WorldWideScience

Sample records for alkali sulfate aerosol

  1. An exploratory study of alkali sulfate aerosol formation during biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løj, Lusi Hindiyarti; Frandsen, Flemming; Livbjerg, Hans

    2008-01-01

    It is still in discussion to what extent alkali sulfate aerosols in biomass combustion are formed in the gas phase by a homogeneous mechanism or involve heterogeneous or catalyzed reactions. The present study investigates sulfate aerosol formation based on calculations with a detailed gas phase...... mechanism. The modeling predictions are compared to data from laboratory experiments and entrained flow reactor experiments available in the literature. The analysis support that alkali sulfate aerosols are formed from homogeneous nucleation following a series of steps occurring in the gas phase. The rate...

  2. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  3. Hygroscopic properties of aminium sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Grazia; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Reid, Jonathan P.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2017-03-01

    Alkylaminium sulfates originate from the neutralisation reaction between short-chained amines and sulfuric acid and have been detected in atmospheric aerosol particles. Their physicochemical behaviour is less well characterised than their inorganic equivalent, ammonium sulfate, even though they play a role in atmospheric processes such as the nucleation and growth of new particles and cloud droplet formation. In this work, a comparative evaporation kinetics experimental technique using a cylindrical electrodynamic balance is applied to determine the hygroscopic properties of six short-chained alkylaminium sulfates, specifically mono-, di-, and tri-methylaminium sulfate and mono-, di-, and tri-ethyl aminium sulfate. This approach allows for the retrieval of a water-activity-dependent growth curve in less than 10 s, avoiding the uncertainties that can arise from the volatilisation of semi-volatile components. Measurements are made on particles > 5 µm in radius, avoiding the need to correct equilibrium measurements for droplet-surface curvature with assumed values of the droplet-surface tension. Variations in equilibrium solution droplet composition with varying water activity are reported over the range 0.5 to > 0.98, along with accurate parameterisations of solution density and refractive index. The uncertainties in water activities associated with the hygroscopicity measurements are typically 0.9 and ˜ ±1 % below 0.9, with maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factors of ±0.7 %. Comparison with previously reported measurements show deviation across the entire water activity range.

  4. Global source attribution of sulfate aerosol and its radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, H.; Smith, S.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. L.; Qian, Y.; Li, C.; Yu, H.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is an important aerosol that poses health risks and influences climate. Due to long-range atmospheric transport, local sulfate pollution could result from intercontinental influences, making domestic efforts of improving air quality inefficient. Accurate understanding of source attribution of sulfate and its radiative forcing is important for both regional air quality improvement and global climate mitigation. In this study, for the first time, a sulfur source-tagging capability is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to quantify the global source-receptor relationships of sulfate and its direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF). Near-surface sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate is primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. The export of SO2 and sulfate from Europe contributes 20% of sulfate concentrations over North Africa, Russia and Central Asia. Sources from the Middle East account for 20% of sulfate over North Africa, Southern Africa and Central Asia in winter and autumn, and 20% over South Asia in spring. East Asia accounts for about 50% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in winter and autumn, 15% over Russia in summer, and 10% over North America in spring. South Asia contributes to 25% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in spring. Lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is found to determine regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with 75% contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and 25% contributed by natural sulfate. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes the most to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30% over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high-latitudes. A 20% perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the

  5. Electrical conductivity and thermal behavior of solid electrolytes based on alkali carbonates and sulfates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosda, S.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Guth, U.

    1997-01-01

    Both thermal stability and electrical conductivity of alkali ion conducting Na2CO3 and Na2SO4, were improved by adding alkaline earth carbonates and sulfates, respectively, as well as insulating materials like ¿-Al2O3. The admixing of divalent compounds causes two effects. First a more or less

  6. Sulfate and nitrate levels in aqueous, atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.W.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of sulfates and nitrates in marine aerosol particles is investigated. A simulation of the growth and chemical reactions of an aerosol particle composed initially of an equilibrium mixture of NaCl and MgCl 2 and exposed to SO 2 , NO, NO 2 , NH 3 and H 2 SO 4 vapor is used to predict the relative compositions of sulfates, nitrates and ammonium, assuming gas-phase sulfur dioxide oxidation and liquid-phase nitrate formation. Results indicate an increase in nitrate concentration and a decrease in sulfate and ammonium concentrations with increasing particle radius and a near-stoichiometric ratio of nitrate and sulfate to ammonium. The noted deviations of this ratio from those observed experimentally are considered to indicate the relative importances of liquid-phase sulfur dioxide oxidation at various locations

  7. Secondary sulfate is internally mixed with sea spray aerosol and organic aerosol in the winter Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpes, Rachel M.; Bondy, Amy L.; Bonanno, Daniel; Moffet, Ryan C.; Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Ault, Andrew P.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2018-03-01

    Few measurements of aerosol chemical composition have been made during the winter-spring transition (following polar sunrise) to constrain Arctic aerosol-cloud-climate feedbacks. Herein, we report the first measurements of individual particle chemical composition near Utqiaġvik (Barrow), Alaska, in winter (seven sample days in January and February 2014). Individual particles were analyzed by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX, 24 847 particles), Raman microspectroscopy (300 particles), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS, 290 particles). Sea spray aerosol (SSA) was observed in all samples, with fresh and aged SSA comprising 99 %, by number, of 2.5-7.5 µm diameter particles, 65-95 % from 0.5-2.5 µm, and 50-60 % from 0.1-0.5 µm, indicating SSA is the dominant contributor to accumulation and coarse-mode aerosol during the winter. The aged SSA particles were characterized by reduced chlorine content with 94 %, by number, internally mixed with secondary sulfate (39 %, by number, internally mixed with both nitrate and sulfate), indicative of multiphase aging reactions during transport. There was a large number fraction (40 % of 1.0-4.0 µm diameter particles) of aged SSA during periods when particles were transported from near Prudhoe Bay, consistent with pollutant emissions from the oil fields participating in atmospheric processing of aerosol particles. Organic carbon and sulfate particles were observed in all samples and comprised 40-50 %, by number, of 0.1-0.4 µm diameter particles, indicative of Arctic haze influence. Soot was internally mixed with organic and sulfate components. All sulfate was mixed with organic carbon or SSA particles. Therefore, aerosol sources in the Alaskan Arctic and resulting aerosol chemical mixing states need to be considered when predicting aerosol climate effects, particularly cloud

  8. Inconsistency of ammonium-sulfate aerosol ratios with thermodynamic models in the eastern US: a possible role of organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvern, Rachel F.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Kim, Patrick S.; Marais, Eloise A.; Turner, Jay R.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2017-04-01

    Thermodynamic models predict that sulfate aerosol (S(VI) ≡ H2SO4(aq) + HSO4-+ SO42-) should take up available ammonia (NH3) quantitatively as ammonium (NH4+) until the ammonium sulfate stoichiometry (NH4)2SO4 is close to being reached. This uptake of ammonia has important implications for aerosol mass, hygroscopicity, and acidity. When ammonia is in excess, the ammonium-sulfate aerosol ratio R = [NH4+] / [S(VI)] should approach 2, with excess ammonia remaining in the gas phase. When ammonia is in deficit, it should be fully taken up by the aerosol as ammonium and no significant ammonia should remain in the gas phase. Here we report that sulfate aerosol in the eastern US in summer has a low ammonium-sulfate ratio despite excess ammonia, and we show that this is at odds with thermodynamic models. The ammonium-sulfate ratio averages only 1.04 ± 0.21 mol mol-1 in the Southeast, even though ammonia is in large excess, as shown by the ammonium-sulfate ratio in wet deposition and by the presence of gas-phase ammonia. It further appears that the ammonium-sulfate aerosol ratio is insensitive to the supply of ammonia, remaining low even as the wet deposition ratio exceeds 6 mol mol-1. While the ammonium-sulfate ratio in wet deposition has increased by 5.8 % yr-1 from 2003 to 2013 in the Southeast, consistent with SO2 emission controls, the ammonium-sulfate aerosol ratio decreased by 1.4-3.0 % yr-1. Thus, the aerosol is becoming more acidic even as SO2 emissions decrease and ammonia emissions stay constant; this is incompatible with simple sulfate-ammonium thermodynamics. A tentative explanation is that sulfate particles are increasingly coated by organic material, retarding the uptake of ammonia. Indeed, the ratio of organic aerosol (OA) to sulfate in the Southeast increased from 1.1 to 2.4 g g-1 over the 2003-2013 period as sulfate decreased. We implement a simple kinetic mass transfer limitation for ammonia uptake to sulfate aerosols in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport

  9. A Sulfate Aerosol Trigger for the Sturtian Neoproterozoic Snowball Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Macdonald, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the dominance of the carbon cycle in determining the evolution of Earth's climate in general, certain events defy easy explanation via atmospheric CO2 changes alone. Here we discuss the particular role that transient planetary albedo changes via sulfate aerosol formation can play in major climate transitions. Specifically, we propose that SO2 outgassing associated with the eruption of the Franklin Large Igneous Province (LIP) led to the first Neoproterozoic Snowball event, the Sturtian, 716 Ma. We summarize U/Pb zircon and baddeleyite dating indicating the synchronicity of the Franklin eruptions and the onset of the Sturtian, and paleomagnetic data indicating that the Franklin erupted close to the equator. We then discuss in detail the modeling we have performed of eruption rate, the plume height achieved during basaltic fissure volcanism, the chemistry and microphysics of sulfate aerosol formation, and the dependence of aerosol longwave and shortwave radiative effects on atmospheric loading, particle size and surface albedo. We discuss the critical importance of the latitude of eruption, the tropopause height, and ocean dynamics in determining the strength and sign of aerosol radiative forcing. We finish by comparing the Franklin event with other LIP emplacement events in Earth history and make suggestions for future modeling.

  10. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben

    2009-07-28

    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  11. Sulfates, Clouds and Radiation Brazil (SCAR-B) AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCAR_B_AERONET data are Smoke, Clouds and Radiation Brazil (SCARB) Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for aerosol characterization.Smoke/Sulfates, Clouds and...

  12. Coprecipitation of rare earths in systems of three heterovalent ions with sulfates of alkali and alkaline-earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrik, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Co-precipitation of rare earth elements (REE) in milligram amounts (3x10 -3 -3x10 -1 M) with alkali earth (AEE) sulfates in presence of alkali metal ions has been studied, the AEE:REE ratios between the co-precipitator and a REE (up to 50:1) the latter can be co-precipitated quantitatively in presence of corresponding alkali metals linked with the AEE in the Periodic table by a diagonal, i.e. in presence of sodium in co-precipitation with calcium sulfate, potassium with strontium sulfate and rubidium with barium sulfate. Co-precipitation with sulfates of sodium and calcium occurs at temperatures above 85 deg C and presumably involves calcium semihydrate. In presence of an alkali metal REE co-precipitation with AEE becomes isomorphic, i.e. at different AEE:REE ratios the co-precipitation coefficient remains constant. In presence of corresponding alkali metals the decrease in effectiveness of co-precipitation with AEE in the La-Lu series is more pronounced

  13. Arctic climate response to geoengineering with stratospheric sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, K. E.; Battisti, D. S.; Bitz, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent warming and record summer sea-ice area minimums have spurred expressions of concern for arctic ecosystems, permafrost, and polar bear populations, among other things. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections to deliberately cancel the anthropogenic temperature rise has been put forth as a possible solution to restoring Arctic (and global) climate to modern conditions. However, climate is particularly sensitive in the northern high latitudes, responding easily to radiative forcing changes. To that end, we explore the extent to which tropical injections of stratospheric sulfate aerosol can accomplish regional cancellation in the Arctic. We use the Community Climate System Model version 3 global climate model to execute simulations with combinations of doubled CO2 and imposed stratospheric sulfate burdens to investigate the effects on high latitude climate. We further explore the sensitivity of the polar climate to ocean dynamics by running a suite of simulations with and without ocean dynamics, transiently and to equilibrium respectively. We find that, although annual, global mean temperature cancellation is accomplished, there is over-cooling on land in Arctic summer, but residual warming in Arctic winter, which is largely due to atmospheric circulation changes. Furthermore, the spatial extent of these features and their concurrent impacts on sea-ice properties are modified by the inclusion of ocean dynamical feedbacks.

  14. Cloud albedo changes in response to anthropogenic sulfate and non-sulfate aerosol forcings in CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Frey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aerosol types on cloud albedo are analysed using the linear relation between total albedo and cloud fraction found on a monthly mean scale in regions of subtropical marine stratocumulus clouds and the influence of simulated aerosol variations on this relation. Model experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 are used to separately study the responses to increases in sulfate, non-sulfate and all anthropogenic aerosols. A cloud brightening on the month-to-month scale due to variability in the background aerosol is found to dominate even in the cases where anthropogenic aerosols are added. The aerosol composition is of importance for this cloud brightening, that is thereby region dependent. There is indication that absorbing aerosols to some extent counteract the cloud brightening but scene darkening with increasing aerosol burden is generally not supported, even in regions where absorbing aerosols dominate. Month-to-month cloud albedo variability also confirms the importance of liquid water content for cloud albedo. Regional, monthly mean cloud albedo is found to increase with the addition of anthropogenic aerosols and more so with sulfate than non-sulfate. Changes in cloud albedo between experiments are related to changes in cloud water content as well as droplet size distribution changes, so that models with large increases in liquid water path and/or cloud droplet number show large cloud albedo increases with increasing aerosol. However, no clear relation between model sensitivities to aerosol variations on the month-to-month scale and changes in cloud albedo due to changed aerosol burden is found.

  15. [Effect of ammonium sulfate aerosol on the photochemical reaction of toluene/ NO(x)/air mixture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan; Hao, Ji-Ming; Lü, Zi-Feng; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Jun-Hua

    2007-06-01

    The effect of ammonium sulfate aerosol on the photochemical reaction of toluene/NO(x)/air mixture was evaluated with Tsinghua Smog Chamber facility. The results indicate that the presence of concentrated preexisting ammonium sulfate aerosol shortens the time to reach maximum PM (particle matter) concentration and increases the aerosol yield of toluene. And under the presence of high concentrated ammonium sulfate aerosol seed, the concentration of aerosol does not have significant effects on NO(x), NO and O3 variation, but affects the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The SOA yield increases with the increasing initial ammonium sulfate seed concentration (< 160 microg x m(-3)). From the minimum 7.2% to the maximum 11.7%, the percentage increase of SOA yield is more than 60%.

  16. Incomplete Sulfate Aerosol Neutralization Despite Excess Ammonia in the Eastern US: A Possible Role of Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvern, R. F.; Jacob, D.; Kim, P. S.; Marais, E. A.; Turner, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Acid-base neutralization of sulfate aerosol (S(VI) ≡ H2SO4(aq) + HSO4- + SO42-) by ammonia (NH3) has important implications for aerosol mass, hygroscopicity, and acidity. Surface network and aircraft observations across the eastern US show that sulfate aerosol is not fully neutralized even in the presence of excess ammonia, at odds with thermodynamic equilibrium models. The sulfate aerosol neutralization ratio (f = [NH4+]/2[S(VI)]) averages only 0.51 ± 0.11 mol mol-1 at sites in the Southeast and 0.78 ± 0.13 mol mol-1 in the Northeast in summer 2013, even though ammonia is in large excess as shown by the corresponding [NH4+]/2[S(VI)] ratio in wet deposition fluxes. There is in fact no site-to-site correlation between the two quantities; the aerosol neutralization ratio in the Southeast remains in a range 0.3-0.6 mol mol-1 even as the wet deposition neutralization ratio exceeds 3 mol mol-1. While the wet deposition neutralization ratio has increased by 4.6% a-1 from 2003 to 2013 in the Southeast US, consistent with SO2 emission controls, the aerosol neutralization ratio has decreased by 1.0-3.2% a-1. Thus the aerosol is becoming less neutralized even as SO2 emissions decrease. One possible explanation is that sulfate particles are increasingly coated by organic material, retarding the uptake of ammonia. The ratio of organic aerosol (OA) to sulfate increases over the 2003-2013 period as sulfate decreases. We implement a kinetic mass transfer limitation for ammonia uptake to sulfate aerosols in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and find improved agreement with surface and aircraft observations of the aerosol neutralization ratio. If sulfate aerosol becomes less neutralized as OA/sulfate ratios increase, then controlling SO2 emissions to decrease sulfate aerosol will not have the co-benefit of suppressing acid-catalyzed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation.

  17. Crystallization pathways of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Julie C; Martin, Scot T

    2005-11-10

    Crystallization experiments are conducted for aerosol particles composed of aqueous mixtures of (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(aq) and NH(4)NO(3)(aq), (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(aq) and NH(4)HSO(4)(aq), and NH(4)NO(3)(aq) and NH(4)HSO(4)(aq). Depending on the aqueous composition, crystals of (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s), (NH(4))(3)H(SO(4))(2)(s), NH(4)HSO(4)(s), NH(4)NO(3)(s), 2NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s), and 3NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s) are formed. Although particles of NH(4)NO(3)(aq) and NH(4)HSO(4)(aq) do not crystallize even at 1% relative humidity, additions of 0.05 mol fraction SO(4)(2-)(aq) or NO(3)(-)(aq) ions promote crystallization, respectively. 2NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s) and (NH(4))(3)H(SO(4))(2)(s) appear to serve as good heterogeneous nuclei for NH(4)NO(3)(s) and NH(4)HSO(4)(s), respectively. 2NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s) crystallizes over a greater range of aqueous compositions than 3NH(4)NO(3) x (NH(4))(2)SO(4)(s). An infrared aerosol spectrum is provided for each solid based upon a linear decomposition analysis of the recorded spectra. Small nonzero residuals occur in the analysis because aerosol spectra depend on particle morphology, which changes slightly across the range of compositions studied. In addition, several of the mixed compositions crystallize with residual aqueous water of up to 5% particle mass. We attribute this water content to enclosed water pockets. The results provide further insights into the nonlinear crystallization pathways of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol particles.

  18. Distribution and direct radiative forcing of carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols in an interactive size-resolving aerosol-climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongchul; Wang, Chien; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Barth, Mary C.; Rasch, Phil J.

    2008-08-01

    A multimode, two-moment aerosol model has been incorporated in the NCAR CAM3 to develop an interactive aerosol-climate model and to study the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the global climate system. Currently, seven aerosol modes, namely three for external sulfate and one each for external black carbon (BC), external organic carbon (OC), sulfate/BC mixture (MBS; with BC core coated by sulfate shell), and sulfate/OC mixture (MOS; a uniform mixture of OC and sulfate) are included in the model. Both mass and number concentrations of each aerosol mode, as well as the mass of carbonaceous species in the mixed modes, are predicted by the model so that the chemical, physical, and radiative processes of various aerosols can be formulated depending on aerosol's size, chemical composition, and mixing state. Comparisons of modeled surface and vertical aerosol concentrations, as well as the optical depth of aerosols with available observations and previous model estimates, are in general agreement. However, some discrepancies do exist, likely caused by the coarse model resolution or the constant rates of anthropogenic emissions used to test the model. Comparing to the widely used mass-only method with prescribed geometric size of particles (one-moment scheme), the use of prognostic size distributions of aerosols based on a two-moment scheme in our model leads to a significant reduction in optical depth and thus the radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) of particularly external sulfate aerosols. The inclusion of two types of mixed aerosols alters the mass partitioning of carbonaceous and sulfate aerosol constituents: about 35.5%, 48.5%, and 32.2% of BC, OC, and sulfate mass, respectively, are found in the mixed aerosols. This also brings in competing effects in aerosol radiative forcing including a reduction in atmospheric abundance of BC and OC due to the shorter lifetime of internal mixtures (cooling), a mass loss of external sulfate to mixtures (warming

  19. Pathways of sulfate enhancement by natural and anthropogenic mineral aerosols in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xin [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Song, Yu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Mengmeng [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhu, Tong [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhang, Qiang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Zhang, Xiaoye [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, CMA, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-27

    China, the world’s largest consumer of coal, emits approximately 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) per year. SO₂ is subsequently oxidized to sulfate in the atmosphere. However, large gaps exist between model-predicted and measured sulfate levels in China. Long-term field observations and numerical simulations were integrated to investigate the effect of mineral aerosols on sulfate formation. We found that mineral aerosols contributed a nationwide average of approximately 22% to sulfate production in 2006. The increased sulfate concentration was approximately 2 μg m⁻³ in the entire China. In East China and the Sichuan Basin, the increments reached 6.3 μg m⁻³ and 7.3 μg m⁻³, respectively. Mineral aerosols led to faster SO₂ oxidation through three pathways. First, more SO₂ was dissolved as cloud water alkalinity increased due to water-soluble mineral cations. Sulfate production was then enhanced through the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) (dissolved sulfur in oxidation state +4). The contribution to the national sulfate production was 5%. Second, sulfate was enhanced through S(IV) catalyzed oxidation by transition metals. The contribution to the annual sulfate production was 8%, with 19% during the winter that decreased to 2% during the summer. Third, SO₂ reacts on the surface of mineral aerosols to produce sulfate. The contribution to the national average sulfate concentration was 9% with 16% during the winter and a negligible effect during the summer. The inclusion of mineral aerosols does resolve model discrepancies with sulfate observations in China, especially during the winter. These three pathways, which are not fully considered in most current chemistry-climate models, will significantly impact assessments regarding the effects of aerosol on climate change in China.

  20. Reactive Nitrogen Chemistry in Aerosol Water as a Source of Sulfate during Haze Events in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Zheng, G.; Wei, C.; Mu, Q.; Zheng, B.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Gao, M.; He, K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Poeschl, U.; Cheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Fine particle pollution associated with winter haze threatens the health of over 400 million people in the North China Plain. Sulfate is a major component of fine haze particles. Record sulfate concentrations up to 300 μg m-3 were observed during the January 2013 winter haze event in Beijing. State-of-the-art air quality models relying on sulfate production mechanisms that require photochemical oxidants, cannot predict these high levels due to the weak photochemistry activity during haze events. We find that the missing source of sulfate and particulate matter can be explained by reactive nitrogen chemistry in aerosol water. The aerosol water serves as a reactor where the alkaline aerosol components trap SO2, which is oxidized by NO2 to form sulfate, whereby high reaction rates are sustained by the high neutralizing capacity of the atmosphere in northern China. This mechanism is self-amplifying because higher aerosol mass concentration corresponds to higher aerosol water content leading to faster sulfate production and more severe haze pollution. Reference: Cheng, Y., Zheng, G., Wei, C., Mu, Q., Zheng, B., Wang, Z., Gao, M., Zhang, Q., He, K., Carmichael, G., Pöschl, U., and Su, H.: Reactive nitrogen chemistry in aerosol water as a source of sulfate during haze events in China, Science Advances, 2, 10.1126/sciadv.1601530, 2016.

  1. Particle size distribution and behavior of sulfate aerosols in a coastal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, M.; Hashimoto, Y.

    1979-01-01

    To obtain fundamental knowledge about sulfate aerosols, a field research was conducted in a coastal region distant from industrial pollution sources. The aerosol samples were analyzed for some elements, sulfate and ammonium ions. Sulfate was determined by the turbidimetry with 2-aminoperimidine, and ammonium was by the colorimetry of indophenol method. Trace elements with short-lived nuclides were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The mass-size distribution curve of total aerosols was the general bimodal pattern, although the concentration level was very low. Most of sulfate and ammonium salts were distributed in the fine particle range less than 2 microns in aerodynamic diameter, but sulfate had another peak, thought to be of maritime origin, in the coarse particle range. Nevertheless, many fine sulfate particles that had been produced secondarily in the atmosphere were found in such a less polluted coastal region. The change of the sulfate concentrations obtained by the two-stage Andersen type sampler showed a correlation with the humidity. This may suggest that the formation of sulfate aerosols from sulfur dioxide could be related to a catalytic oxidation process in water drops.

  2. Small volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, David M.

    2012-09-01

    Understanding of volcanic activity and its impacts on the atmosphere has evolved in discrete steps, associated with defining eruptions. The eruption of Krakatau, Indonesia, in August 1883 was the first whose global reach was recorded through observations of atmospheric phenomena around the world (Symons 1888). The rapid equatorial spread of Krakatau's ash cloud revealed new details of atmospheric circulation, while the vivid twilights and other optical phenomena were soon causally linked to the effects of particles and gases released from the volcano (e.g. Stothers 1996, Schroder 1999, Hamilton 2012). Later, eruptions of Agung, Bali (1963), El Chichón, Mexico (1982) and Pinatubo, Philippines (1991) led to a fuller understanding of how volcanic SO2 is transformed to a long-lived stratospheric sulfate aerosol, and its consequences (e.g. Meinel and Meinel 1967, Rampino and Self 1982, Hoffman and Rosen 1983, Bekki and Pyle 1994, McCormick et al 1995). While our ability to track the dispersal of volcanic emissions has been transformed since Pinatubo, with the launch of fleets of Earth-observing satellites (e.g. NASA's A-Train; ESA's MetOp) and burgeoning networks of ground-based remote-sensing instruments (e.g. lidar and sun-photometers; infrasound and lightning detection systems), there have been relatively few significant eruptions. Thus, there have been limited opportunities to test emerging hypotheses including, for example, the vexed question of the role of 'smaller' explosive eruptions in perturbations of the atmosphere—those that may just be large enough to reach the stratosphere (of size 'VEI 3', Newhall and Self 1982, Pyle 2000). Geological evidence, from ice-cores and historical eruptions, suggests that small explosive volcanic eruptions with the potential to transport material into the stratosphere should be frequent (5-10 per decade), and responsible for a significant proportion of the long-term time-averaged flux of volcanic sulfur into the stratosphere

  3. Evaluation of sulfate aerosol optical depths over the North Atlantic and comparison with satellite observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, C.M.; Ghan, S.J.; Benkovitz, C.M.; Wagener, R.; Nemesure, S.; Schwartz, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    It has been postulated that scattering of sunlight by aerosols can significantly reduce the amount of solar energy absorbed by the climate system. Aerosol measurement programs alone cannot provide all the information needed to evaluate the radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols. Thus, comprehensive global-scale aerosol models, properly validated against surface-based and satellite measurements, are a fundamental tool for evaluating the impacts of aerosols on the planetary radiation balance. Analyzed meteorological fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts are used to drive a modified version of the PNL Global Chemistry Model, applied to the atmospheric sulfur cycle. The resulting sulfate fields are used to calculate aerosol optical depths, which in turn are compared to estimates of aerosol optical depth based on satellite observations

  4. Weathering of Olivine during Interaction of Sulfate Aerosols with Mars Soil under Current Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, P. B.; Golden, D. C.; Michalski, J. R.; Ming, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur concentrations in the Mars soils are elevated above 1 wt% in nearly every location visited by landed spacecraft. This observation was first made by the Viking landers, and has been confirmed by subsequent missions. The wide distribution of sulfur in martian soils has been attributed to volcanic degassing, formation of sulfate aerosols, and later incorporation into martian soils during gravitational sedimentation. However, later discoveries of more concentrated sulfur bearing sediments by the Opportunity rover has led some to believe that sulfates may instead be a product of evaporation and aeolian redistribution. One question that has not been addressed is whether the modern surface conditions are too cold for weathering of volcanic materials by sulfate aerosols. We suggest here that mixtures of atmospheric aerosols, ice, and dust have the potential for creating small films of cryo-concentrated acidic solutions that may represent an important unexamined environment for understanding weathering processes on Mars. Laboratory experiments were conducted to simulate weathering of olivine under Mars-like conditions. The weathering rates measured in this study suggest that fine grained olivine on Mars would weather into sulfate minerals in short time periods if they are exposed to H2SO4 aerosols at temperatures at or above -40°C. In this system, the strength of the acidic solution is maximized through eutectic freezing in an environment where the silicate minerals are extremely fine grained and have high surface areas. This provides an ideal environment for olivine weathering despite the very low temperatures. The likelihood of substantial sulfur-rich volcanism on Mars and creation of abundant sulfate aerosols suggests that this process would have been important during formation of martian soils and sediments. Future work modeling sulfur release rates during volcanic eruptions and aerosol distribution over the surface will help understand how well this process

  5. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Steven J. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park MD USA; Easter, Richard C. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2018-02-08

    Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burden are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.

  6. The impact of dust on sulfate aerosol, CN and CCN during an East Asian dust storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Manktelow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A global model of aerosol microphysics is used to simulate a large East Asian dust storm during the ACE-Asia experiment. We use the model together with size resolved measurements of aerosol number concentration and composition to examine how dust modified the production of sulfate aerosol and the particle size distribution in East Asian outflow. Simulated size distributions and mass concentrations of dust, sub- and super-micron sulfate agree well with observations from the C-130 aircraft. Modeled mass concentrations of fine sulfate (Dp<1.3 μm decrease by ~10% due to uptake of sulfur species onto super-micron dust. We estimate that dust enhanced the mass concentration of coarse sulfate (Dp>1.0 μm by more than an order of magnitude, but total sulfate concentrations increase by less than 2% because decreases in fine sulfate have a compensating effect. Our analysis shows that the sulfate associated with dust can be explained largely by the uptake of H2SO4 rather than reaction of SO2 on the dust surface, which we assume is suppressed once the particles are coated in sulfate. We suggest that many previous model investigations significantly overestimated SO2 oxidation on East Asian dust, possibly due to the neglect of surface saturation effects. We extend previous model experiments by examining how dust modified existing particle concentrations in Asian outflow. Total particle concentrations (condensation nuclei, CN modeled in the dust-pollution plume are reduced by up to 20%, but we predict that dust led to less than 10% depletion in particles large enough to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Our analysis suggests that E. Asian dust storms have only a minor impact on sulfate particles present at climate-relevant sizes.

  7. TOTAL PARTICLE, SULFATE, AND ACIDIC AEROSOL EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamber studies were conducted on four unvented kerosene space heaters to assess emissions of total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. The heaters tested represented four burner designs currently in use by the public. Kerosene space heaters are a potential source of fine part...

  8. Volatility of organic aerosol: evaporation of ammonium sulfate/succinic acid aqueous solution droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Juuti, Taina; Zardini, Alessandro A; Eriksson, Axel C; Hansen, Anne Maria K; Pagels, Joakim H; Swietlicki, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Glasius, Marianne; Worsnop, Douglas R; Riipinen, Ilona; Bilde, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol.

  9. Global Distribution of Solid Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols and their Climate Impact Acting as Ice Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Penner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory experiments show that liquid ammonium sulfate particles effloresce when RHw is below 34% to become solid and dissolve when RHw is above 79%. Solid ammonium sulfate aerosols can act as heterogeneous ice nuclei particles (INPs) to form ice particles in deposition mode when the relative humidity over ice is above 120%. In this study we used the coupled IMPACT/CAM5 model to track the efflorescence and deliquescence processes of ammonium sulfate. Results show that about 20% of the total simulated pure sulfate aerosol mass is in the solid state and is mainly distributed in the northern hemisphere (NH) from 50 hPa to 200 hPa. When these solid ammonium sulfate aerosols are allowed to act as ice nuclei particles, they act to increase the ice water path in the NH and reduce ice water path in the tropics. The addition of these particles leads to a positive net radiative effect at the TOA ranging from 0.5-0.9 W/m2 depending on the amounts of other ice nuclei particles (e.g., dust, soot) used in the ice nucleation process. The short-term climate feedback shows that the ITCZ shifts northwards and precipitation increases in the NH. There is also an average warming of 0.05-0.1 K near the surface (at 2 meter) in the NH which is most obvious in the Arctic region.

  10. Volatility of Organic Aerosol: Evaporation of Ammonium Sulfate/Succinic Acid Aqueous Solution Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol. PMID:24107221

  11. MIPAS observations of volcanic sulfate aerosol and sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Annika; Höpfner, Michael; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Griessbach, Sabine; Deshler, Terry; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can increase the stratospheric sulfur loading by orders of magnitude above the background level and are the most important source of variability in stratospheric sulfur. We present a set of vertical profiles of sulfate aerosol volume densities and derived liquid-phase H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) mole fractions for 2005-2012, retrieved from infrared limb emission measurements performed with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board of the Environmental Satellite (Envisat). Relative to balloon-borne in situ measurements of aerosol at Laramie, Wyoming, the MIPAS aerosol data have a positive bias that has been corrected, based on the observed differences to the in situ data. We investigate the production of stratospheric sulfate aerosol from volcanically emitted SO2 for two case studies: the eruptions of Kasatochi in 2008 and Sarychev in 2009, which both occurred in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes during boreal summer. With the help of chemical transport model (CTM) simulations for the two volcanic eruptions we show that the MIPAS sulfate aerosol and SO2 data are qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with each other. Further, we demonstrate that the lifetime of SO2 is explained well by its oxidation by hydroxyl radicals (OH). While the sedimentation of sulfate aerosol plays a role, we find that the long-term decay of stratospheric sulfur after these volcanic eruptions in midlatitudes is mainly controlled by transport via the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Sulfur emitted by the two midlatitude volcanoes resides mostly north of 30° N at altitudes of ˜ 10-16 km, while at higher altitudes ( ˜ 18-22 km) part of the volcanic sulfur is transported towards the Equator where it is lifted into the stratospheric overworld and can further be transported into both hemispheres.

  12. Changing transport processes in the stratosphere by radiative heating of sulfate aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Niemeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2 into the stratosphere to form an artificial stratospheric aerosol layer is discussed as an option for solar radiation management. Sulfate aerosol scatters solar radiation and absorbs infrared radiation, which warms the stratospheric sulfur layer. Simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM5-HAM, including aerosol microphysics, show consequences of this warming, including changes of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO in the tropics. The QBO slows down after an injection of 4 Tg(S yr−1 and completely shuts down after an injection of 8 Tg(S yr−1. Transport of species in the tropics and sub-tropics depends on the phase of the QBO. Consequently, the heated aerosol layer not only impacts the oscillation of the QBO but also the meridional transport of the sulfate aerosols. The stronger the injection, the stronger the heating and the simulated impact on the QBO and equatorial wind systems. With increasing injection rate the velocity of the equatorial jet streams increases, and the less sulfate is transported out of the tropics. This reduces the global distribution of sulfate and decreases the radiative forcing efficiency of the aerosol layer by 10 to 14 % compared to simulations with low vertical resolution and without generated QBO. Increasing the height of the injection increases the radiative forcing only for injection rates below 10 Tg(S yr−1 (8–18 %, a much smaller value than the 50 % calculated previously. Stronger injection rates at higher levels even result in smaller forcing than the injections at lower levels.

  13. Effect of Clouds on Sulfate Production and Aerosol Optical Depths in Western Pennsylvania During August 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, W. I.; Chapman, E. G.; Fast, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    A new comprehensive model is being applied to better understand the effect of clouds on sulfate aerosol production and the resultant change in aerosol optical depths (AODs) over western Pennsylvania during August 2004. The modeled period corresponds with a series of measurements made by the Department of Energy's G-1 aircraft and a suite of ground observations taken during the International Consortium of Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation Project (ICARTT). The model setup employs three two-way interacting grids with grid point spacings of 18, 6, and 2 km. The 2 km grid encompasses western Pennsylvania and portions of states to the south and west, including several coal-fired power plants along the Ohio River valley and southern Pennsylvania border. The 18 km grid encompasses a large portion of eastern North America. The purpose of this larger domain is to provide realistic chemical and aerosol boundary conditions to the interior grid and to allow transport from the interior grid to the surrounding region to study the local interactions of emissions from Pittsburgh and nearby power plants with clouds, and their impact on aerosol formation and transformation processes downwind of Pennsylvania. In addition to direct radiative feedbacks coupled to the MOSAIC sectional aerosol module in WRF-Chem, testing is currently underway on cloud-aerosol modules that have been implemented. They allow investigation of the aerosol indirect effect over multiple spatial scales, and consist of a nucleation routine for cloud droplets in the Lin et al. microphysics scheme, a process for performing aerosol phase transitions between interstitial and cloud phases, an aqueous chemistry scheme, and wet aerosol scavenging. Because of the frequency of clouds, the ICARTT campaign is a favorable candidate for testing new cloud-aerosol modules, particularly the aqueous-phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide. The model will be evaluated using measurements of lidar-based AODs as a

  14. Nucleation and growth of sulfate aerosol in coal-fired power plant plumes: sensitivity to background aerosol and meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Stevens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New-particle formation in the plumes of coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic sulfur sources may be an important source of particles in the atmosphere. It remains unclear, however, how best to reproduce this formation in global and regional aerosol models with grid-box lengths that are 10s of kilometers and larger. The predictive power of these models is thus limited by the resultant uncertainties in aerosol size distributions. In this paper, we focus on sub-grid sulfate aerosol processes within coal-fired power plant plumes: the sub-grid oxidation of SO2 with condensation of H2SO4 onto newly-formed and pre-existing particles. We have developed a modeling framework with aerosol microphysics in the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM, a Large-Eddy Simulation/Cloud-Resolving Model (LES/CRM. The model is evaluated against aircraft observations of new-particle formation in two different power-plant plumes and reproduces the major features of the observations. We show how the downwind plume aerosols can be greatly modified by both meteorological and background aerosol conditions. In general, new-particle formation and growth is greatly reduced during polluted conditions due to the large pre-existing aerosol surface area for H2SO4 condensation and particle coagulation. The new-particle formation and growth rates are also a strong function of the amount of sunlight and NOx since both control OH concentrations. The results of this study highlight the importance for improved sub-grid particle formation schemes in regional and global aerosol models.

  15. Nucleation and growth of sulfate aerosol in coal-fired power plant plumes: sensitivity to background aerosol and meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R. G.; Pierce, J. R.; Brock, C. A.; Reed, M. K.; Crawford, J. H.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Huey, L. G.; Nowak, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    New-particle formation in the plumes of coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic sulfur sources may be an important source of particles in the atmosphere. It remains unclear, however, how best to reproduce this formation in global and regional aerosol models with grid-box lengths that are 10s of kilometers and larger. The predictive power of these models is thus limited by the resultant uncertainties in aerosol size distributions. In this paper, we focus on sub-grid sulfate aerosol processes within coal-fired power plant plumes: the sub-grid oxidation of SO2 with condensation of H2SO4 onto newly-formed and pre-existing particles. We have developed a modeling framework with aerosol microphysics in the System for Atmospheric Modelling (SAM), a Large-Eddy Simulation/Cloud-Resolving Model (LES/CRM). The model is evaluated against aircraft observations of new-particle formation in two different power-plant plumes and reproduces the major features of the observations. We show how the downwind plume aerosols can be greatly modified by both meteorological and background aerosol conditions. In general, new-particle formation and growth is greatly reduced during polluted conditions due to the large pre-existing aerosol surface area for H2SO4 condensation and particle coagulation. The new-particle formation and growth rates are also a strong function of the amount of sunlight and NOx since both control OH concentrations. The results of this study highlight the importance for improved sub-grid particle formation schemes in regional and global aerosol models.

  16. Freezing Behavior of Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols Inferred from Trajectory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Toon, O. B.; Hamill, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    Temperature histories based on 10-day back growth trajectories for six ER-2 flights during AASE I (1989) and AAOE (1987) are presented. These trajectories along with the properties of the observed PSC (polar stratospheric cloud) particles are used here to infer the physical state of the pre-existing sulfuric acid aerosols. Of all the ER-2 flights described here, only the PSCs observed on the flights of January 24 and 25, 1989 are consistent with the thermodynamics of liquid ternary solutions of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O Ib PSCs). For these two days, back trajectories indicate that the air mass was exposed to SAT (sulfuric acid tetrahydrate) melting temperatures about 24 hours prior to being sampled by the ER-2. For the remaining ER-2 flights (January, 16, 19, and 20 for the AASE I campaign and August 17 for the AAOE campaign), the observed PSCs were probably composed of amorphous solid solutions of HNO3 and H2O (Type Ic PSCs). Formation of such Type Ic PSCs requires the presence of solid H2SO4 aerosols since liquid aerosols yield ternary solutions. The 10-day back trajectories of these flights indicate that the air mass was not exposed to SAT melting temperatures during the past week and had experienced cooling/warming cycles prior to being sampled by the ER-2. These temperature histories, recent laboratory measurements and the properties of glassy solids suggest that stratospheric H2SO4 aerosols may undergo a phase transition to SAT upon warming at approximately 198 K after going through a cooling cycle to about 194 K or lower.

  17. Radiative and Chemical Response to Interactive Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols in Fully Coupled CESM1(WACCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael J.; Richter, Jadwiga H.; Tilmes, Simone; Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Glanville, Anne A.; Tribbia, Joseph J.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Vitt, Francis; Schmidt, Anja; Gettelman, Andrew; Hannay, Cecile; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2017-12-01

    We present new insights into the evolution and interactions of stratospheric aerosol using an updated version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). Improved horizontal resolution, dynamics, and chemistry now produce an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation and significant improvements to stratospheric temperatures and ozone compared to observations. We present a validation of WACCM column ozone and climate calculations against observations. The prognostic treatment of stratospheric sulfate aerosols accurately represents the evolution of stratospheric aerosol optical depth and perturbations to solar and longwave radiation following the June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. We confirm the inclusion of interactive OH chemistry as an important factor in the formation and initial distribution of aerosol following large inputs of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the stratosphere. We calculate that depletion of OH levels within the dense SO2 cloud in the first weeks following the Pinatubo eruption significantly prolonged the average initial e-folding decay time for SO2 oxidation to 47 days. Previous observational and model studies showing a 30 day decay time have not accounted for the large (30-55%) losses of SO2 on ash and ice within 7-9 days posteruption and have not correctly accounted for OH depletion. We examine the variability of aerosol evolution in free-running climate simulations due to meteorology, with comparison to simulations nudged with specified dynamics. We assess calculated impacts of volcanic aerosols on ozone loss with comparisons to observations. The completeness of the chemistry, dynamics, and aerosol microphysics in WACCM qualify it for studies of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering.

  18. Optical constants of ammonium sulfate in the infrared. [stratospheric aerosol refractive and absorption indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Sethna, P. P.; Williams, D.

    1977-01-01

    The infrared spectral reflectance at near normal incidence has been measured for 3.2 M, 2.4 M, and 1.6 M solutions of ammonium sulfate, an aerosol abundant in the stratosphere and also present in the troposphere. Kramers-Kronig analysis was used to determine values of the refractive and absorption indices from the measured spectral reflectance. A synthetic spectrum of crystalline ammonium sulfate was obtained by extrapolation of the absorption index obtained for the solution to the absorber number densities of the NH4 and SO4 ions characteristic of the crystal.

  19. Evaluating Ammonium, Nitrate and Sulfate Aerosols in 3-Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuman, Keren; Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The effect aerosols have on climate and air quality is a func-on of their chemical composi-on, concentra-on and spa-al distribu-on. These parameters are controlled by emissions, heterogeneous and homogeneous chemistry, where thermodynamics plays a key role, transport, which includes stratospheric-­- tropospheric exchange, and deposi-onal sinks. In this work we demonstrate the effect of some of these processes on the SO4-NH4­-NO3 system using the GISS ModelE2 Global Circula-on Model (GCM).

  20. Effect of Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering on Tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Moore, J.; Ji, D.

    2017-12-01

    Variation in tropical cyclone (TC) number and intensity is driven in part by changes in the thermodynamics that can be defined by ocean and atmospheric variables. Genesis Potential Index (GPI) and ventilation index (VI) are combinations of potential intensity, vertical wind shear, relative humidity, midlevel entropy deficit, and absolute vorticity that quantify thermodynamic forcing of TC activity under changed climates, and can be calculated from climate model output. Here we use five CMIP5 models running the RCP45 experiment the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) stratospheric aerosol injection G4 experiment to calculate the two indices over the 2020 to 2069 period. Globally, GPI under G4 is lower than under RCP45, though both have a slight increasing trend. Spatial patterns in the relative effectiveness of geoengineering show reductions in TC in all models in the North Atlantic basin, and northern Indian Ocean in all except NorESM1-M. In the North Pacific, most models also show relative reductions under G4. VI generally coincide with the GPI patterns. Most models project Potential intensity and Relative Humidity to be the dominant variable to affect genesis potential. Changes in vertical wind shear and vorticity are small with scatter across different models and ocean basins. We find that tropopause temperature maybe as important as sea surface temperature in effecting TC genesis. Thus stratospheric aerosol geoengineering impacts on potential intensity and hence TC intensity are reasonably consistent, but probably underestimated by statistical forecasts of Tropical North Atlantic hurricane activity driven by sea surface temperatures alone. However the impacts of geoengineering on other ocean basins are more difficult to assess, and require more complete understanding of their driving parameters under present day climates. Furthermore, the possible effects of stratospheric injection on chemical reactions in the stratosphere, such as ozone, are

  1. Secondary organic aerosol formation during evaporation of droplets containing atmospheric aldehydes, amines, and ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Melissa M; Powelson, Michelle H; Sedehi, Nahzaneen; Wood, Stephanie E; Millage, Katherine D; Kononenko, Julia A; Rynaski, Alec D; De Haan, David O

    2014-12-16

    Reactions of carbonyl compounds in cloudwater produce organic aerosol mass through in-cloud oxidation and during postcloud evaporation. In this work, postcloud evaporation was simulated in laboratory experiments on evaporating droplets that contain mixtures of common atmospheric aldehydes with ammonium sulfate (AS), methylamine, or glycine. Aerosol diameters were measured during monodisperse droplet drying experiments and during polydisperse droplet equilibration experiments at 75% relative humidity, and condensed-phase mass was measured in bulk thermogravimetric experiments. The evaporation of water from a droplet was found to trigger aldehyde reactions that increased residual particle volumes by a similar extent in room-temperature experiments, regardless of whether AS, methylamine, or glycine was present. The production of organic aerosol volume was highest from droplets containing glyoxal, followed by similar production from methylglyoxal or hydroxyacetone. Significant organic aerosol production was observed for glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde only at elevated temperatures in thermogravimetric experiments. In many experiments, the amount of aerosol produced was greater than the sum of all solutes plus nonvolatile solvent impurities, indicating the additional presence of trapped water, likely caused by increasing aerosol-phase viscosity due to oligomer formation.

  2. Investigating the influence of volcanic sulfate aerosol on cloud properties Along A-Train tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds are central actors in the climate system given their extensive coverage on the Earth's surface, their 1-way influence on the radiative balance (cooling), and their intimate coupling between air motions, anthropogenic and natural aerosol sources, and processes within the upper ocean mixed layer. Knowledge of how MBL shallow cumulus clouds respond to changes in aerosol is central to understanding how MBL clouds modulate the climate system. A frequent approach to investigating how sulfate aerosol influences MBL clouds has been to examine sulfate plumes extending downstream of active island volcanoes. This approach is challenging due to modification of the air motions in the plumes downstream of islands and due to the tendency of most researchers to examine only level-2 retrievals ignoring the actual data collected by sensors such as MODIS. Past studies have concluded that sulfate aerosols have large effects consistent with the 1st aerosol indirect effect (AIE). We reason that if such effects are as large as suggested in level-2 retrievals then evidence should also be present in the raw MODIS reflectance data as well as other data sources. In this paper we will build on our recently published work where we tested that hypothesis from data collected near Mount Kilauea during a 3-year period. Separating data into aerosol optical depth (A) quartiles, we found little support for a large 1st AIE response. We did find an unambiguous increase in sub 1km-scale cloud fraction with A. This increase in sub 1 km cloud fraction was entirely consistent with increased reflectance with increasing A that is used, via the level 2 retrievals, to argue for a large AIE response of MBL clouds. While the 1-km pixels became unambiguously brighter, that brightening was due to increased sub 1 km cloud fraction and not necessarily due to changes in pixel-level cloud microphysics. We also found that MBL cloud top heights increase as do surface wind speeds as

  3. Hygroscopic behavior of multicomponent organic aerosols and their internal mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Tong, Shengrui; Liu, Qifan; Li, Kun; Wang, Weigang; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2016-03-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) are important components of organics in the atmospheric fine particulate matter. Although WSOCs play an important role in the hygroscopicity of aerosols, knowledge on the water uptake behavior of internally mixed WSOC aerosols remains limited. Here, the hygroscopic properties of single components such as levoglucosan, oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, phthalic acid, and multicomponent WSOC aerosols mainly involving oxalic acid are investigated with the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The coexisting hygroscopic species including levoglucosan, malonic acid, and phthalic acid have a strong influence on the hygroscopic growth and phase behavior of oxalic acid, even suppressing its crystallization completely during the drying process. The phase behaviors of oxalic acid/levoglucosan mixed particles are confirmed by infrared spectra. The discrepancies between measured growth factors and predictions from Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) with the Universal Quasi-Chemical Functional Group Activity Coefficient (UNIFAC) method and Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) approach increase at medium and high relative humidity (RH) assuming oxalic acid in a crystalline solid state. For the internal mixture of oxalic acid with levoglucosan or succinic acid, there is enhanced water uptake at high RH compared to the model predictions based on reasonable oxalic acid phase assumption. Organic mixture has more complex effects on the hygroscopicity of ammonium sulfate than single species. Although hygroscopic species such as levoglucosan account for a small fraction in the multicomponent aerosols, they may still strongly influence the hygroscopic behavior of ammonium sulfate by changing the phase state of oxalic acid which plays the role of "intermediate" species. Considering the abundance of oxalic acid in the atmospheric aerosols, its mixtures with hygroscopic species may significantly promote water uptake

  4. Hygroscopic behavior of multicomponent organic aerosols and their internal mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs are important components of organics in the atmospheric fine particulate matter. Although WSOCs play an important role in the hygroscopicity of aerosols, knowledge on the water uptake behavior of internally mixed WSOC aerosols remains limited. Here, the hygroscopic properties of single components such as levoglucosan, oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, phthalic acid, and multicomponent WSOC aerosols mainly involving oxalic acid are investigated with the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The coexisting hygroscopic species including levoglucosan, malonic acid, and phthalic acid have a strong influence on the hygroscopic growth and phase behavior of oxalic acid, even suppressing its crystallization completely during the drying process. The phase behaviors of oxalic acid/levoglucosan mixed particles are confirmed by infrared spectra. The discrepancies between measured growth factors and predictions from Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM with the Universal Quasi-Chemical Functional Group Activity Coefficient (UNIFAC method and Zdanovskii–Stokes–Robinson (ZSR approach increase at medium and high relative humidity (RH assuming oxalic acid in a crystalline solid state. For the internal mixture of oxalic acid with levoglucosan or succinic acid, there is enhanced water uptake at high RH compared to the model predictions based on reasonable oxalic acid phase assumption. Organic mixture has more complex effects on the hygroscopicity of ammonium sulfate than single species. Although hygroscopic species such as levoglucosan account for a small fraction in the multicomponent aerosols, they may still strongly influence the hygroscopic behavior of ammonium sulfate by changing the phase state of oxalic acid which plays the role of "intermediate" species. Considering the abundance of oxalic acid in the atmospheric aerosols, its mixtures with hygroscopic species may significantly

  5. Assessment of the first indirect radiative effect of ammonium-sulfate-nitrate aerosols in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Skorokhod, Andrei

    2017-11-01

    A physically based cloud nucleation parameterization was introduced into an optical properties/radiative transfer module incorporated with the off-line air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-Models-3 Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) to investigate the distribution features of the first indirect radiative effects of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium-sulfate-nitrate (ASN) over East Asia for the years of 2005, 2010, and 2013. The relationship between aerosol particles and cloud droplet number concentration could be properly described by this parameterization because the simulated cloud fraction and cloud liquid water path were generally reliable compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieved data. Simulation results showed that the strong effect of indirect forcing was mainly concentrated in Southeast China, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The highest indirect radiative forcing of ASN reached -3.47 W m-2 over Southeast China and was obviously larger than the global mean of the indirect forcing of all anthropogenic aerosols. In addition, sulfate provided about half of the contribution to the ASN indirect forcing effect. However, the effect caused by nitrate was weak because the mass burden of nitrate was very low during summer, whereas the cloud fraction was the highest. The analysis indicated that even though the interannual variation of indirect forcing magnitude generally followed the trend of aerosol mass burden from 2005 to 2013, the cloud fraction was an important factor that determined the distribution pattern of indirect forcing. The heaviest aerosol loading in North China did not cause a strong radiative effect because of the low cloud fraction over this region.

  6. Effects of ammonium sulfate aerosols on vegetation—II. Mode of entry and responses of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmur, Nicholas F.; Evans, Lance S.; Cunningham, Elizabeth A.

    These experiments were designed to provide information on the rates of aerosol deposition, mode of entry, and effects of deposition of submicrometer ammonium sulfate aerosols on foliage of Phaseolus vulgaris L. A deposition velocity of 3.2 × 10 3cms-1 was constant during 3-week exposures of plants to aerosol concentrations of 26mg m -3 (i.e. about two orders of magnitude above ambient episode concentrations). Mean deposition rate on foliage was 4.1 × 10 -11 μg cm -2s -1. Visible injury symptoms included leaf chlorosis, necrosis and loss of turgor. Chlorosis was most frequent near leaf margins causing epinasty and near major veins. Internal injury occurred initially in spongy mesophyll cells. Eventually abaxial epidermal and palisade parenchyma cells were injured. These results suggest that submicrometer aerosols enter abaxial stomata and affect more internal cells before affecting leaf surface cells. Exposure to aerosols decreased both abaxial and adaxial leaf resistances markedly. Although visible injury to foliage occurred, no changes in dry mass of roots and shoots or leaf area occurred. These results suggest that for the plant developmental stage studied, while leaf resistances decreased and cellular injury occurred in foliage, these factors were not significantly related to plant growth and development.

  7. Hygroscopicity of organic compounds from biomass burning and their influence on the water uptake of mixed organic ammonium sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T.; Zuend, A.; Wang, W. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ge, M. F.

