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Sample records for alkali silicate glasses

  1. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  2. Electrical conduction and glass relaxation in alkali- silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul William

    Electrical response measurements from 1 Hz to 1 MHz between 50o and 540oC were made on potassium, sodium and lithium-silicate glasses with low alkali oxide contents. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and air quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Quenching was found to lower the dc conductivity, σdc, and activation energy as well as increase the pre-exponential term when compared to the corresponding annealed glass of the same composition. All of the glasses exhibited Arrhenius behavior in the log σdc against 1/T plots. A sharp decrease in σdc was observed for glasses containing alkali concentrations of 7 mol% or less. The σdc activation energy exhibited similar behavior when plotted as a function of alkali composition and was explained in terms of a mixture of the weak and strong electrolyte models. The depression angle for fits to the complex impedance data were also measured as a function of thermal history, alkali concentration and alkali species. These results were interpreted in terms of changes in the distribution of relaxation times. Annealed samples from a single melt of a 10 mol% K2O-90SiO2 glass were reheated to temperatures ranging from 450o to 800oC, held isothermally for 20 min, and then quenched in either air or silicon oil. The complex impedance of both an annealed and the quenched samples were then measured as a function of temperature from 120o to 250oC. The σdc was found to be remain unaffected by heat treatments below 450oC, to increase rapidly over an approximate 200oC range of temperatures that was dependent on cooling rate and to be constant for heat treatments above this range. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the mean structural relaxation time as a function of temperature and cooling rate near the glass transition temperature and glass transformation ranges. A more detailed definition for the transition and transformation temperatures and ranges was also provided.

  3. Thermal history effects on electrical relaxation and conductivity for potassium silicate glass with low alkali concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.; Cooper, Alfred R.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical response measurements from 10 Hz to 100 kHz between 120 and 540 C were made on potassium-silicate glasses with alkali oxide contents of 2, 3, 5 and 10 mol percent. Low alkali content glasses were chosen in order to try to reduce the Coulombic interactions between alkali ions to the point that frozen structural effects from the glass could be observed. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Lower DC conductivity (sigma(sub DC)) activation energies were measured for the quenched compared to the annealed glasses. The two glasses with the lowest alkali contents exhibited a non-Arrhenius concave up curvature in the log(sigma(sub DC)) against 1/T plots, which decreased upon quenching. A sharp decrease in sigma(sub DC) was observed for glasses containing K2O concentrations of 5 mol percent or less. The log modulus loss peak (M'') maximum frequency plots against 1/T all showed Arrhenius behavior for both annealed and quenched samples. The activation energies for these plots closely agreed with the sigma(sub DC) activation energies. A sharp increase in activation energy was observed for both series as the potassium oxide concentration decreased. Changes in the electrical response are attributed to structural effects due to different alkali concentrations. Differences between the annealed and quenched response are linked to a change in the distribution of activation energies (DAE).

  4. Structural analysis of alkali cations in mixed alkali silicate glasses by 23Na and 133Cs MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Minami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium silicate glasses by using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. In the NMR spectra of cesium silicate crystals, the peak position shifted to higher magnetic field for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers and to lower magnetic field for smaller Cs+ coordination numbers. The MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.33, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.0; x + y = 1 glass reveal that the average coordination number of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. In addition, the coordination number of Na+ in xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 glass is smaller than that of Cs+. This difference between the average coordination numbers of the alkali cations is considered to be one structural reason of the mixed alkali effect.

  5. Decay curve analysis of alkali-silicate glass exposed to electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Gedeon, O

    2002-01-01

    Binary and ternary potassium, rubidium and caesium glasses were irradiated by an electron beam with energy varying from 10 to 50 keV. Alkali ion x-ray decays were recorded and afterward incubation periods were determined. The incubation period versus electron energy curves revealed thresholds, which are typical for each alkali species. The threshold ratios are proportional to the mass of the alkali species, consistent with the suggested elastic scattering assisted hopping mechanism. (author)

  6. Formation of alkali-metal nanoparticles in alkali-silicate glasses under electron irradiation and thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkareva, E. S.; Sidorov, A. I.; Ignat'ev, A. I.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Podsvirov, O. A.

    2017-02-01

    Experiments and numerical simulation show that the irradiation of alkali-containing glasses using electrons at an energy of 35 keV and the subsequent thermal processing at a temperature above the vitrification point lead to the formation of spherical metal (lithium, sodium, and potassium) nanoparticles with oxide sheaths that exhibit plasmon resonances in the visible spectral range. Glasses containing two alkali metals exhibit mutual effect of metals on the formation of nanoparticles with two compositions due to the difference of ion radii and mobilities of metal ions.

  7. On the origin of the mixed alkali effect on indentation in silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, J. C.;

    2014-01-01

    The compositional scaling of Vickers hardness (Hv) in mixed alkali oxide glasses manifests itself as a positive deviation from linearity as a function of the network modifier/modifier ratio, with a maximum deviation at the ratio of 1:1. In this work, we investigate the link between the indentation...

  8. Study of temperature effects on the conduction and trapping of charges in the alkali-silicate glass under electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhfakh, S., E-mail: slimfakhfakh@yahoo.fr [LaMaCop, Faculte des sciences de SFAX, Route Soukra Km 3, BP 1171, C.P. 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Elsafi, B., E-mail: bassem.elsafi@yahoo.fr [LaMaCop, Faculte des sciences de SFAX, Route Soukra Km 3, BP 1171, C.P. 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Fakhfakh, Z. [LaMaCop, Faculte des sciences de SFAX, Route Soukra Km 3, BP 1171, C.P. 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Jbara, O. [GRESPI/Materiaux Fonctionnels, UFR Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2012-01-15

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is employed to investigate the temperature effect on the charging behaviour of alkali-silicate glasses under electron beam irradiation using electrostatic influence method (EIM). A modified special arrangement adapted to the SEM allows to study charging mechanisms and charge transport characteristics of these glasses using the simultaneous measurement of displacement and leakage currents. The trapping process during continuous electron irradiation can be directly determined by the EIM. The experimental results reveal that the charging ability of glasses decreases with increasing temperature. The variation of charge process has been confirmed by measuring the surface potential in response to the sample temperature. In this report, we introduce also the secondary electron emission (SEE) yield. It was found the strong dependence of the SEE yield on the temperature variation. The higher is the temperature and the lower is the SEE yield. The trapping ability is analyzed taking into account the regulation mechanisms involved under electron irradiation.

  9. Electron emission yield and charging process of alkali-silicate glass submitted to an electron beam under the varying temperature condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M., E-mail: Mohamed.Belhaj@onera.fr [ONERA - French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Tondu, T.; Inguimbert, V. [ONERA - French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Elsafi, B.; Fakhfakh, S. [LaMaCop, Faculte des Sciences de SFAX, Route Soukra Km 3, BP 1171, C.P 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Jbara, O., E-mail: omar.jbara@univ-reims.fr [GRESPI/Materiaux Fonctionnels, UFR Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2012-01-01

    The electron emission due to electron impact of alkali-silicate glasses is measured with a technique based on the use of a Kelvin probe (KP method) and a pulsed electron beam. The KP method, allows a clear discrimination between the external and internal effects of charging process. The effect of the incident charge fluence, incident charge fluency and the temperature on the yield curve is investigated. It was found that, at room temperature as well as at 80 Degree-Sign C, electron emission varies with charge fluence. The effects of the temperature on charging mechanisms and charge transport characteristics of alkali-silicate glasses where also studied using the measurement of displacement and leakage currents under continuous electron irradiation in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results clearly establish a correlation between charge carriers mobility and secondary electron emission yield. The enhancement of charge carrier mobility with increasing the temperature prevents the formation of a positive space charge (i.e. creation of positive ions and/or holes) that internally reduces the secondary electron (SE) emission. The higher is the temperature and the higher is the electron emission yield (EEY).

  10. Safety Evaluation of Alkali-free Alumina Silicate Glass%无碱铝硅酸盐钢化玻璃的安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永华; 祖成奎; 包亦望; 陈江; 万德田

    2011-01-01

    采用风冷法对无碱铝硅酸盐玻璃进行钢化处理,研究了钢化对玻璃抗弯强度、弹性模量、断裂韧性和硬度等力学性能的影响.介绍了平均强度、强度Weibull模数、损伤容限等安全性指标,提出了一种新的钢化玻璃安全性评价指标-安全因数,研究结果表明:经过钢化处理,玻璃的抗弯强度和断裂韧性明显增大,但是玻璃的弹性模量和硬度变化不大;安全因数综合考虑了玻璃脆性和强度的变化,更加准确地反映了钢化玻璃的安全性和可靠性.%Alkali-free aluminum silicate glass was treated by thermal tempering, and influences of tempering process on the mechanical properties including flexural strength, Young's modulus, fracture toughness and hardness were investigated. Effectiveness of safety index, including mean strength, Weibull modulo and damage tolerance were analyzed. As a kind of new safety evaluated index , safety factor was proposed. Research result shows that imply flexural strength and fracture toughness were markedly improved but Young's modulus and hardness were changed little after tempering. Safety factor based on brittleness and strength preferable determined safety and reliability of tempered glass.

  11. Effects of ionization on silicate glasses. [Silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primak, W.

    1982-02-01

    This evaluation of radiation effects in silicate glasses caused by ionization is based on our own investigations, on material collected in our files (reports, articles, and notes), and on a computer literature search through recent issues of Physics Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts (and the apparently pertinent references which appeared). Some of our recent results, available heretofore only in internal correspondence, are presented in some detail. It is concluded that research into the behavior of silicate glasses generally will be required before the specific effects in the radioactive waste storage glasses can be properly understood and evaluated. Two particular neglected areas of investigation are targeted for immediate concern: a kinetic analysis of annealing data and the acquisition of data on effects of irradiation at controlled elevated temperatures.

  12. Local structure of alkalis in mixed-alkali borate glass to elucidate the origin of mixed-alkali effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomei Tokuda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium borate crystals and glasses using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. The composition dependence of NMR spectra of the borate was similar to that of the silicate: (1 the peak position of cesium borate crystals shifted to upfield for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers, (2 the MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-3B2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, x + y = 1 glass showed that the average coordination number (CN of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. However, the degree of decrement in borates is much smaller than that in silicates. We have considered that the small difference in CN is due to 4-coordinated B, because it is electrically compensated by the alkali metal ions resulting in the restriction of having various coordinations of O to alkali metal.

  13. Cooling rate calculations for silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, D. P., III; Dyar, M. D.

    1986-03-01

    Series solution calculations of cooling rates are applied to a variety of samples with different thermal properties, including an analog of an Apollo 15 green glass and a hypothetical silicate melt. Cooling rates for the well-studied green glass and a generalized silicate melt are tabulated for different sample sizes, equilibration temperatures and quench media. Results suggest that cooling rates are heavily dependent on sample size and quench medium and are less dependent on values of physical properties. Thus cooling histories for glasses from planetary surfaces can be estimated on the basis of size distributions alone. In addition, the variation of cooling rate with sample size and quench medium can be used to control quench rate.

  14. INORGANIC PHOSPHORS IN GLASS BASED ON LEAD SILICATE GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aseev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We created and synthesized luminescent composite of the "phosphor in glass" type, based on the lead-silicate matrix and fine-dispersed powder of cerium-activated yttrium-aluminum garnet crystal. Lead-silicate system (40SiO2- 20PbO-(40-x PbF2-xAlF3, x = 0-25 was chosen as the glassy matrix. Initial glass was reduced to powder (frit for "phosphor in glass" composite with a particle size about 50 µm. Glass frit and powder of commercial YAG:Ce3+ phosphor were mixed in a ratio of 30 to 70 (wt %. Then this composite was pressed in a tablet and sintered on a quartz substrate at 823 К for 30 minutes. Thus, the plane parallel sheet for composite of the "phosphor in glass" was obtained with a diameter equal to 10 mm. For the purpose to reduce the loss of light in the presence of dispersion at a glass-phosphor boundary, optimization of glass mixture was done by adjusting the refractive index. X-ray phase and spectral-luminescent analysis of the derived composite were done. The results of these studies showed that there was no degradation of YAG: Ce powder during sintering. Dependence of luminescence intensity from temperature in the range from room temperature to 473 К was studied. It was shown, that with the phosphor in glass usage thermal quenching of luminescence was reduced in comparison with the silicone. The model of white LED was created with the "phosphor in glass" composite based on lead-silicate glasses with low temperature of vitrifying. The derived LED emits white light with a color temperature of 4370 K, and the luminous efficiency is equal to 58 lm/W. The developed luminescent composite based on the lead-silicate matrix can be used for the production of high-power white light LED.

  15. The structure of alkali silicate gel by total scattering methods

    KAUST Repository

    Benmore, C.J.

    2010-06-01

    The structure of the alkali silicate gel (ASR) collected from the galleries of Furnas Dam in Brazil was determined by a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy X-ray diffraction data. Since this method is relatively new to concrete structure analysis a detailed introduction on the PDF method is given for glassy SiO2. The bulk amorphous structure of the dam material is confirmed as no Bragg peaks are observed in the scattered intensity. The real space results show that the local structure of the amorphous material is similar to kanemite (KHSi2O5:3H2O) however the long range layer structure of the crystal is broken up in the amorphous state, so that ordering only persists of the length scale of a few polyhedra. The silicate layer structure is a much more disordered than predicted by molecular dynamics models. The X-ray results are consistent with the molecular dynamics model of Kirkpatrick et al. (2005) [1] which predicts that most of the water resides in pores within the amorphous network rather than in layers. The total scattering data provide a rigorous basis against which other models may also be tested. © 2010.

  16. Raman spectra and structure study of silicate glasses and their liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Jinglin; JIANG Guochang; CHEN Hui; XU Kuangdi

    2006-01-01

    Stress index of tetrahedron (SIT) was defined to describe the topological connectivities among various silicon-oxygen tetrahedra (SiOT) in anionic clusters of binary silicate crystals, glasses, and melts. It was found that the value of SIT was well correlated with the wavenumber of Raman active symmetric stretching vibration of non-bridging oxygen of SiOT. The spatial fractional dimension of hyperfine structure was introduced while comparative analysis was made with the value of SIT. It can be concluded that the concepts of SIT, vibrational wavenumber, and spatial fractional dimension were inherently and holographically correlated and exhibit isomorphic representations of complex structure of binary silicates.Experimental Raman spectra of binary silicates with different alkali cations were investigated. It was demonstrated that alkali cations have little effect on the vibrational wavenumber of symmetric stretching of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) of SiOT, but remarkably affect its Raman active optical cross section, as was consensus resulted from ab initio calculation. It can also be concluded that the spatial fractional dimension of binary silicate is predominantly determined by the hyperfine structure of the anionic clusters and little affected by alkali cations, although the species of anionic clusters and their distributions were originally assigned by the content of alkali oxides. And Raman optical activity extinct effect of isolated SiOT at high basicity should be considered while being applied to quantitatively analysis.

  17. Dependence of Hardness of Silicate Glasses on Composition and Thermal History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng

    composition on hardness of silicate glasses. E-glasses of different compositions are subjected to various degrees of annealing to obtain various fictive temperatures in the glasses. It is found that hardness decreases with the fictive temperature. Addition of Na2O to a SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O glass system causes......The prediction of hardness is possible for crystalline materials, but so far not possible for glasses. In this work, several important factors that should be used for predicting the hardness of glasses are discussed. To do so, we have studied the influences of thermal history and chemical...... a decrease in hardness. However, hardness cannot solely be determined from the degree of polymerisation of the glass network. It is also determined by the effect of ionic radius on hardness. However, this effect has opposite trend for alkali and alkaline earth ions. The hardness increases with ionic radius...

  18. Structure, biodegradation behavior and cytotoxicity of alkali-containing alkaline-earth phosphosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansal, Ishu; Reddy, AlluAmarnath [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Muñoz, Francisco [Ceramics and Glass Institute (CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Choi, Seong-Jun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae-Won [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Tulyaganov, Dilshat U. [Turin Polytechnic University in Tashkent, 100095 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Ferreira, José M.F., E-mail: jmf@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-11-01

    We report on the effect of sodium on the structure, chemical degradation and bioactivity of glasses in the CaO–MgO–SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–CaF{sub 2} system. The {sup 29}Si and {sup 31}P magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of melt-quenched glasses with varying Na{sub 2}O/MgO ratios exhibit a silicate glass network with the dominance of Q{sup 2}(Si) units and phosphorus mainly forming orthophosphate species. Sodium incorporation in the glasses did not induce a significant structural change in the silicate network, while it did influence the phosphate environment due to its lower ionic field strength in comparison with that of magnesium. The apatite forming ability of glasses has been investigated by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1 h and 7 days while their chemical degradation has been studied in Tris–HCl in accordance with ISO-10993-14. Increasing Na{sup +}/Mg{sup 2+} ratio caused a decrease in the chemical durability of glasses and in the apatite forming ability especially during initial steps of interaction between glass and SBF solution. The cellular responses were observed in vitro on bulk glass samples using mouse-derived pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line. The preliminary study suggested that the increasing alkali-concentration in glasses led to cytotoxicity in the cell culture medium. - Highlights: • Na{sup +} did not induce significant structural changes in chemical Si environment. • Sodium is more prone to affect the chemical environment around P. • Increasing Na{sup +}/Mg{sup 2+} ratios hinder bio-mineralization and chemical durability. • Alkali-containing glasses confer cyto-toxicity to the cell culture medium.

  19. Optical and crystallization studies of titanium dioxide doped sodium and potassium silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBatal, F. H.; Marzouk, M. A.; ElBatal, H. A.

    2016-10-01

    Combined optical and FTIR spectral analysis were used to investigate prepared invert two alkali silicate glasses (Na2O·SiO2sbnd K2O·SiO2) containing high titanium oxide content. Glass ceramic derivatives were prepared through thermal two step regime of the parent glasses and they were characterized by FTIR and X-ray diffraction measurements. Experimental optical spectra indicate the appearance of an additional UV band due to absorption of tetravalent titanium ions beside the UV bands due to trace ferric ions impurities. FT infrared absorption spectra reveal composite vibrational bands due to vibrational modes of both silicate groups and TiO4 or Sisbnd Osbnd Ti units. Such tetravalent groupings of titanium ions confirm the stability of such invert glasses containing as such two main glass forming oxides. FTIR spectra of the glass - ceramic derivatives show nearly the same IR vibrational modes as their parent glasses. X-ray diffraction analysis show the separation of crystalline sodium or potassium titanate phases beside a minor form of silica and the results confirm that TiO2 acts mainly as network forming units leading to the formation of crystalline titanate phases.

  20. Calorimetric signature of structural heterogeneity in a ternary silicate glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Yang, G.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the structural heterogeneity in a silicate glass by hyperquenching–annealing–calorimetry approach. The results show a striking phenomenon: two separated sub-Tg relaxation peaks appear on the calorimetric curve of the hyperquenched CaO–MgO–SiO2 glass, implying the existence of two d...

  1. Are the dynamics of silicate glasses and glass-forming liquids embedded in their elastic properties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    According to the elastic theory of the glass transition, the dynamics of glasses and glass-forming liquids are controlled by the evolution of shear modulus. In particular, the elastic shoving model expresses dynamics in terms of an activation energy required to shove aside the surrounding atoms, ...... of the silicate glass transition are governed by additional factors beyond the evolution of the shear modulus....

  2. The viscosity window of the silicate glass foam production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2017-01-01

    The production of silicate glass foam allows diverse resources and waste materials to be used in the production. Testing of such large palette of materials complicates and prolongs the optimisation process. Therefore, it is crucial to find a universal criterion for foaming silicate glass melts...... which can offer a practical starting point for the optimisation procedure. The melt viscosity might be the most important parameter for controlling the foaming process and the glass foam density. In this work, we attempt to define a viscosity range in which foaming of different glasses results...... in a maximum of foam expansion. The expansion maximum is obtained for different glasses (labware, E-glass, CRT panel, soda-lime-silica) by foaming with CaCO3 at isokom temperature and from literature data. In general, the viscosity window was found to be within 104–106 Pa s when foaming with MnO2 or metal...

  3. Nanoscale Charge Balancing Mechanism in Alkali Substituted Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate Gels

    CERN Document Server

    Özçelik, V Ongun

    2016-01-01

    Alkali-activated materials and related alternative cementitious systems are sustainable material technologies that have the potential to substantially lower CO$_2$ emissions associated with the construction industry. However, the impact of augmenting the chemical composition of the material on the main binder phase, calcium-silicate-hydrate gel, is far from understood, particularly since this binder phase is disordered at the nanoscale. Here, we reveal the presence of a charge balancing mechanism at the molecular level, which leads to stable structures when alkalis (i.e., Na or K) are incorporated into a calcium-silicate-hydrate gel, as modeled using crystalline 14{\\AA} tobermorite. These alkali containing charge balanced structures possess superior mechanical properties compared to their charge unbalanced counterparts. Our results, which are based on first-principles simulations using density functional theory, include the impact of charge balancing on the optimized geometries of the new model phases, format...

  4. Inorganic phosphors in lead-silicate glass for white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonorov, N. V.; Kolobkova, E. V.; Aseev, V. A.; Bibik, A. Yu.; Nekrasova, Ya. A.; Tuzova, Yu. V.; Novogran, A. I.

    2016-09-01

    Luminescent composites of the "phosphor-in-glass" type, based on a highly reflective lead-silicate matrix and fine-grained powders of YAG:Ce3+ and SiAlON:Eu2+ crystals, are developed and synthesized. Phosphor and glass powders are sintered at a temperature of 550°C to obtain phosphor samples for white LEDs. The composites are analyzed by X-ray diffraction and luminescence spectroscopy. The dependence of the light quantum yield on the SiAlON:Eu2+ content in the samples is investigated. A breadboard of a white LED is designed using a phosphor-in-glass composite based on lead-silicate glass with a low glasstransition temperature. The total emission spectra of a blue LED and glass-based composites are measured. The possibility of generating warm white light by choosing an appropriate composition is demonstrated.

  5. Durability of Silicate Glasses: An Historical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farges, Francois; /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur. /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Etcheverry, Marie-Pierre; /Marne la Vallee U.; Haddi, Amine; /Marne la Valle U.; Trocellier,; /Saclay; Curti, Enzo; /PSI, Villigen; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-01-02

    We present a short review of current theories of glass weathering, including glass dissolution, and hydrolysis of nuclear waste glasses, and leaching of historical glasses from an XAFS perspective. The results of various laboratory leaching experiments at different timescales (30 days to 12 years) are compared with results for historical glasses that were weathered by atmospheric gases and soil waters over 500 to 3000 years. Good agreement is found between laboratory experiments and slowly leached historical glasses, with a strong enrichment of metals at the water/gel interface. Depending on the nature of the transition elements originally dissolved in the melt, increasing elemental distributions are expected to increase with time for a given glass durability context.

