and the leakage current were increased after the thickness of the glass had been recuded. To identify the predominant conduction mechanism, we carefully interpreted the dc voltage-current curves via fitting with various conduction mechanisms, e.g., Poole-Frenkel emission, Schottky emission, space charge-limited current, and hopping conduction. The result suggested that the space-charge-limited current and the hopping conduction of thermally-excited carriers were the most likely mechanisms of conduction in alkali-free glass.

  11. Structural and Magnetic Diversity in Alkali-Metal Manganate Chemistry: Evaluating Donor and Alkali-Metal Effects in Co-complexation Processes. (United States)

    Uzelac, Marina; Borilovic, Ivana; Amores, Marco; Cadenbach, Thomas; Kennedy, Alan R; Aromí, Guillem; Hevia, Eva


    By exploring co-complexation reactions between the manganese alkyl Mn(CH2SiMe3)2 and the heavier alkali-metal alkyls M(CH2SiMe3) (M=Na, K) in a benzene/hexane solvent mixture and in some cases adding Lewis donors (bidentate TMEDA, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2,2,2] octane (DABCO)) has produced a new family of alkali-metal tris(alkyl) manganates. The influences that the alkali metal and the donor solvent impose on the structures and magnetic properties of these ates have been assessed by a combination of X-ray, SQUID magnetization measurements, and EPR spectroscopy. These studies uncover a diverse structural chemistry ranging from discrete monomers [(TMEDA)2 MMn(CH2SiMe3)3] (M=Na, 3; M=K, 4) to dimers [{KMn(CH2SiMe3)3 ⋅C6 H6}2] (2) and [{NaMn(CH2SiMe3)3}2 (dioxane)7] (5); and to more complex supramolecular networks [{NaMn(CH2SiMe3)3}∞] (1) and [{Na2Mn2 (CH2SiMe3)6 (DABCO)2}∞] (7)). Interestingly, the identity of the alkali metal exerts a significant effect in the reactions of 1 and 2 with 1,4-dioxane, as 1 produces coordination adduct 5, while 2 forms heteroleptic [{(dioxane)6K2Mn2 (CH2SiMe3)4(O(CH2)2OCH=CH2)2}∞] (6) containing two alkoxide-vinyl anions resulting from α-metalation and ring opening of dioxane. Compounds 6 and 7, containing two spin carriers, exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling of their S=5/2 moments with varying intensity depending on the nature of the exchange pathways.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The alkali bond in (N, K–A–S–H gels presents an up-to-date insufficiently resolved issue with significant consequences for efflorescence in alkali-activated materials. A series of experiments shows nearly all alkalis are leachable from alkaliactivated fly-ash and metakaolin in excessive amounts of deionized water. A diffusion-based model describes well the alkali leaching process. Negligible changes of the (N, K–A–S–H gel nanostructure indicate that Na,K do not form the gel backbone and H3O+ is probably the easiest substitution for the leached alkalies. Small changes in the long-term compressive strength of leached specimens support this hypothesis.

  13. Effect of Na3PO4 on the Hydration Process of Alkali-Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kalina


    Full Text Available In recent years, the utilization of different non-traditional cements and composites has been increasing. Alkali-activated cementitious materials, especially those based on the alkali activation of blast furnace slag, have considerable potential for utilization in the building industry. However, alkali-slag cements exhibit very rapid setting times, which are too short in some circumstances, and these materials cannot be used for some applications. Therefore, it is necessary to find a suitable retarding admixture. It was shown that the sodium phosphate additive has a strong effect on the heat evolution during alkali activation and effectively retards the hydration reaction of alkali-activated blast furnace slag. The aim of the work is the suggestion of a reaction mechanism of retardation mainly based on Raman and X‑ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  14. Insights into the hierarchical structure and digestion rate of alkali-modulated starches with different amylose contents. (United States)

    Qiao, Dongling; Yu, Long; Liu, Hongsheng; Zou, Wei; Xie, Fengwei; Simon, George; Petinakis, Eustathios; Shen, Zhiqi; Chen, Ling


    Combined analytical techniques were used to explore the effects of alkali treatment on the multi-scale structure and digestion behavior of starches with different amylose/amylopectin ratios. Alkali treatment disrupted the amorphous matrix, and partial lamellae and crystallites, which weakened starch molecular packing and eventually enhanced the susceptibility of starch to alkali. Stronger alkali treatment (0.5% w/w) made this effect more prominent and even transformed the dual-phase digestion of starch into a triple-phase pattern. Compared with high-amylose starch, regular maize starch, which possesses some unique structure characteristics typically as pores and crystallite weak points, showed evident changes of hierarchical structure and in digestion rate. Thus, alkali treatment has been demonstrated as a simple method to modulate starch hierarchical structure and thus to realize the rational development of starch-based food products with desired digestibility.

  15. Thermobarometry for spinel lherzolite xenoliths in alkali basalts (United States)

    Ozawa, Kazuhito; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; Nagahara, Hiroko


    geothermobarometry based on reactions with large and distinct volume changes, is necessary. Specification of mineral domains and their components representing the thermal state of the mantle just before xenolith extraction is one of the major tasks for the establishment of reliable geothermobarometry for spinel lherzolite xenoliths. Systematic variations of such mineralogical information among xenoliths transported by a single volcanic eruption guarantees proper estimation of a mantle geotherm. For the development of such geobarometry, it is important to choose appropriate xenolith locality, where previous studies provide enough information and where many xenolith samples are available for extending a range of derivation depth. Spinel lherzolite xenoliths in alkali basalts from Bou Ibalhatene maars in the Middle Atlas in Morocco are suitable study target. Geochemical, geochronological, petrological, and rheological aspects of the spinel lherzolite xenoliths have been studied (Raffone et al. 2009; El Messbahi et al., 2015; Witting et al., 2010; El Azzouzi et al., 2010), which show that they represent fragments of the lithospheric mantle formed and modified since 1.7Ga before their extraction from Miocene to recent. We have pinpointed portions of minerals in the xenolith samples and their components representing condition just before their entrapment in magmas, on which appropriate geothermobarometers are applied and detected ~0.5GPa pressure difference (1.5-2.0GPa) for ~100°C variation in temperatures (950-1050°C).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.


    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  17. Influence of alkali catalyst on product yield and properties via hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Z.; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse


    Barley straw was successfully converted to bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction at temperature of 280 e400 C using an alkali catalyst (K2CO3) in our previous work, and the maximum bio-crude yield was obtained at 300 C. This paper extends previous work on studying liquefaction behavior of barley...

  18. Modified PVA-CA blend ultrafiltration membrane by alkali metal chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启修; 邱运仁


    The modified PVA-CA blend ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by phase inversion from the casting solutions consisting of polyvinyl alcohol(PVA), cellulose acetate(CA), acetic acid, alkali metal chloride and water. The effects of different concentration of alkali metal chloride on the properties of membranes were investigated. The results show that when the mass fraction of the salt in the casting solution is not greater than 1%, the property of rejection of the alkali metal salt modified ultrafiltration PVA-CA blend membrane has little change compared with that of the unmodified PVA-CA blend membrane, but the permeation flux is much greater than that of the unmodified membrane under the same operation condition. When the mass fraction of the salt is greater than 1.5%, the permeate flux increases much greater than that of the unmodified membrane, but the property of rejection of the modified ultrafiltration membrane decreases greatly. The results also show that the contact angle of the salt modified PVA-CA blend UF membrane decreases but the swelling in water increases with the increment of the mass fraction of alkali metal salts. Furthermore, the NaCl modified PVA-CA blend membrane has a slightly lower swelling and a little smaller contact angle of water than the KCl modified PVA-CA blend membrane does when the mass fraction of salts is the same.

  19. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids. (United States)

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa


    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue.

  20. Coordination Chemistry of Alkali and Alkaline-Earth Cations with Macrocyclic Ligands. (United States)

    Dietrich, Bernard


    Discusses: (l) alkali and alkaline-earth cations in biology (considering naturally occurring lonophores, their X-ray structures, and physiochemical studies); (2) synthetic complexing agents for groups IA and IIA; and (3) ion transport across membranes (examining neutral macrobicyclic ligands as metal cation carriers, transport by anionic carriers,…

  1. Alkali-Resistant Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte for Stretchable Supercapacitors. (United States)

    Tang, Qianqiu; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Gengchao


    Research on stretchable energy-storage devices has been motivated by elastic electronics, and considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of stretchable electrodes. However, stretchable electrolytes, another critical component in stretchable devices, have earned quite little attention, especially the alkali-resistant ones. Here, we reported a novel stretchable alkali-resistant electrolyte made of a polyolefin elastomer porous membrane supported potassium hydroxide-potassium polyacrylate (POE@KOH-PAAK). The as-prepared electrolyte shows a negligible plastic deformation even after 1000 stretching cycles at a strain of 150% as well as a high conductivity of 0.14 S cm(-1). It also exhibits excellent alkali resistance, which shows no obvious degradation of the mechanical performance after immersion in 2 M KOH for up to 2 weeks. To demonstrate its good properties, a high-performance stretchable supercapacitor is assembled using a carbon-nanotube-film-supported NiCo2O4 (CNT@NiCo2O4) as the cathode and Fe2O3 (CNT@Fe2O3) as the anode, proving great application promise of the stretchable alkali-resistant electrolyte in stretchable energy-storage devices.

  2. Alkali ion sensor based on Prussian blue-covered interdigitated array electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, M.; Grabner, E.W.; Bergveld, P.


    Thin films of ferric ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue) were electrochemically deposited on interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes yielding systems which can be considered as chemi-resistors in sensing alkali ion concentrations in an adjacent electrolyte. From the dependence of the steady-state current on

  3. Structure and photoabsorption properties of cationic alkali dimers solvated in neon clusters. (United States)

    Zanuttini, D; Douady, J; Jacquet, E; Giglio, E; Gervais, B


    We present a theoretical investigation of the structure and optical absorption of M(2)(+) alkali dimers (M=Li,Na,K) solvated in Ne(n) clusters for n=1 to a few tens Ne atoms. For all these alkali, the lowest-energy isomers are obtained by aggregation of the first Ne atoms at the extremity of the alkali molecule. This particular geometry, common to other M(2)(+)-rare gas clusters, is intimately related to the shape of the electronic density of the X  (2)Σ(g)(+) ground state of the bare M(2)(+) molecules. The structure of the first solvation shell presents equilateral Ne(3) and capped pentagonal Ne(6) motifs, which are characteristic of pure rare gas clusters. The size and geometry of the complete solvation shell depend on the alkali and were obtained at n=22 with a D(4h) symmetry for Li and at n=27 with a D(5h) symmetry for Na. For K, our study suggests that the closure of the first solvation shell occurs well beyond n=36. We show that the atomic arrangement of these clusters has a profound influence on their optical absorption spectrum. In particular, the XΣ transition from the X  (2)Σ(g)(+) ground state to the first excited (2)Σ(u)(+) state is strongly blueshifted in the Frank-Condon area.

  4. Phonon dispersion in alkali metals and their equiatomic sodium-based binary alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aditya M. VORA


    In the present article, the theoretical calcula-tions of the phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) of five alkali metals viz. Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and their four equia-tomic sodium-based binary alloys viz. Na0.5Li0.5,Na0.5K0.5, Na0.5Rb0.5 and Na0.5Cs0.5 to second order in a local model potential is discussed in terms of the real-space sum of the Born yon Karman central force con-stants. Instead of the concentration average of the force constants of pure alkali metals, the pseudo-alloy-atom (PAA) is adopted to directly compute the force constants of the four equiatomic sodium based binary alloys and was successfully applied. The exchange and correlation functions due to the Hartree (H) and Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU) are used to investigate the influence of the screening effects. The phonon frequencies of alkali metals and their four equiatomic sodium-based binary alloys in the longit-udinal branch are more sensitive to the exchange and cor-relation effects in comparison with the transverse branches. The PDCs of pure alkali metals are found in qualitative agreement with the available experimental data. The frequencies in the longitudinal branch are sup-pressed rather due to IU-screening function than those due to static H-screening function.

  5. Degradation of CIGS solar cells due to the migration of alkali-elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.; Barreau, N.; Hans, V.; Steijvers, H.; Vroon, Z.; Zeman, M.


    Non-encapsulated CIGS solar cells with different contents of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were simultaneously exposed to damp heat and illumination. The solar cells with higher alkali (Na, K) content exhibited higher initial conversion efficiencies, but degraded severely within 100 hours, while sam


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Structural and dynamical properties of lithium, cesium and mixed alkali (i.e., lithium and cesium) borate glasses have been studied by the molecular dynamics method. The calculations yield glass structures consisting of planar BO3 triangles and BO4 tetrahedrons with no sixfold ring structures at all

  7. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurized combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Physics


    The plasma assisted method for continuous measurement of alkali concentrations in product gas flows of pressurized energy processes will be tested and applied at the 1.6 MW PFBC/G facility at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. During the reporting period the alkali measuring device has been tested under pressurized conditions at VTT Energy, DMT, Foster-Wheeler Energia and ABB Carbon. Measurements in Delft will be performed during 1996 after installation of the hot gas filter. The original plan for measurements in Delft has been postponed due to schedule delays in Delft. The results are expected to give information about the influence of different process conditions on the generation of alkali vapours, the comparison of different methods for alkali measurement and the specific performance of our system. This will be the first test of the plasma assisted measurement method in a gasification process. The project belongs to the Joule II extension program under contract JOU2-CT93-0431. (author)

  8. Second-Harmonic Generation and Shielding Effects on Alkali Clusters on Ultrathin Organic Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Rubahn, Horst-Günter


    with the alkali metal, thus demonstrating the sensitivity of second-harmonic generation to morphological changes in these complex systems. Simultaneously performed extinction and scanning force microscopy measurements under ambient air conditions allow us to obtain independent information on the surface coverage...

  9. Cations in a Molecular Funnel: Vibrational Spectroscopy of Isolated Cyclodextrin Complexes with Alkali Metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamez, F.; Hurtado, P.; Hortal, A. R.; Martinez-Haya, B.; G. Berden,; Oomens, J.


    The benchmark inclusion complexes formed by -cyclodextrin (CD) with alkali-metal cations are investigated under isolated conditions in the gas phase. The relative CD-M+ (M=Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+) binding affinities and the structure of the complexes are determined from a combination of mass spectrometry,

  10. Pretreatment of corn stover by combining ionic liquid dissolution with alkali extraction. (United States)

    Geng, Xinglian; Henderson, Wesley A


    Pretreatment plays an important role in the efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuels. A highly effective pretreatment method is reported for corn stover which combines mild alkali-extraction followed by ionic liquid (IL) dissolution of the polysaccharides and regeneration (recovery of the polysaccharides as solids). Air-dried, knife-milled corn stover was soaked in 1% NaOH at a moderate condition (90°C, 1 h) and then thoroughly washed with hot deionized (DI) water. The alkali extraction solublized 75% of the lignin and 37% of the hemicellulose. The corn stover fibers became softer and smoother after the alkali extraction. Unextracted and extracted corn stover samples were separately dissolved in an IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C(4) mimCl), at 130°C for 2 h and then regenerated with DI water. The IL dissolution process did not significantly change the chemical composition of the materials, but did alter their structural features. Untreated and treated corn stover samples were hydrolyzed with commercial enzyme preparations including cellulases and hemicellulases at 50°C. The glucose yield from the corn stover sample that was both alkali-extracted and IL-dissolved was 96% in 5 h of hydrolysis. This is a highly effective methodology for minimizing the enzymatic loading for biomass hydrolysis and/or maximizing the conversion of biomass polysaccharides into sugars.

  11. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps (United States)

    Gavrish, S. V.


    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.

  12. Mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated fly ash geopolymers. (United States)

    Komljenović, M; Bascarević, Z; Bradić, V


    This paper investigates the properties of geopolymer obtained by alkali-activation of fly ash (FA), i.e. the influence of characteristics of the representative group of FA (class F) from Serbia, as well as that of the nature and concentration of various activators on mechanical and microstructural properties of geopolymers. Aqueous solutions of Ca(OH)(2), NaOH, NaOH+Na(2)CO(3), KOH and sodium silicate (water glass) of various concentrations were used as alkali activators. It was established that the nature and concentration of the activator was the most dominant parameter in the alkali-activation process. In respect of physical characteristics of FA, the key parameter was fineness. The geopolymer based on FA with the highest content of fine particles (<43 microm), showed the highest compressive strength in all cases. Regardless of FA characteristics, nature and concentration of the activator, the alkali-activation products were mainly amorphous. The formation of crystalline phases (zeolites) occurred in some cases, depending on the reaction conditions. The highest compressive strength was obtained using sodium silicate. Together with the increase of sodium silicate SiO(2)/Na(2)O mass ratio, the atomic Si/Al ratio in the reaction products was also increased. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, high strength was directly related to the high Si/Al ratio.

  13. Solidification/stabilization of chromite ore processing residue using alkali-activated composite cementitious materials. (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Zhuang, RanLiang; Muhammad, Faheem; Yu, Lin; Shiau, YanChyuan; Li, Dongwei


    Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) produced in chromium salt production process causes a great health and environmental risk with Cr(VI) leaching. The solidification/stabilization (S/S) of COPR using alkali-activated blast furnace slag (BFS) and fly ash (FA) based cementitious material was investigated in this study. The optimum percentage of BFS and FA for preparing the alkali-activated BFS-FA binder had been studied. COPR was used to replace the amount of BFS-FA or ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for the preparation of the cementitious materials, respectively. The immobilization effect of the alkali-activated BFS-FA binder on COPR was much better than that of OPC based cementitious material. The potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material was evaluated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) analysis indicated that COPR had been effectively immobilized. The solidification mechanism is the combined effect of reduction, ion exchange, precipitation, adsorption and physical fixation in the alkali-activated composite cementitious material.

  14. Absorption Spectroscopy of Rubidium in an Alkali Metal Dispenser Cell and Bleached Wave Analysis (United States)


    resulted in a transmission too low below the detection limit of the photodiodes. When the current ceased, the spectrum almost immediately returned to a...absorption spectrum of a rubidium alkali metal dispenser (AMD) cell was obtained in order to determine the system’s suitability for use in a diode ...18 8. Cell Pressure vs. Required Current .............................................................................. 20 9. Time vs. Rubidium

  15. On the origin of the mixed alkali effect on indentation in silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, J. C.;


    The compositional scaling of Vickers hardness (Hv) in mixed alkali oxide glasses manifests itself as a positive deviation from linearity as a function of the network modifier/modifier ratio, with a maximum deviation at the ratio of 1:1. In this work, we investigate the link between the indentation...

  16. [Surface characteristics of alkali modified activated carbon and the adsorption capacity of methane]. (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Zhu; Li, Lin; Liu, Jun-Xin; Sun, Yong-Jun; Li, Guo-Bin


    Coconut shell based activated carbon was modified by alkali with different concentrations. The surface structures of tested carbons were observed and analyzed by SEM and BET methods. Boehm's titration and SEM/EDS methods were applied to assay the functional groups and elements on the carbon surface. The adsorption of methane on tested carbons was investigated and adsorption behavior was described by the adsorption isotherms. Results showed that surface area and pore volume of modified carbon increased and surface oxygen groups decreased as the concentration of the alkali used increased, with no obvious change in pore size. When concentration of alkali was higher than 3.3 mol x L(-1), the specific surface area and pore volume of modified carbon was larger than that of original carbon. Methane adsorption capacity of alkali modified carbon increased 24%. Enlargement of surface area and pore volume, reduction of surface oxygen groups will benefit to enhance the methane adsorption ability on activated carbon. Adsorption behavior of methane followed the Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption coefficient was 163.7 m3 x mg(-1).

  17. Long-range interactions between excited helium and alkali-metal atoms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, J.-Y.


    The dispersion coefficients for the long-range interaction of the first four excited states of He, i.e., He(2 1,3S) and He(2 1,3P), with the low-lying states of the alkali-metal atoms Li, Na, K, and Rb are calculated by summing over the reduced matrix elements of the multipole transition operators. For the interaction between He and Li the uncertainty of the calculations is 0.1–0.5%. For interactions with other alkali-metal atoms the uncertainty is 1–3% in the coefficient C5, 1–5% in the coefficient C6, and 1–10% in the coefficients C8 and C10. The dispersion coefficients Cn for the interaction of He(2 1,3S) and He(2 1,3P) with the ground-state alkali-metal atoms and for the interaction of He(2 1,3S) with the alkali-metal atoms in their first 2P states are presented in this Brief Report. The coefficients for other pairs of atomic states are listed in the Supplemental Material.

  18. Transport of citrate across renal brush border membrane: effects of dietary acid and alkali loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A.D.; Dousa, T.P.; Smith, L.H.