    2014-10-01

    Hygroscopic behavior of organic compounds, including levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and humic acid, as well as their effects on the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate (AS) in internally mixed particles are studied by a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds used represent pyrolysis products of wood that are emitted from biomass burning sources. It is found that humic acid aerosol particles only slightly take up water, starting at RH (relative humidity) above ~70%. This is contrasted by the continuous water absorption of levoglucosan aerosol particles in the range 5-90% RH. However, no hygroscopic growth is observed for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles. Predicted water uptake using the ideal solution theory, the AIOMFAC model and the E-AIM (with UNIFAC) model are consistent with measured hygroscopic growth factors of levoglucosan. However, the use of these models without consideration of crystalline organic phases is not appropriate to describe the hygroscopicity of organics that do not exhibit continuous water uptake, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and humic acid. Mixed aerosol particles consisting of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, or humic acid with different organic mass fractions, take up a reduced amount of water above 80% RH (above AS deliquescence) relative to pure ammonium sulfate aerosol particles of the same mass. Hygroscopic growth of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan with different organic mass fractions agree well with the predictions of the thermodynamic models. Use of the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation and AIOMFAC model lead to good agreement with measured growth factors of mixtures of ammonium sulfate with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid assuming an insoluble organic phase. Deviations of model predictions from the HTDMA measurement are mainly due to the occurrence of a microscopical solid phase restructuring at increased humidity (morphology

  8. Simulation of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols over the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Walker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of inorganic gases and aerosols (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium are simulated for 2009 over the United States using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Predicted aerosol concentrations are compared with surface-level measurement data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE, the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET, and the California Air Resources Board (CARB. Sulfate predictions nationwide are in reasonably good agreement with observations, while nitrate and ammonium are over-predicted in the East and Midwest, but under-predicted in California, where observed concentrations are the highest in the country. Over-prediction of nitrate in the East and Midwest is consistent with results of recent studies, which suggest that nighttime nitric acid formation by heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 is over-predicted based on current values of the N2O5 uptake coefficient, γ, onto aerosols. After reducing the value of γ by a factor of 10, predicted nitrate levels in the US Midwest and East still remain higher than those measured, and over-prediction of nitrate in this region remains unexplained. Comparison of model predictions with satellite measurements of ammonia from the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES indicates that ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem are underestimated in California and that the nationwide seasonality applied to ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem does not represent California very well, particularly underestimating winter emissions. An ammonia sensitivity study indicates that GEOS-Chem simulation of nitrate is ammonia-limited in southern California and much of the state, suggesting that an underestimate of ammonia emissions is likely the main cause for the under-prediction of nitrate aerosol in many areas of California. An approximate doubling of ammonia emissions is needed to reproduce observed nitrate concentrations in

  9. Internally mixed soot, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Soot particles are major aerosol constituents that result from emissions of burning of fossil fuel and biomass. Because they both absorb sunlight and contribute to cloud formation, they are an influence on climate on local, regional, and global scales. It is therefore important to evaluate their optical and hygroscopic properties and those effects on the radiation budget. Those properties commonly change through reaction with other particles or gases, resulting in complex internal mixtures. Using transmission electron microscopy, we measured ~8000 particles (25 samples) with aerodynamic diameters from 0.05 to 0.3 μm that were collected in March 2006 from aircraft over Mexico City (MC) and adjacent areas. More than 50% of the particles consist of internally mixed soot, organic matter, and sulfate. Imaging combined with chemical analysis of individual particles show that many are coated, consist of aggregates, or both. Coatings on soot particles can amplify their light absorption, and coagulation with sulfates changes their hygroscopic properties, resulting in shorter lifetime. Our results suggest that a mixture of materials from multiple sources such as vehicles, power plants, and biomass burning occurs in individual particles, thereby increasing their complexity. Through changes in their optical and hygroscopic properties, internally mixed soot particles have a greater effect on the regional climate than uncoated soot particles. Moreover, soot occurs in more than 60% of all particles in the MC plumes, suggesting its important role in the formation of secondary aerosol particles.

  10. Potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we compare the potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on the air quality of (different) continental regions. We use a global chemical transport model, Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), to quantify the source-receptor relationships of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols among ten regions in 2000. In order to compare the importance of foreign with domestic emissions and to estimate the effect of future changes in emissions on human exposure, we define an 'influence potential' (IP). The IP quantifies the human exposure that occurs in a receptor region as a result of a unit of SO 2 emissions from a source region. We find that due to the non-linear nature of sulfate production, regions with low SO 2 emissions usually have large domestic IP, and vice versa. An exception is East Asia (EA), which has both high SO 2 emissions and relatively large domestic IP, mostly caused by the spatial coincidence of emissions and population. We find that inter-continental IPs are usually less than domestic IPs by 1-3 orders of magnitude. SO 2 emissions from the Middle East (ME) and Europe (EU) have the largest potential to influence populations in surrounding regions. By comparing the IP ratios (IPR) between foreign and domestic SO 2 emissions, we find that the IPR values range from 0.000 01 to 0.16 and change with season. Therefore, if reducing human exposure to sulfate aerosols is the objective, all regions should first focus on reducing domestic SO 2 emissions. In addition, we find that relatively high IPR values exist among the EU, ME, the former Soviet Union (FSU) and African (AF) regions. Therefore, on the basis of the IP and IPR values, we conclude that a regional agreement among EA countries, and an inter-regional agreement among EU, ME, FSU and (north) AF regions to control sulfur emissions could benefit public health in these regions

  11. Aerosol pH buffering in the southeastern US: Fine particles remain highly acidic despite large reductions in sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R. J.; Guo, H.; Russell, A. G.; Nenes, A.

    2015-12-01

    pH is a critical aerosol property that impacts many atmospheric processes, including biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, gas-particle phase partitioning, and mineral dust or redox metal mobilization. Particle pH has also been linked to adverse health effects. Using a comprehensive data set from the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) as the basis for thermodynamic modeling, we have shown that particles are currently highly acidic in the southeastern US, with pH between 0 and 2. Sulfate and ammonium are the main acid-base components that determine particle pH in this region, however they have different sources and their concentrations are changing. Over 15 years of network data show that sulfur dioxide emission reductions have resulted in a roughly 70 percent decrease in sulfate, whereas ammonia emissions, mainly link to agricultural activities, have been largely steady, as have gas phase ammonia concentrations. This has led to the view that particles are becoming more neutralized. However, sensitivity analysis, based on thermodynamic modeling, to changing sulfate concentrations indicates that particles have remained highly acidic over the past decade, despite the large reductions in sulfate. Furthermore, anticipated continued reductions of sulfate and relatively constant ammonia emissions into the future will not significantly change particle pH until sulfate drops to clean continental background levels. The result reshapes our expectation of future particle pH and implies that atmospheric processes and adverse health effects linked to particle acidity will remain unchanged for some time into the future.

  12. A new experimental approach to study the hygroscopic and the optical properties of aerosols: application to ammonium sulfate particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Katrib, Y.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Doussin, J. F.

    2013-07-01

    A new methodology for the determination of size distribution and optical properties of aerosols as a function of the relative humidity (RH) in simulation chamber is described. The hygroscopic properties of aerosols can be investigated by exposing aerosols to varying RH ranging from 0 to 100% for approximately 1 h. This method is also proved useful in both providing information on the RH dependence of size and scattering coefficient (σscat) of the overall size distribution. The complex refractive index (CRI) of aerosols can be retrieved at λ = 525 nm, as well as in the visible spectrum. Ammonium sulfate particles that have well known optical and hygroscopic properties were used for the measurements. The particle's growth was compared to values obtained for one selected size of particles (150 nm) with a H-TDMA and the effect of the residence time for particles humidification was investigated. The CRI of ammonium sulfate particles obtained from the two methods (1.54-1.57) compared favorably to each other and are also in reasonable agreement with the literature values. When the humidification is performed in the chamber for a few minutes, a continuous increase of the ammonium sulfate particle's size and σscat was observed from RH values as low as 30% RH. Comparison of the measured and modeled values based on Köhler and Mie theories shows that layers of water are adsorbed on ammonium sulfate particles below the deliquescence point. In contradiction, the particle's growth reported with H-TDMAs showed a prompt deliquescence of ammonium sulfate particles with no continuous growth in size at low RH. The findings highlight the need to allow sufficient time for particle-water vapor equilibrium in investigating the aerosols hygroscopic properties. H-TDMA instruments induce limited residence time for humidification and seem to be insufficient for water adsorption on ammonium sulfate particles.

  13. Importance of including ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 aerosols for ice cloud parameterization in GCMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A common deficiency of many cloud-physics parameterizations including the NASA's microphysics of clouds with aerosol-cloud interactions (hereafter called McRAS-AC is that they simulate lesser (larger than the observed ice cloud particle number (size. A single column model (SCM of McRAS-AC physics of the GEOS4 Global Circulation Model (GCM together with an adiabatic parcel model (APM for ice-cloud nucleation (IN of aerosols were used to systematically examine the influence of introducing ammonium sulfate (NH42SO4 aerosols in McRAS-AC and its influence on the optical properties of both liquid and ice clouds. First an (NH42SO4 parameterization was included in the APM to assess its effect on clouds vis-à-vis that of the other aerosols. Subsequently, several evaluation tests were conducted over the ARM Southern Great Plain (SGP and thirteen other locations (sorted into pristine and polluted conditions distributed over marine and continental sites with the SCM. The statistics of the simulated cloud climatology were evaluated against the available ground and satellite data. The results showed that inclusion of (NH42SO4 into McRAS-AC of the SCM made a remarkable improvement in the simulated effective radius of ice cloud particulates. However, the corresponding ice-cloud optical thickness increased even more than the observed. This can be caused by lack of horizontal cloud advection not performed in the SCM. Adjusting the other tunable parameters such as precipitation efficiency can mitigate this deficiency. Inclusion of ice cloud particle splintering invoked empirically further reduced simulation biases. Overall, these changes make a substantial improvement in simulated cloud optical properties and cloud distribution particularly over the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ in the GCM.

  14. Effects of the physical state of tropospheric ammonium-sulfate-nitrate particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous versus crystalline sulfate-nitrate-ammonium tropospheric particles on global aerosol direct radiative forcing is assessed. A global three-dimensional chemical transport model predicts sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosol mass. An aerosol thermodynamics model is called twice, once for the upper side (US and once for lower side (LS of the hysteresis loop of particle phase. On the LS, the sulfate mass budget is 40% solid ammonium sulfate, 12% letovicite, 11% ammonium bisulfate, and 37% aqueous. The LS nitrate mass budget is 26% solid ammonium nitrate, 7% aqueous, and 67% gas-phase nitric acid release due to increased volatility upon crystallization. The LS ammonium budget is 45% solid ammonium sulfate, 10% letovicite, 6% ammonium bisulfate, 4% ammonium nitrate, 7% ammonia release due to increased volatility, and 28% aqueous. LS aerosol water mass partitions as 22% effloresced to the gas-phase and 78% remaining as aerosol mass. The predicted US/LS global fields of aerosol mass are employed in a Mie scattering model to generate global US/LS aerosol optical properties, including scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Global annual average LS optical depth and mass scattering efficiency are, respectively, 0.023 and 10.7 m2 (g SO4-2-1, which compare to US values of 0.030 and 13.9 m2 (g SO4-2-1. Radiative transport is computed, first for a base case having no aerosol and then for the two global fields corresponding to the US and LS of the hysteresis loop. Regional, global, seasonal, and annual averages of top-of-the-atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing on the LS and US (FL and FU, respectively, in W m-2 are calculated. Including both anthropogenic and natural emissions, we obtain global annual averages of FL=-0.750, FU=-0.930, and DFU,L=24% for full sky calculations without clouds and FL=-0.485, FU=-0.605, and DFU,L=25% when clouds are included. Regionally, DFU,L=48% over the USA, 55% over Europe

  15. The Sectional Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol module (S3A-v1) within the LMDZ general circulation model: description and evaluation against stratospheric aerosol observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmitt, Christoph; Boucher, Olivier; Bekki, Slimane; Lott, François; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Stratospheric aerosols play an important role in the climate system by affecting the Earth's radiative budget as well as atmospheric chemistry, and the capabilities to simulate them interactively within global models are continuously improving. It is important to represent accurately both aerosol microphysical and atmospheric dynamical processes because together they affect the size distribution and the residence time of the aerosol particles in the stratosphere. The newly developed LMDZ-S3A model presented in this article uses a sectional approach for sulfate particles in the stratosphere and includes the relevant microphysical processes. It allows full interaction between aerosol radiative effects (e.g. radiative heating) and atmospheric dynamics, including e.g. an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the stratosphere. Sulfur chemistry is semi-prescribed via climatological lifetimes. LMDZ-S3A reasonably reproduces aerosol observations in periods of low (background) and high (volcanic) stratospheric sulfate loading, but tends to overestimate the number of small particles and to underestimate the number of large particles. Thus, it may serve as a tool to study the climate impacts of volcanic eruptions, as well as the deliberate anthropogenic injection of aerosols into the stratosphere, which has been proposed as a method of geoengineering to abate global warming.

  16. Direct shortwave forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol: Sensitivity to particle size, composition, and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemesure, S.; Wagener, R.; Schwartz, S.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, New York (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Recent estimates of global or hemispheric average forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol due to scattering of shortwave radiation are uncertain by more than a factor of 2. This paper examines the sensitivity of forcing to these microphysical properties for the purposes of obtaining a better understanding of the properties required to reduce the uncertainty in the forcing.

  17. Isotopic constraints on the role of hypohalous acids in sulfate aerosol formation in the remote marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate is an important component of global atmospheric aerosol, and has partially compensated for greenhouse gas-induced warming during the industrial period. The magnitude of direct and indirect radiative forcing of aerosols since preindustrial times is a large uncertainty in climate models, which has been attributed largely to uncertainties in the preindustrial environment. Here, we report observations of the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O of sulfate aerosol collected in the remote marine boundary layer (MBL in spring and summer in order to evaluate sulfate production mechanisms in pristine-like environments. Model-aided analysis of the observations suggests that 33–50 % of sulfate in the MBL is formed via oxidation by hypohalous acids (HOX  =  HOBr + HOCl, a production mechanism typically excluded in large-scale models due to uncertainties in the reaction rates, which are due mainly to uncertainties in reactive halogen concentrations. Based on the estimated fraction of sulfate formed via HOX oxidation, we further estimate that daily-averaged HOX mixing ratios on the order of 0.01–0.1 parts per trillion (ppt  =  pmol/mol in the remote MBL during spring and summer are sufficient to explain the observations.

  18. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  19. First Simulations of Designing Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering to Meet Multiple Simultaneous Climate Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Mills, Michael J.; Richter, Jadwiga H.; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tribbia, Joseph J.; Vitt, Francis

    2017-12-01

    We describe the first simulations of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering using multiple injection locations to meet multiple simultaneous surface temperature objectives. Simulations were performed using CESM1(WACCM), a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with fully interactive stratospheric chemistry, dynamics (including an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation), and a sophisticated treatment of sulfate aerosol formation, microphysical growth, and deposition. The objectives are defined as maintaining three temperature features at their 2020 levels against a background of the RCP8.5 scenario over the period 2020-2099. These objectives are met using a feedback mechanism in which the rate of sulfur dioxide injection at each of the four locations is adjusted independently every year of simulation. Even in the presence of uncertainties, nonlinearities, and variability, the objectives are met, predominantly by SO2 injection at 30°N and 30°S. By the last year of simulation, the feedback algorithm calls for a total injection rate of 51 Tg SO2 per year. The injections are not in the tropics, which results in a greater degree of linearity of the surface climate response with injection amount than has been found in many previous studies using injection at the equator. Because the objectives are defined in terms of annual mean temperature, the required geongineering results in "overcooling" during summer and "undercooling" during winter. The hydrological cycle is also suppressed as compared to the reference values corresponding to the year 2020. The demonstration we describe in this study is an important step toward understanding what geoengineering can do and what it cannot do.

  20. Simulation of the Influence of Aerosol Microphysical Processes on Properties of Sulfate Aerosols in the Eastern United States 1: Mass and number concentrations and size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Wright, D. L.; McGraw, R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2001-05-01

    We investigate the influences of aerosol microphysical processes on geographical and vertical distributions of mass and number concentrations and size distributions of sulfate aerosols in the eastern US during the summer 1995. The host 3-D regional model is the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP) for transport, driven by MM5 meteorological model. Aerosol dynamics and microphysics are simulated by the Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM, Wright et al., GRL, 2000; Wright et al., JGR, 2001). The QMOM simultaneously tracks the six lowest-order radial moments of a particle size distribution directly in space and time without the need for explicitly representing the distribution itself. We compare modeled aerosol number and mass concentrations and effective radius with those obtained from the field measurements in the eastern US during summer 1995 including IMPROVE (Sisler and Malm, 2000, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc.), CASTNeT (Holland et al., 1999, Atmos. Environ.), SEAVE (Andrews et al., 2000, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc) and measurements on Mt. Mitchell, NC (Yu et al., JGR, 2000). The relative contributions of various processes to the properties of sulfate aerosols are discussed.

  1. Sensitivity of modelled sulfate aerosol and its radiative effect on climate to ocean DMS concentration and air–sea flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-E. Tesdal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dimethylsulfide (DMS is a well-known marine trace gas that is emitted from the ocean and subsequently oxidizes to sulfate in the atmosphere. Sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere have direct and indirect effects on the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Thus, as a potential source of sulfate, ocean efflux of DMS needs to be accounted for in climate studies. Seawater concentration of DMS is highly variable in space and time, which in turn leads to high spatial and temporal variability in ocean DMS emissions. Because of sparse sampling (in both space and time, large uncertainties remain regarding ocean DMS concentration. In this study, we use an atmospheric general circulation model with explicit aerosol chemistry (CanAM4.1 and several climatologies of surface ocean DMS concentration to assess uncertainties about the climate impact of ocean DMS efflux. Despite substantial variation in the spatial pattern and seasonal evolution of simulated DMS fluxes, the global-mean radiative effect of sulfate is approximately linearly proportional to the global-mean surface flux of DMS; the spatial and temporal distribution of ocean DMS efflux has only a minor effect on the global radiation budget. The effect of the spatial structure, however, generates statistically significant changes in the global-mean concentrations of some aerosol species. The effect of seasonality on the net radiative effect is larger than that of spatial distribution and is significant at global scale.

  2. Absorption and scattering properties of organic carbon versus sulfate dominant aerosols at Gosan climate observatory in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S.; Lee, M.; Kim, S.-W.; Yoon, S.-C.; Lee, G.; Lee, Y. J.

    2014-08-01

    Carbonaceous and soluble ionic species of PM1.0 and PM10 were measured along with the absorption and scattering properties and aerosol number size distributions at Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO) from January to September 2008. The daily averaged equivalent black carbon (EBC) measured as aerosol absorption exhibited two types of spectral dependence with a distinct maximum (peak) at either 370 nm or 880 nm, by which two subsets were extracted and classified into the respective groups (370 and 880 nm). The 370 nm group was distinguished by high organic carbon (OC) concentrations relative to elemental carbon (EC) and sulfate, but sulfate was predominant for the 880 nm group. The PM1.0 OC of the 370 nm group was mainly composed of refractory and pyrolized components that correlated well with PM1.0 EC1, referred to as char EC, which suggests biofuel and biomass combustion as the source of these OC fractions, particularly during winter. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and the number size distributions implied that aerosols of the 370 nm group were externally mixed upon transport in fast-moving air masses that passed through the Beijing area in about one day. In contrast, the aerosols of the 880 nm group were characterized by high sulfate concentrations, and seemed to be internally mixed during slow transport over the Yellow Sea region over approximately 2 to 4 days. The absorption and scattering coefficients of the 880 nm group were noticeably higher compared to those of the 370 nm group. The average absorption ångström exponent (AAE) was estimated to be 1.29 and 1.0 for the 370 and 880 nm groups, respectively, in the range 370-950 nm. These results demonstrated that the optical properties of aerosols were intimately linked to chemical composition and mixing state, characteristics determined both by source and atmospheric aging processes. In OC dominant aerosols, absorption was enhanced in the UV region, which was possibly due to refractory and pyrolized

  3. Absorption and scattering properties of organic carbon vs. sulfate dominant aerosols at Gosan climate observatory in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S.; Lee, M.; Kim, S.-W.; Yoon, S.-C.; Lee, G.; Lee, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonaceous and soluble ionic species of PM1.0 and PM10 were measured along with the absorption and scattering properties and aerosol number size distributions at Gosan climate observatory (GCO) from January to September 2008. The daily averaged equivalent black carbon (EBC) measured as aerosol absorption exhibited two types of spectral dependence with a distinct maximum (peak) at either 370 nm or 880 nm, by which two subsets were extracted and classified into the respective groups (370 nm and 880 nm). The 370 nm group was distinguished by high organic carbon (OC) concentrations relative to elemental carbon (EC) and sulfate, but sulfate was predominant for the 880 nm group. The PM1.0 OC of the 370 nm group was mainly composed of refractory and pyrolized components that correlated well with PM1.0 EC1, referred to as char EC, which suggests biofuel and biomass combustion as the source of these OC fractions, particularly during winter. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and the number size distributions implied that aerosols of the 370 nm group were externally mixed upon transport in fast-moving air masses that passed through the Beijing area in about one day. In contrast, the aerosols of the 880 nm group were characterized by high sulfate concentrations, and seemed to be internally mixed during slow transport over the Yellow Sea region over approximately two to four days. The absorption and scattering coefficients of the 880 nm group were noticeably higher compared to those of the 370 nm group. The average absorption ångström exponent (AAE) was estimated to be 1.29 and 1.0 for the 370 nm and 880 nm groups, respectively, in the range 370-950 nm. These results demonstrated that the optical properties of aerosols were intimately linked to chemical composition and mixing state, characteristics determined both by source and atmospheric aging processes. In OC dominant aerosols, absorption was enhanced in the UV region, which was possibly due to refractory and

  4. Glacier evolution in high-mountain Asia under stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection may help preserve mountain glaciers by reducing summer temperatures. We examine this hypothesis for the glaciers in high-mountain Asia using a glacier mass balance model driven by climate simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP. The G3 and G4 schemes specify use of stratospheric sulfate aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 4.5 scenario for the 50 years between 2020 and 2069, and for a further 20 years after termination of geoengineering. We estimate and compare glacier volume loss for every glacier in the region using a glacier model based on surface mass balance parameterization under climate projections from three Earth system models under G3, five models under G4, and six models under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The ensemble projections suggest that glacier shrinkage over the period 2010–2069 is equivalent to sea-level rise of 9.0 ± 1.6 mm (G3, 9.8 ± 4.3 mm (G4, 15.5 ± 2.3 mm (RCP4.5, and 18.5 ± 1.7 mm (RCP8.5. Although G3 keeps the average temperature from increasing in the geoengineering period, G3 only slows glacier shrinkage by about 50 % relative to losses from RCP8.5. Approximately 72 % of glaciated area remains at 2069 under G3, as compared with about 30 % for RCP8.5. The widely reported reduction in mean precipitation expected for solar geoengineering is unlikely to be as important as the temperature-driven shift from solid to liquid precipitation for forcing Himalayan glacier change. The termination of geoengineering at 2069 under G3 leads to temperature rise of about 1.3 °C over the period 2070–2089 relative to the period 2050-2069 and corresponding increase in annual mean glacier volume loss rate from 0.17 to 1.1 % yr−1, which is higher than the 0.66 % yr−1 under RCP8.5 during 2070–2089.

  5. Glacier evolution in high-mountain Asia under stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liyun; Yang, Yi; Cheng, Wei; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C.

    2017-06-01

    Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection may help preserve mountain glaciers by reducing summer temperatures. We examine this hypothesis for the glaciers in high-mountain Asia using a glacier mass balance model driven by climate simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The G3 and G4 schemes specify use of stratospheric sulfate aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario for the 50 years between 2020 and 2069, and for a further 20 years after termination of geoengineering. We estimate and compare glacier volume loss for every glacier in the region using a glacier model based on surface mass balance parameterization under climate projections from three Earth system models under G3, five models under G4, and six models under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The ensemble projections suggest that glacier shrinkage over the period 2010-2069 is equivalent to sea-level rise of 9.0 ± 1.6 mm (G3), 9.8 ± 4.3 mm (G4), 15.5 ± 2.3 mm (RCP4.5), and 18.5 ± 1.7 mm (RCP8.5). Although G3 keeps the average temperature from increasing in the geoengineering period, G3 only slows glacier shrinkage by about 50 % relative to losses from RCP8.5. Approximately 72 % of glaciated area remains at 2069 under G3, as compared with about 30 % for RCP8.5. The widely reported reduction in mean precipitation expected for solar geoengineering is unlikely to be as important as the temperature-driven shift from solid to liquid precipitation for forcing Himalayan glacier change. The termination of geoengineering at 2069 under G3 leads to temperature rise of about 1.3 °C over the period 2070-2089 relative to the period 2050-2069 and corresponding increase in annual mean glacier volume loss rate from 0.17 to 1.1 % yr-1, which is higher than the 0.66 % yr-1 under RCP8.5 during 2070-2089.

  6. Comparative thermodynamic studies of aqueous glutaric acid, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, Kate L; Mitchem, Laura; Reid, Jonathan P; Clegg, Simon L; Topping, David O; McFiggans, Gordon B

    2008-10-02

    Aerosol optical tweezers are used to simultaneously characterize and compare the hygroscopic properties of two aerosol droplets, one containing inorganic and organic solutes and the second, referred to as the control droplet, containing a single inorganic salt. The inorganic solute is either sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate and the organic component is glutaric acid. The time variation in the size of each droplet (3-7 microm in radius) is recorded with 1 s time resolution and with nanometre accuracy. The size of the control droplet is used to estimate the relative humidity with an accuracy of better than +/-0.09%. Thus, the Kohler curve of the multicomponent inorganic/organic droplet, which characterizes the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity, can be determined directly. The measurements presented here focus on high relative humidities, above 97%, in the limit of dilute solutes. The experimental data are compared with theoretical treatments that, while ignoring the interactions between the inorganic and organic components, are based upon accurate representations of the activity-concentration relationships of aqueous solutions of the individual salts. The organic component is treated by a parametrized fit to experimental data or by the UNIFAC model and the water activity of the equilibrium solution droplet is calculated using the approach suggested by Clegg, Seinfeld and Brimblecombe or the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson approximation. It is shown that such an experimental strategy, comparing directly droplets of different composition, enables highly accurate measurements of the hygroscopic properties, allowing the theoretical treatments to be rigorously tested. Typical deviations of the experimental measurements from theoretical predictions are shown to be around 1% in equilibrium size, comparable to the variation between the theoretical frameworks considered.

  7. Black Carbon and Sulfate Aerosols in the Arctic: Long-term Trends, Radiative Impacts, and Source Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Yang, Y.; Smith, S.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic has warmed dramatically in recent decades. As one of the important short-lived climate forcers, aerosols affect the Arctic radiative budget directly by interfering radiation and indirectly by modifying clouds. Light-absorbing particles (e.g., black carbon) in snow/ice can reduce the surface albedo. The direct radiative impact of aerosols on the Arctic climate can be either warming or cooling, depending on their composition and location, which can further alter the poleward heat transport. Anthropogenic emissions, especially, BC and SO2, have changed drastically in low/mid-latitude source regions in the past few decades. Arctic surface observations at some locations show that BC and sulfate aerosols had a decreasing trend in the recent decades. In order to understand the impact of long-term emission changes on aerosols and their radiative effects, we use the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit BC and sulfur source-tagging technique to quantify the source-receptor relationships and decadal trends of Arctic sulfate and BC and to identify variations in their atmospheric transport pathways from lower latitudes. The simulation was conducted for 36 years (1979-2014) with prescribed sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations. To minimize potential biases in modeled large-scale circulations, wind fields in the simulation are nudged toward an atmospheric reanalysis dataset, while atmospheric constituents including water vapor, clouds, and aerosols are allowed to evolve according to the model physics. Both anthropogenic and open fire emissions came from the newly released CMIP6 datasets, which show strong regional trends in BC and SO2 emissions during the simulation time period. Results show that emissions from East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate and BC concentrations in the upper troposphere, which have an increasing trend. The strong decrease in emissions from Europe, Russia and

  8. A new experimental approach to study the hygroscopic and optical properties of aerosols: application to ammonium sulfate particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, C.; Formenti, P.; Picquet-Varrault, B.; Katrib, Y.; Pangui, E.; Zapf, P.; Doussin, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    A new methodology for the determination of the changes due to hygroscopic growth with relative humidity of the number size distribution and optical properties of polydispersed aerosols is described. This method uses the simulation chamber CESAM where the hygroscopic properties of polydispersed aerosol particles can be investigated in situ by exposing them to RH ranging from 0 to 100% for approximately 1 h. In situ humidification is used to provide simultaneous information on the RH-dependence of the particle size and the corresponding scattering coefficient (σscat), and that for the entire size distribution. Optical closure studies, based on integrated nephelometer and aethalometer measurements, Mie scattering calculations and measured particle size distributions, can therefore be performed to yield derived parameters such as the complex refractive index (CRI) at λ = 525 nm. The CRI can also be retrieved in the visible spectrum by combining differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and white light aerosol spectrometer (Palas Welas®) measurements. We have applied this methodology to ammonium sulfate particles, which have well known optical and hygroscopic properties. The CRI obtained from the two methods (1.54-1.57) compared favourably to each other and are also in reasonable agreement with the literature values. The particle's growth was compared to values obtained for one selected size of particles (150 nm) with a H-TDMA and the effect of the residence time for particles humidification was investigated. When the humidification was performed in the chamber for a few minutes, a continuous increase of the ammonium sulfate particle's size and σscat was observed from RH values as low as 30% RH. Comparison of the measured and modelled values based on Köhler and Mie theories shows that layers of water are adsorbed on ammonium sulfate particles below the deliquescence point. In contradiction, the particle's growth reported with H-TDMAs showed a prompt deliquescence of

  9. Role of interfacial water in the heterogeneous uptake of glyoxal by mixed glycine and ammonium sulfate aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainic, Miri; Riziq, Ali Abo; Lavi, Avi; Rudich, Yinon

    2012-06-21

    This study focuses on the heterogeneous reactions of gas phase glyoxal with aerosols of glycine, the most abundant amino acid in atmospheric aerosols, as well as with a mixture of glycine and ammonium sulfate (AS) at a molar ratio of 1:100 (glycine-AS 1:100). Aerosols were exposed to varying relative humidity (RH) conditions in the presence of gas phase glyoxal for ∼1 h, followed by drying and efflorescence. The changes in size, chemical composition, and optical properties were consequently measured. The reactions occur over a wide range of relative humidities, from ∼30% up to 90% RH, covering values that are substantially lower as well as above the deliquescence point of the investigated aerosols. The product aerosols exhibit a trend of increasing growth in size, in optical extinction cross sections, and in extinction efficiencies (at λ = 355 nm) with decreasing seed aerosol size, and with decreasing RH values from 90% to ∼50%. For glycine-AS 1:100 particles, the ratio of the geometric cross section of the product aerosol to the original seed aerosol reached a value of ∼3, the optical extinction cross section ratio was up to ∼25, and the Q(ext) ratio was up to ∼8, exceeding those of both AS and glycine separately, suggesting a synergistic effect. Aerosol mass spectrometer analyses show that the main products of all the studied reactions are glyoxal oligomers (light scattering compounds), with a minor contribution from imidazoles (absorbing compounds at λ = 355 nm). These findings imply that the changes in the optical properties are likely due to enhanced scattering by the reaction products. The fraction of absorbing substances in the reacted aerosol increases with increasing RH, suggesting that the absorption component may become more substantial after longer reaction times, possibly in cloud or fog droplets. The results suggest that these reactions are possibly important in low RH regions, plausibly due to the reaction occurring in a few interfacial

  10. Morphological effects on the radiative properties of soot aerosols in different internally mixing states with sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J.; Zhao, J. M.; Liu, L. H.

    2015-11-01

    The radiative properties of soot aerosols largely depend on their mixing state and morphology factors. In this paper, we generated soot aggregates in four mixing states with sulfate, including bare soot, partly coated soot, heavily coated soot and soot with inclusion. The number of monomers and fractal dimension of soot were varied in each mixing state while the radius of monomers was fixed at 0.025 μm. Using the discrete dipole approximation method (DDA), we calculated optical parameters relevant for climate forcing simulation at mid-visible wavelength (0.55 μm). Internal mixing results in enhanced absorption, scattering cross sections as well as the single scattering albedo. The enhancement ratio of the absorption is largest for heavily coated soot, which ranges from 1.5 to 1.65 with a soot volume fraction of 0.15 and is larger for soot with larger fractal dimension. The scattering cross section can be dramatically increased by factors larger than 10 when soot is heavily coated. The increasing of both the scattering cross section and the single scattering albedo is larger for soot aggregates with smaller number of monomers and fractal dimension. The asymmetry parameter is insensitive to the fractal dimension for heavily coated soot and soot with inclusion. Two simplified models including the homogeneous sphere model (HS) and the core shell sphere model (CS) were examined using the DDA results as references. The performance of the HS and CS model largely depends on the morphology factors and the mixing state of soot. For bare and partly coated soot, both the HS and CS model can introduce relative errors as large as several tens percent. For heavily coated soot, the HS model predicts the absorption with relative errors within 10%, while it overestimates the absorption with relative errors no larger than 20% for soot with inclusion. The HS model predicts the single scattering albedo and the asymmetry parameter with relative errors no larger than 10% for heavily

  11. Hygroscopicity of organic compounds from biomass burning and their influence on the water uptake of mixed organic-ammonium sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T.; Zuend, A.; Wang, W. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ge, M. F.

    2014-05-01

    Hygroscopic behavior of organic compounds, including levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and humic acid, and their effects on the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate (AS) in internally mixed particles are studied by a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds used represent pyrolysis products of wood that are emitted from biomass burning sources. It is found that humic acid aerosol particles only slightly take up water, starting at RH above ∼70%. This is contrasted by the continuous water absorption of levoglucosan aerosol particles in the range 5-90% RH. However, no hygroscopic growth is observed for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles. Predicted water uptake using the ideal solution theory, the AIOMFAC model and the E-AIM (with UNIFAC) model are consistent with measured hygroscopic growth factors of levoglucosan. However, the use of these models without consideration of crystalline organic phases is not appropriate to describe the hygroscopicity of organics that do not exhibit continuous water uptake, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and humic acid. Mixed aerosol particles consisting of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, or humic acid with different organic mass fractions, take up a reduced amount of water above 80% RH (above AS deliquescence) relative to pure ammonium sulfate aerosol particles of the same mass. Hygroscopic growth of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan with different organic mass fractions agree well with the predictions of the thermodynamic models. Use of the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation and AIOMFAC model lead to good agreement with measured growth factors of mixtures of ammonium sulfate with 4-hydrobenxybenzoic acid assuming an insoluble organic phase. Deviations of model predictions from the HTDMA measurement are mainly due to the occurrence of a microscopical solid phase restructuring at increased humidity (morphology effects), which are not

  12. Characterization of particulate products for aging of ethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingqiang; Zhang, Jiahui; Cai, Shunyou; Liao, Yingmin; Zhao, Weixiong; Hu, Changjin; Gu, Xuejun; Fang, Li; Zhang, Weijun

    2016-09-01

    Aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from OH- initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in the presence of high mass (100-300μg/m(3)) concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol was investigated in a home-made smog chamber in this study. The chemical composition of aged ethylbenzene SOA particles was measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) coupled with a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Experimental results showed that nitrophenol, ethyl-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, methyl glyoxylic acid, 5-ethyl-6-oxo-2,4-hexadienoic acid, 2-ethyl-2,4-hexadiendioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-5-ethyl-6-oxo-4-hexenoic acid, 1H-imidazole, hydrated N-glyoxal substituted 1H-imidazole, hydrated glyoxal dimer substituted imidazole, 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde, N-glyoxal substituted hydrated 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde and high-molecular-weight (HMW) components were the predominant products in the aged particles. Compared to the previous aromatic SOA aging studies, imidazole compounds, which can absorb solar radiation effectively, were newly detected in aged ethylbenzene SOA in the presence of high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol. These findings provide new information for discussing aromatic SOA aging mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trainic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous reaction between gas phase glyoxal and ammonium sulfate (AS aerosols, a proxy for inorganic atmospheric aerosol, was studied in terms of the dependence of the optical, physical and chemical properties of the product aerosols on initial particle size and ambient relative humidity (RH. Our experiments imitate an atmospheric scenario of a dry particle hydration at ambient RH conditions in the presence of glyoxal gas followed by efflorescence due to decrease of the ambient RH. The reactions were studied under different RH conditions, starting from dry conditions (~20% RH and up to 90% RH, covering conditions prevalent in many atmospheric environments, and followed by consequent drying of the reacted particles before their analysis by the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, cavity ring down (CRD and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS systems. At λ = 355 nm, the reacted aerosols demonstrate a substantial growth in optical extinction cross section, as well as in mobility diameter under a broad range of RH values (35–90%. The ratio of the product aerosol to seed aerosol geometric cross section reached up to ~3.5, and the optical extinction cross-section up to ~250. The reactions show a trend of increasing physical and optical growth with decreasing seed aerosol size, from 100 nm to 300 nm, as well as with decreasing RH values from 90% to ~40%. Optically inactive aerosols, at the limit of the Mie range (100 nm diameter become optically active as they grow due to the reaction. AMS analyses of the reaction of 300 nm AS at RH values of 50%, 75% and 90% show that the main products of the reaction are glyoxal oligomers, formed by acetal formation in the presence of AS. In addition, imidazole formation, which is a minor channel, is observed for all reactions, yielding a product which absorbs at λ = 290 nm, with possible implications on the radiative properties of the product aerosols. The ratio of absorbing substances (C-N compounds

  14. The Performance and Mechanism Analysis of Cement Pastes Added to Aluminum Sulfate-Based Low-Alkali Setting Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingdong Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a type of low-alkali liquid state setting accelerator, named HLSA; it was environmentally friendly product. To investigate the temperature adaptation and cement flexibilities of HLSA, the setting time and strength development properties of cement with HLSA were discussed in this paper. The effects of HLSA on hydration process, hydration products, and microstructure were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP. The results show that four typical 42.5-grade ordinary Portland cement types with 6–8% HLSA could satisfy the first-grade requirements according to JC477-2005 even at a lower temperature (e.g., 10°C. Further, the percentage ratio of 28 d compressive strength of cement with 6–8% HLSA was over 90%; the XRD diffraction peak of AFt integrated area of cement with 7% HLSA was 3818 at 5 min of hydration; SEM observation revealed that AFt crystals were filled in the pore of cement at 28 d of hydration; the temperature adaptation and cement flexibilities of HLSA were excellent; the cement with HLSA coagulating in a short time attributed to promoting the formation of abundant AFt and the hydration of C3S.

  15. Year-round record of bulk and size-segregated aerosol composition in central Antarctica (Concordia site – Part 2: Biogenic sulfur (sulfate and methanesulfonate aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Legrand

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple year-round (2006–2015 records of the bulk and size-segregated composition of aerosol were obtained at the inland site of Concordia located in East Antarctica. The well-marked maximum of non-sea-salt sulfate (nssSO4 in January (100 ± 28 ng m−3 versus 4.4 ± 2.3 ng m−3 in July is consistent with observations made at the coast (280 ± 78 ng m−3 in January versus 16 ± 9 ng m−3 in July at Dumont d'Urville, for instance. In contrast, the well-marked maximum of MSA at the coast in January (60 ± 23 ng m−3 at Dumont d'Urville is not observed at Concordia (5.2 ± 2.0 ng m−3 in January. Instead, the MSA level at Concordia peaks in October (5.6 ± 1.9 ng m−3 and March (14.9 ± 5.7 ng m−3. As a result, a surprisingly low MSA-to-nssSO4 ratio (RMSA is observed at Concordia in mid-summer (0.05 ± 0.02 in January versus 0.25 ± 0.09 in March. We find that the low value of RMSA in mid-summer at Concordia is mainly driven by a drop of MSA levels that takes place in submicron aerosol (0.3 µm diameter. The drop of MSA coincides with periods of high photochemical activity as indicated by high ozone levels, strongly suggesting the occurrence of an efficient chemical destruction of MSA over the Antarctic plateau in mid-summer. The relationship between MSA and nssSO4 levels is examined separately for each season and indicates that concentration of non-biogenic sulfate over the Antarctic plateau does not exceed 1 ng m−3 in fall and winter and remains close to 5 ng m−3 in spring. This weak non-biogenic sulfate level is discussed in the light of radionuclides (210Pb, 10Be, and 7Be also measured on bulk aerosol samples collected at Concordia. The findings highlight the complexity in using MSA in deep ice cores extracted from inland Antarctica as a proxy of past dimethyl sulfide emissions from the Southern Ocean.

  16. Cooperativity between Volatilization of NH3, Evaporation of Water and Crystallization of Na2SO4 in Internally Mixed Sodium Succinate/Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2017-04-01

    Gas-to-particle partitioning is one of the most important physicochemical process in atmospheric aerosols. The chemical reaction in the internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosols attracts much attention on the volatility and hygroscopicity. In this study, FTIR spectra evolution with time were observed by FTIR-ATR technique at constant relative humidity for the internally mixed sodium succinate/ammonium sulfate aerosols with molar ratio of 1:1. The results showed that sodium succinate and ammonium sulfate in the mixed aerosols could react to form succinate acid and sodium sulfate accompanying NH3 volatile as followings: NaOOCCH2CH2COONa (aq) + (NH4)2SO4 (aq) → HOOCCH2CH2COOH (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq or crystal) + NH3 (g) The volatilization of NH3 speeded up the evaporation of water, and indirectly accelerated the crystallization of Na2SO4 in the mixed aerosols, which synergistically accelerated release of NH3. The complex reaction between dicarboxylic salt and (NH4)2SO4 could help us to understand the cooperativity between the gas-to-particle equilibrium, phase transition, atmospheric composition and volatility, which could reveal the formation mechanism of the secondary organic aerosols.

  17. Re-analysis of tropospheric sulfate aerosol and ozone for the period 1980–2005 using the aerosol-chemistry-climate model ECHAM5-HAMMOZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pozzoli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding historical trends of trace gas and aerosol distributions in the troposphere is essential to evaluate the efficiency of existing strategies to reduce air pollution and to design more efficient future air quality and climate policies. We performed coupled photochemistry and aerosol microphysics simulations for the period 1980–2005 using the aerosol-chemistry-climate model ECHAM5-HAMMOZ, to assess our understanding of long-term changes and inter-annual variability of the chemical composition of the troposphere, and in particular of ozone and sulfate concentrations, for which long-term surface observations are available. In order to separate the impact of the anthropogenic emissions and natural variability on atmospheric chemistry, we compare two model experiments, driven by the same ECMWF re-analysis data, but with varying and constant anthropogenic emissions, respectively. Our model analysis indicates an increase of ca. 1 ppbv (0.055 ± 0.002 ppbv yr−1 in global average surface O3 concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, but this trend is largely masked by the larger O3 anomalies due to the variability of meteorology and natural emissions. The changes in meteorology (not including stratospheric variations and natural emissions account for the 75 % of the total variability of global average surface O3 concentrations. Regionally, annual mean surface O3 concentrations increased by 1.3 and 1.6 ppbv over Europe and North America, respectively, despite the large anthropogenic emission reductions between 1980 and 2005. A comparison of winter and summer O3 trends with measurements shows a qualitative agreement, except in North America, where our model erroneously computed a positive trend. Simulated O3 increases of more than 4 ppbv in East Asia and 5 ppbv in South Asia can not be corroborated with long-term observations. Global average sulfate surface

  18. A plug flow model for chemical reactions and aerosol nucleation and growth in an alkali-containing flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, K. A.; Livbjerg, Hans

    2000-01-01

    multicomponent growth models are treated. The local gas phase composition is determined from a gas phase chemical equilibrium calculation combined with finite reaction rate kinetics for slower reactions. The model is useful in the analysis of boiler operation with respect to the formation of particles, HCl, SO2......The paper presents a numerical model for the simulation of gas to particle conversion and the chemical changes during cooling of a flue gas from the combustion of fuels rich in volatile alkali species. For the homogeneous nucleation of alkali species the model uses the classical theory modified...

  19. Sulfate Aerosols from Non-Explosive Volcanoes: Chemical-Radiative Effects in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pitari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SO2 and H2S are the two most important gas-phase sulfur species emitted by volcanoes, with a global amount from non-explosive emissions of the order 10 Tg-S/yr. These gases are readily oxidized forming SO42− aerosols, which effectively scatter the incoming solar radiation and cool the surface. They also perturb atmospheric chemistry by enhancing the NOx to HNO3 heterogeneous conversion via hydrolysis on the aerosol surface of N2O5 and Br-Cl nitrates. This reduces formation of tropospheric O3 and the OH to HO2 ratio, thus limiting the oxidation of CH4 and increasing its lifetime. In addition to this tropospheric chemistry perturbation, there is also an impact on the NOx heterogeneous chemistry in the lower stratosphere, due to vertical transport of volcanic SO2 up to the tropical tropopause layer. Furthermore, the stratospheric O3 formation and loss, as well as the NOx budget, may be slightly affected by the additional amount of upward diffused solar radiation and consequent increase of photolysis rates. Two multi-decadal time-slice runs of a climate-chemistry-aerosol model have been designed for studying these chemical-radiative effects. A tropopause mean global net radiative flux change (RF of −0.23 W·m−2 is calculated (including direct and indirect aerosol effects with a 14% increase of the global mean sulfate aerosol optical depth. A 5–15 ppt NOx decrease is found in the mid-troposphere subtropics and mid-latitudes and also from pole to pole in the lower stratosphere. The tropospheric NOx perturbation triggers a column O3 decrease of 0.5–1.5 DU and a 1.1% increase of the CH4 lifetime. The surface cooling induced by solar radiation scattering by the volcanic aerosols induces a tropospheric stabilization with reduced updraft velocities that produce ice supersaturation conditions in the upper troposphere. A global mean 0.9% decrease of the cirrus ice optical depth is calculated with an indirect RF of −0.08 W·m−2.

  20. Polycaprolactone microspheres as carriers for dry powder inhalers: effect of surface coating on aerosolization of salbutamol sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuli, Rinku A; Dargaville, Tim R; George, Graeme A; Islam, Nazrul

    2012-02-01

    This study reports the factors controlling aerosolization of salbutamol sulfate (SS) from mixtures with polycaprolactone (PCL) microspheres fabricated using an emulsion technique with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as stabilizer. The fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS from PCL measured by a twin-stage impinger was unexpectedly found to be zero, although scanning electron microscopy showed that the drug coated the entire microsphere. Precoating the microspheres with magnesium stearate (MgSt) excipient solutions (1%-2%) significantly increased (p coated with leucine. The presence of PVA on the PCL microspheres (detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) affected the detachment of SS due to strong adhesion between the two, presumably due to capillary forces acting between them. Precoating the microspheres with excipients increased the FPF significantly by reducing the drug-carrier adhesion. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Rare sulfur and triple oxygen isotope geochemistry of volcanogenic sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Eiler, J. M.; Wing, B. A.; Farquhar, J.

    2007-05-01

    We present analyses of stable isotopic ratios 17O/ 16O, 18O/ 16O, 34S/ 32S, and 33S/ 32S, 36S/ 32S in sulfate leached from volcanic ash of a series of well known, large and small volcanic eruptions. We consider eruptions of Mt. St. Helens (Washington, 1980, ˜1 km 3), Mt. Spurr (Alaska, 1953, Phillipines, 1991, 10 km 3), Bishop tuff (Long Valley, California, 0.76 Ma, 750 km 3), Lower Bandelier tuff (Toledo Caldera, New Mexico, 1.61 Ma, 600 km 3), and Lava Creek and Huckleberry Ridge tuffs (Yellowstone, Wyoming, 0.64 Ma, 1000 km 3 and 2.04 Ma 2500 km 3, respectively). This list covers much of the diversity of sizes and the character of silicic volcanic eruptions. Particular emphasis is paid to the Lava Creek tuff for which we present wide geographic sample coverage. This global dataset spans a significant range in δ34S, δ18O, and Δ17O of sulfate (29‰, 30‰, and 3.3‰, respectively) with oxygen isotopes recording mass-independent ( Δ17O > 0.2‰) and sulfur isotopes exhibiting mass-dependent behavior. Products of large eruptions account for most of' these isotopic ranges. Sulfate with Δ17O > 0.2‰ is present as 1-10 μm gypsum crystals on distal ash particles and records the isotopic signature of stratospheric photochemical reactions. Sediments that embed ash layers do not contain sulfate or contain little sulfate with Δ17O near 0‰, suggesting that the observed sulfate in ash is of volcanic origin. Mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur isotopic ratios suggests that sulfate-forming reactions did not involve photolysis of SO 2, like that inferred for pre-2.3 Ga sulfates from Archean sediments or Antarctic ice-core sulfate associated with few dated eruptions. Even though the sulfate sulfur isotopic compositions reflect mass-dependent processes, the products of caldera-forming eruptions display a large δ34S range and exhibit fractionation relationships that do not follow the expected equilibrium slopes of 0.515 and 1.90 for 33S/ 32S vs. 34S/ 32S and 36S

  2. First Simulations of Designing Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering to Meet Multiple Simultaneous Climate Objectives: DESIGNING STRATOSPHERIC GEOENGINEERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Ben [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; MacMartin, Douglas G. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY USA; Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA; Mills, Michael J. [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Richter, Jadwiga H. [Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Tilmes, Simone [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Lamarque, Jean-Francois [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Tribbia, Joseph J. [Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Vitt, Francis [Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA

    2017-12-07

    We describe the first simulations of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering using multiple injection locations to meet multiple simultaneous surface temperature objectives. Simulations were performed using CESM1(WACCM), a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with fully interactive stratospheric chemistry, dynamics (including an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation), and a sophisticated treatment of sulfate aerosol formation, microphysical growth, and deposition. The objectives are defined as maintaining three temperature features at their 2020 levels against a background of the RCP8.5 scenario over the period 2020-2099. These objectives are met using a feedback mechanism in which the rate of sulfur dioxide injection at each of the four locations is adjusted independently every year of simulation. Even in the presence of uncertainties, nonlinearities, and variability, the objectives are met, predominantly by SO2 injection at 30°N and 30°S. By the last year of simulation, the feedback algorithm calls for a total injection rate of 51 Tg SO2 per year. The injections are not in the tropics, which results in a greater degree of linearity of the surface climate response with injection amount than has been found in many previous studies using injection at the equator. Because the objectives are defined in terms of annual mean temperature, the required geeongineering results in "overcooling" during summer and "undercooling" during winter. The hydrological cycle is also suppressed as compared to the reference values corresponding to the year 2020. The demonstration we describe in this study is an important step toward understanding what geoengineering can do and what it cannot do.

  3. The healing of alkali-injured cornea is stimulated by a novel matrix regenerating agent (RGTA, CACICOL20): a biopolymer mimicking heparan sulfates reducing proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejkova, Jitka; Olmiere, Celine; Cejka, Cestmir; Trosan, Peter; Holan, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of a chemically modified dextran - heparan sulfate mimicking regenerating agent (RGTA) on the healing of the rabbit cornea injured with alkali was examined. The eyes were injured with 0.15 N NaOH applied on the cornea or with 1.0 N NaOH using a 8 mm diameter filter paper disk. Then RGTA or placebo was applied on the cornea. In the last group of rabbits, corneas injured with the high alkali concentration were left without any treatment for four weeks; subsequently, the corneas were treated with RGTA or placebo. The central corneal thickness was measured using a pachymeter. The corneas were examined morphologically, immunohistochemically and for real time-PCR. Compared to control (unaffected) corneas, following the application of low alkali concentration the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, metalloproteinase 9, nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase was increased in the injured corneal epithelium of placebo-treated eyes, whereas the expression of antioxidant enzymes was reduced. Nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde stainings appeared in the corneal epithelium. RGTA application suppressed the antioxidant/prooxidant imbalance and reduced the expression of the above-mentioned immunohistochemical markers. The corneal thickness increased after alkali injury, decreased during corneal healing after RGTA treatment faster than after placebo application. Following the injury with the high alkali concentration, corneal inflammation and neovascularization were highly pronounced in placebo-treated corneas, whereas in RGTA-treated corneas they were significantly supressed. When RGTA or placebo application was started later after alkali injury and corneas were ulcerated, subsequent RGTA treatment healed the majority of them. In conclusion, RGTA facilitates the healing of injured corneas via a reduction of proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

  4. Tailoring Meridional and Seasonal Radiative Forcing by Sulfate Aerosol Solar Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Keith, D. W.

    2018-01-01

    We study the possibility of designing solar radiation management schemes to achieve a desired meridional radiative forcing (RF) profile using a two-dimensional chemistry-transport-aerosol model. Varying SO2 or H2SO4 injection latitude, altitude, and season, we compute RF response functions for a broad range of possible injection schemes, finding that linear combinations of these injection cases can roughly achieve RF profiles that have been proposed to accomplish various climate objectives. Globally averaged RF normalized by the sulfur injection rate (the radiative efficacy) is largest for injections at high altitudes, near the equator, and using emission of H2SO4 vapor into an aircraft wake to produce accumulation-mode particles. There is a trade-off between radiative efficacy and control as temporal and spatial control is best achieved with injections at lower altitudes and higher latitudes. These results may inform studies using more realistic models that couple aerosol microphysics, chemistry, and stratospheric dynamics.

  5. Cloud condensation nucleus activity of internally mixed ammonium sulfate/organic acid aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatt, J. P. D.; Broekhuizen, K.; Pradeep Kumar, P.

    The ability of mixed ammonium sulfate/organic acid particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) has been studied in the laboratory using a continuous flow, thermal-gradient diffusion chamber operated at supersaturations between 0.3% and 0.6%. The organic acids studied were malonic acid, azelaic acid, hexanoic acid, cis-pinonic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid, and the particles were largely prepared by condensation of the organic vapor onto a dry ammonium sulfate core. For malonic acid and hexanoic acid, the mixed particles activated as predicted by a simple Köhler theory model where both species are assumed to be fully soluble and the droplet has the surface tension of water. Three low-solubility species, cis-pinonic acid, azelaic acid and oleic acid, are well modeled where the acid was assumed to be either partially or fully insoluble. Interestingly, although thin coats of stearic acid behaved in a manner similar to that displayed by oleic and cis-pinonic acid, we observed that thick coats led to a complete deactivation of the ammonium sulfate, presumably because the water vapor could not diffuse through the solid stearic acid. We observed no CCN behavior that could be clearly attributed to a lowering of the surface tension of the growing droplet by the presence of the organic constituents, some of which are highly surface active.

  6. Post-flame gas-phase sulfation of potassium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan

    2013-01-01

    The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously homogene......The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously...... homogeneous systems are required to characterize the gas-phase formation of alkali sulfates. We have measured the temperature and gas-phase concentrations of KCl and HCl, and detected the presence of aerosols in the post-flame region of a range of hydrocarbon flames seeded with KCl, with and without...... and HCl and aerosols formed, most pronounced in flames with the lowest post-flame temperatures. This shows that KCl is sulfated in the gas phase to K2SO4, and this is followed by homogeneous nucleation of K2SO4 to form aerosols. Predictions from a kinetic model of the S/Cl/K chemistry agreed well...

  7. Influence of Fe and mn ions on the incorporation of radioactive35SO2by sulfate aerosols

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinman, MT; Phalen, RF; Mannix, R; Azizian, M; Walters, R

    1985-01-01

    The rate of incorporation of radiolabeled sulfur dioxide has been determined in submicron sized ammonium sulfate droplet aerosols with and without catalytic metal ions (Fe 3+ , Mn 2+ ). The sulfate droplets were generated by nebulizing solutions with a multiple jet Collison nebulizer and aged up to 30 min in a 10 m 3 plug-flow reaction duct. Radiolabeled 35 SO 2 was metered into purified air to provide a concentration of 5 ppm. Three different atmospheres were studied: SO 2 in purified air, S...