  6. Raman signature modification induced by copper nanoparticles in silicate glass

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Composite materials formed by metal nanoclusters embedded in glasses/glazes have been produced for centuries (Roman hematinum and Renaissance alassonti, Coptic lustre-painted glass and Islamic lustre ceramics). Comparisons were drawn from Raman analyses of alkali borosilicate glasses coloured by copper as “blue” Cu2+ (peak absorption at 750 nm), as “colourless” Cu+, and as “opaque red” Cu0 (peak absorptions at ~420 and 570 nm). In particular, Raman analyses of copper-r...

  7. Low-frequency Raman scattering in alkali tellurite glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelos G Kalampounias

    2008-10-01

    Raman scattering has been employed to study the alkali-cation size dependence and the polarization characteristics of the low-frequency modes for the glass-forming tellurite mixtures, 0.1M2O–0.9TeO2 (M = Na, K, Rb and Cs). The analysis has shown that the Raman coupling coefficient alters by varying the type of the alkali cation. The addition of alkali modifier in the tellurite network leads to the conversion of the TeO4 units to TeO3 units with a varying number of non-bridging oxygen atoms. Emphasis has also been given to the lowfrequency modes and particular points related to the low-frequency Raman phenomenology are discussed in view of the experimental findings.

  8. Nd3+ Doped Silicate Glass Photonic Crystal Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lu-Yun; CHEN Dan-Ping; XIA Jin-An; WANG Chen; JIANG Xiong-Wei; ZHU Cong-Shan; QIU Jian-Rong

    2005-01-01

    @@ We report on the fabrication of two kinds of large core area Nd3+ doped silicate glass photonic crystal fibres, and demonstration of the fibre waveguiding properties. The measured minimum loss of one kind ofibres is 2.5 db/m at 660nm. The fibres sustain only a single mode at least over the wavelength range from 660nm to 980nm.

  9. Hardness and incipient plasticity in silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.;

    2014-01-01

    The scaling of Vickers hardness (Hv) in oxide glasses with varying network modifier/modifier ratio is manifested as either a positive or negative deviation from linearity with a maximum deviation at the ratio of about 1:1. In an earlier study [J. Kjeldsen et al., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 369,61(2013)......The scaling of Vickers hardness (Hv) in oxide glasses with varying network modifier/modifier ratio is manifested as either a positive or negative deviation from linearity with a maximum deviation at the ratio of about 1:1. In an earlier study [J. Kjeldsen et al., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 369...

  10. Thermal, mechanical and Raman studies on mixed alkali borotungstate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edukondalu, A. [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Sathe, Vasant [Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Rahman, Syed [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Siva Kumar, K., E-mail: siva193ou@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India)

    2014-04-01

    Mixed alkali borotungstate glasses with xLi{sub 2}O–(30−x)Na{sub 2}O–10WO{sub 3}–60B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 30) composition were prepared by melt quench technique. The amorphous phase of the prepared glass samples was conformed from their X-ray diffraction and SEM studies. Differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopic studies were employed to investigate the structure of all the prepared glasses. The elastic moduli and Debye temperature were calculated in terms of Makishima–Mackenzie model. Acting as complementary techniques, Raman measurement revealed that the network structure of the present glasses is mainly based on BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 4} units placed in different structural groups. Raman spectra confirms the presence of tungsten ions mainly as WO{sub 6} groups. In the present work, the mixed alkali effect (MAE) has been investigated in the above glass system through modulated DSC studies.

  11. A-thermal elastic behavior of silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Mohammed Kamel; Degioanni, Simon; Martinet, Christine; Le Brusq, Jacques; Champagnon, Bernard; Vouagner, Dominique

    2016-02-24

    Depending on the composition of silicate glasses, their elastic moduli can increase or decrease as function of the temperature. Studying the Brillouin frequency shift of these glasses versus temperature allows the a-thermal composition corresponding to an intermediate glass to be determined. In an intermediate glass, the elastic moduli are independent of the temperature over a large temperature range. For sodium alumino-silicate glasses, the a-thermal composition is close to the albite glass (NaAlSi3O8). The structural origin of this property is studied by in situ high temperature Raman scattering. The structure of the intermediate albite glass and of silica are compared at different temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C. When the temperature increases, it is shown that the high frequency shift of the main band at 440 cm(-1) in silica is a consequence of the cristobalite-like alpha-beta transformation of 6-membered rings. This effect is stronger in silica than bond elongation (anharmonic effects). As a consequence, the elastic moduli of silica increase as the temperature increases. In the albite glass, the substitution of 25% of Si(4+) ions by Al(3+) and Na(+) ions decreases the proportion of SiO2 6-membered rings responsible for the silica anomaly. The effects of the silica anomaly balance the anharmonicity in albite glass and give rise to an intermediate a-thermal glass. Different networks, formers or modifiers, can be added to produce different a-thermal glasses with useful mechanical or chemical properties.

  12. Concentration Quenching in Erbium Doped Bismuth Silicate Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shi-Xun; XU Tie-Feng; NIE Qiu-Hua; SHEN Xiang; WANG Xun-Si

    2006-01-01

    @@ Er2 O3-doped bismuth silicate glasses are prepared by the conventional melt-quenching method, and the Er3+ : 4 I13/2 → 4I15/2 fluorescence properties are studied for different Er3+ concentrations. Infrared spectra are measured to estimate the exact content of OH- groups in the samples. Based on the electric dipole-dipole interaction theory,the interaction parameter CEr,Er for the migration rate of Er3+ :4 I13/2 → 4 I13/2 in proposed glasses is calculated.

  13. MODIFICATION OF SURFACE LAYERS FOR SILICATE GLASSES BY ELECTRON IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Brunov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research results of silicate glass surface layers modification by the influence of electron beams with 5-50 keV energies and 20-50 mC/cm2 doses are presented. It is shown that during the glasses exposure to an electron beam with 20-50 keV electron energies, a gradient optical waveguide with increased refractive index on waveguide axis Δn = 0.01-0.04 is formed in the surface layer. Сhemical etching rate is increased in the exposed area by up to two times which is related to glass grid destruction. Depending on irradiation dose thin film or silver nanoparticles with the size less than 20nm are formed on the surface of the silver containing glasses for electron energies less than 10 keV. Silver films drawn on the surface of the glass are dissolved into the glass bulk for electron energies 20-50 keV and 20-50 mC/cm2 dose. Basic mechanisms causing these effects are: chemical bonds breaking of spatial glass grid by high energy electrons, formation of negative volume charge inside the glass and field migration of positive metal ions into the volume charge region. Achieved results can be used in photonics, integral optics and nanoplasmonics device fabrication.

  14. Structure and dynamics of iron doped and undoped silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cristiane N.; Meneses, Domingos D. S.; Echegut, Patrick; Lecomte, Emmanuel

    2010-03-01

    The optical properties of common silicate glass compositions are well known at room temperature. However, their radiative properties and structural evolution of these glasses with temperature are still largely unexplored. In this work we have measured the emissivity of a set of iron doped and undoped silicate and borosilicate glasses over an unprecedented temperature (up to 1700 K) and spectral range (40 -- 20000 cm-1). This was achieved by means of a home-made apparatus composed of a CO2 laser as the heat source, a black-body reference and two spectrometers. The optical functions were assessed using a dielectric function model [1], and the structure and dynamics of the glassy network, as well the absorption of iron species in different redox states were evidenced. We believe that these new data will help to understand the heat transfer in molten silicates. [4pt] [1] D. D. S. Meneses, G. Gruener, M. Malki, and P. Echegut, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 124 (2005)

  15. LUMINESCENT PROPERTIES OF SILICATE GLASSES WITH CERIUM IONS AND ANTIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Klykova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of an experimental study of luminescence excitation spectra and luminescence of silicate glasses containing cerium ions and antimony. The aim of this work was to study the features of the luminescence and the effect of UV irradiation and heat treatment on luminescence and the state of cerium ions and antimony in glass. We investigated glass system Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2-NaF-NaBr with additives CeO2 and Sb2O3. Synthesis was carried out in platinum crucibles in the air at 14500C. The samples were polished glass plates with a thickness of 0.5-1 mm. UV irradiation was carried out with a mercury lamp having a wide range of radiation in the spectral range 240-390 nm. It was conducted in a Nabertherm muffle furnaces. Luminescence spectra and excitation spectra were measured using a spectrofluorimeter MPF-44A (PerkinElmer at the room temperature. Measured luminescence spectra were corrected in view of the spectral sensitivity of the photodetector for spectrofluorimeter. Adjustment of the excitation spectra for the spectral dependence of the intensity of the excitation source was not carried out. During the experiments it was found that in silicate glasses Sb3+ ions can exist in two energy states, which corresponds to a different environment with oxygen ions. Heat treatment of these glasses in an oxidizing atmosphere leads to an increase in ion concentration of Sb3+ ions with a greater amount of oxygen in the environment. In glasses containing antimony and cerium ions, ultraviolet irradiation causes a change in the valence of cerium ions and antimony, which is accompanied by luminescence quenching. Subsequent heat treatment of glass leads to the inverse processes and restore luminescence excitation spectra. The study of fluorescent properties of silicate glasses with cerium and antimony ions led to the conclusion of the practical significance of this work. Promising multifunctional materials can be created on the basis of

  16. Conduction mechanism in bismuth silicate glasses containing titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dult, Meenakshi; Kundu, R. S.; Murugavel, S.; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2014-11-01

    Bismuth silicate glasses mixed with different concentrations of titanium dioxide having compositions xTiO2-(60-x)Bi2O3-40SiO2 with x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 were prepared by the normal melt quench technique. The frequency dependence of the ac electrical conductivity of different compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glasses has been studied in the frequency range 10-1 Hz to 10 MHz and in the temperature range 623-703 K. The temperature and frequency dependent conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's universal power law for all the compositions of titanium bismuth silicate glass system. The dc conductivity (σdc), so called crossover frequency (ωH), and frequency exponent (s) have been estimated from the fitting of experimental data of ac conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. Enthalpy to dissociate the cation from its original site next to a charge compensating center (Hf) and enthalpy of migration (Hm) have also been estimated. The conductivity data have been analyzed in terms of different theoretical models to determine the possible conduction mechanism. Analysis of the conductivity data and the frequency exponent shows that the correlated barrier hopping of electrons between Ti3+ and Ti4+ ions in the glasses is the most favorable mechanism for ac conduction. The temperature dependent dc conductivity has been analyzed in the framework of theoretical variable range hopping model (VRH) proposed by Mott which describe the hopping conduction in disordered semiconducting systems. The various polaron hopping parameters have also been deduced. Mott's VRH model is found to be in good agreement with experimental data and the values of inverse localization length of s-like wave function (α) obtained by this model with modifications suggested by Punia et al. are close to the ones reported for a number of oxide glasses.

  17. Sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powder compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralf; Reinsch, Stefan; Agea-Blanco, Boris

    2016-10-01

    The manufacture of sintered glasses and glass-ceramics, glass matrix composites and glass-bounded ceramics or pastes is often affected by gas bubble formation. Against this background, we studied sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powders used as SOFC sealants using different powder milling procedures. Sintering was measured by means of heating microscopy backed up by XPD, DTA, Vacuum Hot Extraction (VHE) and optical and electron microscopy. Foaming increased significantly as milling progressed. For moderately milled glass powders, subsequent storage in air could also promote foaming. Although the powder compacts were uniaxially pressed and sintered in air, the milling atmosphere sig¬ni¬ficantly affected foaming. The strength of this effect increased in the order Ar ? N2 encapsulated CO2, even for powders milled in Ar and N2. Results of this study thus indicate that foaming is caused by carbonaceous species trapped on the glass powder surface. Foaming could be substantially reduced by milling in water and 10 wt% HCl.

  18. Sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powder compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Mueller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of sintered glasses and glass-ceramics, glass matrix composites and glass-bounded ceramics or pastes is often affected by gas bubble formation. Against this background, we studied sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powders used as SOFC sealants using different powder milling procedures. Sintering was measured by means of heating microscopy backed up by XPD, DTA, Vacuum Hot Extraction (VHE and optical and electron microscopy. Foaming increased significantly as milling progressed. For moderately milled glass powders, subsequent storage in air could also promote foaming. Although the powder compacts were uniaxially pressed and sintered in air, the milling atmosphere sig¬ni¬ficantly affected foaming. The strength of this effect increased in the order Ar  N2 < air < CO2. Conformingly, VHE studies revealed that the pores of foamed samples predominantly encapsulated CO2, even for powders milled in Ar and N2. Results of this study thus indicate that foaming is caused by carbonaceous species trapped on the glass powder surface. Foaming could be substantially reduced by milling in water and 10 wt% HCl.

  19. Influence of TiO2 on the Alkali Resistance and Structure of Invert Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-lin; WU Zheng-ming; BU Heng-zhi

    2003-01-01

    Through measuring the alkali resistance of the invert glass and the quantity of SiO2 and TiO2 migrating fron the glass into the solution,the influence of TiO2 on the alkali resistance of the glass is discussed and its structure is also analyzed by infrared spectroscopy.It is concluded that TiO2 has double functions for the alkali resistance of the invert glass.On the one hand ,both TiO2 polarizing the secondary ions in glass and TiO2 isomorphism replacement of SiO2 make the alkali resistance of the glass decrease.On the ther hand,TiO2 patching network and anti-erosion covering help to increase the alkali resistance.

  20. Silicate melt inclusions and glasses in lunar soil fragments from the Luna 16 core sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1972-01-01

    More than 2000 fragments were studied microscopically, and electron microprobe analyses were made of 39 selected areas, from a few square mm of polished surface, through 75- to 425-??m fragments of lunar soil from two samples of the Luna 16 core. The silicate melt inclusions and glasses differ in important details from those observed earlier in the Apollo samples. Melt inclusions in olivine contain epitaxially oriented daughter crystals, but also show a similar epitaxy around the outside of the crystals not observed in previous lunar samples. Melt inclusions in ilmenite suggest trapping at successive stages in a differentiation sequence. There is abundant evidence for late-stage silicate liquid immiscibility, with melt compositions similar but not identical to those from Apollo 11 and 12. A comparison of the alkali ratio of any given bulk rock analysis with that of its late-stage, high-silica melt shows gross differences for different rocks. This is pertinent to understanding late-stage differentiation processes. Glass fragments and spherules exhibit a wide range of crystallization textures, reflecting their wide range of compositions and cooling histories. No significant differences were found between the two portions of core examined (Zones A and D). ?? 1972.

  1. Characterization of a silicate glass as a high dose dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, K., E-mail: k.farah@cnstn.rnrt.t [Laboratoire de Radiotraitement. Centre National des Sciences et Technologie Nucleaires, 2020 Sidi-Thabet (Tunisia); Mejri, A.; Hosni, F. [Laboratoire de Radiotraitement. Centre National des Sciences et Technologie Nucleaires, 2020 Sidi-Thabet (Tunisia); Ben Ouada, H. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Interfaces, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Fuochi, P.G.; Lavalle, M. [ISOF-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Kovacs, A. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, P.O. Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-02-21

    Commercial silicate glass has been investigated as a possible high dose dosimeter using an UV-vis spectrophotometer. Glass samples were irradiated by {sup 60}Co gamma rays and the results compared with those obtained with 3.4 and 8.4 MeV electron beams. The irradiated samples showed rapid fading at room temperature immediately after irradiation. In order to improve the stability of absorbance, glass samples were submitted to post-irradiation thermal treatments (150 deg. C for 20 min). The influences of the dose, type and energy of the ionizing radiation on the fading characteristics and on the response of the irradiated and thermally treated glasses were studied. Dependence of the glass response on the temperature during gamma irradiation in the range -3 to 80 deg. C is reported. The reproducibility to reuse glass dosimeter by thermal bleaching the radiation induced colour centres at 300 deg. C for 30 min was also investigated. Calibration curves in the range 0.1-17 kGy were obtained by using in-plant calibration techniques against transfer standard alanine dosimeters in the Tunisian semi-industrial gamma irradiation facility.

  2. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  3. SON68 glass dissolution driven by magnesium silicate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Godon, Nicole; Ayral, André; Gin, Stéphane

    2013-11-01

    Experimental results are reported on the effect of magnesium silicate precipitation on the mechanisms and rate of borosilicate glass dissolution. Leaching experiments with SON68 glass, a borosilicate containing no Mg, were carried out in initially deionized water at 50 °C with a glass-surface-area-to-solution-volume ratio of 20,000 m-1. After 29 days of alteration the experimental conditions were modified by the addition of Mg to trigger the precipitation of Mg-silicate. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the importance of other parameters such as pH or dissolved silica on the mechanisms of precipitation of Mg-silicates and their consequences on the glass dissolution rate. Mg-silicates precipitate immediately after Mg is added. The amount of altered glass increases with the quantity of added Mg, and is smaller when silicon is added in solution. A time lag is observed between the addition of magnesium and the resumption of glass alteration because silicon is first provided by partial dissolution of the previously formed alteration gel. It is shown that nucleation does not limit Mg-silicate precipitation. A pH above 8 is necessary for the phase to precipitate under the investigated experimental conditions. On the other hand the glass alteration kinetics limits the precipitation if the magnesium is supplied in solution at a non-limiting rate. The concentration of i in solution was analyzed as well as that of boron. The quantity of i released from the glass is estimated with the assumption that i and B are released congruently at the glass dissolution front. The remained quantity of the element i is then supposed to be in the gel or in the secondary phase. In this paper, we do not make a difference between gel and hydrated glass using the same word 'gel' whereas Gin et al. [40] makes this difference. Recent papers [40,41] discussed about different key issues related to the passivation properties of the alteration layer including the hydrated glass

  4. Cracking phenomena in lithium-di-silicate glass ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajat Banerjee

    2001-04-01

    Lithium-di-silicate glass ceramic (Li2O, SiO2) with uniformly oriented crystals was placed on a Vickers indentation with extrusion axis horizontally parallel to the base axis. The material was rotated through 0°– 90° and at each angle a 20 N load was applied to ascertain the crack path. It was observed that the crack length decreases and the crack deviates from its original path with increasing angle. The deviation of the crack was correlated with the component of the crack driving force and the theoretical strength of the aligned crystals at different angles.

  5. Transparent silicate glass-ceramics embedding Ni-doped nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of transparent silicate glass-ceramics embedding Ni-doped nanocrystals as broadband gain media is reviewed. At first, optical properties such as the peak positions, wavelengths lifetimes and quantum efficiencies of the near-infrared emission of nickel-doped oxide crystals are overviewed. The quantum efficiencies of the near-infrared emission of nickel-doped LiGa5O8 and MgGa2O4 were as high as ~1 even at room temperature. Thus these materials are promising ca...

  6. Infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Hydrous Silicate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolper, Edward

    2007-03-05

    The focus of this DOE-funded project has been the study of volatile components in magmas and the atmosphere. Over the twenty-one year period of this project, we have used experimental petrology and stable isotope geochemistry to study the behavior and properties of volatile components dissolved in silicate minerals and melts and glasses. More recently, we have also studied the concentration and isotopic composition of CO2 in the atmosphere, especially in relation to air quality issues in the Los Angeles basin.

  7. Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in glass-exposed aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, J.A.; Moffett, J.R.; Arun, P.; Lam, D.; Todorov, T.I.; Brothers, A.B.; Anick, D.J.; Centeno, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.A.; Jonas, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the solutes leaching from glass containers into aqueous solutions, and to show that these solutes have enzyme activity stabilizing effects in very dilute solutions. Methods: Enzyme assays with acetylcholine esterase were used to analyze serially succussed and diluted (SSD) solutions prepared in glass and plastic containers. Aqueous SSD preparations starting with various solutes, or water alone, were prepared under several conditions, and tested for their solute content and their ability to affect enzyme stability in dilute solution. Results: We confirm that water acts to dissolve constituents from glass vials, and show that the solutes derived from the glass have effects on enzymes in the resultant solutions. Enzyme assays demonstrated that enzyme stability in purified and deionized water was enhanced in SSD solutions that were prepared in glass containers, but not those prepared in plastic. The increased enzyme stability could be mimicked in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of silicates to the purified, deionized water that enzymes were dissolved in. Elemental analyses of SSD water preparations made in glass vials showed that boron, silicon, and sodium were present at micromolar concentrations. Conclusions: These results show that silicates and other solutes are present at micromolar levels in all glass-exposed solutions, whether pharmaceutical or homeopathic in nature. Even though silicates are known to have biological activity at higher concentrations, the silicate concentrations we measured in homeopathic preparations were too low to account for any purported in vivo efficacy, but could potentially influence in vitro biological assays reporting homeopathic effects. ?? 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  8. Enhanced bioactivity of glass ionomer cement by incorporating calcium silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Cai, Yixiao; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are known as a non-bioactive dental cement. During setting the GIC have an acidic pH, driven by the acrylic acid component. It is a challenge to make GIC alkaline without disturbing its mechanical properties. One strategy was to add slowly reacting systems with an alkaline pH. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possibility of forming a bioactive dental material based on the combination of glass ionomer cement and calcium silicates. Two types of GIC were used as control. Wollastonite (CS also denoted β-CaSiO3) or Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was incorporated into the 2 types of GIC. The material formulations' setting time, compressive strength, pH and bioactivity were compared between modified GIC and GIC control. Apatite crystals were found on the surfaces of the modified cements but not on the control GIC. The compressive strength of the cement remained with the addition of 20% calcium silicate or 20% MTA after one day immersion. In addition, the compressive strength of GIC modified with 20% MTA had been increased during the 14 d immersion (p < 0 .05).

  9. Crystallization Behaviour and Nanostructuring in Alkali Niobiosilicate Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Fanelli; P.Pernice; M.Xiao; A.Aronne; V.N.Sigacv

    2011-01-01

    23K2O·27Nb2O5·50SiO2 (KNS), 13K2O·10Na2O·27Nb2C5·50SiO2 (KNaNS) and 15K2O·12Li2O·27Nb2O5· 46SiO2 (KLiNS) transparent glasses were synthesized by melt-quenching technique, and studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to reveal the effect of the devitrification behaviour on transparent nanostructure.Just above the glass transition temperature Tg in the KNS glass, an unidentified phase was formed, while in KNaNS and KLiNS, mixed-alkali niobate phases with tungsten bronze structure were obtained by bulk crystallization.Heat treatments at Tg performed on the KNS glass resulted in the transparent nanostructure with second order harmonic generation (SHG) activity.Heat treatment for 10 h on KNaNS and KLiNS decreased the first DTA exothermic peaks (at least 24℃), indicating the bulk nucleation, which was confirmed by the DTA in comparison with the powdered as-quenched samples.KNaNS and KLiNS showed similar XRD profiles as the K3Li2Nb5O15 crystal with the five most intense peaks at 22.7, 29.4, 32.3, 46.3 and 52.0 deg.HRTEM micrograph showed clear-cut nano-sized circular domains and spherical nanocrystals dispersed into the amorphous matrix.