    Dietary acid or alkali loading was given to rats by providing 150 mM NH4Cl or 150 mM NaHCO3 in place of drinking water for 6 days; control animals received 150 mM NaCl. After 6 days, the citrate clearance was 0.04 +/- 0.01 ml/min (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 0.9 +/- 0.1 ml/min in the control group, and 2.5 +/- 0.2 ml/min in the alkali-loaded group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed, and the Na gradient-dependent citrate uptake was measured in brush border membrane (BBM) vesicles prepared from each group. At 0.3 min, the ( UC)citrate uptake was 198 +/- 8 pmol/mg protein (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 94 +/- 16 pmol/mg protein in the control group, and 94 +/- 13 pmol/mg protein in the alkali-loaded group. The rate of Na -independent (NaCl in medium replaced by KCl) ( UC)-citrate uptake by BBM vesicles was the same for acid-loaded, control, and alkali-loaded animals. Thus, the increased capacity of the proximal tubular BBM to transport citrate from the tubular lumen into the cell interior may be an important factor that contributes to decreased urinary citrate in the presence of metabolic acidosis induced by chronic dietary acid loading.

  19. Conformer of the peroxynitrite ion formed under photolysis of crystalline alkali nitrates – cis or trans? (United States)

    Pak, V. Kh; Anan’ev, V. A.; Dyagileva, E. P.; Lyrshchikov, S. Yu; Miklin, M. B.; Rezvova, M. A.


    The optical and infrared reflectance spectra of the crystalline powders prepared by co-crystallization of caesium nitrate, nitrite, and peroxynitrite from alkali solution have been studied. We find that the trans conformer forms under photolysis of crystalline pure caesium nitrate. Under its dissolution the trans conformer transforms to the cis conformer.

  20. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R


    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  1. Microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell for acid and alkali production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping


    A new type of bioelectrochemical system, called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell (MRCC), was developed to produce acid and alkali using energy derived from organic matter (acetate) and salinity gradients (NaCl solutions representative of seawater and river water). A bipolar membrane (BPM) was placed next to the anode to prevent Cl- contamination and acidification of the anolyte, and to produce protons for HCl recovery. A 5-cell paired reverse-electrodialysis (RED) stack provided the electrical energy required to overcome the BPM over-potential (0.3-0.6 V), making the overall process spontaneous. The MRCC reactor produced electricity (908 mW/m2) as well as concentrated acidic and alkaline solutions, and therefore did not require an external power supply. After a fed-batch cycle, the pHs of the chemical product solutions were 1.65 ± 0.04 and 11.98 ± 0.10, due to the production of 1.35 ± 0.13 mmol of acid, and 0.59 ± 0.14 mmol of alkali. The acid- and alkali-production efficiencies based on generated current were 58 ± 3% and 25 ± 3%. These results demonstrated proof-of-concept acid and alkali production using only renewable energy sources. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Superconductivity and electrical resistivity in alkali metal doped fullerides: Phonon mechanism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dinesh Varshney; A Dube; K K Choudhary; R K Singh


    We consider a two-peak model for the phonon density of states to investigate the nature of electron pairing mechanism for superconducting state in fullerides. We first study the intercage interactions between the adjacent C60 cages and expansion of lattice due to the intercalation of alkali atoms based on the spring model to estimate phonon frequencies from the dynamical matrix for the intermolecular alkali-C60 phonons. Electronic parameter as repulsive parameter and the attractive coupling strength are obtained within the random phase approximation. Transition temperature, c, is obtained in a situation when the free electrons in lowest molecular orbital are coupled with alkali-C60 phonons as 5 K, which is much lower as compared to reported c (≈ 20 K). The superconducting pairing is mainly driven by the high frequency intramolecular phonons and their effects enhance it to 22 K. To illustrate the usefulness of the above approach, the carbon isotope exponent and the pressure effect are also estimated. Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity is then analysed within the same model phonon spectrum. It is inferred from the two-peak model for phonon density of states that high frequency intramolecular phonon modes play a major role in pairing mechanism with possibly some contribution from alkali-C60 phonon to describe most of the superconducting and normal state properties of doped fullerides.

  3. Potassium-intercalated H2Pc films : Alkali-induced electronic and geometrical modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilson, K.; Ahlund, J.; Shariati, M. -N.; Schiessling, J.; Palmgren, P.; Brena, B.; Gothelid, E.; Hennies, F.; Huismans, Y.; Evangelista, F.; Rudolf, P.; Gothelid, M.; Martensson, N.; Puglia, C.; Åhlund, J.; Göthelid, E.; Göthelid, M.; Mårtensson, N.


    X-ray spectroscopy studies of potassium intercalated metal-free phthalocyanine multilayers adsorbed on Al(110) have been undertaken. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show the presence of several charge states of the molecules upon K intercalation, due to a charge transfer from the alkali. In

  4. Epitaxial Growth of a Methoxy-Functionalized Quaterphenylene on Alkali Halide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Sun, Rong; Parisi, Jürgen


    The epitaxial growth of the methoxy functionalized para-quaterphenylene (MOP4) on the (001) faces of the alkali halides NaCl and KCl and on glass is investigated by a combination of lowenergy electron diffraction (LEED), polarized light microscopy (PLM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X...

  5. The different poisoning behaviors of various alkali metal containing compounds on SCR catalyst (United States)

    Du, Xuesen; Yang, Guangpeng; Chen, Yanrong; Ran, Jingyu; Zhang, Li


    Alkali metals are poisonous to the metal oxide catalyst for NO removal. The chemical configuration of alkali containing substance and interacting temperature can affect the poisoning profile. A computational method based on Frontier Molecular Orbital analysis was proposed to determine the reacting behavior of various alkali-containing substances with SCR catalyst. The results reveal that the poisoning reactivities of various substances can be ranked as: E (MOH) > E (M2SO4) > E(MCl) > E(MNO3) > E(MHSO4). The experimental activity tests of the catalysts calcined at stepped temperatures show that NaOH can react with the catalyst below 200 °C. NaCl and NaNO3 start to react with the catalyst at a temperature between 300 and 400 °C. Unlike MOH, MCl and MNO3, which can produce volatile or decomposable species for the anions after reacting with the catalyst, M2SO4 and MHSO4 will leave both cations and anions on the catalyst surface. The sulfate ions left on the catalyst can generate active acid sites for NH3 adsorption. The experimental results also show that Na2SO4 and NaHSO4 will not lower the NO conversion. The after-reaction influences of various alkali metals were studied using theoretical and experimental methods. The theoretical results show that the acidity decreases with doping of alkali metal. Experiments show a consistent result that the NO conversion decreases as undoped >LiCl > NaCl > KCl.

  6. Thermodynamic study of alkali metals release in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, W.; Backman, R.; Korhonen, M.


    A combined-cycle power generation system incorporating pressurised fluidised-bed combustion (PFBC) or gasification is considered a promising approach for electricity generation using solid fuels such as peat. In these systems, the high-pressure hot flue gas is expanded in a gas turbine. Peat contains sodium and potassium which are released in combustion and gasification. These are corrosive elements that can cause severe damage to the turbine blades if not suppressed. Multicomponent, multiphase equilibrium calculations were carried out for atmospheric and pressurised fluidised-bed operating conditions to determine the relative distribution of the two metals (Na and K) in the gas and condensed phases. Dependence of the alkali volatilisation on the operating temperature, pressure, the chlorine-content and the total alkali-content of the feedstock was studied. The results show that the alkali release in the vapour-phase could be much higher than acceptable to a gas turbine, particularly under gasification conditions. Hence the necessity to remove the volatilised alkali-metal compounds is more acute in gasification than in combustion. Both sodium and potassium are present as chlorides and to a lesser extent as hydroxides in the gas phase in both modes of operation (i.e. combustion and gasification). However, whereas under combustion conditions both metals seem to condense as sulphates (Na/sub 2/SO4 and K/sub 2/SO4), in gasification, chlorides and carbonates dominate in the condensed phase. The alkali-metals volatilisation shows strong dependence on the operating pressure of the system as well as on the chlorine-content of the feedstock. It decreases markedly with the former but increases sharply with the latter.

  7. Plasma Formation During Operation of a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) in Cs (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu.; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Kushner, Mark J.


    Diode pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs) produce laser action on the resonant lines of alkali atoms. Diode lasers resonantly pump the 2P3/2 state of the alkali atom which is collisionally relaxed to the 2P3/2 state which then lases to the ground state 2S1/2. The low optical quality of high power semiconductor diode lasers is converted into high optical quality laser radiation from the alkali vapor. The Cs DPAL system using Ar/Cs/C2H6 mixtures has shown promising results. (C2H6 is the collisional relaxant.) In other studies, resonant excitation of alkali vapor by low power lasers has been used to produce highly ionized channels, initiated through associative ionization and superelastic electron heating. The issue then arises if plasma formation occurs during DPAL by similar mechanisms which would be detrimental to laser performance. In this paper, we report on results from a computational study of a DPAL using Cs vapor. The global model addresses quasi-cw pumping of the Cs(2P3/2) state by laser diodes, and includes a full accounting of the resulting electron kinetics. To enable this study, the B-spline R-matrix (BSR) with pseudostates method was employed to calculate electron impact cross sections for Cs. We found that for pump rates of many to 10 kW/cm2, plasma densities approaching 1013 cm-3 occur during laser oscillation with higher values in the absence of laser oscillation. Supported by DoD High Energy Laser Mult. Res. Initiative and NSF.

  8. Synthetic, structural, and theoretical investigations of alkali metal germanium hydrides--contact molecules and separated ions. (United States)

    Teng, Weijie; Allis, Damian G; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin


    The preparation of a series of crown ether ligated alkali metal (M=K, Rb, Cs) germyl derivatives M(crown ether)nGeH3 through the hydrolysis of the respective tris(trimethylsilyl)germanides is reported. Depending on the alkali metal and the crown ether diameter, the hydrides display either contact molecules or separated ions in the solid state, providing a unique structural insight into the geometry of the obscure GeH3- ion. Germyl derivatives displaying M--Ge bonds in the solid state are of the general formula [M([18]crown-6)(thf)GeH3] with M=K (1) and M=Rb (4). The compounds display an unexpected geometry with two of the GeH3 hydrogen atoms closely approaching the metal center, resulting in a partially inverted structure. Interestingly, the lone pair at germanium is not pointed towards the alkali metal, rather two of the three hydrides are approaching the alkali metal center to display M--H interactions. Separated ions display alkali metal cations bound to two crown ethers in a sandwich-type arrangement and non-coordinated GeH3- ions to afford complexes of the type [M(crown ether)2][GeH3] with M=K, crown ether=[15]crown-5 (2); M=K, crown ether=[12]crown-4 (3); and M=Cs, crown ether=[18]crown-6 (5). The highly reactive germyl derivatives were characterized by using X-ray crystallography, 1H and 13C NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) calculations were performed to analyze the geometry of the GeH3- ion in the contact molecules 1 and 4.

  9. Alkali-rich intrusive rocks in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its vicinities as exemplified by Kuganzi and Taihe plutons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉泉; 谢应雯


    The alkali-rich intrusive rocks in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau can be divided into two series in terms of dark-colored rock-forming minerals, petrochemical composition and trace elements: i ) sodic alkaline series rocks consisting of alkaline rocks and alkali granite which contain dark-colored minerals, such as aegirine augite, aegirine and riebeckite, and being petrochemically enriched in alkali and sodium but low in Ca, Sr and Ba; ii ) potassic alkaline series rocks consisting of alkaline rocks and alkali granite which contain non-alkaline dark-colored minerals (diopside, edenite), and being petrochemically enriched in alkali, K and Ca with high abundances of Sr and Ba.

  10. Electron- and Photon-stimulated Desorption of Alkali Atoms from Lunar Sample and a Model Mineral Surface (United States)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.


    We report recent results on an investigation of source mechanisms for the origin of alkali atoms in the tenuous planetary atmospheres, with focus on non-thermal processes (photon stimulated desorption (PSD), electron stimulated desorption (ESD), and ion sputtering). Whereas alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO) are far more abundant in lunar samples than alkali oxides (Na2O, K2O), the atmosphere of the Moon contains easily measurable concentrations of Na and K, while Ca and Mg are undetected there; traces of Ca have recently been seen in the Moon's atmosphere (10-3 of Na). The experiments have included ESD, PSD and ion sputtering of alkali atoms from model mineral surface (amorphous SiO2) and from a lunar basalt sample obtained from NASA. The comparison is made between ESD and PSD efficiency of monovalent alkalis (Na, K) and divalent alkaline earths (Ba, Ca).The ultrahigh vacuum measurement scheme for ESD and PSD of Na atoms includes a highly sensitive alkali metal detector based on surface ionization, and a time-of-flight technique. For PSD measurements, a mercury arc light source (filtered and chopped) is used. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by ultraviolet photons or by low energy electrons (E>4 eV) causes desorption of hot alkali atoms. This results are consistent with the model developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and from water ice: electron- or photon-induced charge transfer from the substrate to the ionic adsorbate causes formation of a neutral alkali atom in a repulsive configuration, from which desorption occurs. The two-electron charge transfer to cause desorption of divalent alkaline eath ions is a less likely process.The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.


    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  12. Efficiency Enhancement Mechanism for Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate)/Silicon Nanowires Hybrid Solar Cells Using Alkali Treatment (United States)

    Jiang, Yurong; Gong, Xiu; Qin, Ruiping; Liu, Hairui; Xia, Congxin; Ma, Heng


    The efficiency enhancement mechanism of the alkali-treated Si nanowire (SiNW) solar cells is discussed and analyzed in detail, which is important to control the useful photovoltaic process. All the results demonstrate that the photovoltaic performance enhancement of alkali-treated SiNW device steps from the formation of the good core-shell heterojunction, which consequently enhances the junction area, promotes fast separating and transporting of electron and hole pairs, and reduces the carrier surface combination. It also indicates that alkali treatment for SiNWs is a promising processing as an economical method for the formation of good core-shell SiNW/polymer heterojunction.

  13. Device and method for upgrading petroleum feedstocks and petroleum refinery streams using an alkali metal conductive membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier


    A reactor has two chambers, namely an oil feedstock chamber and a source chamber. An ion separator separates the oil feedstock chamber from the source chamber, wherein the ion separator allows alkali metal ions to pass from the source chamber, through the ion separator, and into the oil feedstock chamber. A cathode is at least partially housed within the oil feedstock chamber and an anode is at least partially housed within the source chamber. A quantity of an oil feedstock is within the oil feedstock chamber, the oil feedstock comprising at least one carbon atom and a heteroatom and/or one or more heavy metals, the oil feedstock further comprising naphthenic acid. When the alkali metal ion enters the oil feedstock chamber, the alkali metal reacts with the heteroatom, the heavy metals and/or the naphthenic acid, wherein the reaction with the alkali metal forms inorganic products.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The prepared alkali-activated binders (AAB and composites using suitable latent hydraulic raw materials represent an alternative to materials based on Portland cements. This paper deals with ways how to influence the functional parameters of AAB by setting up mixtures of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and fly ash with selected chemical compositions. In this way the course of hydration process is modified and the phase composition of products of alkali activation is changed as well as their final properties. The amorphous character of the hydration products makes evaluation of the phase composition of hardened AAB difficult and significantly limits the number of experimental techniques suitable to characterise their phase composition. It was observed that measuring the pH of water extracts obtained from the alkali-activated mixtures can give supplementary information about the process of hardening of alkali-activated mixtures of GBFS and fly ash.

  15. Extreme early solar system chemical fractionation recorded by alkali-rich clasts contained in ordinary chondrite breccias (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Misawa, Keiji; Okano, Osamu; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Simon, Justin I.; Tappa, Michael J.; Yoneda, Shigekazu


    New K-Ca and Rb-Sr isotopic analyses have been performed on alkali-rich igneous rock fragments in the Yamato (Y)-74442 and Bhola LL-chondritic breccias to better understand the extent and timing of alkali enrichments in the early solar system. The Y-74442 fragments yield a K-Ca age of 4.41 ± 0.28 Ga for λ(40K) = 0.5543 Ga-1 with an initial 40Ca/44Ca ratio of 47.1618 ± 0.0032. Studying the same fragments with the Rb-Sr isotope system yields an age of 4.420 ± 0.031 Ga for λ(87Rb) = 0.01402 Ga-1 with an initial ratio of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7203 ± 0.0044. An igneous rock fragment contained in Bhola shows a similar alkali fractionation pattern to those of Y-74442 fragments but does not plot on the K-Ca or Rb-Sr isochron of the Y-74442 fragments. Calcium isotopic compositions of whole-rock samples of angrite and chondrites are primordial, indistinguishable from mantle-derived terrestrial rocks, and here considered to represent the initial composition of bulk silicate Earth. The initial ε40Ca value determined for the source of the alkali clasts in Y-74442 that is ∼0.5 ε-units higher than the solar system value implies an early alkali enrichment. Multi-isotopic studies on these alkali-rich fragments reveal that the source material of Y-74442 fragments had elemental ratios of K/Ca = 0.43 ± 0.18, Rb/Sr = 3.45 ± 0.66 and K/Rb ∼ 170, that may have formed from mixtures of an alkali-rich component (possibly an alkali-enriched gaseous reservoir produced by fractionation of early nebular condensates) and chondritic components that were flash-heated during an impact event on the LL-chondrite parent body ∼4.42 Ga ago. Further enrichments of potassium and rubidium relative to calcium and strontium as well as a mutual alkali-fractionation (K/Rb ∼ 50 and heavier alkali-enrichment) would have likely occurred during subsequent cooling and differentiation of this melt. Alkali fragments in Bhola might have undergone similar solid-vapor fractionation processes to those of Y

  16. An extracellular thermo-alkali-stable laccase from Bacillus tequilensis SN4, with a potential to biobleach softwood pulp


    Sondhi, Sonica; Sharma, Prince; George, Nancy; Chauhan, Prakram Singh; Puri, Neena; Gupta, Naveen


    Degradation of residual lignin in kraft pulp by chemical bleaching is implicated in causing environmental pollution. The use of thermo- and alkali-tolerant bacterial laccases is considered to be important biological alternative to chemical processing. Laccases from Bacillus species have shown promise in this respect but their intracellular/spore bound presence make their industrial application economically unfeasible. We report here on a novel extracellular active thermo-alkali-stable laccase...

  17. Characterization of hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, March 2012 (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.


    Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey identified Alkali Flat as an area of groundwater upwelling, with increases in concentrations of total dissolved solids, and streamflow loss, but additional study was needed to better characterize these observations. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, White River Field Office, conducted a study to characterize the hydrology and water quality of Piceance Creek in the Alkali Flat area of Rio Blanco County, Colorado.

  18. Spinel Metal Oxide-Alkali Carbonate-Based, Low-Temperature Thermochemical Cycles for Water Splitting and CO_2 Reduction


    Xu, Bingjun; Bhawe, Yashodhan; Davis, Mark E.


    A manganese oxide-based, thermochemical cycle for water splitting below 1000 °C has recently been reported. The cycle involves the shuttling of Na+ into and out of manganese oxides via the consumption and formation of sodium carbonate, respectively. Here, we explore the combinations of three spinel metal oxides and three alkali carbonates in thermochemical cycles for water splitting and CO_2 reduction. Hydrogen evolution and CO_2 reduction reactions of metal oxides with a given alkali carbona...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadevi Punyamurthy,


    Full Text Available Environmentally beneficial composites can be made by replacing synthetic fibers with various types of cellulosic fibers. Fibers from pine wood, coir, sisal, abaca, coir, etc. are all good candidates. The most important factor in finding good fiber reinforcement in the composites is the strength of adhesion between matrix polymer and fiber. Due to the presence of hydroxyl groups and other polar groups in various constituents of abaca, the moisture absorption is high, which leads to poor wettability and weak interfacial bonding between fibers and the more hydrophobic matrices. Therefore, it is necessary to impart a hydrophobic nature to the fibers by suitable chemical treatments in order to develop composites with better mechanical properties. In the present work, the effect of alkali treatment on the moisture absorption tendency of single abaca fiber was investigated. The results shown that the alkali treated fiber absorbs less moisture than the untreated raw fiber.

  20. Investigation of Anti-Relaxation Coatings for Alkali-Metal Vapor Cells Using Surface Science Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Seltzer, S J; Donaldson, M H; Balabas, M V; Barber, S K; Bernasek, S L; Bouchiat, M -A; Hexemer, A; Hibberd, A M; Kimball, D F Jackson; Jaye, C; Karaulanov, T; Narducci, F A; Rangwala, S A; Robinson, H G; Voronov, D L; Yashchuk, V V; Pines, A; Budker, D


    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of anti-relaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10,000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We present a survey of modern surface science techniques applied to the study of paraffin coatings, in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present with...