  8. Sulfur deposition changes under sulfate geoengineering conditions: quasi-biennial oscillation effects on the transport and lifetime of stratospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Tuccella, Paolo; Curci, Gabriele

    2018-02-01

    Sustained injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the tropical lower stratosphere has been proposed as a climate engineering technique for the coming decades. Among several possible environmental side effects, the increase in sulfur deposition deserves additional investigation. In this study we present results from a composition-climate coupled model (University of L'Aquila Composition-Chemistry Model, ULAQ-CCM) and a chemistry-transport model (Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Transport Model, GEOS-Chem), assuming a sustained lower-stratospheric equatorial injection of 8 Tg SO2 yr-1. Total S deposition is found to globally increase by 5.2 % when sulfate geoengineering is deployed, with a clear interhemispheric asymmetry (+3.8 and +10.3 % in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH), due to +2.2 and +1.8 Tg S yr-1, respectively). The two models show good consistency, both globally and on a regional scale under background and geoengineering conditions, except for S-deposition changes over Africa and the Arctic. The consistency exists with regard to time-averaged values but also with regard to monthly and interannual deposition changes. The latter is driven essentially by the variability in stratospheric large-scale transport associated with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Using an externally nudged QBO, it is shown how a zonal wind E shear favors aerosol confinement in the tropical pipe and a significant increase in their effective radius (+13 % with respect to W shear conditions). The net result is an increase in the downward cross-tropopause S flux over the tropics with dominant E shear conditions with respect to W shear periods (+0.61 Tg S yr-1, +42 %, mostly due to enhanced aerosol gravitational settling) and a decrease over the extratropics (-0.86 Tg S yr-1, -35 %, mostly due to decreased large-scale stratosphere-troposphere exchange of geoengineering sulfate). This translates into S-deposition changes that are significantly

  9. Reacto-Diffusive Length of N2O5 in Aqueous Sulfate- and Chloride-Containing Aerosol Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J; Thornton, Joel A

    2016-02-25

    Heterogeneous reactions of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on aerosol particles impact air quality and climate, yet aspects of the relevant physical chemistry remain unresolved. One important consideration is the competing effects of diffusion and the rate of chemical reaction within the particle, which determines the length that N2O5 travels within a particle before reacting, referred to as the reacto-diffusive length (l). Large values of l imply a dependence of the reactive uptake efficiency of N2O5, i.e., γ(N2O5), on particle size. We present measurements of the size dependence of γ(N2O5) on aqueous sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium bisulfate particles. γ(N2O5) on ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate particles ranged from 0.016 ± 0.005 to 0.036 ± 0.001 as the surface-area-weighted particle radius increased from 39 to 127 nm, resulting in an estimated l of 32 ± 6 nm. In contrast, γ(N2O5) on sodium chloride particles was independent of particle size, suggesting a near-surface reaction dominated the uptake of N2O5. Differences in the reactivity of the N2O5 intermediate, NO2(+), with water and chloride can explain the observed dependencies. These results allow for parameterizations in atmospheric models to determine a more robust population mean value of γ(N2O5) that accounts for the distribution of particle sizes.

  10. Effects of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} injections by supersonic aviation on sulfate aerosol and ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyominov, I.G.; Zadorozhny, A.M. [Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Elansky, N.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    1997-12-31

    The impact of supersonic aviation on atmospheric ozone and sulfate aerosol is examined with the help of a two-dimensional dynamical/radiative/chemical model of ozonosphere including aerosol physics. For SO{sub 2} emissions from aircraft as gas, gas/particles (90%/10%) mix, and particles of 0.01 {mu}m radius the sulphate aerosol surface density at maximum of changes increases against its background value by {approx}50%, {approx}75%, and {approx}200%, respectively. This effect of SO{sub 2} emissions with insignificant NO{sub x} injection leads to a significant decrease of total ozone by 2015 in the entire atmosphere. For NO{sub x} emissions which are anticipated in future (EI(NO{sub x}) = 15) any kind of SO{sub 2} emission results in significant weakening of supersonic aviation impact on ozone layer in the Northern Hemisphere. (author) 14 refs.

  11. Hygroscopic behavior and chemical composition evolution of internally mixed aerosols composed of oxalic acid and ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although water uptake of aerosol particles plays an important role in the atmospheric environment, the effects of interactions between components on chemical composition and hygroscopicity of particles are still not well constrained. The hygroscopic properties and phase transformation of oxalic acid (OA and mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS and OA with different organic to inorganic molar ratios (OIRs have been investigated by using confocal Raman spectroscopy. It is found that OA droplets first crystallize to form OA dihydrate at 71 % relative humidity (RH, and further lose crystalline water to convert into anhydrous OA around 5 % RH during the dehydration process. The deliquescence and efflorescence point for AS is determined to be 80.1 ± 1.5 % RH and 44.3 ± 2.5 % RH, respectively. The observed efflorescence relative humidity (ERH for mixed OA ∕ AS droplets with OIRs of 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 is 34.4 ± 2.0, 44.3 ± 2.5 and 64.4 ± 3.0 % RH, respectively, indicating the elevated OA content appears to favor the crystallization of mixed systems at higher RH. However, the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of AS in mixed OA ∕ AS particles with OIRs of 1 : 3 and 1 : 1 is observed to occur at 81.1 ± 1.5 and 77 ± 1.0 % RH, respectively. The Raman spectra of mixed OA ∕ AS droplets indicate the formation of ammonium hydrogen oxalate (NH4HC2O4 and ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4 from interactions between OA and AS in aerosols during the dehydration process on the time scale of hours, which considerably influence the subsequent deliquescence behavior of internally mixed particles with different OIRs. The mixed OA ∕ AS particles with an OIR of 3 : 1 exhibit no deliquescence transition over the RH range studied due to the considerable transformation of (NH42SO4 into NH4HC2O4 with a high DRH. Although the hygroscopic growth of mixed OA

  12. Hygroscopic behavior and chemical composition evolution of internally mixed aerosols composed of oxalic acid and ammonium sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Jing, Bo; Tan, Fang; Ma, Jiabi; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2017-10-01

    Although water uptake of aerosol particles plays an important role in the atmospheric environment, the effects of interactions between components on chemical composition and hygroscopicity of particles are still not well constrained. The hygroscopic properties and phase transformation of oxalic acid (OA) and mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and OA with different organic to inorganic molar ratios (OIRs) have been investigated by using confocal Raman spectroscopy. It is found that OA droplets first crystallize to form OA dihydrate at 71 % relative humidity (RH), and further lose crystalline water to convert into anhydrous OA around 5 % RH during the dehydration process. The deliquescence and efflorescence point for AS is determined to be 80.1 ± 1.5 % RH and 44.3 ± 2.5 % RH, respectively. The observed efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) for mixed OA / AS droplets with OIRs of 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 is 34.4 ± 2.0, 44.3 ± 2.5 and 64.4 ± 3.0 % RH, respectively, indicating the elevated OA content appears to favor the crystallization of mixed systems at higher RH. However, the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of AS in mixed OA / AS particles with OIRs of 1 : 3 and 1 : 1 is observed to occur at 81.1 ± 1.5 and 77 ± 1.0 % RH, respectively. The Raman spectra of mixed OA / AS droplets indicate the formation of ammonium hydrogen oxalate (NH4HC2O4) and ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) from interactions between OA and AS in aerosols during the dehydration process on the time scale of hours, which considerably influence the subsequent deliquescence behavior of internally mixed particles with different OIRs. The mixed OA / AS particles with an OIR of 3 : 1 exhibit no deliquescence transition over the RH range studied due to the considerable transformation of (NH4)2SO4 into NH4HC2O4 with a high DRH. Although the hygroscopic growth of mixed OA / AS droplets is comparable to that of AS or OA at high RH during the dehydration process, Raman growth

  13. Ion Partitioning at the liquid/vapor interface of a multi-component alkali halidesolution: A model for aqueous sea salt aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Brown, Matthew A.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Krisch, Maria J.; Salmeron, Miquel; Jungwirth, Pavel; Hemminger, John C.

    2008-12-22

    The chemistry of Br species associated with sea salt ice and aerosols has been implicated in the episodes of ozone depletion reported at Arctic sunrise. However, Br{sup -} is only a minor component in sea salt, which has a Br{sup -}/Cl{sup -} molar ratio of {approx}0.0015. Sea salt is a complex mixture of many different species, with NaCl as the primary component. In recent years experimental and theoretical studies have reported enhancement of the large, more polarizable halide ion at the liquid/vapor interface of corresponding aqueous alkali halide solutions. The proposed enhancement is likely to influence the availability of sea salt Br{sup -} for heterogeneous reactions such as those involved in the ozone depletion episodes. We report here ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies and molecular dynamics simulations showing direct evidence of Br{sup -} enhancement at the interface of an aqueous NaCl solution doped with bromide. The experiments were carried out on samples with Br{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratios in the range 0.1% to 10%, the latter being also the ratio for which simulations were carried out. This is the first direct measurement of interfacial enhancement of Br{sup -} in a multi-component solution with particular relevance to sea salt chemistry.

  14. Aerosol Formation during the Combustion of Straw with Addition of Sorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Jørgen P.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of six sorbents on aerosol formation during the combustion of straw in a 100 MW boiler on a Danish power plant has been studied in full-scale. The following sorbents were studied: ammonium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, Bentonite, ICA5000, clay, and chalk. Bentonite and ICA5000......, calcium phosphate, Bentonite, ICA5000, and clay. The addition of chalk increased the aerosol mass concentration by 24%. Experiments in a laminar flow aerosol condenser with the six sorbents were carried out in the laboratory using a synthetic flue gas to avoid fluctuations in the alkali feeding...

  15. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  16. [Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Potential Source Contribution of Sulfate, Nitrate and Ammonium in Beijing by Using Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lang; Zhang, Wen-jie; Du, Shi-yong; Hou, Lu-jian; Han, Bin; Yang, Wen; Chen, Min-dong; Bai, Zhi-peng

    2016-05-15

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was deployed to continuously observe the aerosol particles of Beijing urban area from 2013-12 to 2014-11, and the hourly average data of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) were obtained using the characteristic ion tracer method. The mixing state and size distribution of SNA were analyzed. In addition, based on Hysplit 48 h back air mass trajectory results in combination with Concentration Weighted Trajectory method (CWT), we obtained the seasonal potential source contribution area of SNA. The results showed that the mixture of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in spring and summer was more stable than that in autumn and winter. The size distribution of sulfate and nitrate was very similar. The size distribution characteristics of SNA followed the order of autumn > summer > spring > winter. The potential source region of SNA had similar spatial distribution characteristics, and the potential source region of SNA was mainly located in Beijing and south areas, especially at Tianjin, Langfang, Hengshui, Baoding and Shijiazhuang.

  17. Hygroscopicity of organic surrogate compounds from biomass burning and their effect on the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate in mixed aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Zuend, Andreas; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa

    2018-01-01

    Hygroscopic growth factors of organic surrogate compounds representing biomass burning and mixed organic-inorganic aerosol particles exhibit variability during dehydration experiments depending on their chemical composition, which we observed using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). We observed that levoglucosan and humic acid aerosol particles release water upon dehumidification in the range from 90 to 5 % relative humidity (RH). However, 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles remain in the solid state upon dehumidification and exhibit a small shrinking in size at higher RH compared to the dry size. For example, the measured growth factor of 4-hyroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles is ˜ 0.96 at 90 % RH. The measurements were accompanied by RH-dependent thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model and Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM), the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation, and a fitted hygroscopicity expression. We observed several effects of organic components on the hygroscopicity behavior of mixtures containing ammonium sulfate (AS) in relation to the different mass fractions of organic compounds: (1) a shift of efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of ammonium sulfate to higher RH due to the presence of 25 wt % levoglucosan in the mixture. (2) There is a distinct efflorescence transition at 25 % RH for mixtures consisting of 25 wt % of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid compared to the ERH at 35 % for organic-free AS particles. (3) There is indication for a liquid-to-solid phase transition of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in the mixed particles during dehydration. (4) A humic acid component shows no significant effect on the efflorescence of AS in mixed aerosol particles. In addition, consideration of a composition-dependent degree of dissolution of crystallization AS (solid-liquid equilibrium) in the AIOMFAC and E-AIM models leads to a

  18. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  19. Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality, premature mortality and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikawa, Eri; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Aerosols are harmful to human health and have both direct and indirect effects on climate. China is a major contributor to global emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), a sulfate (SO 42-) precursor, organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) aerosols. Although increasingly examined, the effect of present and potential future levels of these emissions on global premature mortality and climate change has not been well quantified. Through both direct radiative effects and indirect effects on clouds, SO 42- and OC exert negative radiative forcing (cooling) while BC exerts positive forcing (warming). We analyze the effect of China's emissions of SO 2, SO 42-, OC and BC in 2000 and for three emission scenarios in 2030 on global surface aerosol concentrations, premature mortality, and radiative forcing (RF). Using global models of chemical transport (MOZART-2) and radiative transfer (GFDL RTM), and combining simulation results with gridded population data, mortality rates, and concentration-response relationships from the epidemiological literature, we estimate the contribution of Chinese aerosols to global annual premature mortality and to RF in 2000 and 2030. In 2000, we estimate these aerosols cause approximately 470 000 premature deaths in China and an additional 30 000 deaths globally. In 2030, aggressive emission controls lead to a 50% reduction in premature deaths from the 2000 level to 240 000 in China and 10 000 elsewhere, while under a high emissions scenario premature deaths increase 50% from the 2000 level to 720 000 in China and to 40 000 elsewhere. Because the negative RF from SO 42- and OC is larger than the positive forcing from BC, Chinese aerosols lead to global net direct RF of -74 mW m -2 in 2000 and between -15 and -97 mW m -2 in 2030 depending on the emissions scenario. Our analysis indicates that increased effort to reduce greenhouse gases is essential to address climate change as China's anticipated reduction of aerosols will result in the

  20. Interactions of aerosols (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride) and of gases (HCl, HNO 3) with fogwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Heidi; Sigg, Laura

    The concentrations of aerosols (NH 4NO 3, (NH 4) 2SO 4 and NH 4Cl) and of gases (HCl (g), HNO 3(g), NH 3(g) were determined by denuder methods under different conditions (in the absence of fog, before, during and after fog events). At this site situated in an urban region, high concentrations of the gaseous strong acids HCl (g) and HNO 3(g) are observed. NH 4Cl and NH 4NO 3 aerosols represent a major fraction of the Cl - and NO 3- aerosols (fogwater and are released again after fog dissipation.

  1. Use of Biomass as a Sustainable and Green Fuel with Alkali-Resistant DeNOx Catalysts based on Sulfated or Tungstated Zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Christensen, Claus H.

    Use of biomass as an alternative to fossil fuels has achieved increasing interest since it does not contribute to CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere. Over the past 10-15 years, heat and electricity production from biomass has increased to almost 7% of all energy supply in the European Union...... and is expected to increase further. The by far most efficient use of solid bio-resources in energy production is combustion in combined biomass and coal or oil-fired power plants. However, in such applications nitrogen oxides are inevitably present in the flue gases. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR...... of alternative catalysts that are more resistant towards poisoning with potassium. Since deactivation with alkali additives generally occurs due to strong acid-base interaction with the V-OH sites responsible for the activated ammonia adsorption, one possible way to increase catalyst resistance to alkaline...

  2. A new experimental approach to study the hygroscopic and optical properties of aerosols: application to ammonium sulfate particles

    OpenAIRE

    C. Denjean; P. Formenti; B. Picquet-Varrault; Y. Katrib; E. Pangui; P. Zapf; J. F. Doussin

    2014-01-01

    A new methodology for the determination of the changes due to hygroscopic growth with relative humidity of the number size distribution and optical properties of polydispersed aerosols is described. This method uses the simulation chamber CESAM where the hygroscopic properties of polydispersed aerosol particles can be investigated in situ by exposing them to RH ranging from 0 to 100% for approximately 1 h. In situ humidification is used to provide simultaneous information on...

  3. Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000–2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a chemical transport model to examine the change of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA aerosols over China due to anthropogenic emission changes of their precursors (SO2, NOx and NH3 from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2006, annual mean SNA concentrations increased by about 60% over China as a result of the 60% and 80% increases in SO2 and NOx emissions. During this period, sulfate is the dominant component of SNA over South China (SC and Sichuan Basin (SCB, while nitrate and sulfate contribute equally over North China (NC. Based on emission reduction targets in the 12th (2011–2015 Five-Year Plan (FYP, China's total SO2 and NOx emissions are projected to change by −16% and +16% from 2006 to 2015, respectively. The amount of NH3 emissions in 2015 is uncertain, given the lack of sufficient information on the past and present levels of NH3 emissions in China. With no change in NH3 emissions, SNA mass concentrations in 2015 will decrease over SCB and SC compared to their 2006 levels, but increase over NC where the magnitude of nitrate increase exceeds that of sulfate reduction. This suggests that the SO2 emission reduction target set by the 12th FYP, although effective in reducing SNA over SC and SCB, will not be successful over NC, for which NOx emission control needs to be strengthened. If NH3 emissions are allowed to keep their recent growth rate and increase by +16% from 2006 to 2015, the benefit of SO2 reduction will be completely offset over all of China due to the significant increase of nitrate, demonstrating the critical role of NH3 in regulating nitrate. The effective strategy to control SNA and hence PM2.5 pollution over China should thus be based on improving understanding of current NH3 emissions and putting more emphasis on controlling NH3 emissions in the future.

  4. Online and offline mass spectrometric study of the impact of oxidation and ageing on glyoxal chemistry and uptake onto ammonium sulfate aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Baeza-Romero, M Teresa; Finessi, Emanuela; Rickard, Andrew R; Healy, Robert M; Peppe, Salvatore; Adams, Thomas J; Daniels, Mark J S; Ball, Stephen M; Goodall, Iain C A; Monks, Paul S; Borrás, Esther; Muñoz, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    Recent laboratory and modelling studies have shown that reactive uptake of low molecular weight alpha-dicarbonyls such as glyoxal (GLY) by aerosols is a potentially significant source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, previous studies disagree in the magnitude of the uptake of GLY, the mechanism involved and the physicochemical factors affecting particle formation. In this study, the chemistry of GLY with ammonium sulfate (AS) in both bulk laboratory solutions and in aerosol particles is investigated. For the first time, Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS), a single particle technique, is used together with offline (ESI-MS and LC-MS2) mass spectrometric techniques to investigate the change in composition of bulk solutions of GLY and AS resulting from aqueous photooxidation by OH and from ageing of the solutions in the dark. The mass spectral ions obtained in these laboratory studies were used as tracers of GLY uptake and chemistry in AS seed particles in a series of experiments carried out under dark and natural irradiated conditions at the outdoor European Photo-reactor (EUPHORE). Glyoxal oligomers formed were not detected by the ATOFMS, perhaps due to inefficient absorption at the laser wavelength. However, the presence of organic nitrogen compounds, formed by reaction of GLY with ammonia was confirmed, resulting in an increase in the absorption efficiency of the aerosol, and this increased the number of particles successfully ionised by the ATOFMS. A number of light absorbing organic nitrogen species, including 1H-imidazole, 1H-imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde, 2,2'-bis-imidazole and a glyoxal substituted 2,2'-bisimidazole, previously identified in aqueous laboratory solutions, were also identified in chamber aerosol and formed on atmospherically relevant timescales. An additional compound, predicted to be 1,2,5-oxadiazole, had an enhanced formation rate when the chamber was open and is predicted to be formed via a light activated pathway

  5. Real-world healthcare utilization in asthma patients using albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol (ProAir® HFA with and without integrated dose counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerwin EM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Edward M Kerwin,1 Thomas J Ferro,2 Rinat Ariely,3 Debra E Irwin,4 Ruchir Parikh3 1Clinical Trials Division, Clinical Research Institute of Southern Oregon, PC, Medford, OR, 2Global Medical Affairs, 3Global Health Economics and Outcome Research, Teva Pharmaceuticals, Frazer, PA, 4Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, Durham, NC, USA Background: Accurate tracking of the administered dose of asthma rescue inhalers is critical for optimal disease management and is related to reductions in rates of unscheduled health care utilization in asthma patients. There are few published data on the real-world impact of rescue inhalers with integrated dose counters (IDCs on health care resource utilization (HRU for asthma patients. This study evaluates HRU among users of ProAir® hydrofluoroalkane (HFA (albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol, with IDC versus without IDC, in asthma patients.Methods: This was a retrospective administrative claims study of asthma patients receiving a new prescription for albuterol inhalation aerosol without IDC during 2 years (January 2011–December 2012 or with IDC during the first full year after IDC implementation in the USA (July 2013–July 2014. Six months of continuous enrollment with medical and prescription drug benefits were required before and after the first prescription during the study period. Data on respiratory-related hospitalizations and emergency department (ED visits were collected during the follow-up period.Results: A total of 135,305 (32% patients used albuterol inhalation aerosol with IDC, and 287,243 (68% patients received albuterol inhalation aerosol without IDC. After adjusting for baseline confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR for experiencing a respiratory-related hospitalization (OR=0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–0.96 or ED visit (OR=0.92; 95% CI 0.90–0.94 was significantly lower among patients using albuterol inhalation aerosol with IDC versus without IDC.Conclusion: In a real

  6. Simulations of Sulfate-Nitrate-Ammonium (SNA) aerosols during the extreme haze events over Northern China in October 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Liu, Z.; Fast, J. D.; Ban, J.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme haze events have occurred frequently over China in recent years. Although many studies have investigated the formation mechanisms associated with PM2.5 for heavily polluted regions in China based on observational data, adequately predicting peak PM2.5 concentrations is still challenging for regional air quality models. In this study, we evaluate the performance of one configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and use the model to investigate the sensitivity of heterogeneous reactions on simulated peak sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in the vicinity of Beijing during four extreme haze episodes in October 2014 over the North China Plain. The highest observed PM2.5 concentration of 469 μg m-3 occurred in Beijing. Comparisons with observations show that the model reproduced the temporal variability in PM2.5 with the highest PM2.5 values on polluted days (defined as days in which observed PM2.5 is greater than 75 μg m-3), but predictions of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were too low on days with the highest observed concentrations. Observational data indicate that the sulfur/nitric oxidation rates are strongly correlated with relative humidity during periods of peak PM2.5; however, the model failed to reproduce the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to missing heterogeneous/aqueous reactions. As the parameterizations of those heterogeneous reactions are not well established yet, estimates of SO2-to-H2SO4 and NO2/NO3-to-HNO3 reaction rates that depend on relative humidity were applied which improved the simulation of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium enhancement on polluted days in terms of both concentrations and partitioning among those species. Sensitivity simulations showed that the extremely high heterogeneous reaction rates and also higher emission rates than those reported in the emission inventory were likely important factors contributing to those peak PM2.5 concentrations.

  7. Simulations of Sulfate-Nitrate-Ammonium (SNA) aerosols during the extreme haze events over Northern China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dan; Liu, Zhiquan; Fast, Jerome D.; Ban, Junmei

    2016-08-30

    Extreme haze events have occurred frequently over China in recent years. Although many studies have investigated the formation mechanisms associated with PM2.5 for heavily polluted regions in China based on observational data, adequately predicting peak PM2.5 concentrations is still challenging for regional air quality models. In this study, we evaluate the performance of one configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and use the model to investigate the sensitivity of heterogeneous reactions on simulated peak sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in the vicinity of Beijing during four extreme haze episodes in October 2014 over the North China Plain. The highest observed PM2.5 concentration of 469 μg m-3 occurred in Beijing. Comparisons with observations show that the model reproduced the temporal variability in PM2.5 with the highest PM2.5 values on polluted days (defined as days in which observed PM2.5 is greater than 75 μg m-3), but predictions of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were too low on days with the highest observed concentrations. Observational data indicate that the sulfur/nitric oxidation rates are strongly correlated with relative humidity during periods of peak PM2.5; however, the model failed to reproduce the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to missing heterogeneous reactions. As the parameterizations of those reactions is not well established yet, estimates of SO2-to-H2SO4 and NO2/NO3-to-HNO3 reaction rates that depend on relative humidity were applied which improved the simulation of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium enhancement on polluted days in terms of both concentrations and partitioning among those species. Sensitivity simulations showed that the extremely high heterogeneous reaction rates and also higher emission rates than those reported in the emission inventory

  8. Determination of the common and rare alkalies in mineral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R.C.; Stevens, R.E.

    1934-01-01

    Methods are described which afford a determination of each member of the alkali group and are successful in dealing with the quantities of the rare alkalies found in rocks and minerals. The procedures are relatively rapid and based chiefly on the use of chloroplatinic acid, absolute alcohol and ether, and ammonium sulfate. The percentages of all the alkalies found in a number of minerals are given.

  9. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements: Part II. An examination of mixing rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants of aerosol mixtures either in remote sensing or radiation transfer/climate studies employing the new refractive index data reported in Part I. We demonstrate that the optical constants of the considered mixtures are not accurately modeled using pure solute optical constants (e.g., ammonium sulfate optical constants and the optical constants of pure water) due to the complex ion-ion and ion-water interactions. On the other hand, we do find that ternary and quaternary mixtures can be well modeled by applying the mixing rules to lower order multi-component optical constants data, e.g., binary data to determine ternary optical constants, or binary and ternary data to determine quaternary optical constants. By using lower order optical constants data sets, much of the ion-ion and ion-water effects are captured. Both mass-fraction and volume-fraction weighting of the 'component' optical constants yield satisfactory results, performing as well or better than the more complicated mixing rules. These findings will be of practical use in remote sensing and radiation transfer/climate studies as well as help guide the decision on what optical constants measurements will be required

  10. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements-Part I: Results and analysis of spectral absorbing features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the first part of two, we present new high-spectral-resolution infrared (IR) optical constants for multi-component aqueous solutions composed of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sulfuric acid and nitric acid over a range of compositions and temperatures representative of tropospheric conditions and atmospheric aerosols. The optical constants were determined from ATR measurements via a Kramers-Kronig transformation. To accomplish this, we adapted an existing technique for estimating the real index of refraction of aqueous sulfate and nitrate solutions at multiple visible frequencies as a function of concentration and temperature. An approximation of the low-frequency behavior of the ATR spectrum was also used to reduce the error associated with using ATR data of finite frequency range. This paper also provides a brief examination of absorption spectra for analyzed mixtures in relation to their composition and temperature and discusses possible implications. The new optical constants will be of great utility to high-spectral-resolution IR remote sensing as well as radiative balance analysis in climate studies because they will enable researchers for the first time to model the impacts of tropospheric aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component aerosols, including their mixtures with other important species such as dust or soot

  11. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on sea salt aerosol: a new tool to investigate non-sea salt sulfate production in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E.; Sinha, B.; Hoppe, P.; Foley, S.; Borrmann, S.

    2012-05-01

    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on sea salt aerosols in the marine environment is highly important because of its effect on the size distribution of sulfate and the potential for new particle nucleation from H2SO4 (g). However, models of the sulfur cycle are not currently able to account for the complex relationship between particle size, alkalinity, oxidation pathway and rate - which is critical as SO2 oxidation by O3 and Cl catalysis are limited by aerosol alkalinity, whereas oxidation by hypohalous acids and transition metal ions can continue at low pH once alkalinity is titrated. We have measured 34S/32S fractionation factors for SO2 oxidation in sea salt, pure water and NaOCl aerosol, as well as the pH dependency of fractionation. Oxidation of SO2 by NaOCl aerosol was extremely efficient, with a reactive uptake coefficient of ≈0.5, and produced sulfate that was enriched in 32S with αOCl = 0.9882±0.0036 at 19 °C. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol was much less efficient than on NaOCl aerosol, suggesting alkalinity was already exhausted on the short timescale of the experiments. Measurements at pH = 2.1 and 7.2 were used to calculate fractionation factors for each step from SO2(g) → multiple steps → SOOCl2-. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol resulted in a lower fractionation factor than expected for oxidation of SO32- by O3 (αseasalt = 1.0124±0.0017 at 19 °C). Comparison of the lower fractionation during oxidation on sea salt aerosol to the fractionation factor for high pH oxidation shows HOCl contributed 29% of S(IV) oxidation on sea salt in the short experimental timescale, highlighting the potential importance of hypohalous acids in the marine environment. The sulfur isotope fractionation factors measured in this study allow differentiation between the alkalinity-limited pathways - oxidation by O3 and by Cl catalysis (α34 = 1.0163±0.0018 at 19 °C in pure water or 1.0199±0.0024 at pH = 7.2) - which favour the heavy isotope, and the alkalinity non

  12. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on sea salt aerosol: a new tool to investigate non-sea salt sulfate production in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on sea salt aerosols in the marine environment is highly important because of its effect on the size distribution of sulfate and the potential for new particle nucleation from H2SO4 (g. However, models of the sulfur cycle are not currently able to account for the complex relationship between particle size, alkalinity, oxidation pathway and rate – which is critical as SO2 oxidation by O3 and Cl catalysis are limited by aerosol alkalinity, whereas oxidation by hypohalous acids and transition metal ions can continue at low pH once alkalinity is titrated. We have measured 34S/32S fractionation factors for SO2 oxidation in sea salt, pure water and NaOCl aerosol, as well as the pH dependency of fractionation. Oxidation of SO2 by NaOCl aerosol was extremely efficient, with a reactive uptake coefficient of ≈0.5, and produced sulfate that was enriched in 32S with αOCl = 0.9882±0.0036 at 19 °C. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol was much less efficient than on NaOCl aerosol, suggesting alkalinity was already exhausted on the short timescale of the experiments. Measurements at pH = 2.1 and 7.2 were used to calculate fractionation factors for each step from SO2(g → multiple steps → SOOCl2−. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol resulted in a lower fractionation factor than expected for oxidation of SO32− by O3 (αseasalt = 1.0124±0.0017 at 19 °C. Comparison of the lower fractionation during oxidation on sea salt aerosol to the fractionation factor for high pH oxidation shows HOCl contributed 29% of S(IV oxidation on sea salt in the short experimental timescale, highlighting the potential importance of hypohalous acids in the marine environment. The sulfur isotope fractionation factors measured in this study allow differentiation between the alkalinity-limited pathways – oxidation by O3 and by Cl catalysis (α34 = 1.0163±0.0018 at 19 °C in pure water or 1.0199±0.0024 at pH = 7.2 – which favour the heavy isotope, and

  13. Development of a new corona discharge based ion source for high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer to measure gaseous H2SO4 and aerosol sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Yang, Dongsen; Ma, Yan; Chen, Mindong; Cheng, Jin; Li, Shizheng; Wang, Ming

    2015-10-01

    A new corona discharge (CD) based ion source was developed for a commercial high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS) (Aerodyne Research Inc.) to measure both gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and aerosol sulfate after thermal desorption. Nitrate core ions (NO3-) were used as reagent ions and were generated by a negative discharge in zero air followed by addition of excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to convert primary ions and hydroxyl radicals (OH) into NO3- ions and nitric acid (HNO3). The CD-HRToF-CIMS showed no detectable interference from hundreds parts per billion by volume (ppbv) of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Unlike the atmospheric pressure ionization (API) ToF-CIMS, the CD ion source was integrated onto the ion-molecule reaction (IMR) chamber and which made it possible to measure aerosol sulfate by coupling to a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO). Moreover, compared with a quadrupole-based mass spectrometer, the desired HSO4- signal was detected by its exact mass of m/z 96.960, which was well resolved from the potential interferences of HCO3-ṡ(H2O)2 (m/z 97.014) and O-ṡH2OṡHNO3 (m/z 97.002). In this work, using laboratory-generated standards the CD-HRToF-CIMS was demonstrated to be able to detect as low as 3.1 × 105 molecules cm-3 gaseous H2SO4 and 0.5 μg m-3 ammonium sulfate based on 10-s integration time and two times of the baseline noise. The CD ion source had the advantages of low cost and a simple but robust structure. Since the system was non-radioactive and did not require corrosive HNO3 gas, it can be readily field deployed. The CD-HRToF-CIMS can be a powerful tool for both field and laboratory studies of aerosol formation mechanism and the chemical processes that were critical to understand the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere.

  14. The healing of alkali-injured cornea is stimulated by a novel matrix regenerating agent (RGTA, CACICOL20) – a biopolymer mimicking heparan sulfates reducing proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Olmiere, C.; Čejka, Čestmír; Trošan, Peter; Holáň, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2014), s. 457-478 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/11/0653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : RGTA * alkali injury * corneal healing Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.236, year: 2013

  15. Milk-alkali syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium-alkali syndrome; Cope syndrome; Burnett syndrome; Hypercalcemia; Calcium metabolism disorder ... Milk-alkali syndrome is almost always caused by taking too many calcium supplements, usually in the form of calcium ...

  16. Chondroitin Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of osteoarthritis. There is some evidence that a skin cream containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor can reduce osteoarthritis symptoms. However, ...

  17. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2013-01-01

    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate...... was combined with a detailed gas-phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results showed good agreements with the experiments conducted in a biomass grate-firing combustor, where ferric sulfate...... and elemental sulfur were used as additives. The results indicated that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition was the main contributor to KCl sulfation and that the effectiveness of ferric sulfate addition was sensitive to the applied temperature conditions. Comparison of the effectiveness...

  18. Acidic aerosol in urban air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, M.; Yamaoka, S.; Miyazaki, T.; Oka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution and chemical composition of acidic aerosol in Osaka City were investigated. Samples were collected at five sites in the city from June to September, 1979. Acidic aerosol was determined by the acid-base titration method, sulfate ion by barium chloride turbidimetry, nitrate ion by the xylenol method, and chloride ion by the mercury thiocyanate method. The concentration of acidic aerosol at five sites ranged from 7.7 micrograms per cubic meter to 10.0 micrograms per cubic meter, but mean concentrations in the residential area were slightly higher than those in the industrial area. When acidic aerosol concentrations were compared with concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride ions, a significant correlation was found between acidic aerosol and sulfate ion. The sum of the ion equivalents of the three types showed good correlation with the acidic aerosol equivalent during the whole period.

  19. Alkali metal hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing alkali metal hydrides by absorbing hydrogen gas under pressure into a mixture of lower alkyl mono amines and alkali metal alkyl amides selected from sodium and potassium amides formed from said amines. The present invention also includes purification of a mixture of the amines and amides which contain impurities, such as is used as a catalytic exchange liquid in the enrichment of deuterium, involving the formation of the alkali metal hydride

  20. ALKALI RESISTANT CATALYST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  1. Anthropogenic Sulfate, Clouds, and Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghan, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    This research work is a joint effort between research groups at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Virginia Tech University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Texas A&M University. It has been jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this research, a detailed tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model that predicts oxidant concentrations as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols has been coupled to a general circulation model that distinguishes between cloud water mass and cloud droplet number. The coupled model system has been first validated and then used to estimate the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. Both the direct radiative impact of the aerosols and their indirect impact through their influence on cloud droplet number are represented by distinguishing between sulfuric acid vapor and fresh and aged sulfate aerosols, and by parameterizing cloud droplet nucleation in terms of vertical velocity and the number concentration of aged sulfur aerosols. Natural sulfate aerosols, dust, and carbonaceous and nitrate aerosols and their influence on the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, through competition as cloud condensation nuclei, will also be simulated. Parallel simulations with and without anthropogenic sulfur emissions are performed for a global domain. The objectives of the research are: To couple a state-of-the-art tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model with a global climate model. To use field and satellite measurements to evaluate the treatment of tropospheric chemistry and aerosol physics in the coupled model. To use the coupled model to simulate the radiative (and ultimately climatic) impacts of anthropogenic sulfur emissions.

  2. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk

    2017-01-01

    carbon, which is the most efficient aerosol to absorb radiation, is found to be one of the largest contributors to global warming. Aerosols are emitted from both anthropogenic and natural sources and the major components of atmospheric particulate matter include sulfate, organic aerosols, nitrate...... at the Villum Research Station, Station Nord in North Greenland. Laboratory studies of a conventional wood stove showed that particle emissions were strongly dependent on the intensity of burn rate. The burning cycle was divided into three phases, where the first phase, the fuel addition, resulted in short-lived...... but high emissions of levoglucosan and organic aerosols. The second phase, the intermediate phase, was dominated by black carbon and only to a minor extent organic aerosols and levoglucosan. The final burn out phase was generally represented by low concentrations of all species and overall the full cycle...

  3. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  4. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  5. ALKALI FUSION OF ROSETTA ZIRCON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAHER, A.

    2008-01-01

    The decomposition of Rosetta zircon by fusion with different types of alkalis has been investigated. These alkalis include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and eutectic mixture of both. The influences of the reaction temperature, zircon to alkalis ratio, fusion time and the stirring of the reactant on the fusion reaction have been evaluated. The obtained results favour the decomposition of zircon with the eutectic alkalis mixture by a decomposition efficiency of 96% obtained at 500 0 C after one hour

  6. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Budi; Arumbinang, Haryono.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  7. Optical constants of concentrated aqueous ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Using experimental data obtained from applying spectroscopy to a 39-wt-% aqueous ammonium sulfate solution, it is shown that, even though specific aerosol optical constants appear quite accurate, spectral variations may exist as functions of material composition or concentration or both. Prudent users of optical constant data must then include liberal data error estimates when performing calculations or in interpreting spectroscopic surveys of collected aerosol material.

  8. Neptunium sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, H.

    1983-01-01

    The author of the dissertation was able to prepare a number of hitherto unknown Np(VI) double sulphates and to characterize all substances by powder radiography. In the 400 to 800 0 C range, the salts decomposed, and SO 3 was released. The reaction products were either defined alkali/Np mixed oxides or NpO 2 with, in some cases, admixtures of another phase. In a few cases, it was possible to synthesize analogous uranium compounds and to study these by radiographic methods. (orig./EF) [de

  9. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  10. Physiochemical properties of alkylaminium sulfates: hygroscopicity, thermostability, and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chong; Zhang, Renyi

    2012-04-17

    Although heterogeneous interaction of amines has been recently shown to play an important role in the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols, little information is available on the physicochemical properties of aminium sulfates. In this study, the hygroscopicity, thermostability, and density of alkylaminium sulfates (AASs) have been measured by an integrated aerosol analytical system including a tandem differential mobility analyzer and an aerosol particle mass analyzer. AAS aerosols exhibit monotonic size growth at increasing RH without a well-defined deliquescence point. Mixing of ammonium sulfate (AS) with AASs lowers the deliquescence point corresponding to AS. Particles with AASs show comparable or higher thermostability than that of AS. The density of AASs is determined to be 1.2-1.5 g cm(-3), and an empirical model is developed to predict the density of AASs on the basis of the mole ratio of alkyl carbons to total sulfate. Our results reveal that the heterogeneous uptake of amines on sulfate particles may considerably alter the aerosol properties. In particular, the displacement reaction of alkylamines with ammonium sulfate aerosols leads to a transition from the crystalline to an amorphorous phase and an improved water uptake, considerably enhancing their direct and indirect climate forcing.

  11. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds in urban aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R L

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports results from a detailed chemical and meteorological data base that has been accumulated for the New York City subregion. Aerosol sampling during August 1976 and February 1977 sampling periods was done only in an urban New York site and a background site at High Point, NJ. The sampling program was expanded to Brookhaven (Long Island) and New Haven, Connecticut sites during summer 1977 and winter 1978 sampling. Time resolution for aerosol filter samples was 6 hr, with some 3 hr sampling for the latter three periods. Parameters measured included chemical constituents: strong acid (quartz filters only), ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, sulfuric acid (limited data); physical parameters: aerosol size distributions by cascade impactor, cyclone sampler, EAA, on optical counter and a special diffusion battery-CNC apparatus; light scattering nephelometer and other instrumentation; chemically-speciated size classification by diffusion sampler; trace metals by atomic absorption; halogen compounds by NAA; meteorological measurements of RH, temperature, wind speed and direction; gaseous measurements of SO/sub 2/, ozone, NO/sub x/ and hydrocarbons at some locations for some sampling periods. The existence of aerosol sulfate in the ambient environment predominantly in the chemical form of sulfuric acid mostly neutralized by ammonia is now well documented. The average composition of fine particle (< 3.5 ..mu..m) sulfate in summer 1976 aerosols was approximately that letovicite ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 3/H(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/). Based on the impactor data, about 85% of the aerosol sulfate mass was in the fine particle fraction. About 50% of this aerosol sulfate was deduced to be in the suboptical size regime (< 0.25 ..mu..m) from diffusion processor data. The H/sup +//SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ ratio in suboptical aerosols did not significantly differ from that in fine fraction aerosol. The coarse particle sulfate was not associated with H/sup +/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/ and comprised

  12. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, R. J.; Schwartz, S. E.; Hales, J. M.; Cess, R. D.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Hansen, J. E.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, in particular, has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short-wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes.

  13. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlson, R.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Hales, J.M.; Cess, R.D.; Coakley, J.A. Jr.; Hansen, J.E.; Hofmann, D.J. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA (USA). Inst. for Environmental Studies, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences)

    1992-01-24

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square metre, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes. 73 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. What Aerosol Water do Organic Compounds See?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large amounts of aerosol water are associated with inorganic salts such as ammonium sulfate with generally smaller but important contributions from hydrophilic organics. Ambient aerosols can be externally or internally mixed in addition to containing one or multiple phases. The d...

  15. Aerosol light-scattering in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, H.M. ten; Veefkind, J.P.; Waijers-IJpelaan, A.; Hage, J.C. van der

    1996-01-01

    The relation between the (midday) aerosol light-scattering and the concentrations of nitrate and sulfate has been assessed at a site near the coast of the North Sea in The Netherlands. Midday was selected for the measurements because this is the time at which the aerosol is most effective in the

  16. Chlor-alkali electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    The chlor-alkali industry produces simultaneously chlorine (Cl 2 ) and caustic soda (NaOH) by decomposition of a salt solution in water. Additionally to the chlorine and caustic soda, hydrogen (H 2 ) is produced. The global production capacity of chlorine in 1995 was approximately 44 million tons. The development of the chlorine production capacity in Western Europe since 1960 is presented. The most important chlorine producer in Western Europe is Germany with 38 % of the annual chlorine capacity of Western Europe. The chlorine capacity in 1997 in different Western European countries and their share an the total capacity in Western Europe is also presented. World-wide several processes are available for the production of chlorine and caustic soda. The most important routes are the following: ion exchange membrane process; mercury cell process; diaphragm process. Several other processes are available but do not have a significant contribution to the total production. The geographical distribution of the processes differs widely. In Japan the membrane process is predominate with 73 %, in the United States the diaphragm process with 75 %, whereas in Western Europe the mercury cell process is the most important one (64 %) [EIPPCB, 2000]. Approximately 65 % of the global chlorine capacity is located in these three regions. A comparison of the relative contribution of different production technologies to the chlor-alkali capacity in these three regions and in the world in 1994 is given. The distribution of processes and capacities of chlor-alkali plants in some European countries is presented (October 1999). Note that any one plant can have more than one cell technology installed. (author)

  17. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  18. Composition and physical properties of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer and the North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pengfei; Toon, Owen B; Neely, Ryan R; Martinsson, Bengt G; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A M

    2015-04-16

    Recent studies revealed layers of enhanced aerosol scattering in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Asia (Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL)) and North America (North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer (NATAL)). We use a sectional aerosol model (Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA)) coupled with the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) to explore the composition and optical properties of these aerosol layers. The observed aerosol extinction enhancement is reproduced by CESM1/CARMA. Both model and observations indicate a strong gradient of the sulfur-to-carbon ratio from Europe to the Asia on constant pressure surfaces. We found that the ATAL is mostly composed of sulfates, surface-emitted organics, and secondary organics; the NATAL is mostly composed of sulfates and secondary organics. The model also suggests that emission increases in Asia between 2000 and 2010 led to an increase of aerosol optical depth of the ATAL by 0.002 on average which is consistent with observations. The Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer is composed of sulfate, primary organics, and secondary organics The North American Tropospheric Aerosol Layer is mostly composed of sulfate and secondary organics Aerosol Optical Depth of Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer increases by 0.002 from 2000 to 2010.

  19. Aerosols and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, W W

    1980-01-01

    The atmospheric burden of particles, or aerosols, has been measurably increased by human activities, especially in industrialized regions and those where slash-burn agricultural practices are followed. Some of these aerosols are directly produced when fossil fuels or other materials are burned (soot, smoke, fly ash); others are the result of photochemical reactions involving organic molecules, oxides of nitrogen, and sunlight (smog); and a third source is the oxidation of sulfur dioxide, produced when sulfur-bearing fuel is burned, to sulfuric acid thereby forming sulfate particles of droplets. In all cases, the resulting aerosols scatter and absorb both solar and infrared radiation, and therefore they influence the atmospheric heat balance. The question is the way in which they influence it, and the geographical and extent of this influence.

  20. Attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Koichi; Tanaka, Toru; Nitta, Shinnosuke; Itosu, Satoshi; Sekimoto, Shun; Oki, Yuichi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Various characteristics such as size distribution, chemical component and radioactivity have been analyzed for radioactive aerosols released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Measured results for radioactive aerosols suggest that the potential transport medium for radioactive cesium was non-sea-salt sulfate. This result indicates that cesium isotopes would preferentially attach with sulfate compounds. In the present work the attachment behavior of fission products to aqueous solution aerosols of sodium salts has been studied using a generation system of solution aerosols and spontaneous fission source of {sup 248}Cm. Attachment ratios of fission products to the solution aerosols were compared among the aerosols generated by different solutions of sodium salt. A significant difference according as a solute of solution aerosols was found in the attachment behavior. The present results suggest the existence of chemical effects in the attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosols.

  1. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  2. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  3. Alkali silica reaction (ASR) in cement free alkali activated sustainable concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    This report summarizes the findings of an experimental evaluation into alkali silica : reaction (ASR) in cement free alkali-activated slag and fly ash binder concrete. The : susceptibility of alkali-activated fly ash and slag concrete binders to dele...

  4. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  5. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  6. Laboratory Investigation of Aerosol Formation in Combustion of Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeuthen, Jacob; Livbjerg, Hans

    2005-01-01

    nucleation is highly dependent on the rate of cooling. Experiments with sulfation of potassium chloride have been performed. By high-temperature filtering it has been found that potassium sulfate is the nucleating agent in aerosol formation during biomass combustion. In the future, the more advanced alkali-sulfur-chloride chemistry will be studied and the mechanisms leading to aerosol formation under biomass combustion conditions in power plants will be studied. The results will be analyzed by model studies including Computational Fluid Dynamics

  7. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention describes a method of disposing of alkali metals by forming a solid waste for storage. The method comprises preparing an aqueous disposal solution of at least 55 weight percent alkali metal hydroxide, heating the alkali metal to melting temperature to form a feed solution, and spraying the molten feed solution into the disposal solution. The alkali metal reacts with the water in the disposal solution in a controlled reaction which produces alkali metal hydroxide, hydrogen and heat and thereby forms a solution of alkali metal hydroxides. Water is added to the solution in amounts sufficient to maintain the concentration of alkali metal hydroxides in the solution at 70 to 90 weight percent, and to maintain the temperature of the solution at about the boiling point. Removing and cooling the alkali metal hydroxide solution thereby forms a solid waste for storage. The method is particularly applicable to radioactive alkali metal reactor coolant. (auth)

  8. Parameterization of the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Daniel; Seinfeld, John H.

    Urban particulate matter (PM10) concentrations often include a large contribution from secondary aerosols, i.e. sulfate, nitrate and organic aerosols, which are formed in situ by chemical reactions of their gas phase precursors, SO x, NO x and reactive organic gases (ROG), respectively. For secondary organic aerosols, the results of smog chamber experiments are used to estimate the fraction of ROG that is converted into aerosols, called the fractional aerosol coefficient. An 'emission parameter' for secondary organic aerosol can thus be calculated for each ROG. This emission parameter is simply taken as the product of the ROG emission factor and the fractional aerosol coefficient. The secondary organic aerosol emission parameters thus estimated can then be modeled as if secondary organic aerosols formed photochemically in urban air were primary emissions.

  9. Alkali-vapor laser-excimer pumped alkali laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Desheng; Li Wenyu; Wang Hongyan; Yang Zining; Xu Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research internal and overseas, the principle of the excimer pumped alkali laser (XPAL) is explained, and the advantages and disadvantages of the XPAL are analyzed. Taking into consideration the difficulties that the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) meets on its development, the ability to solve or avoid these difficulties of XPAL is also analyzed. By summing up the achievements of the XPAL, the possible further prospect is proposed. The XPAL is of possibility to improve the performance of the DPAL. (authors)

  10. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  11. Alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) facts book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This document provides detailed information on alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR). It primarily discusses alkali-silica reaction (ASR), covering the chemistry, symptoms, test methods, prevention, specifications, diagnosis and prognosis, and mitigation...

  12. Method of making alkali metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gupta, Shalabh; Pruski, Marek; Hlova, Ihor; Castle, Andra

    2017-05-30

    A method is provided for making alkali metal hydrides by mechanochemically reacting alkali metal and hydrogen gas under mild temperature (e.g room temperature) and hydrogen pressure conditions without the need for catalyst, solvent, and intentional heating or cooling.

  13. Mechanical filter for alkali atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Toporkov, D K

    2000-01-01

    A device for separating gases of different mass is discussed. Such a device could be used in a laser-driven spin exchange source of polarized hydrogen atoms to reduce the contamination of alkali atoms. A Monte Carlo simulation has shown that the suggested apparatus based on a commercial turbo pump could reduce by a factor of 10-15 the concentration of the alkali-metal atoms in the hydrogen flow from a laser driven polarized source. This would greatly enhance the effective polarization in hydrogen targets.

  14. Electric transport properties of alkali polymethacrylates in alkali bromide solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drift, W.P.J.T. van der; Overbeek, J.Th.G.

    Electric mobilities of polyions, bromide ions, and alkali ions have been determined in solutions of Li, Na, and K salts of polymethacrylic acid (PMA) in aqueous solutions of the corresponding bromide of concentrations varying from 0.001 to 0.1 M. The Hittorf method was used for the determination of

  15. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea......The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K...... and with reactant concentrations of 500–3000 ppm SO2, 1–20% O2, and 4–15% H2O. The degree of sulfation was monitored by measuring the formation of HCl. Analysis of the solid residue confirmed that the reaction proceeds according to a shrinking core model and showed the formation of an eutectic at higher...... temperatures. On the basis of the experimental results, a rate expression for the sulfation reaction was derived. The model compared well with literature data for sulfation of KCl and NaCl, and the results indicate that it may be applied at even higher SO2 concentrations and temperatures than those...

  16. pH of Aerosols in a Polluted Atmosphere: Source Contributions to Highly Acidic Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoliang; Xu, Jiao; Peng, Xing; Xiao, Zhimei; Chen, Kui; Tian, Yingze; Guan, Xinbei; Feng, Yinchang; Yu, Haofei; Nenes, Athanasios; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-04-18

    Acidity (pH) plays a key role in the physical and chemical behavior of PM 2.5 . However, understanding of how specific PM sources impact aerosol pH is rarely considered. Performing source apportionment of PM 2.5 allows a unique link of sources pH of aerosol from the polluted city. Hourly water-soluble (WS) ions of PM 2.5 were measured online from December 25th, 2014 to June 19th, 2015 in a northern city in China. Five sources were resolved including secondary nitrate (41%), secondary sulfate (26%), coal combustion (14%), mineral dust (11%), and vehicle exhaust (9%). The influence of source contributions to pH was estimated by ISORROPIA-II. The lowest aerosol pH levels were found at low WS-ion levels and then increased with increasing total ion levels, until high ion levels occur, at which point the aerosol becomes more acidic as both sulfate and nitrate increase. Ammonium levels increased nearly linearly with sulfate and nitrate until approximately 20 μg m -3 , supporting that the ammonium in the aerosol was more limited by thermodynamics than source limitations, and aerosol pH responded more to the contributions of sources such as dust than levels of sulfate. Commonly used pH indicator ratios were not indicative of the pH estimated using the thermodynamic model.

  17. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashok V [Salt Lake City, UT; Balagopal, Shekar [Sandy, UT; Pendelton, Justin [Salt Lake City, UT

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  18. Construction of thermionic alkali-ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, F.

    1986-01-01

    A simple technique is described by which singly charged alkali ions of K, Na, Li, Rb and Cs are produced by heating ultra-pure chemical salts of different alkali metals on tungsten filaments without employing a temperature measuring device. The character of alkali-ion currents at different heating powers and the remarkably constant ion emission current for prolonged periods are discussed. (author)

  19. Alkali binding in hydrated Portland cement paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Brouwers, Jos

    2010-01-01

    The alkali-binding capacity of C–S–H in hydrated Portland cement pastes is addressed in this study. The amount of bound alkalis in C–S–H is computed based on the alkali partition theories firstly proposed by Taylor (1987) and later further developed by Brouwers and Van Eijk (2003). Experimental data

  20. Combustion Aerosols from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Wood Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    .03 – 12.7 μm) was used to sample aerosols in the flue gas, in the top of the boiler before the SCR (Tfluegas ~350 oC). The collected aerosols were subsequently characterized with respect to particle size distribution, morphology, and chemical composition. The mass-based size distribution of the aerosols...... for the experiments with coal fly ash addition. This indicates that the coal fly ash is effective in capturing volatile alkalis released from the wood during combustion, thus suppressing the homogeneous nucleation of alkali-salts. SEM/EDS and TEM/EDS analysis revealed that the large condensation peak from pure wood...

  1. Organics, Meteoritic Material, and other Elements in High Altitude Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, M.; Murphy, D. M.; Thomson, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent in situ measurements of the chemical composition of single aerosol particles at altitudes up to 19 km have revealed a number of surprising features about ambient particles. Upper tropospheric aerosols in the study region often contained more organic material than sulfate.