  10. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.

  11. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino [Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico [Department of Chemical, Materials and Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Iannace, Salvatore [Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples, Italy and IMAST SCRAL, Piazza Bovio 22 Napoli 80133 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a “meringue” type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (∼500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the “meringue” approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  12. FORMATION OF LUMINESCENT OPTICAL WAVEGUIDES IN SILICATE GLASS MATRIX BY THE ION-EXCHANGE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dyomichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present spectra of the alkali-silicate glasses with copper ions in near-surface area, introduced by ion exchange of different temperature and duration. It is shown that the reduction of Cu2+ in the near-surface area causes existence of Cu+ and neutral atoms in glass after the ion-exchange in divalent salt. The ion-exchange itself involves only Cu+ and Na+ ions. The formation of subnanometer clusters Cun is due to neutral copper atoms staying in near-surface zone. We have shown that the waveguide layer in near-surface area, made by ion-exchange, has а visible luminescence with the excitation by UVradiation. At the same time, the contribution to luminescence is made by Cu+ ions, molecular clusters Cun and by dimers Cu+ - Cu+ . During the high-temperature ion-exchange at 600 °С the formation and destruction equilibrium shift of molecular clusters Cun can be seen. An hour ion-exchange leads to molecular clusters Cun destruction, while at time periods less than 30 min and around 18 hours it leads to the formation of Cun. The sample turns green after 18,5 hours ion-exchange showing formation of a considerable amount of divalent copper ions Cu2+ therein.

  13. Modifier cation effects on 29Si nuclear shielding anisotropies in silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltisberger, Jay H.; Florian, Pierre; Keeler, Eric G.; Phyo, Pyae A.; Sanders, Kevin J.; Grandinetti, Philip J.

    2016-07-01

    We have examined variations in the 29Si nuclear shielding tensor parameters of SiO4 tetrahedra in a series of seven alkali and alkaline earth silicate glass compositions, Cs2O · 4.81 SiO2, Rb2O · 3.96 SiO2, Rb2O · 2.25 SiO2, K2O · 4.48 SiO2, Na2O · 4.74 SiO2, BaO · 2.64 SiO2, and SrO · 2.36 SiO2, using natural abundance 29Si two-dimensional magic-angle flipping (MAF) experiments. Our analyses of these 2D spectra reveal a linear dependence of the 29Si nuclear shielding anisotropy of Q(3) sites on the Si-non-bridging oxygen bond length, which in turn depends on the cation potential and coordination of modifier cations to the non-bridging oxygen. We also demonstrate how a combination of Cu2+ as a paramagnetic dopant combined with echo train acquisition can reduce the total experiment time of 29Si 2D NMR measurements by two orders of magnitude, enabling higher throughput 2D NMR studies of glass structure.

  14. Radiation Shielding Properties Comparison of Pb-Based Silicate, Borate, and Phosphate Glass Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwimon Ruengsri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations of mass attenuation coefficients, partial interactions, atomic cross-section, and effective atomic numbers of PbO-based silicate, borate, and phosphate glass systems have been investigated at 662 keV. PbO-based silicate glass has been found with the highest total mass attenuation coefficient and then phosphate and borate glasses, respectively. Compton scattering has been the dominate interaction contributed to the different total attenuation coefficients in each of the glass matrices. The silicate and phosphate glass systems are more appropriate choices as lead-based radiation shielding glass than the borate glass system. Moreover, comparison of results has shown that the glasses possess better shielding properties than standard shielding concretes, suggesting a smaller size requirement in addition to transparency in the visible region.

  15. Barium boron aluminum silicate glass system for solid state optical gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, M. J.; Karczewski, J.; Jasinski, P.; Chrzan, A.; Kalinowski, P.; Szymczewska, D.; Jasinski, G.

    2016-11-01

    Recent increasing demand for new eco-friendly materials and for low cost fabrication process for use in optical sensors field, raise concern about alternative materials for this application. We have designed two glass-ceramics compositions from the quaternary ROAl2O3- SiO2-B2O3(R=Ba) alkali-earth aluminum silicate system, labeled B72 and B69, with high refractive index (>1.6), large values of Abbe number (94.0 and 53.0, respectively), and free of lead and arsenic. We present an analysis and discussion of experimental optical properties, thermal and thermo-chemical stability along with important properties such as transition temperature (Tg), onset of crystallization (Tx) as well transport properties as ionic conductivity behavior in the quaternary glass-ceramic system containing boron for use as optical sensors. Complex Impedance Spectra (Bode Plot) and Potentiodynamic Polarization curves (Tafel plots) measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 600 to 850°C. The most probable conductivity mechanism is a thermally activated process of mobile ions overcoming a potential barrier (EA), according to the Arrhenius regime. Here we report that charge transfer is caused by the flux of electrons, in the region of elevated temperatures (>700°C), and is affected by immiscibility of crystals, nucleation and growth type, that causes phase separation. We found conductivity (σ) values from 10-9 to 10-5 S/cm at temperatures between 700 and 850°C. Our results highlight a need for research on ion mobility in the glassy network above the transition range, and the effect cause by metastable immiscibility in the alkaline-earth glasses are exposed. The two glass compositions B72 and B69 can be tailored by proper use as glassy optical sensor.

  16. Radiation Shielding Properties Comparison of Pb-Based Silicate, Borate, and Phosphate Glass Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Suwimon Ruengsri

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of mass attenuation coefficients, partial interactions, atomic cross-section, and effective atomic numbers of PbO-based silicate, borate, and phosphate glass systems have been investigated at 662 keV. PbO-based silicate glass has been found with the highest total mass attenuation coefficient and then phosphate and borate glasses, respectively. Compton scattering has been the dominate interaction contributed to the different total attenuation coefficients in each of th...

  17. Crystallisation mechanism of a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurth, R. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Pascual, M.J., E-mail: mpascual@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Mather, G.C.; Pablos-Martin, A.; Munoz, F.; Duran, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Boite Postale 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ruessel, C. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A base glass of composition 3.5 Li{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.15 Na{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.2 K{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 1.15 MgO Bullet-Operator 0.8 BaO Bullet-Operator 1.5 ZnO Bullet-Operator 20 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Bullet-Operator 67.2 SiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 2.6 TiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.7 ZrO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.2 As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in wt.%), melted and provided by SCHOTT AG (Mainz), was used to study the crystallisation mechanism of lithium alumino-silicate glass employing X-ray diffraction combined with neutron diffraction and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A high-quartz solid solution of LiAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} with nanoscaled crystals forms at 750 Degree-Sign C. Quantitative Rietveld refinement of samples annealed at 750 Degree-Sign C for 8 h determined a crystallised fraction of around 59 wt.%. The room temperature crystallised phase adopts an ordered, {beta}-eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. The Avrami parameter (n {approx} 4), calculated from DSC data using different theoretical approaches, indicates that bulk crystallisation occurs and that the number of nuclei increases during annealing. The activation energy of the crystallisation is 531 {+-} 20 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscaled high-quartz crystals from a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined X-ray and neutron diffraction structural refinement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Dimensional bulk crystallisation mechanism with an increasing number of nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Usage and validation of an alternative approach to calculate the Avrami parameter.

  18. Alkali-aggregate reactivity of typical siliceious glass and carbonate rocks in alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Duyou; Liu, Yongdao; Zheng, Yanzeng; Xu, Zhongzi; Shen, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    For exploring the behaviour of alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) in alkali-activated geopolymeric materials and assessing the procedures for testing AAR in geopolymers, the expansion behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer mortars with pure silica glass and typical carbonate rocks were studied respectively by curing at various conditions, i.e. 23°C and 38°C with relative humidity over 95%, immersed in 1M NaOH solution at 80°C. Results show that, at various curing conditions, neither harmful ASR nor harmful ACR was observed in geopolymers with the criteria specified for OPC system. However, with the change of curing conditions, the geopolymer binder and reactive aggregates may experience different reaction processes leading to quite different dimensional changes, especially with additional alkalis and elevated temperatures. It suggests that high temperature with additional alkali for accelerating AAR in traditional OPC system may not appropriate for assessing the alkali-aggregate reactivity behaviour in geopolymers designed for normal conditions. On the other hand, it is hopeful to control the dimensional change of geopolymer mortar or concrete by selecting the type of aggregates and the appropriate curing conditions, thus changing the harmful AAR in OPC into beneficial AAR in geopolymers and other alkali-activated cementitious systems.

  19. Communication: Dimensionality of the ionic conduction pathways in glass and the mixed-alkali effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Melissa; Avila-Paredes, Hugo; Kim, Sangtae; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2015-12-28

    A revised empirical relationship between the power law exponent of ac conductivity dispersion and the dimensionality of the ionic conduction pathway is established on the basis of electrical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements on crystalline ionic conductors. These results imply that the "universal" ac conductivity dispersion observed in glassy solids is associated with ionic transport along fractal pathways. EIS measurements on single-alkali glasses indicate that the dimensionality of this pathway D is ∼2.5, while in mixed-alkali glasses, D is lower and goes through a minimum value of ∼2.2 when the concentrations of the two alkalis become equal. D and σ display similar variation with alkali composition, thus suggesting a topological origin of the mixed-alkali effect.

  20. Optical absorption and fluorescent behaviour of titanium ions in silicate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar; Aman Uniyal; A P S Chauhan; S P Singh

    2003-04-01

    Titanium in normal melting conditions in air atmosphere present as Ti4+ ion in basic silicate glasses exhibited an ultra-violet cut-off in silicate glasses, viz. soda–magnesia–silica, soda–magnesia–lime–silica and soda–lime–silica glasses. This indicates that Ti4+ ion can be a good replacement for Ce4+ ion in producing UV-absorbing silicate glasses for commercial applications. The wavelength maxima at which the infinite absorption takes place in glasses was found to be around 310 nm against Ti-free blank glass in UV-region. The mechanism of electronic transition from O2- ligands to Ti4+ ion was suggested as L $\\rightarrow$ M charge transfer. The low energy tails of the ultra-violet cut-off were found to obey Urbach’s rule in the optical range 360–500 nm. The fluorescence spectra of these glasses were also studied and based on the radiative fluorescent properties it was suggested that the soda–lime–silica glass containing Ti4+ ion with greater emission crosssection would emit a better fluorescence than the corresponding soda–magnesia–lime–silica and soda–magnesia–silica glasses. The shift of emission wavelengths maxima towards longer wavelength in titania introduced silicate glasses was observed on replacement of MgO by CaO which may be attributed due to an increase in basicity of the glass system.

  1. STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF ALKALI BORATE GLASSES - A MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERHOEF, AH; DENHARTOG, HW

    1995-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of lithium, cesium and mixed alkali (i.e., lithium and cesium) borate glasses have been studied by the molecular dynamics method. The calculations yield glass structures consisting of planar BO3 triangles and BO4 tetrahedrons with no sixfold ring structures at all

  2. Dielectric-breakdown and conduction-mechanism in a thinned alkali-free glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hoikwan; Lanagan, Michael T. [The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The leakage current in alkali-free glass was analyzed to understand the dielectric breakdown behavior and the potential conduction mechanism. The dielectric breakdown strength and the leakage current were increased after the thickness of the glass had been recuded. To identify the predominant conduction mechanism, we carefully interpreted the dc voltage-current curves via fitting with various conduction mechanisms, e.g., Poole-Frenkel emission, Schottky emission, space charge-limited current, and hopping conduction. The result suggested that the space-charge-limited current and the hopping conduction of thermally-excited carriers were the most likely mechanisms of conduction in alkali-free glass.

  3. Optical analysis of samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V.; Sofin, R. G. S.; Allen, M.; Thomas, H.; Biju, P. R.; Jose, G.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    Samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass was synthesized using the melt quenching method. Detailed optical spectroscopic studies of the glassy material were carried out in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral range. Using the optical absorption spectra Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters are derived. The calculated values of the JO parameters are utilized in evaluating the various radiative parameters such as electric dipole line strengths (Sed), radiative transition probabilities (Arad), radiative lifetimes (τrad), fluorescence branching ratios (β) and the integrated absorption cross- sections (σa) for stimulated emission from various excited states of Sm3 +‡ ion. The principal fluorescence transitions are identified by recording the fluorescence spectrum. Our analysis revealed that the novel glassy system has the optimum values for the key parameters viz. spectroscopic quality factor, optical gain, stimulated emission cross section and quantum efficiency, which are required for a high performance optical amplifier. Calculated chromaticity co-ordinates (0.61, 0.38) also confirm its application potential in display devices.

  4. Influence of alkali, silicate, and sulfate content of carbonated concrete pore solution on mild steel corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L' Hostis, V. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Lab Etud Comportement Betons and Argiles, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Huet, B. [Schlumberger Riboud Prod Ctr, Schlumberger Carbon Serv, F-92142 Clamart (France); Tricheux, L. [CEBTP SOLEN, F-78990 Elancourt (France); Idrissi, H. [CNRS, Lab MATEIS UMR 5510, Equipe RI2S, Dept Sci and Genie Mat, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2010-07-01

    The increase in the rebar corrosion rate due to the concrete carbonation is the major cause of reinforced concrete degradation. The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosion behavior of mild steel rebars in simulated carbonated concrete solution. For this purpose, thermodynamic calculations, electrochemical techniques, gravimetric measurements, and surface analyses were used. Thermodynamic investigations of the nature of the interstitial solution provides an estimation of the influence of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and alkali (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) content on carbonate alkalinity of the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O open system (pCO{sub 2}=0. 3 mbar). in this system, calcium-silicate hydrates (C-S-H) remain thermodynamically unstable and amorphous silica controls silicate aqueous content at 100 ppm. Electrochemical results highlight a decrease in the corrosion rate with increasing carbonate alkalinity and the introduction of silicate. The introduction of sulfate at fixed carbonate alkalinity shows a dual effect: at high carbonate alkalinity, the corrosion rate is increased whereas at low carbonate alkalinity, corrosion rate is decreased. Those results are supported by surface analysis. Authors conclude that silicate and sulfate release from cement hydrates and fixation of alkali on carbonated hydrates are key parameters to estimate mild steel corrosion in carbonated concrete. (authors)

  5. Influence of alkali, silicate, and sulfate content of carbonated concrete pore solution on mild steel corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, B. [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Schlumberger Riboud Product Center, Clamart (France); L' Hostis, V. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Betons et des Argiles, Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Tricheux, L. [CEBTP-SOLEN, Elancourt, (France); Idrissi, H. [Laboratoire MATEIS UMR CNRS, Equipe RI2S, Department Science et Genie des Materiaux, Villeurbanne, (France)

    2010-02-15

    The increase in the rebar corrosion rate due to the concrete carbonation is the major cause of reinforced concrete degradation. The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosion behavior of mild steel rebars in simulated carbonated concrete solution. For this purpose, thermodynamic calculations, electrochemical techniques, gravimetric measurements, and surface analyses were used. Thermodynamic investigations of the nature of the interstitial solution provides an estimation of the influence of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2} {sup -}) and alkali (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) content on carbonate alkalinity of the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O open system (pCO{sub 2} = 0.3 mbar). In this system, calcium-silicate hydrates (C-S-H) remain thermodynamically unstable and amorphous silica controls silicate aqueous content at 100 ppm. Electrochemical results highlight a decrease in the corrosion rate with increasing carbonate alkalinity and the introduction of silicate. The introduction of sulfate at fixed carbonate alkalinity shows a dual effect: at high carbonate alkalinity, the corrosion rate is increased whereas at low carbonate alkalinity, corrosion rate is decreased. Those results are supported by surface analysis. Authors conclude that silicate and sulfate release from cement hydrates and fixation of alkali on carbonated hydrates are key parameters to estimate mild steel corrosion in carbonated concrete. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Conductivity studies of lithium zinc silicate glasses with varying lithium contents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Deshpande; V K Shrikhande; M S Jogad; P S Goyal; G P Kothiyal

    2007-10-01

    The electrical conductivity of lithium zinc silicate (LZS) glasses with composition, (SiO2)0.527 (Na2O)0.054(B2O3)0.05(P2O5)0.029(ZnO)0.34–(Li2O) ( = 0.05, 0.08, 0.11, 0.18, 0.21, 0.24 and 0.27), was studied as a function of frequency in the range 100 Hz–15 MHz, over a temperature range from 546–637 K. The a.c. conductivity is found to obey Jonscher’s relation. The d.c. conductivity ($\\sigma_{d.c.}$) and the hopping frequency($\\omega_{h}$), inferred from the a.c. conductivity data, exhibit Arrhenius-type behaviour with temperature. The electrical modulus spectra show a single peak, indicating a single electrical relaxation time, , which also exhibits Arrhenius-type behaviour. Values of activation energy derived from $\\sigma_{d.c.}, \\omega_{h}$ and are almost equal within the experimental error. It is seen that $\\sigma_{d.c.}$ and $\\omega_{h}$ increase systematically with Li2O content up to 21 mol% and then decrease for higher Li2O content, indicating a mixed alkali effect caused by mobile Li+ and Na+ ions. The scaling behaviour of the modulus suggests that the relaxation process is independent of temperature but depends upon Li+ concentration.

  7. Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %, low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

  8. XRD, lead equivalent and UV-VIS properties study of Ce and Pr lead silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nor Hayati; Abdullah, Wan Shafie Wan; Isa, Norriza Mohd; Isa, Muhammad Jamal Md; Muhammad, Azali; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Abdullah, Nuhaslinda Ee

    2014-02-01

    In this work, Cerium (Ce) and Praseodymium (Pr) containing lead silicate glasses were produced with 2 different molar ratios low (0.2 wt%) and high (0.4wt%). These types of glasses can satisfy the characteristics required for radiation shielding glasses and minimize the lead composition in glass. The radiation shielding properties of the synthesized glasses is explained in the form of lead equivalent study. The XRD diffraction and UV-VIS analysis were performed to observe the structural changes of the synthesis glasses at 1.5 Gy gamma radiation exposures.

  9. Influence of curing conditions on durability of alkali-resistant glass fibres in cement matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arabi Nourredine

    2011-07-01

    Glass fibres in concrete material often increase the flexural strength. However, these fibres when in contact with cement are altered by alkali reactions due to the presence of portlandite. This study presents the results of investigation to show the effect of curing conditions on the durability of alkali-resistant glass fibres in cement matrix. Test results show that even alkali resistant fibres treated with zirconium oxide present the same degradation phenomenon. They also show that the nature of the cement has a large influence on the protection of the fibres: the Portland CEM II is less damaging than the CEM I. The substitutions of a part of cement by silica fume gave no substantial improvements to the mechanical strength of the glass fibre reinforced cement (GFRC). However, the observed microstructures in the samples show that the degradation is weakened with the addition of silica fumes. The analytical techniques used in this study are scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction.

  10. Alkali ion migration between stacked glass plates by corona discharge treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga; Suzuki, Toshio; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Harada, Kenji; Nishii, Junji

    2015-05-01

    Corona discharge reflects the spatial migration of alkali ions over a gap between two glass plates. This study examined stacked glass plates containing different alkali ions treated with the corona discharge plasma generated by applied voltage of 4.5 kV at 200 °C. Protons generated at the anode electrode penetrate into the potassium-ion-containing upper glass plate, which is located 5 mm below the anode electrode. Potassium ions intruded into the lower glass plate containing sodium ions placed on the cathode electrode, even over a 1 mm gap separating the plates. Finally, the sodium ion discharged on the cathode electrode. The hydrogen atmosphere was effective at inhibiting the potassium ion reaction with ambient gases during the spatial migration between the two glass plates.

  11. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions

  12. Through The Looking Glass: New Laboratory Spectra Of Glassy Silicates For The Comparison To Astrophysical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Whittington, A.; Hofmeister, A.

    2011-05-01

    Many astrophysical environments exhibit a spectral feature at around 10 microns, which has long been attributed to amorphous silicates, but whose precise nature remains a mystery. Furthermore, the astronomically observed feature varies from location to location, and even within a given object both spatially and temporally. There have been many laboratory studies of potential cosmic dust analogs attempting to determine the exact nature of this dust, but most of those studies have failed to produce laboratory spectra that precisely match the observed astronomical spectra. We present new high-resolution spectra of a selection of silicate glasses whose compositions cover those expected to form in cosmic environments. These include synthetic endmember glasses of major mineral groups such as melilites (akermanite, gehlenite), pyroxenes (enstatite), olivines (forsterite) and silica; glasses produced by remelting natural mineral samples that contain iron and other elements; and a synthetic "cosmic” silicate glass with solar relative abundances of Mg, Si, Ca, Na and Al. Across the compositional range of 12 samples the 10 micron feature changes in peak position by more than a micron, as well as in shape. We discuss the effects of both compositional and structural factors on spectral features in these glassy silicates and we compare our new laboratory glass spectra with synthetic amorphous silicate spectra currently used in most models of dusty astrophysical environments. The synthetic spectra do not match either peak position or shape of any of our glass samples.

  13. Eu-, Tb-, and Dy-Doped Oxyfluoride Silicate Glasses for LED Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, C.F.; Wang, J.; Zhang, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Luminescence glass is a potential candidate for the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) applications. Here, we study the structural and optical properties of the Eu-, Tb-, and Dy-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for LEDs by means of X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence spectra, Commission Internationale...... de L’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates, and correlated color temperatures (CCTs). The results show that the white light emission can be achieved in Eu/Tb/Dy codoped oxyfluoride silicate glasses under excitation by near-ultraviolet light due to the simultaneous generation of blue, green, yellow...

  14. Influence of CeO_2 on scintillating properties of Tb~(3+)-doped silicate glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙心瑗; 顾牡; 张敏; 黄世明

    2010-01-01

    A series of Tb3+-,Ce3+-doped,and Tb3+/Ce3+-codoped silicate glasses were synthesized by melt-quenching technique.Some properties of the investigated glasses were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),photoluminescence(PL),X-ray excited luminescence(XEL) and thermoluminescence(TL) spectra.The result of XPS revealed that both Ce3+ and Ce4+ ions coexisted in these silicate glasses,and energy transfer from Ce3+ to Tb3+ ions was observed under UV excitation.However,under X-ray excitation the XEL...

  15. Fluorescent Er2O3 doped lead silicate glass for optical amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Mennig, Martin; Niegisch, Nico; Kalleder, Axel; Schmidt, Helmut K.; Graf, Jürgen; Sautter, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    A hot-pressing method is investigated for the fabrication of a planar optical waveguide amplifier. Therefore commercially available LaSFN15 produced by Schott is used as substrate and cladding material in combination with Er2O3 doped lead silicate glass as core material, synthesised by a hybrid sol-gel melting technique. The lead silicate glass is selected for its low melting temperature required for the waveguide processing. The core glass is adapted to the LaSFN15 with respect to the therma...