  1. Tensorial depolarization of alkali atoms by isotropic collisions with neutral hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Derouich, Moncef


    Results. We consider the problem of isotropic collisions between an alkali atom and neutral hydrogen. We calculate the collisional tensorial components of general p and s-states, characterized by their effective principal quantum number $n^{*}$. It is found that the behaviour of the tensorial components obey simple power laws allowing quick calculations of the depolarizing collisional rates. As application, our results should allow a rigorous treatment of the atomic polarization profiles of the D1 -D2 lines of alkali atoms. Conclusions. Close coupling treatments of atomic collisions are needed to decipher the information encoded in the polarized radiation from the Sun. Important problems remain unresolved like the role of collisions in the Paschen-Back conditions.

  2. Reactions between cold methyl halide molecules and alkali-metal atoms. (United States)

    Lutz, Jesse J; Hutson, Jeremy M


    We investigate the potential energy surfaces and activation energies for reactions between methyl halide molecules CH3X (X = F, Cl, Br, I) and alkali-metal atoms A (A = Li, Na, K, Rb) using high-level ab initio calculations. We examine the anisotropy of each intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) and the mechanism and energetics of the only available exothermic reaction pathway, CH3X + A → CH3 + AX. The region of the transition state is explored using two-dimensional PES cuts and estimates of the activation energies are inferred. Nearly all combinations of methyl halide and alkali-metal atom have positive barrier heights, indicating that reactions at low temperatures will be slow.

  3. Orbital disproportionation of electronic density is a universal feature of alkali-doped fullerides (United States)

    Iwahara, Naoya; Chibotaru, Liviu F.


    Alkali-doped fullerides show a wide range of electronic phases in function of alkali atoms and the degree of doping. Although the presence of strong electron correlations is well established, recent investigations also give evidence for dynamical Jahn-Teller instability in the insulating and the metallic trivalent fullerides. In this work, to reveal the interplay of these interactions in fullerides with even electrons, we address the electronic phase of tetravalent fulleride with accurate many-body calculations within a realistic electronic model including all basic interactions extracted from first principles. We find that the Jahn-Teller instability is always realized in these materials too. In sharp contrast to the correlated metals, tetravalent system displays uncorrelated band-insulating state despite similar interactions present in both fullerides. Our results show that the Jahn-Teller instability and the accompanying orbital disproportionation of electronic density in the degenerate lowest unoccupied molecular orbital band is a universal feature of fullerides.

  4. "Doubly magic" conditions in magic-wavelength trapping of ultracold alkali-metal atoms. (United States)

    Derevianko, Andrei


    In experiments with trapped atoms, atomic energy levels are shifted by the trapping optical and magnetic fields. Regardless of this strong perturbation, precision spectroscopy may be still carried out using specially crafted, "magic" trapping fields. Finding these conditions for particularly valuable microwave transitions in alkali-metal atoms has so far remained an open challenge. Here I demonstrate that the microwave transitions in alkali-metal atoms may be indeed made impervious to both trapping laser intensity and fluctuations of magnetic fields. I consider driving multiphoton transitions between the clock levels and show that these "doubly magic" conditions are realized at special values of trapping laser wavelengths and fixed values of relatively weak magnetic fields. This finding has implications for precision measurements and quantum information processing with qubits stored in hyperfine manifolds.

  5. Theory of metal atom-water interactions and alkali halide dimers (United States)

    Jordan, K. D.; Kurtz, H. A.


    Theoretical studies of the interactions of metal atoms with water and some of its isoelectronic analogs, and of the properties of alkali halides and their aggregates are discussed. Results are presented of ab initio calculations of the heats of reaction of the metal-water adducts and hydroxyhydrides of Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, and Al, and of the bond lengths and angles an; the heats of reaction for the insertion of Al into HF, H2O, NH3, H2S and CH3OH, and Be and Mg into H2O. Calculations of the electron affinities and dipole moments and polarizabilities of selected gas phase alkali halide monomers and dimers are discussed, with particular attention given to results of calculations of the polarizability of LiF taking into account electron correlation effects, and the polarizability of the dimer (LiF)2.

  6. Impurity detection in alkali-metal vapor cells via nuclear magnetic resonance (United States)

    Patton, B.; Ishikawa, K.


    We use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of alkali metals sealed in glass vapor cells to perform in situ identification of chemical contaminants. The alkali Knight shift varies with the concentration of the impurity, which in turn varies with temperature as the alloy composition changes along the liquidus curve. Intentional addition of a known impurity validates this approach and reveals that sodium is often an intrinsic contaminant in cells filled with distilled, high-purity rubidium or cesium. Measurements of the Knight shift of the binary Rb-Na alloy confirm prior measurements of the shift's linear dependence on Na concentration, but similar measurements for the Cs-Na system demonstrate an unexpected nonlinear dependence of the Knight shift on the molar ratio. This non-destructive approach allows monitoring and quantification of ongoing chemical processes within the kind of vapor cells which form the basis for precise sensors and atomic frequency standards.

  7. An alternative picture of alkali-metal-mediated metallation: cleave and capture chemistry. (United States)

    Mulvey, Robert E


    This perspective article takes an alternative look at alkali-metal-mediated chemistry (exchange of a relatively inert C-H bond for a more reactive C-metal bond by a multicomponent reagent usually containing an alkali metal and a less electropositive metal such as magnesium or zinc). It pictures that the cleavage of selected C-H bonds can be accompanied by the capturing of the generated anion by the multi (Lewis acid)-(Lewis base) character of the residue of the bimetallic base. In this way small atoms or molecules (hydrides, oxygen-based anions) as well as sensitive organic anions (of substituted aromatic compounds, ethers or alkenes) can be captured. Cleave and capture reactions which occur in special positions on the organic substrate are also included.

  8. 29Si and 27AI MAS NMR Study of Alkali Feldspars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲棣; 郭九皋; 袁汉珍; 李丽云


    12 natural alkali feldspars have been studied by(29)~Si and(27)~Al MAS NMR as well as XRD,IR,EPMA and chemical analysis.Three kinds of(29)~Si NMR spectra,i.e.the spectra of microcline,perthiteand perthite with minor plagioclase,have been obtained.There are two types of(27)~Al NMR spectra.The(27)~Alspectrum of microcline is the same as that of perthite,but is different from the spectrum for perthite contain-ing plagioclase.Through this study,we found that the results of NMR and IR are inconsistent with that ofXRD,which shows that the transition of alkali feldspar from monoclinic to triclinic system might be a rathercomplicated process.

  9. Alkali ion migration between stacked glass plates by corona discharge treatment (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga; Suzuki, Toshio; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji


    Corona discharge reflects the spatial migration of alkali ions over a gap between two glass plates. This study examined stacked glass plates containing different alkali ions treated with the corona discharge plasma generated by applied voltage of 4.5 kV at 200 °C. Protons generated at the anode electrode penetrate into the potassium-ion-containing upper glass plate, which is located 5 mm below the anode electrode. Potassium ions intruded into the lower glass plate containing sodium ions placed on the cathode electrode, even over a 1 mm gap separating the plates. Finally, the sodium ion discharged on the cathode electrode. The hydrogen atmosphere was effective at inhibiting the potassium ion reaction with ambient gases during the spatial migration between the two glass plates.

  10. Effects of acid and alkali promoters on compressed liquid hot water pretreatment of rice straw. (United States)

    Imman, Saksit; Arnthong, Jantima; Burapatana, Vorakan; Champreda, Verawat; Laosiripojana, Navadol


    In this study, effects of homogeneous acid and alkali promoters on efficiency and selectivity of LHW pretreatment of rice straw were studied. The presences of acid (0.25%v/v H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and oxalic acid) and alkali (0.25 w/v NaOH) efficiently promoted hydrolysis of hemicellulose, improved enzymatic digestibility of the solids, and lower the required LHW temperature. Oxalic acid was a superior promoter under the optimal LHW conditions at 160 °C, leading to the highest glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis (84.2%) and the lowest formation of furans. Combined with hydrolyzed glucose in the liquid, this resulted in the maximal 91.6% glucose recovery from the native rice straw. This was related to changes in surface area and crystallinity of pretreated biomass. The results showed efficiency of external promoters on increasing sugar recovery and saving energy in LHW pretreatment.

  11. Sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch fiber. (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho


    Pretreatment processes are key technologies for generating fermentable sugars based on lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we developed a novel method for empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) using sequential pretreatment with dilute acid and then alkali. Dilute sulfuric acid was used in the first step, which removed 90% of the hemicellulose and 32% of the lignin, but left most of the cellulose under the optimum pretreatment condition. Sodium hydroxide was then applied in the second step, which extracted lignin effectively with a 70% delignification yield, partially disrupting the ordered fibrils of the EPFBF and thus enhancing the enzyme digestibility of the cellulose. The sequentially pretreated biomass consisted of 82% cellulose, less than 1% hemicellulose, and 30% lignin content afterward. The pretreated biomasses morphologically revealed rough, porous, and irregularly ordered surfaces for enhancing enzyme digestibility. These results indicate that the sequentially acid/alkali-pretreated EPFBF could be broadly useful as a novel biomass.

  12. Enhanced saccharification of rice straw and hull by microwave-alkali pretreatment and lignocellulolytic enzyme production. (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Tuteja, Shuchi; Singh, Namita; Bishnoi, Narsi R


    In this study, statistical design of experiments was employed to plan experiments and optimize the microwave-alkali pretreatment of rice straw and hulls. Process parameters important in pretreatment of biomass were identified by a Plackett-Burman design and the parameters with significant effects were optimized using a box-behnken design (BBD). Experimental results show that alkali concentration (AC), irradiation time (IT) and substrate concentration (SC) were main factors governing the saccharification of rice straw and hulls. Optimum conditions of pretreatment were AC 2.75%, IT 22.50 min and SC 30 g/L, as optimized by BBD. The growth and production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from Aspergillus heteromorphus, solid state fermentation (SSF) was performed using rice straw and hulls pretreated under optimum conditions. Cellulases and xylanase reached the highest enzyme activity at 6th day of fermentation while maximum manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activity occurred at 12th day.

  13. Finite Size Effects in Adsorption of Helium Mixtures by Alkali Substrates (United States)

    Barranco, M.; Guilleumas, M.; Hernández, E. S.; Mayol, R.; Pi, M.; Szybisz, L.


    We investigate the behavior of mixed 3He-4He droplets on alkali surfaces at zero temperature, within the frame of Finite Range Density Functional theory. The properties of one single 3He atom on 4He_N4 droplets on different alkali surfaces are addressed, and the energetics and structure of 4He_N4+3He_N3 systems on Cs surfaces, for nanoscopic 4He drops, are analyzed through the solutions of the mean field equations for varying number N3 of 3He atoms. We discuss the size effects on the single particle spectrum of 3He atoms and on the shapes of both helium distributions.

  14. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Ja Lee


    Full Text Available To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab,we investigated the structure changes of stroma andbasement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 NNaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumabwas delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl by subconjunctivalinjections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 daysafter injury, basement membrane regeneration was observedby transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelialbasement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes,and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in thealkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membraneand hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundlesresulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired bybevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumabcan play an important role in wound healing in thecornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basementmembrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(4: 195-200

  15. Emission Channeling Studies of the Lattice Site of Oversized Alkali Atoms Implanted in Metals

    CERN Multimedia


    % IS340 \\\\ \\\\ As alkali atoms have the largest atomic radius of all elements, the determination of their lattice configuration following implantation into metals forms a critical test for the various models predicting the lattice site of implanted impurity atoms. The site determination of these large atoms will especially be a crucial check for the most recent model that relates the substitutional fraction of oversized elements to their solution enthalpy. Recent exploratory $^{213}$Fr and $^{221}$Fr $\\alpha$-emission channeling experiments at ISOLDE-CERN and hyperfine interaction measurements on Fr implanted in Fe gave an indication for anomalously large substitutional fractions. To investigate further the behaviour of Fr and other alkali atoms like Cs and Rb thoroughly, more on-line emission channeling experiments are needed. We propose a number of shifts for each element, where the temperature of the implanted metals will be varied between 50$^\\circ$ and 700$^\\circ$~K. Temperature dependent measurements wi...

  16. Influence of granitic aggregates from Northeast Brazil on the alkali-aggregate reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes Neto, David de Paiva; Santana, Rodrigo Soares de; Barreto, Ledjane Silva, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias dos Materiais e Engenharia; Conceicao, Herbert; Lisboa, Vinicios Anselmo Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia


    The alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete structures is a problem that has concerned engineers and researchers for decades. This reaction occurs when silicates in the aggregates react with the alkalis, forming an expanded gel that can cause cracks in the concrete and reduce its lifespan. The aim of this study was to characterize three coarse granitic aggregates employed in concrete production in northeastern Brazil, correlating petrographic analysis with the kinetics of silica dissolution and the evolution of expansions in mortar bars, assisted by SEM/EDS, XRD, and EDX. The presence of grains showing recrystallization into individual microcrystalline quartz subgrains was associated with faster dissolution of silica and greater expansion in mortar bars. Aggregates showing substantial deformation, such as stretched grains of quartz with strong undulatory extinction, experienced slower dissolution, with reaction and expansion occurring over longer periods that could not be detected using accelerated tests with mortar bars. (author)

  17. Microstructural characterization and adsorption properties of alkali-activated materials based on metakaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivunac Katarina


    Full Text Available The microstructural characterization and adsorption properties of metakaolin (MK and alkali-activated metakaolin, known as geopolymer materials (GP were investigated. The structure and properties of the metakaolin and obtained geopolymer were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, based on the analysis of adsorption efficiency, microstructure and mineral structure, the difference between geopolymer and metakaolin on the performance of immobilizing heavy metals have been discussed. The kinetics of adsorption can be represented by pseudo-second order equation. The results of lead ions adsorption experiments were best fitted by Freundlich adsorption isotherm for both investigated adsorbents. The highest removal efficiencies of alkali-activated material based on metakaolin was found 97.5% at pH 4 and metakaolin removal efficiencies was found 92% at pH 5.5.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45012 i br. 172007

  18. Rapid yet accurate first principle based predictions of alkali halide crystal phases using alchemical perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyeva, Alisa


    We assess the predictive power of alchemical perturbations for estimating fundamental properties in ionic crystals. Using density functional theory we have calculated formation energies, lattice constants, and bulk moduli for all sixteen iso-valence-electronic combinations of pure pristine alkali halides involving elements $A \\in \\{$Na, K, Rb, Cs$\\}$ and $X \\in \\{$F, Cl, Br, I$\\}$. For rock salt, zincblende and cesium chloride symmetry, alchemical Hellmann-Feynman derivatives, evaluated along lattice scans of sixteen reference crystals, have been obtained for all respective 16$\\times$15 combinations of reference and predicted target crystals. Mean absolute errors (MAE) are on par with density functional theory level of accuracy for energies and bulk modulus. Predicted lattice constants are less accurate. NaCl is the best reference salt for alchemical estimates of relative energies (MAE $<$ 40 meV/atom) while alkali fluorides are the worst. By contrast, lattice constants are predicted best using NaF as a re...

  19. Bonding in Mercury-Alkali Molecules: Orbital-driven van der Waals Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Cremer


    Full Text Available The bonding situation in mercury-alkali diatomics HgA (2Σ+ (A = Li, Na, K, Rb has been investigated employing the relativistic all-electron method Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (NESC, CCSD(T, and augmented VTZ basis sets. Although Hg,A interactions are typical of van der Waals complexes, trends in calculated De values can be explained on the basis of a 3-electron 2-orbital model utilizing calculated ionization potentials and the De values of HgA+(1Σ+ diatomics. HgA molecules are identified as orbital-driven van der Waals complexes. The relevance of results for the understanding of the properties of liquid alkali metal amalgams is discussed.

  20. High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) of Scots pine. (United States)

    Paananen, Markus; Sixta, Herbert


    High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) was effectively utilised to prevent major polysaccharide losses while maintaining the delignification rate. A yield increase of 6.7 wt% on wood was observed for a HALT pulp compared to a conventionally produced kappa number 60 pulp with comparable viscosity. Approximately 70% of the yield increase was attributed to improved galactoglucomannan preservation and 30% to cellulose. A two-stage oxygen delignification sequence with inter-stage peroxymonosulphuric acid treatment was used to ensure delignification to a bleachable grade. In a comparison to conventional pulp, HALT pulp effectively maintained its yield advantage. Diafiltration trials indicate that purified black liquor can be directly recycled, as large lignin fractions and basically all dissolved polysaccharides were separated from the alkali-rich BL.

  1. Winning the battles on AAR[Alkali aggregate reaction in dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J.


    This article discusses work carried out on four locks on the St. Lawrence Seaway to deal with the alkali aggregate reaction (AAR) in the concrete, on the Mactaquac dam on Canada's St John river which showed evidence of AAR, and also on the Paula Alfonso IV dam in Brazil where cracking was observed in concrete structures near the generators. The pattern of natural cracking is examined, and the source of the problem is identified. The use of admixtures to alleviate the problem is explored, and the utilisation of flyash, waste cement, silica fume, and lithium as concrete constituents is considered. New tests available using powdered rock flour aggregate to decrease alkali concentrations and improve cement workability are described.

  2. X-ray Compton scattering experiments for fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K., E-mail:; Fukumaru, T.; Kimura, K.; Yao, M. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tamura, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Katoh, M. [A.L.M.T. Corp., Iwasekoshi-Machi 2, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan); Kajihara, Y.; Inui, M. [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)


    We have developed a high-pressure vessel and a cell for x-ray Compton scattering measurements of fluid alkali metals. Measurements have been successfully carried out for alkali metal rubidium at elevated temperatures and pressures using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The width of Compton profiles (CPs) of fluid rubidium becomes narrow with decreasing fluid density, which indicates that the CPs sensitively detect the effect of reduction in the valence electron density. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 10 September 2015. The original article supplied to AIP Publishing was not the final version and contained PDF conversion errors in Formulas (1) and (2). The errors have been corrected in the updated and re-published article.

  3. Spatial structure characteristic analysis of corn stover during alkali and biological co-pretreatment using XRD. (United States)

    Tianxue, Yang; Li, Yun; Haobo, Hou; Beidou, Xi; Liansheng, He; Xiaowei, Wang; Caihong, Huang; Kun, Wu; Ying, Zhao; Bin, Chen


    Dynamic variation in the spatial structure of corn stover during alkali and biological co-pretreatment was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The result for crystallinity and microcrystalline size of cellulose showed periodic changes during the pretreatment process. The dominant destruction periods of crystalline areas were mainly located at 3-5d and 7-17d, and prevailing destroyed amorphous areas mainly occurred at 0-2d and 5-7d. On day 7, the relative crystallinity and microcrystalline size reached 52.81% and 8.56 nm, respectively, which were the maximum and minimum values during the whole co-pretreatment. The results indicated that spatial structure change was not uniform with pretreatment time, and this was contributed to explore the vital time point of destruction during the alkali-biological pretreatment.

  4. Spectral line shifts of alkali atoms in liquid helium: a relativistic density functional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, J [Universitaet Kassel, Institut fuer Physik, 34109 Kassel (Germany); Mukherjee, P K [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700 032 (India); Fricke, B [Universitaet Kassel, Institut fuer Physik, 34109 Kassel (Germany); Fritzsche, S [Universitaet Kassel, Institut fuer Physik, 34109 Kassel (Germany)


    Excitation line shifts of the principal resonance transitions in alkali atoms sodium and cesium embedded inside the liquid helium environment have been calculated using four-component relativistic density functional theory. The effect of the liquid helium environment is assumed to be represented by a cluster of 14 atoms surrounding the central alkali atom. The estimated blue shift of the principal resonance line {sup 2}S {yields}{sup 2}P is 22.8 nm for Na and 16.7 nm for Cs. The result for Cs is in good agreement with the experimental shift of 18.2 nm. In the absence of the experimental data for Na, our result is compared with those of other theoretical estimates.

  5. Modelling The Effects of Aggregate Size on Alkali Aggregate Reaction Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Z. Sekrane


    Full Text Available This work aims at developing models to predict the potential expansion of concrete containing alkali-reactive aggregates. The paper gives measurements in order to provide experimental data concerning the effect of particle size of an alkali-reactive siliceous limestone on mortar expansion. Results show that no expansion was measured on the mortars using small particles (0.5-1.0 mm while the particles (1.0–2.0 mm gave the largest expansions (0.217%. Two models are proposed, the first one studies the correlations between the measured expansions and the size of aggregates, the second one calculates the thickness of the porous zone necessary to take again all the volume of the gel created.