  2. Global impacts of aerosols from particular source regions and sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, D; Bond, T.C; Streets, D; Unger, D; van der Werf, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    We study the impacts of present-day aerosols emitted from particular regions and from particular sectors, as predicted by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM, We track the distribution and direct radiative forcing of aerosols, including sulfate and black and organic carbon, emitted from

  3. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  4. Study of absorption spectra for alkali and alkaline earth metal salts in flameless atomic absorption spectrometry using a carbon tube atomizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Seiji; Kakiyama, Hitoo

    1975-01-01

    Absorption spectra of various salts such as alkali metal salts, alkaline earth dichlorides, and ammonium halides were investigated and absorptions of some molecular species produced in the carbon tube were identified. The aqueous solution (20 μl) containing 1.0 mg/ml of each salt was placed in the carbon tube atomizer and heated in a similar manner to usual flameless atomic absorption method. D 2 -lamp was used as a continuous light source and argon gas was employed as an inert sheath gas. The spectra were obtained over the range of wavelength 200 to 350 nm. When alkali halides were feeded, the absorption spectra agreed with those of alkali halide vapors. Therefore, in such cases vapors of the alkali halides were probably produced by the sublimation or vaporization in the atomizer. The spectra of alkali perchlorates were considered to be those of alkali chlorides produced by the pyrolysis of the perchlorates in the atomizer. The absorptions of alkaline earth chlorides below 250 nm were probably due to their gaseous states. Sulfur dioxide was found to be produced by the pyrolysis of alkali sulfates, bisulfates and sulfites in the atomizer, Alkali phosphates and pyrophosphates gave almost identical spectra below 300 nm. Gamma band spectrum of nitrogen monoxide was observed from 200 to 240 nm during ashing at bout 330 0 C for alkali nitrates and nitrites. Ammonia vapor was produced from ammonium halides during drying at about 170 0 C. Although the absorptions of alkali carbonates and hydroxides were almost undetectable, the same spectra as those of alkali halides were observed by the addition of ammonium halides to the solutions of alkali compounds. This shows that alkali halides are produced in the atomizer by the addition of halide ions. (auth.)

  5. Exciton emissions in alkali cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weid, J.P. von der.

    1979-10-01

    The emissions of Alkali Cyanides X irradiated at low temperature were measured. In addition to the molecular (Frenkel Type) exciton emissions, another emitting centre was found and tentatively assigned to a charge transfer self trapped exciton. The nature of the molecular exciton emitting state is discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Structure peculiarities of mixed alkali silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershtein, V.A.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Egorov, V.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal porperties and structure of alkali and mixed alkali (Li, Na, K) silicate glasses by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the positron annihilation method, X-ray fluorescence and infrared (300-30 cm -1 ) spectroscopy were studied. Introduction of different alkali cations in glass results in nonadditive change in their electron structure (bond covalence degree growth) and the thermal behaviour. The different manifestations of mixed alkali effect can be explained by the lessening of long distance Coulomb interactions and strengthening the short-range forces in the mixed alkali glasses. (orig.)

  7. Perturbation of the aerosol layer by aviation-produced aerosols: a parametrization of plume processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Meilinger, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The perturbation of the sulfate surface area density (SAD) in the tropopause region and the lower stratosphere by subsonic and supersonic aircraft fleets is examined. The background aerosol surface area, the conversion of fuel sulfur into new sulfate particles in aircraft plumes, and the plume mixing with ambient air control this perturbation. The background aerosol surface area is enhanced by the addition of ultrafine aerosol particles at cruise altitudes. The study includes recent findings concerning the formation and development of these particles in aircraft plumes. Large-scale SAD enhancements become relevant for background SAD levels below about 10 {mu}m{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}, even for moderate sulfate conversion fractions of 5%. Results from an analytic expression for the surface area changes are presented which contains the dependences on these parameters and can be employed in large-scale atmospheric models. (orig.) 11 refs.

  8. A possible pathway for rapid growth of sulfate during haze days in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohui; Bei, Naifang; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Wu, Jiarui; Feng, Tian; Wang, Yichen; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qiang; Tie, Xuexi; Molina, Luisa T.

    2017-03-01

    Rapid industrialization and urbanization have caused frequent occurrence of haze in China during wintertime in recent years. The sulfate aerosol is one of the most important components of fine particles (PM2. 5) in the atmosphere, contributing significantly to the haze formation. However, the heterogeneous formation mechanism of sulfate remains poorly characterized. The relationships of the observed sulfate with PM2. 5, iron, and relative humidity in Xi'an, China have been employed to evaluate the mechanism and to develop a parameterization of the sulfate heterogeneous formation involving aerosol water for incorporation into atmospheric chemical transport models. Model simulations with the proposed parameterization can successfully reproduce the observed sulfate rapid growth and diurnal variations in Xi'an and Beijing, China. Reasonable representation of sulfate heterogeneous formation in chemical transport models considerably improves the PM2. 5 simulations, providing the underlying basis for better understanding the haze formation and supporting the design and implementation of emission control strategies.

  9. Practical Limitations of Aerosol Separation by a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Radney, James G.; Zangmeister, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    A cavity ring-down spectrometer and condensation particle counter were used to investigate the limitations in the separation of singly and multiply charged aerosol particles by a tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). The impact of particle polydispersity and morphology was investigated using three materials: nearly-monodisperse polystyrene latex nanospheres (PSL); polydisperse, nearly-spherical ammonium sulfate (AS) and polydisperse lacey fracta...

  10. The formation of aerosol particles during combustion of biomass and waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerrild Zeuthen, J.

    2007-05-15

    This thesis describes the formation of aerosol particles during combustion of biomass and waste. The formation of aerosol particles is investigated by studying condensation of alkali salts from synthetic flue gasses in a laboratory tubular furnace. In this so-called laminar flow aerosol condenser-furnace gaseous alkali chlorides are mixed with sulphur dioxide, water vapour and oxygen. At high temperatures the alkali chloride reacts with sulphur dioxide to form alkali sulphate. During subsequent cooling of the synthetic flue gas the chlorides and sulphates condense either as deposits on walls or on other particles or directly from the gas phase by homogenous nucleation. A previously developed computer code for simulation of one-component nucleation of particles in a cylindrical laminar flow is extended to include a homogeneous gas phase reaction to produce gaseous alkali sulphate. The formation of aerosol particles during full-scale combustion of wheat straw is investigated in a 100 MW grate-fired boiler. Finally, aerosols from incineration of waste are investigated during full-scale combustion of municipal waste in a 22 MW grate-fired unit. (BA)

  11. Stratospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Ivanov, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements can provide both spatial and temporal data of sufficient resolution to be of use in climate models. Relatively recent results from a wide range of instrument techniques for measuring stratospheric aerosol parameters are described. Such techniques include impactor sampling, lidar system sensing, filter sampling, photoelectric particle counting, satellite extinction-sensing using the sun as a source, and optical depth probing, at sites mainly removed from tropospheric aerosol sources. Some of these techniques have also had correlative and intercomparison studies. The main methods for determining the vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosols are outlined: lidar extinction measurements from satellites; impactor measurements from balloons and aircraft; and photoelectric particle counter measurements from balloons, aircraft, and rockets. The conversion of the lidar backscatter to stratospheric aerosol mass loading is referred to. Absolute measurements of total solar extinction from satellite orbits can be used to extract the aerosol extinction, and several examples of vertical profiles of extinction obtained with the SAGE satellite are given. Stratospheric mass loading can be inferred from extinction using approximate linear relationships but under restrictive conditions. Impactor sampling is essentially the only method in which the physical nature of the stratospheric aerosol is observed visually. Vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol number concentration using impactor data are presented. Typical profiles using a dual-size-range photoelectric dustsonde particle counter are given for volcanically disturbed and inactive periods. Some measurements of the global distribution of stratospheric aerosols are also presented. Volatility measurements are described, indicating that stratospheric aerosols are composed primarily of about 75% sulfuric acid and 25% water

  12. Photochemical organonitrate formation in wet aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yong Bin; Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jin Young; Turpin, Barbara J.

    2016-10-01

    Water is the most abundant component of atmospheric fine aerosol. However, despite rapid progress, multiphase chemistry involving wet aerosols is still poorly understood. In this work, we report results from smog chamber photooxidation of glyoxal- and OH-containing ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid particles in the presence of NOx and O3 at high and low relative humidity. Particles were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). During the 3 h irradiation, OH oxidation products of glyoxal that are also produced in dilute aqueous solutions (e.g., oxalic acids and tartaric acids) were formed in both ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols and sulfuric acid (SA) aerosols. However, the major products were organonitrogens (CHNO), organosulfates (CHOS), and organonitrogen sulfates (CHNOS). These were also the dominant products formed in the dark chamber, indicating non-radical formation. In the humid chamber (> 70 % relative humidity, RH), two main products for both AS and SA aerosols were organonitrates, which appeared at m / z- 147 and 226. They were formed in the aqueous phase via non-radical reactions of glyoxal and nitric acid, and their formation was enhanced by photochemistry because of the photochemical formation of nitric acid via reactions of peroxy radicals, NOx and OH during the irradiation.

  13. Aerosols in the Atmosphere: Sources, Transport, and Multi-decadal Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Bian, H.; Kucsera, T.

    2016-01-01

    We present our recent studies with global modeling and analysis of atmospheric aerosols. We have used the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model and satellite and in situ data to investigate (1) long-term variations of aerosols over polluted and dust source regions and downwind ocean areas in the past three decades and the cause of the changes and (2) anthropogenic and volcanic contributions to the sulfate aerosol in the upper tropospherelower stratosphere.

  14. Photophoretic levitation of engineered aerosols for geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David W

    2010-09-21

    Aerosols could be injected into the upper atmosphere to engineer the climate by scattering incident sunlight so as to produce a cooling tendency that may mitigate the risks posed by the accumulation of greenhouse gases. Analysis of climate engineering has focused on sulfate aerosols. Here I examine the possibility that engineered nanoparticles could exploit photophoretic forces, enabling more control over particle distribution and lifetime than is possible with sulfates, perhaps allowing climate engineering to be accomplished with fewer side effects. The use of electrostatic or magnetic materials enables a class of photophoretic forces not found in nature. Photophoretic levitation could loft particles above the stratosphere, reducing their capacity to interfere with ozone chemistry; and, by increasing particle lifetimes, it would reduce the need for continual replenishment of the aerosol. Moreover, particles might be engineered to drift poleward enabling albedo modification to be tailored to counter polar warming while minimizing the impact on equatorial climates.

  15. Informing Aerosol Transport Models With Satellite Multi-Angle Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbacher, J.; Patadia, F.; Petrenko, M.; Martin, M. Val; Chin, M.; Gaitley, B.; Garay, M.; Kalashnikova, O.; Nelson, D.; Scollo, S.

    2011-01-01

    As the aerosol products from the NASA Earth Observing System's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) mature, we are placing greater focus on ways of using the aerosol amount and type data products, and aerosol plume heights, to constrain aerosol transport models. We have demonstrated the ability to map aerosol air-mass-types regionally, and have identified product upgrades required to apply them globally, including the need for a quality flag indicating the aerosol type information content, that varies depending upon retrieval conditions. We have shown that MISR aerosol type can distinguish smoke from dust, volcanic ash from sulfate and water particles, and can identify qualitative differences in mixtures of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol components in urban settings. We demonstrated the use of stereo imaging to map smoke, dust, and volcanic effluent plume injection height, and the combination of MISR and MODIS aerosol optical depth maps to constrain wildfire smoke source strength. This talk will briefly highlight where we stand on these application, with emphasis on the steps we are taking toward applying the capabilities toward constraining aerosol transport models, planet-wide.

  16. Engineering assessment of in situ sulfate production onboard aircraft at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.; Dykema, J. A.; Keith, D.

    2016-12-01

    Stratospheric injection of scattering aerosols has been proposed as a way to reduce global temperature increases by decreasing net atmospheric radiative forcing. Several methods have been suggested as a means of implementing solar geoengineering, and high altitude aircraft have been identified as an accessible means delivering sulfate aerosols to the lower and mid-stratosphere. This research initiative analyzes the design features of an onboard open cycle chemical plant capable of in situ sulfur to sulfate conversion, and compares the required mass to that of transporting pre-fabricated gaseous or liquid sulfate aerosol precursors. Scaling from aero-derivative gas turbine engines, commercial catalytic converters, and existing aerospace materials indicate that aircraft equipped with such a system could provide a substantial mass benefit compared to direct transport of compound sulfate products.

  17. Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Zhang, Renyi; Gomez, Mario E; Yang, Lingxiao; Levy Zamora, Misti; Hu, Min; Lin, Yun; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Hu, Tafeng; Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Yuesi; Gao, Jian; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Li, Guohui; Wang, Jiayuan; Tian, Pengfei; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Secrest, Jeremiah; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wang, Weigang; Huang, Yao; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Yujiao; Li, Yixin; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Cai, Li; Cheng, Yuting; Ji, Yuemeng; Zhang, Fang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Liss, Peter S; Duce, Robert A; Kolb, Charles E; Molina, Mario J

    2016-11-29

    Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH 3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO 2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH 3 and NO 2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world.

  18. Stabilization of aqueous alkali metal aluminate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenson, S.J.

    1988-03-29

    A method of stabilizing an aqueous solution of alkali metal aluminate is described comprising: admixing an aqueous solution of alkali metal aluminate having a pH of at least 10 with a sufficient amount of vinyl polymer having pendant carboxylate groups to form a solution containing from 0.1 to 2.0 weight percent of an anionic vinyl polymer based on alkali metal aluminate solids. The anionic vinyl polymer has an average molecular weight of at least 500,000.

  19. Sources and Removal of Springtime Arctic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Bozem, H.; Kunkel, D.; Schulz, H.; Hanna, S.; Aliabadi, A. A.; Bertram, A. K.; Hoor, P. M.; Herber, A. B.; Leaitch, R.; Abbatt, J.

    2017-12-01

    The sources and removal mechanisms of pollution transported to Arctic regions are key factors in controlling the impact of short-lived climate forcing agents on Arctic climate. We lack a predictive understanding of pollution transport to Arctic regions largely due to poor understanding of removal mechanisms and aerosol chemical and physical processing both within the Arctic and during transport. We present vertically resolved observations of aerosol physical and chemical properties in High Arctic springtime. While much previous work has focused on characterizing episodic events of high pollutant concentrations transported to Arctic regions, here we focus on measurements made under conditions consistent with chronic Arctic Haze, which is more representative of the pollution seasonal maximum observed at long term monitoring stations. On six flights based at Alert and Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we observe evidence for vertical variations in both aerosol sources and removal mechanisms. With support from model calculations, we show evidence for sources of partially neutralized aerosol with higher organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon content in the middle troposphere, compared to lower tropospheric aerosol with higher amounts of acidic sulfate. Further, we show evidence for aerosol depletion relative to carbon monoxide, both in the mid-to-upper troposphere and within the Arctic Boundary Layer (ABL). Dry deposition, with relatively low removal efficiency, was responsible for aerosol removal in the ABL while ice or liquid-phase scavenging was responsible for aerosol removal at higher altitudes during transport. Overall, we find that vertical variations in both regional and remote aerosol sources, and removal mechanisms, combine with long aerosol residence times to drive the properties of springtime Arctic aerosol.

  20. The physico-chemical evolution of atmospheric aerosols and the gas-particle partitioning of inorganic aerosol during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Park, T.; Lee, J. B.; Lim, Y. J.; Ahn, J.; Park, J. S.; Soo, C. J.; Desyaterik, Y.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols influence climate change directly by scattering and absorption and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and some of the effects of aerosols are reduction in visibility, deterioration of human health, and deposition of pollutants to ecosystems. Urban area is large source of aerosols and aerosol precursors. Aerosol sources are both local and from long-range transport. Long-range transport processed aerosol are often dominant sources of aerosol pollution in Korea. To improve our knowledge of aerosol chemistry, Korea and U.S-Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) of Aircraft-based aerosol measurement took place in and around Seoul, Korea during May and June 2016. KORUS-AQ campaigns were conducted to study the chemical characterization and processes of pollutants in the Seoul Metropolitan area to regional scales of Korean peninsula. Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed on aircraft platforms on-board DC-8 (NASA) aircraft. We characterized aerosol chemical properties and mass concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organics in polluted air plumes and investigate the spatial and vertical distribution of the species. The results of studies show that organics is predominant in Aerosol and a significant fraction of the organics is oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) at the high altitude. Both Nitrate and sulfate can partition between the gas and particle phases. The ratios for HNO3/(N(V) (=gaseous HNO3 + particulate Nitrate) and SO2/(SO2+Sulfate) were found to exhibit quite different distributions between the particles and gas phase for the locations during KORUS-AQ campaign, representing potential for formation of additional particulate nitrate and sulfate. The results of those studies can provide highly resolved temporal and spatial air pollutant, which are valuable for air quality model input parameters for aerosol behaviour.

  1. Alkali resistivity of Cu based selective catalytic reduction catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Jensen, Anker Degn; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The deactivation of V2O5–WO3–TiO2, Cu–HZSM5 and Cu–HMOR plate type monolithic catalysts was investigated when exposed to KCl aerosols in a bench-scale reactor. Fresh and exposed catalysts were characterized by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity measurements, scanning electron microscope...... and Cu–HMOR catalysts only experienced a slight loss of acidity while the V2O5–WO3–TiO2 catalyst lost most of the acidity. High alkali resistivity seems to be characteristic of the zeolite supported SCR catalysts which thus could be attractive for flue gas cleaning in biomass plants....

  2. An overview of regional and local characteristics of aerosols in South Africa using satellite, ground, and modeling data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hersey, SP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of aerosols on human health, visibility, and cli- mate are well documented. There are a number of natural sources of dust, sea salt, sulfate, and organic aerosol, and anthropogenic aerosol primarily derives from fuel combus- tion. Combustion...

  3. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    1970-01-01

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  4. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  5. The alkali metals: 200 years of surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, James L

    2015-03-13

    Alkali metal compounds have been known since antiquity. In 1807, Sir Humphry Davy surprised everyone by electrolytically preparing (and naming) potassium and sodium metals. In 1808, he noted their interaction with ammonia, which, 100 years later, was attributed to solvated electrons. After 1960, pulse radiolysis of nearly any solvent produced solvated electrons, which became one of the most studied species in chemistry. In 1968, alkali metal solutions in amines and ethers were shown to contain alkali metal anions in addition to solvated electrons. The advent of crown ethers and cryptands as complexants for alkali cations greatly enhanced alkali metal solubilities. This permitted us to prepare a crystalline salt of Na(-) in 1974, followed by 30 other alkalides with Na(-), K(-), Rb(-) and Cs(-) anions. This firmly established the -1 oxidation state of alkali metals. The synthesis of alkalides led to the crystallization of electrides, with trapped electrons as the anions. Electrides have a variety of electronic and magnetic properties, depending on the geometries and connectivities of the trapping sites. In 2009, the final surprise was the experimental demonstration that alkali metals under high pressure lose their metallic character as the electrons are localized in voids between the alkali cations to become high-pressure electrides! © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. luminescence in coloured alkali halide crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    irradiated alkali halide crystals are similar to the luminescence excited by high energy radiation. Ueta et al [11] ... emission, a correlation between the deformation bleaching and mechanoluminescence of coloured alkali ..... [32] V P Zakrevskii, T S Orlova and A V Shuldiner, J. Solid State 37, 675 (1995). [33] C D Clark and ...

  7. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level. 6 claims

  8. The chemistry of the liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A study of liquid alkali metals. It encourages comparison with molecular solvents in chapter covering the nature and reactivity of dissolved species, solvation, solubility and electrical conductivity of solutions. It demonstrates lab techniques unique to liquid alkali metals. It discusses large-scale applications from storage batteries to sodium-cooled reactors and future fusion reactors, and associated technological problems. Contents: Some Basic Physical and Chemical Properties; Manipulation of the Liquids; The Chemistry of Purification Methods; Species Formed by Dissolved Elements; Solubilities and Analytical Methods; Alkali Metal Mixtures; Solvation in Liquid Metal; Reactions Between Liquid Alkali Metals and Water; Reactions of Nitrogen with Lithium and the Group II Metals in Liquid Sodium; The Formation, Dissociation and Stability of Heteronuclear Polyatomic Anions; Reactions of the Liquid Alkali Metals and Their Alloys with Simple Alipatic Hydrocarbons; Reactions of the Liquid Alkali Metals with Some Halogen Compounds; Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon Meters; Surface Chemistry and Wetting; Corrosion of Transition Metals by the Liquid Alkali Metals; Modern Applications of the Liquid Alkali Metals

  9. Potential climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueschel, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Aerosols act as part of the climate system through their influence on solar and terrestrial radiation. The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on the reduction of visibility is explored in this chapter. Elemental carbon has been identified as the most effective visibility-reducing species. Most of the visibility reduction is due to particles with diameter smaller than 2.5 μm. Studies indicate that sulfate is also a very important aerosol species that results in low visibility and high turbidity. Radiative properties such as aerosol single-scattering albedo values and absorption-to-backscatter ratios purported to produce warming or cooling effects of aerosols are discussed. It is concluded that aerosol clouds have a tendency to cool when they are over a low-albedo surface and have a tendency to warm when they are over high-albedo surfaces such as snow. Anthropogenic aerosols have a tendency to warm the earth's atmospheric system, based on calculations and assumed aerosol optical properties. However, this effect is somewhat offset by the absorption and re-emission into space of infrared terrestrial radiation. The net effect depends on the ratio of the absorption coefficients in the visible and infrared and also on the surface albedo. The effects on infrared radiation are documented for two anthropogenic aerosol sources in the United States, the Denver metropolitan area and power plant plumes in New Mexico, through calculations and measurements. Measured cooling rates within an aerosol plume are not sufficient to offset the warming rate due to absorption of short-wave radiation. Research indicates that anthropogenic aerosols can possibly cause local-scale warming of the atmosphere, but global-scale climatic effects remain an open question

  10. Aerosol composition and sources during the Chinese Spring Festival: fireworks, secondary aerosol, and holiday effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q.; Sun, Y. L.; Wang, Z.; Yin, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Aerosol particles were characterized by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor along with various collocated instruments in Beijing, China, to investigate the role of fireworks (FW) and secondary aerosol in particulate pollution during the Chinese Spring Festival of 2013. Three FW events, exerting significant and short-term impacts on fine particles (PM2.5), were observed on the days of Lunar New Year, Lunar Fifth Day, and Lantern Festival. The FW were shown to have a large impact on non-refractory potassium, chloride, sulfate, and organics in submicron aerosol (PM1), of which FW organics appeared to be emitted mainly in secondary, with its mass spectrum resembling that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Pollution events (PEs) and clean periods (CPs) alternated routinely throughout the study. Secondary particulate matter (SPM = SOA + sulfate + nitrate + ammonium) dominated the total PM1 mass on average, accounting for 63-82% during nine PEs in this study. The elevated contributions of secondary species during PEs resulted in a higher mass extinction efficiency of PM1 (6.4 m2 g-1) than during CPs (4.4 m2 g-1). The Chinese Spring Festival also provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of reduced anthropogenic emissions on aerosol chemistry in the city. Primary species showed ubiquitous reductions during the holiday period with the largest reduction being in cooking organic aerosol (OA; 69%), in nitrogen monoxide (54%), and in coal combustion OA (28%). Secondary sulfate, however, remained only slightly changed, and the SOA and the total PM2.5 even slightly increased. Our results have significant implications for controlling local primary source emissions during PEs, e.g., cooking and traffic activities. Controlling these factors might have a limited effect on improving air quality in the megacity of Beijing, due to the dominance of SPM from regional transport in aerosol particle composition.

  11. Tropospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  12. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  13. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcpheeters, C.C.; Wolson, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1

  14. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Duyou; Mei Laibao; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    Surface alteration of typical aggregates with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity, i.e. Spratt limestone (SL) and Pittsburg dolomitic limestone (PL), were studied by XRD and SEM/EDS after autoclaving in KOH, NaOH and LiOH solutions at 150 deg. C for 150 h. The results indicate that: (1) NaOH shows the strongest attack on both ASR and ACR aggregates, the weakest attack is with LiOH. For both aggregates autoclaved in different alkali media, the crystalline degree, morphology and distribution of products are quite different. More crystalline products are formed on rock surfaces in KOH than that in NaOH solution, while almost no amorphous product is formed in LiOH solution; (2) in addition to dedolomitization of PL in KOH, NaOH and LiOH solutions, cryptocrystalline quartz in PL involves in reaction with alkaline solution and forms typical alkali-silica product in NaOH and KOH solutions, but forms lithium silicate (Li 2 SiO 3 ) in LiOH solution; (3) in addition to massive alkali-silica product formed in SL autoclaved in different alkaline solutions, a small amount of dolomite existing in SL may simultaneously dedolomitize and possibly contribute to expansion; (4) it is promising to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to distinguish the alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity of aggregate when both ASR and ACR might coexist

  15. Accessing alkali-free NASICON-type compounds through mixed oxoanion sol–gel chemistry: Hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mieritz, Daniel; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Seo, Dong-Kyun, E-mail: dseo@asu.edu

    2016-10-15

    We report a direct sol–gel synthesis and characterization of new proton-containing, rhombohedral NASICION-type titanium compounds with mixed phosphate and sulfate oxoanions. The synthetic conditions were established by utilizing peroxide ion as a decomposable and stabilizing ligand for titanyl ions in the presence of phosphates in a strong acidic medium. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), induction-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopic (ICP-OES) elemental analysis, and Raman and {sup 1}H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopic studies have determined the presence of sulfate and proton ions in the structure, for which the compositional range has been found to be H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1). The particulate products exhibit a nanocrystalline nature observed through characterization with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The N{sub 2} sorption isotherm measurements and subsequent Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) analyses confirmed the presence of the textural meso- and macropores in the materials. Future studies would determine the potential of the new compounds in various applications as battery materials, proton conductors and solid acid catalysts. - Graphical abstract: A series of proton-containing NASICON-type compounds, H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1), were discovered through a new sol–gel synthetic method that utilizes peroxide ion as a decomposable and stabilizing ligand for titanyl ions in the presence of phosphates in a strong acidic medium.

  16. Modeling of aerosol dynamics - Aerosol size and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyak, R.A.; Peterson, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    A mechanism for the evolution of the size and composition of an aerosol particle is investigated by developing a model that includes the transfer of gaseous pollutants to the surface of existing aerosol particles, the transfer of the pollutants across the gas-particle interface, and the reaction of dissolved species within the aerosol particle. The reaction mechanisms considered include homogeneous gas-phase and heterogeneous solution chemistry. Aerosol particles evolving within an urban plume and within power-plant and smelter plumes are studied, along with the evolution of particle size and chemical composition for regions of various relative humidities, with particular emphasis on aqueous chemistry in the low-humidity environments of the southwestern U.S. A simulation of a copper smelting complex in central Arizona indicates that all particles shrink from their original size as plume humidity approaches background relative humidity, that most secondary sulfate formation occurs in the near-plume region, and that the final particle pH is in the range 2.0-2.2 for a wide range of physical conditions

  17. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  18. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are allergic to ferrous sulfate, any other medications tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  19. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer Cancer Treatment Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) ... This causes tissues to die and muscle to waste away, and the patient loses weight. Hydrazine sulfate ...

  20. Anthropogenic Aerosols in Asia, Radiative Forcing, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Bollasina, M. A.; Ming, Y.; Ocko, I.; Persad, G.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols arising as a result of human-induced emissions in Asia form a key 'driver' in causing pollution and in the forcing of anthropogenic climate change. The manner of the forced climate change is sensitive to the scattering and absorption properties of the aerosols and the aerosol-cloud microphysical interactions. Using the NOAA/ GFDL global climate models and observations from multiple platforms, we investigate the radiative perturbations due to the 20th Century sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol emissions and the resultant impacts on surface temperature, tropical precipitation, Indian monsoon, hemispheric circulation, and atmospheric and oceanic heat transports. The influence of the aerosol species has many contrasts with that due to the anthropogenic well-mixed greenhouse gas emissions e.g., the asymmetry in the hemispheric climate response, but is subject to larger uncertainties. The aerosol forcing expected in the future indicates a significant control on the 21st Century anthropogenic climate change in Asia.

  1. Evaluating secondary inorganic aerosols in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuman, Keren; Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2016-08-01

    The spatial distribution of aerosols and their chemical composition dictates whether aerosols have a cooling or a warming effect on the climate system. Hence, properly modeling the three-dimensional distribution of aerosols is a crucial step for coherent climate simulations. Since surface measurement networks only give 2-D data, and most satellites supply integrated column information, it is thus important to integrate aircraft measurements in climate model evaluations. In this study, the vertical distribution of secondary inorganic aerosol (i.e., sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate) is evaluated against a collection of 14 AMS flight campaigns and surface measurements from 2000 to 2010 in the USA and Europe. GISS ModelE2 is used with multiple aerosol microphysics (MATRIX, OMA) and thermodynamic (ISORROPIA II, EQSAM) configurations. Our results show that the MATRIX microphysical scheme improves the model performance for sulfate, but that there is a systematic underestimation of ammonium and nitrate over the USA and Europe in all model configurations. In terms of gaseous precursors, nitric acid concentrations are largely underestimated at the surface while overestimated in the higher levels of the model. Heterogeneous reactions on dust surfaces are an important sink for nitric acid, even high in the troposphere. At high altitudes, nitrate formation is calculated to be ammonia limited. The underestimation of ammonium and nitrate in polluted regions is most likely caused by a too simplified treatment of the NH3 / NH4+ partitioning which affects the HNO3 / NO3- partitioning.

  2. Heterogeneous Chemistry: Understanding Aerosol/Oxidant Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce E. Penner

    2005-03-14

    Global radiative forcing of nitrate and ammonium aerosols has mostly been estimated from aerosol concentrations calculated at thermodynamic equilibrium or using approximate treatments for their uptake by aerosols. In this study, a more accurate hybrid dynamical approach (DYN) was used to simulate the uptake of nitrate and ammonium by aerosols and the interaction with tropospheric reactive nitrogen chemistry in a three-dimensional global aerosol and chemistry model, IMPACT, which also treats sulfate, sea salt and mineral dust aerosol. 43% of the global annual average nitrate aerosol burden, 0.16 TgN, and 92% of the global annual average ammonium aerosol burden, 0.29 TgN, exist in the fine mode (D<1.25 {micro}m) that scatters most efficiently. Results from an equilibrium calculation differ significantly from those of DYN since the fraction of fine-mode nitrate to total nitrate (gas plus aerosol) is 9.8%, compared to 13% in DYN. Our results suggest that the estimates of aerosol forcing from equilibrium concentrations will be underestimated. We also show that two common approaches used to treat nitrate and ammonium in aerosol in global models, including the first-order gas-to-particle approximation based on uptake coefficients (UPTAKE) and a hybrid method that combines the former with an equilibrium model (HYB), significantly overpredict the nitrate uptake by aerosols especially that by coarse particles, resulting in total nitrate aerosol burdens higher than that in DYN by +106% and +47%, respectively. Thus, nitrate aerosol in the coarse mode calculated by HYB is 0.18 Tg N, a factor of 2 more than that in DYN (0.086 Tg N). Excessive formation of the coarse-mode nitrate in HYB leads to near surface nitrate concentrations in the fine mode lower than that in DYN by up to 50% over continents. In addition, near-surface HNO{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentrations are underpredicted by HYB by up to 90% and 5%, respectively. UPTAKE overpredicts the NO{sub x} burden by 56% and near

  3. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  4. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  5. Primary aerosol and secondary inorganic aerosol budget over the Mediterranean Basin during 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Jonathan; Marécal, Virginie; Josse, Béatrice; Arteta, Joaquim; Hamer, Paul

    2018-04-01

    In the frame of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx), we analyse the budget of primary aerosols and secondary inorganic aerosols over the Mediterranean Basin during the years 2012 and 2013. To do this, we use two year-long numerical simulations with the chemistry-transport model MOCAGE validated against satellite- and ground-based measurements. The budget is presented on an annual and a monthly basis on a domain covering 29 to 47° N latitude and 10° W to 38° E longitude. The years 2012 and 2013 show similar seasonal variations. The desert dust is the main contributor to the annual aerosol burden in the Mediterranean region with a peak in spring, and sea salt being the second most important contributor. The secondary inorganic aerosols, taken as a whole, contribute a similar level to sea salt. The results show that all of the considered aerosol types, except for sea salt aerosols, experience net export out of our Mediterranean Basin model domain, and thus this area should be considered as a source region for aerosols globally. Our study showed that 11 % of the desert dust, 22.8 to 39.5 % of the carbonaceous aerosols, 35 % of the sulfate and 9 % of the ammonium emitted or produced into the study domain are exported. The main sources of variability for aerosols between 2012 and 2013 are weather-related variations, acting on emissions processes, and the episodic import of aerosols from North American fires. In order to assess the importance of the anthropogenic emissions of the marine and the coastal areas which are central for the economy of the Mediterranean Basin, we made a sensitivity test simulation. This simulation is similar to the reference simulation but with the removal of the international shipping emissions and the anthropogenic emissions over a 50 km wide band inland along the coast. We showed that around 30 % of the emissions of carbonaceous aerosols and 35 to 60 % of the exported carbonaceous aerosols originates from the marine and

  6. [Analysis of chondroitin sulfate content of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum with different processing methods and different parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui-Ze; Wang, Yan-Hua; Sun, Yin-Shi

    2018-02-01

    The differences and the variations of chondroitin sulfate content in different parts of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum(CCP) with different processing methods were investigated. The chondroitin sulfate from velvet was extracted by dilute alkali-concentrated salt method. Next, the chondroitin sulfate was digested by chondroitinase ABC.The contents of total chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate A, B and C in the samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with freeze-drying processing is 14.13,11.99,1.74,0.32 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with boiling processing is 10.71,8.97,2.21,1.40 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP without blood is 12.47,9.47,2.64,0.07 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. And the content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with blood is 8.22,4.39,0.87,0.28 g·kg⁻¹ respectively. The results indicated that the chondroitin sulfate content in different processing methods was significantly different.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP with freeze-drying is higher than that in CCP with boiling processing.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP without blood is higher than that in CCP with blood. The chondroitin sulfate content in differerent paris of the velvet with the same processing methods was arranged from high to low as: wax slices, powder, gauze slices, bone slices. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Literature Survey of Marine Aerosol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    Gulf of Guinea balances the observed Cl loss in accor- dance with the gaseous HCl formation process in marine atmo- spheres (Buat-Menard et al., 1974...and savanna . The average level near the sea is 1.80 ugm-3 . The atmospheric origin of sulfates is sup- ported by the fact that 83% of the sulfate...investi- gated. 1.4 𔃻 Green, W.D., 1972 Maritime and mixed maritime-continental aerosols along the coast of southern California, J.Geophys.Res. 77

  8. Upper tropospheric ice sensitivity to sulfate geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Mancini, Eva

    2017-04-01

    In light of the Paris Agreement which aims to keep global warming under 2 °C in the next century and considering the emission scenarios produced by the IPCC for the same time span, it is likely that to remain below that threshold some kind of geoengineering technique will have to be deployed. Amongst the different methods, the injection of sulfur into the stratosphere has received much attention considering its effectiveness and affordability. Aside from the rather well established surface cooling sulfate geoengineering (SG) would produce, the investigation on possible side-effects of this method is still ongoing. For instance, some recent studies have investigated the effect SG would have on upper tropospheric cirrus clouds, expecially on the homogenous freezing mechanisms that produces the ice particles (Kuebbeler et al., 2012). The goal of the present study is to better understand the effect of thermal and dynamical anomalies caused by SG on the formation of ice crystals via homogeneous freezing by comparing a complete SG simulation with a RCP4.5 reference case and with a number of sensitivity studies where atmospheric temperature changes in the upper tropospheric region are specified in a schematic way as a function of the aerosol driven stratospheric warming and mid-lower tropospheric cooling. These changes in the temperature profile tend to increase atmospheric stabilization, thus decreasing updraft and with it the amount of water vapor available for homogeneous freezing in the upper troposphere. However, what still needs to be assessed is the interaction between this dynamical effect and the thermal effects of tropospheric cooling (which would increase ice nucleation rates) and stratospheric warming (which would probably extend to the uppermost troposphere via SG aerosol gravitational settling, thus reducing ice nucleation rates), in order to understand how they combine together. Changes in ice clouds coverage could be important for SG, because cirrus ice

  9. Alkali aggregate reactions in concrete: a review of the Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of aggregates with alkalis in the cement to produce alkali silica reaction and alkali carbonate reaction is reviewed. The effects of the two reactions on the durability of concrete structures are highlighted. By taking samples of aggregates and cement test results, the potential of alkali silica reaction in Ethiopia is ...

  10. Process to separate alkali metal salts from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier; Larsen, Dennis; Killpack, Jeff

    2017-06-27

    A process to facilitate gravimetric separation of alkali metal salts, such as alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides, from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons. The disclosed process is part of a method of upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the hydrocarbon feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase containing alkali metal salts and reduced heavy metals, and an upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock. The inorganic phase may be gravimetrically separated from the upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock after mixing at a temperature between about 350.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for a time period between about 15 minutes and 2 hours.

  11. Evolution of aerosol chemistry in Xi'an, inland China, during the dust storm period of 2013 - Part 1: Sources, chemical forms and formation mechanisms of nitrate and sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. H.; Cheng, C. L.; Huang, Y.; Tao, J.; Ren, Y. Q.; Wu, F.; Meng, J. J.; Li, J. J.; Cheng, Y. T.; Cao, J. J.; Liu, S. X.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, R.; Chen, Y. B.

    2014-11-01

    A total suspended particulate (TSP) sample was collected hourly in Xi'an, an inland megacity of China near the Loess Plateau, during a dust storm event of 2013 (9 March 18:00-12 March 10:00 LT), along with a size-resolved aerosol sampling and an online measurement of PM2.5. The TSP and size-resolved samples were determined for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and nitrogen (WSON), inorganic ions and elements to investigate chemistry evolution of dust particles. Hourly concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+ and Ca2+ in the TSP samples reached up to 34, 12, 180, 72 and 28 μg m-3, respectively, when dust peak arrived over Xi'an. Chemical compositions of the TSP samples showed that during the whole observation period NH4+ and NO3- were linearly correlated with each other (r2=0.76) with a molar ratio of 1 : 1, while SO42- and Cl- were well correlated with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ (r2 > 0.85). Size distributions of NH4+ and NO3- presented a same pattern, which dominated in the coarse mode (> 2.1 μm) during the event and predominated in the fine mode (analysis further indicated that SO42- and Cl- in the dust samples possibly exist as Na2SO4, CaSO4 and NaCl, which directly originated from Gobi desert surface soil, while NH4+ and NO3- in the dust samples exist as NH4NO3. We propose a mechanism to explain these observations in which aqueous phase of dust particle surface is formed via uptake of water vapor by hygroscopic salts such as Na2SO4 and NaCl, followed by heterogeneous formation of nitrate on the liquid phase and subsequent absorption of ammonia. Our data indicate that 54 ± 20% and 60 ± 23% of NH4+ and NO3- during the dust period were secondarily produced via this pathway, with the remaining derived from the Gobi desert and Loess Plateau, while SO42- in the event almost entirely originated from the desert regions. Such cases are different from those in the East Asian continental outflow region, where during Asia dust

  12. Impact of Coal Fly Ash Addition on Combustion Aerosols (PM2.5) from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Pulverized Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    The formation of combustion aerosols was studied in an 800 MWth suspension-fired power plant boiler, during combustion of pulverized wood pellets with and without addition of coal fly ash as alkali capture additive. The aerosol particles were sampled and characterized by a low-pressure cascade im...

  13. Density of mixed alkali borate glasses: A structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doweidar, H.; El-Damrawi, G.M.; Moustafa, Y.M.; Ramadan, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Density of mixed alkali borate glasses has been correlated with the glass structure. It is assumed that in such glasses each alkali oxide associates with a proportional quantity of B 2 O 3 . The number of BO 3 and BO 4 units related to each type of alkali oxide depends on the total concentration of alkali oxide. It is concluded that in mixed alkali borate glasses the volumes of structural units related to an alkali ion are the same as in the corresponding binary alkali borate glass. This reveals that each type of alkali oxide forms its own borate matrix and behaves as if not affected with the presence of the other alkali oxide. Similar conclusions are valid for borate glasses with three types of alkali oxide

  14. Aerosol Ions and Their Gaseous Precursors over North America and their Sensitivity to Nitrogen Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Thongboonchoo, N.; Horowitz, L. W.; Dabdub, D.; Sandu, A.; Weber, R. J.; Heckel, A.

    2004-12-01

    During the ITCT-2K2 and ICARTT-2k4 experiments, a regional chemical transport model, STEM-2K3, was applied to study developed to study the aerosol ions, their precursors, and photochemistry. The major anions: sulfate and nitrate, show obvious geographic distribution from west to east coasts: nitrate is the dominant anion in west coast, and sulfate is the major anion in east coast. It reflects the distribution of NOx and SO2 sources and the influence of prevailing wind directions. The model also reveals that sulfate is the major component of aerosol extinction coefficients in Eastern and Southeastern USA during the ICARTT experiment. Ammonia emissions play an important role on controlling the ratio of nitrate versus HNO3 over inland states. Sea salt is the one of major influence factors in the coast regions. Our three-dimensional model revealed the procedure of aerosol secondary uptake when airmasses move from west to east. Using modeled regional tracers to identify the airmass sources, the aerosols also show source-related distributions. The SO2 industrial emissions, such as power plants, are the major sources of sulfate. The sulfate formation illustrates the non-local effect associated with transport and diffusion. Simulated carbonaceous concentrations are also discussed with equilibrium assumption. The consideration of aerosol secondary partition is important not only for aerosol prediction, but also for gaseous chemistry. The sensitivity studies with and without nitrate aerosol formation revealed its influence on gaseous HNO3, NOy concentrations and photochemical products.

  15. MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state: an aerosol microphysical module for global atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bauer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new aerosol microphysical module MATRIX, the Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state, and its application in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS climate model (ModelE are described. This module, which is based on the quadrature method of moments (QMOM, represents nucleation, condensation, coagulation, internal and external mixing, and cloud-drop activation and provides aerosol particle mass and number concentration and particle size information for up to 16 mixed-mode aerosol populations. Internal and external mixing among aerosol components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, carbonaceous aerosols, dust and sea-salt particles are represented. The solubility of each aerosol population, which is explicitly calculated based on its soluble and insoluble components, enables calculation of the dependence of cloud drop activation on the microphysical characterization of multiple soluble aerosol populations.

    A detailed model description and results of box-model simulations of various aerosol population configurations are presented. The box model experiments demonstrate the dependence of cloud activating aerosol number concentration on the aerosol population configuration; comparisons to sectional models are quite favorable. MATRIX is incorporated into the GISS climate model and simulations are carried out primarily to assess its performance/efficiency for global-scale atmospheric model application. Simulation results were compared with aircraft and station measurements of aerosol mass and number concentration and particle size to assess the ability of the new method to yield data suitable for such comparison. The model accurately captures the observed size distributions in the Aitken and accumulation modes up to particle diameter 1 μm, in which sulfate, nitrate, black and organic carbon are predominantly located; however the model underestimates coarse-mode number concentration and size, especially in the marine environment

  16. MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state): an aerosol microphysical module for global atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S. E.; Wright, D. L.; Koch, D.; Lewis, E. R.; McGraw, R.; Chang, L.-S.; Schwartz, S. E.; Ruedy, R.

    2008-10-01

    A new aerosol microphysical module MATRIX, the Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state, and its application in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model (ModelE) are described. This module, which is based on the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), represents nucleation, condensation, coagulation, internal and external mixing, and cloud-drop activation and provides aerosol particle mass and number concentration and particle size information for up to 16 mixed-mode aerosol populations. Internal and external mixing among aerosol components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, carbonaceous aerosols, dust and sea-salt particles are represented. The solubility of each aerosol population, which is explicitly calculated based on its soluble and insoluble components, enables calculation of the dependence of cloud drop activation on the microphysical characterization of multiple soluble aerosol populations. A detailed model description and results of box-model simulations of various aerosol population configurations are presented. The box model experiments demonstrate the dependence of cloud activating aerosol number concentration on the aerosol population configuration; comparisons to sectional models are quite favorable. MATRIX is incorporated into the GISS climate model and simulations are carried out primarily to assess its performance/efficiency for global-scale atmospheric model application. Simulation results were compared with aircraft and station measurements of aerosol mass and number concentration and particle size to assess the ability of the new method to yield data suitable for such comparison. The model accurately captures the observed size distributions in the Aitken and accumulation modes up to particle diameter 1 μm, in which sulfate, nitrate, black and organic carbon are predominantly located; however the model underestimates coarse-mode number concentration and size, especially in the marine environment. This is more likely due to

  17. Milk Alkali and Hydrochlorothiazide: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Parvez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia is a relatively common clinical problem in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Primary pathophysiology is the entry of calcium that exceeds its excretion into urine or deposition in bone into circulation. Among a wide array of causes of hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are the most common, accounting for greater than 90 percent of cases. Concordantly, there has been a resurgence of milk-alkali syndrome associated with the ingestion of large amounts of calcium and absorbable alkali, making it the third leading cause of hypercalcemia (Beall and Scofield, 1995 and Picolos et al., 2005. This paper centers on a case of over-the-counter calcium and alkali ingestion for acid reflux leading to milk alkali with concordant use of thiazide diuretic for hypertension.

  18. Trace gas and aerosol interactions in the fully coupled model of aerosol-chemistry-climate ECHAM5-HAMMOZ: 2. Impact of heterogeneous chemistry on the global aerosol distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, L.; Bey, I.; Rast, S.; Schultz, M. G.; Stier, P.; Feichter, J.

    2008-04-01

    We use the ECHAM5-HAMMOZ aerosol-chemistry-climate model to quantify the influence of trace gas-aerosol interactions on the regional and global distributions and optical properties of aerosols for present-day conditions. The model includes fully interactive simulations of gas phase and aerosol chemistry including a comprehensive set of heterogeneous reactions. We find that as a whole, the heterogeneous reactions have only a small effect on the SO2 and sulfate burden because of competing effects. The uptake of SO2 on dust and sea salt decreases the SO2 concentrations while the decrease in OH (that results from the uptake of HO2, N2O5, and O3) tends to increase SO2 (because of reduced oxidation). The sulfate formed in sea salt aerosols from SO2 uptake accounts for 3.7 Tg(S) a-1 (5%) of the total sulfate production. Uptake and subsequent reaction of SO2 on mineral dust contributes to a small formation of sulfate (0.55 Tg(S) a-1, coating of mineral dust particles, resulting in an extra 300 Tg a-1 of dust being transferred from the insoluble to the soluble mixed modes. The burden of dust in the insoluble modes is reduced by 44%, while the total burden is reduced by 5% as a result of enhanced wet deposition efficiency. Changes in the sulfur cycle affect the H2SO4 concentrations and the condensation of H2SO4 on black carbon. Accounting for heterogeneous reactions enhances the global mean burden of hydrophobic black carbon particles by 4%. The changes in aerosol mixing state result only in a small change in the global and annual aerosol optical depth (AOD) and absorption optical depth (ABS), but have significant implications on regional and seasonal scale. For example, in the main polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere, AOD and ABS increase by 10-30% and up to 15%, respectively, in winter.

  19. Intrinsic luminescence of alkali silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, V.I.; Grabovskis, V.Y.; Tolstoi, M.N.; Vitol, I.K.

    1986-09-01

    This study obtains additional information on L centers and their role in electron excitation and intrinsic luminescence of a whole series. (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) of alkali silicate glasses. The authors compare the features of the interaction with radiation of specimens of glass and crystal of a similar chemical composition, since silicates of alkali metals can be obtained in both the glassy and crystalline states.

  20. Calcium silicate hydrate: Crystallisation and alkali sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.

    2000-01-01

    Homogeneous single C-S-H gels has been prepared for the investigation of alkali binding potential and crystallisation. A distribution coefficient, R d , was introduced to express the partition of alkali between solid and aqueous phases at 25 deg. C. R d is independent of alkali hydroxide concentration and depends only on Ca:Si ratio over wide ranges of alkali concentration. The trend of numerical values of R d indicates that alkali bonding into the solid improves as its Ca:Si ratio decreases. Reversibility is demonstrated, indicating a possibility of constant R d value of the material. Al has been introduced to form C-A-S-H gels and their alkali sorption properties also determined. Al substituted into C-S-H markedly increases R d , indicating enhancement of alkali binding. However, the dependence of R d on alkali concentration is non-ideal with composition. A two-site model for bonding is presented. Crystallisation both under saturated steam and 1 bar vapour pressure has been investigated. It has been shown that heat treatment by saturated steam causes crystallisation of gels. The principal minerals obtained were (i) C-S-H gel and Ca(OH) 2 at -55 deg. C, (ii) 1.1 nm tobermorite, jennite and afwillite at 85 -130 deg. C, and (iii) xonotlite, foshagite and hillebrandite at 150-180 deg. C. Properties of crystalline C-S-H were also reported for reversible phase transformation, pH conditioning ability, seeding effect and solubility. At 1 bar pressure, crystallisation is slower than in saturated steam due to lower water activity. Tobermorite-like nanodomains develop during reaction at low Ca/Si ratios. In some Ca-rich compositions, Ca(OH) 2 is exsolved and occurs as nano-sized crystallites. (author)

  1. Climate effects of anthropogenic sulfate: Simulations from a coupled chemistry/climate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    In this paper, we use a more comprehensive approach by coupling a climate model with a 3-D global chemistry model to investigate the forcing by anthropogenic aerosol sulfate. The chemistry model treats the global-scale transport, transformation, and removal of SO 2 , DMS and H 2 SO 4 species in the atmosphere. The mass concentration of anthropogenic sulfate from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is calculated in the chemistry model and provided to the climate model where it affects the shortwave radiation. We also investigate the effect, with cloud nucleation parameterized in terms of local aerosol number, sulfate mass concentration and updraft velocity. Our simulations indicate that anthropogenic sulfate may result in important increases in reflected solar radiation, which would mask locally the radiative forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Uncertainties in these results will be discussed

  2. Climate effects of anthropogenic sulfate: Simulations from a coupled chemistry/climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Walton, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    In this paper, we use a more comprehensive approach by coupling a climate model with a 3-D global chemistry model to investigate the forcing by anthropogenic aerosol sulfate. The chemistry model treats the global-scale transport, transformation, and removal of SO{sub 2}, DMS and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} species in the atmosphere. The mass concentration of anthropogenic sulfate from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is calculated in the chemistry model and provided to the climate model where it affects the shortwave radiation. We also investigate the effect, with cloud nucleation parameterized in terms of local aerosol number, sulfate mass concentration and updraft velocity. Our simulations indicate that anthropogenic sulfate may result in important increases in reflected solar radiation, which would mask locally the radiative forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Uncertainties in these results will be discussed.

  3. Syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Angélica Maciel; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell. Their hep......Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell....... Their heparan sulfate chains, due to their vast structural diversity, interact with a wide array of ligands including potent regulators of adhesion, migration, growth and survival. Frequently, ligands interact with cell surface heparan sulfate in conjunction with high affinity receptors. The consequent...... signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we...

  4. Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Roelofs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by cloud droplets growing on particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.

  5. Aircraft Measurement of Isoprene-derived Organic Aerosol during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) Campaign Using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Liao, J.; Welti, A.; Guo, H.; Lin, J. J.; Bougiatioti, A.; Weber, R. J.; Nenes, A.; Holloway, J. S.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Ng, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    Isoprene is an important precursor for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation due to its large global emissions and high reactivity. Recent studies have found that isoprene SOA formation via the uptake of isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) under low NOx conditions appears to be largely affected by anthropogenic emissions and are not well understood. Here we investigate the effects of anthropogenic emissions on isoprene SOA formation through airborne measurements above the southeastern US, which is an ideal location for this study since this area is characterized by high emissions of both anthropogenic and isoprene sources. An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) field campaign to characterize the non-refractory chemical composition of submicron aerosol. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was performed on the organic aerosol (OA) mass spectra to identify patterns of organic components and various OA factors were resolved. Low-volatility Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (LV-OOA) constituted a major fraction of OA. Isoprene-derived OA was also identified in certain flights and correlated well with sulfate. This result is consistent with our recent finding from ground-based measurements in Centreville during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) field campaign that isoprene-derived OA is directly modulated by the abundance of sulfate. The vertical distribution of isoprene-derived OA will be discussed along with the timescale of the effect of sulfate on isoprene OA formation.

  6. Aerosol Sources, Absorption, and Intercontinental Transport: Synergies among Models, Remote Sensing, and Atmospheric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent; Kaufman, Yoram; chu, Allen; Anderson, Tad; Quinn, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Aerosol climate forcing is one of the largest uncertainties in assessing the anthropogenic impact on the global climate system. This uncertainty arises from the poorly quantified aerosol sources, especially black carbon emissions, our limited knowledge of aerosol mixing state and optical properties, and the consequences of intercontinental transport of aerosols and their precursors. Here we use a global model GOCART to simulate atmospheric aerosols, including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt, from anthropogenic, biomass burning, and natural sources. We compare the model calculated aerosol extinction and absorption with those quantities from the ground-based sun photometer measurements from AERONET at several different wavelengths and the field observations from ACE-Asia, and model calculated total aerosol optical depth and fine mode fractions with the MODIS satellite retrieval. We will also estimate the intercontinental transport of pollution and dust aerosols from their source regions to other areas in different seasons.

  7. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  8. Thermalization of different alkali and alkali-earth elements at the TRI mu P facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shidling, P. D.; Giri, G. S.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Santra, B.; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O. O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes produced by the in-flight method are converted into low-energy ions with a thermal ionizer (TI) ion catcher, the operation of which is based on a hot cavity ion source. The extraction efficiency of the TI for different alkali and alkali-earth elements has been studied and

  9. Studies on the alkali-silica reaction rim in a simplified calcium-alkali-silicate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Kunpeng; Adriaensens, Peter; De Schutter, Geert; Ye, G.; Taerwe, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This work is intended to provide a better understanding about the properties and roles of the reaction rim in an alkali-silica reaction. A simplified calcium-alkali-silicate system was created to simulate the multiple interactions among reactive silica, alkaline solution and portlandite near the

  10. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Kwong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4− has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ⋅ − upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19  ×  10−13 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27  ×  1012 molecule cm−3 s, only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we

  11. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Kwong, Kai; Chim, Man Mei; Davies, James F.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Nin Chan, Man

    2018-02-01

    Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na) droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH) of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART) coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4-) has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O) and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ṡ -) upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27 × 1012 molecule cm-3 s), only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we firstly demonstrate that the heterogeneous OH oxidation of an

  12. Study of photolytic aerosols at stratospheric pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, Patrick.

    1975-07-01

    An experimental study of photolytic aerosol formation at stratospheric pressure (60 Torr) and laboratory temperature, was carried out previous to the exact simulation of photolytic aerosol formation in real stratospheric conditions. An experimental simulation device, techniques of generation of known mixtures of inert gases with SO 2 and NOsub(x) traces at low concentration (below 1 ppm volume) and H 2 O traces (a few ppm), and techniques for the determination and counting of aerosol particles at low pressures were perfected. The following results were achieved: the rate of vapor condensation on nuclei was reduced when total pressure decreased. At low pressure the working of condensation nuclei counters and the formation of photolytic aerosols is influenced by this phenomenon. An explanation is proposed, as well as means to avoid this unpleasant effect on the working of nuclei counters at low pressure. No photolytic aerosol production was ascertained at 60 Torr when water concentration was below 100 ppm whatever the concentration of SO 2 or NOsub(x) traces. With water concentration below 1200ppm and SO 2 trace concentration below 1ppm, the aerosol particles produced could not consist of sulfuric acid drops but probably of nitrosyl sulfate acide crystals [fr

  13. Alkali metal and alkali metal hydroxide intercalates of the layered transition metal disulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Y.; Konuma, M.; Matsumoto, O.