  16. Investigation of synthesized Be-bearing silicate glass as laboratory reference sample at X-ray electron probe microanalysis of silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerova, Olga Yu.; Mikhailov, Mikhail A.; Demina, Tamara V.

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses estimates of the stability and homogeneity in Be-Mg-Al-silicate glass produced by the authors and its applicability as a laboratory reference sample for X-ray electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of Be-bearing silicate matters: crystals and quenching melt (glasses), silicates and oxides. The results were obtained using Superprobe-733 and Superprobe JXA-8200 (JEOL Ltd, Japan) devices. The sample homogeneity was studied on macro (10-100 μm) and micro (1-10 μm) levels and was evaluated by the scheme of dispersion analysis. The applicability of Be-bearing silicate glass as a reference sample for Mg, Al, Si determinations was tested on the international certified reference glasses and laboratory reference samples of minerals with a known composition. The obtained experimental metrological characteristics correspond to the "applied geochemistry" type of analysis (second category) and suggest that Be-bearing silicate glass is appropriate as a laboratory reference sample for EPMA of Be-bearing silicate matters, silicates and oxides. Using Be-Mg-Al-silicate glass as a reference sample we obtained satisfactory data on the composition of both some minerals including cordierite and beryllium cordierite, beryllium indialite, beryl and metastable phases (chrysoberyl, compounds with structure of β-quartz and petalite).

  17. The Mixed-Alkali Effect on The Resistance of Glass to Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the composition of float glass, the resistance of glass to water, in which a small amount of K2O (0—1.0 wt%) was substituted for equivalent amount of Na2O, was investigated by means of glass grains testing. The components extracted from the glass and total alkalinities in extraction solution were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and neutralizing method, respectively. The composition of the glass was 14.4 K2O+Na2O, 4.0MgO, 8.2CaO, 1.4Al2O3, 72.0 SiO2, and the minimum extraction ratio of oxides (maximum durability) occurred at a K2O/Na2O ratio of 0.051(by weight) due to the presence of the mixed-alkali effect. The relative extraction ratio of alkali oxides (R2O) was greater than that of alkaline earth oxides (RO). By means of mixed-alkali effect and lowing relative contents of R2O in the glass, the resistance of float glass to water was improved and its mildew-proof ability was therefore increased.

  18. X-ray fluorescence analysis with micro glass beads using milligram-scale siliceous samples for archeology and geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Shintaro, E-mail: sichi@meiji.ac.jp [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Properties, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshihiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    A micro glass bead technique was developed to assay precious siliceous samples for geochemical and archeological analyses. The micro-sized (approximately 3.5 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in height) glass beads were prepared by mixing and fusing 1.1 mg of the powdered sample and 11.0 mg of the alkali lithium tetraborate flux for wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence determination of major oxides (Na{sub 2}O, MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, MnO, and total Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The preparation parameters, including temperature and agitation during the fusing process, were optimized for the use of a commercial platinum crucible rather than a custom-made crucible. The procedure allows preparation of minute sample amounts of siliceous samples using conventional fusing equipment. Synthetic calibration standards were prepared by compounding chemical reagents such as oxides, carbonates, and diphosphates. Calibration curves showed good linearity with r values > 0.997, and the lower limits of detection were in the 10s to 100s of μg g{sup −1} range (e.g., 140 μg g{sup −1} for Na{sub 2}O, 31 μg g{sup −1} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 8.9 μg g{sup −1} for MnO). Using the present method, we determined ten major oxides in igneous rocks, stream sediments, ancient potteries, and obsidian. This was applicable to siliceous samples with various compositions, because of the excellent agreement between the analytical and recommended values of six geochemical references. This minimal-scale analysis may be available for precious and limited siliceous samples (e.g., rock, sand, soil, sediment, clay, and archeological ceramics) in many fields such as archeology and geochemistry. - Highlights: • X-ray fluorescence determination of major oxides was performed using 1.1 mg of sample. • Preparation and measurement techniques of the XRF micro glass bead specimen were optimized. • Calibration curves using synthetic standards showed good

  19. Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for potential applications in photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chaofeng; ZHANG, XIANGHUA; Ma, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A series of Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses were prepared via the melt-quenching method to explore red luminescent materials for potential applications in photosynthesis of green plants, and these glasses are investigated by means of luminescence decay curves, absorption, emission, and excitation spectra. We find that the as-prepared glasses are transparent in the visible region and can emit strong red light under ultraviolet, purple, and green light excita...

  20. OBTAINMENT AND PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE FOAMED HEAT-INSULATING MATERIAL BASED ON ALKALI SILICATE COMPOSITION AND SHUNGITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lomonosov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and mechanical properties of foamed heat-insulating material based on alkali silicate composition and shungite were investigated. The studies determined the ratio of the components of the charge with which it is possible to obtain the optimal ratio of mechanical properties/thermal conductivity. Found that composite materials obtained from shungite filler, have a more porous structure (up to 76% of the volume of the material and are more uniform distribution of pore size (from 0.11 to 0.2 mm

  1. Removal of lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by generating the sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Zhao, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Shuhao

    2015-01-01

    In the disposal of electronic waste, cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass is an environmental problem of old television sets. Removal of the lead from CRT funnel glass can prevent its release into the environment and allow its reuse. In this research, we reference the dry progress productive technology of sodium silicate, the waste CRT glass was dealt with sodium silicate frit melted and sodium silicate frit dissolved. Adding a certain amount of Na ₂CO₃to the waste CRT glass bases on the material composition and content of it, then the specific modulus of sodium silicate frit is obtained by melting progress. The silicon, potassium and sodium compounds of the sodium silicate frit are dissolved under the conditions of high temperature and pressure by using water as solvent, which shows the tendency that different temperature, pressure, liquid-solid ratio and dissolving time have effect on the result of dissolving. At 175°C(0.75MPa), liquid-solid ratio is 1.5:1, the dissolving time is 1h, the dissolution rate of sodium silicate frit is 44.725%. By using sodium sulfide to separate hydrolysis solution and to collect lead compounds in the solution, the recovery rate of lead in dissolving reached 100% and we can get clean sodium silicate and high purity of lead compounds. The method presented in this research can recycle not only the lead but also the sodium, potassium and other inorganic minerals in CRT glass and can obtain the comprehensive utilization of leaded glass.

  2. MAS-NMR study of lithium zinc silicate glasses and glass-ceramics with various ZnO content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Madhumita; Kothiyal, Govind P.; Montagne, Lionel; Delevoye, Laurent

    2008-02-01

    Lithium zinc silicate glasses of composition (mol%): 17.5Li 2O-(72- x)SiO 2- xZnO-5.1Na 2O-1.3P 2O 5-4.1B 2O 3, 5.5⩽ x⩽17.7, were prepared by conventional melt-quenched technique and converted to glass-ceramic by controlled crystallization process. 29Si and 31P MAS-NMR was used to characterize the structure of both glass and glass-ceramic samples. Despite the complex glass composition, Q2, Q3 and Q4 sites are identified from 29Si MAS-NMR, which relative intensities are found to vary with the ZnO content, indicating a network depolymerization by ZnO. Moreover, well separated Q3 and Q4 resonances for low ZnO content indicates the occurrence of phase separation. From 31P MAS-NMR, it is seen that phosphorus is mainly present in the form of ortho-( Q0) and pyro-phosphate ( Q1) structural units and variation of ZnO content did not have much effect on these resonances, which provides an additional evidence for phase separation in the glass. On conversion to glass-ceramics, lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5), lithium zinc ortho-silicate (Li 3Zn 0.5SiO 4), tridymite (SiO 2) and cristobalite (SiO 2) were identified as major silicate crystalline phases. Using 29Si MAS-NMR, quantification of these silicate crystalline phases is carried out and correlated with the ZnO content in the glass-ceramics samples. In addition, 31P spectra unambiguously revealed the presence of crystalline Li 3PO 4 and (Na,Li) 3PO 4 in the glass-ceramics.

  3. Surface Morphology and Structure of Double-Phase Magnetic Alkali Borosilicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, N. V.; Naberezhnov, A. A.; Tomkovich, M. V.; Nacke, B.; Kichigin, V.; Rudskoy, A. I.; Filimonov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The surface morphology of double-phase magnetic alkali borosilicate glasses of four types obtained by induction melting is studied by the methods of atomic-force and scanning electron microscopy. The distribution of elements over the surface and the elemental composition of the glasses are determined. It is shown that a dendritic system of interrelated channels required for formation of porous matrixes with controlled mean pore diameter may be obtained in these objects depending on the heat treatment mode.

  4. MAS-NMR investigations of the crystallization behaviour of lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glasses containing P 2O 5 and TiO 2 nucleants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, A.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Montagne, L.; Revel, B.

    2010-06-01

    Lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) glass of composition (mol%) 20.4Li 2O-4.0Al 2O 3-68.6SiO 2-3.0K 2O-2.6B 2O 3-0.5P 2O 5-0.9TiO 2 was prepared by melt quenching. The glass was then nucleated and crystallized based on differential thermal analysis (DTA) data and was characterized by 29Si, 31P, 11B and 27Al MAS-NMR. XRD and 29Si NMR showed that lithium metasilicate (Li 2SiO 3) is the first phase to c form followed by cristobalite (SiO 2) and lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5). 29Si MAS-NMR revealed a change in the network structure already for the glasses nucleated at 550 °C. Since crystalline Li 3PO 4, as observed by 31P MAS-NMR, forms concurrently with the silicate phases, we conclude that crystalline Li 3PO 4 does not act as a nucleating agent for lithium silicate phases. Moreover, 31P NMR indicates the formation of M-PO 4 ( M=B, Al or Ti) complexes. The presence of BO 3 and BO 4 structural units in all the glass/glass-ceramic samples is revealed through 11B MAS-NMR. B remains in the residual glass and the crystallization of silicate phases causes a reduction in the number of alkali ions available for charge compensation. As a result, the number of trigonally coordinated B (BO 3) increases at the expense of tetrahedrally coordinated B (BO 4). The 27Al MAS-NMR spectra indicate the presence of tetrahedrally coordinated Al species, which are only slightly perturbed by the crystallization.

  5. Alkali ion migration between stacked glass plates by corona discharge treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Keiga [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Suzuki, Toshio [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sakai, Daisuke [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Funatsu, Shiro; Uraji, Keiichiro [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kiyoshi [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Harada, Kenji [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Nishii, Junji, E-mail: nishii@es.hokudai.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Two stacked glass plates with a 1 mm gap were treated by corona discharge. • Spatial migration of alkali ion over the gap was demonstrated. • Hydrogen gas was necessary for uniform migration. • Surface modification was done with this process without high temperature or vacuum. - Abstract: Corona discharge reflects the spatial migration of alkali ions over a gap between two glass plates. This study examined stacked glass plates containing different alkali ions treated with the corona discharge plasma generated by applied voltage of 4.5 kV at 200 °C. Protons generated at the anode electrode penetrate into the potassium-ion-containing upper glass plate, which is located 5 mm below the anode electrode. Potassium ions intruded into the lower glass plate containing sodium ions placed on the cathode electrode, even over a 1 mm gap separating the plates. Finally, the sodium ion discharged on the cathode electrode. The hydrogen atmosphere was effective at inhibiting the potassium ion reaction with ambient gases during the spatial migration between the two glass plates.

  6. Modifier interaction and mixed-alkali effect in bond constraint theory applied to ternary alkali metaphosphate glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno ePoletto Rodrigues

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an interaction parameter γ, we implement modifier interaction and the mixed-alkali effect into bond constraint theory, and apply this extension for simplistic property prediction on ternary phosphate glasses. The severity of the mixed alkali effect results from the interplay of two simultaneous contributions: Bond constraints on the modifier species soften or stiffen with decreasing or increasing γ, respectively. When the modifier size is not too dissimilar the decrease in γ reflects that the alkali ions can easily migrate between different sites, forcing the network to continuously re-accommodate for any subsequent distortions. With increasing size difference, migration becomes increasingly difficult without considerable network deformation. This holds even for smaller ions, where the sluggish dynamics of the larger constituent result in blocking of the fast ion movement, leading to the subsequent increase in γ. Beyond a certain size difference in the modifier pair, a value of γ exceeding unity may indicate the presence of steric hindrance due to the large surrounding modifiers impeding the phosphate network to re-accommodate deformation.

  7. Effect of Fe2O3 on the physical and structural properties of bismuth silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Rajesh; Kundu, R. S.; Punia, R.; Aghamkar, P.; Kishore, N.

    2013-06-01

    Iron containing bismuth silicate glasses with compositions 70SiO2ṡ(100-x)Bi2O3ṡxFe2O3 have been prepared using conventional melt-quenching method and their amorphous nature has been investigated using XRD. Density has been measured using Archimedes' principle and molar volume (Vm) have also been estimated. With increase in Fe2O3 content, there is a decrease in density and molar volume of the glass samples. The glass transition temperature (Tg) have been determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and are observed to increase with increase in Fe2O3 content. In the present glass system bismuth and iron plays the role of network modifier and the symmetry of silicate network goes on increasing with Fe2O3 content and it modifies the physical and structural properties of these glasses.

  8. The role of residual cracks on alkali silica reactivity of recycled glass aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraghechi, Hamed; Shafaatian, Seyed-Mohammad-Hadi; Fischer, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Despite its environmental and economical advantages, crushed recycled glass has limited application as concrete aggregates due to its deleterious alkali-silica reaction. To offer feasible mitigation strategies, the mechanism of ASR should be well understood. Recent research showed that unlike some...... natural aggregates, soda-lime glass undergoes ASR within cracks in the interior of glass particles and not at glass–paste interface. These cracks originate during bottle crushing and propagate further by ASR. This paper examines whether glass aggregates could become innocuous if these cracks are healed...... by annealing or when the crack widths are smaller than a critical size. The results confirm that glass annealed at 650°C for 40min or particles containing cracks smaller than approximately 2.5μm can be considered innocuous based on ASTM C1260. Also larger glass particles contain significantly higher...

  9. Bonding of metal oxides in sodium silicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, D.J.; Veal, B.W.; Chen, H.; Knapp, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies have been undertaken on sodium disilicate glasses containing varying amounts of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and UO/sub 2/. The XPS results enable one to distinguish the different bonding characteristics of iron and uranium in these glasses. A three dimensional model for the iron coordination in the sodium disilicate glass is inferred from the combined XPS and EXAFS results.

  10. Quantification of the boron speciation in alkali borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shaodong; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Yanqi;

    2015-01-01

    developed a method based on electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data acquisition and analyses, which enables determination of the boron speciation in a series of ternary alkali borosilicate glasses with constant molar ratios. A script for the fast acquisition of EELS has been designed, from which...... fraction in glasses. In addition, the boron speciation of a CeO2 doped potassium borosilicate glass has been analyzed by using the time-resolved EELS spectra. The results clearly demonstrate that the BO4 to BO3 transformation induced by the electron beamirradiation can be efficiently suppressed by doping...

  11. Absorption of light by lead silicate borate glasses containing gadolinium tellurite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanchenko, L.A.; Obolonchik, V.A.; Ovcharenko, N.V.; Frankfurt, V.M.; Serdyuk, V.A.; Zaletilo, L.S.

    1987-03-01

    The authors investigate how the properties of lead silicate borate glasses change when rare-earth tellurites are added to them. The choice of glasses based on PbO was prompted by the fact that they are low-melting and will dissolve large amounts of compounds of type Ln/sub 2/Te/sub 3/O/sub 9/. The compositions of the resultant glasses are shown. The refractive indices and absorption edge in the visible region of the spectrum is also presented. The dependences of the absorptive index of glasses in both visible and in IR regions are shown, as is the reflection spectra in the IR.

  12. Viscosity and Softening Behavior of Alkali Zinc Sulfophosphate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da, Ning; Krolikowski, Sebastian; Nielsen, Karsten Hansgaard;

    2010-01-01

    We report on the softening properties and viscosity of glasses from the system ZnO-Na2O-SO3-P2O5 for low-temperature sealing applications. Up to a ratio of network-forming ions PO(4)3-:SO(4)2- of about 2:1, a gradual substitution of P2O5 by SO3 results in decreasing glass transition and softening...

  13. Spectroscopic Properties and Judd-Ofelt Theory Analysis of Er3+-Doped Heavy Metal Oxyfluoride Silicate Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐时清; 杨中民; 戴世勋; 张军杰; 胡丽丽; 姜中宏

    2004-01-01

    Er3+-doped heavy metal oxyfluoride silicate glass was fabricated and characterized, and the absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of the glass were studied. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωt (t=2, 4, 6), spontaneous transition probability, fluorescence branching ratio and radiative lifetime of each energy levels for Er3+ were calculated by Judd-Ofelt theory, and stimulated emission cross-section of 4I13/2→4I15/2 transition was calculated by McCumber theory. The results show that fluorescence full width at half maximum and stimulated emission cross-section of Er3+-doped heavy metal oxyfluoride silicate glass are broad and large, respectively. Compared with other host glasses, the gain bandwidth property of Er3+-doped heavy metal oxyfluoride silicate glass is close to those of tellurite and bismuth glasses, and has advantage over those of silicate, phosphate and germante glasses.

  14. Float processing of high-temperature complex silicate glasses and float baths used for same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Reid Franklin (Inventor); Cook, Glen Bennett (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A float glass process for production of high melting temperature glasses utilizes a binary metal alloy bath having the combined properties of a low melting point, low reactivity with oxygen, low vapor pressure, and minimal reactivity with the silicate glasses being formed. The metal alloy of the float medium is exothermic with a solvent metal that does not readily form an oxide. The vapor pressure of both components in the alloy is low enough to prevent deleterious vapor deposition, and there is minimal chemical and interdiffusive interaction of either component with silicate glasses under the float processing conditions. Alloys having the desired combination of properties include compositions in which gold, silver or copper is the solvent metal and silicon, germanium or tin is the solute, preferably in eutectic or near-eutectic compositions.

  15. Silicate glass alteration enhanced by iron: origin and long-term implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelin, A; Burger, E; Rebiscoul, D; Neff, D; Bruguier, F; Drouet, E; Dillmann, P; Gin, S

    2013-01-15

    Silicate glasses are used as containment matrices for deep geological disposal of nuclear waste arising from spent fuel reprocessing. Understanding the dissolution mechanisms of glasses in contact with iron, an element present in large amounts in the immediate environment (overpack, claystone, etc.) would be a major breakthrough toward predicting radionuclide release in the geosphere after disposal. Two different reacted glass-iron interfaces-a short-term nuclear system and a long-term archeological system-were examined using a multiscale and multianalytical approach including, for the first time on samples of this type, STXM under synchrotron radiation. Comparisons revealed remarkable similarities between the two systems and shed light on Fe-Si interactions, including migration of iron within a porous gel layer and precipitation of Fe-silicates that locally increase short-term glass alteration and are sustainable over the long-term.

  16. Use of Fly Ash in the Mitigation of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    crystallinity of the silica and its solubility. Common reactive minerals susceptible to ASR include strained quartz, cristobalite , opal, obsidian, chert, and...residues, whereas alkali-silica reactive components include opal, cristobalite , tridymite, siliceous and some intermediate volcanic glass, chert

  17. Effect of lithium-potassium mixed alkali on spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped aluminophosphate glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yong-Zheng; Liao Mei-Song; Hu Li-Li

    2007-01-01

    Er3+-doped lithium-potassium mixed alkali aluminophosphate glasses belonging to the oxide system xK2O-(15-x)Li2O-4B2O3-11Al2O3-5BaO-65P2O5 are obtained in a semi-continuous melting quenching process. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped glass matrix have been analysed by fitting the experimental data with the standard Judd- Ofelt theory. It is observed that Judd- Ofelt intensity parameters Ωt(t = 2, 4 and 6) of Er3+ change when the second alkali is introduced into glass matrix. The variation of line strength Sed[4I13/2,4I15/2] follows the same trend as that of the Ω6 parameter. The effect of mixed alkali on the spectroscopic properties of the aluminophosphate glasses, such as absorption cross-section, stimulated emission cross-section, spontaneous emission probability, branching ratio and the radiative lifetime, has also been investigated in this paper.

  18. Broadband UV-to-green photoconversion in V-doped lithium zinc silicate glasses and glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guojun; Meszaros, Robert; Peng, Mingying; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2011-05-09

    We report on photoluminescence of vanadium-doped lithium zinc silicate glasses and corresponding nanocrystalline Li2ZnSiO4 glass ceramics as broadband UV-to-VIS photoconverters. Depending on dopant concentration and synthesis conditions, VIS photoemission from [VO4]3 is centered at 550-590 nm and occurs over a bandwidth (FWHM) of ~250 nm. The corresponding excitation band covers the complete UV-B to UV-A spectral region. In as-melted glasses, the emission lifetime is about 34 μs up to a nominal dopant concentration of 0.5 mol%. In the glass ceramic, it increases to about 45 μs. For higher dopant concentration, a sharp drop in emission lifetime was observed, what is interpreted as a result of concentration quenching. Self-quenching is further promoted by energy transfer to V4+ centers (2glass and/or synthesis conditions.

  19. IR and Raman spectroscopic studies of sol–gel derived alkaline-earth silicate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelos G Kalampounias

    2011-04-01

    IR and Raman spectroscopies have been utilized to study the structure and vibrational modes of sol–gel-derived binary silicate glasses. The present study is motivated by the immense geological significance and focuses on the MO–SiO2 (M = Ca, Mg) binary systems in an effort to unveil the role of the CaO and MgO modifiers when incorporated to the 3D silica structure. Glasses in the composition range = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 prepared by the sol–gel method were compared with the corresponding glasses formed by appropriate mixing of SiO2 and MO powders through melting and fast cooling. The vibrational spectra of the sol–gel-derived glasses have revealed considerable changes in relative intensities as a function of the MO mole fraction. These changes signify structural modifications on the silica network. The population of the 3 species was found to increase for both modified silicate systems. The rate of increase is more pronounced in the CaO–SiO2 glasses. The extent of network depolymerization in the porous glass is higher at the same content of alkaline earth oxide compared to the bulk glass. The results are indicative of a more `defective’ nature of the sol–gel glasses compared to the corresponding melt-quenched ones.