  6. Strength and Drying Shrinkage of Alkali-Activated Slag Paste and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-chieh Chi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the strengths and drying shrinkage of alkali-activated slag paste and mortar. Compressive strength, tensile strength, and drying shrinkage of alkali-activated slag paste and mortar were measured with various liquid/slag ratios, sand/slag ratios, curing ages, and curing temperatures. Experimental results show that the higher compressive strength and tensile strength have been observed in the higher curing temperature. At the age of 56 days, AAS mortars show higher compressive strength than Portland cement mortars and AAS mortars with liquid/slag ratio of 0.54 have the highest tensile strength in all AAS mortars. In addition, AAS pastes of the drying shrinkage are higher than AAS mortars. Meanwhile, higher drying shrinkage was observed in AAS mortars than that observed comparable Portland cement mortars.

  7. Alkali Induced Morphology and Property Improvements of TiO2 by Hydrothermal Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qiong; WEN Xianming; MA Peihua; DENG Xiaochuan


    Alkali induced morphology and property improvements of TiO2 by hydrothermal reaction were investigated.The products were characterized by SEM,TEM,XRD,TG,EDX,FT-IR and DRS.The results indicate that,with the phase transformation from anatase to rutile,the morphologies changed from high aggregated particles to nanofibers with the diameter of about 100 nm and the length up to several tens of micrometers,meanwhile the process is controllable by manipulating the nature of the alkali,alkalinity and hydrothermal temperature.DRS analysis shows the property improvement of the nanofibers in the UV-Vis light absorption compared with the raw materials,implying the products have potential application in photocatalysis.

  8. Thermoluminescence response of a mixed ternary alkali halide crystals exposed to gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Vazquez P, G.; Riveros, H. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gonzalez M, P., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Ionic crystals, mainly alkali halide crystals have been the subject of intense research for a better understanding of the luminescence properties of defects induced by ionizing radiation. The defects in crystals can be produced in appreciable concentration due to elastic stresses, radiation, and addition of impurities. These defects exhibit remarkable thermoluminescence properties. This work is concerned with the Tl properties of a ternary alkali halide crystal after being irradiated with gamma and beta rays. It has been found that the Tl glow peak of the crystal follows a rule of average associated to the Tl Temperatures of the components of the mixture, similarly to the response of europium doped binary mixed crystals KCl{sub x}KBr{sub 1-x} and KBr{sub x}RbBr{sub 1-x}. (Author)

  9. An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xia, Gordon; Kirby, Brent W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei


    Aiming to explore low-cost redox flow battery systems, a novel iron-polysulfide (Fe/S) flow battery has been demonstrated in a laboratory cell. This system employs alkali metal ferri/ferrocyanide and alkali metal polysulfides as the redox electrolytes. When proper electrodes, such as pretreated graphite felts, are used, 78% energy efficiency and 99% columbic efficiency are achieved. The remarkable advantages of this system over current state-of-the-art redox flow batteries include: 1) less corrosive and relatively environmentally benign redox solutions used; 2) excellent energy and utilization efficiencies; 3) low cost for redox electrolytes and cell components. These attributes can lead to significantly reduced capital cost and make the Fe/S flow battery system a promising low-cost energy storage technology. The major drawbacks of the present cell design are relatively low power density and possible sulfur species crossover. Further work is underway to address these concerns.

  10. The 3-Dimensional q-Deformed Harmonic Oscillator and Magic Numbers of Alkali Metal Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, Dennis; Raychev, P P; Roussev, R P; Terziev, P A; Bonatsos, Dennis


    Magic numbers predicted by a 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator with Uq(3) > SOq(3) symmetry are compared to experimental data for alkali metal clusters, as well as to theoretical predictions of jellium models, Woods--Saxon and wine bottle potentials, and to the classification scheme using the 3n+l pseudo quantum number. The 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator correctly predicts all experimentally observed magic numbers up to 1500 (which is the expected limit of validity for theories based on the filling of electronic shells), thus indicating that Uq(3), which is a nonlinear extension of the U(3) symmetry of the spherical (3-dimensional isotropic) harmonic oscillator, is a good candidate for being the symmetry of systems of alkali metal clusters.

  11. Examination of Solubility Models for the Determination of Transition Metals within Liquid Alkali Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Isler


    Full Text Available The experimental solubility of transition metals in liquid alkali metal was compared to the modeled solubility calculated using various equations for solubility. These equations were modeled using the enthalpy calculations of the semi-empirical Miedema model and various entropy calculations. The accuracy of the predicted solubility compared to the experimental data is more dependent on which liquid alkali metal is being examined rather than the transition metal solute examined. For liquid lithium the calculated solubility by the model was generally larger than experimental values, while for liquid cesium the modeling solubility was significantly smaller than the experimental values. For liquid sodium, potassium, and rubidium the experimental solubilities were within the range calculated by this study. Few data approached the predicted temperature dependence of solubility and instead most data exhibited a less pronounced temperature dependence.

  12. Adsorption of alkali, alkaline-earth, and 3d transition metal atoms on silicene (United States)

    Sahin, H.; Peeters, F. M.


    The adsorption characteristics of alkali, alkaline-earth, and transition metal adatoms on silicene, a graphene-like monolayer structure of silicon are analyzed by means of first-principles calculations. In contrast to graphene, interaction between the metal atoms and the silicene surface is quite strong due to its highly reactive buckled hexagonal structure. In addition to structural properties, we also calculate the electronic band dispersion, net magnetic moment, charge transfer, work function, and dipole moment of the metal adsorbed silicene sheets. Alkali metals, Li, Na, and K, adsorb to hollow sites without any lattice distortion. As a consequence of the significant charge transfer from alkalis to silicene, metalization of silicene takes place. Trends directly related to atomic size, adsorption height, work function, and dipole moment of the silicene/alkali adatom system are also revealed. We found that the adsorption of alkaline-earth metals on silicene is entirely different from their adsorption on graphene. The adsorption of Be, Mg, and Ca turns silicene into a narrow gap semiconductor. Adsorption characteristics of eight transition metals Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Mo, and W are also investigated. As a result of their partially occupied d orbital, transition metals show diverse structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. Upon the adsorption of transition metals, depending on the adatom type and atomic radius, the system can exhibit metal, half-metal, and semiconducting behavior. For all metal adsorbates, the direction of the charge transfer is from adsorbate to silicene, because of its high surface reactivity. Our results indicate that the reactive crystal structure of silicene provides a rich playground for functionalization at nanoscale.

  13. Investigation of Anti-Relaxation Coatings for Alkali-Metal Vapor Cells Using Surface Science Techniques


    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M. -A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Kimball, D. F. Jackson; C. Jaye; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.


    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of anti-relaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10,000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the stu...

  14. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques


    Seltzer, S. J.


    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the stud...

  15. Non-linear composition dependence of the conductivity parameters in alkali halides mixed crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardas, Georgios E., E-mail: gzardas@phys.uoa.g [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 157 84 Zografos (Greece)


    Since mixed alkali halides were found to have applications in optical, optoelectronic and electronic devices, a strong interest has recently expressed for the study of their physical properties. Here, we discuss the experimental finding that a maximum conductivity enhancement with respect to pure constituents is obtained at a certain composition. We show that this composition can be predicted from the bulk properties of the end members.

  16. Effect of alkalis on deacetylation of konjac glucomannan in mechano-chemical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhidong Pan; Junjie Meng; Yanmin Wang


    This paper presents experimental results on the effect of alkalis such as NaOH, KOH and Ca(OH)2 on deacetylation of a konjac glucomannan (KGM) powder under mechano-chemical (MC) treatment. The results show that the alkalinity of modifiers is a dominant factor for deacetylation of KGM. In addition,characteristics, such as swelling property, viscous stability and thermal behavior of the deacetylated KGM are analyzed.

  17. Reaction of chromalumozirconium refractory with alkali-free borosilicate glass melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, O.N.; Frolova, V.P.


    The corrosion mechanism of chromalumozirconium refractory synthesized on the base of the Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-ZrO/sub 2/-SiO/sub 2/ system by the alkali-free borosilicate ''E'' glass melt is investigated. It is estalished that in the process of refractory destruction the diffusion zonality is formed in it being a reflection of comparative migration activity of refractory components.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Ternary and Quaternary Alkali Metal Thiophosphates

    KAUST Repository

    Alahmary, Fatimah S.


    The ongoing development of nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals such as coherent mid-IR sources focuses on various classes of materials such as ternary and quaternary metal chalcophosphates. In case of thiophosphates, the connection between PS4-tetrahedral building blocks and metals gives rise to a broad structural variety where approximately one third of all known ternary (A/P/S) and quaternary (A/M/P/S) (A = alkali metal, M = metal) structures are acentric and potential nonlinear optical materials. The molten alkali metal polychalcophosphate fluxes are a well-established method for the synthesis of new ternary and quaternary thiophosphate and selenophosphate compounds. It has been a wide field of study and investigation through the last two decades. Here, the flux method is used for the synthesis of new quaternary phases containing Rb, Ag, P and S. Four new alkali metal thiophosphates, Rb4P2S10, RbAg5(PS4), Rb2AgPS4 and Rb3Ag9(PS4)4, have been synthesized successfully from high purity elements and binary starting materials. The new compounds were characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These compounds show interesting structural variety and physical properties. The crystal structures feature 3D anionic framework built up of PS4 tetrahedral units and charge balanced by Ag and alkali metal cations. All prepared compounds are semiconductors with band gap between 2.3 eV to 2.6 eV and most of them are thermally stable up to 600ºC.

  19. A study on alkali pretreatment conditions of sorghum stem for maximum sugar recovery using statistical approach


    Nikzad Maryam; Movagharnejad Kamyar; Talebnia Farid; Najafpour Ghasem; Hosein Farahi Ghorban Amir


    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass provides an alternative energy-production system. Sorghum bicolor stem is a cheap agro-waste for bioethanol production. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize alkali pretreatment conditions for sorghum bicolor stem with respect to substrate concentration, NaOH concentration and pretreatment time based on a central composite rotary design. The main goal was to achieve the high...

  20. Alkali (NaOH) Pretreatment of Switchgrass by Radio Frequency-based Dielectric Heating (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Wang, Yifen; Wen, Zhiyou

    Radio-frequency (RF)-based dielectric heating was used in the alkali (NaOH) pre-treatment of switchgrass to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Due to the unique features of RF heating (i.e., volumetric heat transfer, deep heat penetration of the samples, etc.), switchgrass could be treated on a large scale, high solid content, and uniform temperature profile. At 20% solid content, RF-assisted alkali pretreatment (at 0.1 g NaOH/g biomass loading and 90°C) resulted in a higher xylose yield than the conventional heating pretreatment. The enzymatic hydrolysis of RF-treated solids led to a higher glucose yield than the corresponding value obtained from conventional heating treatment. When the solid content exceeded 25%, conventional heating could not handle this high-solid sample due to the loss of fluidity, poor mixing, and heating transfer of the samples. As a result, there was a significantly lower sugar yield, but the sugar yield of the RF-based pretreatment process was still maintained at high levels. Furthermore, the optimal particle size and alkali loading in the RF pretreatment was determined as 0.25-0.50 mm and 0.25 g NaOH/g biomass, respectively. At alkali loading of 0.20-0.25 g NaOH/g biomass, heating temperature of 90°C, and solid content of 20%, the glucose, xylose, and total sugar yield from the combined RF pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis were 25.3, 21.2, and 46.5 g/g biomass, respectively.

  1. From nonwetting to prewetting: The asymptotic behavior of 4He drops on alkali substrates (United States)

    Barranco, M.; Guilleumas, M.; Hernández, E.; Mayol, R.; Pi, M.; Szybisz, L.


    We investigate the spreading of 4He droplets on alkali-metal surfaces at zero temperature, within the frame of finite range density-functional theory. The equilibrium configurations of several 4HeN clusters and their asymptotic trend with increasing particle number N, which can be traced to the wetting behavior of the quantum fluid, are examined for nanoscopic droplets. We discuss the size effects inferring that the asymptotic properties of large droplets correspond to those of the prewetting film.

  2. Surface Morphology and Structure of Double-Phase Magnetic Alkali Borosilicate Glasses (United States)

    Andreeva, N. V.; Naberezhnov, A. A.; Tomkovich, M. V.; Nacke, B.; Kichigin, V.; Rudskoy, A. I.; Filimonov, A. V.


    The surface morphology of double-phase magnetic alkali borosilicate glasses of four types obtained by induction melting is studied by the methods of atomic-force and scanning electron microscopy. The distribution of elements over the surface and the elemental composition of the glasses are determined. It is shown that a dendritic system of interrelated channels required for formation of porous matrixes with controlled mean pore diameter may be obtained in these objects depending on the heat treatment mode.

  3. Thermochemical analysis of laterite ore alkali roasting: Comparison of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki


    The abundance of global nickel reserve is in fact dominated by low grade laterite ores containing only approximately 1.0-1.8 %-Ni. Indonesia is a major limonite and saprolite ores source, particularly in the Sulawesi, northern Maluku, and Papua islands. Production of nickel from laterites typically requires a pre-concentration step which breaks down the mineral crystalline structure, thereby facilitating the subsequent extraction of the valuable metals. This work discusses the thermochemical analysis of the alkali roasting of an Indonesian saprolite ore using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH. These alkali compounds are selected due to their relatively low cost. The Factsage thermochemical computation package is used to predict thermodynamically stable gaseous, solution, pure liquid, and pure solid phases present in the roasting process at temperatures from 100 to 1200°C at ambient pressure, in inert atmosphere. The formation of a liquid solution (or slag) phase is interpreted as a major indicator of mineral structure breakdown. The computed slag formation temperatures are 373.2, 1041.4, and 792.0°C when using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. The masses of volatilized alkali at 1200°C with a total feed mass of 100 gram are 0.49, 3.24, and 3.25 mg for Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. It is therefore hypothesized that Na2CO3 is the most competitive sodium-based alkali for saprolite ore roasting.

  4. Phenolic stabilisers extraction constants of polypropylene geotextiles determination in alkali medium


    Farcas, Fabienne; Fayolle, Bruno; Azzouz, Mériam; Richaud, Emmanuel


    The use of geotextiles made of polypropylene (PP) in civil engineering such as tunnel requieres adequates control over their durability, and this characteristic remains poorly known due to their inaccessibility. Considering concrete environment ageing conditions (alkali medium i.e. pH = 9 to 13), the aim of this study is to complete a non-empirical kinetic model for polypropylene ageing by the determination of the extraction parameters a frequently used phenolic process stabilisers: Irganox 1...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhibin He; Yonghao Ni; Eric Zhang


    The effect of alkalinity, transition metals and oxygen on alkali darkening of mechanical pulp, and its relations to subsequent peroxide bleaching were investigated. The chromophores generated under mild conditions of an alkaline treatment can be destroyed in a subsequent peroxide stage.Peroxide-resistant chromophores are generated only under severe conditions. The results also show that a short alkaline pretreatment can improve the performance of a peroxide bleaching stage.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhibinHe; Yon2haoNi; EricZhang_


    The effect of alkalinity, transition metals and oxygen on alkali darkening of mechanical pulp, and its relations to subsequent peroxide bleaching were investigated. The chromophores generated under mild conditions of an alkaline treatment can be destroyed in a subsequent peroxide stage. Peroxide-resistant chromophores are generated only under severe conditions. The results also show that a short alkaline pretreatment can improve the performance of a peroxide bleaching stage.

  7. Alkali activated materials state-of-the-art report, RILEM TC 224-AAM

    CERN Document Server

    Deventer, Jannie


    This is a State of the Art Report resulting from the work of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM in the period 2007-2013. The Report summarises research to date in the area of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a particular focus on the following areas: binder design and characterisation, durability testing, commercialisation, standardisation, and providing a historical context for this rapidly-growing research field.

  8. Optical/IR Characteristics of Alkali Halide Aerosol Clouds over the Ocean. (United States)


    Continues) 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) --- Artificial fogs grown on hygroscopic alkali halide...the cruise fell into one of two catagories: 1) elevated clouds or 2) surface fog banks. Both types of clouds have the potential of being useful for...8217 TABLE VI Computed Transmission Through Cloud #8 (from Size Distribution) (250 Meters Thick Cloud) Wavel ength i crons) 0.55 3.5 10.6 Rel

  9. The Effect of Fibronectin on Re-epithelialization of Rabbits Cornea after Alkali Burn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The authors found experimentally that (1) fibronectin enhanced the healing of rabbit corneal epithelium after alkali burn and prevented the secondary breakdown; (2) it rapidly deposited on the denuded basement membrane to disappear as epithelial cells slided over, and (3) ultrastructurally, the neighbouring epithelial cells became flattened, with filopodia at the advancing edge, and extended to the wounded areas at 24 hours after the burn. However, the epithelial defects recurred 72 hours after the burn...

  10. Femtosecond spectroscopy on alkali-doped helium nanodroplets; Femtosekundenspektroskopie an alkalidotierten Helium-Nanotroepfchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claas, P.


    In the present thesis first studies on the short-time dynamics in alkali dimers and microclusters, which were bound on the surface of superfluid helium droplets, were presented. The experiments comprehended pump-probe measurements on the fs scale on the vibration dynamics on the dimers and on the fragmentation dynamics on the clusters. Generally by the studies it was shown that such extremely short slopes can also be observed on helium droplets by means of the femtosecond spectroscopy.

  11. Comparative study of reversible hydrogen storage in alkali-doped fulleranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teprovich, Joseph A.; Knight, Douglas A.; Peters, Brent [Clean Energy Directorate – Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Zidan, Ragaiy, E-mail: [Clean Energy Directorate – Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States)


    Highlights: ► Catalytic effect of alkali metals of fullerane formation. ► Hydrogen storage properties of alkali metal hydrides and fullerene composites. ► Novel intercalation of Na and Li in the fullerene lattice. ► Reversible phase transformation of C{sub 60} from fcc to bcc upon de/rehydrogenation. ► Potential to enable to the formation of other carbon based hydrogen storage systems. -- Abstract: In this report we describe and compare the hydrogen storage properties of lithium and sodium doped fullerenes prepared via a solvent-assisted mixing process. For the preparation of these samples either NaH or LiH was utilized as the alkali metal source to make material based on either a Na{sub 6}C{sub 60} or Li{sub 6}C{sub 60}. Both of the alkali-doped materials can reversibly absorb and desorb hydrogen at much milder conditions than the starting materials used to make them (decomposition temperatures of NaH > 420 °C, LiH > 670 °C, and fullerane > 500 °C). The hydrogen storage properties of the materials were compared by TGA, isothermal desorption, and XRD analysis. It was determined that the sodium-doped material can reversibly store 4.0 wt.% H{sub 2} while the lithium doped material can reversibly store 5.0 wt.% H{sub 2} through a chemisorption mechanism indicated by the formation and measurement of C–H bonds. XRD analysis of the material demonstrated that a reversible phase transition between fcc and bcc occurs depending on the temperature at which the hydrogenation is performed. In either system the active hydrogen storage material resembles a hydrogenated fullerene (fullerane)

  12. Mechanical Properties and Eco-Efficiency of Steel Fiber Reinforced Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete


    Sun-Woo Kim; Seok-Joon Jang; Dae-Hyun Kang; Kyung-Lim Ahn; Hyun-Do Yun


    Conventional concrete production that uses ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as a binder seems unsustainable due to its high energy consumption, natural resource exhaustion and huge carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. To transform the conventional process of concrete production to a more sustainable process, the replacement of high energy-consumptive PC with new binders such as fly ash and alkali-activated slag (AAS) from available industrial by-products has been recognized as an alternative. This p...

  13. Structural and Dynamical Trends in Alkali-Metal Silanides Characterized by Neutron-Scattering Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wan Si; Dimitrievska, Mirjana; Chotard, Jean-Noel; Zhou, Wei; Janot, Raphael; Skripov, Alexander V.; Udovic, Terrence J.


    Structural, vibrational, and dynamical properties of the mono- and mixed-alkali silanides (MSiH3, where M = K, Rb, Cs, K0.5Rb0.5, K0.5Cs0.5, and Rb0.5Cs0.5) were investigated by various neutron experiments, including neutron powder diffraction (NPD), neutron vibrational spectroscopy (NVS), neutron-scattering fixed-window scans (FWSs), and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements. Structural characterization showed that the mixed compounds exhibit disordered (..alpha..) and ordered (..beta..) phases for temperatures above and below about 200-250 K, respectively, in agreement with their monoalkali correspondents. Vibrational and dynamical properties are strongly influenced by the cation environment; in particular, there is a red shift in the band energies of the librational and bending modes with increasing lattice size as a result of changes in the bond lengths and force constants. Additionally, slightly broader spectral features are observed in the case of the mixed compounds, indicating the presence of structural disorder caused by the random distribution of the alkali-metal cations within the lattice. FWS measurements upon heating showed that there is a large increase in reorientational mobility as the systems go through the order-disorder (..beta..-..alpha..) phase transition, and measurements upon cooling of the ..alpha..-phase revealed the known strong hysteresis for reversion back to the ..beta..-phase. Interestingly, at a given temperature, among the different alkali silanide compounds, the relative reorientational mobilities of the SiH3- anions in the ..alpha..- and ..beta..-phases tended to decrease and increase, respectively, with increasing alkali-metal mass. This dynamical result might provide some insights concerning the enthalpy-entropy compensation effect previously observed for these potentially promising hydrogen storage materials.