    1981-01-01

    The intercalation reaction of some layered transition metal disulfides with alkali metals, alkali metal hydroxides, and tetraalkylammonium hydroxides were investigated. The alkali metal intercalates were prepared in the respective metal-hexamethylphosphoric triamide solutions in vaccuo, and the hydroxide intercalates in aqueous hydroxide solutions. According to the intercalation reaction, the c-lattice parameter was increased, and the increase indicated the expansion of the interlayer distance. In the case of alkali metal intercalates, the expansion of the interlayer distance increased continuously, corresponding to the atomic radius of the alkali metal. On the other hand, the hydroxide intercalates showed discrete expansion corresponding to the effective ionic radius of the intercalated cation. All intercalates of TaS 2 amd NbS 2 were superconductors. The expansion of the interlayer distance tended to increase the superconducting transition temperature in the intercalates of TaS 2 and vice versa in those of NbS 2 . (orig.)

  14. Aerosol size distribution characteristics of organosulfates in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Bin Yu; Lin, Peng; Hu, Min; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Organosulfates (OSs) have been detected in various atmospheric environments, but their particle size distribution characteristics are unknown. In this work, we examined their size distributions in ambient aerosols to gain insights into the formation processes. Size-segregated aerosol samples in the range of 0.056-18 μm were collected using a ten-stage impactor at a receptor site in Hong Kong in both summer and winter and in Nansha in the Pearl River Delta in winter. The humic-like substances fraction in the size-segregated samples was isolated and analyzed using electrospray ionization coupled with an Orbitrap Ultra High Resolution Mass Spectrometer. Through accurate mass measurements, ∼190 CHOS and ∼90 CHONS formulas were tentatively identified to be OS compounds. Among them, OS compounds derived from isoprene, α-/β-pinene, and limonene and alkyl OSs having low double bond equivalents (DBE = 0,1) and 0-2 extra O beyond those in -OSO3 were found with high intensity. The biogenic volatile organic compounds-derived OS formulas share a common characteristic with sulfate in that the droplet mode dominated, peaking in either 0.56-1.0 or 1.0-1.8 μm size bin, reflecting sulfate as their common precursor. Most of these OSs have a minor coarse mode, accounting for 0-45%. The presence of OSs on the coarse particles is hypothesized to be a result of OSs on small particle (vs. m/z 249 C10H17O5S- from α/β-pinene, differing by (+H2O-HNO3)), the CHONS compounds had an enhanced coarse mode presence. This could be interpreted as a result of slower hydrolysis of the CHONS compounds on the alkali coarse particles. The low DBE alkyl OS compounds have a dominant droplet mode at the Hong Kong site, but a more significant coarse mode presence was observed for CnH2n+1O4S-, CnH2n-1O4S-, and CnH2n-1O5S- formulas in the Nansha site, possibly suggesting site-specific mixed secondary and primary sources for these formulas.

  15. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  16. DHEA-sulfate test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease in DHEA sulfate may be due to: Adrenal gland disorders that produce lower than normal amounts of adrenal ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Adrenal Gland Disorders Read more Ovarian Cysts Read more NIH MedlinePlus ...

  17. The Impact of Geoengineering Aerosols on Stratospheric Temperature and Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Fueglistaler, S.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.; Thomason, L. W.; Peter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are warming the global climate at an unprecedented rate. Significant emission reductions will be required soon to avoid a rapid temperature rise. As a potential interim measure to avoid extreme temperature increase, it has been suggested that Earth's albedo be increased by artificially enhancing stratospheric sulfate aerosols. We use a 3D chemistry climate model, fed by aerosol size distributions from a zonal mean aerosol model. to simulate continuous injection of 1-10 Mt/a into the lower tropical stratosphere. In contrast to the case for all previous work, the particles are predicted to grow to larger sizes than are observed after volcanic eruptions. The reason is the continuous supply of sulfuric acid and hence freshly formed small aerosol particles, which enhance the formation of large aerosol particles by coagulation and, to a lesser extent, by condensation. Owing to their large size, these particles have a reduced albedo. Furthermore, their sedimentation results in a non-linear relationship between stratospheric aerosol burden and annual injection, leading to a reduction of the targeted cooling. More importantly, the sedimenting particles heat the tropical cold point tropopause and, hence, the stratospheric entry mixing ratio of H2O increases. Therefore, geoengineering by means of sulfate aerosols is predicted to accelerate the hydroxyl catalyzed ozone destruction cycles and cause a significant depletion of the ozone layer even though future halogen concentrations will he significantly reduced.

  18. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2001-01-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented and the most common applications are listed, Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution.

  19. Growth of aerosol in an urban plume. [METROMEX program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    Time changes of aerosol particle size distribution in the range of 0.01 ..mu..m diameter, concentration of O/sub 3/, NO, NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, several hydrocarbons, and sulfate were measured in an urban plume. The investigation was conducted in a Lagrangian frame of reference using instrumented aircraft. The air parcel trajectory was identified by the movement of a tetroon launched from the ground to an altitude within the plume. This study was carried out in metropolitan St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A., during the METROMEX program. A pronounced change in the aerosol particle size distribution and an increase in the total volume of the aerosol were observed. Gas to particle transformation involving existing nuclei is responsible for the aerosol growth. The results of the measurement of trace gases and the aerosol particles and their chemical analyses are presented and discussed. (auth)

  20. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting ...... (sulfate:bicarbonate exchange) and self-exchange diffusion take place. Irrespective of the mechanism of transport, sulfate is probably transported as a monovalent anion species....

  1. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H 2 35 SO 4 ) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  2. Silica enigma and ignorance in alkali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Letian.

    1990-01-01

    Si migration and K, Na alterations are two key problems for understanding the whole process of hydrothermal metallogenesis, but they have not attracted sufficient attention of geologists for a long time. It is impossible for us to know hydrothermal metallogenetic regularity actually without studying dequartzfication and alkali-introduction. Being distinct from common habitual thinking, it is considered that ore-forming elements are micro-amount, passive subordinate components in the flow of hydrothermal matter movement, and there is no metallogenesis for a certain element in nature. Except that the ore source is controlled by the uneven distribution ore-forming elements in the mantle and crust the same metallogenesis may almost lead to the formation of deposits of all elements. Principal active components in the hydrothermal matter system include alkali, silica and acid volatiles. The ternary system has determined the fate of release, activation, migration, precipitaion and concentration of ore-forming elements. Each member of the ternary system plays a different role in metallogenesis, having marvellous functional division of work. of these three members main control factor is alkali metal, whereas silica and acid are constrained by alkali. Acidic matter (including silica) and ore-forming elements are derivatives from activities of alkali metals

  3. Aerosol scrubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Submerged Gravel Scrubber is an air cleaning system developed by the Department of Energy's Liquid Metal Reactor Program. The Scrubber System has been patented by the Department of Energy. This technology is being transferred to industry by the DOE. Its basic principles can be adapted for individual applications and the commercialized version can be used to perform a variety of tasks. The gas to be cleaned is percolated through a continuously washed gravel bed. The passage of the gas through the gravel breaks the stream into many small bubbles rising in a turbulent body of water. These conditions allow very highly efficient removal of aerosols from the gas

  4. Calibration of aerosol radiometers. Special aerosol sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Problems of calibration of artificial aerosol radiometry and information-measurement systems of radiometer radiation control, in particular, are considered. Special aerosol source is suggested, which permits to perform certification and testing of aerosol channels of the systems in situ without the dismantling

  5. Systematic Relationships among Background SE U.S. Aerosol Optical, Micro-physical, and Chemical Properties-Development of an Optically-based Aerosol Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, J. P.; Link, M. F.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing-based retrievals of aerosol composition require known or assumed relationships between aerosol optical properties and types. Most optically-based aerosol classification schemes apply some combination of the spectral dependence of aerosol light scattering and absorption-using the absorption and either scattering or extinction Angstrom exponents (AAE, SAE and EAE), along with single-scattering albedo (SSA). These schemes can differentiate between such aerosol types as dust, biomass burning, and urban/industrial but no such studies have been conducted in the SE U.S., where a large fraction of the background aerosol is a variable mixture of biogenic SOA, sulfates, and black carbon. In addition, AERONET retrievals of SSA are often highly uncertain due to low AOD in the region during most months. The high-elevation, semi-rural AppalAIR facility at Appalachian State University in Boone, NC (1090m ASL, 36.210N, 81.690W) is home to the only co-located NOAA-ESRL and AERONET monitoring sites in the eastern U.S. Aerosol chemistry measured at AppalAIR is representative of the background SE U.S (Link et al. 2014) Dried aerosol light absorption and dried and humidified aerosol light scattering and hemispheric backscattering at 3 visible wavelengths and 2 particle size cuts (sub-1μm and sub-10μm) are measured continuously. Measurements of size-resolved, non-refractory sub-1μm aerosol composition were made by a co-located AMS during the 2012-2013 summers and 2013 winter. Systematic relationships among aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical properties were developed to better understand aerosol sources and processes and for use in higher-dimension aerosol classification schemes. The hygroscopic dependence of visible light scattering is sensitive to the ratio of sulfate to organic aerosol(OA), as are SSA and AAE. SAE is a less sensitive indicator of fine-mode aerosol size than hemispheric backscatter fraction (b) and is more sensitive to fine-mode aerosol

  6. Superconductivity in alkali-doped C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Arthur P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlight: • Superconductivity in alkali-doped C 60 (A 3 C 60 ) is well described by an s-wave state produced by phonon mediated pairing. • Moderate coupling of electrons to high-frequency shape-changing intra-molecular vibrational modes produces transition temperatures up to 33 K in single-phase material. • The good understanding of pairing in A 3 C 60 offers a paradigm for the development of new superconducting materials. - Abstract: Superconductivity in alkali-doped C 60 (A 3 C 60 , A = an alkali atom) is well described by an s-wave state produced by phonon mediated pairing. Moderate coupling of electrons to high-frequency shape-changing intra-molecular vibrational modes produces transition temperatures (T c ) up to 33 K in single-phase material. The good understanding of pairing in A 3 C 60 offers a paradigm for the development of new superconducting materials

  7. X-Ray Microspectroscopic Investigations of Remote Aerosol Composition and Changes in Aerosol Microstructure and Phase State upon Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Bechtel, M.; Förster, J. D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Krüger, M. L.; Pöhlker, C.; Saturno, J.; Weigand, M.; Wiedemann, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a crucial role in the Earth's climate system and hydrological cycle by scattering and absorbing sunlight and affecting the formation and development of clouds and precipitation. Our research focuses on aerosols in remote regions, in order to characterize the properties and sources of natural aerosol particles and the extent of human perturbations of the aerosol burden. The phase and mixing state of atmospheric aerosols, and particularly their hygroscopic response to relative humidity (RH) variations, is a central determinant of their atmospheric life cycle and impacts. We present an investigation using X-ray microspectroscopy on submicrometer aerosols under variable RH conditions, showing in situ changes in morphology, microstructure, and phase state upon humidity cycling. We applied Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy with Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) under variable RH conditions to standard aerosols for a validation of the experimental approach and to internally mixed aerosol particles from the Amazonian rain forest collected during periods with anthropogenic pollution. The measurements were conducted at X-ray microscopes at the synchrotron facilities Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley, USA, and BESSY II in Berlin, Germany. Upon hydration, we observed substantial and reproducible changes in microstructure of the Amazonian particles (internal mixture of secondary organic material, ammoniated sulfate, and soot), which appear as mainly driven by efflorescence and recrystallization of sulfate salts. Multiple solid and liquid phases were found to coexist, especially in intermediate humidity regimes (60-80% RH). This shows that X-ray microspectroscopy under variable RH is a valuable technique to analyze the hygroscopic response of individual ambient aerosol particles. Our initial results underline that RH changes can trigger strong particle restructuring, in agreement with previous studies on

  8. Strength and durability performance of alkali-activated rice husk ash geopolymer mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Yong; Lee, Byung-Jae; Saraswathy, Velu; Kwon, Seung-Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation carried out to develop the geopolymer concrete based on alkali-activated rice husk ash (RHA) by sodium hydroxide with sodium silicate. Effect on method of curing and concentration of NaOH on compressive strength as well as the optimum mix proportion of geopolymer mortar was investigated. It is possible to achieve compressive strengths of 31 N/mm(2) and 45 N/mm(2), respectively for the 10 M alkali-activated geopolymer mortar after 7 and 28 days of casting when cured for 24 hours at 60°C. Results indicated that the increase in curing period and concentration of alkali activator increased the compressive strength. Durability studies were carried out in acid and sulfate media such as H2SO4, HCl, Na2SO4, and MgSO4 environments and found that geopolymer concrete showed very less weight loss when compared to steam-cured mortar specimens. In addition, fluorescent optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have shown the formation of new peaks and enhanced the polymerization reaction which is responsible for strength development and hence RHA has great potential as a substitute for ordinary Portland cement concrete.

  9. Strength and Durability Performance of Alkali-Activated Rice Husk Ash Geopolymer Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Yong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experimental investigation carried out to develop the geopolymer concrete based on alkali-activated rice husk ash (RHA by sodium hydroxide with sodium silicate. Effect on method of curing and concentration of NaOH on compressive strength as well as the optimum mix proportion of geopolymer mortar was investigated. It is possible to achieve compressive strengths of 31 N/mm2 and 45 N/mm2, respectively for the 10 M alkali-activated geopolymer mortar after 7 and 28 days of casting when cured for 24 hours at 60°C. Results indicated that the increase in curing period and concentration of alkali activator increased the compressive strength. Durability studies were carried out in acid and sulfate media such as H2SO4, HCl, Na2SO4, and MgSO4 environments and found that geopolymer concrete showed very less weight loss when compared to steam-cured mortar specimens. In addition, fluorescent optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD studies have shown the formation of new peaks and enhanced the polymerization reaction which is responsible for strength development and hence RHA has great potential as a substitute for ordinary Portland cement concrete.

  10. Alkali-bonded composites for thermal and acoustic insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Medri, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Geopolymers are alkali bonded ceramics that thank to their fully inolrganic nature have high temperature resistance depending on their compositions. An overview of the research of ISTEC on Alkali-bonded composites for thermal and acoustic insulation have been presented

  11. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, J.

    1991-11-26

    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  12. Multi-model comparison of the volcanic sulfate deposition from the 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marshall

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Mt. Tambora in 1815 was the largest volcanic eruption of the past 500 years. The eruption had significant climatic impacts, leading to the 1816 year without a summer, and remains a valuable event from which to understand the climatic effects of large stratospheric volcanic sulfur dioxide injections. The eruption also resulted in one of the strongest and most easily identifiable volcanic sulfate signals in polar ice cores, which are widely used to reconstruct the timing and atmospheric sulfate loading of past eruptions. As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP, five state-of-the-art global aerosol models simulated this eruption. We analyse both simulated background (no Tambora and volcanic (with Tambora sulfate deposition to polar regions and compare to ice core records. The models simulate overall similar patterns of background sulfate deposition, although there are differences in regional details and magnitude. However, the volcanic sulfate deposition varies considerably between the models with differences in timing, spatial pattern and magnitude. Mean simulated deposited sulfate on Antarctica ranges from 19 to 264 kg km−2 and on Greenland from 31 to 194 kg km−2, as compared to the mean ice-core-derived estimates of roughly 50 kg km−2 for both Greenland and Antarctica. The ratio of the hemispheric atmospheric sulfate aerosol burden after the eruption to the average ice sheet deposited sulfate varies between models by up to a factor of 15. Sources of this inter-model variability include differences in both the formation and the transport of sulfate aerosol. Our results suggest that deriving relationships between sulfate deposited on ice sheets and atmospheric sulfate burdens from model simulations may be associated with greater uncertainties than previously thought.

  13. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies. Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putluru, S.S.R.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The increased use of biomass as fuel has created some new challenges to establish SCR flue gas treatment technology. One of these challenges comes from biomass complex chemical composition, which includes potassium shown to have a negative impact on the SCR catalyst. Studies have shown that potassium deactivates SCR catalyst and reduces its ability to reduce NO to N{sub 2}. An attempt was made to protect the SCR catalyst from alkali poisoning by the imposition of a coating on the catalyst surface. Various compounds were coated on a commercial catalyst supplied by Haldor Topsoee A/S and tested for alkali poisoning resistance. These materials were broadly divided as metal oxides, zeolites and other materials. The coated catalysts were exposed to potassium chloride aerosols at 350 deg. C for 650-1200 h. SCR activity, SEM and EDX measurements were performed to analyze the coated catalysts resistance to potassium poisoning. Coated catalysts (Mg, Mg containing compounds and Zeolites) showed appreciable alkali resistivity compared to the uncoated reference catalyst. Coated catalysts showed high potassium concentration at the surface of the coating and low potassium concentration across the cross section when compared to the uncoated reference catalyst. Thus, it is assumed that the coating layer accumulates the potassium at the surface and prevents to penetrate through the catalyst. The overall assessment is that it is possible to protect an SCR catalyst from potassium poisoning by the imposition of coating layer. (Author)

  14. Global source attribution of sulfate concentration and direct and indirect radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Hailong; Smith, Steven J.; Easter, Richard; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Yu, Hongbin; Li, Can; Rasch, Philip J.

    2017-07-01

    The global source-receptor relationships of sulfate concentrations, and direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF) from 16 regions/sectors for years 2010-2014 are examined in this study through utilizing a sulfur source-tagging capability implemented in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with winds nudged to reanalysis data. Sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate concentrations are primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. Regional source efficiencies of sulfate concentrations are higher over regions with dry atmospheric conditions and less export, suggesting that lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is important in determining regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with -0.31 W m-2 contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and -0.11 W m-2 contributed by natural sulfate, relative to a state with no sulfur emissions. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes 17-84 % to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30 % over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high latitudes. A 20 % perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate incremental IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the largest contribution, explaining -0.23 W m-2 of the global sulfate incremental IRF. Incremental IRF over regions in the Southern Hemisphere with low background aerosols is more sensitive to emission perturbation than that over the polluted Northern Hemisphere.

  15. Substantial Seasonal Contribution of Observed Biogenic Sulfate Particles to Cloud Condensation Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Kevin J; Chen, Chia-Li; Russell, Lynn M; Betha, Raghu; Liu, Jun; Price, Derek J; Massoli, Paola; Ziemba, Luke D; Crosbie, Ewan C; Moore, Richard H; Müller, Markus; Schiller, Sven A; Wisthaler, Armin; Lee, Alex K Y; Quinn, Patricia K; Bates, Timothy S; Porter, Jack; Bell, Thomas G; Saltzman, Eric S; Vaillancourt, Robert D; Behrenfeld, Mike J

    2018-02-19

    Biogenic sources contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere, but few measurements exist to constrain climate model simulations of their importance. The chemical composition of individual atmospheric aerosol particles showed two types of sulfate-containing particles in clean marine air masses in addition to mass-based Estimated Salt particles. Both types of sulfate particles lack combustion tracers and correlate, for some conditions, to atmospheric or seawater dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations, which means their source was largely biogenic. The first type is identified as New Sulfate because their large sulfate mass fraction (63% sulfate) and association with entrainment conditions means they could have formed by nucleation in the free troposphere. The second type is Added Sulfate particles (38% sulfate), because they are preexisting particles onto which additional sulfate condensed. New Sulfate particles accounted for 31% (7 cm -3 ) and 33% (36 cm -3 ) CCN at 0.1% supersaturation in late-autumn and late-spring, respectively, whereas sea spray provided 55% (13 cm -3 ) in late-autumn but only 4% (4 cm -3 ) in late-spring. Our results show a clear seasonal difference in the marine CCN budget, which illustrates how important phytoplankton-produced DMS emissions are for CCN in the North Atlantic.

  16. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  17. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Benjamin; Arnold, Gail; Røy, Hans; Müller, Inigo; Jørgensen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling - the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production - has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment - thus the term cryptic - it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM) below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰) was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰). In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰) were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool. Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide - to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  18. Formation of aqueous-phase sulfate during the haze period in China: Kinetics and atmospheric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijie; Chen, Shilu; Zhong, Jie; Zhang, Shaowen; Zhang, Yunhong; Zhang, Xiuhui; Li, Zesheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Sulfate is one of the most important components in the aerosol due to its key role in air pollution and global climate change. Recent work has suggested that reactive nitrogen chemistry in aqueous water can explain the missing source of sulfate in the aqueous water. Herein, we have mapped out the energy profile of the oxidization process of SO2 leading from NO2 and two feasible three-step mechanisms have been proposed. For the oxidation of HOSO2- and HSO3- by the dissolved NO2 in weakly acidic and neutral aerosol (pH ≤ 7), the main contribution to the missing sulfate production comes from the oxidation of HOSO2-. The whole process is a self-sustaining process. For the oxidation of SO32- in alkaline aerosol (pH > 7), the third step - decomposition step of H2O or hydrolysis of SO3 step which are two parallel processes are the rate-limiting steps. The present results are of avail to better understand the missing source of sulfate in the aerosol and hence may lead to better science-based solutions for resolving the severe haze problems in China.

  19. Density functional study of ferromagnetism in alkali metal thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model (UJM), and it is argued that within LSDA or GGA, alkali metal thin films cannot be claimed to have an FM ground state. Relevance of these results to the experiments on transition metal-doped alkali metal thin films and bulk hosts are also discussed. Keywords. Alkali metal; thin films; magnetism; density functional ...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151) is...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in the...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  4. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject to...

  5. Blowing Snow and Aerosol Composition: Bulk and Single Particle Measurements in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, P. F.; Giordano, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that aerosol concentration and composition in the cryosphere is influenced by blowing snow, though the mechanisms remain unclear. Changes in aerosol composition due to blowing snow may significantly alter local and regional aerosol production, processing, transport, and lifetimes in the cryosphere. This presentation will focus on both bulk composition changes and single particle results from deploying an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to the Antarctic sea ice during the 2ODIAC campaign, with a focus on blowing snow events. With this first on-line analysis, blowing snow clearly enhances the submicron sea salt (Na and Cl) concentrations in Antarctic aerosols. These bulk composition changes are shown to be independent from air mass origins. Single particle results from the AMS show a variety of chemical species in addition to sulfates in the submicron aerosol mass. K-means cluster analysis also shows distinct changes in the overall aerosol mass spectra during to blowing snow events.

  6. Have tropospheric aerosol emissions contributed to the recent climate hiatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Thomas; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Laakso, Anton; Lu, Zifeng; Bergman, Tommi; Mikkonen, Santtu; Kokkola, Harri; Korhonen, Hannele; Räisänen, Petri; Streets, David G.; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Laaksonen, Ari

    2014-05-01

    During the last 15 years global warming has slowed considerably, with the resulting plateau in global temperature records being dubbed the climate hiatus. Apart from variations in solar irradiance and ocean temperature, increased anthropogenic aerosol emissions in South and East Asia have been suggested as possible causes for this hiatus. While European and and North American aerosol emissions have constantly decreased since the 1980's, emissions in China and India have started increasing at the same time and, although total global aerosol emissions have decreased, aerosol effects on the global energy budget are expected to enhance towards the equator due to stronger irradiance there. In this study we used the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM2 to assess the effect that this re-distribution of anthropogenic aerosol emissions towards the equator may have on climate. To this end, we computed radiative forcing and equilibrium temperature response due to the change in global aerosol emissions (black carbon (BC), organic carbon and sulphur dioxide) between 1996 and 2010, keeping all other anthropogenic influences fixed. Surprisingly we found that the cooling due the increased aerosol emissions in China and India is almost negligible compared to the warming caused by the decreasing aerosol emissions in Europe and North America. The radiative flux perturbation (RFP; includes aerosol indirect effects) was 0.42 W/m2 and the change in global equilibrium 2 m temperature increased by 0.25 °C. The lack of cooling in China and India stems from a cancellation of sulfate cooling and BC warming, especially over China. There, the strong cloud cover leads to both attenuation of sulphate aerosol light scattering and saturation tendency of indirect aerosol effects on clouds. BC levels on the other hand increase also above the clouds (relative increase of BC levels is almost uniform with height), leading to warming through light absorption.

  7. Total aerosol effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Rotstayn, Leon; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andrew; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto A.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of precipitation formation. In former assessments of aerosol radiative forcings, these effects have not been quantified. Also, with global aerosol-climate models simulating interactively aerosols and cloud microphysical prope...

  8. Chemical effects of alkali atoms on critical temperature in superconducting alkali-doped fullerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetfleisch, F.; Gunnarsson, O.; Srama, R.; Han, J. E.; Stepper, M.; Roeser, H.-P.; Bohr, A.; Lopez, J. S.; Mashmool, M.; Roth, S.

    2018-03-01

    Alkali metal doped fullerides (A3C60) are superconductors with critical temperatures, Tc, extending up to 38 K. Tc is known to depend strongly on the lattice parameter a, which can be adjusted by physical or chemical pressure. In the latter case an alkali atom is replaced by a different sized one, which changes a. We have collected an extensive data base of experimental data for Tc from very early up to recent measurements. We disentangle alkali atom chemical effects on Tc, beyond the well-known consequences of changing a. It is found that Tc, for a fixed a, is typically increased as smaller alkali atoms are replaced by larger ones, except for very large a. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. Although smaller in size than the lattice parameter contribution, the chemical effect is not negligible and should be considered in future physical model developments.

  9. Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

    2014-11-18

    In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

  10. Production of Highly Charged Pharmaceutical Aerosols Using a New Aerosol Induction Charger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Laleh; Longest, P Worth; Holbrook, Landon; Snead, Jessica; Hindle, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Properly charged particles can be used for effective lung targeting of pharmaceutical aerosols. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of a new induction charger that operates with a mesh nebulizer for the production of highly charged submicrometer aerosols to bypass the mouth-throat and deliver clinically relevant doses of medications to the lungs. Variables of interest included combinations of model drug (albuterol sulfate) and charging excipient (NaCl) as well as strength of the charging field (1-5 kV/cm). Aerosol charge and size were measured using a modified electrical low pressure impactor system combined with high performance liquid chromatography. At the approximate mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol (~0.4 μm), the induction charge on the particles was an order of magnitude above the field and diffusion charge limit. The nebulization rate was 439.3 ± 42.9 μl/min, which with a 0.1% w/v solution delivered 419.5 ± 34.2 μg of medication per minute. A new correlation was developed to predict particle charge produced by the induction charger. The combination of the aerosol induction charger and predictive correlations will allow for the practical generation and control of charged submicrometer aerosols for targeting deposition within the lungs.

  11. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijie; Ren Nanqi; Wang Xu; Lee Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO 4 2- ) ratios. At a critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  12. Weekly patterns of aerosol in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Murphy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE network of aerosol samplers and NOAA monitoring sites are examined for weekly cycles. At remote and rural sites, fine particle elemental carbon, crustal elements, and coarse particle mass had pronounced (up to 20% weekly cycles with minima on Sunday or Monday. Fine particle organic carbon and mass had smaller amplitude cycles, also with Sunday or Monday minima. There was no statistically significant weekly cycle in fine particle sulfate despite a 5 to 15% weekly cycle in power plant SO2 emissions. Although results for nitrate may be more susceptible to sampling artifacts, nitrate also showed a pronounced weekly cycle with an amplitude similar to elemental carbon. The only species found with a weekend maximum was Pb, probably from general aviation on weekends. Aerosol optical properties at NOAA monitoring sites were consistent with the IMPROVE chemical data, with significant weekly cycles in aerosol light absorption but not light scattering. These results support a large role of diesel emissions in elemental carbon aerosol over the entire United States and suggest that a large fraction of the airborne soil dust is anthropogenic. They also suggest that studies of weekly cycles in temperature, cloudiness, precipitation, or other meteorological variables should look for causes more in light-absorbing particles and possible ice nucleation by dust rather than sulfate or total aerosol. There are also implications for personal exposure and epidemiological studies of aerosol health effects.

  13. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Growing demands on the engineering properties of cement based materials and the urgency to decrease unsuitable ecologic impact of Portland cement manufacturing represent significant motivation for the development of new cement corresponding to these aspects. One category represents prospective alkali.

  14. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Development of compressive strength of mortars depending on the alkali activator used and the composition of the binder and the time of hardening. 1. Slag + NaOH; 2. Silica fume activator + slag; 3. Portland cement + water; 4. 70% Port- land cement + 30% slag + water glass; 5. 30% Portland cement. + 70% slag + water; 6.

  15. Bioactivity of NANOZR Induced by Alkali Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Nishizaki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, zirconia has been a recognized implant material in clinical dentistry. In the present study, we investigated the performance of an alkali-modified ceria-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 polycrystalline ceramic-based nanostructured zirconia/alumina composite (NANOZR implant by assessing surface morphology and composition, wettability, bovine serum albumin adsorption rate, rat bone marrow (RBM cell attachment, and capacity for inducing bone differentiation. NANOZR surfaces without and with alkali treatment served as the control and test groups, respectively. RBM cells were seeded in a microplate with the implant and cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium, and their differentiation was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, osteocalcin (OCN production, calcium deposition, and osteogenic gene expression. The alkali-treated NANOZR surface increased ALP activity, OCN production, calcium deposition, and osteogenesis-related gene expression in attached RBM cells. These data suggest that alkali treatment enhances the osteogenesis-inducing capacity of NANOZR implants and may therefore improve their biointegration into alveolar bone.

  16. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growing demands on the engineering properties of cement based materials and the urgency to decrease unsuitable ecologic impact of Portland cement manufacturing represent significant motivation for the development of new cement corresponding to these aspects. One category represents prospective alkali activated ...

  17. Alkali slagging problems with biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Baxter, L.L.; Jenkins, B.M.; Oden, L.L.

    1993-12-31

    Biomass fueled power boilers are unable to burn more than minor percentages of annually generated agricultural fuels. Determining the mechanisms of deposit formation, and developing means of increasing the proportion of these annual biofuels to be fired are the aims of the ongoing Alkali Deposit Investigation sponsored by DOE/NREL with matching funds from industry sponsors, combining Science, Engineering and Industry.

  18. Corrosion and compatibility in liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The literature dealing with liquid alkali metal corrosion of vanadium and its alloys is reviewed in the following subsections. Attention is given to both lithium and sodium data. Preceding this review, a brief outline of the current state of understanding of liquid metal corrosion mechanisms is provided

  19. luminescence in coloured alkali halide crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The present paper reports the correlation between deformation bleaching of coloration and mechanoluminescence (ML) in coloured alkali halide crystals. When the F-centre electrons captured by moving dislocations are picked up by holes, deep traps and other compatible traps, then deformation bleaching occurs.

  20. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-01-01

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization

  1. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts were prepared using three different supports ZrO2, TiO2 and Mordenite zeolite. The majority of the catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a commercial support, with vanadium, copper or iron precursor, one catalyst was prepared...

  2. Thermodynamic characterization of Mexico City aerosol during MILAGRO 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fountoukis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast measurements of aerosol and gas-phase constituents coupled with the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic equilibrium model are used to study the partitioning of semivolatile inorganic species and phase state of Mexico City aerosol sampled at the T1 site during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign. Overall, predicted semivolatile partitioning agrees well with measurements. PM2.5 is insensitive to changes in ammonia but is to acidic semivolatile species. For particle sizes up to 1μm diameter, semi-volatile partitioning requires 15–30 min to equilibrate; longer time is typically required during the night and early morning hours. Aerosol and gas-phase speciation always exhibits substantial temporal variability, so that aerosol composition measurements (bulk or size-resolved obtained over large integration periods are not reflective of its true state. When the aerosol sulfate-to-nitrate molar ratio is less than unity, predictions improve substantially if the aerosol is assumed to follow the deliquescent phase diagram. Treating crustal species as "equivalent sodium" (rather than explicitly in the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations introduces important biases in predicted aerosol water uptake, nitrate and ammonium; neglecting crustals further increases errors dramatically. This suggests that explicitly considering crustals in the thermodynamic calculations is required to accurately predict the partitioning and phase state of aerosols.

  3. Atmospheric light extinction reconstructed from the size-resolved aerosol composition using PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Seung Shik; Lee, Kwon Ho; Kim, Young J.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive visibility monitoring was performed in the urban atmosphere of Seoul from 2007 to 2009. Using optical and chemical measurement data and the well-known reconstruction light extinction equations, contributions of size-resolved aerosols to light extinction were calculated. Composite variables for visibility impairing aerosols were reconstructed with elemental and ionic concentrations determined by particle induced X-ray emission and ion chromatography methods. Three types of reconstruction equations were introduced in this study. The first equation is the early reconstruction equation mainly based on fine particles. The second equation considers light scattering by sulfates and sea salt aerosol components in the coarse particle regime. The third equation provides information on light scattering by sulfates, nitrates, and organics for PM1.0 and particles between PM1.0 and PM2.5 and the hygroscopic function of sea salt aerosol. Visibility conditions were classified into four categories of clear, moderate, hazy, and Asian dust storm event. The contributions of sulfates and nitrates particles to light extinction increased significantly under the hazy event. The light extinction budget for sulfate particles, including coarse sulfates, increased approximately 1.5% compared to the results from the first equation. Sulfates, nitrates, and organic aerosols in the large particle size mode were responsible for 18.7 ˜ 28.6%, 3.2 ˜ 5.1%, and 6.4 ˜ 8.4% of total light extinction, and they were 1.8, 1.3, and 1.5 times larger than those in the small particles size mode, respectively. During Asian dust storm events, they were 59.1, 9.1, and 1.3%, respectively. The major visibility impairing aerosol species of sulfates, nitrates, organics, and elemental carbon accounted for 77.1 ˜ 78.2% of the total light extinction according to estimation resulting from the three reconstruction equations.

  4. Impacts of Four SO2 Oxidation Pathways on Wintertime Sulfate Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, G.; Fahey, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kang, D.; Mathur, R.; Xing, J.; Wei, C.; Cheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Air quality models tend to under-estimate winter-time sulfate concentrations compared to observed data. Such under-estimations are particularly acute in China where very high concentrations of sulfate have been measured. Sulfate is produced by oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in gas-phase by hydroxyl radical and in aqueous-phase by hydrogen peroxide, ozone, etc. and most air quality models employ such typical reactions. Several additional SO2 oxidation pathways have recently been proposed. Heterogeneous reaction on dust has been suggested to be an important sink for SO2. Oxidation of SO2 on fine particles in presence of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3) at high relative humidity has been implicated for sulfate formation in Chinese haze and London fog. Reactive nitrogen chemistry in aerosol water has also been suggested to produce winter-time sulfate in China. Specifically, high aerosol water can trap SO2 which can be subsequently oxidized by NO2 to form sulfate. Aqueous-phase (in-cloud) oxidation of SO2 by NO2 can also produce sulfate. Here, we use the hemispheric Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to examine the potential impacts of these SO2 oxidation pathways on sulfate formation. We use anthropogenic emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research and biogenic emissions from Global Emissions InitiAtive. We performed simulations without and with these SO2 oxidation pathways for October-December of 2014 using meteorological fields obtained from the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The standard CMAQ model contains one gas-phase chemical reaction and five aqueous-phase chemical reactions for SO2 oxidation. We implement four additional SO2 oxidation pathways into the CMAQ model. Our preliminary results suggest that the dust chemistry enhances mean sulfate over parts of China and Middle-East, the in-cloud SO2 oxidation by NO2 enhances sulfate over parts of western Europe, oxidation of SO2 by NO2 and NH3 on

  5. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  6. Amorphous and crystalline aerosol particles interacting with water vapor – Part 1: Microstructure, phase transitions, hygroscopic growth and kinetic limitations

    OpenAIRE

    T. Koop; U. Pöschl; S. T. Martin; S. Vlasenko; E. Mikhailov

    2009-01-01

    Interactions with water are crucial for the properties, transformation and climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. Here we outline characteristic features and differences in the interaction of amorphous and crystalline aerosol particles with water vapor. Using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA), we performed hydration, dehydration and cyclic hydration&dehydration experiments with aerosol particles composed of levoglucosan, oxalic acid and ammonium sulfate (diamet...

  7. Thermodynamic properties of alkali borosilicate gasses and metaborates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Mitsuru

    1992-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses are the proposed solidifying material for storing high level radioactive wastes in deep underground strata. Those have low melting point, and can contain relatively large amount of high level radioactive wastes. When borosilicate glasses are used for this purpose, they must be sufficiently stable and highly reliable in the vitrification process, engineered storage and the disposal in deep underground strata. The main vaporizing components from borosilicate glasses are alkali elements and boron. In this report, as for the vaporizing behavior of alkali borosilicate glasses, the research on thermodynamic standpoint carried out by the authors is explained, and the thermodynamic properties of alkali metaborates of monomer and dimer which are the main evaporation gases are reported. The evaporation and the activity of alkali borosilicate glasses, the thermodynamic properties of alkali borosilicate glasses, gaseous alkali metaborates and alkali metaborate system solid solution and so on are described. (K.I.)

  8. Size distribution of ions in atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivácsy, Z.; Molnár, Á.

    The aim of this paper is to present data about the concentration and size distribution of ions in atmospheric aerosol under slightly polluted urban conditions in Hungary. Concentration of inorganic cations (ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium), inorganic anions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, carbonate) and organic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, formic and acetic acid) for 8 particle size range between 0.0625 and 16 μm were determined. As was the case for ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, the organic acids were mostly found in the fine particle size range. Potassium and chloride were rather uniformly distributed between fine and coarse particles. Sodium, calcium, magnesium and carbonate were practically observed in the coarse mode. The results obtained for the summer and the winter half-year were also compared. The mass concentrations were recalculated in equivalents, and the ion balance was found to be reasonable in most cases. Measurement of the pH of the aerosol extracts indicates that the aerosol is acidic in the fine mode, but alkaline in the coarse particle size range.

  9. Characterization of the seasonal cycle of south Asian aerosols: A regional-scale modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Bhupesh; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Tang, Youhua; Leung, L. Ruby; Qian, Yun; Schauer, James J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Ramana, Muvva V.

    2007-11-01

    The sulfur transport and deposition model (STEM) is used to study the aerosol seasonality, distribution, and composition over south Asia from September 2004 to August 2005. Model predictions of sulfate, black carbon, primary organic carbon, other anthropogenic particulate matter, windblown mineral dusts, and sea salt are compared at two sites in south Asia where yearlong experimental observations are available from the Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) project. The model predictions are able to capture both the magnitude and seasonality of aerosols over Hanimaadhoo Observatory, Maldives. However, the model is not able to explain the seasonality at the Kathmandu Observatory; but the model does capture Kathmandu's observed annual mean concentration. The absence of seasonal brick kiln emissions within Kathmandu valley in the current inventory is a probable reason for this problem. This model study reveals high-anthropogenic aerosol loading over the Ganges valley even in the monsoonal months, which needs to be corroborated by experimental observations. Modeling results also show a high dust loading over south Asia with a distinct seasonality. Model results of aerosol monthly composition are also presented at five cities in south Asia. Total and fine-mode monthly aerosol optical depth along with contribution from each aerosol species is presented; the results show that the anthropogenic fraction dominates in the postmonsoon and the early dry season with major contributions from sulfate and absorbing aerosols. Model sensitivity studies of dry deposition velocity and wet scavenging efficiency show that model improvements are needed in the treatment of carbonaceous aerosol dry and wet removal processes. Modeled SO2 conversion rate constrained with sulfate observations at Hanimaadhoo suggests the need to increase model sulfate production rate during the dry season to account for probable sulfate production via heterogeneous pathways.

  10. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  11. Evolution of Asian aerosols during transpacific transport in INTEX-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlea, E. J.; DeCarlo, Peter; Aiken, Allison; Kimmel, Joel; Peltier, R. E.; Weber, R. J.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Shinozuka, Yohei; McNaughton, C. S.; Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; Emmons, L.; Apel, Eric; Pfister, G. G.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Millet, D. B.; Heald, C. L.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    Measurements of aerosol composition were made with an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) on board the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B 5 (INTEX-B) field campaign over the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The HR-ToF-AMS measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosol mass are shown to compare well with other aerosol instrumentation in the INTEX-B field study. Two case studies are described for pollution layers transported across the Pacific from the Asian continent, intercepted 3–4 days and 7–10 days downwind of Asia, respectively. Aerosol chemistry is shown to 10 be a robust tracer for air masses originating in Asia, specifically the presence of sulfate dominated aerosol is a distinguishing feature of Asian pollution layers that have been transported to the Eastern Pacific. We examine the time scales of processing for sulfate and organic aerosol in the atmosphere and show that our observations confirm a conceptual model for transpacific transport from Asia proposed by Brock et al. (2004). 15 Our observations of both sulfate and organic aerosol in aged Asian pollution layers are consistent with fast formation near the Asian continent, followed by washout during lofting and subsequent transformation during transport across the Pacific. Our observations are the first atmospheric measurements to indicate that although secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from pollution happens on the timescale of one day, 20 the oxidation of organic aerosol continues at longer timescales in the atmosphere. Comparisons with chemical transport models of data from the entire campaign reveal an under-prediction of SOA mass in the MOZART model, but much smaller discrepancies with the GEOS-Chem model than found in previous studies over the Western Pacific. No evidence is found to support a previous hypothesis for significant secondary 25 organic aerosol formation in the free troposphere.

  12. Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA v1.0: an idealized forcing generator for climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toohey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate aerosols from volcanic eruptions have a significant impact on the Earth's climate. To include the effects of volcanic eruptions in climate model simulations, the Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA forcing generator provides stratospheric aerosol optical properties as a function of time, latitude, height, and wavelength for a given input list of volcanic eruption attributes. EVA is based on a parameterized three-box model of stratospheric transport and simple scaling relationships used to derive mid-visible (550 nm aerosol optical depth and aerosol effective radius from stratospheric sulfate mass. Precalculated look-up tables computed from Mie theory are used to produce wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction, single scattering albedo, and scattering asymmetry factor values. The structural form of EVA and the tuning of its parameters are chosen to produce best agreement with the satellite-based reconstruction of stratospheric aerosol properties following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, and with prior millennial-timescale forcing reconstructions, including the 1815 eruption of Tambora. EVA can be used to produce volcanic forcing for climate models which is based on recent observations and physical understanding but internally self-consistent over any timescale of choice. In addition, EVA is constructed so as to allow for easy modification of different aspects of aerosol properties, in order to be used in model experiments to help advance understanding of what aspects of the volcanic aerosol are important for the climate system.

  13. Computational study of the effect of glyoxal-sulfate clustering on the Henry's Law coefficient of glyoxal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtén, Theo; Elm, Jonas; Prisle, Nønne L.

    2015-01-01

    We have used quantum chemical methods to investigate the molecular mechanism behind the recently reported ( Kampf , C. J. ; Environ. Sci. Technol . 2013 , 47 , 4236 - 4244 ) strong dependence of the Henry's law coefficient of glyoxal (C2O2H2) on the sulfate concentration of the aqueous phase......-containing aerosol particles. This promotes the participation of glyoxal in reactions leading to secondary organic aerosol formation, especially in regions with high sulfate concentrations. We used our computed equilibrium constants for the complexation reactions to assess the magnitude of the Henry's law...

  14. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in Santiago de Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Oyola, Pedro; Martinez, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Santiago de Chile, Sao Paulo and Mexico City are Latin American urban areas that suffer from heavy air pollution. In order to study air pollution in Santiago area, an aerosol source apportionment study was designed to measure ambient aerosol composition and size distribution for two downtown sampling sites in Santiago. The aerosol monitoring stations were operated in Gotuzo and Las Condes during July and August 1996. The study employed stacked filter units (SFU) for aerosol sampling, collecting fine mode aerosol (dp 10 mass of particles smaller than 10 μm) and black carbon concentration were also measured. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to measure the concentration of 22 trace elements at levels below 0.5 ng m -3 . Quantitative aerosol source apportionment was performed using Absolute Principal Factor Analysis (APFA). Very high aerosol concentrations were observed (up to 400 μg/m 3 PM 10 ). The main aerosol particle sources in Santiago are resuspended soil dust and traffic emissions. Coarse particles account for 63% of PM 10 aerosol in Gotuzo and 53% in Las Condes. A major part of this component is resuspended soil dust. In the fine fraction, resuspended soil dust accounts for 15% of fine mass, and the aerosols associated with transportation activities account for a high 64% of the fine particle mass. Sulfate particle is an important component of the aerosol in Santiago, mainly originating from gas-to-particle conversion from SO 2 . In the Gotuzo site, sulfates are the highest aerosol component, accounting for 64.5% of fine mass. Direct traffic emissions are generally mixed with resuspended soil dust. It is difficult to separate the two components, because the soil dust in downtown Santiago is contaminated with Pb, Br, Cl, and other heavy metals that are also tracers for traffic emissions. Residual oil combustion is observed, with the presence of V, S and Ni. An aerosol components from industrial emissions is also present, with the presence of

  15. Effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights from alkali pretreated rice straw hydrolyzate on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Wan, Yinhua

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Different alkali lignins fractions, which were obtained from cascade ultrafiltration, were added into the dilute acid pretreated (DAP) and alkali pretreated (AP) rice straws respectively during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the addition of alkali lignins enhanced the hydrolysis and the enhancement for hydrolysis increased with increasing molecular weights of alkali lignins, with maximum enhancement being 28.69% for DAP and 20.05% for AP, respectively. The enhancement was partly attributed to the improved cellulase activity, and filter paper activity increased by 18.03% when adding lignin with highest molecular weight. It was found that the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was correlated with the adsorption affinity of cellulase on alkali lignins, and the difference in surface charge and hydrophobicity of alkali lignins were responsible for the difference in affinity between cellulase and lignins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential Impacts of Pollution Aerosol and Dust Acting As Cloud-Nucleating Aerosol on Precipitation in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V.; Cotton, W. R.; Carrio, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The southwest US has huge demands on water resources. The Colorado River Basin (CRB) is potentially affected by anthropogenic aerosol pollution and dust acting as cloud-nucleating aerosol as well as impacting snowpack albedo.The specific objective of this research is to quantify the impacts of both dust and pollution aerosols on wintertime precipitation in the Colorado Mountains for the years 2005-2006. We examine the combined effects of anthropogenic pollution aerosol and dust serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), ice nuclei (IN) and giant CCN(GCCN) on precipitation in the CRB. Anthropogenic pollution can enhance droplet concentrations, and decrease collision and coalescence and ice particle riming largely via the "spillover" effect. Dust can serve as IN and enhance precipitation in wintertime orographic clouds. Dust coated with sulfates or originating over dry lake beds can serve as GCCN which when wetted can result in larger cloud droplets and thereby enhance the warm-rain collision and coalescence process and ice particle riming. But smaller dust particles coated with sulfates, can decrease collision and coalescence and ice particle riming similar to anthropogenic pollution aerosols. The Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6.0 is used for this study. RAMS was modified to ingest GEOS-CHEM output data and periodically update aerosol fields. GEOS-CHEM is a chemical transport model which uses assimilated meteorological data from the NASA Goddard Earth Observation System (GEOS). The aerosol data comprise a sum of hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon and organic aerosol, hydrophilic SOAs, hydrocarbon oxidation and inorganic aerosols (nitrate, sulfate and ammonium). In addition, a RAMS-based dust source and transport model is used. Preliminary analysis suggests pollution dominates over dust resulting in a decrease in precipitation via the spillover effect. Dust serving as GCCN and IN tend to enhance ice

  17. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on alkali borate glasses: evidence of mixed alkali effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaja, G; Kistaiah, P

    2009-03-19

    A lithium-potassium-borate glass system containing manganese and iron cations has been thoroughly investigated in order to obtain information about the mixed alkali effect and the structural role of both the manganese and iron in such glass hosts. Mixed alkali borate glasses of the (30 - x)Li(2)O - xK(2)O - 10CdO/ZnO - 59B(2)O(3) (x = 0, 10, 15, 20, and 30) doped with 1MnO(2)/1Fe(2)O(3) system were prepared by a melt quench technique. The amorphous phase of the prepared glass samples was confirmed from their X-ray diffraction. The spectroscopic properties of glass samples were studied using infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The density of all the prepared glasses was measured using Archimedes principle. Molar volumes were estimated from the density data. IR spectra of these glasses revealed a dramatic variation of three- and four-coordinated boron structures as a function of mixed alkali concentration. The vibrations due to Li-O, K-O, and MnO(4)/FeO(4) arrangements are consistent in all the compositions and show a nonlinear variation in the intensity with alkali content. Raman spectra of different alkali combinations with CdO and ZnO present drastic changes in the intensity of various Raman bands. The observation of disappearance and reappearance of IR and Raman bands as a function of various alkali concentrations is an important result pertaining to the mixed alkali effect in borate glasses. Acting as complementary spectroscopic techniques, both types of measurements, IR and Raman, revealed that the network structure of the studied glasses is mainly based on BO(3) and BO(4) units placed in different structural groups, the BO(3) units being dominant. The measured IR and Raman spectra of different glasses are used to clarify the optical properties of the present glasses correlating them with their structure and composition.

  18. Local structure of alkalis in mixed-alkali borate glass to elucidate the origin of mixed-alkali effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomei Tokuda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium borate crystals and glasses using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. The composition dependence of NMR spectra of the borate was similar to that of the silicate: (1 the peak position of cesium borate crystals shifted to upfield for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers, (2 the MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-3B2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, x + y = 1 glass showed that the average coordination number (CN of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. However, the degree of decrement in borates is much smaller than that in silicates. We have considered that the small difference in CN is due to 4-coordinated B, because it is electrically compensated by the alkali metal ions resulting in the restriction of having various coordinations of O to alkali metal.

  19. Sulfated Zirconia as Alkali-Resistant Support for Catalytic NOx Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is the most efficient method to eliminate NOx from flue gases in stationary sources. The traditional SCR catalyst suffers significant deactivation with time due to the presence of larger amounts of potassium in bio-fuels. A possible solution of this problem is use of highly acidic supports which would...

  20. Sulfate Promoted Zirconia as Promising Alkali-Resistant Support for Catalytic NOx Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Kustov, Arkadii; Christensen, Claus H.

    is the most efficient method to eliminate NOx from flue gases in stationary sources. The traditional SCR catalyst suffers significant deactivation with time due to the presence of relative large amounts of potassium in bio-fuels. A possible solution to this problem is use of highly acidic supports, which......The use of bio-fuels as alternatives to traditional fossil fuels has attracted much attention recent years since bio-fuels belong to a family of renewable types of energy sources and do not contribute to the green-house effect. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia as reductant...

  1. Upper-atmosphere Aerosols: Properties and Natural Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The middle atmosphere is rich in its variety of particulate matter, which ranges from meteorite debris, to sulfate aerosols, to polar stratospheric ice clouds. Volcanic eruptions strongly perturb the stratospheric sulfate (Junge) layer. High-altitude 'noctilucent' ice clouds condense at the summer mesopause. The properties of these particles, including their composition, sizes, and geographical distribution, are discussed, and their global effects, including chemical, radiative, and climatic roles, are reviewed. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are composed of water and nitric acid in the form of micron-sized ice crystals. These particles catalyze reactions of chlorine compounds that 'activate' otherwise inert chlorine reservoirs, leading to severe ozone depletions in the southern polar stratosphere during austral spring. PSCs also modify the composition of the polar stratosphere through complex physiocochemical processes, including dehydration and denitrification, and the conversion of reactive nitrogen oxides into nitric acid. If water vapor and nitric acid concentrations are enhanced by high-altitude aircraft activity, the frequency, geographical range, and duration of PSCs might increase accordingly, thus enhancing the destruction of the ozone layer (which would be naturally limited in geographical extent by the same factors that confine the ozone hole to high latitudes in winter). The stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer reflects solar radiation and increases the planetary albedo, thereby cooling the surface and possibly altering the climate. Major volcanic eruptions, which increase the sulfate aerosol burden by a factor of 100 or more, may cause significant global climate anomalies. Sulfate aerosols might also be capable of activating stratospheric chlorine reservoirs on a global scale (unlike PCSs, which represent a localized polar winter phenomenon), although existing evidence suggests relatively minor perturbations in chlorine chemistry. Nevertheless, if

  2. Could aerosol emissions be used for regional heat wave mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Bernstein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering applications by injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere are under consideration as a measure of last resort to counter global warming. Here a potential regional-scale application to offset the impacts of heat waves is critically examined. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with fully coupled chemistry (WRF-Chem, the effect of regional-scale sulfate aerosol emission over California in each of two days of the July 2006 heat wave is used to quantify potential reductions in surface temperature as a function of emission rates in a layer at 12 km altitude. Local meteorological factors yield geographical differences in surface air temperature sensitivity. For emission rates of approximately 30 μg m−2 s−1 of sulfate aerosols (with standard WRF-Chem size distribution over the region, temperature decreases of around 7 °C result during the middle part of the day over the Central Valley, one of the areas hardest hit by the heat wave. Regions more ventilated with oceanic air such as Los Angeles have slightly smaller reductions. The length of the hottest part of the day is also reduced. Advection effects on the aerosol cloud must be more carefully forecast for smaller injection regions. Verification of the impacts could be done via measurements of differences in reflected and surface downward shortwave. Such regional geoengineering applications with specific near-term target effects but smaller cost and side effects could potentially provide a means of testing larger scale applications. However, design considerations for regional applications, such as a preference for injection at a level of relatively low wind speed, differ from those for global applications. The size of the required injections and the necessity of injection close to the target region raise substantial concerns. The evaluation of this regional-scale application is thus consistent with global model evaluations, emphasizing that mitigation via

  3. Broadband measurements of aerosol extinction in the ultraviolet spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Washenfelder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements have reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross sections and complex refractive indices. We describe a new laboratory instrument to measure aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The instrument consists of two broadband channels which span the 360–390 and 385–420 nm spectral regions using two light emitting diodes (LED and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD detector. We determined aerosol extinction cross sections and directly observed Mie scattering resonances for aerosols that are purely scattering (polystyrene latex spheres and ammonium sulfate, slightly absorbing (Suwannee River fulvic acid, and strongly absorbing (nigrosin dye. We describe an approach for retrieving refractive indices as a function of wavelength from the measured extinction cross sections over the 360–420 nm wavelength region. The retrieved refractive indices for PSL and ammonium sulfate agree within uncertainty with the literature values for this spectral region. The refractive index determined for nigrosin is 1.78 (± 0.03 + 0.19 (± 0.08i at 360 nm and 1.63 (± 0.03 + 0.21 (± 0.05i at 420 nm. The refractive index determined for Suwannee River fulvic acid is 1.71 (± 0.02 + 0.07 (± 0.06i at 360 nm and 1.66 (± 0.02 + 0.06 (± 0.04i at 420 nm. These laboratory results support the potential for a field instrument capable of determining ambient aerosol optical extinction, average aerosol extinction cross section, and complex refractive index as a function of wavelength.