  20. Mixed alkali effect in glasses containing MnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Rajiv, Asha [Department of Physics, Jain University, Bangalore (India); Veeranna Gowda, V. C. [Department of Physics, GovernmentCollege for Women, Chintamani (India); Chakradhar, R. P. S. [CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore (India); Reddy, C. Narayana [Department of Physics, Maharani' s Science College for Women (PG centre, Bangalore University) Bangalore (India)

    2013-02-05

    Glass systems of the composition xLi{sub 2}O-(25-x)K{sub 2}O-70(0.4ZnO+0.6P{sub 2}O{sub 5})+5MnO{sub 2} (x = 4,8,12,16 and 20 mol %) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The thermal and mechanical properties of the glasses have been evaluated as a function of mixed alkali content. Glass transition temperature and Vickers's hardness of the glasses show a pronounced deviation from linearity at 12 mol%Li{sub 2}O. Theoretically estimated elastic moduli of the glasses show small positive deviations from linearity. MAE in these properties has been attributed to the localized changes in the glass network. The absorption spectra of Mn{sup 2+} ions in these glasses showed strong broad absorption band at 514 nm corresponding to the transition {sup 6}A{sub 1g}(S){yields}{sup 4}T{sub 1g}(G), characteristic of manganese ions in octahedral symmetry. The fundamental absorption edge in UV region is used to study the optical transitions and electronic band structure. From UV absorption edge, optical band gap energies have been evaluated. Band gap energies of the glasses have exhibited MAE and shows minimum value for 12 mol%Li{sub 2}O glass.

  1. Reaction of chromalumozirconium refractory with alkali-free borosilicate glass melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, O.N.; Frolova, V.P.

    1985-03-01

    The corrosion mechanism of chromalumozirconium refractory synthesized on the base of the Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-ZrO/sub 2/-SiO/sub 2/ system by the alkali-free borosilicate ''E'' glass melt is investigated. It is estalished that in the process of refractory destruction the diffusion zonality is formed in it being a reflection of comparative migration activity of refractory components.

  2. Ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped silicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P M; Funk, D S; Peskin, A P; Veasey, D L; Sanford, N A; Houde-Walter, S N; Hayden, J S

    1999-11-20

    We investigated an Er(3+)/Yb(3+) codoped silicate glass as a host material for waveguide lasers operating near 1.5 microm. Spectroscopic properties of the glass are reported. Waveguide lasers were fabricated by K(+)-ion exchange from a nitrate melt. The waveguides support a single transverse mode at 1.5 microm. An investigation of the laser performance as a function of the Yb:Er ratio was performed, indicating an optimal ratio of approximately 5:1. Slope efficiencies of as great as 6.5% and output powers as high as 19.6 mW at 1.54 microm were realized. The experimental results are compared with a waveguide laser model that is used to extract the Er(3+) upconversion coefficients and the Yb(3+)-Er(3+) cross-relaxation coefficients. The results indicate the possibility of obtaining high-performance waveguide lasers from a durable silicate host glass.

  3. Effect of yttrium oxide addition on absorption and emission properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Nengli; WANG Yanshan; XU Bing; YANG Lüyun; LUAN Huaixun; LI Jinyan

    2012-01-01

    Y/Bi co-doped silicate glasses were prepared,and the effects of Y2O3 on the absorption and emission properties were investigated by spectrum measurement.It was found that the absorption intensity in visible region decreases with increase of Y3+ concentration in (70-x)SiO2-xY2O3-30CaO-1.5Bi2O3 (x=0mol.%,1mol.%,3 mol.%,5 mol.%,7 mol.%) glasses.The emissions centered at 410,630,1200 and 1290 nmwere observed under 280,470,514 and 808 nm excitation,respectively.The emission intensity had the similar change tendency in the visible and near infrared region.We also discussed the actual role of Y 3+ ions playing in the visible and near infrared emissions of the silicate glasses.

  4. Reactions of chromium-aluminum-zirconium refractory with a molten alkali-free borosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, O.N.; Frolova, V.P.

    1985-08-01

    The authors consider the scope for using KhTs-45 refractory containing in mass % 45.0 Cr2O3, 5.0 Al2O3, 32.5 ZrO2, 16.0 SiO2, and 1.5 Na2O for melting alkali-free borosilicate glass E, and they also present some experimental results on the corrosion of the refractory in contact with the molten glass and on the contact mineral formation. They conclude that during the attack on the refractory diffusion zoning is formed, which reflects the relative component migration activities.

  5. Monitoring ageing of alkali resistant glass fiber reinforced cement (GRC) using guided ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J. N.; Amjad, U.; Mahmoudabadi, E.; Payá, J.; Bonilla, M.; Kundu, T.

    2013-04-01

    Glass fiber reinforced cement (GRC) is a Portland cement based composite with alkali resistant (AR) glass fibers. The main drawback of this material is the ageing of the reinforcing fibers with time and especially in presence of humidity in the environment. Until now only destructive methods have been used to evaluate the durability of GRC. In this study ultrasonic guided wave inspection of plate shaped specimens has been carried out. The results obtained here show that acoustic signatures are capable of discerning ageing in GRC. Therefore, the ultrasonic guided wave based inspection technique is a promising method for the nondestructive evaluation of the durability of the GRC.

  6. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    is calculated by z = a 2 R . (5) This allows for the estimation of the maximum force, Pmax, from a dynamic impact as described by Timoshenko ...and M. M. Chaudhri, “Impact of Small Steel Spheres on Glass Surfaces”, J. Mat. Sci., 12:1573-86 (1977). [4] S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory

  7. Spectral Properties of Erbium-Doped Oxyfluoride Silicate Glasses for Broadband Optical Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐时清; 杨中民; 戴世勋; 杨建虎; 温磊; 胡丽丽; 姜中宏

    2003-01-01

    The new oxyfluoride silicate glasses of Er3+-doped 50SiO2-(50-x)PbO-xPbF2 were prepared. With increasing PbF2 content in the glass composition, the fluorescence full width at half maximum and lifetimes of the 4I13/2level of Er3+ increase, while the refractive indices and densities decrease. Er3+-doped 50SiO2-50PbF2 glass showed broad fluorescence spectra of 1.55μm with a large stimulated emission cross-section and long lifetimes of 4I13/2level of Er3+. Compared with other glass hosts, the gain bandwidth properties of Er3+-doped 50SiO2-50PbF2glass are close to those of tellurite and bismuth glasses, and have advantages over those of silicate, phosphate and germante glasses. The broad and flat 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 emission of Er3+ around 1.55μm can be used as host material for potential broadband optical amplifier in wavelength-division-multiplexing network system.

  8. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Optical Absorption Studies on Copper Ions in Mixed Alkali Cadmium Phosphate Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Giridhar; M.Rangacharyulu; R.V.S.S.N.Ravikumar; P.Sambasiva Rao

    2009-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption studies were carried out at room temperature on copper doped mixed alkali cadmium phosphate (LiNaCdP) glasses to understand the nature and symmetry of dopant. Three samples with varying concentrations of alkali ions have been prepared. The spin Hamiltonian parameters obtained from room temperature EPR spectra are: g||=2.437, g⊥=2.096, A||=117×10-4 cm-1, A⊥=26×10-4 cm-1 for LiNaCdP1, g||=2.441, g⊥=2.088, A||=121×10-4 cm-1, A⊥=25×10-4 cm-1 for LiNaCdP2 and g||=2.433, g⊥=2.096, A||=125×10-4 cm-1, A⊥=32×10-4 cm-1 for LiNaCdP3. These EPR results indicate that the dopant Cu2+ ion enters the glass matrix into a tetragonally elongated octahedral site. The bonding parameters evaluated by correlating optical and EPR data suggest that bonding between the central metal ion and ligands is partially covalent. The mixed alkali effect in cadmium phosphate glasses was reported.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics and instability of aqueous dissolution of silicate glasses and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.

    2016-07-01

    Aqueous dissolution of silicate glasses and minerals plays a critical role in global biogeochemical cycles and climate evolution. The reactivity of these materials is also important to numerous engineering applications including nuclear waste disposal. The dissolution process has long been considered to be controlled by a leached surface layer in which cations in the silicate framework are gradually leached out and replaced by protons from the solution. This view has recently been challenged by observations of extremely sharp corrosion fronts and oscillatory zonings in altered rims of the materials, suggesting that corrosion of these materials may proceed directly through congruent dissolution followed by secondary mineral precipitation. Here we show that complex silicate material dissolution behaviors can emerge from a simple positive feedback between dissolution-induced cation release and cation-enhanced dissolution kinetics. This self-accelerating mechanism enables a systematic prediction of the occurrence of sharp dissolution fronts (vs. leached surface layers), oscillatory dissolution behaviors and multiple stages of glass dissolution (in particular the alteration resumption at a late stage of a corrosion process). Our work provides a new perspective for predicting long-term silicate weathering rates in actual geochemical systems and developing durable silicate materials for various engineering applications.

  10. Tin-containing silicates: Alkali salts improve methyl lactate yield from sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup;

    2015-01-01

    to materials prepared by post-treatment of dealuminated commercial Beta zeolites, as well as ordered mesoporous stannosilicates, in this case Sn-MCM-41 and Sn-SBA-15. These findings open the door to the possibility of using other preparation methods or different Sn-containing silicates with equally high methyl...

  11. Reductive surface synthesis of gold nanoparticles on silicate glass and their biochemical sensor applicationsa

    OpenAIRE

    M. Li; Kim, D.-P.; Jeong, G.-Y.; Seo, D.-K.; Park, C.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were directly synthesized on the surface of polyvinylsilazane (PVSZ, -[(vinyl)SiH-NH2]-) without use of extra reductive additives. The reductive Si-H functional groups on the surface of cured PVSZ acted as surface bound reducing agents to form gold metal when contacted with an aqueous Au precursor (HAuCl4) solution, leading to formation of Au NPs adhered to silicate glass surface. The Au NPs-silicate platforms were preliminarily tested to detect Rhodamine B (1 μM) ...

  12. Reduction-induced inward diffusion and crystal growth on the surfaces of iron-bearing silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.J.; Tao, H.Z.; Zhang, Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the sodium inward diffusion (i.e., sodium diffusion from surface toward interior) in iron containing alkaline earth silicate glasses under reducing conditions around Tg and the induced surface crystallization. The surface crystallization is caused by formation of a silicate-gel layer...... first and then the growth of silica crystals on the glass surface. The type of alkaline earth cations has a strong impact on both the glass transition and the surface crystallization. In the Mg-containing glass, a quartz layer forms on the glass surface. This could be attributed to the fact that Mg2...

  13. NMR and Nqr Study of Atomic Order in Alkali Borate Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Samuel John

    A modified Robinson oscillator circuit was built for the detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) in the 200 to 10,000 kHz region. The circuit demonstrates near ideal performance with the detected noise limited only by the sample temperature. The use of computer controlled data acquisition and a carefully designed sample probe allows for the use of an integrating time constant of up to 6 hours. This spectrometer has been used to detect ^{10}B and ^{11 }B NQR in lithium and sodium borate glasses and crystals. In pure boron oxide glass two distinct boron sites are found. By comparing this experiment with previous NMR and Raman spectroscopy studies, one of the sites, which comprises 85% of the total boron, can be attributed to boron atoms in boroxol rings. As sodium is added to the glass the abundance of boroxol rings decreases. At 20 mol% sodium oxide less than 2% of the boron atoms are found in boroxol rings. The dipole-dipole interaction between lithium cations and four-coordinated boron atoms (B_4 units) has been measured. It is found that every B_4 unit has one lithium cation next to it at an average distance of 2.82 A. A comparison with lithium borate crystals shows that diborate groups do not occur in significant quantities. Both high field and low field NMR studies of the boron quadrupole interaction in a B_4 unit also show that diborate groups are not found in the glass. A ^{23}Na and ^6Li NMR MASS study of lithium and sodium borate glasses shows that ^{23 }Na chemical shifts can distinguish sodium cations bound to non-bridging oxygens from sodium cations bound to bridging oxygens. The chemical shifts measured in lithium-sodium borate glasses are identical to those measured in lithium borate or sodium borate glasses, indicating similar alkali-oxygen coordination. A significant narrowing of the ^6Li NMR spectrum in a mixed alkali glass can be understood as a decrease in the entropy of the lithium cations. This result is consistent with the weak

  14. ER3+-DOPED SODA-LIME SILICATE GLASS: ARTIFICIAL PINK GEMSTONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeranut Kaewwiset

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Er3+-doped soda-lime silicate glasses of the composition (in mol% (65-xSiO2:25Na2O:10CaO:xEr2O3 (where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were fabricated by conventional melt quenching technique. The physical and optical properties were measured and investigated. The erbium oxide enters the glass network as a modifier by occupying the interstitial space in the network and generating the NBOs to the structure. The molar volume increases with an increase in Er2O3 content, which is attributed to the increase in the number of Non-Bridging Oxygen (NBOs. The increase of NBOs in the structure generally leads to an increase in average atomic separation. The density, molar volume and refractive index of glasses increased linearly with increasing Er2O3 concentration. The color of glasses was changed from light pink to intense pink as the Er2O3 concentration was increased from 1 to 5 mol%. The Vickers hardness of Er3+-doped glasses was found to be in the range of 450-500 HV. In this study, it can be concluded that the soda-lime silicate glasses doped with high Er2O3 concentration has intense pink color and high value of hardness which is suitable to be cut as gems.

  15. Redox dynamics in multicomponent, iron-bearing silicate melts and glasses: Application to the float-glass processing of high-temperature silicate glassmelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Glen Bennett

    Processing high-strain-point glasses by the float process is challenged by the relative thermochemical properties of glassmelts and the liquid-metal float medium. As the chemical reaction between the glassmelt and the float metal involves dynamic reduction of the glassmelt, this research has examined the constraints on high-temperature float processing of glassmelts by combining metal-alloy/oxide reaction thermodynamics and Wagnerian kinetic models for redox reactions in silicate melts. The dynamic response of Fe-bearing, p-type (polaronic) semiconducting amorphous silicates to a chemical potential gradient of oxygen has been shown to be rate-limited by the chemical diffusion of network-modifying cations. The persistence of this mechanism to very low Fe concentrations in Fe-doped magnesium aluminosilicate glasses was proven with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Three glasses, with 0.1, 0.5, and 1.25 mol. % FeO were reacted with air at temperatures from 710-845sp°C. For all compositions and temperatures, oxidation was dominated by network modifier diffusion; an activation energy of 475 kJ*molsp{-1} characterized the process. Chemical dynamics in a high-temperature float environment were characterized on liquid-liquid reaction couples between two low-Fe sodium-aluminoborosilicate (NABS) glassmelts (0.01 and 0.08 mol. % FeO) and Au-30Sn and Au-28Ge (atomic basis) alloys. Experiments were performed in the temperature range 1250-1450sp°C for 30 min; wavelength-dispersive and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopies were employed. These exothermic liquid-metal alloys display large negative deviations from ideal solution behavior, with significantly depressed chemical activities. Diffusion of Sn or Ge in the NABS glassmelts (depth and concentration) was limited at all temperatures to levels comparable to conventional soda-lime (NCS) float glass (˜2 min on pure Sn at 1100sp°C). Incorporation of Sn or Ge was reduced significantly in the higher-Fe-content NABS

  16. O-17 NMR studies of some silicate crystals and glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Yildirim, E K

    2000-01-01

    structure. Therefore some of the Sn has to be in three coordinated to oxygen for charge balancing. The sup 1 sup 7 O MAS NMR spectra of a partially crystallised sample showed three distinct sites which are assigned as Sn-O-Sn, Si-O-Sn, and Si-O-Si on the basis of their chemical shift. The C sub Q values obtained from the simulations of these peaks supports this assignment. The sup 2 sup 9 Si MAS NMR of the same sample showed two crystalline and a glassy peaks which are fitted to two crystalline and two glassy sites. The possible composition of this sample was calculated and found to be SiSn sub 8 O sub 1 sub 0. Crystalline and glassy silicates were investigated by means of sup 1 sup 7 O NMR. The dependence of the measured efg on the Si-O-AI bond angle was investigated in some crystalline aluminosilicate sodalites and kalsilite. The results show that C sub Q increases with increasing bond angle while eta decreases with increasing bond angle and they both follow a similar function to that found for the Si-O-Si ...

  17. Understanding the defect chemistry of alkali metal strontium silicate solid solutions: insights from experiment and theory

    KAUST Repository

    Bayliss, Ryan D.

    2014-09-24

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Recent reports of remarkably high oxide ion conduction in a new family of strontium silicates have been challenged. It has recently been demonstrated that, in the nominally potassium substituted strontium germanium silicate material, the dominant charge carrier was not the oxygen ion, and furthermore that the material was not single phase (R. D. Bayliss et. al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, DOI: 10.1039/c4ee00734d). In this work we re-investigate the sodium-doped strontium silicate material that was reported to exhibit the highest oxide ion conductivity in the solid solution, nominally Sr0.55Na0.45SiO2.775. The results show lower levels of total conductivity than previously reported and sub-micron elemental mapping demonstrates, in a similar manner to that reported for the Sr0.8K0.2Si0.5Ge0.5O2.9 composition, an inhomogeneous chemical distribution correlating with a multiphase material. It is also shown that the conductivity is not related to protonic mobility. A density functional theory computational approach provides a theoretical justification for these new results, related to the high energetic costs associated with oxygen vacancy formation. This journal is

  18. Reductive surface synthesis of gold nanoparticles on silicate glass and their biochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Kim, D-P; Jeong, G-Y; Seo, D-K; Park, C-P

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were directly synthesized on the surface of polyvinylsilazane (PVSZ, -[(vinyl)SiH-NH2]-) without use of extra reductive additives. The reductive Si-H functional groups on the surface of cured PVSZ acted as surface bound reducing agents to form gold metal when contacted with an aqueous Au precursor (HAuCl4) solution, leading to formation of Au NPs adhered to silicate glass surface. The Au NPs-silicate platforms were preliminarily tested to detect Rhodamine B (1 μM) by surface enhanced Raman scattering. Furthermore, gold microelectrode obtained by post-chemical plating was used as an integrated amperometric detection element in the polydimethylsilane-glass hybrid microfluidic chip.

  19. Optical properties and structure of beryllium lead silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, I. S., E-mail: i.s.zhidkov@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002, Russia and Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Str. 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A. [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-21

    Luminescence and optical properties and structural features of (BeO){sub x}(PbO⋅SiO{sub 2}){sub 1−x} glasses (x = 0 ÷ 0.3) are investigated by means of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The regularities of the formation of the optical absorption edge and static disorder are studied. It is shown that the optical absorption and luminescence are determined by transitions between localized states of lead ions. The impact of beryllium oxide on optical and luminescence properties and electronic structure of bands tails is discussed. The presence of two different concentration ranges with various short-range order structure and band tails nature has been established.

  20. Optical properties and structure of beryllium lead silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, I. S.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    Luminescence and optical properties and structural features of (BeO)x(PbOṡSiO2)1-x glasses (x = 0 ÷ 0.3) are investigated by means of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The regularities of the formation of the optical absorption edge and static disorder are studied. It is shown that the optical absorption and luminescence are determined by transitions between localized states of lead ions. The impact of beryllium oxide on optical and luminescence properties and electronic structure of bands tails is discussed. The presence of two different concentration ranges with various short-range order structure and band tails nature has been established.

  1. An intrinsic luminescence in binary lead silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepin, А. F.; Zhidkov, I. S.; Kukharenko, A. I.; Zatsepin, D. А.; Andronov, М. P.; Cholakh, S. О.

    2012-03-01

    The low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) of xPbO · (1 - x)SiO2 glasses (x = 0.20-0.75) was studied at Т = 10 K. The recorded PL-spectra are a superposition of three spectral components with maxima located at 1.8 eV (identified as Pb 6p → metal-bridging O2p radiative electron transition, the "R"-band), 2.0 eV (Pb 6p → non-bridging O2p, the "O"-band) and 2.55 eV (Pb 6p → Pb 6s, the "B"-band), respectively. It was found the essential link for "R", "O" and "B" PL-bands with chemical composition x of the glasses under study. These concentration dependences are expressed as mutual PL-intensity variations for each recorded luminescence band that allowed to determine their origin. The shape of established dependences well coincides with numerical data on NBO- and MBO-density of chemical bonding, reported previously. The overall PL-manner within the temperature range of 10-295 K is described by an empirical Street's law. It was shown that experimental photoluminescence quenching curves may be precisely approximated as a superposition of Mott relationships for nonequivalent luminescence centers. The obtained distribution of PL-centers on the activation energy for luminescence quenching reflects the essential donation of the low-energy states into the overall PL-process. The width of this energy distribution affects by the type of PL-emission band and the disordering degree in the arrangement of local PL-centers of a certain kind.

  2. Nd3+ Doped Silicate Glass Photonic Crystal Fiber with Random Hole Distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fabrication of one kind of large core area Nd3+ doped silicate glass photonic crystal fiber, and demonstration of the fiber's waveguidence properties were reported. This fiber owns a random air hole distribution in the cladding. The measured minimum loss of this kind of fiber is 10 dB·m-1 at 660 nm. These fibers can sustain only a single mode at least over wavelength ranging from 660 nm to 980 nm.

  3. Fe2O3 Modified Physical, Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth Silicate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron-containing bismuth silicate glasses with compositions 60SiO2·(100−xBi2O3·xFe2O3 have been prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the glass samples has been ascertained by the X-ray diffraction. The density (d has been measured using Archimedes principle, molar volume (Vm has also been estimated, and both are observed to decrease with the increase in iron content. The glass transition temperature (Tg of these iron bismuth silicate glasses has been determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC technique, and it increases with the increase in Fe2O3 content. The IR spectra of these glasses consist mainly of [BiO6], [BiO3], and [SiO4] structural units. The optical properties are measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy. The optical bandgap energy (Eop is observed to decrease with the increase in Fe2O3 content, whereas reverse trend is observed for refractive index.

  4. Sub-critical crack growth in silicate glasses: Role of network topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M., E-mail: mos@bio.aau.dk [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Bauchy, Mathieu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    The presence of water in the surrounding atmosphere can cause sub-critical crack growth (SCCG) in glasses, a phenomenon known as fatigue or stress corrosion. Here, to facilitate the compositional design of more fatigue-resistant glasses, we investigate the composition dependence of SCCG by studying fourteen silicate glasses. The fatigue curves (V-K{sub I}) have been obtained by indentation experiments through measurements of the crack length as a function of post-indentation fatigue duration. Interestingly, we find that the fatigue resistance parameter N is generally improved by increasing the alumina content and is thereby found to exhibit a fairly linear dependence on the measured Vickers hardness H{sub V} for a wide range of N and H{sub V} values. This finding highlights the important role of network topology in governing the SCCG in silicate glasses, since hardness has been shown to scale linearly with the number of atomic constraints. Our results therefore suggest that glasses showing under-constrained flexible networks, which feature floppy internal modes of deformation, are more readily attacked by water molecules, thus promoting stress corrosion and reducing the fatigue resistance.