  14. Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Susan A., E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Gehman, John D. [School of Chemistry and Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Brice, David G.; Kilcullen, Adam R. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia); Duxson, Peter [Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia); Deventer, Jannie S.J. van [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia)


    Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO{sub 2} exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods.

  15. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance. (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Deyholos, Michael K; Chen, Qin; Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming


    Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  16. Effect of alkali cations on heterogeneous photo-Fenton process mediated by Prussian blue colloids. (United States)

    Liu, Shou-Qing; Cheng, Shi; Feng, Lian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Zhi-Gang


    This article evaluates Prussian blue (iron hexacyanoferrate) colloids as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B. The emphasis is laid on the effects of alkali metal cations on the photo-Fenton process. The facts show that alkali cations strongly affect the degradation rate of organic species. The degradation rates of Rhodamine B, Malachite Green, and Methyl Orange in the presence of KCl, KNO(3), and K(2)SO(4), respectively, are faster than their degradation rates in the presence of the corresponding sodium salts. The average degradation rates of Rhodamine B in 0.2 M KCl, NaCl, RbCl, and CsCl solution, decline in sequence, and the rate in KCl solution is greater than that without any salt added deliberately. Thus, potassium ions accelerate the degradation rate, but sodium, rubidium, and cesium ions slow the rate. The order of the rates is R(K)>R>R(Na)>R(Rb)>R(Cs), which is consistent with that of the voltammetric oxidation currents of Prussian blue in the corresponding cation solutions. This phenomenon is attributed to the molecular recognition of the microstructure in Prussian blue nanoparticles to the alkali cations. The reaction mechanism of the photo-Fenton process has also been explored.

  17. Structure and properties of alizarin complex formed with alkali metal hydroxides in methanol solution. (United States)

    Jeliński, Tomasz; Cysewski, Piotr


    Quantum chemical computations were used for prediction of the structure and color of alizarin complex with alkali metal hydroxides in methanolic solutions. The color prediction relying on the single Gaussian-like band once again proved the usefulness of the PBE0 density functional due to the observed smallest color difference between computed and experimentally derived values. It was found that the alkali metal hydroxide molecules can bind to the two oxygen atoms of both hydroxyl groups of alizarin or to one of these atoms and the oxygen atom from the keto group in a complex with three methanol molecules. This means that two electronic transitions need to be taken into account when considering the spectra of the studied complexes. The resulting bond lengths and angles are correlated with the properties of the alkali metal atoms. The molar mass, the atomic radius, and the Pauling electronegativity of studied metals are quite accurate predictors of the geometric properties of hydroxide complexes with alizarin in methanol solution. Graphical abstract The spectra of the neutral and monoanionic form of alizarin together with color changes resulting from addition of different metal hydroxides and represented in CIE color space.

  18. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics of Dimerization and Clustering in Alkali Metal Vapors. (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V


    Alkali metals are known to form dimers, trimers, and tetramers in their vapors. The mechanism and regularities of this phenomenon characterize the chemical behavior of the first group elements. We report ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the alkali metal vapors and characterize their structural properties, including radial distribution functions and atomic cluster size distributions. AIMD confirms formation of Men, where n ranges from 2 to 4. High pressure sharply favors larger structures, whereas high temperature decreases their fraction. Heavier alkali metals maintain somewhat larger fractions of Me2, Me3, and Me4, relative to isolated atoms. A single atom is the most frequently observed structure in vapors, irrespective of the element and temperature. Due to technical difficulties of working with high temperatures and pressures in experiments, AIMD is the most affordable method of research. It provides valuable understanding of the chemical behavior of Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs, which can lead to development of new chemical reactions involving these metals.

  19. Tuning the work function of ultrathin oxide films on metals by adsorption of alkali atoms. (United States)

    Martinez, Umberto; Giordano, Livia; Pacchioni, Gianfranco


    We report a theoretical investigation of the adsorption of alkali metal atoms deposited on ultrathin oxide films. The properties of Li, Na, and K atoms adsorbed on SiO(2)/Mo(112) and of K on MgO / Ag(100) and TiO(2)/Pt(111) have been analyzed with particular attention to the induced changes in the work function of the system, Phi. On the nonreducible SiO(2) and MgO oxide films there is a net transfer of the outer ns electron of the alkali atom to the metal substrate conduction band; the resulting surface dipole substantially lowers Phi. The change in Phi depends (a) on the adsorption site (above the oxide film or at the interface) and (b) on the alkali metal coverage. Deposition of K on reducible TiO(2) oxide films results in adsorbed K(+) ions and in the formation of Ti(3+) ions. No charge transfer to the metal substrate is observed but also in this case the surface dipole resulting from the K-TiO(2) charge transfer has the effect to considerably reduce the work function of the system.

  20. Polysaccharide hydrogel combined with mesenchymal stem cells promotes the healing of corneal alkali burn in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Ke

    Full Text Available Corneal chemical burns are common ophthalmic injuries that may result in permanent visual impairment. Although significant advances have been achieved on the treatment of such cases, the structural and functional restoration of a chemical burn-injured cornea remains challenging. The applications of polysaccharide hydrogel and subconjunctival injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been reported to promote the healing of corneal wounds. In this study, polysaccharide was extracted from Hardy Orchid and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. Supplementation of the polysaccharide significantly enhanced the migration rate of primarily cultured rat corneal epithelial cells. We examined the therapeutic effects of polysaccharide in conjunction with MSCs application on the healing of corneal alkali burns in rats. Compared with either treatment alone, the combination strategy resulted in significantly better recovery of corneal epithelium and reduction in inflammation, neovascularization and opacity of healed cornea. Polysaccharide and MSCs acted additively to increase the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGF-β, antiangiogenic cytokine (TSP-1 and decrease those promoting inflammation (TNF-α, chemotaxis (MIP-1α and MCP-1 and angiogenesis (VEGF and MMP-2. This study provided evidence that Hardy Orchid derived polysaccharide and MSCs are safe and effective treatments for corneal alkali burns and that their benefits are additive when used in combination. We concluded that combination therapy with polysaccharide and MSCs is a promising clinical treatment for corneal alkali burns and may be applicable for other types of corneal disorder.

  1. Emission Laws and Influence Factors of Greenhouse Gases in Saline-Alkali Paddy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang


    Full Text Available The study of greenhouse gas emissions has become a global focus, but few studies have considered saline-alkali paddy fields. Gas samples and saline-alkali soil samples were collected during the green, tillering, booting, heading and grain filling stages. The emission fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O as well as the pH, soil soluble salt, available nitrogen, and soil organic carbon contents were detected to reveal the greenhouse gas (GHG emission laws and influence factors in saline-alkali paddy fields. Overall, GHG emissions of paddy soil during the growing season increased, then decreased, and then increased again and peaked at booting stage. The emission fluxes of CO2 and CH4 were observed as having two peaks and a single peak, respectively. Both the total amount of GHG emission and its different components of CO2, CH4, and N2O increased with the increasing reclamation period of paddy fields. A positive correlation was found between the respective emission fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O and the available nitrogen and SOC, whereas a negative correlation was revealed between the fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O and soil pH and soil conductivity. The study is beneficial to assessing the impact of paddy reclamation on regional greenhouse gas emissions and is relevant to illustrating the mechanisms concerning the carbon cycle in paddy soils.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Cheng


    Full Text Available A biorefinery using the process of hemicellulose pre-extraction and subsequent pulping provides a promising way for the utilization of straw biomass and resolution of problems related to silicon. In this work, hemicellulose was extracted from depithed corn stover with sodium hydroxide solution before soda-AQ pulping. Components of the extracts were quantified by ion chromatography. The parameters (alkali concentration and temperature affecting hemicellulose pre-extraction were optimized. The main constituent of hemicellulose in corn stover was xylan, which accounted for 18.1% of the depithed raw material. More than 90% of the xylan can be extracted under the optimal conditions: NaOH concentration of 10%, temperature of 75ºC, and time of 2h. Solid fractions after extraction were subjected to soda-AQ pulping. In comparison with control pulp obtained without extraction, it was found that alkali pre-extraction could improve the brightness and decrease kappa number of the subsequent pulp, causing a slight loss of yield, viscosity, density, and burst strength, but an obvious improvement of tear strength. Moreover, the silicon content was decreased by 79.8% when the extraction conditions were set at 75 ºC with alkali concentration of 8%, suggesting that pre-extraction of hemicellulose is a potential way to solve silicon problems associated with alkaline pulping of stover.

  3. Bi-alkali antimonide photocathode growth: An X-ray diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Susanne; Wong, Jared; Feng, Jun; Karkare, Siddharth; Padmore, Howard; Ruiz-Osés, Miguel; Smedley, John; Muller, Erik; Ding, Zihao; Gaowei, Mengjia; Attenkofer, Klaus; Liang, Xue; Xie, Junqi; Kühn, Julius


    Bi-alkali antimonide photocathodes are one of the best known sources of electrons for high current and/or high bunch charge applications like Energy Recovery Linacs or Free Electron Lasers. Despite their high quantum efficiency in visible light and low intrinsic emittance, the surface roughness of these photocathodes prohibits their use as low emittance cathodes in high accelerating gradient superconducting and normal conducting radio frequency photoguns and limits the minimum possible intrinsic emittance near the threshold. Also, the growth process for these materials is largely based on recipes obtained by trial and error and is very unreliable. In this paper, using X-ray diffraction, we investigate the different structural and chemical changes that take place during the growth process of the bi-alkali antimonide material K2CsSb. Our measurements give us a deeper understanding of the growth process of alkali-antimonide photocathodes allowing us to optimize it with the goal of minimizing the surface roughness to preserve the intrinsic emittance at high electric fields and increasing its reproducibility.

  4. Bi-alkali antimonide photocathode growth: An X-ray diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Susanne; Wong, Jared; Feng, Jun; Karkare, Siddharth; Padmore, Howard; Ruiz-Osés, Miguel; Smedley, John; Muller, Erik; Ding, Zihao; Gaowei, Mengjia; Attenkofer, Klaus; Liang, Xue; Xie, Junqi; Kühn, Julius


    Bi-alkali antimonide photocathodes are one of the best known sources of electrons for high current and/or high bunch charge applications like Energy Recovery Linacs or Free Electron Lasers. Despite their high quantum efficiency in visible light and low intrinsic emittance, the surface roughness of these photocathodes prohibits their use as low emittance cathodes in high accelerating gradient superconducting and normal conducting radio frequency photoguns and limits the minimum possible intrinsic emittance near the threshold. Also, the growth process for these materials is largely based on recipes obtained by trial and error and is very unreliable. In this paper, using X-ray diffraction, we investigate the different structural and chemical changes that take place during the growth process of the bi-alkali antimonide material K2CsSb. Our measurements give us a deeper understanding of the growth process of alkali-antimonide photocathodes allowing us to optimize it with the goal of minimizing the surface roughness to preserve the intrinsic emittance at high electric fields and increasing its reproducibility.

  5. Strength and durability performance of alkali-activated rice husk ash geopolymer mortar. (United States)

    Kim, Yun Yong; Lee, Byung-Jae; Saraswathy, Velu; Kwon, Seung-Jun


    This paper describes the experimental investigation carried out to develop the geopolymer concrete based on alkali-activated rice husk ash (RHA) by sodium hydroxide with sodium silicate. Effect on method of curing and concentration of NaOH on compressive strength as well as the optimum mix proportion of geopolymer mortar was investigated. It is possible to achieve compressive strengths of 31 N/mm(2) and 45 N/mm(2), respectively for the 10 M alkali-activated geopolymer mortar after 7 and 28 days of casting when cured for 24 hours at 60°C. Results indicated that the increase in curing period and concentration of alkali activator increased the compressive strength. Durability studies were carried out in acid and sulfate media such as H2SO4, HCl, Na2SO4, and MgSO4 environments and found that geopolymer concrete showed very less weight loss when compared to steam-cured mortar specimens. In addition, fluorescent optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have shown the formation of new peaks and enhanced the polymerization reaction which is responsible for strength development and hence RHA has great potential as a substitute for ordinary Portland cement concrete.

  6. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies. Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putluru, S.S.R.; Degn Jensen, A.


    The increased use of biomass as fuel has created some new challenges to establish SCR flue gas treatment technology. One of these challenges comes from biomass complex chemical composition, which includes potassium shown to have a negative impact on the SCR catalyst. Studies have shown that potassium deactivates SCR catalyst and reduces its ability to reduce NO to N{sub 2}. An attempt was made to protect the SCR catalyst from alkali poisoning by the imposition of a coating on the catalyst surface. Various compounds were coated on a commercial catalyst supplied by Haldor Topsoee A/S and tested for alkali poisoning resistance. These materials were broadly divided as metal oxides, zeolites and other materials. The coated catalysts were exposed to potassium chloride aerosols at 350 deg. C for 650-1200 h. SCR activity, SEM and EDX measurements were performed to analyze the coated catalysts resistance to potassium poisoning. Coated catalysts (Mg, Mg containing compounds and Zeolites) showed appreciable alkali resistivity compared to the uncoated reference catalyst. Coated catalysts showed high potassium concentration at the surface of the coating and low potassium concentration across the cross section when compared to the uncoated reference catalyst. Thus, it is assumed that the coating layer accumulates the potassium at the surface and prevents to penetrate through the catalyst. The overall assessment is that it is possible to protect an SCR catalyst from potassium poisoning by the imposition of coating layer. (Author)

  7. The Mixed-Alkali Effect on The Resistance of Glass to Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the composition of float glass, the resistance of glass to water, in which a small amount of K2O (0—1.0 wt%) was substituted for equivalent amount of Na2O, was investigated by means of glass grains testing. The components extracted from the glass and total alkalinities in extraction solution were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and neutralizing method, respectively. The composition of the glass was 14.4 K2O+Na2O, 4.0MgO, 8.2CaO, 1.4Al2O3, 72.0 SiO2, and the minimum extraction ratio of oxides (maximum durability) occurred at a K2O/Na2O ratio of 0.051(by weight) due to the presence of the mixed-alkali effect. The relative extraction ratio of alkali oxides (R2O) was greater than that of alkaline earth oxides (RO). By means of mixed-alkali effect and lowing relative contents of R2O in the glass, the resistance of float glass to water was improved and its mildew-proof ability was therefore increased.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo You


    Full Text Available Phosphorous slag is an industrial waste which potentially pollutes environments. The aim of the present work is to use phosphorous slag as a raw material to produce alkali-activated cement. The influence of mix proportion of phosphorous slag and fly ash, alkali content and modulus of water glass on the properties of alkali-activated phosphorous slag and fly ash cement (AA-PS-FA-C was studied. The results show that AA-PS-FA-C with normal setting performance and desirable mechanical properties can be prepared using water glass as the activator. Changing the fly ash content in the range of 0-40 wt% has only a small influence on the setting time of AA-PS-FA-C. The strengths significantly decrease when the fly ash content exceeds 30 wt%. The carbonation resistance of AA-PS-FA-C is similar to that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC, while the frost resistance is much better. The hardened paste of AA-PS-FA-C is much more compact than OPC paste.

  9. Phytosynthetic bacteria (PSB) as a water quality improvement mechanism in saline-alkali wetland ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The efficiency of phytosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to improve the water quality in saline-alkali ponds was studied,the result showed that (1) PSB application could increase the content of DO,NO3--N and effective phosphorus (EP) in ponds; (2) the changes of COD were not evident,just effective in later period after PSB application; (3) PSB application could decrease the contents of NH4--N (NH3-N),NO2- -N;(4) PSB application could improve the structure of the effective nitrogen (EN) and EP,stimulate the growth of phytoplankton,and increase primary productivity,and finally increase the commercial profits of ponds because of the increase of EP and the decrease of EN contents; (5)the effect-exerting speed of PSB was slower,but the effect-sustaining time was longer; (6) the appropriate concentration of PSB application in saline-alkali wetland ponds was 10 × 10-6 mg/L,one-time effective period was more than 15 days.So PSB was an efficient water quality improver in saline-alkali ponds.

  10. Correlation between standard enthalpy of formation, structural parameters and ionicity for alkali halides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Abu


    Full Text Available The standard enthalpy of formation (ΔHo has been considered to be an interesting and useful parameter for the correlation of various properties of alkali halides. The interrelation between ΔHo and structural parameters for the halides of Li, Na, K and Rb has been thoroughly analyzed. When cationic component element is kept constant in a homologous series of alkali halides, the negative value of ΔHo has been observed to decrease linearly with increase of interionic distance (d and accordingly following empirical equation ΔHo = α + βd (where α and β are empirical constants has been established. However, for common anionic series of alkali halides an opposite nonlinear trend has been observed with the exception of common fluorides. The correlation study on the standard enthalpy of formation has been extended in term of radius ratio and also discussed in the light of ionization energy of the metal, electron affinity of the halogen, size of the ions, ionic character of bond and lattice energy of the compound.

  11. Behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds from coal gasification; Kaasumaisten alkaliyhdisteiden kaeyttaeytyminen kivihiilen kaasutuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykaenen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds has been studied with a chemical equilibrium model. The goal is to evaluate the possibilities to remove the sodium and potassium compounds together with the fly ash particles by using a ceramic honeycomb filter. The studied processes include both CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}- and air-blown gasification and combustion. The results show that the difference between the processes with flue gas recirculation and air-blown processes is small. This is due to that the equilibrium concentration of the dominant gaseous alkali compound, chloride, is more or less the same in both processes. This research project is closely connected to the EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali concentration of the fuel gas from a 1.6 MW pilot plant will be measured. During the next phase of this research the results from DUT will be compared with the results of this presentation. (author)

  12. Alkali and heavy metal emissions of the PCFB-process; Alkalipaeaestoet PCFB-prosessissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, R.; Eriksson, T.; Lehtonen, P. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula (Finland)


    Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology has been developed in Karhula R and D Center since 1986. As a part of the development, 10 MW PCFB Test Facility was built in 1989. The Test Facility has been used for performance testing with different coal types through the years 1990-1995 in order to gain data for design and commercialization of the high-efficiency low-emission PCFB combustion technology. The project Y44 `Alkali and heavy metal emissions of the PCFB-process` was part of national LIEKKI 2 research program. The main object of the project was to measure vapor phase Na and K concentrations in the PCFB flue gas after hot gas filter and investigate the effects of process conditions and sorbents on alkali release. The measurements were performed using plasma assisted method by TUT Laboratory of Plasma Technology and wet absorption method of VTT Energy. The measured Na concentrations were below 30 ppb(w) in all measured data points. The results of K were below 10 ppb(w). The accuracies of the both methods are about + 50 % at this concentration range. The scatter of the data covers the effects of different process variables on the alkali emission. The measured emissions are at the same order of magnitude as the guideline emission limits estimated by gas turbine manufacturers. The measurements and development of the analyses methods are planned to be continued during PCFB test runs in spring 1996 for example within Joule II research program. (author)

  13. Recovery of alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud by the calcification-carbonation method (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Ting-an; Wang, Yan-xiu; Lü, Guo-zhi; Zhang, Wei-guang


    Red mud produced in the Bayer process is a hazardous solid waste because of its high alkalinity; however, it is rich in valuable components such as titanium, iron, and aluminum. In this study, a novel calcification-carbonation method was developed to recover alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud under mild reaction conditions. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the potential effects of important parameters such as temperature, amount of CaO added, and CO2 partial pressure on the recovery of alkali and alumina. The results showed that 95.2% alkali and 75.0% alumina were recovered from red mud with decreases in the mass ratios of Na2O to Fe2O3 and of Al2O3 to Fe2O3 from 0.42 and 0.89 to 0.02 and 0.22, respectively. The processed red mud with less than 0.5wt% Na2O can potentially be used as a construction material.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Hariyanto


    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menyelidiki waktu perlakuan alkali terhadap pengaruh peningkatan kekuatan bending komposit berpenguat serat rami bermatrix poliester. Mekanisme perpatahan diamati dengan photo makro.               Bahan utama penelitian adalah serat rami, resin unsaturated polyester 157 BQTN. Hardener yang digunakan adalah MEKPO dengan konsentrasi 1%. Komposit dibuat dengan metode cetak tekan (press mold. Komposit terdiri dari serat rami acak. Fraksi volume serat komposit adalah 40%. Perlakuan alkali (NaOH 5% dengan variasi lama perendaman 2, 4, 6, 8 jam. Spesimen dan prosedur pengujian bending mengacu pada standart ASTM D 790. Penampang patahan dilakukan foto makro untuk mengidentifikasi pola kegagalannya.                Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penambahan waktu perlakuan alkali (NaOH 5% menurunkan kekuatan bending secara signifikan pada komposit. Mekanisme patahan terjadi patah getas akibat kekuatan bending, diawali oleh tahapan pola kegagalan tarik  pada komposit sisi bawah dan kegagalan tekan  pada komposit sisi atas, kegagalan fiber pull out.