  4. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  5. Aerosols and environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth's radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  6. First diffraction peak in alkali metaphosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, S.; Bionducci, M.; Ecolivet, C.; Marchand, R.; Le Sauze, A.

    2000-11-01

    The structure factor of the alkali metaphosphate glasses LiPO 3 and Na 0.5Li 0.5PO 3 has been measured at 300 K for both systems and up to 800 K for the latter. The first diffraction peak of alkali metaphosphate glasses merges at lower Q (around 1.1 Å -1) than in other covalent glasses, with the highest intensity for Li-containing glasses. These points are discussed following the hypothesis of voids ordering in the structure and contrasts effects due to the negative neutron Li scattering length. The intensity of the prepeak is significantly growing with temperature, in case of Na 0.5Li 0.5PO 3, in contrast to the other peaks of the structure factor. This point is discussed in relation with literature data from flow birefringence indicating structural changes in these glassy systems.

  7. Pyrolysis characteristic of kenaf studied with separated tissues, alkali pulp, and alkali li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kojima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the potential of kenaf as a new biomass source, analytical pyrolysis was performed using various kenaf tissues, i.e., alkali lignin and alkali pulp. The distribution of the pyrolysis products from the whole kenaf was similar to that obtained from hardwood, with syringol, 4-vinylsyringol, guaiacol, and 4-vinylguaiacol as the major products. The phenols content in the pyrolysate from the kenaf core was higher than that from the kenaf cuticle, reflecting the higher lignin content of the kenaf core. The ratios of the syringyl and guaiacyl compounds in the pyrolysates from the core and cuticle samples were 2.79 and 6.83, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major pyrolysis product obtained from the kenaf alkali pulp, although glycol aldehyde and acetol were also produced in high yields, as previously observed for other cellulosic materials. Moreover, the pathways for the formation of the major pyrolysis products from alkali lignin and alkali pulp were also described, and new pyrolysis pathways for carbohydrates have been proposed herein. The end groups of carbohydrates bearing hemiacetal groups were subjected to ring opening and then they underwent further reactions, including further thermal degradation or ring reclosing. Variation of the ring-closing position resulted in the production of different compounds, such as furans, furanones, and cyclopentenones.

  8. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented, and the most common applications are listed. Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Energy transfer in crystalline alkali nitrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan' ev, Vladimir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Kemerovo State University, Krasnaya Str., 6, Kemerovo 650043 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: eprlab@kemsu.ru

    2007-08-15

    The radiation annealing of peroxynitrite ions in pre-photolyzed (253.7nm) alkali nitrate crystals has been studied. This process is stated to be due to interaction with high-energy excited states of the nitrate ion symmetry E' than to low-energy excited states symmetry A{sub 1}{sup '}'. The distance of energy transfer has been found to be {approx}10nm.

  10. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Brunner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling – the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production – has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment – thus the term cryptic – it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface.Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰ was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰. In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰ were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool.Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide – to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  11. Organic Aerosols as Cloud Condensation Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.

    2002-05-01

    The large organic component of the atmospheric aerosol contributes to both natural and anthropogenic cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Moreover, some organic substances may reduce droplet surface tension (Facchini et al. 1999), while others may be partially soluble (Laaksonen et al. 1998), and others may inhibit water condensation. The interaction of organics with water need to be understood in order to better understand the indirect aerosol effect. Therefore, laboratory CCN spectral measurements of organic aerosols are presented. These are measurements of the critical supersaturation (Sc), the supersaturation needed to produce an activated cloud droplet, as a function of the size of the organic particles. Substances include sodium lauryl (dodecyl) sulfate, oxalic, adipic, pinonic, hexadecanedioic, glutaric, stearic, succinic, phthalic, and benzoic acids. These size-Sc relationships are compared with theoretical and measured size-Sc relationships of common inorganic compounds (e.g., NaCl, KI, ammonium and calcium sulfate). Unlike most inorganics some organics display variations in solubility per unit mass as a function of particle size. Those showing relatively greater solubility at smaller sizes may be attributable to surface tension reduction, which is greater for less water dilution, as is the case for smaller particles, which are less diluted at the critical sizes. This was the case for sodium dodecyl sulfate, which does reduce surface tension. Relatively greater solubility for larger particles may be caused by greater dissolution at the higher dilutions that occur with larger particles; this is partial solubility. Measurements are also presented of internal mixtures of various organic and inorganic substances. These measurements were done with two CCN spectrometers (Hudson 1989) operating simultaneously. These two instruments usually displayed similar results in spite of the fact that they have different flow rates and supersaturation profiles. The degree of

  12. Potential of Aerosol Liquid Water to Facilitate Organic Aerosol Formation: Assessing Knowledge Gaps about Precursors and Partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Neha; Waxman, Eleanor M; Turpin, Barbara J; Volkamer, Rainer; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2017-03-21

    Isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX), glyoxal, and methylglyoxal are ubiquitous water-soluble organic gases (WSOGs) that partition to aerosol liquid water (ALW) and clouds to form aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). Recent laboratory-derived Setschenow (or salting) coefficients suggest glyoxal's potential to form aqSOA is enhanced by high aerosol salt molality, or "salting-in". In the southeastern U.S., aqSOA is responsible for a significant fraction of ambient organic aerosol, and correlates with sulfate mass. However, the mechanistic explanation for this correlation remains elusive, and an assessment of the importance of different WSOGs to aqSOA is currently missing. We employ EPA's CMAQ model to the continental U.S. during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) to compare the potential of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and IEPOX to partition to ALW, as the initial step toward aqSOA formation. Among these three studied compounds, IEPOX is a dominant contributor, ∼72% on average in the continental U.S., to potential aqSOA mass due to Henry's Law constants and molecular weights. Glyoxal contributes significantly, and application of the Setschenow coefficient leads to a greater than 3-fold model domain average increase in glyoxal's aqSOA mass potential. Methylglyoxal is predicted to be a minor contributor. Acid or ammonium - catalyzed ring-opening IEPOX chemistry as well as sulfate-driven ALW and the associated molality may explain positive correlations between SOA and sulfate during SOAS and illustrate ways in which anthropogenic sulfate could regulate biogenic aqSOA formation, ways not presently included in atmospheric models but relevant to development of effective control strategies.

  13. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2. We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%–20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate, EA sources account for approximately 30%–50% (over the Western US and 10%–20% (over the Eastern US. The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3, and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m−3 of sulfate originates from EA over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase. We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be

  14. Secondary inorganic aerosol formation and its shortwave direct radiative forcing in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin

    2015-04-01

    Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA), including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium, is an important part of fine particle. SIA plays a significant role in shortwave radiation transfer. Numerical simulation is usually used to study SIA formation and its climate effect. In this work, we used the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to study SIA formation and its direct radiative forcing (DRF) over China. SO2 oxidation pathways related to mineral aerosol, including transition metal-catalyzed oxidation in aqueous phase and heterogeneous reactions, play an important role in sulfate production, but they are not well treated in current atmospheric models. In this work, we improved the WRF-Chem model by simulating the enhancement role of mineral aerosol in sulfate production. Firstly, we estimated mineral cations based on local measurements in order to well represent aqueous phase acidity. Secondly, we scaled the transition metal concentration to the mineral aerosol levels according to the existing observations and improved transition metal-catalyzed oxidation calculation. Lastly, heterogeneous reactions of acid gases on the surface of mineral aerosol were included in this simulation. Accuracy in the prediction of sulfate by the model was significantly improved and we concluded that mineral aerosol can facilitate SO2 oxidation and subsequent sulfate formation. It was demonstrated that, over China, mineral aerosol was responsible for 21.8% of annual mean sulfate concentration. The enhanced aqueous oxidation was more significant compared to the heterogeneous reactions. In winter, mineral aerosol was responsible for 39.6% of sulfate production. In summer, gaseous oxidation and aqueous oxidation of SO2 by hydrogen peroxide and ozone were the dominant pathways of sulfate formation. Mineral aerosol only contributed 11.9% to the total sulfate production. The increase in annual mean sulfate concentration due to mineral aerosol could reach up to over 6

  15. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    atmosphere, aerosols have the potential to significantly influ- ence the climate. The global impact of aerosol is assessed as the change imposed on planetary radiation measured in Wm-2, which alters the global temperature. Effect of aerosols on the solar radiation (also called radiative forcing) can be broadly classified into ...

  16. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Large warming by elevated aerosols · AERONET – Global network (NASA) · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28 · Slide 29 · Slide 30 · Slide 31 · Long-term trends - Trivandrum · Enhanced warming over Himalayan-Gangetic region · Aerosol Radiative Forcing Over India _ Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment ...

  17. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aerosols and Climate · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Principal efforts in improving the understanding of Climate impact of aerosols - · Slide 8 · Observations of Aerosol – from space (Spatial variation) · AOD around Indian region from AVHRR · Dust absorption efficiency over Great Indian Desert from Satellite ...

  18. Optical investigation of gas-phase KCl/KOH sulfation in post flame conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Wubin; chen, Shuang; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    A counter-flow reactor setup was designed to investigate the gas-phase sulfation and homogeneous nucleation of potassium salts. Gaseous KOH and KCl were introduced into the post-flame zone of a laminar flat flame. The hot flame products mixed in the counter-flow with cold N2, with or without....... Depending on the potassium speciation in the inlet and the presence of SO2, they consisted of K2SO4, KCl, or K2CO3, respectively. The experiments showed that KOH was sulphated more readily than KCl, resulting in larger quantities of aerosols. The sulfation process in the counter-flow setup was simulated...... using a chemical kinetic model including a detailed subset for the Cl/S/K chemistry. Similar to the experimental results, much more potassium sulfate was predicted when seeding KOH compared to seeding KCl. For both KOH and KCl, sulfation was predicted to occur primarily through the reactions among...

  19. Field and Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, Matthew Mitchell

    This thesis is the culmination of field and laboratory studies aimed at assessing processes that affect the composition and distribution of atmospheric organic aerosol. An emphasis is placed on measurements conducted using compact and high-resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS). The first three chapters summarize results from aircraft campaigns designed to evaluate anthropogenic and biogenic impacts on marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of California. Subsequent chapters describe laboratory studies intended to evaluate gas and particle-phase mechanisms of organic aerosol oxidation. The 2013 Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) was a campaign designed to study environments impacted by nucleated and/or freshly formed aerosol particles. Terrestrial biogenic aerosol with > 85% organic mass was observed to reside in the free troposphere above marine stratocumulus. This biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) originated from the Northwestern United States and was transported to the marine atmosphere during periodic cloud-clearing events. Spectra recorded by a cloud condensation nuclei counter demonstrated that BOA is CCN active. BOA enhancements at latitudes north of San Francisco, CA coincided with enhanced cloud water concentrations of organic species such as acetate and formate. Airborne measurements conducted during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) were aimed at evaluating the contribution of ship emissions to the properties of marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of central California. In one study, analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra during periods of enhanced shipping activity yielded unique tracers indicative of cloud-processed ship emissions (m/z 42 and 99). The variation of their organic fraction (f42 and f 99) was found to coincide with periods of heavy (f 42 > 0.15; f99 > 0.04), moderate (0.05 ammonium sulfate seed was coated with a layer of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from toluene oxidation

  20. Sulfation of von Willebrand factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated [35S]-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate

  1. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete (II) expansion and microstructure of concrete microbar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Duyou; Mei Laibao; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Mo Xiangyin; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the type of alkalis on the expansion behavior of concrete microbars containing typical aggregate with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity was studied. The results verified that: (1) at the same molar concentration, sodium has the strongest contribution to expansion due to both ASR and ACR, followed by potassium and lithium; (2) sufficient LiOH can completely suppress expansion due to ASR whereas it can induce expansion due to ACR. It is possible to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to clarify the ACR contribution when ASR and ACR may coexist. It has been shown that a small amount of dolomite in the fine-grained siliceous Spratt limestone, which has always been used as a reference aggregate for high alkali-silica reactivity, might dedolomitize in alkaline environment and contribute to the expansion. That is to say, Spratt limestone may exhibit both alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactivity, although alkali-silica reactivity is predominant. Microstructural study suggested that the mechanism in which lithium controls ASR expansion is mainly due to the favorable formation of lithium-containing less-expansive product around aggregate particles and the protection of the reactive aggregate from further attack by alkalis by the lithium-containing product layer

  2. Alkali adsorption on Ni(1 1 1) and their coadsorption with CO and O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politano, A.; Formoso, V.; Chiarello, G.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of alkalis (Na, K) on Ni(1 1 1) and their coadsorption with CO and O were studied by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Loss measurements of clean alkali adlayers provided the expected behaviour of the alkali-substrate vibration energy as a function of the alkali coverage. This result was achieved by eliminating any trace of CO contamination from the alkali adlayer. As a matter of fact, a significant softening of the alkali-Ni vibration energy was revealed in the alkali + CO coadsorbed phase. Moreover, alkali coadsorption with oxygen caused a weakening of the O-Ni bond and a strengthening of the alkali-Ni bond

  3. The role of aerosols in cloud drop parameterizations and its applications in global climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The characteristics of the cloud drop size distribution near cloud base are initially determined by aerosols that serve as cloud condensation nuclei and the updraft velocity. We have developed parameterizations relating cloud drop number concentration to aerosol number and sulfate mass concentrations and used them in a coupled global aerosol/general circulation model (GCM) to estimate the indirect aerosol forcing. The global aerosol model made use of our detailed emissions inventories for the amount of particulate matter from biomass burning sources and from fossil fuel sources as well as emissions inventories of the gas-phase anthropogenic SO{sub 2}. This work is aimed at validating the coupled model with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program measurements and assessing the possible magnitude of the aerosol-induced cloud effects on climate.

  4. Partitioning of organic aerosol components between gas phase and particulate phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkers, M.; Mentel, T. F.; Henk, H.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Otjes, R. P.; Blom, M. J.; ten Brink, H. M.

    2003-12-01

    To understand the role of organics in aerosols both the particulate composition and the gas/vapor phase composition must determined simultaneously. Ammonium sulfates and dicarboxylic acids are major components of continental, tropospheric aerosols. We performed two experiments in which we studied the partitioning of organic aerosol components between the gas and the particulate phase. As model systems we chose (NH4HSO_4 + glutaric acid) aerosol and ((NH4)HSO_4 + methyl glyoxal) aerosol (an oxidation product of isoprene). The experiment were performed in the large Aerosol Chamber at the FZ-Jülich at room temperature. The relative humidity was constantly increased in the course of the experiment (40 -> 90% r.h., 60 -> 90% r.h.).\

  5. Linking Remotely Sensed Aerosol Types to Their Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kyle William; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe S.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Burton, Sharon P.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Meskhidze, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol types measured during the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) experiment are related to GEOS-Chem model chemical composition. The application for this procedure to link model chemical components to aerosol type is desirable for understanding aerosol evolution over time. The Mahalanobis distance (DM) statistic is used to cluster model groupings of five chemical components (organic carbon, black carbon, sea salt, dust and sulfate) in a way analogous to the methods used by Burton et al. [2012] and Russell et al. [2014]. First, model-to-measurement evaluation is performed by collocating vertically resolved aerosol extinction from SABOR High Spectral Resolution LiDAR (HSRL) to the GEOS-Chem nested high-resolution data. Comparisons of modeled-to-measured aerosol extinction are shown to be within 35% +/- 14%. Second, the model chemical components are calculation into five variables to calculate the DM and cluster means and covariances for each HSRL-retrieved aerosol type. The layer variables from the model are aerosol optical depth (AOD) ratios of (i) sea salt and (ii) dust to total AOD, mass ratios of (iii) total carbon (i.e. sum of organic and black carbon) to the sum of total carbon and sulfate (iv) organic carbon to black carbon, and (v) the natural log of the aerosol-to-molecular extinction ratio. Third, the layer variables and at most five out of twenty SABOR flights are used to form the pre-specified clusters for calculating DM and to assign an aerosol type. After determining the pre-specified clusters, model aerosol types are produced for the entire vertically resolved GEOS-Chem nested domain over the United States and the model chemical component distributions relating to each type are recorded. Resulting aerosol types are Dust/Dusty Mix, Maritime, Smoke, Urban and Fresh Smoke (separated into 'dark' and 'light' by a threshold of the organic to black carbon ratio). Model-calculated DM not belonging to a specific type (i.e. not meeting a threshold

  6. Reconstruction of Aerosol Concentration and Composition from Glacier Ice Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alexander; Dällenbach, Kaspar; El-Haddad, Imad; Wendl, Isabel; Eichler, Anja; Schwikowski, Margit

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of the concentration and composition of natural aerosol in an undisturbed atmosphere enables the evaluation of the understanding of aerosol-climate effects, which is currently based on highly uncertain emission inventories of the biosphere under pre-industrial conditions. Understanding of the natural state of the pre-industrial atmosphere and evaluating the atmospheric perturbations by anthropogenic emissions, and their potential feedbacks, is essential for accurate model predictions of the future climate (Boucher et al., 2013). Here, we present a new approach for the chemical characterization of the organic fraction preserved in cold-glacier ice cores. From this analysis historic trends of atmospheric organic aerosols are reconstructed, allowing new insights on organic aerosol composition and mass in the pre-industrial atmosphere, which can help to improve climate models through evaluation of our current understanding of aerosol radiative effects. We present results from a proof-of-principal study, analyzing an 800 year ice core record from the Lomonosovfonna glacier ice core, drilled in 2009 in Svalbard, Norway, using a setup that has until then only been applied on offline measurements of aerosol filter extracts (Dällenbach et al., 2016): The melted ice was nebulized and dried, such that aerosols are formed from the soluble and insoluble organic and inorganic compounds that are preserved in the ice. To improve the sensitivity, the aerosol stream was then enriched by the application of an online aerosol concentrator, before the aerosol was analyzed by electron ionization within a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). We were able to demonstrate that this setup is a quantitative method toward nitrate and sulfate when internal inorganic standards of NH415NO3 and (NH4)234SO4 are added to the sample. Comparison between AMS and IC measurements of nitrate and sulfate resulted in an excellent agreement. The analysis of

  7. Effect of fly ash on the optimum sulfate of Portland Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemuth, Mark D.

    testing of the theories is done by characterization through isothermal calorimetry, semi-quantitative x-ray diffraction (XRD), and pore solution ion concentration. This provides data that can be used to evaluate the explanations of why some fly ashes influence optimum sulfate. The fly ash C3A and SO3 have strong correlations to the increase in optimum sulfate along with freelime and soluble alkalis. The effect of the fly ash C3A can be explained by the reactions that occur with sulfate to form ettringite or monosulfate, by the reaction with sulfate to form ettringite which contributes to strength at higher levels, or by retardation of the main alite hydration peak of the cement which requires additional sulfate to keep the sulfate depletion after the main alite hydration peak. The position of the sulfate depletion peak relative the main alite hydration peak has been correlated to optimum sulfate in the past and in this thesis.

  8. Photochemistry of Glyoxal in Wet Aerosols: Smog Chamber Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y. B.; Kim, H.; Turpin, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous chemistry is an important pathway for the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Reaction vessel studies provide evidence that in the aqueous phase photooxidation of water soluble organic compounds (e.g., glyoxal, methylglyoxal) form multifunctional organic products and oligomers. In this work, we extend this bulk-phase chemistry to the condensed-phase chemistry that occurs in/on aerosols by conducting smog chamber experiments — photooxidation of ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosols containing glyoxal and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of NOx under dry/humid conditions. Particles were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). In the irradiated chamber, photooxidation products of glyoxal as seen in reaction vessel experiments (e.g., oxalic acids and tartaric acids) were also formed in both ammonium sulfate aerosols and sulfuric acid aerosols at humid and even dry conditions. However, the major products were organosulfurs (CHOS), organonitrogens (CHON), and nitrooxy-organosulfates (CHONS), which were also dominantly formed in the dark chamber. These products were formed via non-radical reactions, which depend on acidity and humidity. However, the real-time profiles in the dark chamber and the irradiated chamber were very different, suggesting photochemistry substantially affects non-radical formation in the condensed phase.

  9. Volcanic aerosols: Chemistry, evolution, and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Richard

    1991-02-01

    Stratospheric aerosols have been the subject of scientific speculation since the 1880s, when the powerful eruption of Krakatoa attracted worldwide attention to the upper atmosphere through spectacular optical displays. The presence of a permanent tenuous dust layer in the lower stratosphere was postulated in the 1920s following studies of the twilight glow. Junge collected the first samples of these 'dust' particles and demonstrated that they were actually composed of sulfates, most likely concentrated sulfuric acid (Junge and Manson, 1961; Junge, 1963). Subsequent research has been spurred by the realization that stratospheric particles can influence the surface climate of earth through their effects on atmospheric radiation. Such aerosols can also influence, through chemical and physical effects, the trace composition of the atmosphere, ozone concentrations, and atmospheric electrical properties. The properties of stratospheric aerosols (both the background particles and those enhanced by volcanic eruptions) were measured in situ by balloon ascents and high altitude aircraft sorties. The aerosols were also observed remotely from the ground and from satellites using both active (lidar) and passive (solar occultation) techniques (remote sensing instruments were carried on aircraft and balloon platforms as well). In connection with the experimental work, models were developed to test theories of particle formation and evolution, to guide measurement strategies, to provide a means of connecting laboratory and field data, and to apply the knowledge gained to answer practical questions about global changes in climate, depletion of the ozone layer, and related environmental problems.

  10. Chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosol during foggy and nonfoggy episodes: a relationship between organic and inorganic content of the aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, D. S.; Gupta, T.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2012-06-01

    An extensive field measurement during winter was carried out at a site located in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) which gets heavily influenced by the fog during winter almost every year. The chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosols during foggy and nonfoggy episodes and chemical composition of the fogwater are presented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) as a tool for the source apportionment was employed to understand the sources of pollution. Four major sources viz. biomass burning, refractory, secondary and mineral dust were identified. Aerosols properties during foggy episodes were heavily influenced by almost all the sources and they caused considerable loading of almost all the organic and inorganic species during the period. The biomass generated aerosols were removed from the atmosphere by scavenging during foggy episodes. The wet removal of almost all the species by the fog droplets was observed. The K+, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC) and NO3- were most heavily scavenged among the species and their concentrations consequently became lower than the nonfoggy episode concentrations. The production of secondary inorganic aerosol, mainly sulfate and ammonium, during foggy episodes was considerably higher than nitrate which was rather heavily scavenged and removed by the fog droplets. The fogwater analysis showed that dissolved inorganic species play a vital role in processing of organic carbon such as the formation of organo-sulfate and organo-nitrate inside the fog droplets. The formation of organo-sulfate and organo-nitrate in aerosol and the influence of acidity on the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation were rather found to be negligible. The study average inorganic component of the aerosol was considerably higher than the carbonaceous component during both foggy and nonfoggy episode. The secondary production of the aerosol changed the microphysical properties of aerosol which was reflected by

  11. Alkali Influence on Synthesis of Solid Electrolyte Based on Alkali Nitrate-Alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yustinus Purwamargapratala; Purnama, S.; Purwanto, P.

    2008-01-01

    Research of solid electrolyte based on alumina with addition of alkali materials of barium nitrate, calcium nitrate, sodium nitrate and lithium nitrate has been done. Aluminium hydroxide and alkali nitrate were mixed in mole ratio of 1 : 1 in water media and pyrolyzed at 300 o C for 1 hour Pyrolysis result were then mixed with alumina in mole ratio of 1 : 1, compacted and heated at 600 o C for 3 hours. To characterize the sample, XRD (X-Ray Diffractometers) and LCR meter (impedance, capacitance, and resistance) were used for analysis the phase and conductivity properties. The result showed formation of alkali-aluminate in which Li-base have the highest room temperature conductivity of 3.1290 x 10 -5 S.cm -1 , while Ba-base have the lowest conductivity of 5.7266 x 10 -8 S.cm -1 . (author)

  12. The impacts of aerosol loading, composition, and water uptake on aerosol extinction variability in the Baltimore–Washington, D.C. region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Beyersdorf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize satellite-based aerosol measurements for the determination of air quality, the relationship between aerosol optical properties (wavelength-dependent, column-integrated extinction measured by satellites and mass measurements of aerosol loading (PM2.5 used for air quality monitoring must be understood. This connection varies with many factors including those specific to the aerosol type – such as composition, size, and hygroscopicity – and to the surrounding atmosphere, such as temperature, relative humidity (RH, and altitude, all of which can vary spatially and temporally. During the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality project, extensive in situ atmospheric profiling in the Baltimore, MD–Washington, D.C. region was performed during 14 flights in July 2011. Identical flight plans and profile locations throughout the project provide meaningful statistics for determining the variability in and correlations between aerosol loading, composition, optical properties, and meteorological conditions. Measured water-soluble aerosol mass was composed primarily of ammonium sulfate (campaign average of 32 % and organics (57 %. A distinct difference in composition was observed, with high-loading days having a proportionally larger percentage of sulfate due to transport from the Ohio River Valley. This composition shift caused a change in the aerosol water-uptake potential (hygroscopicity such that higher relative contributions of inorganics increased the bulk aerosol hygroscopicity. These days also tended to have higher relative humidity, causing an increase in the water content of the aerosol. Conversely, low-aerosol-loading days had lower sulfate and higher black carbon contributions, causing lower single-scattering albedos (SSAs. The average black carbon concentrations were 240 ng m−3 in the lowest 1 km, decreasing to 35

  13. Is Distant Pollution Contaminating Local Air? Analyzing the Origins of Atmospheric Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Geng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the origin of aerosols in the atmosphere is important because of visual pollution, climate impacts, and deleterious health effects due to the inhalation of fine particles. This research analyzed aerosols characterized by their chloride, sulfate, and nitrate content as a function of size over a 3-month period. Due to wind patterns over coal-burning power plants, a higher concentration of local sulfate pollution was expected. Aerosols were harvested on the Purdue University campus using a high-volume air sampler with glass fiber filters and a five-stage impactor that separates the aerosols into five sizes. The filters were extracted in water to dissolve anions and the solution was analyzed using high-pressure liquid ion chromatography. Only trace amounts of chloride with no distinct patterns in size were detected. In total, nitrate content ranged from 0.12 to 2.10 μg/m3 and sulfate content ranged from 0.44 to 6.45 μg/m3 over a 3-month period. As for fine particles, a higher concentration of sulfate was observed. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model determines air mass origin, and in this study, higher total sulfate content was observed when the air mass moved out of the southwest, and higher total nitrate content was observed when the air mass originated from the southeast. The author concluded that small particles resulted in sulfate from sulfur dioxide, typically from gas to particle conversion. High sulfur dioxide levels are directly correlated with coal-burning power plant density. Small particulate sulfate found in West Lafayette, Indiana, was determined to originate primarily from power plants in southwest Indiana. Though the results do show a significant amount of potentially harmful aerosols in West Lafayette, there is still further research to be done concerning isotopic composition of those particles in attempts to better explain the chemical pathways.

  14. Method for the safe disposal of alkali metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Terry R.

    1977-01-01

    Alkali metals such as those employed in liquid metal coolant systems can be safely reacted to form hydroxides by first dissolving the alkali metal in relatively inert metals such as lead or bismuth. The alloy thus formed is contacted with a molten salt including the alkali metal hydroxide and possibly the alkali metal carbonate in the presence of oxygen. This oxidizes the alkali metal to an oxide which is soluble within the molten salt. The salt is separated and contacted with steam or steam-CO.sub.2 mixture to convert the alkali metal oxide to the hydroxide. These reactions can be conducted with minimal hydrogen evolution and with the heat of reaction distributed between the several reaction steps.

  15. Alkali depletion and ion-beam mixing in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Ion-implantation-induced alkali depletion in simple alkali-silicate glasses (12M 2 O.88SiO 2 ) has been studied for implantations at room temperature and near 77K. Results are consistent with a mechanism for alkali removal, by heavy ion bombardment, based on radiation-enhanced migration and preferential removal of alkali from the outermost layers. Similar results were obtained for mixed-alkali glasses ((12-x)Cs 2 .O.xM 2 O.88SiO 2 ) where, in addition, a mixed-alkali effect may also be operative. Some preliminary experiments with ion implantation through thin Al films on SiO 2 glass and on a phosphate glass show that inter-diffusion takes place and suggest that this ion-mixing technique may be a useful method for altering the physical properties of glass surfaces

  16. Method for the safe disposal of alkali metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.

    1977-01-01

    Alkali metals such as those employed in liquid metal coolant systems can be safely reacted to form hydroxides by first dissolving the alkali metal in relatively inert metals such as lead or bismuth. The alloy thus formed is contacted with a molten salt including the alkali metal hydroxide and possibly the alkali metal carbonate in the presence of oxygen. This oxidizes the alkali metal to an oxide which is soluble within the molten salt. The salt is separated and contacted with steam or steam--CO 2 mixture to convert the alkali metal oxide to the hydroxide. These reactions can be conducted with minimal hydrogen evolution and with the heat of reaction distributed between the several reaction steps. 5 claims, 1 figure

  17. Effect of alkali ion on relaxation properties of binary alkali-borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomovskoj, V.A.; Bartenev, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Method of relaxation spectrometry were used to analyze the data on internal friction spectra of lithium, sodium, potassium and rubidium alkali-borate glasses in wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The nature of two relaxation processes was clarified: β m -process, related with mobility of alkaline metal cations, and α-process (vitrification), conditioned by system transformation from viscous-flow to vitreous state. It is shown that atomic-molecular mechanism of vitrification process changes when passing from vitreous B 2 O 3 to alkali-borate glasses

  18. Survival probability in small angle scattering of low energy alkali ions from alkali covered metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neskovic, N.; Ciric, D.; Perovic, B.

    1982-01-01

    The survival probability in small angle scattering of low energy alkali ions from alkali covered metal surfaces is considered. The model is based on the momentum approximation. The projectiles are K + ions and the target is the (001)Ni+K surface. The incident energy is 100 eV and the incident angle 5 0 . The interaction potential of the projectile and the target consists of the Born-Mayer, the dipole and the image charge potentials. The transition probability function corresponds to the resonant electron transition to the 4s projectile energy level. (orig.)

  19. Physical and optical studies in mixed alkali borate glasses with three types of alkali ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samee, M.A.; Awasthi, A.M.; Shripathi, T.; Bale, Shashidhar; Srinivasu, Ch.; Rahman, Syed

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We report, for the first time, the mixed alkali effect in the (40-x)Li 2 O-xNa 2 O-10K 2 O-50B 2 O 3 glasses through optical properties, density and modulated DSC studies. → Optical band gap (E opt ) and Urbach energy (ΔE) have been evaluated. → The values of E opt and ΔE show non-linear behavior with compositional parameter showing the mixed alkali effect. → The glass stability S is observed to be less which may be important for the present glasses as promising material for non-optical applications. - Abstract: So far only a handful of publications have been concerned with the study of the mixed alkali effect in borate glasses containing three types of alkali ions. In the present work, the mixed alkali effect (MAE) has been investigated in the glass system (40-x)Li 2 O-xNa 2 O-10K 2 O-50B 2 O 3 . (0 ≤ x ≤ 40 mol%) through density and modulated DSC studies. The density and glass transition temperature of the present glasses varies non-linearly exhibiting mixed alkali effect. The glass stability is observed to be less which may be important for the present glasses as promising material for non-optical applications. We report, for the first time, the mixed alkali effect in the present glasses through optical properties. From the absorption edge studies, the values of indirect optical band gap (E opt ), direct optical band gap and Urbach energy (ΔE) have been evaluated. The values of E opt and ΔE show non-linear behavior with compositional parameter showing the mixed alkali effect. The average electronic polarizability of oxide ions α O 2- , optical basicity Λ, and Yamashita-Kurosawa's interaction parameter A have been examined to check the correlations among them and bonding character. Based on good correlation among electronic polarizability of oxide ions, optical basicity and interaction parameter, the present Li 2 O-Na 2 O-K 2 O-B 2 O 3 glasses are classified as normal ionic (basic) oxides.

  20. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  1. On the Complex Coupling Between the Production of Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol in Polluted Urban Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D. R.; Stockwell, W. R.; Morris, V. R.; Fitzgerald, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The major photochemical processes that produce ozone and aerosols are coupled together strongly in the polluted urban atmosphere. Aerosols are either directly emitted or formed through the same kind of chemistry that leads to the production of ozone. The aerosols produced through atmospheric chemistry are known as secondary aerosols and they may be composed of inorganic (nitrates, sulfates) or organic compounds. Wind blown dust and soot are two examples of primary aerosols. The component of secondary inorganic aerosols includes compounds such as ammonium nitrate, ammonium bisulfate and ammonium sulfate. Secondary organic aerosols are a very important component of PM with strong implications for health. The formation of secondary organic aerosol is linked with ozone photochemistry through the reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The oxidation of VOC produces radicals that convert nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide that photolyze to produce ozone. Larger VOC (those with more carbon atoms) undergo a number of oxidation cycles that add oxygen atoms to large organic molecules. The vapor pressure of many of these highly oxidized compounds is sufficiently low that they condense to produce secondary organic aerosols. The Community Multi-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ) and other chemical simulations have been made to quantify the relationship between varying emissions of VOC and NOx and the production of inorganic and secondary organic aerosols. The results from this analysis will be presented.

  2. Sensitivity studies of different aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoose

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics. Using the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM, we investigate different aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds: The glaciation effect, which refers to a more frequent glaciation due to anthropogenic aerosols, versus the de-activation effect, which suggests that ice nuclei become less effective because of an anthropogenic sulfate coating. The glaciation effect can partly offset the indirect aerosol effect on warm clouds and thus causes the total anthropogenic aerosol effect to be smaller. It is investigated by varying the parameterization for the Bergeron-Findeisen process and the threshold coating thickness of sulfate (SO4-crit, which is required to convert an externally mixed aerosol particle into an internally mixed particle. Differences in the net radiation at the top-of-the-atmosphere due to anthropogenic aerosols between the different sensitivity studies amount up to 0.5 W m−2. This suggests that the investigated mixed-phase processes have a major effect on the total anthropogenic aerosol effect.

  3. Coprecipitation of alkali metal ions with calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Minoru; Kitano, Yasushi

    1986-01-01

    The coprecipitation of alkali metal ions Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + with calcium carbonate has been studied experimentally and the following results have been obtained: (1) Alkali metal ions are more easily coprecipitated with aragonite than with calcite. (2) The relationship between the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with aragonite and their ionic radii shows a parabolic curve with a peak located at Na + which has approximately the same ionic radius as Ca 2+ . (3) However, the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with calcite decrease with increasing ionic radius of alkali metals. (4) Our results support the hypothesis that (a) alkali metals are in interstitial positions in the crystal structure of calcite and do not substitute for Ca 2+ in the lattice, but (b) in aragonite, alkali metals substitute for Ca 2+ in the crystal structure. (5) Magnesium ions in the parent solution increase the amounts of alkali metal ions (Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + ) coprecipitated with calcite but decrease those with aragonite. (6) Sodium-bearing aragonite decreases the incorporation of other alkali metal ions (Li + , K + and Rb + ) into the aragonite. (author)

  4. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  5. Modeling the Sulfate Deposition to the Greenland Ice Sheet From the Laki Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, L.; Robock, A.; Stenchikov, G.; Thordarson, T.; Gao, C.

    2005-12-01

    Using the state of the art Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) modelE general circulation model, simulations were conducted of the chemistry and transport of aerosols resulting from the 1783-84 Laki (64°N) flood lava eruption. A set of 3 ensemble simulations from different initial conditions were conducted by injecting our estimate of the SO2 gas into the atmosphere by the 10 episodes of the eruption and allowing the sulfur chemistry model to convert this gas into sulfate aerosol. The SO2 gas and sulfate aerosol is transported by the model and wet and dry deposition is calculated over each grid box during the simulation. We compare the resulting sulfate deposition to the Greenland Ice Sheet in the model to 23 ice core measurements and find very good agreement. The model simulation deposits a range of 169 to over 300 kg/km2 over interior Greenland with much higher values along the coastal areas. This compares to a range of 62 to 324 kg/km2 for the 23 ice core measurements with an average value of 158 kg/km2. This comparison is one important model validation tool. Modeling and observations show fairly large spatial variations in the deposition of sulfate across the Greenland Ice Sheet for the Laki eruption, but the patterns are similar to those we modeled for the 1912 Katmai and 1991 Pinatubo eruptions. Estimates of sulfate loading based on single ice cores can show significant differences, so ideally several ice cores should be combined in reconstructing the sulfate loading of past volcanic eruptions, taking into account the characteristic spatial variations in the deposition pattern.

  6. Depositional ice nucleation on solid ammonium sulfate and glutaric acid particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Baustian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice nucleation on solid ammonium sulfate and glutaric acid particles was studied using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Optical microscopy was used to detect selective nucleation events as water vapor was slowly introduced into an environmental sample cell. Particles that nucleated ice were dried via sublimation and examined in detail using Raman spectroscopy. Depositional ice nucleation is highly selective and occurred preferentially on just a few ammonium sulfate and glutaric acid particles in each sample. For freezing temperatures between 214 K and 235 K an average ice saturation ratio of S = 1.10±0.07 for solid ammonium sulfate was observed. Over the same temperature range, S values observed for ice nucleation on glutaric acid particles increased from 1.2 at 235 K to 1.6 at 218 K. Experiments with externally mixed particles further show that ammonium sulfate is a more potent ice nucleus than glutaric acid. Our results suggest that heterogeneous nucleation on ammonium sulfate may be an important pathway for atmospheric ice nucleation and cirrus cloud formation when solid ammonium sulfate aerosol particles are available for ice formation. This pathway for ice formation may be particularly significant near the tropical tropopause region where sulfates are abundant and other species known to be good ice nuclei are depleted.

  7. p-Cresyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gryp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available If chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden.

  8. Aerosols at the poles: an AeroCom Phase II multi-model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Maria; Samset, Bjørn H.; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne; Bellouin, Nicolas; Berntsen, Terje K.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Lin, Guangxing; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Gan; Myhre, Gunnar; van Noije, Twan; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, Michael; Seland, Øyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Yu, Fangqun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Hua

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic and natural sources reach the polar regions through long-range transport and affect the local radiation balance. Such transport is, however, poorly constrained in present-day global climate models, and few multi-model evaluations of polar anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing exist. Here we compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm from simulations with 16 global aerosol models from the AeroCom Phase II model intercomparison project with available observations at both poles. We show that the annual mean multi-model median is representative of the observations in Arctic, but that the intermodel spread is large. We also document the geographical distribution and seasonal cycle of the AOD for the individual aerosol species: black carbon (BC) from fossil fuel and biomass burning, sulfate, organic aerosols (OAs), dust, and sea-salt. For a subset of models that represent nitrate and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), we document the role of these aerosols at high latitudes.The seasonal dependence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols differs with natural aerosols peaking in winter (sea-salt) and spring (dust), whereas AOD from anthropogenic aerosols peaks in late spring and summer. The models produce a median annual mean AOD of 0.07 in the Arctic (defined here as north of 60° N). The models also predict a noteworthy aerosol transport to the Antarctic (south of 70° S) with a resulting AOD varying between 0.01 and 0.02. The models have estimated the shortwave anthropogenic radiative forcing contributions to the direct aerosol effect (DAE) associated with BC and OA from fossil fuel and biofuel (FF), sulfate, SOAs, nitrate, and biomass burning from BC and OA emissions combined. The Arctic modelled annual mean DAE is slightly negative (-0.12 W m-2), dominated by a positive BC FF DAE in spring and a negative sulfate DAE in summer. The Antarctic DAE is governed by BC FF. We perform sensitivity experiments with one of the Aero

  9. Aerosols at the poles: an AeroCom Phase II multi-model evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic and natural sources reach the polar regions through long-range transport and affect the local radiation balance. Such transport is, however, poorly constrained in present-day global climate models, and few multi-model evaluations of polar anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing exist. Here we compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD at 550 nm from simulations with 16 global aerosol models from the AeroCom Phase II model intercomparison project with available observations at both poles. We show that the annual mean multi-model median is representative of the observations in Arctic, but that the intermodel spread is large. We also document the geographical distribution and seasonal cycle of the AOD for the individual aerosol species: black carbon (BC from fossil fuel and biomass burning, sulfate, organic aerosols (OAs, dust, and sea-salt. For a subset of models that represent nitrate and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs, we document the role of these aerosols at high latitudes.The seasonal dependence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols differs with natural aerosols peaking in winter (sea-salt and spring (dust, whereas AOD from anthropogenic aerosols peaks in late spring and summer. The models produce a median annual mean AOD of 0.07 in the Arctic (defined here as north of 60° N. The models also predict a noteworthy aerosol transport to the Antarctic (south of 70° S with a resulting AOD varying between 0.01 and 0.02. The models have estimated the shortwave anthropogenic radiative forcing contributions to the direct aerosol effect (DAE associated with BC and OA from fossil fuel and biofuel (FF, sulfate, SOAs, nitrate, and biomass burning from BC and OA emissions combined. The Arctic modelled annual mean DAE is slightly negative (−0.12 W m−2, dominated by a positive BC FF DAE in spring and a negative sulfate DAE in summer. The Antarctic DAE is governed by BC FF. We perform sensitivity

  10. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  11. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance : [tech transfer summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the test methods used to determine the : alkali content of fly ash. It also evaluated if high-alkali fly ash : exacerbates alkali-silica reaction in laboratory tests and field : concrete.

  12. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Sodium and potassium are the common alkalis present in fly ash. Excessive amounts of fly ash alkalis can cause efflorescence : problems in concrete products and raise concern about the effectiveness of the fly ash to mitigate alkali-silica reaction (...

  13. Using the Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo and Angstrom Exponent from AERONET to Determine Aerosol Origins and Mixing States over the Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Slutsker, I.; Smirnov, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Ghauri, B.

    2012-12-01

    Aerosol mixtures—whether dominated by dust, carbon, sulfates, nitrates, sea salt, or mixtures of them—complicate the retrieval of remotely sensed aerosol properties from satellites and possibly increase the uncertainty of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Major aerosol source regions in South Asia include the Thar Desert as well as agricultural lands, Himalayan foothills, and large urban centers in and near the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Over India and Pakistan, seasonal changes in meteorology, including the monsoon (June-September), significantly affect the transport, lifetime, and type of aerosols. Strong monsoonal winds can promote long range transport of dust resulting in mixtures of dust and carbonaceous aerosols, while more stagnant synoptic conditions (e.g., November-January) can prolong the occurrence of urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, or mixtures of them over the IGP. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun/sky radiometer data are analyzed to show the aerosol optical depth (AOD) seasonality and aerosol dominant mixing states. The Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) relationship has been shown to provide sound clustering of dominant aerosol types using long term AERONET site data near known source regions [Giles et al., 2012]. In this study, aerosol type partitioning using the SSA (440 nm) and EAE (440-870 nm) relationship is further developed to quantify the occurrence of Dust, Mixed (e.g., dust and carbonaceous aerosols), Urban/Industrial (U/I) pollution, and Biomass Burning (BB) smoke. Based on EAE thresholds derived from the cluster analysis (for AOD440nm>0.4), preliminary results (2001-2010) for Kanpur, India, show the overall contributions of each dominant particle type (rounded to the nearest 10%): 10% for Dust (EAE≤0.25), 60% for Mixed (0.251.25). In the IGP, BB aerosols may have varying sizes (e.g., corresponding to 1.2India and Pakistan are also analyzed using available AERONET

  14. Dual Alkali Solvent System for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, H Paul; Liao, Chang-Yu; Zhao, Xinglei; Hsiung, Tung-Li; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2017-08-01

    A novel two-aqueous-phase CO 2 capture system, namely the dual alkali solvent (DAS) system, has been developed. Unlike traditional solvent-based CO 2 capture systems in which the same solvent is used for both CO 2 absorption and stripping, the solvent of the DAS system consists of two aqueous phases. The upper phase, which contains an organic alkali 1-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine (HEP), is used for CO 2 absorption. The lower phase, which consists of a mixture of K 2 CO 3 /KHCO 3 aqueous solution and KHCO 3 precipitate, is used for CO 2 stripping. Only a certain kind of amine (such as HEP) is able to ensure the phase separation, satisfactory absorption efficiency, effective CO 2 transfer from the upper phase to the lower phase, and regeneration of the upper phase. In the meantime, due to the presence of K 2 CO 3 /KHCO 3 in the lower phase, HEP in the upper phase is capable of being regenerated from its sulfite/sulfate heat stable salt, which enables the simultaneous absorption of CO 2 and SO 2 /SO 3 from the flue gas. Preliminary experiments and simulations indicate that the implementation of the DAS system can lead to 24.0% stripping energy savings compared to the Econamine process, without significantly lowering the CO 2 absorption efficiency (∼90%).

  15. Electric conductivity of alkali metal perchlorates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulikhin, A.S.; Uvarov, N.F.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic conductivity of high-temperature phases of alkali metal perchlorates, MClO 4 , where M stands for Li-Cs, is studied. It is found that the conductivity passes through a minimum with increasing radius of cation, and KClO 4 exhibits the lowest conductivity. This is explained by a decrease in the relative size of conduction channel, which hampers the cation transfer, and an increase in the relative free volume. The free-volume increase promotes the perchlorate anion reorientation and reduces the activation energy for ion transfer by the paddle-wheel mechanism; as a result, the conductivity increases [ru

  16. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  17. IMPACT OF AEROSOL LIQUID WATER ON SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL YIELDS OF IRRADIATED TOLUENE/PROPYLENE/NOX/(NH4)2SO4/AIR MIXUTRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess whether the presence of liquid water on pre-existing submicron ammonium sulfate aerosols affects yields of condensible organic compounds. Toluene/propylene/NOX/air mixtures were irradiated in the presence of submicron ammonium su...

  18. Evaluation of simulated aerosol properties with the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM using observations from the IMPACT field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-J. Roelofs

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In May 2008, the measurement campaign IMPACT for observation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud properties was conducted in Cabauw, The Netherlands. With a nudged version of the coupled aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM we simulate the size distribution and chemical composition of the aerosol and the associated aerosol optical thickness (AOT for the campaign period. Synoptic scale meteorology is represented realistically through nudging of the vorticity, the divergence, the temperature and the surface pressure. Simulated concentrations of aerosol sulfate and organics at the surface are generally within a factor of two from observed values. The monthly averaged AOT from the model is 0.33, about 20% larger than observed. For selected periods of the month with relatively dry and moist conditions discrepancies are approximately −30% and +15%, respectively. Discrepancies during the dry period are partly caused by inaccurate representation of boundary layer (BL dynamics by the model affecting the simulated AOT. The model simulates too strong exchange between the BL and the free troposphere, resulting in weaker concentration gradients at the BL top than observed for aerosol and humidity, while upward mixing from the surface layers into the BL appears to be underestimated. The results indicate that beside aerosol sulfate and organics also aerosol ammonium and nitrate significantly contribute to aerosol water uptake. The simulated day-to-day variability of AOT follows synoptic scale advection of humidity rather than particle concentration. Even for relatively dry conditions AOT appears to be strongly influenced by the diurnal cycle of RH in the lower boundary layer, further enhanced by uptake and release of nitric acid and ammonia by aerosol water.

  19. Aerosol Mass Scattering Efficiency: Generalized Treatment of the Organic Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, R. M.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Lovejoy, E. R.; Tolbert, M. A.; Baynard, T.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are complex mixtures of organic and inorganic compounds. Current efforts to provide a simplified parameterization to describe the RH dependence of water uptake and associated optical properties lack the capability to include any dependence on the composition of the organic fraction. Using laboratory generated aerosol we have investigated the validity of such simplified treatment of organic fraction and estimated potential biases. In this study, we use cavity ring-down aerosol extinction photometry (CRD-AEP) to study the relative humidity (RH) dependence of the light extinction of aerosols, σep, simultaneously considering the influence of particle size, chemical composition, and mixing state (internal and external mixtures). We have produced internally mixed aerosol systems including; ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, dicarboxylic acids, sugars, amino acids and humic acid. These aerosols are produced with an atomizer and size-selected with a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA). The particles then enter into a CRD-AEP to measure dry extinction, σep(Dry), after which they travel into a RH conditioner and another CRD-AEP to measure the humidified aerosol extinction, fσ(ep)RH. The ratio of the humidified extinction to the dry extinction is fσ(ep)RH. Representative organic compounds were found to have fσ(ep)RH values that are much smaller than pure salts; though the fσ(ep)RH values vary little within the organic compounds studied. In addition, we have found that treating the inorganic/organic aerosols as external mixtures is generally correct to within ~10%, indicating appropriate simplified treatment of the RH dependence of atmospheric aerosol according to inorganic/organic fraction. In this presentation, we include recommendations for the generalized treatment of the organic fraction, exceptions to this generalized behavior, and estimates of the potential bias caused by generalized treatment.

  20. Human pharmacokinetics of ethynyl estradiol 3-sulfate and 17-sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzieher, J W; Mileikowsky, G; Newburger, J; Dorantes, A; Stavchansky, S A

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of ethynyl estradiol 3-sulfate (EE-3) and 17-sulfate (EE-17) were estimated. Each sulfate was administered orally and intravenously to five ovariectomized volunteer women. Blood samples were taken over a period of 24 h. Radioimmunoassay for free and sulfoconjugated ethynyl estradiol (EE) was performed. The analysis of the plasma concentrations obtained after administration of EE-3 and EE-17 indicates significant differences in their pharmacokinetic profiles. EE-3 is cleared more rapidly from the central compartment (systemic circulation), which may indicate that differences in protein binding, tissue binding, metabolism, and distribution exist between EE-3 and EE-17. It has been suggested that these conjugates are a slow-release reservoir for maintenance of blood levels of free EE itself. However, previous studies in baboons have shown that the half-lives of the free and sulfoconjugated EE are similar (ranging from 8.8 to 11.2 h), which is not consistent with this hypothesis. The t1/2 beta (mean 9.28 h) of the 17-sulfate after IV administration was almost identical in women and baboons, and similar to the t1/2 beta of free EE, confirming the previous observation. Only 3.4% of IV and 11.4% of the orally administered 17-sulfate appeared in the blood as free EE; with the 3-sulfate, the conversions were 13.7 and 20.7%, respectively, suggesting that these sulfates are not important slow-release reservoirs. The similarity of pharmacokinetic parameters between women and baboons suggests that this species of nonhuman primate is, in important respects, a suitable animal model for clinical pharmacology.

  1. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  2. Effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on mechanical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roystonea regia fibre; epoxy resin; alkali treatment; mechanical properties. Abstract. The present paper investigates the effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on tensile, flexural and impact properties of unidirectional Roystonea regia natural-fibre-reinforced epoxy composites which are partially biodegradable.

  3. Thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxides: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of volatile alkali hydroxides as a result of high-temperature steam corrosion plays an important role in nuclear technology. For the modeling of the volatilization processes, reliable thermodynamic data are required. In the present paper recent physico-chemical experiments by the authors will be discussed and the thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxide series will be evaluated. (orig.)

  4. Possible applications of alkali-activated systems in construction

    OpenAIRE

    Boháčová, J.; Staněk, S.; Vavro, M. (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the possibilities of using alkali-activated systems in construction. This article summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of geopolymer in comparison to Portland cement, summarizes research and practical applications of alkali-activated materials in our country and abroad, and provides an overview of directions where these alternative inorganic binders can be in the future very well applied.

  5. Profiling application potential for alkali treated sisal fiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profiling application potential for alkali treated sisal fiber-polypropylene composite in Ashby material-property plots. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... The effect of alkali treatment on sisal fiber from the plant agave sisalana in appropriation for composite material application is presented.

  6. Alkali and bleach treatment of the extracted cellulose from pineapple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We successfully extracted cellulose from pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) using alkali treatment and bleaching. Alkali treatment was done using aqueous sodium hydroxide while bleaching was done using acetate buffer and aqueous sodium chlorite. The extracted cellulose was characterized using Scanning electron ...

  7. Dislocation unpinning model of acoustic emission from alkali halide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theoretical and experimental results related to the AE from alkali halide crystals. Keywords. Acoustic emission; dislocation; alkali halide crystals; plastic deformation. PACS Nos 43.40.Le; 62.20.Fe; 61.72.Hh. 1. Introduction. Discrete acoustic wave packets are generated in solids during their mechanical de- formation.

  8. Alkali aggregate reactivity in concrete structures in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.R.; Empey, D.

    1989-01-01

    In several regions of Canada, particularly parts of Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime Provinces, research, testing and evaluation of aged concrete structures in the field has shown that alkali aggregate reactivity can give rise to pronounced concrete deterioration, particularly in hydraulic structures subjected to saturation or alternate wetting and drying such as locks, dams, canals, etc. Concrete deterioration is mainly caused by alkali-silica reactions and alkali-carbonate reactions, but a third type of deterioration involves slow/late expanding alkali-silicate/silica reactivity. The alkalies NaOH and KOH in the concrete pore solutions are mainly responsible for attack on expansive rocks and minerals in concrete. Methods for evaluating alkali-aggregate reaction potential in aggregates, and field and laboratory methods for detecting deterioration are discussed. Examples of alkali-aggregate reactions in structures is western Canada are detailed, including a water reservoir at Canadian Forces Base Chilliwack in British Columbia, the Oldman River diversion and flume, the Lundbreck Falls Bridge, and the St Mary's Reservoir spillway, all in southern Alberta. Mitigative measures include avoidance of use of suspect aggregates, but if this cannot be avoided it is recommended to keep the total alkalies in the concrete as low as possible and minimize opportunities for saturation of concrete by moisture. 16 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  9. Language and Style in Zaynab Alkali's The Stillborn | Azuike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the language and style of Zaynab Alkali's The Stillborn. Alkali's style in The Stillborn lies in her effective deployment of linguo-literary resources to tell the story. The study scrutinizes the nexus of figures of speech and linguistic artifacts, which link the events and characters that populate her novel and ...

  10. Metal analyses of ash derived alkalis from banana and plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to determine the metal content of plantain and banana peels ash derived alkali and the possibility of using it as alternate and cheap source of alkali in soap industry. This was done by ashing the peels and dissolving it in de-ionised water to achieve the corresponding hydroxides with pH above ...

  11. [Raman spectra of endospores of Bacillus subtilis by alkali stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rong; Lu, Ming-qian; Li, Feng; Shi, Gui-yu; Huang, Shu-shi

    2013-09-01

    To research the lethal mechanism of spores stressed by alkali, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) combined with principal components analysis (PCA) was used to study the physiological process of single spore with alkali stress. The results showed that both spores and germinated spores had tolerance with alkali in a certain range, but the ability of spores was obviously lower than that of spores due to the release of their Ca2+ -DPA which plays a key role in spores resistance as well as spores resistance to many stresses; A small amount of Ca2+ -DPA of spores was observed to release after alkali stress, however, the behavior of release was different with the normal Ca2+ -DPA release behavior induced by L-alanine; The data before and after alkali stress of the spores and g. spores with PCA reflected that alkali mainly injured the membrane of spores, and alkali could be easily enter into the inner structure of spores to damage the structure of protein backbone and injure the nucleic acid of spores. We show that the alkali could result in the small amount of Ca2+ -DPA released by destroying the member channel of spores.