  5. Investigations of the structure of silicate glasses and carbohydrates by silicon-29 and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance and by ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping

    Measurements of the relative abundance of anionic species, commonly described as Qn species in silicate glasses are essential for any structure-based model of thermodynamic or transport properties of silicate liquids and magmas. Solid-state 29Si NMR has provided the most convincing evidence that the Qn species distribution in alkali glasses is not random but closer to binary. Unfortunately, for most silicate glasses 29Si MAS NMR spectra are incompletely resolved. A 2D NMR technique is reported that cannot only determine the distribution of Qn species without any a priori assumptions about the lineshapes, but also provide over an order of magnitude improvement in the precision of Qn species quantification. Results of this approach on a few carefully chosen composition should lead to a major improvement of structure-based thermodynamic models of silicate liquids. Another important aspect of structure of silicate glasses is the environment of nonbridging oxygen atoms. In other words, how the cations are distributed around non-bridging oxygen atoms. 17O solid-state NMR has been shown to be a powerful probe for studying the local structure of non-bridging oxygen. One challenge in exploiting techniques such as DOR, DAS, or MQ-MAS is the development of appropriate models to describe the relationships between NMR parameters and local structure. Ab initio calculations on the model cluster [(OH)3Si-OMn] OH 3Si-OMn n-1 + (M = Na, K; n = 3,4,5) have been performed. A point charge model is also used to derive approximate expressions to describe the dependence of the 17O quadrupole coupling parameters on the cation-non-bridging oxygen distance and its orientation. Solid-state NMR and ab initio quantum mechanical methods are used to characterize the possible molecular conformations of trehalose. Combining ab initio derived maps and using the 13 C lineshape as constraints, the torsion angle distribution map for alpha-alpha ' trehalose was constructed. Measurements of 13C isotropic

  6. Investigation of luminescence and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ions in cadmium alkali borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shaweta; Thind, Kulwant Singh

    2016-07-01

    Neodymium doped cadmium alkali borate glasses having composition 20CdOsbnd 20R2Osbnd 59.5H3BO3sbnd 0.5Nd2O3; (R = Li, Na and K) were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the glasses was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The physical properties such as density, refractive index, molar volume, rare earth ion concentration etc. were determined. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied on the optical absorption spectra of the glasses to evaluate the three phenomenological intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6. These parameters were in turn used to predict the radiative properties such as the radiative transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR) and branching ratio (βR) for the fluorescent levels of Nd3+ ion in the present glass series. The lasing efficiency of the prepared glasses has been characterized by the spectroscopic quality factor (Ω4/Ω6), the value of which is in the range of 0.2-1.5, typical for Nd3+ in different laser hosts. The variation of Ω2 with the change in alkali oxide has been attributed to the changes in the asymmetry of the ligand field at the rare earth ion site. The shift of the hypersensitive bands, study of the oscillator strengths and the variation of the spectral profile of the transition 4I9/2 → 4F7/2 + 4S3/2 indicate a maximum covalency of Ndsbnd O bond for glass with potassium ions. From the fluorescence spectra, peak wavelength (λp), effective line widths (Δλeff) and stimulated emission cross-section (σp) have been obtained for the three transitions 4F3/2 → 4I9/2,4F3/2 → 4I11/2 and4F3/2 → 4I13/2 of Nd3+ ion. The relatively high values of σp obtained for Nd3+ in present glass system suggest that these materials can be considered as suitable candidates for laser applications. The glass with potassium ions shows the highest value of the stimulated emission cross-section.

  7. Radiation damage induced by gamma irradiation on Ce sup 3 sup + doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Baccaro, S; Mihoková, E; Nikl, M; Nitsch, K; Polato, P; Zanella, G; Zannoni, R

    2002-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the optical properties of Ce sup 3 sup + -doped phosphate and silicate glasses is studied in the 1-250 Gy dose range. Results are discussed by taking into account the possible dependence of radiation-induced effects on the composition of the glass matrix.

  8. An alkali-free barium borosilicate viscous sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Hsien; Kim, Cheol-Woon; Brow, Richard K.; Szabo, Joe; Crouch, Ray; Baird, Rob

    2014-12-01

    An alkali-free, alkaline earth borosilicate glass (designated G102) has been developed as a viscous sealant for use with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The glass possesses the requisite viscosity, electrical resistivity, and thermal and chemical stability under SOFC operating conditions to act as a reliable sealant. Sandwich seals between aluminized stainless steel and a YSZ/NiO-YSZ bilayer survived 148 thermal cycles (800 °C to room temperature) in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres at a differential pressure of ∼3.4 kPa (0.5 psi) without failure. For sandwich seals that were held at 800 °C for up to 2280 h in air, G102 resisted crystallization, there were limited interactions at the G102/YSZ interface, but BaAl2Si2O8 crystals formed at the glass/metal interface because of the reaction between the glass and the aluminized steel. Sandwich seals that were intentionally cracked by thermal shock resealed to became hermetic upon reheating to temperatures as low as 744 °C.

  9. Femtosecond laser-induced color change and filamentation in Ag+-doped silicate glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyi Sun; Fei He; Jian Xu; Yang Liao; Ya Cheng; Zhizhan Xu; Xiongwei Jiang; Ye Dai

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the influence of multiple filamentation (MF) on the micromachining in Ag+-doped silicate glass irradiated by a 1-kHz femtosecond laser. The thresholds of MF and color change (CC) are measured for both linearly and circularly polarized laser beams. The results demonstrate that the thresholds of MF and CC are very close. The thresholds of CC and MF for circular polarization increase by ~1.4 times compared with linear polarization. Circular polarization can suppress the number of filaments to some extent compared with linear polarization. However, it is difficult to obtain CC without any filamentation if circular polarization technique is used alone.

  10. Composition dependence of luminescence of Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses for LED applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, C.F.; Chaussedent, S.; Liu, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses are good candidates for light emitting diode (LED) applications. But the optical performance of these glasses is sensitive to variations in chemical composition. In this paper we report our recent findings about the effect of addition of minor components....... The results show that the asymmetry factor and luminescence lifetimes of as-prepared materials are dependent on composition. White fluorescence is achieved in Eu/Tb co-doped glasses, which can be attributed to the simultaneous generation of red, green and blue wavelengths from Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions...... such as B2O3, Al2O3 and CaF2 on the luminescent properties of the above-mentioned glasses. We explore the role of Eu3+ ions as a structural probe of the glasses by determining the asymmetry factor, i.e., the ratio of the emission intensity of the 5D0→7F2 transition to that of the 5D0 →7F1 transition...

  11. Effects of thermo-plasmonics on laser-induced backside wet etching of silicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, M. Yu; Yusupov, V. I.; Minaev, N. V.; Timashev, P. S.; Golant, K. M.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2016-10-01

    The thermo-plasmonic effect (heat deposition via absorption of laser light by metal nanoparticles) is applied to substantially enhance the effectiveness and controllability of the microstructure formation by laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE). Experiments were carried out with silicate glass plates using a pulsed 527 nm wavelength laser and an aqueous solution of AgNO3 as a precursor of the Ag nanoparticles. Mechanisms of such thermo-plasmonic LIBWE (TP-LIBWE) versions are considered. They involve: laser-induced photo-thermal reducing of silver (Ag) and self-assembling of Ag nanoparticles in water and the water/glass interface; fast laser-induced overheating of a water and glass surface through the thermo-plasmonic effect; formation of highly reactive supercritical water that causes glass etching and crater formation; generation of steam-gas bubbles in a liquid. It is significant that the emergence of the Marangoni convection results in bubble retention in the focal point at the interface and the accumulation of nanoparticles on the surface of the laser-induced crater, as this facilitates the movement of the bubbles with captured Ag particles from the fluid volume in the crater region, and accelerates the formation of the area of strong ‘surface absorption’ of laser energy. All these mechanisms provide a highly efficient and reproducible process for laser microstructure formation on the surface of glass using a novel TP-LIBWE technique.

  12. Effect of Glass Powder on Chloride Ion Transport and Alkali-aggregate Reaction Expansion of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi; SHI Caijun; SONG Jianming

    2009-01-01

    The effects of glass powder on the strength development, chloride permeability and potential alkali-aggregate reaction expansion of lightweight aggregate concrete were investigated.Ground blast furnace slag, coal fly ash and silica fume were used as reference materials. The re-placement of cement with 25% glass powder slightly decreases the strengthes at 7 and 28 d, but shows no effect on 90 d's. Silica fume is very effective in improving both the strength and chloride penetra-tion resistance, while ground glass powder is much more effective than blast furnace slag and fly ash in improving chloride penetration resistance of the concrete. When expanded shale or clay is used as coarse aggregate, the concrete containing glass powder does not exhibit deleterious expansion even if alkali-reactive sand is used as fine aggregate of the concrete.

  13. Multivariate analysis of Ion Beam Induced Luminescence spectra of irradiated silver ion-exchanged silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Quaranta, Alberto; Cattaruzza, Elti; Gonella, Francesco; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    A multivariate analysis is used for the identification of the spectral features in Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) spectra of soda-lime silicate glasses doped with silver by Ag+-Na+ ion exchange. Both Principal Component Analysis and multivariate analysis were used to characterize time-evolving IBIL spectra of Ag-doped glasses, by means of the identification of the number and of the wavelength positions of the main luminescent features and the study of their evolution during irradiation. This method helps to identify the spectral features of the samples spectra, even when partially overlapped or less intense. This analysis procedure does not require additional input such as the number of peaks.

  14. Applications of high resolution NMR to geochemistry: crystalline, glass, and molten silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, E.

    1985-11-01

    The nuclear spin interactions and the associated quantum mechanical dynamics which are present in solid state NMR are introduced. A brief overview of aluminosilicate structure is presented and crystalline structure is then reviewed, with emphasis on the contributions made by /sup 29/Si NMR spectroscopy. The local structure of glass aluminosilicates as observed by NMR, is presented with analysis of the information content of /sup 29/Si spectra. A high-temperature (to 1300/sup 0/C) NMR spectroscopic investigation of the local environment and dynamics of molecular motion in molten aluminosilicates is described. A comparison is made of silicate liquid, glass, and crystalline local structure. The atomic and molecular motions present in a melt are investigated through relaxation time (T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) measurements as a function of composition and temperature for /sup 23/Na and /sup 29/Si.

  15. Calcium polyphosphate as an additive to zinc-silicate glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Esther Mae; Gagnier, David; Dickey, Brett Thomas; Boyd, Daniel; Filiaggi, Mark Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum-free glass ionomer cements (GICs) are under development for orthopedic applications, but are limited by their insufficient handling properties. Here, the addition of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) was investigated as an additive to an experimental zinc-silicate glass ionomer cement. A 50% maximum increase in working time was observed with CPP addition, though this was not clinically significant due to the short working times of the starting zinc-silicate GIC. Surprisingly, CPP also improved the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength which increased by ∼33% after 30 days in TRIS buffer solution upon CPP addition up to 37.5 wt%. This strengthening may have been due to the formation of ionic crosslinks between the polyphosphate chains and polyacrylic acid. Thus, CPP is a potential additive to future GIC compositions as it has been shown to improve handling and mechanical properties. In addition, CPP may stimulate new bone growth and provide the ability for drug delivery, which are desirable modifications for an orthopedic cement.

  16. Ni2+-doped new silicate glass-ceramics for broadband near infrared luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Cheng, Yin

    2016-12-01

    The new composite transparent spinel silicate glass-ceramics containing Ni2+-doped ZnGa2O4 and solid solution MgxZn1-xGa2O4 nanocrystals were fabricated by in situ controlled crystallization method. After heat treatment, the crystal phase content of ZnGa2O4 increase with increasing heat treatment temperature, and the Mg2+ ions could enter the crystal lattice of ZnGa2O4 to replace the Zn2+ ions and form a new solid solution MgxZn1-xGa2O4. The coordination environment of Ni2+ was changed from tetrahedral in glasses to octahedral sites in glass ceramics. The super-broadband infrared luminescence with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of about 400 nm overing 1.1-1.7 μm wavelength region and fluorescent lifetime of about 480 μs were observed from the glass ceramics containing MgxZn1-xGa2O4 nanocrystals. It is probably due to the variety of solid solution structure making Ni2+ ions enter two different octahedral sites. At the same time, the impact of heat treatment temperature and the concentration of NiO on peak position and intensity were also discussed. The results demonstrate that the method presented may be an effective way to fabricate super-broadband optical amplifiers and tunable lasers.

  17. 化学增强铝硅酸盐玻璃扩散性能研究%The Diffusion Performance of Potassium and Sodium in Ion Exchanged Aluminum Silicate Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金树; 赵薇; 肖子凡

    2012-01-01

    了解碱金属离子在玻璃表面的扩散对生产高强度铝硅酸盐系统离子交换玻璃具有重要意义.通过外加Al,讨论不同Al/Na对碱离子扩散影响.采用EPMA测得玻璃断面K+、Na+分布曲线,根据Boltzmann- Matano计算方法得到K+、Na+的扩散系数,根据Arrhenius公式计算得到K+、Na+的扩散活化能.实验证明,随着Al/Na的增加,K+、Na+扩散深度逐渐增加,互扩散系数逐渐增加,K+、Na+平均活化能逐渐增加.讨论玻璃体内Al/Na比例是研究高强度离子交换玻璃的一个重要方向.%In the production of ion exchanged aluminum silicate system glass, the alkali ion diffusion on the glass surface is an important process which must be considered. In this paper, we discussed the impact of additional Al on the diffusion of alkali ions. The penetration depth profiles of alkali ions were obtained by EPMA methods. The diffusion coefficients of alkali ions were calculated by Boltzmann-Matano equation. And the active energy of alkali ions were gotten by Arrhenius equation. The results showed that the penetration depth, the interdiffusion coefficient and the average active energy increased with the increase of Al/Na ratios. It means the Al/Na ratios have a great effect on the diffusion of alkali i-ons.

  18. Investigations in silicate glasses. I. Radiation damage. II. Optical nonlinearity. [Gamma rays and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, M.J.

    1976-11-15

    The investigation of two poorly understood but technologically important physical properties of silicate glasses and related materials is described. The use of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance to investigate the nature of radiation-induced damage in glasses exposed to a variety of high-energy radiation sources is discussed first. Second, the measurement of the nonlinear index of refraction coefficient in a variety of optical materials related to the design of high-power laser systems is described. The radiation damage investigations rely heavily on the comparison of experimental results for different experimental situations. The comparison of EPR lineshapes, absolute spin densities and power saturation behavior is used to probe a variety of microscopic and macroscopic aspects of radiation damage in glasses. Comparison of radiation damage associated with exposure to gamma rays and fast neutrons (and combinations thereof) are interpreted in terms of the microscopic damage mechanisms which are expected to be associated with the specific radiations. Comparison of radiation damage behavior in different types of glasses is also interpreted in terms of the behavior expected for the specific materials. The body of data which is generated is found to be internally self-consistent and is also generally consistent with the radiation damage behavior expected for specific situations. A new and versatile technique for measuring the nonlinear index of refraction coefficient, n/sub 2/, in optical materials is described. The technique utilizes a 1 ns pulsed neodymium-glass laser system and time-resolved interferometry to determine the ratio of the coefficient n/sub 2/ of sample materials to the n/sub 2/ of CS/sub 2/. This method avoids some of the complications associated with performing absolute measurements of n/sub 2/ and allows the use of a relatively simple experimental technique. The measurements determine the nonlinear index ratios of the samples with an accuracy of about

  19. Silicate Based Glass Formulations for Immobilization of U.S. Defense Wastes Using Cold Crucible Induction Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gary L.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Marra, James C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Crawford, Charles L.; Vienna, John D.

    2014-05-22

    The cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) is an alternative technology to the currently deployed liquid-fed, ceramic-lined, Joule-heated melter for immobilizing of U.S. tank waste generated from defense related reprocessing. In order to accurately evaluate the potential benefits of deploying a CCIM, glasses must be developed specifically for that melting technology. Related glass formulation efforts have been conducted since the 1990s including a recent study that is first documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to summarize the silicate base glass formulation efforts for CCIM testing of U.S. tank wastes. Summaries of phosphate based glass formulation and phosphate and silicate based CCIM demonstration tests are reported separately (Day and Ray 2013 and Marra 2013, respectively). Combined these three reports summarize the current state of knowledge related to waste form development and process testing of CCIM technology for U.S. tank wastes.

  20. FMR Study of the Porous Silicate Glasses with Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zapotoczny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on new magnetic materials for biomedical applications are discussed. These materials are porous silicate glasses with magnetic fillers. To ensure the smallest number of components for subsequent removal from the body, the magnetic fillers are bare magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4. The magnetic properties of these materials have been investigated using the ferromagnetic resonance method (FMR. The FMR analysis has been complemented by scanning electron microscope (SEM measurements. In order to examine the effect of time degradation on filling the porous glass with bare magnetite nanoparticles the FMR measurement was repeated five months later. For the samples with high degree of pore filling, in contrast to the samples with low degree of pore filling, the FMR signal was still strong. The influence of different pH values of magnetite nanoparticles aqueous suspension on the degree of filling the pores of glasses is also discussed. The experimental results are supported by computer simulations of FMR experiment for a cluster of N magnetic nanoparticles locked in a porous medium based on a stochastic version of the Landau-Lifshitz equation for nanoparticle magnetization.

  1. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy and quantum efficiency of Yb{sup 3+} doped alumino silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kuhn84@googlemail.com; Tiegel, Mirko; Herrmann, Andreas; Rüssel, Christian [Otto-Schott-Institute of Materials Research, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Engel, Sebastian; Wenisch, Christoph; Gräf, Stephan; Müller, Frank A. [Otto-Schott-Institute of Materials Research, Jena University, Löbdergraben 32, 07743 Jena (Germany); Körner, Jörg; Seifert, Reinhard; Yue, Fangxin; Klöpfel, Diethardt [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Jena University, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C. [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Jena University, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    In this contribution, we analyze the effect of several preparation methods of Yb{sup 3+} doped alumino silicate glasses on their quantum efficiency by using photo-acoustic measurements in comparison to standard measurement methods including the determination via the fluorescence lifetime and an integrating sphere setup. The preparation methods focused on decreasing the OH concentration by means of fluorine-substitution and/or applying dry melting atmospheres, which led to an increase in the measured fluorescence lifetime. However, it was found that the influence of these methods on radiative properties such as the measured fluorescence lifetime alone does not per se give exact information about the actual quantum efficiency of the sample. The determination of the quantum efficiency by means of fluorescence lifetime shows inaccuracies when refractive index changing elements such as fluorine are incorporated into the glass. Since fluorine not only eliminates OH from the glass but also increases the “intrinsic” radiative fluorescence lifetime, which is needed to calculate the quantum efficiency, it is difficult to separate lifetime quenching from purely radiative effects. The approach used in this contribution offers a possibility to disentangle radiative from non-radiative properties which is not possible by using fluorescence lifetime measurements alone and allows an accurate determination of the quantum efficiency of a given sample. The comparative determination by an integrating sphere setup leads to the well-known problem of reabsorption which embodies itself in the measurement of too low quantum efficiencies, especially for samples with small quantum efficiencies.

  2. High modulus rare earth and beryllium containing silicate glass compositions. [for glass reinforcing fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 16 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of approximately, by weight, 20 to 43% SiO2, 8 to 21% Al2O3, 4 to 10% BeO, 27 to 58% of at least one oxide selected from a first group consisting of Y2O3, La2O3, Nd2O3, Ce2O3, Ce2O3, and the mixed rare earth oxides, and 3 to 12% of at least one oxide selected from a second group consisting of MgO, ZrO2, ZnO and CaO are described. The molar ratio of BeO to the total content of the first group oxides is from 1.0 to 3.0.

  3. Compressibility of hydrated and anhydrous sodium silicate-based liquids and glasses, as analogues for natural silicate melts, by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, Sergey Nikolayevich

    A mathematical formalism was tested on compressibility studies of water, before applying it to the high pressure-temperature compressibility studies of hydrated and anhydrous sodium silicate-based liquids and glasses. The hypersonic sound velocity, refractive index and attenuation coefficient obtained using Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy technique were in agreement with literature data. From the measured sound velocities, the pressure dependence of the bulk moduli and density of liquid water were calculated, using Vinet equation of state. The formalism was extended to the Brillouin scattering studies of the elastic properties of alkaline-calcium silica hydrogels and float glass, which exhibits a dramatic increase in the pressure dependence of longitudinal velocity and a discontinuity in the compressibility at about 6 GPa. It is demonstrated that an apparent second-order transition to a new amorphous phase can form via the abrupt onset of a new compressional mechanism, which may be triggered by a shift in polymerization of the glass or an onset of a change in coordination of silicon. Brillouin scattering measurements were carried out on an aqueous solution of Na2O-2SiO2 and anhydrous Na2O-2SiO 2 glass and liquid at high P-T conditions. The "modified" platelet scattering geometry has allowed a determination of the longitudinal velocity independently from refractive index, and hence the adiabatic compressibility and density of liquids as a function of pressure and temperature. The observed increase in density of the melt and glass phases formed at high P-T conditions is likely associated with structural effects. The large values of KS' of the liquid phase illustrate that the means of compaction of the liquid differs substantially from that of the glass, and that the liquid is able to access a wider range of compaction mechanisms. The measured bulk modulus of Na2O-2SiO2 aqueous solution is closer to values of silicate melts than to that of end-member water at

  4. Computational modelling of large deformations in layered-silicate/PET nanocomposites near the glass transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figiel, Łukasz; Dunne, Fionn P. E.; Buckley, C. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Layered-silicate nanoparticles offer a cost-effective reinforcement for thermoplastics. Computational modelling has been employed to study large deformations in layered-silicate/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nanocomposites near the glass transition, as would be experienced during industrial forming processes such as thermoforming or injection stretch blow moulding. Non-linear numerical modelling was applied, to predict the macroscopic large deformation behaviour, with morphology evolution and deformation occurring at the microscopic level, using the representative volume element (RVE) approach. A physically based elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model, describing the behaviour of the PET matrix within the RVE, was numerically implemented into a finite element solver (ABAQUS) using an UMAT subroutine. The implementation was designed to be robust, for accommodating large rotations and stretches of the matrix local to, and between, the nanoparticles. The nanocomposite morphology was reconstructed at the RVE level using a Monte-Carlo-based algorithm that placed straight, high-aspect ratio particles according to the specified orientation and volume fraction, with the assumption of periodicity. Computational experiments using this methodology enabled prediction of the strain-stiffening behaviour of the nanocomposite, observed experimentally, as functions of strain, strain rate, temperature and particle volume fraction. These results revealed the probable origins of the enhanced strain stiffening observed: (a) evolution of the morphology (through particle re-orientation) and (b) early onset of stress-induced pre-crystallization (and hence lock-up of viscous flow), triggered by the presence of particles. The computational model enabled prediction of the effects of process parameters (strain rate, temperature) on evolution of the morphology, and hence on the end-use properties.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ALKALI RESISTANT GLASS FIBER FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT AND CHEMICAL DURABILITY COMPARISON WITH SrO-Mn2O3-Fe2O3-MgO-ZrO2-SiO2 (SMFMZS SYSTEM GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göktuğ GÜNKAYA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the relevant literature, the utilization of different kind of glass fibers in concrete introduces positive effect on the mechanical behavior, especially toughness. There are many glassfibers available to reinforce concretes. Glass fiber composition is so important because it may change the properties such as strength, elastic modulus and alkali resistance. Its most important property to be used in concrete is the alkali resistance. Some glasses of SrO–MgO–ZrO2–SiO2 (SMZS quaternary system, such as 26SrO, 20MgO, 14ZrO2, 40SiO2 (Zrn glass, have been found to be highly alkali resistant thanks to their high ZrO2 and MgO contents. Previous researches on these glasses with MnO and/or Fe2O3 partially replacing SrO have been made with the aim of improving the chemical resistance and decreasing the production cost.The main target of the present study, first of all, was to characterize commercially available alkali resistant glass fiber for concrete reinforcement and then to compare its alkali durability with those of the SrO-Mn2O3-Fe2O3-MgO-ZrO2-SiO2 (SMFMZS system glasses. For such purposes, XRF, Tg-DTA, alkali resistance tests and SEM analysis conducted with EDX were employed. According tothe alkali endurance test results it was revealed that some of the SMFMZS system glass powders are 10 times resistant to alkali environments than the commercial glass fibers used in this study.Therefore, they can be considered as alternative filling materials on the evolution of chemically resistant concrete structures.