  15. Alkali ion migration between stacked glass plates by corona discharge treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Suzuki, Toshio [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sakai, Daisuke [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kiyoshi [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Harada, Kenji [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Nishii, Junji, E-mail: [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Two stacked glass plates with a 1 mm gap were treated by corona discharge. • Spatial migration of alkali ion over the gap was demonstrated. • Hydrogen gas was necessary for uniform migration. • Surface modification was done with this process without high temperature or vacuum. - Abstract: Corona discharge reflects the spatial migration of alkali ions over a gap between two glass plates. This study examined stacked glass plates containing different alkali ions treated with the corona discharge plasma generated by applied voltage of 4.5 kV at 200 °C. Protons generated at the anode electrode penetrate into the potassium-ion-containing upper glass plate, which is located 5 mm below the anode electrode. Potassium ions intruded into the lower glass plate containing sodium ions placed on the cathode electrode, even over a 1 mm gap separating the plates. Finally, the sodium ion discharged on the cathode electrode. The hydrogen atmosphere was effective at inhibiting the potassium ion reaction with ambient gases during the spatial migration between the two glass plates.

  16. Speciation of phytate ion in aqueous solution. Alkali metal complex formation in different ionic media. (United States)

    De Stefano, Concetta; Milea, Demetrio; Pettignano, Alberto; Sammartano, Silvio


    The acid-base properties of phytic acid [ myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis(dihydrogen phosphate)] (H(12)Phy; Phy(12-)=phytate anion) were studied in aqueous solution by potentiometric measurements ([H+]-glass electrode) in lithium and potassium chloride aqueous media at different ionic strengths (0iodide (Et(4)NI; e.g., at I=0.5 mol L(-1), log K(3)(H)=11.7, 8.0, 9.1, and 9.1 in Et(4)NI, LiCl, NaCl and KCl, respectively; the protonation constants in Et(4)NI and NaCl were already reported), owing to the strong interactions occurring between the phytate and alkaline cations present in the background salt. We explained this in terms of complex formation between phytate and alkali metal ions. Experimental evidence allows us to consider the formation of 13 mixed proton-metal-ligand complexes, M(j)H(i)Phy((12-i-j)-), (M+ =Li+, Na+, K+), with jstability of alkali metal complexes follows the trend Li+ > or =Na+K+. Some measurements were also performed at constant ionic strength (I=0.5 mol L(-1)), using different mixtures of Et(4)NI and alkali metal chlorides, in order to confirm the formation of hypothesized and calculated metal-proton-ligand complex species and to obtain conditional protonation constants in these multi-component ionic media.

  17. Subtask 6.6 - SiAION Coatings for Alkali-Resistant Silicon Nitride. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The efficiency of a gas turbine can be improved by increasing operating temperature. Construction materials should both meet high strength requirements and exhibit hot alkali corrosion resistance. Structural ceramics based on silicon nitride are promising candidates for high temperature engineering applications because of their high strength and good resistance to corrosion. Their performance varies significantly with the mechanical properties of boundary phases which, in turn, depend on their chemical composition, thickness of the amorphous phase, and the deformation process. To make silicon nitride ceramics tough, SiAlON ceramics were developed with controlled crystallization of the amorphous grain boundary phase. Crystallization of the grain boundary glass improves the high temperature mechanical properties of silicon nitride ceramics. Thus, the knowledge of silicon oxynitride ceramics corrosion behavior in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} becomes important for engineers in designing appropriate part for turbines working at high temperatures. So far there has been no report concerning alkali attack on SiAlON ceramics in the presence of SO{sub 2} and chlorine in flue gas. The goal of this project was to investigate alkali corrosion of SiAlON-Y structural ceramics under combustion conditions in the presence of sodium derived components.

  18. DFT and MP2 study of the interaction between corannulene and alkali cations. (United States)

    Rellán-Piñeiro, Marcos; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M; Josa, Daniela


    Corannulene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon composed of fused rings, with one central five-membered ring and five peripheral six-membered rings. Its structure can be considered as a portion of C60. Corannulene is a curved π surface, but unlike C60, it has two accessible different faces: one concave (inside) and one convex (outside). In this work, computational modeling of the binding between alkali metal cations (Li(+), Na(+), and K(+)) and corannulene has been performed at the DFT and MP2 levels. Different corannulene···M(+) complexes have been studied and the transition states interconnecting local minima were located. The alkali cations can be bound to a five or six membered ring in both faces. At the DFT level, binding to the convex face (outside) is favored relative to the concave face for the three alkali cations studied, as it was previously published. This out preference was found to decrease as cation size increases. At the MP2 level, although a similar trend is found, some different conclusions related to the in/out preference were obtained. According to our results, migration of cations can take place on the convex or on the concave face. Also, there are two ways to transform a concave complex in a convex complex: migration across the edge of corannulene and bowl-to-bowl inversion.

  19. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Optical Absorption Studies on Copper Ions in Mixed Alkali Cadmium Phosphate Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Giridhar; M.Rangacharyulu; R.V.S.S.N.Ravikumar; P.Sambasiva Rao


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption studies were carried out at room temperature on copper doped mixed alkali cadmium phosphate (LiNaCdP) glasses to understand the nature and symmetry of dopant. Three samples with varying concentrations of alkali ions have been prepared. The spin Hamiltonian parameters obtained from room temperature EPR spectra are: g||=2.437, g⊥=2.096, A||=117×10-4 cm-1, A⊥=26×10-4 cm-1 for LiNaCdP1, g||=2.441, g⊥=2.088, A||=121×10-4 cm-1, A⊥=25×10-4 cm-1 for LiNaCdP2 and g||=2.433, g⊥=2.096, A||=125×10-4 cm-1, A⊥=32×10-4 cm-1 for LiNaCdP3. These EPR results indicate that the dopant Cu2+ ion enters the glass matrix into a tetragonally elongated octahedral site. The bonding parameters evaluated by correlating optical and EPR data suggest that bonding between the central metal ion and ligands is partially covalent. The mixed alkali effect in cadmium phosphate glasses was reported.

  20. Resistance of Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete to Chloride-Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Woo Park


    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of steel in alkali-activated slag (AAS mortar was evaluated by a monitoring of the galvanic current and half-cell potential with time against a chloride-contaminated environment. For chloride transport, rapid chloride penetration test was performed, and chloride binding capacity of AAS was evaluated at a given chloride. The mortar/paste specimens were manufactured with ground granulated blast-furnace slag, instead of Portland cement, and alkali activators were added in mixing water, including Ca(OH2, KOH and NaOH, to activate hydration process. As a result, it was found that the corrosion behavior was strongly dependent on the type of alkali activator: the AAS containing the Ca(OH2 activator was the most passive in monitoring of the galvanic corrosion and half-cell potential, while KOH, and NaOH activators indicated a similar level of corrosion to Portland cement mortar (control. Despite a lower binding of chloride ions in the paste, the AAS had quite a higher resistance to chloride transport in rapid chloride penetration, presumably due to the lower level of capillary pores, which was ensured by the pore distribution of AAS mortar in mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  1. Effect of lithium-potassium mixed alkali on spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped aluminophosphate glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yong-Zheng; Liao Mei-Song; Hu Li-Li


    Er3+-doped lithium-potassium mixed alkali aluminophosphate glasses belonging to the oxide system xK2O-(15-x)Li2O-4B2O3-11Al2O3-5BaO-65P2O5 are obtained in a semi-continuous melting quenching process. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped glass matrix have been analysed by fitting the experimental data with the standard Judd- Ofelt theory. It is observed that Judd- Ofelt intensity parameters Ωt(t = 2, 4 and 6) of Er3+ change when the second alkali is introduced into glass matrix. The variation of line strength Sed[4I13/2,4I15/2] follows the same trend as that of the Ω6 parameter. The effect of mixed alkali on the spectroscopic properties of the aluminophosphate glasses, such as absorption cross-section, stimulated emission cross-section, spontaneous emission probability, branching ratio and the radiative lifetime, has also been investigated in this paper.

  2. Assessment of Alkali-Silica Reaction Damage in Mortars with Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques (United States)

    Chen, J.; Jayapalan, A. R.; Kurtis, K. E.; Kim, J.-Y.; Jacobs, L. J.


    In this work, a nonlinear ultrasonic modulation technique is employed to assess the damage state of portland cement mortar samples induced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Due to the nonlinear interaction of propagating waves caused by distributed microcracks that are agitated from its equilibrium state, the ultrasonic responses of samples produce sideband frequencies around the frequency of propagating waves. The amplitude of the sidebands depends on the amplitude of the input signals and is particularly sensitive to the state of damage evolved in the sample. Therefore, the development of internal microcracks with increasing duration of exposure to aggressive conditions can be quantitatively related to the variation of external ultrasonic measurements. The ultrasonic results are compared with results from standard ASR expansion measurements (ASTM C 1260), and a proportionally increasing relation was found in the early stages. In addition, aggregates with different alkali-reactivity (i.e., low reactivity or high reactivity) were examined in a similar manner. The results indicate that the nonlinear parameter obtained from ultrasonic tests directly reflects the difference of aggregate reactivity. This clearly indicates that the developed nonlinear ultrasonic method is potentially a good alternative for a more rapid and still reliable assessment of aggregate alkali-reactivity.

  3. Effect of Alkali Ions on the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transition of Silica (United States)

    Venezia, A. M.; La Parola, V.; Longo, A.; Martorana, A.


    The effect of the addition of alkali ions to commercial amorphous silica, generally used as support for heterogeneous catalysts, has been investigated from the point of view of morphological and structural changes. Samples of alkali-doped silica were prepared by impregnation and subsequent calcination at various temperatures. The structural effect of Li, Na, K, and Cs was determined by use of techniques such as wide-angle (WAXS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The WAXS diffractograms, analyzed with the Rietveld method using the GSAS program, allowed qualitative and quantitative identification of the fraction of the different silica polymorphs like quartz, tridymite, and cristobalite. SAXS measurements, using the classical method based on Porod's law, yielded the total surface area of the systems. The calculated areas were compared with the surface areas determined by the nitrogen adsorption technique using the analytical method of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The results are explained in terms of sizes of the alkali ions and cell volume of the different crystalline phases.

  4. Geochemical Trace of Silicon Isotopes of Intrusions and Ore Veins Related to Alkali-rich Porphyry Deposits in Western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; WU Dechao; ZHANG Chenjiang; LI Youguo


    Western Yunnan is the well-known polymetallic province in China. It is characterized by copper-gold mineralization related to Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry. This paper analyzes the silicon isotope data obtained from four typical alkali-rich porphyry deposits based on the dynamic fractionation principle of silicon isotope. The study shows that the ore materials should originate mainly from alkali-rich magmas, together with silicon-rich mineralizing fluids.The process of mineralization was completed by auto-metasomatism, i.e. silicon-rich mineralizing fluids (including alkali-rich porphyry and wall-rock strata) replaced and altered the country rocks and contaminated with crustal rocks during the crystallization of alkali-rich magmas. Such a process is essentially the continuance of the metasomatism of mantle fluids in crust's mineralization. This provides important evidence of silicon isotopic geochemistry for better understanding the mineralization of the Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry polymetallic deposits

  5. Two-photon photoemission study of the coverage-dependent electronic structure of chemisorbed alkali atoms on a Ag(111) surface. (United States)

    Wang, Lei-Ming; Sametoglu, Vahit; Winkelmann, Aimo; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje


    We report a systematic investigation of the electronic structure of chemisorbed alkali atoms (Li-Cs) on a Ag(111) surface by two-photon photoemission spectroscopy. Angle-resolved two-photon photoemission spectra are obtained for 0-0.1 monolayer coverage of alkali atoms. The interfacial electronic structure as a function of periodic properties and the coverage of alkali atoms is observed and interpreted assuming ionic adsorbate/substrate interaction. The energy of the alkali atom σ-resonance at the limit of zero coverage is primarily determined by the image charge interaction, whereas at finite alkali atom coverages, it follows the formation of a dipolar surface field. The coverage- and angle-dependent two-photon photoemission spectra provide information on the photoinduced charge-transfer excitation of adsorbates on metal surfaces. This work complements the previous work on alkali/Cu(111) chemisorption [Phys. Rev. B 2008, 78, 085419].

  6. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Deyholos, Michael K. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Chen, Qin [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from Glycine soja. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of GsJAZ2 enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcriptions of stress marker genes were higher in GsJAZ2 overexpression lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GsJAZ2 was localized to nucleus. -- Abstract: Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  7. K-Ca Dating of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Y-74442 and Bhola LL-Chondritic Breccias (United States)

    Yokoyama, T; Misawa, K.; Okano, O; Shih, C. -Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simon, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.


    Alkali-rich igneous fragments in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Krahenberg (LL5) [1], Bhola (LL3-6) [2], Siena (LL5) [3] and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4) [4-6], show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkali and alkaline elements [7]. The alkali-rich fragments in Krahenberg, Bhola and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography, suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials [6]. Recently we reported Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of alkali-rich igneous rock fragments in Y-74442: nine fragments from Y-74442 yield the Rb-Sr age of 4429 plus or minus 54 Ma (2 sigma) for lambda(Rb-87) = 0.01402 Ga(exp -1) [8] with the initial ratio of Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.7144 plus or minus 0.0094 (2 sigma) [9]. The Rb-Sr age of the alkali-rich fragments of Y-74442 is younger than the primary Rb-Sr age of 4541 plus or minus 14 Ma for LL-chondrite whole-rock samples [10], implying that they formed after accumulation of LL-chondrite parental bodies, although enrichment may have happened earlier. Marshall and DePaolo [11,12] demonstrated that the K-40 - Ca-40 decay system could be an important chronometer as well as a useful radiogenic tracer for studies of terrestrial rocks. Shih et al. [13,14] and more recently Simon et al. [15] determined K-Ca ages of lunar granitic rocks, and showed the application of the K-Ca chronometer for K-rich planetary materials. Since alkali-rich fragments in the LL-chondritic breccias are highly enriched in K, we can expect enhancements of radiogenic Ca-40. Here, we report preliminary results of K-Ca isotopic systematics of alkali-rich fragments in the LL-chondritic breccias, Y-74442 and Bhola.

  8. Chlorate reduction in the brine circuit of a chlor-alkali electrolysis. Chlorat-Reduktion im Solekreislauf einer Chlor-Alkali-Elektrolyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodermund, R.


    The influence of reactant concentrations and temperature on the rate and selectivity of the chlorate/hydrochloric acid reaction was determined experimentally. A model equation system was derived on the basis of a reaction mechanism describing the reaction between chlorate and hydrochloric acid at high H/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ concentrations in the temperature range between 40 and 90/sup 0/C. The reaction of chlorate and hydrochloric acid was found to be sufficient to maintain a low chlorate level in the brine circuit of a chlor-alkali electrolysis. ClO/sub 2/ formation is negligible if suitable reaction conditions are chosen. Further, a model equation based on Henry's law was established for the solubility of ClO/sub 2/ in mixed solutions of HCl and NaCl in the temperature range of 40 to 90/sup 0/C.

  9. Alkali feldspar syenites with shoshonitic affinities from Chhotaudepur area:Implication for mantle metasomatism in the Deccan large igneous province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.R. Hari; N.V. Chalapathi Rao; Vikas Swarnkar; Guiting Hou


    Two petrologically distinct alkali feldspar syenite bodies (AFS-1 and AFS-2) from Chhotaudepur area, Deccan Large Igneous Province are reported in the present work. AFS-1 is characterized by hypidio-morphic texture and consists of feldspar (Or55Ab43 to Or25Ab71), ferro-pargasite/ferro-pargasite horn-blende, hastingsite, pyroxene (Wo47, En5, Fs46), magnetite and biotite. AFS-2 exhibits panidiomorphic texture with euhedral pyroxene (Wo47-50, En22-39, Fs12e31) set in a groundmass matrix of alkali feldspar (Or99Ab0.77 to Or1.33Ab98), titanite and magnetite. In comparison to AFS-1, higher elemental concentra-tions of Ba, Sr and PREE are observed in AFS-2. The average peralkaline index of the alkali feldspar syenites is w1 indicating their alkaline nature. Variation discrimination diagrams involving major and trace elements and their ratios demonstrate that these alkali feldspar syenites have a shoshonite affinity but emplaced in a within-plate and rifting environment. No evidence of crustal contamination is perceptible in the multi-element primitive mantle normalized diagram as well as in terms of trace elemental ratios. The enrichment of incompatible elements in the alkali feldspar syenites suggests the involvement of mantle metasomatism in their genesis.

  10. Alkali production associated with malolactic fermentation by oral streptococci and protection against acid, oxidative, or starvation damage. (United States)

    Sheng, Jiangyun; Baldeck, Jeremiah D; Nguyen, Phuong T M; Quivey, Robert G; Marquis, Robert E


    Alkali production by oral streptococci is considered important for dental plaque ecology and caries moderation. Recently, malolactic fermentation (MLF) was identified as a major system for alkali production by oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans. Our major objectives in the work described in this paper were to further define the physiology and genetics of MLF of oral streptococci and its roles in protection against metabolic stress damage. L-Malic acid was rapidly fermented to L-lactic acid and CO(2) by induced cells of wild-type S. mutans, but not by deletion mutants for mleS (malolactic enzyme) or mleP (malate permease). Mutants for mleR (the contiguous regulator gene) had intermediate capacities for MLF. Loss of capacity to catalyze MLF resulted in loss of capacity for protection against lethal acidification. MLF was also found to be protective against oxidative and starvation damage. The capacity of S. mutans to produce alkali from malate was greater than its capacity to produce acid from glycolysis at low pH values of 4 or 5. MLF acted additively with the arginine deiminase system for alkali production by Streptococcus sanguinis, but not with urease of Streptococcus salivarius. Malolactic fermentation is clearly a major process for alkali generation by oral streptococci and for protection against environmental stresses.

  11. Study on water-dispersible colloids in saline-alkali soils by atomic force microscopy and spectrometric methods. (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Xu, Fengjie; Zu, Yuangang; Meng, Ronghua; Wang, Wenjie


    Recent studies have revealed that water-dispersible colloids play an important role in the transport of nutrients and contaminants in soils. In this study, water-dispersible colloids extracted from saline-alkali soils have been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV absorption spectra. AFM observation indicated that the water-dispersible colloids contain some large plates and many small spherical particles. XRD, XPS, and UV absorption measurement revealed that the water-dispersible colloids are composed of kaolinite, illite, calcite, quartz and humic acid. In addition, UV absorption measurement demonstrated that the humic acids are associated with clay minerals. Water-dispersible colloids in the saline-alkali soils after hydrolyzed polymaleic anhydride treatment and an agricultural soil (nonsaline-alkali soil) were also investigated for comparison. The obtained results implied that the saline-alkali condition facilitates the formation of a large quantity of colloids. The use of AFM combined with spectrometric methods in the present study provides new knowledge on the colloid characteristics of saline-alkali soils. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:525-531, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pirfenidone nanoparticles improve corneal wound healing and prevent scarring following alkali burn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushovan Chowdhury

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of pirfenidone nanoparticles on corneal re-epithelialization and scarring, major clinical challenges after alkali burn. METHODS: Effect of pirfenidone on collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA synthesis by TGFβ induced primary corneal fibroblast cells was evaluated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Pirfenidone loaded poly (lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticles were prepared, characterized and their cellular entry was examined in primary corneal fibroblast cells by fluorescence microscopy. Alkali burn was induced in one eye of Sprague Dawley rats followed by daily topical treatment with free pirfenidone, pirfenidone nanoparticles or vehicle. Corneal re-epithelialization was assessed daily by flourescein dye test; absence of stained area indicated complete re-epithelialization and the time for complete re-epithelialization was determined. Corneal haze was assessed daily for 7 days under slit lamp microscope and graded using a standard method. After 7 days, collagen I deposition in the superficial layer of cornea was examined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Pirfenidone prevented (P<0.05 increase in TGF β induced collagen I and α-SMA synthesis by corneal fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner. Pirfenidone could be loaded successfully within PLGA nanoparticles, which entered the corneal fibroblasts within 5 minutes. Pirfenidone nanoparticles but not free pirfenidone significantly (P<0.05 reduced collagen I level, corneal haze and the time for corneal re-epithelialization following alkali burn. CONCLUSION: Pirfenidone decreases collagen synthesis and prevents myofibroblast formation. Pirfenidone nanoparticles improve corneal wound healing and prevent fibrosis. Pirfenidone nanoparticles are of potential value in treating corneal chemical burns and other corneal fibrotic diseases.