  12. Conduction bands and invariant energy gaps in alkali bromides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.K. de; Groot, R.A. de

    1998-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations of the alkali bromides LiBr, NaBr, KBr, RbBr and CsBr are reported. It is shown that the conduction band has primarily bromine character. The size of the band gaps of bromides and alkali halides in general is reinterpreted.

  13. Formation of lysinoalanine in egg white under alkali treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the formation mechanism of lysinoalanine (LAL) in eggs during the alkali treatment process, NaOH was used for the direct alkali treatment of egg white, ovalbumin, and amino acids; in addition, the amount of LAL formed during the alkali treatment process was measured. The results showed that the alkali treatment resulted in the formation of LAL in the egg white. The LAL content increased with increasing pH and temperature, with the LAL content first increasing and then leveling off with increasing time. The amount of LAL formed in the ovalbumin under the alkali treatment condition accounted for approximately 50.51% to 58.68% of the amount of LAL formed in the egg white. Thus, the LAL formed in the ovalbumin was the main source for the LAL in the egg white during the alkali treatment process. Under the alkali treatment condition, free L-serine, L-cysteine, and L-cystine reacted with L-lysine to form LAL; therefore, they are the precursor amino acids of LAL formed in eggs during the alkali treatment process. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Density functional study of ferromagnetism in alkali metal thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thickness uniform jellium model (UJM), and it is argued that within LSDA or GGA, alkali metal thin films cannot be claimed to have an FM ground state. Relevance of these results to the experiments on transition metal-doped alkali metal thin films ...

  15. Superconductivity and electrical resistivity in alkali metal doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Fullerenes; alkali-C60 phonon; on-ball-C60 phonon; pressure effect; electrical resistivity. 1. Introduction. Buckminsterfullerenes are known to make compounds with alkali metals intensively studied mainly due to superconductivity and the variation of compounds (Hebard et al 1991; Holczer et al 1991; Tanigaki et al 1991).

  16. Marine Aerosols and Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah D; Thornton, Daniel C O

    2018-01-03

    The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gas-phase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean. Understanding the formation of marine aerosols and their propensity to catalyze cloud formation processes are challenges that must be addressed given the major uncertainties associated with aerosols in climate models.

  17. Marine Aerosols and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah D.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.

    2018-01-01

    The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gas-phase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean. Understanding the formation of marine aerosols and their propensity to catalyze cloud formation processes are challenges that must be addressed given the major uncertainties associated with aerosols in climate models.

  18. In vitro tests for aerosol deposition. III: effect of inhaler insertion angle on aerosol deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvadia, Renish R; Longest, P Worth; Hindle, Michael; Byron, Peter R

    2013-06-01

    Inhaler orientation with respect to a patient's mouth may be an important variable determining the efficiency of aerosol lung delivery. The effect of insertion angle on regional deposition was evaluated for a series of inhalers using concurrent in vitro and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Geometrically realistic physical mouth-throat (MT) and upper tracheobronchial (TB) models were constructed to connect different inhalers at a series of insertion angles relative to the horizontal plane of the model. These models were used to assess albuterol sulfate deposition from the Novolizer(®) dry powder inhaler (DPI), Proventil(®) HFA pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI), and Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI) following the actuation of a single dose. Drug deposition from Novolizer DPI was studied for Salbulin(®) and an experimental "drug only" formulation. Albuterol sulfate was recovered and quantified from the device and the MT and TB regions. Significant differences in MT and total lung dose (TLD) of albuterol sulfate deposition were not observed for Salbulin Novolizer DPI and Respimat SMI inserted at different angles. In contrast, drug-only Novolizer DPI and Proventil HFA MDI showed a significant difference in MT and TLD deposition using different insertion angles. For drug-only Novolizer DPI and Proventil HFA MDI, the lowest and the highest MT depositions were observed at +10° and -20°, respectively; for Respimat SMI and Salbulin Novolizer DPI, these angles were -10° and +10°, and +20° and -20°, respectively. CFD simulations were in agreement with the experimental results and illustrated shifts in local particle deposition associated with changes in insertion angle. The effect of inhaler orientation at the inhaler-mouth interface on MT aerosol deposition appeared to be dependent on velocity, aerosol size, and formulation. These findings not only demonstrate the need for patient education on correct inhaler orientation, but provide important

  19. Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2014, using CESM1(WACCM): VOLCANIC AEROSOLS DERIVED FROM EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Michael J. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Schmidt, Anja [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; Easter, Richard [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Solomon, Susan [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Massachusetts USA; Kinnison, Douglas E. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Neely, Ryan R. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Leeds, Leeds UK; Marsh, Daniel R. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Conley, Andrew [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Bardeen, Charles G. [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Gettelman, Andrew [Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA

    2016-03-06

    Accurate representation of global stratospheric aerosol properties from volcanic and non-volcanic sulfur emissions is key to understanding the cooling effects and ozone-loss enhancements of recent volcanic activity. Attribution of climate and ozone variability to volcanic activity is of particular interest in relation to the post-2000 slowing in the apparent rate of global average temperature increases, and variable recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. We have developed a climatology of global aerosol properties from 1990 to 2014 calculated based on volcanic and non-volcanic emissions of sulfur sources. We have complied a database of volcanic SO2 emissions and plume altitudes for eruptions between 1990 and 2014, and a new prognostic capability for simulating stratospheric sulfate aerosols in version 5 of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, a component of the Community Earth System Model. Our climatology shows remarkable agreement with ground-based lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD), and with in situ measurements of aerosol surface area density (SAD). These properties are key parameters in calculating the radiative and chemical effects of stratospheric aerosols. Our SAOD climatology represents a significant improvement over satellite-based analyses, which ignore aerosol extinction below 15 km, a region that can contain the vast majority of stratospheric aerosol extinction at mid- and high-latitudes. Our SAD climatology significantly improves on that provided for the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which misses 60% of the SAD measured in situ. Our climatology of aerosol properties is publicly available on the Earth System Grid.

  20. Infrared remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols; Apports du sondage infrarouge a l'etude des aerosols atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierangelo, C.

    2005-09-15

    The 2001 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emphasized the very low level of understanding of atmospheric aerosol effects on climate. These particles originate either from natural sources (dust, volcanic aerosols...) or from anthropogenic sources (sulfates, soot...). They are one of the main sources of uncertainty on climate change, partly because they show a very high spatio-temporal variability. Observation from space, being global and quasi-continuous, is therefore a first importance tool for aerosol studies. Remote sensing in the visible domain has been widely used to obtain a better characterization of these particles and their effect on solar radiation. On the opposite, remote sensing of aerosols in the infrared domain still remains marginal. Yet, not only the knowledge of the effect of aerosols on terrestrial radiation is needed for the evaluation of their total radiative forcing, but also infrared remote sensing provides a way to retrieve other aerosol characteristics (observations are possible at night and day, over land and sea). In this PhD dissertation, we show that aerosol optical depth, altitude and size can be retrieved from infrared sounder observations. We first study the sensitivity of aerosol optical properties to their micro-physical properties, we then develop a radiative transfer code for scattering medium adapted to the very high spectral resolution of the new generation sounder NASA-Aqua/AIRS, and we finally focus on the inverse problem. The applications shown here deal with Pinatubo stratospheric volcanic aerosol, observed with NOAA/HIRS, and with the building of an 8 year climatology of dust over sea and land from this sounder. Finally, from AIRS observations, we retrieve the optical depth at 10 {mu}m, the average altitude and the coarse mode effective radius of mineral dust over sea. (author)

  1. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This study included the deployment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Mobile Facility (AMF), ARM Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The study was a collaborative effort involving scientists from DOE national laboratories, NOAA, NASA, and universities. The AAF and MAOS were deployed for two approximately month-long Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) conducted in June 2012 and February 2013. Seasonal differences in the aerosol chemical and optical properties observed using the AMF, AAF, and MAOS are presented in this report. The total mass loading of aerosol is found to be much greater in the summer than in the winter, with the difference associated with greater amounts of organic aerosol. The mass fraction of organic aerosol is much reduced in the winter, when sulfate is the dominant aerosol type. Surprisingly, very little sea-salt aerosol was observed in the summer. In contrast, much more sea salt aerosol was observed in the winter. The mass loading of black carbon is nearly the same in both seasons. These differences lead to a relative increase in the aerosol light absorption in the winter and an associated decrease in observed single-scattering albedo. Measurements of aerosol mixing state were made using a single-particle mass spectrometer, which showed that the majority of the summertime aerosol consisted of organic compounds mixed with various amounts of sulfate. A number of other findings are also summarized in the report, including: impact of aerosol layers aloft on the column aerosol optical depth; documentation of the aerosol properties at the AMF; differences in the aerosol properties associated with both columns, which are not systematic but reflect the complicated meteorological and chemical processes that impact aerosol as it is advected away from North America; and new instruments and data-processing techniques for measuring both aerosol and

  2. Hygroscopic and phase separation properties of ammonium sulfate/organic/water ternary solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadowicz, M. A.; Proud, S. R.; Seppalainen, S. S.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are often partially or completely composed of inorganic salts, such as ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and therefore exhibit hygroscopic properties. Many inorganic salts have well-defined deliquescence and efflorescence points at which they take up and lose water, respectively. Deliquescence and efflorescence of simple inorganic salt particles have been investigated by a variety of methods, such as IR spectroscopy, tandem mobility analysis and electrodynamic balance. Field measurements have shown that atmospheric aerosols are not typically pure inorganic salt, instead they often also contain organic species. There is ample evidence from laboratory studies that suggests that mixed particles exist in a phase-separated state, with an aqueous inorganic core and organic shell. Although phase separation has not been measured in situ, there is no reason it would not also take place in the atmosphere. Many recent studies have focused on microscopy techniques that require deposition of the aerosol on a glass slide, possibly changing its surface properties. Here, we investigate the deliquescence and efflorescence points, phase separation and ability to exchange gas-phase components of mixed organic and inorganic aerosol using a flow tube coupled with FTIR spectroscopy. Ammonium sulfate aerosol mixed with organic polyols with different O : C ratios, including 1,4-butanediol, glycerol, 1,2,6-hexanetriol, 1,2-hexanediol, and 1,5-pentanediol have been investigated. Those constituents correspond to materials found in the atmosphere in great abundance, and therefore, particles prepared in this study should mimic atmospheric mixed phase aerosol particles. The results of this study tend to be in agreement with previous microscopy experiments, with several key differences, which possibly reveal a size-dependent effect on phase separation in organic/inorganic aerosol particles.

  3. Estimates of aqueous-phase sulfate production from tandem differential mobility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarpia, Joshua L.; Collins, Don R.; Hegg, Dean A.; Kaku, Kathleen C.; Covert, David S.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Buzorius, Gintautas

    2011-10-01

    During June and July of 2004, airborne measurements of size-resolved aerosol properties were made over the coastal Pacific near Marina, California. Tandem differential mobility analysis was used to determine the hygroscopic properties of these aerosols and, subsequently, to examine the change in soluble mass after the aerosol had been cloud-processed. Three of the eight cases analyzed during the field campaign exhibited increased soluble mass attributable to cloud-processing. The calculated change in soluble mass after cloud-processing, derived from measurements made below and above cloud, ranged from 1.08 ϒ g m -3 to 1.40 ϒ g m -3. These values are in agreement with those determined using data collected during previous field studies in the same region. Aerosol size distributions measured throughout the study with a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe were averaged to create a single representative distribution, which was used to examine the impact of the addition of sulfate to a typical aerosol measured during this project. Mass light-scattering efficiencies were calculated for both the initial and cloud-processed size distributions using Mie-Lorenz theory. These calculations show that the increase in mass light-scattering efficiency following passage through a single non-precipitating cloud to be 14%, which is in agreement with findings of previous studies in the same region. This new technique produces results that are consistent with existing methods for measuring in-cloud sulfate production and has the advantage of intrinsic consistency with the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of the aerosol.

  4. Electronic and atomic structures of liquid tellurium containing alkali elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakita, Yukinobu; Yao, Makoto; Endo, Hirohisa.

    1997-01-01

    The measurements of electrical conductivity σ, density, EXAFS and neutron scattering were carried out for liquid K-Te and Rb-Te mixtures. The conductivity σ decreases rapidly with alkali concentration and a metal-semiconductor transition occurs at about 10 at.% alkali. It is found that the compositional variation of σ is nearly independent of the alkali species. The Te-Te bond length deduced from EXAFS and neutron scattering measurements is 2.8 A and changes little with alkali concentrations. The average distances from K and Rb atom to Te atoms are 3.6 A and 3.8 A, respectively. Two kinds of relaxation processes are observed in quasielastic neutron scattering for K 20 Te 80 . Upon the addition of alkali the interaction between the neighbouring Te chains, which is responsible for the metallic conduction, weaken considerably. (author)

  5. Mechanism and Kinetics of the Formation and Transport of Aerosol Particles in the Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloyan, A. E.; Ermakov, A. N.; Arutyunyan, V. O.

    2018-03-01

    Field and laboratory observation data on aerosol particles in the lower stratosphere are considered. The microphysics of their formation, mechanisms of heterogeneous chemical reactions involving reservoir gases (e.g., HCl, ClONO2, etc.) and their kinetic characteristics are analyzed. A new model of global transport of gaseous and aerosol admixtures in the lower stratosphere is described. The preliminary results from a numerical simulation of the formation of sulfate particles of the Junge layer and particles of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs, types Ia, Ib, and II) are presented, and their effect on the gas and aerosol composition is analyzed.

  6. On the use of elemental tracers for regional sulfate source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittenhoefer, A.C.; Solinski, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    New, empirical approaches to long-term regional apportionment of ambient aerosol and acidic wet deposition have recently been developed. These are basically receptor methods which compare the known chemical fingerprints or profiles of emissions/concentrations within a source region to the observed chemical composition of an aerosol or precipitation sample. It is the purpose of this paper to review the mathematical basis for these empirical methods and to evaluate their accuracy in estimating long-term regional source contributions to atmospheric sulfate. The authors present an overview of the empirical methods, focusing on the key assumptions and the basic statistical methodology. They quantify the uncertainty in regional sulfate source apportionment estimated with these methods through repeated application of a simple regional transport simulation model

  7. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching

  8. Secondary organic material formed by methylglyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sareen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that methylglyoxal forms light-absorbing secondary organic material in aqueous ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosol particles. The kinetics were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results suggest that the bimolecular reaction of methylglyoxal with an ammonium or hydronium ion is the rate-limiting step for the formation of light-absorbing species, with kNH4+II=5×10−6 M−1 min−1 and kH3O+II≤10−3 M−1 min−1. Evidence of aldol condensation products and oligomeric species up to 759 amu was found using chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a volatilization flow tube inlet (Aerosol-CIMS. Tentative identifications of carbon-nitrogen species and a sulfur-containing compound were also made using Aerosol-CIMS. Aqueous solutions of methylglyoxal, with and without inorganic salts, exhibit significant surface tension depression. These observations add to the growing body of evidence that dicarbonyl compounds may form secondary organic material in the aerosol aqueous phase, and that secondary organic aerosol formation via heterogeneous processes may affect seed aerosol properties.

  9. Chemical Thermodynamics of Aqueous Atmospheric Aerosols: Modeling and Microfluidic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, L.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate predictions of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium phase partitioning of atmospheric aerosols by thermodynamic modeling and measurements is critical for determining particle composition and internal structure at conditions relevant to the atmosphere. Organic acids that originate from biomass burning, and direct biogenic emission make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. In addition, inorganic compounds like ammonium sulfate and sea salt also exist in atmospheric aerosols, that results in a mixture of single, double or triple charged ions, and non-dissociated and partially dissociated organic acids. Statistical mechanics based on a multilayer adsorption isotherm model can be applied to these complex aqueous environments for predictions of thermodynamic properties. In this work, thermodynamic analytic predictive models are developed for multicomponent aqueous solutions (consisting of partially dissociating organic and inorganic acids, fully dissociating symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes, and neutral organic compounds) over the entire relative humidity range, that represent a significant advancement towards a fully predictive model. The model is also developed at varied temperatures for electrolytes and organic compounds the data for which are available at different temperatures. In addition to the modeling approach, water loss of multicomponent aerosol particles is measured by microfluidic experiments to parameterize and validate the model. In the experimental microfluidic measurements, atmospheric aerosol droplet chemical mimics (organic acids and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples) are generated in microfluidic channels and stored and imaged in passive traps until dehydration to study the influence of relative humidity and water loss on phase behavior.

  10. Heterogeneous reactions of alkylamines with ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chong; Wang, Lin; Lal, Vinita; Khalizov, Alexei F; Zhang, Renyi

    2011-06-01

    The heterogeneous reactions between alkylamines and ammonium salts (ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate) have been studied using a low-pressure fast flow reactor coupled to an ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ID-CIMS) at 293 ± 2 K. The uptake of three alkylamines, i.e., monomethylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine, on ammonium sulfate shows a displacement reaction of ammonium by aminium, evidenced by the release of ammonia monitored using protonated acetone dimer as the reagent ion. For the three alkylamines, the initial uptake coefficients (γ(0)) range from 2.6 × 10(-2) to 3.4 × 10(-2) and the steady-state uptake coefficients (γ(ss)) range from 6.0 × 10(-3) to 2.3 × 10(-4) and decrease as the number of methyl groups on the alkylamine increases. A different reaction mechanism is observed for the uptake of the three alkylamines on ammonium bisulfate, which is featured by an acid-base reaction (neutralization) with irreversible alkylamine loss and no ammonia generation and occurs at a rate limited by diffusion of gaseous alkylamines to the ammonium bisulfate surface. Our results reveal that the reactions between alkylamines and ammonium salts contribute to particle growth and alter the composition of ammonium sulfate and bisulfate aerosols in the atmosphere.

  11. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 32; Estimates of AOD Trends (2002 - 2012) Over the World's Major Cities Based on the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Simon; Kishcha, Pavel; Elhacham, Emily; daSilva, Arlindo M.; Alpert, Pinhas; Suarez, Max J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) tool with five atmospheric aerosol species (sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt). This inclusion of aerosol reanalysis data is now known as MERRAero. This study analyses a ten-year period (July 2002 - June 2012) MERRAero aerosol reanalysis applied to the study of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its trends for the aforementioned aerosol species over the world's major cities (with a population of over 2 million inhabitants). We found that a proportion of various aerosol species in total AOD exhibited a geographical dependence. Cities in industrialized regions (North America, Europe, central and eastern Asia) are characterized by a strong proportion of sulfate aerosols. Organic carbon aerosols are dominant over cities which are located in regions where biomass burning frequently occurs (South America and southern Africa). Mineral dust dominates other aerosol species in cities located in proximity to the major deserts (northern Africa and western Asia). Sea salt aerosols are prominent in coastal cities but are dominant aerosol species in very few of them. AOD trends are declining over cities in North America, Europe and Japan, as a result of effective air quality regulation. By contrast, the economic boom in China and India has led to increasing AOD trends over most cities in these two highly-populated countries. Increasing AOD trends over cities in the Middle East are caused by increasing desert dust.

  12. The alkali halide disk technique in infra-red spectrometry : Anomalous behaviour of some samples dispersed in alkali halide disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolk, A.

    1961-01-01

    Some difficulties encountered in the application of the alkali halide disk technique in infra-red spectrometry are discussed. Complications due to interaction of the sample with the alkali halide have been studied experimentally. It was found that the anomalous behaviour of benzoic acid, succinic

  13. IRMPD Action Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal Cation-Cytosine Complexes: Effects of Alkali Metal Cation Size on Gas Phase Conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Wu, R.R.; Polfer, N.C.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both

  14. Observational evidence for pollution-influenced selective uptake contributing to biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Russell, L. M.; Lee, A. K. Y.; McKinney, K. A.; Surratt, J. D.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2017-08-01

    During the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study, aerosol mass spectrometer measurements of submicron mass and single particles were taken at Look Rock, Tennessee. Their concentrations increased during multiday stagnation events characterized by low wind, little rain, and increased daytime isoprene emissions. Organic mass (OM) sources were apportioned as 42% "vehicle-related" and 54% biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA), with the latter including "sulfate-related bSOA" that correlated to sulfate (r = 0.72) and "nitrate-related bSOA" that correlated to nitrate (r = 0.65). Single-particle mass spectra showed three composition types that corresponded to the mass-based factors with spectra cosine similarity of 0.93 and time series correlations of r > 0.4. The vehicle-related OM with m/z 44 was correlated to black carbon, "sulfate-related bSOA" was on particles with high sulfate, and "nitrate-related bSOA" was on all particles. The similarity of the m/z spectra (cosine similarity = 0.97) and the time series correlation (r = 0.80) of the "sulfate-related bSOA" to the sulfate-containing single-particle type provide evidence for particle composition contributing to selective uptake of isoprene oxidation products onto particles that contain sulfate from power plants.

  15. Chemical characterization of organosulfates in secondary organic aerosol derived from the photooxidation of alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Matthieu; Da Silva Barbosa, Thais; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2016-09-01

    We report the formation of aliphatic organosulfates (OSs) in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photooxidation of C10-C12 alkanes. The results complement those from our laboratories reporting the formation of OSs and sulfonates from gas-phase oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Both studies strongly support the formation of OSs from the gas-phase oxidation of anthropogenic precursors, as hypothesized on the basis of recent field studies in which aromatic and aliphatic OSs were detected in fine aerosol collected from several major urban locations. In this study, dodecane, cyclodecane and decalin, considered to be important SOA precursors in urban areas, were photochemically oxidized in an outdoor smog chamber in the presence of either non-acidified or acidified ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. Effects of acidity and relative humidity on OS formation were examined. Aerosols collected from all experiments were characterized by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS). Most of the OSs identified could be explained by formation of gaseous epoxide precursors with subsequent acid-catalyzed reactive uptake onto sulfate aerosol and/or heterogeneous reactions of hydroperoxides. The OSs identified here were also observed and quantified in fine urban aerosol samples collected in Lahore, Pakistan, and Pasadena, CA, USA. Several OSs identified from the photooxidation of decalin and cyclodecane are isobars of known monoterpene organosulfates, and thus care must be taken in the analysis of alkane-derived organosulfates in urban aerosol.

  16. Heterogeneous ice nucleation on phase-separated organic-sulfate particles: effect of liquid vs. glassy coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Schill

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ice nucleation on aerosol particles relevant to cirrus clouds remains one of the least understood processes in the atmosphere. Upper tropospheric aerosols as well as sub-visible cirrus residues are known to be enhanced in both sulfates and organics. The hygroscopic phase transitions of organic-sulfate particles can have an impact on both the cirrus cloud formation mechanism and resulting cloud microphysical properties. In addition to deliquescence and efflorescence, organic-sulfate particles are known to undergo another phase transition known as liquid–liquid phase separation. The ice nucleation properties of particles that have undergone liquid–liquid phase separation are unknown. Here, Raman microscopy coupled with an environmental cell was used to study the low temperature deliquescence, efflorescence, and liquid–liquid phase separation behavior of 2 : 1 mixtures of organic polyols (1,2,6-hexanetriol and 1 : 1 1,2,6-hexanetriol + 2,2,6,6-tetrakis(hydroxymethylcyclohexanol and ammonium sulfate from 240–265 K. Further, the ice nucleation efficiency of these organic-sulfate systems after liquid–liquid phase separation and efflorescence was investigated from 210–235 K. Raman mapping and volume-geometry analysis indicate that these particles contain solid ammonium sulfate cores fully engulfed in organic shells. For the ice nucleation experiments, we find that if the organic coatings are liquid, water vapor diffuses through the shell and ice nucleates on the ammonium sulfate core. In this case, the coatings minimally affect the ice nucleation efficiency of ammonium sulfate. In contrast, if the coatings become semi-solid or glassy, ice instead nucleates on the organic shell. Consistent with recent findings that glasses can be efficient ice nuclei, the phase-separated particles are nearly as efficient at ice nucleation as pure crystalline ammonium sulfate.

  17. Heterogeneous ice nucleation on phase-separated organic-sulfate particles: effect of liquid vs. glassy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, G. P.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric ice nucleation on aerosol particles relevant to cirrus clouds remains one of the least understood processes in the atmosphere. Upper tropospheric aerosols as well as sub-visible cirrus residues are known to be enhanced in both sulfates and organics. The hygroscopic phase transitions of organic-sulfate particles can have an impact on both the cirrus cloud formation mechanism and resulting cloud microphysical properties. In addition to deliquescence and efflorescence, organic-sulfate particles are known to undergo another phase transition known as liquid-liquid phase separation. The ice nucleation properties of particles that have undergone liquid-liquid phase separation are unknown. Here, Raman microscopy coupled with an environmental cell was used to study the low temperature deliquescence, efflorescence, and liquid-liquid phase separation behavior of 2 : 1 mixtures of organic polyols (1,2,6-hexanetriol and 1 : 1 1,2,6-hexanetriol + 2,2,6,6-tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexanol) and ammonium sulfate from 240-265 K. Further, the ice nucleation efficiency of these organic-sulfate systems after liquid-liquid phase separation and efflorescence was investigated from 210-235 K. Raman mapping and volume-geometry analysis indicate that these particles contain solid ammonium sulfate cores fully engulfed in organic shells. For the ice nucleation experiments, we find that if the organic coatings are liquid, water vapor diffuses through the shell and ice nucleates on the ammonium sulfate core. In this case, the coatings minimally affect the ice nucleation efficiency of ammonium sulfate. In contrast, if the coatings become semi-solid or glassy, ice instead nucleates on the organic shell. Consistent with recent findings that glasses can be efficient ice nuclei, the phase-separated particles are nearly as efficient at ice nucleation as pure crystalline ammonium sulfate.

  18. Sources and composition of urban aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, M.; Johansson, C.; Mårtensson, M.; Struthers, H.; Ahlm, L.; Nilsson, D.

    2011-09-01

    From May 2008 to March 2009 aerosol emissions were measured using the eddy covariance method covering the size range 0.25 to 2.5 μm diameter (Dp) from a 105 m tower, in central Stockholm, Sweden. Supporting chemical aerosol data were collected at roof and street level. Results show that the inorganic fraction of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and sea salt accounts for approximately 15% of the total aerosol mass removed at 0.6 μm Dp. Further heating to 300 °C caused very little additional losses road traffic (as inferred from the ratio of the incremental concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and BC measured on a densely trafficked street) and the fluxes of non-volatile material at tower level are in close agreement, suggesting a traffic source of BC. We have estimated the emission factors (EFs) for non-volatile particles <0.6 μm Dp to be 2.4±1.4 mg veh-1 km-1 based on either CO2 fluxes or traffic activity data. Light (LDV) and heavy duty vehicle (HDV) EFs were estimated using multiple linear regression and reveal that for non-volatile particulate matter in the 0.25 to 0.6 μm Dp range, the EFHDV is approximately twice as high as the EFLDV, the difference not being statistically significant.

  19. Structure and electrical resistivity of alkali-alkali and lithium-based liquid binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.K.; Mukherjee, K.K.

    1990-01-01

    Harmonic model potential, developed and used for simple metals is applied here to evaluate hardsphere diameters, which ensure minimum interionic pair potential for alkali-alkali (Na-K, Na-Rb, Na-Cs, K-Rb, K-Cs) and lithium-based (Li-Na, Li-Mg, Li-In, Li-Tl) liquid binary alloys as a function of composition for use in the determination of their partial structure factors. These structure factors are then used to calculate electrical resistivities of alloys considered. The computed values of electrical resistivity as a function of composition agree both, in magnitude and gradient reasonably well with experimental values in all cases except in Cs systems, where the disagreement is appreciable. (author)

  20. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  1. Discovery and measurement of an isotopically distinct source of sulfate in Earth's atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gerardo; Jackson, Terri; Brothers, Lauren; Barnett, Burton; Nguyen, Bryan; Thiemens, Mark H

    2008-09-02

    Sulfate (SO(4)) and its precursors are significant components of the atmosphere, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Recently, our triple-isotope ((16)O, (17)O, (18)O) measurements of atmospheric sulfate have provided specific insights into the oxidation pathways leading to sulfate, with important implications for models of the sulfur cycle and global climate change. Using similar isotopic measurements of aerosol sulfate in a polluted marine boundary layer (MBL) and primary sulfate (p-SO(4)) sampled directly from a ship stack, we quantify the amount of p-SO(4) found in the atmosphere from ships. We find that ships contribute between 10% and 44% of the non-sea-salt sulfate found in fine [diameter (D) Chemistry and Physics (Wiley-Interscience, New York)]. Our findings also suggest that the interaction of SO(2) from ship emissions with coarse hydrated sea salt particles may lead to the rapid removal of SO(2) in the MBL. When combined with the longer residence time of p-SO(4) emissions in the MBL, these findings suggest that the importance of p-SO(4) emissions in marine environments may be underappreciated in global chemical models. Given the expected increase of international shipping in the years to come, these findings have clear implications for public health, air quality, international maritime law, and atmospheric chemistry.

  2. Aerosolization characteristics of dry powder inhaler formulations for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application: effect of spray drying process conditions on aerosol performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Worth Longest, P; Hindle, Michael

    2013-02-25

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20%, v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF(1 μm/ED)) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Roles of production, consumption and trade in global and regional aerosol radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Tong, D.; Davis, S. J.; Ni, R.; Tan, X.; Pan, D.; Zhao, H.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Feng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Yan, Y.; Hu, Y.; Li, J.; Liu, Z.; Jiang, X.; Geng, G.; He, K.; Huang, Y.; Guan, D.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols exert strong radiative forcing on the climate system. Prevailing view regards aerosol radiative forcing as a result of emissions from regions' economic production, with China and other developing regions having the largest contributions to radiative forcing at present. However, economic production is driven by global demand for computation, and international trade allows for separation of regions consuming goods and services from regions where goods and related aerosol pollution are produced. It has recently been recognized that regions' consumption and trade have profoundly altered the spatial distribution of aerosol emissions and pollution. Building upon our previous work, this study quantifies for the first time the roles of trade and consumption in aerosol climate forcing attributed to different regions. We contrast the direct radiative forcing of aerosols related to regions' consumption of goods and services against the forcing due to emissions produced in each region. Aerosols assessed include black carbon, primary organic aerosol, and secondary inorganic aerosols including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. We find that global aerosol radiative forcing due to emissions produced in East Asia is much stronger than the forcing related to goods and services ultimately consumed in that region because of its large net export of emissions-intensive goods. The opposite is true for net importers like Western Europe and North America: global radiative forcing related to consumption is much greater than the forcing due to emissions produced in these regions. Overall, trade is associated with a shift of radiative forcing from net importing to net exporting regions. Compared to greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, the short atmospheric lifetimes of aerosols cause large localized differences in radiative forcing. International efforts to reduce emissions in the exporting countries will help alleviate trade-related climate and health impacts of

  4. MEKANISME PROSES TAHAP EKSTRAKSI KARAGENAN DARI Eucheuma cottonii MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ALKALI (The Mechanism of Carrageenan Extraction from Eucheuma cottonii Using Alkaline Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperisa Distantina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan recovery process was developed for Eucheuma cottonii by investigating the effects of distilled water, KOH (0.1-0.5 N and NaOH (0.1-1.0 N as the solvent on carrageenan yield and gel properties. Extraction process was carried out with a constant ratio of seaweed weight to solvent volume (1: 50; g/mL at 80oC.  A certain amount of the liquid sample was withdrawn at regular interval time for analysis. Filtrate was separated from residue by pouring ethanol. The precipitated carrageenans were collected and oven dried at 50-60oC to a constant weight. The extraction product was found to have virtually identical infrared spectra to the reference samples of kappa-carrageenan. Distilled water was the most efficient solvent with regard to yield but certainly not gel strength. Increasing KOH concentration led to carrageenan containing less sulfate content. In extraction process using alkali, the ion exchange occurred between cation from alkali solution and anion from sulphate in the seaweed. Compared with cation of sodium, the cation of potassium was able to form helixes aggregation indicated by the higher gel strength value. Alkali concentrations affected the gel strength of the extracted carrageenan significantly. Keywords: Eucheuma cottonii, KOH, NaOH, carrageenan, sulfate   ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan proses ekstraksi karagenan dari rumput laut Eucheuma cottonii dengan mempelajari pengaruh jenis pelarut pada tahap ekstraksi, yaitu air suling, KOH, dan NaOH terhadap rendemen dan sifat gel karagenan.  Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan perbandingan bobot rumput laut – volume pelarut dijaga tetap yaitu 1:50 g/mL pada 80oC. Cuplikan diambil setiap interval waktu tertentu untuk dianalisis. Karagenan dalam filtrat diendapkan dengan etanol dan serat yang dihasilkan dikeringkan sampai bobot konstan. Spektrum infra merah menunjukkan bahwa karagenan yang dihasilkan identik dengan jenis kappa. Air suling merupakan pelarut yang efisien

  5. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: dominant contributions from biogenic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was 21% non-sea-salt sulfate, 2% nitrate, 8% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea spray signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA profiles could be isolated: an amino acid/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass, a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%, a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 41%, a sea spray OA fraction (SS-OA, 7% and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%. The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (N : C ratio = 0.13, has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea spray aerosol was identified (SS-OA. However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not

  6. Chemical Analysis of Aerosols for Characterization of Long-Range Transport at Mt. Lassen, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Waddell, J. A.; Cliff, S. S.; Perry, K. D.; Kelly, P. B.

    2004-12-01

    Effective regional air pollution regulation requires an understanding of long-range aerosol transport and natural aerosol chemistry. Sample collection was performed at the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sampling site on Mt. Lassen in the Sierra Nevada range at 1755 m elevation. The site is in Northern California at Longitude 121° 34' 40", Latitude 40° 32' 25". Size segregated and time resolved aerosol samples were collected with an 8 DRUM sampler from April 15th to May 24th 2002 as part of the NOAA Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation Experiment (ITCT). The samples were analyzed with Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (S-XRF) and Time of Flight mass spectroscopy (TOFMS). The total aerosol concentration exhibits a clear daily cycling of total mass, due to a nighttime down-slope air circulation from the free troposphere. The sulfate peaked in concentration during the night. Elemental data is suggestive of dust transport from continental Asia. The micron size ranges were dominated by nitrate, while the sub-micron size ranges had high levels of sulfate. Chemical analysis shows oceanic influence through strong correlations between methyl sulfonic acid (MSA), iodine, and oxalate. The appearance of the oceanic biogenic tracers in the sub-micron fraction is most likely a result of vertical mixing over the Pacific Ocean. MSA follows a diurnal pattern similar to sulfate, however the differences suggest both an oceanic and continental source for sulfate. The carbon particulate signal did not show any diurnal pattern during the measurement period.

  7. The SPARC Aerosol Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, P.; Thomason, L. W.; Peter, T.

    2002-05-01

    Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC), a project of the WMO/ICSU/IOC World Climate Research Programme, was responsible for the recent SPARC Assessment of Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Water Vapour. SPARC has now decided to generate an analogous document for the stratospheric aerosol, using many of the measurements that have been developed in the last twenty years, but relying heavily on the SAGE II data set. The stratospheric aerosol assessment involves a large international collection of atmospheric scientists whose special area of expertise is the stratospheric aerosol. Key questions that have been identified as requiring answers include: How have aerosol properties such as surface area density varied with time? How representative are satellite-based climatologies? What is the non-volcanic bacground for stratospheric aerosol and can a trend in it be detected? How well can models reproduce observed aerosol properties? We report on the ``kickoff" workshop that was held at the CNES headquarters in Paris on November 4-6, 2001. We shall describe some of the interesting results that were based on the SAGE II data set. The assessment will be carried out by five working groups each focussing on one of the following aspects: processes, aerosol precursors, climatology, trends and modeling. The long records from SAGE II, HALOE and other space based instruments will play a prominent role in construction of a climatology. It is expected that a valuable result of this assessment will be a set of ``standard" stratospheric aerosol parameters for use by modelers.

  8. SUMMARY OF FY11 SULFATE RETENTION STUDIES FOR DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-08

    This report describes the results of studies related to the incorporation of sulfate in high level waste (HLW) borosilicate glass produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A group of simulated HLW glasses produced for earlier sulfate retention studies was selected for full chemical composition measurements to determine whether there is any clear link between composition and sulfate retention over the compositional region evaluated. In addition, the viscosity of several glasses was measured to support future efforts in modeling sulfate solubility as a function of predicted viscosity. The intent of these studies was to develop a better understanding of sulfate retention in borosilicate HLW glass to allow for higher loadings of sulfate containing waste. Based on the results of these and other studies, the ability to improve sulfate solubility in DWPF borosilicate glasses lies in reducing the connectivity of the glass network structure. This can be achieved, as an example, by increasing the concentration of alkali species in the glass. However, this must be balanced with other effects of reduced network connectivity, such as reduced viscosity, potentially lower chemical durability, and in the case of higher sodium and aluminum concentrations, the propensity for nepheline crystallization. Future DWPF processing is likely to target higher waste loadings and higher sludge sodium concentrations, meaning that alkali concentrations in the glass will already be relatively high. It is therefore unlikely that there will be the ability to target significantly higher total alkali concentrations in the glass solely to support increased sulfate solubility without the increased alkali concentration causing failure of other Product Composition Control System (PCCS) constraints, such as low viscosity and durability. No individual components were found to provide a significant improvement in sulfate retention (i.e., an increase of the magnitude

  9. Maternal exposure to alkali, alkali earth, transition and other metals: Concentrations and predictors of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinwood, A.L.; Stasinska, A.; Callan, A.C.; Heyworth, J.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children. - This study has demonstrated exposure to alkali, alkali earth and transition metals in pregnant women with factors such as breastfeeding, fish oil use and diet affecting exposures

  10. Volcanic Origin of Alkali Halides on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The recent observation of NaCl (gas) on Io confirms our earlier prediction that NaCl is produced volcanically. Here we extend our calculations by modeling thermochemical equilibrium of O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, and I as a function of temperature and pressure in a Pele-like volcanic gas with O/S/Na/Cl/K = 1.518/1/0.05/0.04/0.005 and CI chondritic ratios of the other (as yet unobserved) alkalis and halogens. For reference, the nominal temperature and pressure for Pele is 1760 plus or minus 210 K and 0.01 bars based on Galileo data and modeling.

  11. Alkali elemental and potassium isotopic compositions of Semarkona chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of K isotope ratios in 28 Semarkona chondrules with a wide range of petrologic types and bulk compositions as well as the compositions of CPX-mesostasis pairs in 17 type I Semarkona chondrules, including two chondrules with radial alkali zonation and 19 type II chondrules. Despite the wide range in K/Al ratios, no systematic variations in K isotopic compositions were found. Semarkona chondrules do not record a simple history of Rayleigh-type loss of K. Experimentally determined evaporation rates suggest that considerable alkali evaporation would have occurred during chondrule formation. Nevertheless, based on Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients, the alkali contents of the cores of most chondrules in Semarkona were probably established at the time of final crystallization. However, Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients also show that alkali zonation in type I Semarkona chondrules was produced by entry of alkalis after solidification, probably during parent body alteration. This alkali metasomatism may have gone to completion in some chondrules. Our preferred explanation for the lack of systematic isotopic enrichments, even in alkali depleted type I chondrule cores, is that they exchanged with the ambient gas as they cooled. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2005.

  12. Concrete alkali-silica reaction and nuclear radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneki

    2008-01-01

    The deterioration of concrete by alkali-silica reaction of aggregates (ASR) and the effect of nuclear radiations on the ASR have been reviewed based on our studies on the mechanism of ASR and the effect of nuclear radiations on the resistivity of minerals to alkaline solution. It has been found that the ASR is initiated by the attack of alkaline solution in concrete to silicious aggregates to convert them into hydrated alkali silicate. The consumption of alkali hydroxide by the aggregates induces the dissolution of Ca 2+ ions into the solution. The alkali silicate surrounding the aggregates then reacts with Ca 2+ ions to convert to insoluble tight and rigid reaction rims. The reaction rim allows the penetration of alkaline solution but prevents the leakage of viscous alkali silicate, so that alkali silicate generated afterward is accumulated in the aggregate to give an expansive pressure enough for cracking the aggregate and the surrounding concrete. The effect of nuclear radiation on the reactivity of quartz and plagioclase, a part of major minerals composing volcanic rocks as popular aggregates, to alkaline solution has been examined for clarifying whether nuclear radiations accelerates the ASR. It has been found that the irradiation of these minerals converts them into alkali-reactive amorphous ones. The radiation dose for plagioclase is as low as 10 8 Gy, which suggests that the ASR of concrete surrounding nuclear reactors is possible to be accelerated by nuclear radiation. (author)

  13. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

    2012-09-11

    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  14. Radiation damage in the alkali halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diller, K.M.

    1975-10-01

    A general review is given of the experimental data on radiation damage in the alkali halide crystals. A report is presented of an experimental investigation of irradiation produced interstitial dislocation loops in NaCl. These loops are found to exhibit the usual growth and coarsening behaviour during thermal annealing which operates by a glide and self-climb mechanism. It is shown that the recombination of defects in these crystals is a two stage process, and that the loss of interstitials stabilized at the loops is caused by extrinsic vacancies. The theoretical techniques used in simulating point defects in ionic crystals are described. Shell model potentials are derived for all the alkali halide crystals by fitting to bulk crystal data. The fitting is supplemented by calculations of the repulsive second neighbour interactions using methods based on the simple electron gas model. The properties of intrinsic and substitutional impurity defects are calculated. The HADES computer program is used in all the defect calculations. Finally the report returns to the problems of irradiation produced interstitial defects. The properties of H centres are discussed; their structure, formation energies, trapping at impurities and dimerization. The structure, formation energies and mobility of the intermediate and final molecular defects are then discussed. The thermodynamics of interstitial loop formation is considered for all the alklai halide crystals. The nucleation of interstitial loops in NaCl and NaBr is discussed, and the recombination of interstitial and vacancy defects. The models are found to account for all the main features of the experimental data. (author)

  15. Lagrangian Displacement Ensembles for Aerosol Data Assimilation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A.; Colarco, P. R.; Govindaraju, R. C.

    2010-12-01

    A challenge common to many constituent data assimilation applications is the fact that one observes a much smaller fraction of the phase space that one wishes to estimate. For example, remotely-sensed estimates of the column average concentrations are available, while one is faced with the problem of estimating 3D concentractions for initializing a prognostic model. This problem is exarcebated in the the case of aerosols because the observable Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is not only a column integrated quantity, but it also sums over a large number of species (dust, sea-salt, carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols). An aerosol transport model when driven by high-resolution, state-of-the-art analysis of meterorological fields and realistc emissions can produce skillful forecasts even when no aerosol data is assimilated. The main task of aerosol data assimilation is to address the bias arising from innacurate emissions, and the Lagrangian misplacement of plumes induced by errors in the driving meterorological fields. As long as one decouples the meteorological and aerosol assimilation as we do here, the classic baroclinic growth of errors is no longer the main order of business. We will describe and aerosol data assimilation scheme in which the anaysis update step is conducted in observation space, using an adaptive maximum-likelihood scheme for estimating background errors in AOD space. This scheme includes explicit sequential bias estimation as in Dee and da Silva (1998). Unlikely existing aerosol data assimiltion schemes we do not obtain analysis increments of the 3D concentrations by scalling the background profiles. Instead, we explore the Langrangian characteristics of the problem for generating local displacement ensembles. These high-resolution, state-dependent ensembles are then used to parameterize the background errors and generate 3D aerosol increments. The algorithm has computational complexity comparable to the forecasting step by the aerosol transport model

  16. Aerosol in the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, S.; Mariotti, P.

    1986-01-01

    The US program LACE (LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments), in which Italy participates together with several European countries, Canada and Japan, aims at evaluating by means of a large scale experimental activity at HEDL the retention in the pipings and primary container of the radioactive aerosol released following severe accidents in light water reactors. At the same time these experiences will make available data through which the codes used to analyse the behaviour of the aerosol in the containment and to verify whether by means of the codes of thermohydraulic computation it is possible to evaluate with sufficient accuracy variable influencing the aerosol behaviour, can be validated. This report shows and compares the results obtained by the participants in the LACE program with the aerosol containment codes NAVA 5 and CONTAIN for the pre-test computations of the test LA 1, in which an accident called containment by pass is simulated

  17. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  19. Impacts on Global Agriculture of Stratospheric Sulfate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.

    2014-12-01

    Impacts on global food supply are one of the most important concerns in the discussion of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering. Stratospheric sulfate injection could reduce surface temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which could affect agricultural production. We use output from climate model simulations using the two most "realistic" scenarios from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, G3 and G4. G3 posits balancing the increasing radiative forcing from the RCP4.5 business-as-usual scenario with stratospheric sulfate aerosols from 2020 through 2070. The G4 scenario also uses RCP4.5, but models simulate the stratospheric injection of 5 Tg SO2 per year from 2020 to 2070. In total, there are three modeling groups which have completed G3 and four for G4. We use two crop models, the global gridded Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (gDSSAT) crop model and the crop model in the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM-crop), to predict global maize yield changes. Without changing agricultural technology, we find that compared to the reference run forced by the RCP4.5 scenario, maize yields could increase in both G3 and G4 due to both the cooling effect of stratospheric sulfate injection and the CO2 fertilization effect, with the cooling effect contributing more to the increased productivity. However, the maize yield changes are not much larger than natural variability under G3, since the temperature reduction is smaller in G3 than in G4. Both crop models show similar results.

  20. Influence of relative humidity on aerosol composition: Impacts on light extinction and visibility impairment at two sites in coastal area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, W. J.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, D.; Sheng, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    Investigation on the aerosol characteristics, surface visibility (Vis) and meteorology at BGS (Baguanshan, Qingdao) and LNA (Lin'an, Zhejiang) shows that the ambient aerosol chemical composition and light extinction are relative humidity (RH) dependent. At higher RH, both the strengthened hygroscopic growth and the more efficient oxidization (of the precursor gases and formation of the secondary sulfate and nitrate) contribute to the increase of the mass fraction of the hygroscopic species, which consequently results in the increase of the aerosol mass extinction efficiency (MEE) and Vis reduction at the two Chinese coastal sites. MEE and chemical composition of the aerosol vary significantly under different regional transport ways; the airmasses from the ocean directions are associated with higher RH, higher sulfate mass fraction and greater MEE at BGS, while MEEs are smaller and associated with lower RH and lower sulfate fraction for the airmasses from the continent directions. Vis shows better correlation with PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations when RH effect on aerosol hygroscopic growth is considered. At BGS, the sulfate mass fraction in PM2.5 and PM10 (in average 32.4% and 27.4%) can explain about 60.7% and 74.3% of the variance of the aerosol MEE, respectively; sulfate and nitrate contribute to about 61% of the light extinction. RH plays a key role in aerosol extinction and visibility variation over this coastal area of China. Formation of the secondary aerosol (especially sulfate and nitrate) as well as hygroscopic growth under favorable (more stable and humid) meteorological conditions should be paid adequate attention in regulation of air quality and Vis improvement over eastern China in addition to the routine emission control measurements.

  1. Fine aerosol bulk composition measured on WP-3D research aircraft in vicinity of the Northeastern United States – results from NEAQS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Warneke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS in the summer of 2004, airborne measurements were made of the major inorganic ions and the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC of the submicron (PM1.0 aerosol. These and ancillary data are used to describe the overall aerosol chemical characteristics encountered during the study. Fine particle mass was estimated from particle volume and a calculated density based on measured particle composition. Fine particle organic matter (OM was estimated from WSOC and a mass balance analysis. The aerosol over the northeastern United States (U.S. and Canada was predominantly sulfate and associated ammonium, and organic components, although in unique plumes additional ionic components were also periodically above detection limits. In power generation regions, and especially in the Ohio River Valley region, the aerosol tended to be predominantly sulfate (~60% μg μg−1 and apparently acidic, based on an excess of measured anions compared to cations. In all other regions where sulfate concentrations were lower and a smaller fraction of overall mass, the cations and anions were balanced suggesting a more neutral aerosol. In contrast, the WSOC and estimated OM were more spatially uniform and the fraction of OM relative to PM mass was largely influenced by sources of sulfate. The study median OM mass fraction was 40%. Throughout the study region, sulfate and organic aerosol mass were highest near the surface and decreased rapidly with increasing altitude. The relative fraction of organic mass to sulfate was similar throughout all altitudes within the boundary layer (altitude less than 2.5 km, but was significantly higher at altitude layers in the free troposphere (above 2.5 km. A number of distinct biomass burning plumes from fires in Alaska and the Yukon were periodically intercepted, mostly at altitudes between 3 and 4 km. These plumes were associated with highest aerosol concentrations of the study and were

  2. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, J.K. [Mineral Resources Technologies, Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  3. Control of alkali species in gasification systems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turn, S.; Kinoshita, C.; Ishimura, D. Zhou, J.; Hiraki, T.; Masutani, S.

    2000-07-13

    Gas-phase alkali metal compounds contribute to fouling, slagging, corrosion, and agglomeration problems in energy conversion facilities. One mitigation strategy applicable at high temperature is to pass the gas stream through a fixed bed sorbent or getter material, which preferentially absorbs alkali via physical adsorption or chemisorption. This report presents results of an experimental investigation of high-temperature alkali removal from a hot filtered gasifier product gas stream using a packed bed of sorbent material. Two getter materials, activated bauxite and emathlite, were tested at two levels of space time by using two interchangeable reactors of different internal diameters. The effect of getter particle size was also investigated.

  4. Influence of alkalis from different sources than cement in the evolution of alkali-silica reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olague, C.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographical revision of the existent literature allows showing symptoms of alkali-silica reaction (ASR in highways, and the practical and economic method uranyl acetate to confirm the presence of ASR. The existence of reaction in concrete pavements of Chihuahua City was verified by a visual observation of patterns cracks, examination of gel deposits and the presence of reactive materials. Considering that the cement used to construct this pavements with problems of ASR, was low alkalis cement, the research was devoted to study the influence of alkalis coming from different sources than cement in the evolution of reaction such as: a aggregates: gravel and sand, b mix water, c additives and d minerals additions The initial classification of cements like high and low alkalis concerned to ASR must be revised for accept the fact that there is not a unique maximum limit alkalis of cement under which the expansible reactivity cannot occur.

    Una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura existente permite mostrar las manifestaciones de reacción álcali-sílice (RAS en estructuras de carreteras y el método práctico y económico de acetato de uranilo para confirmar la presencia de RAS. La existencia de la reacción en pavimentos de hormigón de la ciudad de Chihuahua se pudo confirmar tras la observación visual de modelos de grietas, estudios de depósitos de gel y existencia de fuentes de materiales reactivos. Considerando que el cemento utilizado para construir los tramos de pavimento con problemas de RAS, era un cemento bajo en álcalis, se enfocó la investigación al estudio de la influencia de los álcalis provenientes de fuentes distintas al cemento en la evolución de la reacción tales como: a áridos gruesos y finos, b agua de mezclado, c aditivos y d adiciones minerales El concepto inicial de clasificación de cementos altos y bajos en álcalis con respecto a la RAS debe ser revisado para aceptar el hecho de que no hay un solo

  5. (e, 2e) triple differential cross sections of alkali and alkali earth atoms: Na, K and Mg, Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitawala, U; Purohit, G; Sud, K K

    2008-01-01

    Recently low-energy measurements have been reported for alkali targets Na and K and alkali earth targets Mg and Ca in coplanar symmetric geometry. We report the results of our calculation of triple differential cross section (TDCS) for electron impact single ionization (i.e. (e, 2e) processes) of alkali atoms Na, K and alkali earth atoms Mg, Ca in coplanar symmetric geometry. We have performed the present calculations using the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) formalism at intermediate incident electron energies used in the recently performed experiments. Ionization takes place from the valence shell for all the targets investigated and the outgoing electrons share the excess energy equally. We have also considered the effect of target polarization in our DWBA calculations which may be an important quantity at incident electron energies used in the present investigation. We find that the DWBA formalism is able to reproduce most of the trend of experimental data and may provide a future direction for further investigation of ionization process on alkali and alkali earth metals. It is also observed that the second-order effects are more important to understand the collision dynamics of (e, 2e) processes on alkali earth targets

  6. Biokinetics and effects of barium sulfate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Nagarjun; Keller, Jana; Ma-Hock, Lan; Gröters, Sibylle; Landsiedel, Robert; Donaghey, Thomas C; Brain, Joseph D; Wohlleben, Wendel; Molina, Ramon M

    2014-10-21

    Nanoparticulate barium sulfate has potential novel applications and wide use in the polymer and paint industries. A short-term inhalation study on barium sulfate nanoparticles (BaSO₄ NPs) was previously published [Part Fibre Toxicol 11:16, 2014]. We performed comprehensive biokinetic studies of ¹³¹BaSO₄ NPs administered via different routes and of acute and subchronic pulmonary responses to instilled or inhaled BaSO₄ in rats. We compared the tissue distribution of ¹³¹Ba over 28 days after intratracheal (IT) instillation, and over 7 days after gavage and intravenous (IV) injection of ¹³¹BaSO₄. Rats were exposed to 50 mg/m³ BaSO₄ aerosol for 4 or 13 weeks (6 h/day, 5 consecutive days/week), and then gross and histopathologic, blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analyses were performed. BAL fluid from instilled rats was also analyzed. Inhaled BaSO₄ NPs showed no toxicity after 4-week exposure, but a slight neutrophil increase in BAL after 13-week exposure was observed. Lung burden of inhaled BaSO₄ NPs after 4-week exposure (0.84 ± 0.18 mg/lung) decreased by 95% over 34 days. Instilled BaSO₄ NPs caused dose-dependent inflammatory responses in the lungs. Instilled BaSO₄ NPs (0.28 mg/lung) was cleared with a half-life of ≈ 9.6 days. Translocated ¹³¹Ba from the lungs was predominantly found in the bone (29%). Only 0.15% of gavaged dose was detected in all organs at 7 days. IV-injected ¹³¹BaSO₄ NPs were predominantly localized in the liver, spleen, lungs and bone at 2 hours, but redistributed from the liver to bone over time. Fecal excretion was the dominant elimination pathway for all three routes of exposure. Pulmonary exposure to instilled BaSO₄ NPs caused dose-dependent lung injury and inflammation. Four-week and 13-week inhalation exposures to a high concentration (50 mg/m³) of BaSO₄ NPs elicited minimal pulmonary response and no systemic effects. Instilled and inhaled BaSO₄ NPs were cleared quickly yet

  7. Transport of aerosols into the UTLS and their impact on the Asian monsoon region as seen in a global model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fadnavis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An eight-member ensemble of ECHAM5-HAMMOZ simulations for a boreal summer season is analysed to study the transport of aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS during the Asian summer monsoon (ASM. The simulations show persistent maxima in black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, and mineral dust aerosols within the anticyclone in the UTLS throughout the ASM (period from July to September, when convective activity over the Indian subcontinent is highest, indicating that boundary layer aerosol pollution is the source of this UTLS aerosol layer. The simulations identify deep convection and the associated heat-driven circulation over the southern flanks of the Himalayas as the dominant transport pathway of aerosols and water vapour into the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. Comparison of model simulations with and without aerosols indicates that anthropogenic aerosols are central to the formation of this transport pathway. Aerosols act to increase cloud ice, water vapour, and temperature in the model UTLS. Evidence of ASM transport of aerosols into the stratosphere is also found, in agreement with aerosol extinction measurements from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II. As suggested by the observations, aerosols are transported into the Southern Hemisphere around the tropical tropopause by large-scale mixing processes. Aerosol-induced circulation changes also include a weakening of the main branch of the Hadley circulation and a reduction of monsoon precipitation over India.