  6. Silver structure environments in ion-exchanged silicate glasses studied by X-ray absorption fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X C; Li, W J; Dubiel, M; Huang, W H; Yano, T

    2009-02-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique was used to analyze structural geometry of Ag atoms introduced into soda-lime silicate glass and soda aluminosilicate glass by ion-exchange method. The results show that Ag+ ion in soda aluminosilicate glass takes a coordination number of 1.6 with a Ag-O distance of 2.20 A when the ion-exchange ratio x is smaller than 0.47 and of 2.28 A when x is larger than 0.47. The introduced Ag+ ions are stabilized at the non-bridge oxygen (NBO) sites when x is lower than 0.47. The Na+ ions in AlO4 (O4 represents the bridging oxygen) sites are exchanged by Ag+ ions after all Na+ in NBO sites are replaced. The disorder of Ag-O coordination increases gradually with increasing x from 0.24 to 0.47 in soda aluminosilicate glass and increases dramatically when x is larger than 0.47. Ag+ ions takes a coordination number of 1.6 in the ion-exchanged soda-lime silicate glass and of 1.3 after subsequently thermal treatment with the same Ag-O distance of 2.14 A. Debye-Waller factor (DWF) of Ag-O coordination in soda aluminosilicate glass is higher than that in soda-lime silicate glass. Small Ag cluster has a reduced interatomic distance and a larger DWF. Ag nanoparticle in sample Ag-7 is in a state of tensile stress.

  7. Effects of alkali ions on thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped gallogermanate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, D.M.; Zhao, Y.G.; Wang, X.F.; Liao, G.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Zhao, C. [Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); MOE Key Lab of Specially Functional Materials and Institute of Optical Communication Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Peng, M.Y. [MOE Key Lab of Specially Functional Materials and Institute of Optical Communication Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhang, Q.Y., E-mail: qyzhang@scut.edu.c [MOE Key Lab of Specially Functional Materials and Institute of Optical Communication Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Since information transportation capacity of optical communication network increases rapidly, new optical materials are always demanded with gain bandwidth desirably much broader than traditional erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier (EDFA). We show here in this paper the erbium-doped gallogermanate glasses with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) more than 50 nm. Incorporation of alkali ions such as Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +} into the system can on the one hand improve the thermal stability of the glasses, and on the other hand enhance the emission at 1.5 {mu}m due to the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition of Er{sup 3+} and suppress the upconversion process at the same time. This particularly works best for the case of K{sup +} inclusion. This work might give a general idea on controlling the Er{sup 3+} luminescence by simply adjusting the glass component and find a potential laser glass applicable to developing new broadband fiber amplifier. -- Research highlights: {yields} We report on spectroscopic properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GeO{sub 2}-R{sub 2}O (GGR, R=Li, Na and K) glasses for 1.53 {mu}m fiber amplifier. Effects of alkali metal ions on the thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped GGR glasses have been investigated. {yields} Incorporation of alkali ions such as Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +} into the system can on the one hand improve the thermal stability of the glasses, and on the other hand enhance the emission at 1.5 {mu}m due to the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition of Er{sup 3+} and suppress the upconversion process at the same time. This particularly works best for the case of K{sup +} inclusion. This work might give a general idea on controlling the Er{sup 3+} luminescence by simply adjusting the glass component and find a potential laser glass applicable to developing new broadband fiber amplifier.

  8. Effect of Zn addition on non-resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of the Cu-doped germano-silicate optical glass fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seongmin; Watekar, Pramod R; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Han, Won-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was manufactured by using the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and solution doping process. To investigate the reduction effect of Zn addition on Cu metal formation in the core of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber, the optical absorption property and the non-resonant third-order optical nonlinearity were measured. Absorption peaks at 435 nm and 469 nm in the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber were contributed to Cu metal particles and ZnO semiconductor particles, respectively. The effective non-resonant optical nonlinearity, gamma, of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was measured to be 1.5097 W(-1) x km(-1) by using the continuous-wave self-phase modulation method. The gamma of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was about four times larger than that of the reference germano-silicate optical glass fiber without any dopants. The increase of the effective non-resonant optical nonlinearity, gamma, of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber, can be attributed to the enhanced nonlinear polarization due to incorporated ZnO semiconductor particles and Cu metal ions in the glass network. The Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber showed high nonlinearity and low transmission loss at the optical communication wavelength, which makes it suitable for high-speed-high-capacity optical communication systems.

  9. Volumetric properties of magnesium silicate glasses and supercooled liquid at high pressure by X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesher, Charles E.; Wang, Yanbin; Gaudio, Sarah; Clark, Alisha; Nishiyama, Nori; Rivers, Mark; (UCD); (UC)

    2009-06-01

    The volumetric properties of silicate glasses and supercooled liquid are examined at high pressures and temperatures using X-ray computed tomography (CT) and absorption. The high pressure X-ray microtomography (HPXMT) system at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory (GeoSoilEnvironCARS 13-BM-D beamline) consists of two opposing anvils compressed within an X-ray-transparent containment ring supported by thrust bearings and loaded using a 250-ton hydraulic press. This system permits the pressure cell to rotate under the load, while collecting radiographs through at least 180{sup o} of rotation. The 13-BM-D beamline permits convenient switching between monochromatic radiation required for radiography and polychromatic radiation for pressure determination by energy dispersive diffraction. We report initial results on several refractory magnesium silicate glasses synthesized by levitation laser heating. Volume changes during room temperature compression of Mg-silicate glasses with 33 mol% and 38 mol% SiO2 up to 11.5 GPa give an isothermal bulk moduli of 93--100 GPa for a K' of 1. These values are consistent with ultrasonic measurements of more silica-rich glasses. The volumetric properties of amorphous MgSiO{sub 3} at 2 GPa were examined during annealing up to 1000 C. We consider the consequences of heating through the glass transition and the implications for thermal expansivity of supercooled liquids at high pressure. Our results illustrate the capabilities of HPXMT for studies of refractory glasses and liquids at high pressure and offer strategies for future studies of liquid densities within the melting interval for magmas in planet interiors.

  10. Bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects implanted with fibrous scaffolds composed of a mixture of silicate and borate bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yifei; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the capacity of porous scaffolds composed of a single bioactive glass to regenerate bone. In the present study, scaffolds composed of a mixture of two different bioactive glasses (silicate 13-93 and borate 13-93B3) were created and evaluated for their response to osteogenic MLO-A5 cells in vitro and their capacity to regenerate bone in rat calvarial defects in vivo. The scaffolds, which have similar microstructures (porosity=58-67%) and contain 0, 25, 50 and 100 wt.% 13-93B3 glass, were fabricated by thermally bonding randomly oriented short fibers. The silicate 13-93 scaffolds showed a better capacity to support cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity than the scaffolds containing borate 13-93B3 fibers. The amount of new bone formed in the defects implanted with the 13-93 scaffolds at 12 weeks was 31%, compared to values of 25, 17 and 20%, respectively, for the scaffolds containing 25, 50 and 100% 13-93B3 glass. The amount of new bone formed in the 13-93 scaffolds was significantly higher than in the scaffolds containing 50 and 100% 13-93B3 glass. While the 13-93 fibers were only partially converted to hydroxyapatite at 12 weeks, the 13-93B3 fibers were fully converted and formed a tubular morphology. Scaffolds composed of an optimized mixture of silicate and borate bioactive glasses could provide the requisite architecture to guide bone regeneration combined with a controllable degradation rate that could be beneficial for bone and tissue healing.

  11. Effects of glass fiber modified with calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H(I)) reinforced cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, M.; Zhang, L.; Ge, S.; Cheng, X.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H(I)) and glass fiber modified with C-S-H(I) (SiF) at ambient temperature were synthesized. SiF and untreated fiber (OF) were incorporated into cement paste. Phase composition of C-S-H(I), SiF and OF was characterized by XRD. The surface morphologies were characterized by SEM. Flexural performance of fiber reinforced cement (FRC) at different curing ages was investigated. Results indicated that both SiF and OF could reinforce cement paste. SiF had a more positive effect on improving the flexural performance of FRC than OF. The strength of SiF reinforced cement was 11.48MPa after 28 days curing when fiber volume was 1.0%, 12.55% higher than that of OF reinforced cement. The flexural strength increased with the addition of fiber volume. However, the large dosage of fiber might cause a decrease in flexural strength of FRC.

  12. Pressure-induced nano-crystallization of silicate garnets from glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irifune, T.; Kawakami, K.; Arimoto, T.; Ohfuji, H.; Kunimoto, T.; Shinmei, T.

    2016-12-01

    Transparent ceramics are important for scientific and industrial applications because of the superior optical and mechanical properties. It has been suggested that optical transparency and mechanical strength are substantially enhanced if transparent ceramics with nano-crystals are available. However, synthesis of the highly transparent nano-crystalline ceramics has been difficult using conventional sintering techniques at relatively low pressures. Here we show direct conversion from bulk glass starting material in mutianvil high-pressure apparatus leads to pore-free nano-polycrystalline silicate garnet at pressures above ~10 GPa in a limited temperature range around 1,400 °C. The synthesized nano-polycrystalline garnet is optically as transparent as the single crystal for almost the entire visible light range and harder than the single crystal by ~30%. The ultrahigh-pressure conversion technique should provide novel functional ceramics having various crystal structures, including those of high-pressure phases, as well as ideal specimens for some mineral physics applications.

  13. Effect of ZnO on the physical properties and optical band gap of soda lime silicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Aziz, Sidek Hj Abdul; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased.

  14. Effect of ZnO on the Physical Properties and Optical Band Gap of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabri Mohd Ghazali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased.

  15. The photosensitive effect of Ce on the precipitation of Ag nanoparticles induced by femtosecond laser in silicate glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Ye; Qiu Jian-Rong

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the photosensitive effect of cerium oxide on the precipitation of Ag nanoparticles after femtosecond laser irradiating into silicate glass and successive annealing. Spectroscopy analysis and diffraction efficiency measurements show that the introduction of cerium oxide may increase the concentration of Ag atoms in the femtosecond laser-irradiated regions resulting from the photoreduction reaction Ce3+ + Ag+→ Ce4+ + Ag0 via multiphoton excitation. These results promote the aggregation of Ag nanoparticles during the annealing process. It is also found that different concentrations of cerium oxide may influence the Ag nanoparticle precipitation in the corresponding glass.

  16. Fire Resistance of Wood Impregnated with Soluble Alkaline Silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Giudice

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the fire performance of wood panels (Araucaria angustifolia impregnated with soluble alkaline silicates. Commercial silicates based on sodium and potassium with 2.5/1.0 and 3.0/1.0 silica/alkali molar ratios were selected; solutions and glasses were previously characterized. Experimental panels were tested in a limiting oxygen chamber and in a two-foot tunnel. Results displayed a high fire-retardant efficiency using some soluble silicates.

  17. Optical nonlinearity and-ultrafast dynamics of ion exchanged silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime silicate glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiuChun; LI ZhiHui; LI WeiJie; XU JingXian; DONG ZhiWei; QIAN ShiXiong

    2008-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime silicate glass were fabricated by ion-exchange and subsequently annealing method. Z-scan technique, femtosecond time-resolved optical Kerr effect (OKE) technique and femtosecond pump-probe experiment were used to investigate the effects of laser wavelength and laser pulse duration as well as annealing temperature on the third-order optical nonlinearity and ultrafast dynamics of the composites. It was found that the third-order susceptibility of Ag nanoparticles composite glass measured by 400 nm pulse source is larger than that measured by 800 nm pulse source due to an enhancement effect of local field near surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles in silicate glass. The third-order optical nonlinearity measured by ns laser source is about two orders of magnitude larger than that measured from fs pulse. The annealing temperature has an important effect on the third-order optical nonlinearity and ultrafast dynamics of the composites. Third-order nonlinear susceptibility upto 10-10 esu and fast relaxation process up to 0.2 ps have been obtained in Ag nanoparticles doped glass,

  18. A new approach for understanding ion transport in glasses; example of complex alkali diborate glasses containing lead, bismuth and tellurium oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Veeranna Gowda; C Narayana Reddy; K J Rao

    2013-02-01

    Mechanism of ion transport in glasses continues to be incompletely understood. Several of the theoretical models in vogue fail to rationalize conductivity behaviour when d.c. and a.c. measurements are considered together. While they seem to involve the presence of at least two components in d.c. activation energy, experiments fail to reveal that feature. Further, only minor importance is given to the influence of structure of the glass on the ionic conductivity behaviour. In this paper, we have examined several general aspects of ion transport taking the example of ionically conducting glasses in pseudo binary, Na2B4O7.(1−) M$_{a}$O$_{b}$ (with = 0.25–0.79 and M$_{a}$O$_{b}$ = PbO, TeO2 and Bi2O3) system of glasses which have also been recently characterized. Ion transport in them has been studied in detail. We have proposed that non-bridging oxygen (NBO) participation is crucial to the understanding of the observed conductivity behaviour. NBO–BO switching is projected as the first important step in ion transport and alkali ion jump is a subsequent event with a characteristically lower barrier which is, therefore, not observed in any study. All important observations in d.c. and a.c. transport in glasses are found consistent with this model.

  19. Infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of hydrous silicate glasses. Progress report, June 1, 1996--May 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S.; Stolper, E.

    1998-06-01

    This DOE-funded project (DE-FG03-ER13445, 6/1/96-5/31/99) emphasizes study of the behavior of volatiles in magmatic systems. The project is explicitly focused on the combined application of IR spectroscopy, experimental petrology, and stable isotope geochemistry to understanding the behavior and properties of the volatile components dissolved in silicate melts and glasses, although in recent years, our emphasis has broadened to include non-volatile aspects of stable isotope geochemistry. Results obtained during the current grant and previous grant periods confirm that when applied to study of well-chosen synthetic and natural systems, the combination of these approaches and techniques can yield insights of general petrological and volcanological value and of practical value to DOE. In particular, the results of our DOE-funded work has led to a deeper understanding of the physical chemistry of silicate melts as well as specific constraints on the thermal and chemical evolution of high-level magmatic systems of the sort being evaluated as potential geothermal and magmathermal energy sources. Moreover, our work has also contributed to understanding the behavior of H-, C-, and O-bearing species in amorphous and crystalline silicates, including the kinetics of their interactions; we believe these results will contribute to efforts to use silicates in the development of nuclear waste disposal strategies.

  20. Paleomagnetism and Mineralogy of Unusual Silicate Glasses and Baked Soils on the Surface of the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile: A Major Airburst Impact ~12ka ago?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperch, P. J.; Blanco, N.; Valenzuela, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Devouard, B.; Lorand, J. P.; Tomlinson, A. J.; Arriagada, C.; Rochette, P.

    2015-12-01

    Unusual silicate glasses were found in northern Chile in one of the driest place on earth, the Atacama Desert. The scoria-type melted rocks are littered on the ground at several localities distributed along a longitudinal band of about 50km. The silicate glasses have a stable natural remanent magnetization carried by fine-grained magnetite and acquired during cooling. At one locality, fine-grained overbank sediments were heated to form a 10 to 20 cm-thick layer of brick-type samples. Magnetic experiments on oriented samples demonstrate that the baked clays record a thermoremanent magnetization acquired in situ above 600°C down to more than 10cm depth and cooled under a normal polarity geomagnetic field with a paleointensity of 40μT. In some samples of the silicate glass, large grains of iron sulphides (troilite) are found in the glass matrix with numerous droplets of native iron, iron sulphides and iron phosphides indicating high temperature and strong redox conditions during melting. The paleomagnetic record of the baked clays and the unusual mineralogy of the silicate glasses indicate a formation mainly by in situ high temperature radiation. Paleomagnetic experiments and chemical analyses indicate that the silicate glasses are not fulgurite type rocks due to lightning events, nor volcanic glasses or even metallurgical slags related to mining activity. The existence of a well-developped baked clay layer indicates that the silicate glasses are not impact-related ejectas. The field, paleomagnetic and mineralogical observations support evidence for a thermal event likely related to a major airburst. The youngest calibrated 14C age on a charcoal sample closely associated with the glass indicates that the thermal event occurred around 12 to 13 ka BP. The good conservation of the surface effects of this thermal event in the Atacama Desert could provide a good opportunity to further estimate the threats posed by large asteroid airbursts.

  1. Dy3+ ions doped single and mixed alkali fluoro tungsten tellurite glasses for LASER and white LED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapurna Devi, Ch. B.; Mahamuda, Sk.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Swapna, K.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2016-12-01

    A new-fangled series of Dy3+ ions doped Single and Mixed Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite Glasses have been prepared by using melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behaviour was investigated by using XRD, optical absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. The bonding parameter studies reveal the ionic nature of the Dysbnd O bond in the present glasses. From the absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters have been determined and in turn used to determine various radiative properties for the different emission transitions from the 4F9/2 fluorescent level. The photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses exhibit two intensified peaks in blue and yellow regions corresponding to the transitions 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 (483 nm) and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 (575 nm) respectively. From the photoluminescence spectra, it is observed that the luminescence intensity is maximum for Dy3+ ion doped potassium combination of tungsten tellurite glass (TeWK:1Dy). The highest emission cross-section and branching ratio values observed for the 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 transitions suggest the possible laser action in the visible region from these glasses. By correlating the experimental lifetimes (τexp) measured from the decay spectral features with radiative lifetimes (τR), the quantum efficiencies (η) for all the glasses have been evaluated and found to be maximum for potassium combination tungsten tellurite (TeWK:1Dy) glass. The CIE colour chromaticity coordinates (x, y), (u, v), colour correlated temperature (CCT) and Y/B ratio were also estimated from the photoluminescence spectra for different compositions of glasses. The chromaticity colour coordinates evaluated for all the glasses fall within the white light region and white light emission can be tuned by varying the composition of the glass. From all these studies, it was concluded that 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped TeWK glass is more suitable for lasing and white-LED applications.

  2. 80-fs Nd:silicate glass laser pumped by a single-mode 200-mW diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Antonio; Greborio, Alessandro; Pirzio, Federico; Reali, Giancarlo

    2010-05-10

    A Nd(3+)-doped Schott LG680 silicate glass laser was pumped with a single-mode 200-mW diode. Efficient cw operation was demonstrated with 37.5 mW output power and 36% slope efficiency. Passive mode-locking with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror yielded 80-fs pulses with a two-prism setup. Alternatively, pulses of approximately 200-fs, tunable over the range 1058-1076 nm, were obtained with either slit-tuning or a single-prism dispersive resonator. Output powers from 6 to 14 mW have been measured.

  3. Intense 1.6 μm fluorescence of Nd{sup 3+} doped cadmium bismuth silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, I., E-mail: ip-gjust@yahoo.com; Agarwal, A., E-mail: ip-gjust@yahoo.com; Sanghi, S., E-mail: ip-gjust@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001, Haryana (India); Bhardwaj, S. [Department of Physics, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Sonepat-131093, Haryana (India); Sanjay [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, Rawal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Fridabad-121006, Haryana (India)

    2014-04-24

    In this work, Judd-Ofelt analysis is applied to rare-earth (RE = Nd{sup 3+}) doped cadmium bismuth silicate (20CdO⋅xSiO{sub 2}⋅(79.5−x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅0.5Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CSBN)) glasses in order to evaluate their potential as well as both glass laser systems and optical materials. The phenomenological Judd-Ofelt parameters (Ω{sub 2}, Ω{sub 4}, Ω{sub 6}) are determined for RE ions with their quality factors and compared with the equivalent parameters for several other hosts. The calculated value of stimulated emission cross-section for {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} has high and varies 14.72×10{sup −20} to 9.66×10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in the host glass. The results point out that the glass system is good candidate for the development of photonics devices which are operating near infrared spectral range. Further, the FTIR results reveal that the glasses have BiO{sub 6}, SiO{sub 4} and non-bridging oxygen as local structure.

  4. Multidiffusion mechanisms for noble gases (He, Ne, Ar) in silicate glasses and melts in the transition temperature domain: Implications for glass polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalberti, Julien; Burnard, Pete; Laporte, Didier; Tissandier, Laurent; Neuville, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Noble gases are ideal probes to study the structure of silicate glasses and melts as the modifications of the silicate network induced by the incorporation of noble gases are negligible. In addition, there are systematic variations in noble gas atomic radii and several noble gas isotopes with which the influence of the network itself on diffusion may be investigated. Noble gases are therefore ideally suited to constrain the time scales of magma degassing and cooling. In order to document noble gas diffusion behavior in silicate glass, we measured the diffusivities of three noble gases (4He, 20Ne and 40Ar) and the isotopic diffusivities of two Ar isotopes (36Ar and 40Ar) in two synthetic basaltic glasses (G1 and G2; 20Ne and 36Ar were only measured in sample G1). These new diffusion results are used to re-interpret time scales of the acquisition of fractionated atmospheric noble gas signatures in pumices. The noble gas bearing glasses were synthesized by exposing the liquids to high noble gas partial pressures at high temperature and pressure (1750-1770 K and 1.2 GPa) in a piston-cylinder apparatus. Diffusivities were measured by step heating the glasses between 423 and 1198 K and measuring the fraction of gas released at each temperature step by noble gas mass spectrometry. In addition we measured the viscosity of G1 between 996 and 1072 K in order to determine the precise glass transition temperature and to estimate network relaxation time scales. The results indicate that, to a first order, that the smaller the size of the diffusing atom, the greater its diffusivity at a given temperature: D(He) > D(Ne) > D(Ar) at constant T. Significantly, the diffusivities of the noble gases in the glasses investigated do not display simple Arrhenian behavior: there are well-defined departures from Arrhenian behavior which occur at lower temperatures for He than for Ne or Ar. We propose that the non-Arrhenian behavior of noble gases can be explained by structural modifications

  5. Glass viscosity calculation based on a global statistical modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegel, Alex

    2007-02-01

    A global statistical glass viscosity model was developed for predicting the complete viscosity curve, based on more than 2200 composition-property data of silicate glasses from the scientific literature, including soda-lime-silica container and float glasses, TV panel glasses, borosilicate fiber wool and E type glasses, low expansion borosilicate glasses, glasses for nuclear waste vitrification, lead crystal glasses, binary alkali silicates, and various further compositions from over half a century. It is shown that within a measurement series from a specific laboratory the reported viscosity values are often over-estimated at higher temperatures due to alkali and boron oxide evaporation during the measurement and glass preparation, including data by Lakatos et al. (1972) and the recently published High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling by Seward et al. (2005). Similarly, in the glass transition range many experimental data of borosilicate glasses are reported too high due to phase separation effects. The developed global model corrects those errors. The model standard error was 9-17°C, with R^2 = 0.985-0.989. The prediction 95% confidence interval for glass in mass production largely depends on the glass composition of interest, the composition uncertainty, and the viscosity level. New insights in the mixed-alkali effect are provided.