  13. Alkali metal-cationized serine clusters studied by sonic spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Nanita, Sergio C; Sokol, Ewa; Cooks, R Graham


    Serine solutions containing salts of alkali metals yield magic number clusters of the type (Ser(4)+C)(+), (Ser(8)+C)(+), (Ser(12)+C)(+), and (Ser(17)+2C)(+2) (where C = Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+)), in relative abundances which are strongly dependent on the cation size. Strong selectivity for homochirality is involved in the formation of serine tetramers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). This is also the case for the octamers cationized by the smaller alkalis but there is a strong preference for heterochirality in the octamers cationized by the larger alkali cations. Tandem mass spectrometry shows that the octamers and dodecamers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) dissociate mainly by the loss of Ser(4) units, suggesting that the neutral tetramers are the stable building blocks of the observed larger aggregates, (Ser(8)+C)(+) and (Ser(12)+C)(+). Remarkably, although the Ser(4) units are formed with a strong preference for homochirality, they aggregate further regardless of their handedness and, therefore, with a preference for the nominally racemic 4D:4L structure and an overall strong heterochiral preference. The octamers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+) therefore represent a new type of cluster ion that is homochiral in its internal subunits, which then assemble in a random fashion to form octamers. We tentatively interpret the homochirality of these tetramers as a consequence of assembly of the serine molecules around a central metal ion. The data provide additional evidence that the neutral serine octamer is homochiral and is readily cationized by smaller ions.

  14. Ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse: improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B


    In this work, the potential of microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment in order to improve the rupture of the recalcitrant structures of the cashew able bagasse (CAB), lignocellulosic by-product in Brazil with no commercial value, is obtained from cashew apple process to juice production, was studied. First, biomass composition of CAB was determined, and the percentage of glucan and lignin was 20.54 ± 0.70% and 33.80 ± 1.30%, respectively. CAB content in terms of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, 19.21 ± 0.35%, 12.05 ± 0.37%, and 38.11 ± 0.08%, respectively, was also determined. Results showed that, after enzymatic hydrolysis, alkali concentration exerted influence on glucose formation, after pretreatment with 0.2 and 1.0 mo L(-1) of NaOH (372 ± 12 and 355 ± 37 mg g(glucan)(-1) ) when 2% (w/v) of cashew apple bagasse pretreated by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment (CAB-M) was used. On the other hand, pretreatment time (15-30 min) and microwave power (600-900 W) exerted no significant effect on hydrolysis. On enzymatic hydrolysis step, improvement on solid percentage (16% w/v) and enzyme load (30 FPU g (CAB-M) (-1) ) increased glucose concentration to 15 g L(-1). The fermentation of the hydrolyzate by Saccharomyces cerevesiae resulted in ethanol concentration and productivity of 5.6 g L(-1) and 1.41 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively.

  15. Accurate potential energy, dipole moment curves, and lifetimes of vibrational states of heteronuclear alkali dimers. (United States)

    Fedorov, Dmitry A; Derevianko, Andrei; Varganov, Sergey A


    We calculate the potential energy curves, the permanent dipole moment curves, and the lifetimes of the ground and excited vibrational states of the heteronuclear alkali dimers XY (X, Y = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) in the X(1)Σ(+) electronic state using the coupled cluster with singles doubles and triples method. All-electron quadruple-ζ basis sets with additional core functions are used for Li and Na, and small-core relativistic effective core potentials with quadruple-ζ quality basis sets are used for K, Rb, and Cs. The inclusion of the coupled cluster non-perturbative triple excitations is shown to be crucial for obtaining the accurate potential energy curves. A large one-electron basis set with additional core functions is needed for the accurate prediction of permanent dipole moments. The dissociation energies are overestimated by only 14 cm(-1) for LiNa and by no more than 114 cm(-1) for the other molecules. The discrepancies between the experimental and calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies are less than 1.7 cm(-1), and the discrepancies for the anharmonic correction are less than 0.1 cm(-1). We show that correlation between atomic electronegativity differences and permanent dipole moment of heteronuclear alkali dimers is not perfect. To obtain the vibrational energies and wave functions the vibrational Schrödinger equation is solved with the B-spline basis set method. The transition dipole moments between all vibrational states, the Einstein coefficients, and the lifetimes of the vibrational states are calculated. We analyze the decay rates of the vibrational states in terms of spontaneous emission, and stimulated emission and absorption induced by black body radiation. In all studied heteronuclear alkali dimers the ground vibrational states have much longer lifetimes than any excited states.

  16. Thermochemical ablation therapy of VX2 tumor using a permeable oil-packed liquid alkali metal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyi Guo

    Full Text Available Alkali metal appears to be a promising tool in thermochemical ablation, but, it requires additional data on safety is required. The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of permeable oil-packed liquid alkali metal in the thermochemical ablation of tumors.Permeable oil-packed sodium-potassium (NaK was prepared using ultrasonic mixing of different ratios of metal to oil. The thermal effect of the mixture during ablation of muscle tissue ex vivo was evaluated using the Fluke Ti400 Thermal Imager. The thermochemical effect of the NaK-oil mixture on VX2 tumors was evaluated by performing perfusion CT scans both before and after treatment in 10 VX2 rabbit model tumors. VX2 tumors were harvested from two rabbits immediately after treatment to assess their viability using trypan blue and hematoxylin and eosin (H.E. staining.The injection of the NaK-oil mixture resulted in significantly higher heat in the ablation areas. The permeable oil controlled the rate of heat released during the NaK reaction with water in the living tissue. Perfusion computed tomography and its parameter map confirmed that the NaK-oil mixture had curative effects on VX2 tumors. Both trypan blue and H.E. staining showed partial necrosis of the VX2 tumors.The NaK-oil mixture may be used successfully to ablate tumor tissue in vivo. With reference to the controlled thermal and chemical lethal injury to tumors, using a liquid alkali in ablation is potentially an effective and safe method to treat malignant tumors.

  17. Alkali Cation Chelation in Cold β-O-4 Tetralignol Complexes (United States)

    DeBlase, Andrew F.; Dziekonski, Eric T.; Hopkins, John R.; Burke, Nicole L.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.; McLuckey, Scott A.; Zwier, Timothy S.


    Lignins are the second most abundant naturally occurring polymer class, contributing to about 30% of the organic carbon in the biosphere. Their primary function is to provide the structural integrity of plant cell walls and have recently come under consideration as a potential source of biofuels because they have an energy content similar to coal. Herein, we employ cold ion spectroscopy (UV action and IR-UV double resonance) to unravel the spectroscopic signatures of G-type alkali metal cationized (X = Li+, Na+, K+) lignin tetramers connected by β-O-4 linkages. The conformation-specific spectroscopy reveals a variety of conformers, each containing distinct infrared spectra in the OH stretching region building on recent studies on the neutral and alkali metal cationized β-O-4 dimers. Based on comparisons of our infrared spectra to density functional theory [M05-2X/6-31+G*] harmonic level calculations for structures derived from a Monte Carlo conformational search, the alkali metal ion is discovered to engage in M+-OH-O interactions as important motifs that determine the secondary structures of these complexes. This interaction disappears in the major conformer of the K+ adduct, suggesting a reemergence of a neutral dimer segment as the metal binding energy decreases. Chelation of the metal cation by oxygen lone pair(s) of nearby oxygens in the β-O-4 linkage is observed to be the predominant driving force for 3D structure around the charge site, relegating OH-O H-bonds as secondary stabilizing elements.

  18. Functional characterization of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter from alkali grass (Puccinellia tenuiflora). (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Yang, Ru; Wang, Baichen; Liu, Guifeng; Yang, Chuanping; Cheng, Yuxiang


    We have cloned a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene (GenBank accession no EF440291, PtNHA1) from Puccinellia tenuiflora (so-called alkali grass in Chinese) roots under NaCl salt stress. Its cDNA is 3775 bp and contains a 3414 bp open reading frame. The amino acid sequences of PtNHA1 show high identities with a putative plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter from wheat. PtNHA1 was predicted to contain 11 hypothetical transmembrane domains in the N-terminal part and to localize in the plasma membrane. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis shows that PtNHA1 is a single-copy gene in the alkali grass genome. PtNHA1 is highly expressed in leaves, roots and shoots by RNA gel blot analysis. Furthermore, PtNHA1 gene expression of alkali grass was clearly up-regulated by NaCl salt stress. Overexpression of PtNHA1 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance of transgenic plants to NaCl stress. The ion contents analysis shows that, compared with the wild-type (WT), less Na(+) and more K(+) were accumulated in transgenic plants under NaCl stress. The results indicate that PtNHA1 play an important role in NaCl salt stress. Additionally, compared with the WT, total activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT), two key reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying enzymes were high in transgenic plants under salt stress, respectively. The transcript levels of two APX genes (Apx1, s/mApx) and two CAT genes (Cat1, Cat2) in transgenic plants were higher than those in WT. This suggests that overexpression of PtNHA1 results in enhanced ROS-scavenging enzymes of transgenic plants under NaCl salt stress.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yufang; CHEN Bingren


    The absorption of free alkali at low concentration by subacid resin was traced with electric conductance method, the effect of temperature on the adsorption, the activation energy, of adsorption (Ea) and interaction energy (U) was studied. The result showed that, the process of low concentrationalkali adsorption by subacid resin was in accordance with mechanism of monomolecular layer absorption, in addition) with the increasing of temperature, the interaction energy between adsorbate and sorbent increase, so did the surface adsorption rate (k), and linear correlation existed between interaction energy (U) and temperature (T).

  20. Extraction of Alkali Ions Investigated by Conductometric and pH Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kalvoda


    Full Text Available Extraction of alkali ions from aqueous solutions of chlorides and hydroxides into a lipophilic liquid membrane composed of tetraethyl p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene tetraacetate (TBT solution in hexane was investigated by means of measurements of changes in the electrolytic conductivity and pH-value of the aqueous solution. Hydrolysis of the TBT ionophore resulting in the release of the ethyl groups was proposed as the main reaction process, leading to disturbance of the known preference of TBT for sodium ions. 

  1. Unraveling the absorption spectra of alkali metal atoms attached to helium nanodroplets. (United States)

    Bünermann, Oliver; Droppelmann, Georg; Hernando, Alberto; Mayol, Ricardo; Stienkemeier, Frank


    The absorption spectra of the first electronic exited state of alkali metal atoms on helium nanodroplets formed of both 4He and 3He isotopes were studied experimentally as well as theoretically. In the experimental part new data on the 2palkali metal atoms with helium nanodroplets, a model calculation was performed. New helium density profiles as well as a refined model allowed us to achieve good agreement with the experimental findings. For the first time the red-shifted intensities in the lithium and sodium spectra are explained in terms of enhanced binding configurations in the excited state displaced spatially from the ground state configurations.

  2. Electric dipole polarizabilities of Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms (United States)

    Yerokhin, V. A.; Buhmann, S. Y.; Fritzsche, S.; Surzhykov, A.


    Calculations of the static electric-dipole scalar and tensor polarizabilities are presented for two alkali-metal atoms, Rb and Cs, for the n S , n P½,3 /2 , and n D3 /2 ,5 /2 states with large principal quantum numbers up to n =50 . The calculations are performed within an effective one-electron approximation, based on the Dirac-Fock Hamiltonian with a semiempirical core-polarization potential. The obtained results are compared with those from a simpler semiempirical approach and with available experimental data.

  3. Antiproton and proton collisions with the alkali-metal atoms Li, Na, and K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Saenz, Alejandro


    Single-electron ionization and excitation cross sections as well as cross sections for excitation into the first excited p state of the alkali-metal atoms Li(2s), Na(3s), and K(4s) colliding with antiprotons and protons were calculated using a time-dependent channel-coupling approach....... For antiprotons an impact-energy range from 0.25 to 1000 keV and for protons from 2 to 1000 keV was considered. The target atoms are treated as effective one-electron systems using a model potential. The results are compared with theoretical and experimental data from literature and calculated cross sections...

  4. Reactions of chromium-aluminum-zirconium refractory with a molten alkali-free borosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, O.N.; Frolova, V.P.


    The authors consider the scope for using KhTs-45 refractory containing in mass % 45.0 Cr2O3, 5.0 Al2O3, 32.5 ZrO2, 16.0 SiO2, and 1.5 Na2O for melting alkali-free borosilicate glass E, and they also present some experimental results on the corrosion of the refractory in contact with the molten glass and on the contact mineral formation. They conclude that during the attack on the refractory diffusion zoning is formed, which reflects the relative component migration activities.

  5. Van der Waals coefficients for alkali metal clusters and their size dependence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arup Banerjee; Manoj K Harbola


    In this paper we employ the hydrodynamic formulation of time-dependent density functional theory to obtain the van der Waals coefficients 6 and 8 of alkali metal clusters of various sizes including very large clusters. Such calculations become computationally very demanding in the orbital-based Kohn-Sham formalism, but are quite simple in the hydrodynamic approach. We show that for interactions between the clusters of the same sizes, 6 and 8 scale as the sixth and the eighth power of the cluster radius, respectively, and approach their classically predicted values for the large size clusters.



    Puertas, F.; Santos, R.; Alonso M. M.; Del Rio M.


    The use of clay-based waste as an aggregate for concrete production is an amply studied procedure. Nonetheless, research on the use of this recycled aggregate to prepare alkaline cement mortars and concretes has yet to be forthcoming. The present study aimed to determine: the behaviour of this waste as a pozzolan in OPC systems, the mechanical strength in OPC, alkali-activated slag (AAS) and fly ash (AAFA) mortars and the effect of partial replacement of the slag and ash themselves with groun...

  7. Diffusion with chemical reaction: An attempt to explain number density anomalies in experiments involving alkali vapor (United States)

    Snow, W. L.


    The mutual diffusion of two reacting gases is examined which takes place in a bath of inert gas atoms. Solutions are obtained between concentric spheres, each sphere acting as a source for one of the reactants. The calculational model is used to illustrate severe number density gradients observed in absorption experiments with alkali vapor. Severe gradients result when sq root k/D R is approximately 5 where k, D, and R are respectively the second order rate constant, the multicomponent diffusion constant, and the geometrical dimension of the experiment.

  8. Evaluation of the potential of alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) foams in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. A.; Romer-Zeron, L.; Kantzas, A. [University of Calgary, Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Results of a study of a new enhanced oil recovery technology, known as alkali-surfactant-polymer foams (ASPF), are discussed. The study was carried out through a series of laboratory core floods using sand packs and dead crude oil. The foaming solution was formulated using synthetic brine; a polycrylamide (AC 935) combined with the foaming surfactant (CD 1045) was chosen to provide the greatest gas mobility control capability and foam stability. Results demonstrated very high oil recovery efficiency resulting from ASPF flooding. Various combination of water flooding, foam flooding and gas flooding were investigated in an effort to determine the optimum injection scenarios for maximum oil recovery.

  9. First principles study of structural, electronic and mechanical properties of alkali nitride-KN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugan, A.; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R., E-mail:; Santhosh, M. [Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.V.N college, Madurai, Tamilnadu-625019 (India); Iyakutti, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Chennai, Tamilnadu-603203 (India)


    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of alkali- metal nitride (KN) is investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory as implemented in Vienna ab-initio simulation package. At ambient pressure KN is stable in the ferromagnetic state with NaCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that the KN is half metallic ferromagnet at normal pressure. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from NaCl to ZB phase is observed in KN. Half metallicity and ferromagnetism is maintained at all pressures.

  10. Half metallic ferromagnetism in alkali metal nitrides MN (M = Rb, Cs): A first principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugan, A., E-mail:; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R., E-mail:; Santhosh, M., E-mail:; Sudhapriyanga, G., E-mail: [Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.V.N College, Madurai, Tamilnadu-625019 (India); Kanagaprabha, S. [Department of Physics, Kamaraj College, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu-628003 (India)


    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of two alkali metal nitrides (MN: M= Rb, Cs) are investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package. At ambient pressure the two nitrides are stable in ferromagnetic state with CsCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that these materials are half metallic in nature. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from CsCl to ZB phase is observed in RbN and CsN.

  11. Alkali-activated binders/geopolymer and an application to environmental engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Chaimoon


    Full Text Available For environmental reason, new binders that can be used as Portland cement replacement materials are being needed. Recently, alkali-activated binders (AAB and geopolymer have found increasing interest. As several research reports have showed that the two new binders are likely to have high potential to be developed and become an alternative to OPC. However, confusion in the classification of both binders is still there. This paper reviews knowledge about AAB and geopolymer including historical background, reaction mechanisms and reaction products. The similarities and differences of both binders are discussed. The application to environmental engineering on hazardous waste management using stabilization/solidification is also described.

  12. Shortcuts for understanding rovibronic spectroscopy of ultracold alkali metal diatomic molecules (United States)

    Stwalley, William C.; Bellos, Michael; Carollo, Ryan; Banerjee, Jayita; Bermudez, Matthew


    The high-resolution rovibronic spectroscopies of cold and ultracold molecules (e.g. supersonic molecular beam excitation spectra (MB), photoassociation spectra of ultracold atoms (PA), resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectra (REMPI), stimulated Raman transfer (SRT) spectra) are of major current interest. This manuscript summarizes the significant level of understanding of these various spectroscopies, enabled by using simple graphical and semiclassical ideas and shortcuts. Physical realizations of these spectroscopies will be illustrated using the alkali metal diatomic molecules, both homonuclear (e.g. Rb2) and heteronuclear (e.g. KRb).

  13. Alkali silica reaction in concrete induced by mortar adhered to recycled aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etxeberria, M.


    Full Text Available The durability of recycled concrete must be determined before this material can be used in construction. In this paper the alkali-silica reaction in recycled concrete is analyzed. The recycled concrete is made with recycled aggregates, composed by original limestone aggregates and adhered mortar with reactive silica sand, and high alkali content cement. Due to the manufacturing process used for concrete production and the high water absorption capacity of recycled aggregates, cement accumulation happens in the interface (ITZ. The concentration of alkalis on the surface of recycled aggregates- ITZ and the presence of reactive sand in the mortar adhering to the recycled aggregate induce an alkali-silica reaction in 6-month concrete. The existence of this reaction is confirmed by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and EDX analysis. The mechanical properties of 6-month recycled concrete were similar to those values at 28-days of curing.

    La durabilidad del hormigón fabricado con árido reciclado es necesario determinarla antes de su utilización como material de construcción. En este artículo se analiza la reacción álcali-sílice manifestada en el hormigón fabricado con árido reciclado procedente de hormigón (compuesto de árido original calizo y mortero adherido de arena sílice reactiva, y cemento de alto contenido en álcalis. Debido al proceso de fabricación del hormigón y la alta capacidad de absorción del árido reciclado se produce una acumulación del cemento en la Interfase (ITZ. Debido al contacto directo de los álcalis del cemento con la arena sílice reactiva se produce una reacción álcali sílice a los 6 meses de edad del hormigón. Se realiza un análisis mediante microscopio electrónico de barrido ambiental (ESEM y sistema analítico de EDX. Se determina que las propiedades mecánicas del hormigón reciclado a 6 meses son similares a las obtenidas a los 28 días de curado.

  14. Quantification of the boron speciation in alkali borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shaodong; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Yanqi;


    developed a method based on electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data acquisition and analyses, which enables determination of the boron speciation in a series of ternary alkali borosilicate glasses with constant molar ratios. A script for the fast acquisition of EELS has been designed, from which...... fraction in glasses. In addition, the boron speciation of a CeO2 doped potassium borosilicate glass has been analyzed by using the time-resolved EELS spectra. The results clearly demonstrate that the BO4 to BO3 transformation induced by the electron beamirradiation can be efficiently suppressed by doping...

  15. Highly dispersed iron species created on alkali-treated zeolite for ammonia SCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ma; Duan Weng; Xiaodong Wu; Zhichun Si; Zhenwei Wu


    Alkaline treatment using sodium hydroxide was introduced to obtain a hierarchical pore structure in H-ZSM-5 zeolite. Fe-exchanged zeolite catalysts were prepared by impregnation on the original and alkali-treated zeolites, and were evaluated for NOx reduction by NH3, NO oxidation, and NH3 oxidation reactions. The highly dispersed iron species as active sites can be obtained by controlling the pore structure and particle size of zeolite. Therefore, the Fe/ZSM-5 catalyst treated mildly by sodium hydroxide before iron exchange, which contains amounts of highly dispersed Fe species, obtains over 80% NOx conversion at a wide temperature range of 250-500 1C.

  16. Metal Hydride and Alkali Halide Opacities in Extrasolar Giant Planets and Cool Stellar Atmospheres (United States)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Kirby, Kate; Schweitzer, Andreas; Hauschildt, Peter H.