  8. Sulfate Transporters in Dissimilatory Sulfate Reducing Microorganisms: A Comparative Genomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Marietou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in the sulfate reduction pathway is the transport of sulfate across the cell membrane. This uptake has a major effect on sulfate reduction rates. Much of the information available on sulfate transport was obtained by studies on assimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate transporters were identified among several types of protein families. Despite our growing knowledge on the physiology of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM there are no studies identifying the proteins involved in sulfate uptake in members of this ecologically important group of anaerobes. We surveyed the complete genomes of 44 sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea across six phyla and identified putative sulfate transporter encoding genes from four out of the five surveyed protein families based on homology. We did not find evidence that ABC-type transporters (SulT are involved in the uptake of sulfate in SRM. We speculate that members of the CysP sulfate transporters could play a key role in the uptake of sulfate in thermophilic SRM. Putative CysZ-type sulfate transporters were present in all genomes examined suggesting that this overlooked group of sulfate transporters might play a role in sulfate transport in dissimilatory sulfate reducers alongside SulP. Our in silico analysis highlights several targets for further molecular studies in order to understand this key step in the metabolism of SRMs.

  9. Aqueous aerosol SOA formation: impact on aerosol physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Joseph L; Kim, Derek D; Schwier, Allison N; Li, Ruizhi; McNeill, V Faye

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry in aerosol water has recently been recognized as a potentially important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material. This SOA material may be surface-active, therefore potentially affecting aerosol heterogeneous activity, ice nucleation, and CCN activity. Aqueous aerosol chemistry has also been shown to be a potential source of light-absorbing products ("brown carbon"). We present results on the formation of secondary organic aerosol material in aerosol water and the associated changes in aerosol physical properties from GAMMA (Gas-Aerosol Model for Mechanism Analysis), a photochemical box model with coupled gas and detailed aqueous aerosol chemistry. The detailed aerosol composition output from GAMMA was coupled with two recently developed modules for predicting a) aerosol surface tension and b) the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the aerosol, based on our previous laboratory observations. The simulation results suggest that the formation of oligomers and organic acids in bulk aerosol water is unlikely to perturb aerosol surface tension significantly. Isoprene-derived organosulfates are formed in high concentrations in acidic aerosols under low-NO(x) conditions, but more experimental data are needed before the potential impact of these species on aerosol surface tension may be evaluated. Adsorption of surfactants from the gas phase may further suppress aerosol surface tension. Light absorption by aqueous aerosol SOA material is driven by dark glyoxal chemistry and is highest under high-NO(x) conditions, at high relative humidity, in the early morning hours. The wavelength dependence of the predicted absorption spectra is comparable to field observations and the predicted mass absorption efficiencies suggest that aqueous aerosol chemistry can be a significant source of aerosol brown carbon under urban conditions.

  10. Composition and sources of winter and summertime aerosols at Ny Alesund, Spitsbergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Cornille, P.; Pacyna, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Filter samples of < 2.5 μm aerosol were collected in (late) winter of 1983, 1984, 1986, and 1987 and in the summer of 1984, 1986, and 1987 at Ny Alesund, Spitsbergen, and analyzed for over 40 elements by a combination of INAA and PIXE. The data sets of the various sampling campaigns and the combined winter and combined summer data were examined by receptor modeling, including absolute principal component analysis (APCA), chemical mass balance (CMB) and multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques. APCA yielded four components, both for the winter and for the summer aerosol. For the winter aerosol, the components were identified as a general pollution component, crustal dust, sea-salt, and a halogen (Br,I) component. The CMB and MLR calculations were used to obtain source (source region) apportionments for the anthropogenic trace elements and for sulfate. For the summer, about 50% of the sulfate was attributed to a marine biogenic source

  11. In situ interactions between Opalinus Clay and Low Alkali Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, Catherine; Gaboreau, Stéphane; Grangeon, Sylvain; Claret, Francis; Warmont, Fabienne; Jenni, Andreas; Cloet, Veerle; Mäder, Urs

    2017-06-01

    A five-year-old interface between a Low Alkali Concrete (LAC) formulation (CEM III/B containing 66% slag and 10% nano-silica) and Opalinus Clay (OPA) from a field experiment at Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory in Switzerland (Jenni et al., 2014) has been studied to decipher the textural, mineralogical and chemical changes that occurred between the two reacting materials. Reactivity between LAC concrete and OPA is found to be limited to a ∼1 mm thick highly porous (ca. 75% porosity) white crust developed on the concrete side. Quantitative mineralogical mapping of the white crust using an electron microprobe and infrared spectroscopy on the cement matrix provides evidence of a Mg-rich phase accounting for approximatively 25 wt % of the matrix associated with 11 wt % of calcite, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) and other cement phases. EDX analyses and electron diffraction combined with transmission electron microscopy of the Mg-rich phase provide evidence for a tri-octahedral 2:1 phyllosilicate with mean composition: (Ca0.5±0.2) (Mg2.0±0.4, Fe0.2±0.1, Al0.5±03, □0.3±0.3) (Al0.9±0.2, Si3.1±0.2) O10 (OH)2, where □ represents vacancies in the octahedral site. Apart from this reactive contact, textural, mineralogical and chemical modifications at the contact with the LAC concrete are limited. OPA mineralogy remains largely unmodified. X-ray micro-fluorescence and EPMA mapping of major elements on the OPA side also provides evidence for a Mg-enriched 300-400 μm thick layer. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) values measured in the OPA in contact with the LAC concrete range between 153 and 175 meq kg-1 of dry OPA, close to the reference value of 170 ± 10 meq kg-1 of dry OPA (Pearson et al., 2003). Changing cation occupancies at the interface with LAC concrete are mainly marked by increased Ca, Mg and K, and decreased Na. Leaching tests performed on OPA with deionized water and at different solid to water ratios strongly suggest that Cl and SO4 have

  12. Observations of linear dependence between sulfate and nitrate in atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingdong; Yang, Yiwei; Zhang, Shuanqin; Zhao, Xi; Du, Huanhuan; Fu, Hongbo; Zhang, Shicheng; Cheng, Tiantao; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin; Wu, Dui; Shen, Jiandong; Hong, Shengmao; Jiao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Hourly measurements of water-soluble inorganic ionic species in ambient atmospheric particles were conducted at Shanghai, Hangzhou, and Guangzhou sampling sites in China during the period of 2009-2011. The relation between sulfate and nitrate in particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) was examined based on these measurements. Results showed that the mass fraction of sulfate was strongly negatively correlated with that of nitrate in atmospheric particles on most of the sampling days, especially when sulfate and nitrate made up the vast majority of the total soluble anions and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) made a small contribution to the total water-soluble ions, revealing that the formation mechanisms of sulfate and nitrate in the atmosphere are highly correlated, and there exists a significant negative correlation trend between sulfate and nitrate mass fractions in the atmospheric particles. We found that local meteorological conditions presented opposite influences on the mass fractions of sulfate and nitrate. Further analysis indicated that the two mass fractions were modulated by the neutralizing level of atmospheric aerosols, and the negative correlation could be found in acidic atmospheric particles. Strong negative correlation was usually observed on clear days, hazy days, foggy days, and respirable particulate air pollution days, whereas poor negative correlation was often observed during cloud, rain, snow, dust storm, and suspended dust events. The results can help to better understand the formation mechanisms of atmospheric sulfate and nitrate during air pollution episodes and to better explain field results of atmospheric chemistry concerning sulfate and nitrate.

  13. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  14. Study of ammonium sulfates electric conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrynin, D.V.; Tulegulov, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    In the work results of research of ammonium sulfate electroconductivity are given. The influence effecting on ammonium sulfate conductivity is investigated. The various circuits of inclusion tetra ohmmeter are given. (author)

  15. Biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sano, Naoyo; Takikawa, Hajime

    2003-08-01

    Glucuronide and glutathione conjugates have been reported to be substrates of multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2), whereas sulfates of nonbile acid organic anions have never been reported as substrates of Mrp2. To further examine the substrate specificity of Mrp2, we examined the effects of bile acid sulfates on the biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats. The biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate was markedly delayed in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats, an Mrp2-deficient strain, and was markedly inhibited by taurolithocholate-3-sulfate. The biliary excretion of leukotriene C(4) metabolites and sulfobromophthalein was inhibited by phenolphthalein sulfate infusion to some extent. These findings suggest that phenolphthalein sulfate is a unique sulfated nonbile acid organic anion which is a substrate of Mrp2. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Impacts of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A range of solar radiation management (SRM techniques has been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Here, we examine the potential effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosols and solar insolation reduction on tropospheric ozone and ozone at Earth's surface. Ozone is a key air pollutant, which can produce respiratory diseases and crop damage. Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosols and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations. Despite nearly identical global mean surface temperatures for the two SRM approaches, solar insolation reduction increases global average surface ozone concentrations, while sulfate injection decreases it. A fundamental difference between the two geoengineering schemes is the importance of heterogeneous reactions in the photochemical ozone balance with larger stratospheric sulfate abundance, resulting in increased ozone depletion in mid- and high latitudes. This reduces the net transport of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere and thus is a key driver of the overall decrease in surface ozone. At the same time, the change in stratospheric ozone alters the tropospheric photochemical environment due to enhanced ultraviolet radiation. A shared factor among both SRM scenarios is decreased chemical ozone loss due to reduced tropospheric humidity. Under insolation reduction, this is the dominant factor giving rise to the global surface ozone increase. Regionally, both surface ozone increases and decreases are found for both scenarios; that is, SRM would affect regions of the world differently in terms of air

  17. Impacts of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lili; Nowack, Peer J.; Tilmes, Simone; Robock, Alan

    2017-10-01

    A range of solar radiation management (SRM) techniques has been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Here, we examine the potential effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosols and solar insolation reduction on tropospheric ozone and ozone at Earth's surface. Ozone is a key air pollutant, which can produce respiratory diseases and crop damage. Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosols and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations. Despite nearly identical global mean surface temperatures for the two SRM approaches, solar insolation reduction increases global average surface ozone concentrations, while sulfate injection decreases it. A fundamental difference between the two geoengineering schemes is the importance of heterogeneous reactions in the photochemical ozone balance with larger stratospheric sulfate abundance, resulting in increased ozone depletion in mid- and high latitudes. This reduces the net transport of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere and thus is a key driver of the overall decrease in surface ozone. At the same time, the change in stratospheric ozone alters the tropospheric photochemical environment due to enhanced ultraviolet radiation. A shared factor among both SRM scenarios is decreased chemical ozone loss due to reduced tropospheric humidity. Under insolation reduction, this is the dominant factor giving rise to the global surface ozone increase. Regionally, both surface ozone increases and decreases are found for both scenarios; that is, SRM would affect regions of the world differently in terms of air pollution. In conclusion

  18. Dislocation unpinning model of acoustic emission from alkali halide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AE) from alkali halide crystals. ... School of Studies in Physics, Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukia University, Raipur 492 010, India; Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Raipur Institute of Technology, Raipur 492 101, India; Department of ...

  19. Alkali-bonded ceramics with hierarchical tailored porosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landi, E.; Medri, V.; Papa, E.; Dědeček, Jiří; Klein, Petr; Benito, P.; Vaccari, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 73, SI (2013), s. 56-64 ISSN 0169-1317 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : alkali-bonded ceramics * metalcaolin * geopolymerization parameters Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.703, year: 2013

  20. Closure plug for alkali-metal-bounded fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, R.

    1974-01-01

    The fuel rod consists of a cladding tube containing an alkali metal which surrounds the fuel pellets. The alkali metal improves the heat transfer. The cladding tube is closed with an end cap at its front end which cap is welded to the cladding tube. Its outside diameter is smaller than the inside diameter of the cladding tube so that the gas can flow out over the alkali metal column during the filling process. The length of the cap is such that the alkali metal is not heated during the welding process. The weld proper is made on a welding collar following a forced fit of the end cap. The end cap may be hollow. (DG) [de

  1. Saccharification of gamma-ray and alkali pretreated lignocellulosics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Choudhury, N.

    1988-01-01

    Enzymic saccharification of gamma ray and alkali pretreated sawdust, rice straw, and sugar cane bagasse showed higher release of reducing sugar from pretreated substrates. By gamma ray treatment alone (500 kGy) reducing sugar release of 2.8, 9.2, and 10 g/l was obtained from 7.5% (w/v) sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse and the same substrates showed reducing sugar release of 4.2, 30, and 20 g/l respectively when treated with alkali (0.1 g/g). Combination of gamma ray with alkali treatment further increased the reducing sugar release to 10.2, 33, and 36 g/l from sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse respectively. The effects of gamma ray and alkali treatment on saccharification varied with the nature of the substrate

  2. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1995-01-01

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  3. Mineralization dynamics of metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaudan, Juan Pablo; Campbell, Kate M.; Kane, Tyler; Shoemaker, Richard K.; Srubar, Wil V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the early-age dynamics of mineral formation in metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements. The effects of silica availability and alkali content on mineral formation were investigated via X-ray diffraction and solid-state 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days. Silica availability was controlled by using either liquid- (immediate) or solid-based (gradual) sodium silicate supplements. Mineral (zeolitic) and amorphous microstructural characteristics were correlated with observed changes in bulk physical properties, namely shrinkage, density, and porosity. Results demonstrate that, while alkali content controls the mineralization in immediately available silica systems, alkali content controls the silica availability in gradually available silica systems. Immediate silica availability generally leads to a more favorable mineral formation as demonstrated by correlated improvements in bulk physical properties.

  4. Dedolomitization and Alkali Reactions in Ohio-sourced Dolstone Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Concrete samples produced using NW-Ohio sourced aggregates were evaluated for susceptibility to degradation and premature failure due to cracks formed by the volume expansion during hydration of silica gels produced by alkali-silica reactions between...

  5. Simulating the effects of semivolatile aerosol species on cloud formation and lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkola, Harri; Kudzotsa, Innocent; Tonttila, Juha; Raatikainen, Tomi; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2017-04-01

    The effect of aerosol has been acknowledged to cause a significant uncertainty in estimating the anthropogenic aerosol effect on climate. Research efforts on the formation and growth of atmospheric particles to sizes where they become cloud condensation nuclei have been extensive. In comparison, much less attention is given on cloud processing of particles and aerosol removal through wet deposition. However, aerosol removal processes largely dictate how well aerosol is transported from source regions. This means that in order to model the global distribution aerosol, both in vertical and horizontal, wet deposition processes have to be properly modelled. However, in large scale models, the description of wet removal and the vertical redistribution of aerosol by cloud processes is very limited. Here we present a novel aerosol-cloud model SALSA, where the aerosol properties are tracked though cloud processes including: cloud droplet activation, precipitation formation, ice nucleation, melting, and evaporation. It is a sectional model that includes separate size sections for non-activated aerosol, cloud droplets, precipitation droplets, and ice crystals. The aerosol-cloud model was coupled to a large eddy model UCLALES which simulates the boundary-layer dynamics. In this study, the model has been applied in studying the wet removal as well as interactions between clouds and semi-volatile compounds, ammonia and nitric acid. These compounds are special in the sense that they co-condense together with water during cloud activation and have been suggested to form droplets that can be considered cloud-droplet-like already in subsaturated conditions. In our model, we calculate the kinetic partitioning of ammonia and sulfate thus explicitly taking into account the effect of ammonia and nitric acid in the cloud formation. Our simulations indicate that especially in polluted conditions, these compounds significantly affect the properties of cloud droplets thus significantly

  6. New Particle Formation and Secondary Organic Aerosol in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, M.; Yue, D.; Guo, S.; Hu, W.; Huang, X.; He, L.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.

    2011-12-01

    Air pollution in Beijing has been a major concern due to being a mega-city and green Olympic Games requirements. Both long term and intensive field measurements have been conducted at an Urban Air Quality Monitoring Station in the campus of Peking University since 2004. Aerosol characteristics vary seasonally depending on meteorological conditions and source emissions. Secondary compositions of SNA (sum of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) and SOA (secondary organic aerosol) become major fraction of fine particles, which may enhance aerosol impacts on visibility and climate change. The transformation processes of new particle formation (NPF) and secondary organic aerosol have been focused on. It was found that gaseous sulfuric acid, ammonia, and organic compounds are important precursors to NPF events in Beijing and H2SO4-NH3-H2O ternary nucleation is one of the important mechanisms. The contributions of condensation and neutralization of sulfuric acid, coagulation, and organics to the growth of the new particles are estimated as 45%, 34%, and 21%, respectively. Tracer-based method to estimate biogenic and anthropogenic SOA was established by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Secondary organic tracers derived from biogenic (isoprene, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene) and anthropogenic (toluene) contributed 32% at urban site and 35% at rural site, respectively. Other source apportionment techniques were also used to estimate secondary organic aerosols, including EC tracer method, water soluble organic carbon content, chemical mass balance model, and AMS-PMF method.

  7. Reactive intermediates revealed in secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surratt, Jason D; Chan, Arthur W H; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Chan, ManNin; Loza, Christine L; Kwan, Alan J; Hersey, Scott P; Flagan, Richard C; Wennberg, Paul O; Seinfeld, John H

    2010-04-13

    Isoprene is a significant source of atmospheric organic aerosol; however, the oxidation pathways that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) have remained elusive. Here, we identify the role of two key reactive intermediates, epoxydiols of isoprene (IEPOX = beta-IEPOX + delta-IEPOX) and methacryloylperoxynitrate (MPAN), which are formed during isoprene oxidation under low- and high-NO(x) conditions, respectively. Isoprene low-NO(x) SOA is enhanced in the presence of acidified sulfate seed aerosol (mass yield 28.6%) over that in the presence of neutral aerosol (mass yield 1.3%). Increased uptake of IEPOX by acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions is shown to explain this enhancement. Under high-NO(x) conditions, isoprene SOA formation occurs through oxidation of its second-generation product, MPAN. The similarity of the composition of SOA formed from the photooxidation of MPAN to that formed from isoprene and methacrolein demonstrates the role of MPAN in the formation of isoprene high-NO(x) SOA. Reactions of IEPOX and MPAN in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants (i.e., acidic aerosol produced from the oxidation of SO(2) and NO(2), respectively) could be a substantial source of "missing urban SOA" not included in current atmospheric models.

  8. Rheology of Cementitious Materials: Alkali-Activated Materials or Geopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Puertas F.; Alonso M.M:; Gismera S.; Lanzón M.; Blanco-Varela M.T.

    2018-01-01

    A clear alternative to reach the goal of sustainable development in the Construction Sector is the development of alternative building materials to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) in a more energetically as well as environmentally eco-efficient way. Alkaline cements (Alkali-Activated Materials, AAMs) and geopolymers meet these requirements; and they are based on the alkali activation of aluminosilicates (mainly waste and industrial by-products, such as blast furnace slag, fly ash and ceramic w...

  9. Alkali promotion of N-2 dissociation over Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    Using self-consistent density functional calculations, we show that adsorbed Na and Cs lower the barrier for dissociation of N2 on Ru(0001). Since N2 dissociation is a crucial step in the ammonia synthesis reaction, we explain in this way the experimental observation that alkali metals promote...... the ammonia synthesis reaction over Ru catalysts. We also show that the origin of this effect is predominantly a direct electrostatic attraction between the adsorbed alkali atoms and the dissociating molecule....

  10. Charge transfer in gold--alkali-metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.; Weinert, M.

    1994-01-01

    Based on conventional electronegativity arguments, gold--alkali-metal compounds are expected to be among the most ''ionic'' of metallic compounds. The concepts of ionicity and charge transfer are difficult to quantify. However, the changes in bonding in the 50/50 Au--alkali-metal systems between the elemental metals and the compounds are so severe that observations can readily be made concerning their character. The results, as obtained from self-consistent electronic-structure calculations, lead to the apparently odd observation that the electron density at the alkali-metal sites in the compound increases significantly and this involves high l componennts in the charge density. This increase, however, can be attributed to Au-like orbitals spatially overlapping the alkali-metal sites. In a chemical sense, it is reasonable to consider the alkali-metal transferring charge to these Au orbitals. While normally the difference in heats of formation between muffin-tin and full-potential calculations for transition-metal--transition-metal and transition-metal--main-group (e.g., Al) compounds having high site symmetry are small, for the gold--alkali-metal systems, the changes in bonding in the compounds cause differences of ∼0.5 eV/atom between the two classes of potential. Any serious estimate of the electronic structure in these systems must account for these aspherical bonding charges. The origin of the semiconducting behavior of the heavy-alkali-metal Au compounds is shown to arise from a combination of the Au-Au separations and the ionic character of the compounds; the light-alkali-metal Au compounds, with their smaller Au-Au separations, do not have a semiconducting gap. Core-level shifts and isomer shifts are also briefly discussed

  11. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  13. EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE (A LAXATIVE) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use with little success . Magnesium sulfate also known as Epsom salt or bitter salt is a hydrate salt with a chemical name of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate . Chemical formula is MgSO. 7HO and trade name is. Andrews liver salt. Dried magnesium sulfate is an osmotic laxative or a saline laxative that acts by increasing the.

  14. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a

  2. Improvements to the WRF-Chem 3.5.1 model for quasi-hemispheric simulations of aerosols and ozone in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelle, Louis; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Shrivastava, Manish; Thomas, Jennie L.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the WRF-Chem regional model is updated to improve simulated short-lived pollutants (e.g., aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic. Specifically, we include in WRF-Chem 3.5.1 (with SAPRC-99 gas-phase chemistry and MOSAIC aerosols) (1) a correction to the sedimentation of aerosols, (2) dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oceanic emissions and gas-phase chemistry, (3) an improved representation of the dry deposition of trace gases over seasonal snow, and (4) an UV-albedo dependence on snow and ice cover for photolysis calculations. We also (5) correct the representation of surface temperatures over melting ice in the Noah Land Surface Model and (6) couple and further test the recent KF-CuP (Kain-Fritsch + Cumulus Potential) cumulus parameterization that includes the effect of cumulus clouds on aerosols and trace gases. The updated model is used to perform quasi-hemispheric simulations of aerosols and ozone, which are evaluated against surface measurements of black carbon (BC), sulfate, and ozone as well as airborne measurements of BC in the Arctic. The updated model shows significant improvements in terms of seasonal aerosol cycles at the surface and root mean square errors (RMSEs) for surface ozone, aerosols, and BC aloft, compared to the base version of the model and to previous large-scale evaluations of WRF-Chem in the Arctic. These improvements are mostly due to the inclusion of cumulus effects on aerosols and trace gases in KF-CuP (improved RMSE for surface BC and BC profiles, surface sulfate, and surface ozone), the improved surface temperatures over sea ice (surface ozone, BC, and sulfate), and the updated trace gas deposition and UV albedo over snow and ice (improved RMSE and correlation for surface ozone). DMS emissions and chemistry improve surface sulfate at all Arctic sites except Zeppelin, and correcting aerosol sedimentation has little influence on aerosols except in the upper troposphere.

  3. Global simulations of nitrate and ammonium aerosols and their radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the formation of nitrate and ammonium on five types of externally mixed pre-existing aerosols using the hybrid dynamic method in a global chemistry transport model. The model developed here predicts a similar spatial pattern of total aerosol nitrate and ammonium to that of several pioneering studies, but separates the effects of nitrate and ammonium on pure sulfate, biomass burning, fossil fuel, dust and sea salt aerosols. Nitrate and ammonium boost the scattering efficiency of sulfate and organic matter but lower the extinction of sea salt particles since the hygroscopicity of a mixed nitrate-ammonium-sea salt particle is less than that of pure sea salt. The direct anthropogenic forcing of particulate nitrate and ammonium at the top of the atmosphere (TOA is estimated to be −0.12 W m−2. Nitrate, ammonium and nitric acid gas also affect aerosol activation and the reflectivity of clouds. The first aerosol indirect forcing by anthropogenic nitrate (gas plus aerosol and ammonium is estimated to be −0.09 W m−2 at the TOA, almost all of which is due to condensation of nitric acid gas onto growing droplets (−0.08 W m−2.

  4. Lipid organics in background aerosols, cloudwater, and snow and implication for organic scavenging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groellert, C.

    1998-01-01

    During three years free tropospheric snow, aerosol, and cloudwater samples were collected at Mount Sonnblick, Austria, at an elevation of 3106 m a.s.l. The samples were analyzed for their lipid organic trace components using extraction with n-hexane as sample pretreatment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection for identification and quantification of the substances. The main components identified in all the samples were the phthalic acid esters which are of anthropogenic origin. Of further interest were aliphatic alcohols (not detected in aerosols) and phenols. They are of biogenic origin. The concentrations were found to be higher in spring than in the fall season. To compare the concentrations of aerosol, cloudwater and snow samples scavenging ratios (aerosol to snow), scavenging efficiencies (aerosol to cloud) and cloud to snow ratios were calculated for the first time for organic compounds. Scavenging ratios were 10 to 100 times lower, scavenging efficiencies 2 to 10 times lower than sulfate. This can result from the poor watersolubility of the compounds or from gas phase sorptions on the filter surface (overestimation of aerosol concentrations). The cloud to snow ratios were generally higher than for sulfate. However, a few components exhibited very low cloud to snow ratios which might be due to additional sources in snow for these substances (alcohols). (author)

  5. Preparation and Properties of Alkali Activated Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Wang, Zaiqin; Wang, Yuanyi; Feng, Jing

    2016-09-08

    The effective activation and utilization of metakaolin as an alkali activated geopolymer precursor and its use in concrete surface protection is of great interest. In this paper, the formula of alkali activated metakaolin-based geopolymers was studied using an orthogonal experimental design. It was found that the optimal geopolymer was prepared with metakaolin, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate and water, with the molar ratio of SiO₂:Al₂O₃:Na₂O:NaOH:H₂O being 3.4:1.1:0.5:1.0:11.8. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were adopted to investigate the influence of curing conditions on the mechanical properties and microstructures of the geopolymers. The best curing condition was 60 °C for 168 h, and this alkali activated metakaolin-based geopolymer showed the highest compression strength at 52.26 MPa. In addition, hollow micro-sphere glass beads were mixed with metakaolin particles to improve the thermal insulation properties of the alkali activated metakaolin-based geopolymer. These results suggest that a suitable volume ratio of metakaolin to hollow micro-sphere glass beads in alkali activated metakaolin-based geopolymers was 6:1, which achieved a thermal conductivity of 0.37 W/mK and compressive strength of 50 MPa. By adjusting to a milder curing condition, as-prepared alkali activated metakaolin-based geopolymers could find widespread applications in concrete thermal protection.

  6. Preparation and Properties of Alkali Activated Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effective activation and utilization of metakaolin as an alkali activated geopolymer precursor and its use in concrete surface protection is of great interest. In this paper, the formula of alkali activated metakaolin-based geopolymers was studied using an orthogonal experimental design. It was found that the optimal geopolymer was prepared with metakaolin, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate and water, with the molar ratio of SiO2:Al2O3:Na2O:NaOH:H2O being 3.4:1.1:0.5:1.0:11.8. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR were adopted to investigate the influence of curing conditions on the mechanical properties and microstructures of the geopolymers. The best curing condition was 60 °C for 168 h, and this alkali activated metakaolin-based geopolymer showed the highest compression strength at 52.26 MPa. In addition, hollow micro-sphere glass beads were mixed with metakaolin particles to improve the thermal insulation properties of the alkali activated metakaolin-based geopolymer. These results suggest that a suitable volume ratio of metakaolin to hollow micro-sphere glass beads in alkali activated metakaolin-based geopolymers was 6:1, which achieved a thermal conductivity of 0.37 W/mK and compressive strength of 50 MPa. By adjusting to a milder curing condition, as-prepared alkali activated metakaolin-based geopolymers could find widespread applications in concrete thermal protection.

  7. Two-phase alkali-metal experiments in reduced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1986-06-01

    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. A literature search of relevant experiments in reduced gravity is reported on here, and reveals a paucity of data for such correlations. The few ongoing experiments in reduced gravity are noted. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. A similar situation exists regarding two-phase alkali-metal flow and heat transfer, even in normal gravity. Existing data are conflicting and indequate for the task of modeling a space reactor using a two-phase alkali-metal coolant. The major features of past experiments are described here. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from the two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Analyses undertaken here give every expectation that the correlations developed from this data base will provide a valid representation of alkali-metal heat transfer and pressure drop in reduced gravity

  8. Alkali-slag cements for the immobilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, C.; Day, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Alkali-slag cements consist of glassy slag and an alkaline activator and can show both higher early and later strengths than Type III Portland cement, if a proper alkaline activator is used. An examination of microstructure of hardened alkali-slag cement pastes with the help of XRD and SEM with EDAX shows that the main hydration product is C-S-H (B) with low C/S ratio and no crystalline substances exist such as Ca(OH) 2 , Al (OH) 3 and sulphoaluminates. Mercury intrusion tests indicate that hardened alkali-slag cement pastes have a lower porosity than ordinary Portland cement, and contain mainly gel pores. The fine pore structure of hardened alkali-slag cement pastes will restrict the ingress of deleterious substances and the leaching of harmful species such as radionuclides. The leachability of Cs + from hardened alkali-slag cement pastes is only half of that from hardened Portland cement. From all these aspects, it is concluded that alkali-slag cements are a better solidification matrix than Portland cement for radioactive wastes

  9. The influence of alkali promoters on coadsorbed molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, E.

    1986-01-01

    A model has been suggested recently based on the results of an extensive study of the coadsorbate system CO + K on Ru(001). It is introduced and discussed in this article based on previous results and on results obtained very recently for a similar coadsorbate system, CO + K/Ni(111). This model is in competition with a variety of differing or similar ideas and interpretations which are mostly based on similar experimental results. Some of these other models postulate a lying-down, or strongly tilted, molecule in the presence of alkali atoms, at least at low coverages. The CO molecule is usually considered to be attached to the substrate and to be closely coadsorbed to the alkali neighbor(s) but sometimes even a vertical or horizontal adsorption on top of the alkali layer has been suggested. The interaction between alkali and CO has been described as indirect via the substrate or direct by forming a ''π''-bond between adjacent alkalis and CO molecules or even by forming an ionic K/sub x/-CO/sub y/ complex. Some authors prefer a model in which the main (or exclusive) interaction comes from a charge transfer from the donating alkali into the 2π orbital of the coadsorbed CO, thus, enhancing the C- metal and reducing the C-O bond strength

  10. Vibrations of alkali metal overlayers on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusina, G G; Eremeev, S V; Borisova, S D; Echenique, P M; Chulkov, E V; Benedek, G

    2008-01-01

    We review the current progress in the understanding of vibrations of alkalis adsorbed on metal surfaces. The analysis of alkali vibrations was made on the basis of available theoretical and experimental results. We also include in this discussion our recent calculations of vibrations in K/Pt(111) and Li(Na)/Cu(001) systems. The dependence of alkali adlayer localized modes on atomic mass, adsorption position and coverage as well as the dependence of vertical vibration frequency on the substrate orientation is discussed. The square root of atomic mass dependence of the vertical vibration energy has been confirmed by using computational data for alkalis on the Al(111) and Cu(001) substrates. We have confirmed that in a wide range of submonolayer coverages the stretch mode energy remains nearly constant while the energy of in-plane polarized modes increases with the increase of alkali coverage. It was shown that the spectrum of both stretch and in-plane vibrations can be very sensitive to the adsorption position of alkali atoms and substrate orientation

  11. Ionic interactions in alkali-aluminium tetrafluoride clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Cicek, Z.; Karaman, A.; Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1999-08-01

    Complex anion structures ((AlF 4 ) - , (AlF 5 ) 2- and (AlF 6 ) 3- ) coexist in liquid mixtures of aluminium trifluoride and alkali fluorides in composition-dependent relative concentrations and are known to interact with the alkali counterions. We present a comparative study of the static and vibrational structures of MAlF 4 molecules (with M = any alkali), with the aim of developing and testing a refined model of the ionic interactions for applications to the Al-M fluoride mixtures. We find that, whereas an edge-bridged coordination is strongly favoured for Li in LiAIF 4 , edge-bridging and face-bridging of the alkali ion become energetically equivalent as one moves from Na to the heavier alkalis. This result is sensitive to the inclusion of alkali polarizability and may be interpreted as implying (for M = K, Rb or Cs) almost free relative rotations of the M + and (AlF 4 ) - partners at temperatures of relevance to experiment. The consistency of such a viewpoint with electron diffraction data on vapours and with Raman spectra on melts is discussed. (author)

  12. Reactive Uptake of Dimethylamine by Ammonium Sulfate and Ammonium Sulfate-Sucrose Mixed Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yangxi; Chan, Chak K

    2017-01-12

    Short-chain alkyl amines can undergo gas-to-particle partitioning via reactive uptake by ammonium salts, whose phases have been thought to largely influence the extent of amine uptake. Previous studies mainly focused on particles of single ammonium salt at either dry or wet conditions without any addition of organic compounds. Here we report the uptake of dimethylamine (DMA) by ammonium sulfate (AS) and AS-sucrose mixed particles at different relative humidities (RHs) using an electrodynamic balance coupled with in situ Raman spectroscopy. DMA is selected as a representative of short-chain alkyl amines, and sucrose is used as a surrogate of viscous and hydrophilic organics. Effective DMA uptake was observed for most cases, except for the water-limiting scenario at <5% RH and the formation of an ultraviscous sucrose coating at 10% RH and below. DMA uptake coefficients (γ) were estimated using the particle mass measurements during DMA uptake. Addition of sucrose can increase γ by absorbing water or inhibiting AS crystallization and decrease γ by elevating the particle viscosity and forming a coating layer. DMA uptake can be facilitated for crystalline AS or retarded for aqueous AS with hydrophilic viscous organics (e.g., secondary organic material formed via the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds) present in aerosol particles.

  13. Collaborative research. Study of aerosol sources and processing at the GVAX Pantnagar Supersite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsnop, Doug [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Volkamer, Rainer [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-08-13

    during TCAP, and conducted laboratory experiments to quantify for the first time the Setschenow salting constant, KS, of glyoxal in sulfate aerosols. Knowledge about KS is prerequisite to predict how increasing sulfate concentrations since pre-industrial times have modified the formation of SOA from biogenic gases in atmospheric models.

  14. Formation of secondary aerosols: impact of the gas-phase chemical mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Sartelet, K.; Seigneur, C.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of two recent gas-phase chemical kinetic mechanisms (CB05 and RACM2) on the formation of secondary inorganic and organic aerosols is compared for simulations of PM2.5 over Europe between 15 July and 15 August 2001. The host chemistry transport model is Polair3D of the Polyphemus air-quality platform. Particulate matter is modeled with SIREAM, which is coupled to the thermodynamic model ISORROPIA and to the secondary organic aerosol module MAEC. Model performance is satisfactory with both mechanisms for speciated PM2.5. The monthly-mean difference of the concentration of PM2.5 is less than 1 μg/m3 (6%) over the entire domain. Secondary chemical components of PM2.5 include sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organic aerosols, and the chemical composition of PM2.5 is not significantly different between the two mechanisms. Monthly-mean concentrations of inorganic aerosol are higher with RACM2 than with CB05 (+16% for sulfate, +11% for nitrate, and +12% for ammonium), whereas the concentrations of organic aerosols are slightly higher with CB05 than with RACM2 (+26% for anthropogenic SOA and +1% for biogenic SOA). Differences in the inorganic and organic aerosols result primarily from differences in oxidant concentrations (OH, O3 and NO3). Nitrate formation tends to be HNO3-limited over land and differences in the concentrations of nitrate are due to differences in concentration of HNO3. Differences in aerosols formed from aromatics SVOC are due to different aromatics oxidation between CB05 and RACM2. The aromatics oxidation in CB05 leads to more cresol formation, which then leads to more SOA. Differences in the aromatics aerosols would be significantly reduced with the recent CB05-TU mechanism for toluene oxidation. Differences in the biogenic aerosols are due to different oxidant concentrations (monoterpenes) and different particulate organic mass concentrations affecting the gas-particle partitioning of SOA (isoprene).

  15. Alkali and heavy metal emissions of the PCFB-process; Alkali- ja raskasmetallipaeaestoet PCFB-prosessista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, R.; Eriksson, T.; Lehtonen, P. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology has been developed in Karhula R and D Center since 1986. As part of the development, 10 MW PCFB test facility was built in 1989. The test facility has been used for performance testing with different coal types through the years 1990-1995 in order to gain data for design and commercialization of the high-efficiency low-emission PCFB combustion technology. The main object of the project was to measure vapor phase Na and K concentrations in the PCFB flue gas after hot gas filter and investigate the effects of process conditions and sorbents on alkali release. The measurements were performed using plasma assisted method of TUT Laboratory of Plasma Technology and wet absorption method of VTT Energy. The measurements were carried out during three test campaigns at PCFB Test Facility in Karhula. In autumn 1995 both VTT and TUT methods were used. The measurements of the following test period in spring 1996 were performed by VTT, and during the last test segment in autumn 1996 TUT method was in use. During the last test period, the TUT instrument was used as semi-continuous (3 values/minute) alkali analyzer for part of the time. The measured Na concentrations were below 30 ppb(w) in all measured data points. The results of K were below 10 ppb(w). The accuracies of the both methods are about +50 % at this concentration range. The scatter of the data covers the effects of different process variables on the alkali emission. The measured emissions are at the same order of magnitude as the guideline emission limits estimated by gas turbine manufacturers

  16. In Situ Aerosol Profile Measurements and Comparisons with SAGE 3 Aerosol Extinction and Surface Area Profiles at 68 deg North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Under funding from this proposal three in situ profile measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosol and ozone were completed from balloon-borne platforms. The measured quantities are aerosol size resolved number concentration and ozone. The one derived product is aerosol size distribution, from which aerosol moments, such as surface area, volume, and extinction can be calculated for comparison with SAGE III measurements and SAGE III derived products, such as surface area. The analysis of these profiles and comparison with SAGE III extinction measurements and SAGE III derived surface areas are provided in Yongxiao (2005), which comprised the research thesis component of Mr. Jian Yongxiao's M.S. degree in Atmospheric Science at the University of Wyoming. In addition analysis continues on using principal component analysis (PCA) to derive aerosol surface area from the 9 wavelength extinction measurements available from SAGE III. Ths paper will present PCA components to calculate surface area from SAGE III measurements and compare these derived surface areas with those available directly from in situ size distribution measurements, as well as surface areas which would be derived from PCA and Thomason's algorithm applied to the four wavelength SAGE II extinction measurements.

  17. Relation between the electroforming voltage in alkali halide-polymer diodes and the bandgap of the alkali halide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jingxin; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Gomes, Henrique L.; De Leeuw, Dago M.

    2014-01-01

    Electroforming of indium-tin-oxide/alkali halide/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes has been investigated by bias dependent reflectivity measurements. The threshold voltages for electrocoloration and electroforming are independent of layer thickness and correlate with the bandgap of the alkali halide. We argue that the origin is voltage induced defect formation. Frenkel defect pairs are formed by electron–hole recombination in the alkali halide. This self-accelerating process mitigates injection barriers. The dynamic junction formation is compared to that of a light emitting electrochemical cell. A critical defect density for electroforming is 10 25 /m 3 . The electroformed alkali halide layer can be considered as a highly doped semiconductor with metallic transport characteristics

  18. Aerosol Observability and Predictability: From Research to Operations for Chemical Weather Forecasting. Lagrangian Displacement Ensembles for Aerosol Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    A challenge common to many constituent data assimilation applications is the fact that one observes a much smaller fraction of the phase space that one wishes to estimate. For example, remotely sensed estimates of the column average concentrations are available, while one is faced with the problem of estimating 3D concentrations for initializing a prognostic model. This problem is exacerbated in the case of aerosols because the observable Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is not only a column integrated quantity, but it also sums over a large number of species (dust, sea-salt, carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. An aerosol transport model when driven by high-resolution, state-of-the-art analysis of meteorological fields and realistic emissions can produce skillful forecasts even when no aerosol data is assimilated. The main task of aerosol data assimilation is to address the bias arising from inaccurate emissions, and Lagrangian misplacement of plumes induced by errors in the driving meteorological fields. As long as one decouples the meteorological and aerosol assimilation as we do here, the classic baroclinic growth of error is no longer the main order of business. We will describe an aerosol data assimilation scheme in which the analysis update step is conducted in observation space, using an adaptive maximum-likelihood scheme for estimating background errors in AOD space. This scheme includes e explicit sequential bias estimation as in Dee and da Silva. Unlikely existing aerosol data assimilation schemes we do not obtain analysis increments of the 3D concentrations by scaling the background profiles. Instead we explore the Lagrangian characteristics of the problem for generating local displacement ensembles. These high-resolution state-dependent ensembles are then used to parameterize the background errors and generate 3D aerosol increments. The algorithm has computational complexity running at a resolution of 1/4 degree, globally. We will present the result of

  19. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  20. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  1. Investigating organic aerosol loading in the remote marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lapina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol loading in the marine environment is investigated using aerosol composition measurements from several research ship campaigns (ICEALOT, MAP, RHaMBLe, VOCALS and OOMPH, observations of total AOD column from satellite (MODIS and ship-based instruments (Maritime Aerosol Network, MAN, and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. This work represents the most comprehensive evaluation of oceanic OM emission inventories to date, by employing aerosol composition measurements obtained from campaigns with wide spatial and temporal coverage. The model underestimates AOD over the remote ocean on average by 0.02 (21 %, compared to satellite observations, but provides an unbiased simulation of ground-based Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN observations. Comparison with cruise data demonstrates that the GEOS-Chem simulation of marine sulfate, with the mean observed values ranging between 0.22 μg m−3 and 1.34 μg m−3, is generally unbiased, however surface organic matter (OM concentrations, with the mean observed concentrations between 0.07 μg m−3 and 0.77 μg m−3, are underestimated by a factor of 2–5 for the standard model run. Addition of a sub-micron marine OM source of approximately 9 TgC yr−1 brings the model into agreement with the ship-based measurements, however this additional OM source does not explain the model underestimate of marine AOD. The model underestimate of marine AOD is therefore likely the result of a combination of satellite retrieval bias and a missing marine aerosol source (which exhibits a different spatial pattern than existing aerosol in the model.

  2. Small molecules as tracers in atmospheric secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), formed from in-air oxidation of volatile organic compounds, greatly affects human health and climate. Although substantial research has been devoted to SOA formation and evolution, the modeled and lab-generated SOA are still low in mass and degree of oxidation compared to ambient measurements. In order to compensate for these discrepancies, the aqueous processing pathway has been brought to attention. The atmospheric waters serve as aqueous reaction media for dissolved organics to undergo further oxidation, oligomerization, or other functionalization reactions, which decreases the vapor pressure while increasing the oxidation state of carbon atoms. Field evidence for aqueous processing requires the identification of tracer products such as organosulfates. We synthesized the standards for two organosulfates, glycolic acid sulfate and lactic acid sulfate, in order to measure their aerosol-state concentration from five distinct locations via filter samples. The water-extracted filter samples were analyzed by LC-MS. Lactic acid sulfate and glycolic acid sulfate were detected in urban locations in the United States, Mexico City, and Pakistan with varied concentrations, indicating their potential as tracers. We studied the aqueous processing reaction between glyoxal and nitrogen-containing species such as ammonium and amines exclusively by NMR spectrometry. The reaction products formic acid and several imidazoles along with the quantified kinetics were reported. The brown carbon generated from these reactions were quantified optically by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The organic-phase reaction between oxygen molecule and alkenes photosensitized by alpha-dicarbonyls were studied in the same manner. We observed the fast kinetics transferring alkenes to epoxides under simulated sunlight. Statistical estimations indicate a very effective conversion of aerosol-phase alkenes to epoxides, potentially forming organosulfates in a deliquescence event and

  3. Efficient destruction of CF4 through in situ generation of alkali metals from heated alkali halide reducing mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Churl; Choi, Wonyong

    2002-03-15

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are the most potent green house gases that are very recalcitrant at destruction. An effective way of converting PFCs using hot solid reagents into safe products has been recently introduced. By investigating the thermal reductive destruction of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) we provided new insight and more physicochemical consideration on this novel process. The complete destruction of CF4was successfully achieved by flowing the gas through a heated reagent bed (400-950 degrees C) that contained powder mixtures of alkali halides, CaO, and Si. The silicon acted as a reducing agent of alkali halides for the in-situ production of alkali metals, and the calcium oxide played the role of a halide ion acceptor. The absence of any single component in this ternary mixture drastically reduced the destruction efficiency of CF4. The CF4 destruction efficiencies with the solid reagent containing the alkali halide, MX, increased in the order of Li approximately Na < K < Cs for alkali cations and I < Br < Cl < F for halide anions. This trend agreed with the endothermicity of the alkali metal generation reaction: the higher the endothermicity, the lower the destruction efficiency. Alkali metal generation was indirectly detected by monitoring H2 production from its reaction with water. The production of alkali metals increased with NaF, KF, and CsF in this order. The CsF/CaO/Si system exhibited the complete destruction of CF4 at as low as 600 degrees C. The solid product analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of CaF2 and the depletion of Si with black carbon particles formed in the solid reagent residue. No CO/CO2 and toxic HF and SiF4 formation were detected in the exhaust gas.

  4. Elastic modulus of the alkali-silica reaction rim in a simplified calcium-alkali-silicate system determined by nano-indentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Kunpeng; Lukovic, M.; De Schutter, Geert; Ye, G.; Taerwe, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at providing a better understanding of the mechanical properties of the reaction rim in the alkali-silica reaction. The elastic modulus of the calcium alkali silicate constituting the reaction rim, which is formed at the interface between alkali silicate and Ca(OH)2 in a

  5. A multi-model evaluation of aerosols over South Asia: common problems and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X.; Chin, M.; Gautam, R.; Bian, H.; Kim, D.; Colarco, P. R.; Diehl, T. L.; Takemura, T.; Pozzoli, L.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric pollution over South Asia attracts special attention due to its effects on regional climate, water cycle and human health. These effects are potentially growing owing to rising trends of anthropogenic aerosol emissions. In this study, the spatio-temporal aerosol distributions over South Asia from seven global aerosol models are evaluated against aerosol retrievals from NASA satellite sensors and ground-based measurements for the period of 2000-2007. Overall, substantial underestimations of aerosol loading over South Asia are found systematically in most model simulations. Averaged over the entire South Asia, the annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is underestimated by a range 15 to 44% across models compared to MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer), which is the lowest bound among various satellite AOD retrievals (from MISR, SeaWiFS (Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra). In particular during the post-monsoon and wintertime periods (i.e., October-January), when agricultural waste burning and anthropogenic emissions dominate, models fail to capture AOD and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) compared to ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer measurements. The underestimations of aerosol loading in models generally occur in the lower troposphere (below 2 km) based on the comparisons of aerosol extinction profiles calculated by the models with those from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data. Furthermore, surface concentrations of all aerosol components (sulfate, nitrate, organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) from the models are found much lower than in situ measurements in winter. Several possible causes for these common problems of underestimating aerosols in models during the post-monsoon and wintertime periods are identified: the aerosol hygroscopic growth and formation of

  6. Compact SAW aerosol generator

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, A.; Harazim, S.; Collins, D.J.; Br?nig, R.; Schmidt, H.; Menzel, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we discuss and demonstrate the principle features of surface acoustic wave (SAW) aerosol generation, based on the properties of the fluid supply, the acoustic wave field and the acoustowetting phenomena. Furthermore, we demonstrate a compact SAW-based aerosol generator amenable to mass production fabricated using simple techniques including photolithography, computerized numerical control (CNC) milling and printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing. Using this device, we present ...

  7. Emergency protection from aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-07-01

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved

  8. Structured alkali halides for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, B.; Fuchs, M.; Hell, E.; Knuepfer, W.; Hackenschmied, P.; Winnacker, A.

    2002-01-01

    Image plates based on storage phosphors are a major application of radiation defects in insulators. Storage phosphors absorb X-ray quanta creating trapped electron-hole pairs in the material. Optical stimulation of the electron causes recombination leading to light emission. Application of image plates requires an optimal compromise between resolution (represented by the modulation transfer function (MTF)) and sensitivity. In our paper we present a new solution of the problem of combining a high MTF with a high sensitivity by structuring the image plates in form of thin needles acting as light guides. This suppresses the lateral spread of light which is detrimental to resolution. As doped CsBr, e.g. CsBr:Ga [Physica Medica XV (1999) 301], can pose a good storage phosphor evaporated layers are of interest in computed radiography. Needle structured CsI:Tl is used as scintillator in direct radiography [IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45 (3) (1998)]. CsBr layers have been produced by evaporation in vacuum and in inert gas atmosphere varying pressure and temperature. The resulting structures are of fibrous or columnar nature being in good agreement with the zone model of Thornton [Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7 (1977) 239]. A zone model for CsBr has been developed. Measurements on doped alkali halide image plates having needle structure show good MTF at high sensitivity making a significant progress in image plate technology

  9. Fundamental study on alkali metal thermoelectric converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Toshihisa

    1989-01-01

    The alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) utilizing the sodium ion conducting β''-alumina is a device to convert heat energy to electric energy directly. In this paper, the results of theoretical and experimental studies on AMTEC power generating characteristics, internal electrical resistances of single cell, and system analysis of AMTEC power generating systems are reported. This paper consists of 5 chapters, which are summarized as follows: In chapter 1, a theoretical explanation of AMTEC, a brief survey of the research and development history of AMTEC and a purpose of this paper are reported. In chapter 2, the properties of β''-alumina, preparations of thin film electrodes, and special attention points to be paid in handling of β''-alumina and film electrodes are reported. The AMTEC power generating characteristics of the tubular cells are also reported. In chapter 3, the experimental results of the disk type cells and the theoretical considerations about internal resistances are reported. The causes of electrode erosion are also reported. In chapter 4, the system analysis on AMTEC steam-turbine combined cycle for a dispersed power station and AMTEC power system for a aerospace power are reported. Chapter 5 summarizes major results achieved in the preceding four chapters as a concluding remark. (J.P.N.) 62 refs

  10. Quantifying the risks of solid aerosol geoengineering: the role of fundamental material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Keutsch, F. N.; Keith, D.

    2017-12-01

    Solid aerosols have been considered as an alternative to sulfate aerosols for solar geoengineering due to their optical and chemical properties, which lead to different and possibly more attractive risk profiles. Solid aerosols can achieve higher solar scattering efficiency due to their higher refractive index, and in some cases may also be less effective absorbers of thermal infrared radiation. The optical properties of solid aerosols are however sensitive functions of the detailed physical properties of solid materials in question. The relevant details include the exact crystalline structure of the aerosols, the physical size of the particles, and interactions with background stratospheric molecular and particulate constituents. In this work, we examine the impact of these detailed physical properties on the radiative properties of calcite (CaCO3) solid aerosols. We examine how crystal morphology, size, chemical reactions, and interaction with background stratospheric aerosol may alter the scattering and absorption properties of calcite aerosols for solar and thermal infrared radiation. For example, in small particles, crystal lattice vibrations associated with the particle surface may lead to substantially different infrared absorption properties than bulk materials. We examine the wavelength dependence of absorption by the particles, which may lead to altered patterns of stratospheric radiative heating and equilibrium temperatures. Such temperature changes can lead to dynamical changes, with consequences for both stratospheric composition and tropospheric climate. We identify important uncertainties in the current state of understanding, investigate risks associated with these uncertainties, and survey potential approaches to quantitatively improving our knowledge of the relevant material properties.

  11. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 – Part 1: Land transport and shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Righi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications, we simulate the impact of land transport and shipping emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Future emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare the resulting 2030 land-transport- and shipping-induced aerosol concentrations to the ones obtained for the year 2000 in a previous study with the same model configuration. The simulations suggest that black carbon and aerosol nitrate are the most relevant pollutants from land transport in 2000 and 2030 and their impacts are characterized by very strong regional variations during this time period. Europe and North America experience a decrease in the land-transport-induced particle pollution, although in these regions this sector remains a major source of surface-level pollution in 2030 under all RCPs. In Southeast Asia, however, a significant increase is simulated, but in this region the surface-level pollution is still controlled by other sources than land transport. Shipping-induced air pollution is mostly due to aerosol sulfate and nitrate, which show opposite trends towards 2030. Sulfate is strongly reduced as a consequence of sulfur reduction policies in ship fuels in force since 2010, while nitrate tends to increase due to the excess of ammonia following the reduction in ammonium sulfate. The aerosol-induced climate impact of both sectors is dominated by aerosol-cloud effects and is projected to decrease between 2000 and 2030, nevertheless still contributing a significant radiative forcing to Earth's radiation budget.

  12. On-chip fabrication of alkali-metal vapor cells utilizing an alkali-metal source tablet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, K; Hirai, Y; Sugano, K; Tsuchiya, T; Tabata, O; Ban, K; Mizutani, N

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel on-chip microfabrication technique for the alkali-metal vapor cell of an optically pumped atomic magnetometer (OPAM), utilizing an alkali-metal source tablet (AMST). The newly proposed AMST is a millimeter-sized piece of porous alumina whose considerable surface area holds deposited alkali-metal chloride (KCl) and barium azide (BaN 6 ), source materials that effectively produce alkali-metal vapor at less than 400 °C. Our experiments indicated that the most effective pore size of the AMST is between 60 and 170 µm. The thickness of an insulating glass spacer holding the AMST was designed to confine generated alkali metal to the interior of the vapor cell during its production, and an integrated silicon heater was designed to seal the device using a glass frit, melted at an optimum temperature range of 460–490 °C that was determined by finite element method thermal simulation. The proposed design and AMST were used to successfully fabricate a K cell that was then operated as an OPAM with a measured sensitivity of 50 pT. These results demonstrate that the proposed concept for on-chip microfabrication of alkali-metal vapor cells may lead to effective replacement of conventional glassworking approaches. (paper)

  13. Light absorption by pollution, dust, and biomass burning aerosols: a global model study and evaluation with AERONET measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Chin

    2009-09-01</