    The lack of accurate and complete molecular line and continuum opacity data has been a serious limitation to developing atmospheric models of cool stars and Extrasolar Giant Planets (EGPs). We report our recent calculations of molecular opacities resulting from the presence of metal hydrides and alkali halides. The resulting data have been included in the PHOENIX stellar atmosphere code (Hauschildt & Baron 1999). The new models, calculated using spherical geometry for all gravities considered, also incorporate our latest database of nearly 670 million molecular lines, and updated equations of state.

  17. Mössbauer effect studies on alkali tris (malonato) ferrates(III) (United States)

    Bassi, P. S.; Randhawa, B. S.; Kaur, Sandeep


    Mössbauer spectra of alkali tris(malonato) ferrates(III) i.e. M3[Fe(C3H2O4)3].4H2O(M=Li, Na, K, NH4) at 298±2K display a single broad absorption band due to spin lattice relaxation effect. The isomer shift values indicate these complexes to be high spin with octahedral symmetry. The isomer shift shows a decreasing trend with the increase in electronegativity/polarizing power of the substituent cation (Li+, Na+, K+, NH4 +). A linear correlation between isomer shift values and the (Fe-O) stretching freguencies has also been observed.

  18. DuraLith Alkali-Aluminosilicate Geopolymer Waste Form Testing for Hanford Secondary Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, W. L.; Lutz, Werner; Pegg, Ian L.


    The primary objective of the work reported here was to develop additional information regarding the DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer as a waste form for liquid secondary waste to support selection of a final waste form for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant secondary liquid wastes to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility on the Hanford Site. Testing focused on optimizing waste loading, improving waste form performance, and evaluating the robustness of the waste form with respect to waste variability.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of mixed rare earth-alkali metal or ammonium fluorides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由芳田; 黄世华; 时秋峰


    The recent results on hydrothermal synthesis of mixed rare earth-alkali or ammonium fluorides were presented. The initial ratios of the starting materials, pH value and reaction temperature were the critical factors for obtaining the single-phase product. Four main types of complex rare earth fluorides, AREF4, A2REF5, ARE2F7 and ARE3F10 (A=Na+, K+, Rb+, NH4+), appeared in the primary hydrothermal reactions. The correlation between cation sizes and the formation of mixed rare earth fluorides under mild hydro...

  20. Methods for Controlling Effects of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete. (United States)


    and high-alkali RC-756(2) cements were used. The reactive aggregates were opal, glassy igneous rock, and chert produced by crushing chert gravel. As...tridymite High- and low-temperature Minor cristobalite I i %’I There was probably also some amorphous material. Similar work with a separate hand sample...CONIP STESNOTE. 0. psi WALSE SET-0EN Pd U AUTOCLAVE SRP..%U-O INITAL 5*N/I INAL SET. NO/- :4( AUTOCLAVE SEP.. % INTIAL. SET. NOR/-S FINAL. SGT

  1. Monitoring ageing of alkali resistant glass fiber reinforced cement (GRC) using guided ultrasonic waves (United States)

    Eiras, J. N.; Amjad, U.; Mahmoudabadi, E.; Payá, J.; Bonilla, M.; Kundu, T.


    Glass fiber reinforced cement (GRC) is a Portland cement based composite with alkali resistant (AR) glass fibers. The main drawback of this material is the ageing of the reinforcing fibers with time and especially in presence of humidity in the environment. Until now only destructive methods have been used to evaluate the durability of GRC. In this study ultrasonic guided wave inspection of plate shaped specimens has been carried out. The results obtained here show that acoustic signatures are capable of discerning ageing in GRC. Therefore, the ultrasonic guided wave based inspection technique is a promising method for the nondestructive evaluation of the durability of the GRC.

  2. FTIR Analysis of Alkali Activated Slag and Fly Ash Using Deconvolution Techniques (United States)

    Madavarapu, Sateesh Babu

    The studies on aluminosilicate materials to replace traditional construction materials such as ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to reduce the effects caused has been an important research area for the past decades. Many properties like strength have already been studied and the primary focus is to learn about the reaction mechanism and the effect of the parameters on the formed products. The aim of this research was to explore the structural changes and reaction product analysis of geopolymers (Slag & Fly Ash) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and deconvolution techniques. Spectroscopic techniques give valuable information at a molecular level but not all methods are economic and simple. To understand the mechanisms of alkali activated aluminosilicate materials, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR has been used where the effect of the parameters on the reaction products have been analyzed. To analyze complex systems like geopolymers using FTIR, deconvolution techniques help to obtain the properties of a particular peak attributed to a certain molecular vibration. Time and temperature dependent analysis were done on slag pastes to understand the polymerization of reactive silica in the system with time and temperature variance. For time dependent analysis slag has been activated with sodium and potassium silicates using two different `n'values and three different silica modulus [Ms- (SiO2 /M2 O)] values. The temperature dependent analysis was done by curing the samples at 60°C and 80°C. Similarly fly ash has been studied by activating with alkali hydroxides and alkali silicates. Under the same curing conditions the fly ash samples were evaluated to analyze the effects of added silicates for alkali activation. The peak shifts in the FTIR explains the changes in the structural nature of the matrix and can be identified using the deconvolution technique. A strong correlation is found between the concentrations of silicate monomer in the

  3. High quality anti-relaxation coating material for alkali atom vapor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Balabas, M V; Wasilewski, W; Krauter, H; Madsen, L S; Muller, J H; Fernholz, T; Polzik, E S


    We present an experimental investigation of alkali atom vapor cells coated with a high quality anti-relaxation coating material based on alkenes. The prepared cells with single compound alkene based coating showed the longest spin relaxation times which have been measured up to now with room temperature vapor cells. Suggestions are made that chemical binding of a cesium atom and an alkene molecule by attack to the C=C bond plays a crucial role in such improvement of anti-relaxation coating quality.

  4. New bonding configuration on Si(111) and Ge(111) surfaces induced by the adsorption of alkali metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottermoser, L.; Landemark, E.; Smilgies, D.M.;


    The structure of the (3×1) reconstructions of the Si(111) and Ge(111) surfaces induced by adsorption of alkali metals has been determined on the basis of surface x-ray diffraction and low-energy electron diffraction measurements and density functional theory. The (3×1) surface results primarily f...... from the substrate reconstruction and shows a new bonding configuration consisting of consecutive fivefold and sixfold Si (Ge) rings in 〈11̅ 0〉 projection separated by channels containing the alkali metal atoms. © 1998 The American Physical Society......The structure of the (3×1) reconstructions of the Si(111) and Ge(111) surfaces induced by adsorption of alkali metals has been determined on the basis of surface x-ray diffraction and low-energy electron diffraction measurements and density functional theory. The (3×1) surface results primarily...

  5. Catalytically active Au-O(OH)x-species stabilized by alkali ions on zeolites and mesoporous oxides. (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Li, Sha; Wang, Yuan; Herron, Jeffrey A; Xu, Ye; Allard, Lawrence F; Lee, Sungsik; Huang, Jun; Mavrikakis, Manos; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria


    We report that the addition of alkali ions (sodium or potassium) to gold on KLTL-zeolite and mesoporous MCM-41 silica stabilizes mononuclear gold in Au-O(OH)x-(Na or K) ensembles. This single-site gold species is active for the low-temperature (alkali ions and establishing an active site on various supports. The intrinsic activity of the single-site gold species is the same on irreducible supports as on reducible ceria, iron oxide, and titania supports, apparently all sharing a common, similarly structured gold active site. This finding paves the way for using earth-abundant supports to disperse and stabilize precious metal atoms with alkali additives for the WGS and potentially other fuel-processing reactions.

  6. Direct surface charging and alkali-metal doping for tuning the interlayer magnetic order in planar nanostructures (United States)

    Dasa, Tamene R.; Stepanyuk, Valeri S.


    The continuous reduction of magnetic units to ultrasmall length scales inspires efforts to look for a suitable means of controlling magnetic states. In this study, we show two surface charge alteration techniques for tuning the interlayer exchange coupling of ferromagnetic layers separated by paramagnetic spacers. Our ab initio study reveals that already a modest amount of extra charge can switch the mutual alignment of the magnetization from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic or vice versa. We also propose adsorption of alkali metals as an alternative way of varying the electronic and chemical properties of magnetic surfaces. Clear evidence is found that the interlayer magnetic order can be reversed by adsorbing alkali metals on the magnetic layer. Moreover, alkali-metal overlayers strongly enhance the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in FePt thin films. These findings combined with atomistic spin model calculations suggest that the electronic or ionic way of surface charging can have a crucial role for magnetic hardening and spin state control.

  7. A study on optical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolyte with different alkali metal iodides (United States)

    Rao, B. Narasimha; Suvarna, R. Padma


    Polymer electrolytes were prepared by adding poly (ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME), TiO2 (nano filler), different alkali metal iodide salts RI (R+=Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+) and I2 into Acetonitrile gelated with Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO). Optical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolytes were studied by FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. FTIR spectrum reveals that the alkali metal cations were coordinated to ether oxygen of PEO. The optical absorption studies were made in the wavelength range 200-800 nm. It is observed that the optical absorption increases with increase in the radius of alkali metal cation. The optical band gap for allowed direct transitions was evaluated using Urbach-edges method. The optical properties such as optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. The studied polymer materials are useful for solar cells, super capacitors, fuel cells, gas sensors etc.

  8. Study of effect of electric arc furnace slag on expansion of mortars subjected to alkali-aggregate reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SOUZA

    Full Text Available Abstract Alkali-aggregate reaction is a chemical reaction between cement alkalis and some reactive mineral present in some aggregates, leading to concrete expansion and cracking. One kind usually observed and studied in Brazil is the alkali-silica reaction, due to its fast development. There are several methods that are effective to control and mitigate this reaction, and one of them is the partial replacement of cement by mineral additions such as pozzolans like fly-ash, silica fume and slag. In this study, we propose the use of electrical steel slag as a partial replacement of cement, evaluating its effectiveness by NBR 15577:2008, employing different proportions as replacement. It seems that the electrical steel slag, despite its expansive behavior, has been effective in the control of the ASR.

  9. The influence of chlorine on the fate and activity of alkali metals during the gasification of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struis, R.; Scala, C. von; Schuler, A.; Stucki, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Chlorine clearly inhibits the CO{sub 2}-gasification reaction of charcoal at 800{sup o}C. From this and other observations the picture emerges that the reduction in the gasification reactivity of the charcoal is intimately related to the deactivation of the catalytically active alkali metals residing in the wood due to the formation of the chloride salt. It is argued that the heavy metal chlorides will likely transfer the chlorine to the indigenous alkali metals during the pyrolysis stage of the wood. The fate of the thus formed alkali metal chlorides can then be either their removal from the sample (evaporation), or, when present at the gasification stage, re-activation (i.e., de-chlorination) under our gasification conditions. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  10. Static and Dynamic Structure Factors with Account of the Ion Structure for High-temperature Alkali and Alkaline Earth Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sadykova, S P; Tkachenko, I M


    The $e-e$, $e-i$, $i-i$ and charge-charge static structure factors are calculated for alkali and Be$^{2+}$ plasmas using the method described by Gregori et al. in \\cite{bibGreg2006}. The dynamic structure factors for alkali plasmas are calculated using the method of moments \\cite{bibAdam83}, \\cite{bibAdam93}. In both methods the screened Hellmann-Gurskii-Krasko potential, obtained on the basis of Bogolyubov's method, has been used taking into account not only the quantum-mechanical effects but also the ion structure \\cite{bib73}. PACS: 52.27.Aj (Alkali and alkaline earth plasmas, Static and dynamic structure factors), 52.25.Kn (Thermodynamics of plasmas), 52.38.Ph (X-ray scattering)

  11. Improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from corn stalk by alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide pretreatments. (United States)

    Cai, Ling-Yan; Ma, Yu-Long; Ma, Xiao-Xia; Lv, Jun-Min


    A combinative technology of alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was used to pretreat corn stalk (CS) for improving the efficiencies of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The results showed that this strategy could not only remove hemicellulose and lignin but also decrease the crystallinity of cellulose. About 98.0% of enzymatic hydrolysis yield was obtained from the pretreated CS as compared with 46.9% from the untreated sample. The yield for corresponding ethanol yield was 64.6% while untreated CS was only 18.8%. Besides, xylose yield obtained from the untreated CS was only 11.1%, while this value was 93.8% for alkali with NMMO pretreated sample. These results suggest that a combination of alkali with 50% (wt/wt) NMMO solution may be a promising alternative for pretreatment of lignocellulose, which can increase the productions of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.

  12. Effects of Alkali Treatment and Polyisocyanate Crosslinking on the Mechanical Properties of Kraft Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Gao


    Full Text Available The effects of alkali treatment and polyisocyanate crosslinking on the mechanical properties of kraft fiber-reinforced UPE composites were investigated by means of tensile evaluation, SEM analysis, and XRD analysis. The results indicated that the alkali treatment decreased the tensile strength of the prepared composite before aging from 121 MPa to 97 MPa due to the decreased degree of crystallinity of the alkali-treated kraft fiber. Polyisocyanate crosslinking could apparently improve the mechanical properties and stability in terms of a 43% increase of non-aged tensile strength and 52% increase of hydrothermal-aged tensile strength compared with the controlled composite without crosslinking modification, which was attributable to the formation of strong chemical bonding between the interfaces of kraft fiber and polyester.

  13. The long-term durability of low alkali cements. Evidence from new natural analog sites in Europe and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W. Russell [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Laine, Heini M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Khoury, Hani [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Geology


    The long-term durability of low alkali cements is of interest where they are under consideration as repository tunnel and exploration borehole seals and plugs. It is essential to have an appropriate understanding of their longevity to inform decisions on their potential use in a repository environment. Archaelogical analogues of low alkali cement have been studied for some time. Thomassin and Rassineux (1992), for example, reviewed some of the literature on Gallo-Roman cement-based materials and noted that one of the most impressive examples is the 1700 year old Roman mortar used in Hadrian's Wall (UK) which still contains substantial amounts of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate) compounds. These mortars were studied specifically with the behaviour of an ILW repository in mind (Jull and Lees 1990). However, plugs and seals will generally be required to be durable for longer than the few thousand years which can be accessed via archaeological analogues, so it is essential to turn to natural systems for evidence of longer term durability. To date, there have been no reported studies on natural low alkali cements. In principle, however, such cements should exist and the Bituminous Marl Formation, which hosts the natural OPC cements in Jordan (Pitty and Alexander, 2011), is a likely source. This Formation constitutes a widespread terrain which stretches from Syria in the north, through Israel and Jordan to Saudi Arabia in the south. The natural cement was formed by the combustion of organic rich limestones, a process which continues today. In Syria and northern Jordan, for example, the Formation is punctured by Late Oligocene to Quaternary volcanics so sites which include pozzolanic ash mixed with the Bituminous Marl exist and, on combustion, should produce natural low alkali cements. A site in northern Jordan is currently under investigation for evidence of long-term fresh groundwater/low alkali cement interaction and the preliminary results of the study will be

  14. Rb-Sr Isotopic Systematics of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simo, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.


    Alkali-rich igneous fragments were identified in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Kr henberg (LL5)], Bhola (LL3-6) and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4), and show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkaline elements. The K-Rb-Cs-rich fragments in Kr henberg, Bhola, and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography (olivine + pyroxene + glass), suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials. We have undertaken Rb-Sr isotopic studies on alkali-rich fragments in Y-74442 to precisely determine their crystallization ages and the isotopic signatures of their precursor material(s).

  15. Ab initio interaction potentials and scattering lengths for ultracold mixtures of metastable helium and alkali-metal atoms (United States)

    Kedziera, Dariusz; Mentel, Łukasz; Żuchowski, Piotr S.; Knoop, Steven


    We have obtained accurate ab initio +4Σ quartet potentials for the diatomic metastable triplet helium+alkali-metal (Li, Na, K, Rb) systems, using all-electron restricted open-shell coupled cluster singles and doubles with noniterative triples corrections CCSD(T) calculations and accurate calculations of the long-range C6 coefficients. These potentials provide accurate ab initio quartet scattering lengths, which for these many-electron systems is possible, because of the small reduced masses and shallow potentials that result in a small amount of bound states. Our results are relevant for ultracold metastable triplet helium+alkali-metal mixture experiments.

  16. A plug flow model for chemical reactions and aerosol nucleation and growth in an alkali-containing flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K. A.; Livbjerg, Hans


    multicomponent growth models are treated. The local gas phase composition is determined from a gas phase chemical equilibrium calculation combined with finite reaction rate kinetics for slower reactions. The model is useful in the analysis of boiler operation with respect to the formation of particles, HCl, SO2......The paper presents a numerical model for the simulation of gas to particle conversion and the chemical changes during cooling of a flue gas from the combustion of fuels rich in volatile alkali species. For the homogeneous nucleation of alkali species the model uses the classical theory modified...

  17. The higher order C_n dispersion coefficients for the alkali atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Mitroy, J


    The van der Waals coefficients, from C_11 through to C_16 resulting from 2nd, 3rd and 4th order perturbation theory are estimated for the alkali (Li, Na, K and Rb) atoms. The dispersion coefficients are also computed for all possible combinations of the alkali atoms and hydrogen. The parameters are determined from sum-rules after diagonalizing the fixed core Hamiltonian in a large basis. Comparisons of the radial dependence of the C_n/r^n potentials give guidance as to the radial regions in which the various higher-order terms can be neglected. It is seen that including terms up to C_10/r^10 results in a dispersion interaction that is accurate to better than 1 percent whenever the inter-nuclear spacing is larger than 20 a_0. This level of accuracy is mainly achieved due to the fortuitous cancellation between the repulsive (C_11, C_13, C_15) and attractive (C_12, C_14, C_16) dispersion forces.

  18. Rice proteins, extracted by alkali and α-amylase, differently affect in vitro antioxidant activity. (United States)

    Wang, Zhengxuan; Liu, Ye; Li, Hui; Yang, Lin


    Alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation are different processes for rice protein (RP) isolation. The major aim of this study was to determine the influence of two different extraction methods on the antioxidant capacities of RPA, extracted by alkaline (0.2% NaOH), and RPE, extracted by α-amylase, during in vitro digestion for 2h with pepsin and for 3h with pancreatin. Upon pepsin-pancreatin digestion, the protein hydrolysates (RPA-S, RPE-S), which were the supernatants in the absence of undigested residue, and the whole protein digests (RPA, RPE), in which undigested residue remained, were measured. RPE exhibited the stronger antioxidant responses to free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the weakest antioxidant capacities were produced by RPE-S. In contrast, no significant differences in antioxidant activity were observed between RPA and RPA-S. The present study demonstrated that the in vitro antioxidant responses induced by the hydrolysates and the protein digests of RPs could be affected differently by alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation, suggesting that the extraction is a vital processing step to modify the antioxidant capacities of RPs. The results of the current study indicated that the protein digests, in which undigested residues remained, could exhibit more efficacious antioxidant activity compared to the hydrolysates.

  19. On the applicability of jellium model to the description of alkali clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matveentsev, Anton; Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Ilia;


    This work is devoted to the elucidation of the applicability of the jellium model to the description of alkali cluster properties. We compare the jellium model results with those derived within ab initio theoretical approaches and with experiments. On the basis of Hartree–Fock and local-density a......This work is devoted to the elucidation of the applicability of the jellium model to the description of alkali cluster properties. We compare the jellium model results with those derived within ab initio theoretical approaches and with experiments. On the basis of Hartree–Fock and local......-density approximations we have calculated the binding energies per atom, ionization potentials, deformation parameters and optimized values of the Wigner–Seitz radii for neutral and singly charged sodium clusters with the number of atoms N... role of the cluster shape deformations in the formation cluster properties and quite reasonable level of applicability of the deformed jellium model. This elucidates the similarities of atomic cluster physics with the physics of atomic nuclei....

  20. Alkali metal control over N-N cleavage in iron complexes. (United States)

    Grubel, Katarzyna; Brennessel, William W; Mercado, Brandon Q; Holland, Patrick L


    Though N2 cleavage on K-promoted Fe surfaces is important in the large-scale Haber-Bosch process, there is still ambiguity about the number of Fe atoms involved during the N-N cleaving step and the interactions responsible for the promoting ability of K. This work explores a molecular Fe system for N2 reduction, particularly focusing on the differences in the results obtained using different alkali metals as reductants (Na, K, Rb, Cs). The products of these reactions feature new types of Fe-N2 and Fe-nitride cores. Surprisingly, adding more equivalents of reductant to the system gives a product in which the N-N bond is not cleaved, indicating that the reducing power is not the most important factor that determines the extent of N2 activation. On the other hand, the results suggest that the size of the alkali metal cation can control the number of Fe atoms that can approach N2, which in turn controls the ability to achieve N2 cleavage. The accumulated results indicate that cleaving the triple N-N bond to nitrides is facilitated by simultaneous approach of least three low-valent Fe atoms to a single molecule of N2.