  6. Effects of doping CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} on structure and properties of silicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenlin, E-mail: wzl@cqut.edu.cn [Science and Technology on Thermostructural Composites Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Cheng, Laifei [Science and Technology on Thermostructural Composites Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Doping CeO{sub 2} results in depolymerization and narrowed Q{sup n} distribution. • Co-doping CeO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} favors enhanced network and broader Q{sup n} distribution. • Cerium acts as modifier and titanium as intermediate in glass network structure. • Adding CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} results in decreased optical band gap. • Doping-induced structural modifications affect mechanical properties. - Abstract: In order to elucidate the effects of doping CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} on the structure and physical properties of silicate glass, glasses with composition 72SiO{sub 2}–3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10Na{sub 2}O–10K{sub 2}O–5CaO doped with varied ratios of CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} were synthesized by melt-quenching method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectrometry, UV–Visible spectrophotometry and micro-indentations. X-ray diffraction conforms the amorphous state of doped glasses. The spectroscopic analysis reveals that doping CeO{sub 2} alone results in depolymerization of glass network and narrowed distribution of Q{sup n} (Si–O tetrahedral with n bridging oxygen atoms), while doping TiO{sub 2} singly or combined with CeO{sub 2} favors the enhanced polymerization of network and regains a broader Q{sup n} distribution relative to doping CeO{sub 2} alone. It is proposed that doped cerium and titanium in glass exists in multivalent state and the former in presence of trivalent state preferentially acts as modifier inducing network depolymerization, whilst the latter in form of tetrahedral tends to interconnect network units as intermediate. Doped cerium in trivalent state contributes mainly to the red-shift of absorption edge while titanium suppresses such change of absorption band. Either adding cerium alone or co-doping with titanium will result in decreased optical band gap due to the structural modifications. The relatively loosened structure due to depolymerization induced by cerium is responsible for

  7. Development of a novel aluminum-free glass ionomer cement based on magnesium/strontium-silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Ae [Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University Graduate School, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Abo-Mosallam, Hany A. [Glass Research Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Lee, Hye-Young [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University Graduate School, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyu-Ri [Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University Graduate School, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae-Won [Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University Graduate School, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hae-Hyoung, E-mail: haelee@dku.edu [Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    The effects of strontium substitution for magnesium in a novel aluminum-free multicomponent glass composition for glass ionomer cements (GICs) were investigated. A series of glass compositions were prepared based on SiO{sub 2}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-ZnO-MgO{sub (1-X)}-SrO{sub X}-CaF{sub 2} (X = 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). The mechanical properties of GICs prepared were characterized by compressive strength, flexural strength, flexural modules, and microhardness. Cell proliferation was evaluated indirectly by CCK-8 assay using various dilutions of the cement and rat mesenchyme stem cells. Incorporation of strontium instead of magnesium in the glasses has a significant influence on setting time of the cements and the properties. All mechanical properties of the GICs with SrO substitution at X = 0.25 were significantly increased, then gradually decreased with further increase of the amount of strontium substitution in the glass. The GIC at X = 0.25, also, showed an improved cell viability at low doses of the cement extracts in comparison with other groups or control without extracts. The results of this study demonstrate that the glass compositions with strontium substitution at low levels can be successfully used to prepare aluminum-free glass ionomer cements for repair and regeneration of hard tissues. - Highlights: • We developed multicomponent glass compositions for a novel aluminum-free glass ionomer cement (GIC). • The effects of MgO replacement with SrO in the glasses on the mechanical properties and cell proliferation were evaluated. • Substitution of MgO with SrO at low levels led to improvement of mechanical properties and cell viability of the cements. • Microstructural degradations in the cement matrix of the GICs with strontium at high levels were observed after aging.

  8. Development of a novel aluminum-free glass ionomer cement based on magnesium/strontium-silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ae; Abo-Mosallam, Hany A; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Gyu-Ri; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2014-09-01

    The effects of strontium substitution for magnesium in a novel aluminum-free multicomponent glass composition for glass ionomer cements (GICs) were investigated. A series of glass compositions were prepared based on SiO2-P2O5-CaO-ZnO-MgO(1-X)-SrOX-CaF2 (X=0, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). The mechanical properties of GICs prepared were characterized by compressive strength, flexural strength, flexural modules, and microhardness. Cell proliferation was evaluated indirectly by CCK-8 assay using various dilutions of the cement and rat mesenchyme stem cells. Incorporation of strontium instead of magnesium in the glasses has a significant influence on setting time of the cements and the properties. All mechanical properties of the GICs with SrO substitution at X=0.25 were significantly increased, then gradually decreased with further increase of the amount of strontium substitution in the glass. The GIC at X=0.25, also, showed an improved cell viability at low doses of the cement extracts in comparison with other groups or control without extracts. The results of this study demonstrate that the glass compositions with strontium substitution at low levels can be successfully used to prepare aluminum-free glass ionomer cements for repair and regeneration of hard tissues.

  9. Modelling the evaporation of boron species. Part 1: Alkali-free borosilicate glass melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Cook, S.; O'Connor, R.; Simon, J.

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory test facility has been used to measure the boron evaporation rates from borosilicate glass melts. The impact of furnace atmosphere composition and glass melt composition on the temperature dependent boron evaporation rates has been investigated experimentally. In Part 1 of this paper th

  10. Through The Looking Glass: The Causes Of Variations In "Amorphous” Silicate Spectral Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Hofmeister, A. M.; Whittington, A. G.

    2009-05-01

    Silicate dust plays an essential role in many astrophysical environments. The "amorphous” silicate spectral features have been observed in our solar system, young stellar objects, star formation regions, novae, and the diffuse and dense interstellar medium as well as in extragalactic environments such as quasars and AGN. This dust contributes to the physical processes inherent in star formation processes, as well as to several aspects of interstellar processes such as gas heating and the formation of molecules. The discovery of this almost ubiquitous 10um silicate feature, led to many laboratory studies of potential cosmic dust analogs attempting to determine the exact nature of this dust. However, these various lab studies have produced inconsistent and often conflicting results. Studies of ostensibly the same material produce different spectra, which can be attributed to small differences in samples and techniques, but which leave astronomers at a loss as to interpretation of astrophysical data. We survey the compositional and structural factors that affect spectral features in "amorphous” silicates, illustrated with examples of new high-resolution spectra and previously published spectra of amorphous silicates nominally corresponding in composition to the mineral end-members forsterite (Mg2SiO4), enstatite (MgSiO3) and gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7). These examples highlight the sensitivity of such characteristics as peak shape, peak position, and the ratio of the 10µm and 18µm features, to subtle compositional / structural variations. By careful laboratory study, we can harness these effects on the spectral features of amorphous silicates to understand dust composition more precisely and provide a rich source of information on dust formation and processing.

  11. Structure, surface reactivity and physico-chemical degradation of fluoride containing phospho-silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansal, Ishu; Goel, Ashutosh; Tulyaganov, Dilshat U.; Santos, Luis F.; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2011-03-28

    We report on the structure, apatite-forming ability and physicochemical degradation of glasses along fluorapatite [FA; Ca5(PO4)3F] - diopside (Di; CaMgSi2O6) join. A series of glasses with varying FA/Di ratio have been synthesised by melt-quenching technique. The amorphous glasses could be obtained only for compositions up to 40 wt.% of FA. The detailed structural analysis of glasses has been made by infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR). Silicon was predominantly present as Q2 (Si) species while phosphorus was found in orthophosphate type environment in all the investigated glasses. The apatite forming ability of glasses was investigated by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1 h – 28 days. An extensive precipitation of calcite (CaCO3) after immersion in SBF was found in all the glasses which considerably masked the formation of hydroxyapatite [HA; Ca5(PO4)3OH] as depicted by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. The possible mechanism favouring formation of calcite instead of HA has been explained on the basis of experimental results obtained for structure of glasses, leaching profile of glass powders in SBF solution and pH variation in SBF solution. Further, physico-chemical degradation of glasses has been studied in accordance with ISO 10993-14 “Biological evaluation of medical devices – Part 14: Identification and quantification of degradation products from ceramics” in Tris HCl and citric acid buffer. All the FA containing glasses exhibited a weight gain (instead of weight loss) after immersion in citric acid buffer due to the formation of different crystalline products.

  12. Investigation of zinc alkali pyrophosphate glasses. Part II: Local and medium range orders analysed by 1D/2D NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajbhandari, P. [UCCS UMR-CNRS 8181, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Chen, Y. [LASIR UMR-CNRS 8516, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Doumert, B. [IMMCL CNRS-FR2638, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Montagne, L. [UCCS UMR-CNRS 8181, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Tricot, G., E-mail: gregory.tricot@univ-lille1.fr [UCCS UMR-CNRS 8181, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); LASIR UMR-CNRS 8516, Université de Lille1, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2015-04-01

    The structure of the (66-x)ZnO-xNa{sub 2}O-33.4P{sub 2}O{sub 5} composition line, selected for the development of low-Tg and stable glasses, has been investigated by 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. If standard 1D {sup 31}P MAS-NMR experiments give access to the Q{sup n} speciation and show the presence of Q{sup 0}, Q{sup 1} and Q{sup 2} sites within the glass structure, application of the homonuclear through-space correlation technique ({sup 31}P DQ-SQ) allows for a more accurate description of the phosphate units. Clear distinction between the Q{sup 1} sites involved in dimmers or in longer chains has been derived from 2D NMR correlation maps and leads to the re-assignment of Q{sup 1} into Q{sup 1,1} and Q{sup 1,2} species. {sup 23}Na and {sup 23}Na({sup 31}P) REDOR MAS-NMR experiments have been used to analyse the Na{sup +} ions distribution and its interaction with the phosphate network. {sup 67}Zn static NMR experiments, performed at very high field, were carried out and suggest a constant Zn{sup 2+} coordination state all along the composition line. The results have been used to discuss the impact of the Zn{sup 2+}/Na{sup +} ratio on the extent of disorder within the glass network expressed in terms of Q{sup n} dismutation equilibrium constant and phosphate chain length distribution. - Highlights: • Structure of zinc alkali pyrophosphate glasses have been analysed by 1D/2D NMR. • 2D {sup 31}P experiments allow to separate Q{sup 1,1} and Q{sup 1,2} species. • {sup 67}Zn static NMR shows a constant signal all along the composition line.

  13. Ring distributions in alkali- and alkaline-earth aluminosilicate framework glasses- a raman spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.K.; Philpotts, J.A.; Matson, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Raman spectra of crystalline polymorphs of a number of tectosilicate minerals having various sizes of smallest rings of TO4 tetrahedra (T = Si, Al) have been investigated to identify the bands that are sensitive indicators of the smallest rings in the network. The information obtained from the Raman spectra of tectosilicate minerals (e.g., SiO2 polymorphs, NaAlSi3O8 (Ab), NaAlSiO4 (Ne), KAlSi3O8 (Or), and KAlSi2O6 (Lc)) is used to interpret the Raman spectra of the isochemical glasses. It is shown that the frequency of the dominant ??s (TOT) band in the spectra of both crystals and glasses is related to the dominant size of TO4 rings in the structure. In agreement with previous X-ray RDF work, it is found that in the glasses of Ab and Jd (NaAlSi2O6) compositions, six-membered rings of TO4 tetrahedra predominate. The Raman spectrum of Or glass, however, indicates that clusters of intermixed four- and six-membered rings of TO4 tetrahedra, similar to those existing in crystalline leucite, are also present in the glass. Raman evidence indicates that four-membered rings of TO4 tetrahedra predominate in the glass of An composition. Similarly, the higher frequency of the ??s (TOT) band in the spectrum of Ne glass as compared with the frequency the ??s (TOT) band in the spectra of crystalline cargenieite and nephelite indicates either an admixture of the four- and six-membered rings or the puckering of six-membered rings in the glass structure. ?? 1985.

  14. Physical, structural and optical characterization of silicate modified bismuth-borate-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwal, Neelam; Dhankhar, Sunil; Sharma, Preeti; Kundu, R. S.; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2017-01-01

    The quaternary glass system xSiO2-(80-x) Bi2O3sbnd 15B2O3sbnd 5TeO2 has been prepared by melt-quench technique. The amorphous nature of glass samples has been ascertained by X-ray diffraction patterns. The variations in density, molar volume and crystalline volume with glass compositions have been discussed. A non-linear change has been observed in glass transition temperature and optical band gap energy. Raman and FTIR spectral studies suggest that glass network is mainly built up of BO3, BO4, SiO4, and TeO3 structural units, whereas BiO3 exists as both network modifying [BiO6] octahedral as well as network forming [BiO3] pyramidal structural units. The values of optical band gap energy have been estimated from fitting of both Mott and Davis's model and Hydrogenic excitonic model (HEM) with experimental data of absorption spectra. The HEM model shows good agreement with experimentally observed absorption spectra, which indicates the exciton formation in studied glass system. The non-linear compositional change in optical band gap energy is related with the structural changes occurring in present glass samples. The Urbach energy has also been estimated. The range of metallization criterion suggests that prepared glasses may be considered as new nonlinear optical materials.

  15. The Compositional Variation of Microindentation Induced Densified and Plastic Deformation Volumes in Simple Silicate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Christian; Matsuoka, Jun; Yoshida, Satoshi;

    2012-01-01

    the corners of a Vickers pyramid indent.) These two properties are commercially important as they correlate with e.g. resistance to surface damage and the ultimate strength of glass, yet little is known of their variation with glass composition. In the present work, we determine the densified and plastically...

  16. Alkali-Phosphate Glasses Containing WO3 and Nb2O5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New phosphate glasses in the quaternary system (50-x A2O-x WO3-10 Nb2O5-40 P2O5, with x = 0; 30 and A = Li or Na were prepared by the melt quenching method. The effect on the crystallization behaviour of the glass due to the introduction of WO3 into the glass composition and, consequently, the diminishing of the molar amount of the alkaline oxide and the decreasing of the molar ratio between network modifiers and network formers (M/F was studied. The prepared glasses were heat-treated in air, at 550°C, 600°C, and 650°C for 4 hours. The structure, of the obtained samples, was studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and Raman spectroscopy and the morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that the replacement of Li2O or Na2O by WO3 reduces the number of the crystallised phases. In the lithium-niobiophosphate glasses, the presence of WO3 promotes the formation of NbOPO4 instead of the LiNbO3 phase and reduces the formation of ortho- and pyro-phosphate phases. The thermal treatments affect the arrangements of the network structure of the AW40-glasses.

  17. Influence of foaming agents on both the structure and the thermal conductivity of silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob;

    Foam glass is one of the most promising insulation materials for constructions since it has low thermal conductivity, high compressive strength, non-water permeability, and high fire resistance. They can be produced using cullet sources, e.g., cathode ray tubes (CRT) panel glass, and foaming agents...... the thermal conductivity of the sintered samples with Laser Flash Technique to see its dependence on the degree of incorporation of the foaming agents into the glass structure. In parallel we prepare glass samples by adding the above-mentioned foaming agents to the CRT panel glass via high temperature (about...... 1500 C) melting and subsequent quenching. We compare the thermal conductivity of re-melted samples with that of the sintered samples to study the influence of the structural incorporation of the foaming agents on the thermal conductivity. The samples could crystallize during the heating process...

  18. Efficient 2 μm emission in Nd3+/Ho3+ co-doped silicate-germanate glass pumped by common 808 nm LD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Tian, Ying; Li, Bingpeng; Huang, Feifei; Wang, Caizhi; Jing, Xufeng; Zhang, Junjie; Xu, Shiqing

    2017-03-01

    Nd3+/Ho3+ co-doped silicate-germanate glass has been synthesized by high temperature melt-quenching method. Near infrared emission centered at 2 μm has been successfully obtained by incorporating Nd3+ and Ho3+ in present glass. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωt (t=2, 4, 6), and radiative properties of Ho3+ were calculated and discussed by using the Judd-Ofelt theory. The energy transfer processes and luminescence properties of Nd3+/Ho3+ co-doped glasses were analyzed pumped by a conventional 808 nm laser diode. Desirable spectroscopic characteristics indicates that Nd3+/Ho3+ co-doped silicate-germanate glass might be a good alternative matrix for 2 μm band mid-infrared laser.

  19. Dissolution of glass wool, rock wool and alkaline earth silicate wool: morphological and chemical changes in fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campopiano, Antonella; Cannizzaro, Annapaola; Angelosanto, Federica; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Ramires, Deborah; Olori, Angelo; Canepari, Silvia; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of alkaline earth silicate (AES) wool and of other biosoluble wools in saline solution simulating physiological fluids was compared with that of a traditional wool belonging to synthetic vitreous fibers. Morphological and size changes of fibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elements extracted from fibers were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SEM analysis showed a larger reduction of length-weighted geometric mean fiber diameter at 4.5 pH than at 7.4 pH. At the 7.4 pH, AES wool showed a higher dissolution rate and a dissolution time less than a few days. Their dissolution was highly non-congruent with rapid leaching of calcium. Unlike rock wool, glass wool dissolved more rapidly at physiological pH than at acid pH. Dissolution of AES and biosoluble rock wool is accompanied by a noticeable change in morphology while by no change for glass wool. Biosoluble rock wool developed a leached surface with porous honeycomb structure. SEM analysis showed the dissolution for glass wool is mainly due to breakage transverse of fiber at pH 7.4. AES dissolution constant (Kdis) was the highest at pH 7.4, while at pH 4.5 only biosoluble rockwool 1 showed a higher Kdis.

  20. 阳离子对硅酸盐玻璃激光拉曼光谱影响的研究%Influence of Cations on the Laser Raman Spectra of Silicate Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊义; 赵虹霞; 干福熹

    2012-01-01

    Na2O(K2O)-CaO(MgO)-SiO2, Na2O(K2O)-A12O3-SiO2, Na2O(K2O)-B2Q3-SiOz, Na2O(K2O)-PbO-SiO2 and PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass systems were investigated using laser Raman spectroscopic technique. The modification of short-range structure of glass caused by network modifier cations will influence Raman signature. Alkali and alkali-earth ions can weaken the bridging oxygen bond, thus lower the frequency of Si-Ob-Si anti-symmetric stretching vibration. When coordinated by oxygen ions, B3+ can form [BO4] tetrahedron and enter the silicon-oxygen network, but this effect had little impact on the frequency of Raman peaks located in the high-frequency region. Al3+ can also be coordinated by oxygen ions to form [A1O4 ] tetrahedron. [ AlO4 ] will increase the disorder degree of network while entering network. Ba2+ can increase the density of electron cloud along the Si-Onb bond when it bonds with non-bridging oxygen, which will lead to a higher peak intensity of O-Si-O stretching vibration. The Raman peaks of alkli- and alkali-earth silicate glasses are mainly distributed in the region of 400~1 200 cm-1, while in the spectrum of Na2O(K2O)-PbO-SiO2 glass system a 131 cm-1 peak existed. The authors assigned it to the Pb-O symmetric stretching vibration. Some of the samples were produced in the laboratory according to the average compositions of ancient glasses, so this research is very significant to discriminating ancient silicate glasses of different systems by Laser Raman spectroscopic technique.%运用拉曼光谱技术研究了Na2O (K2O) CaO( MgO)-SiO2,Na2O (K2O)- Al2-O3-SiO2,Na2O(K2O)-B2O3-SiO2,Na2O(K2O)-PbO-SiO2和PbO-BaO-SiO2五个系统的玻璃.结果表明,阳离子对玻璃近程结构的改造会引起拉曼特征的变化.部分样品是根据古玻璃平均成分在实验室烧制的,这项研究对于运用激光拉曼光谱区分不同系统的古代硅酸盐玻璃有重要意义.

  1. Composition-structure-property relation of oxide glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Christian

    The composition of glass can be varied continuously within their glass-forming regions. This compositional flexibility makes it possible to tailor the properties of a glass for a variety of specific uses. In the industry such tailoring is done on a trial-and-error basis with only the intuition...... also increases such properties. Yet, these rules are not strictly followed even for the simplest binary oxide glasses, such as alkali silicates, borates and phosphates. In this thesis it is argued that the missing link between composition and properties is the glass structure. Structural models...... capable of ab initio prediction of the oxide glass properties from composition....

  2. Grafting Silane onto Silicate Glass Surface Treated by DBD in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Chunsheng; WANG Dezhen; WANG Younian

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma in air was used to modify glass surface to induce the graft of silane onto the treated surface to increase the possibility of biomolecule immobilization.The plasma treated glass had been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface water contact angle measurement.The validity of grafting silane onto glass surface was approved by the analysis of water contact angle measurement,SEM and XPS.The grafted silane content was measured by visible absorption spectroscopy using acid Orange-7.It is shown that the grafting density of silane for glass samples increases significantly after plasma treatment.

  3. Analysis of H2O in silicate glass using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Pitcher, Bradley W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a calibration for attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-FTIR for analysis of H2O in hydrous glass. A Ge ATR accessory was used to measure evanescent wave absorption by H2O within hydrous rhyolite and other standards. Absorbance at 3450 cm−1 (representing total H2O or H2Ot) and 1630 cm−1 (molecular H2O or H2Om) showed high correlation with measured H2O in the glasses as determined by transmission FTIR spectroscopy and manometry. For rhyolite, wt%H2O=245(±9)×A3450-0.22(±0.03) and wt%H2Om=235(±11)×A1630-0.20(±0.03) where A3450 and A1630 represent the ATR absorption at the relevant infrared wavelengths. The calibration permits determination of volatiles in singly polished glass samples with spot size down to ~5 μm (for H2O-rich samples) and detection limits of ~0.1 wt% H2O. Basaltic, basaltic andesite and dacitic glasses of known H2O concentrations fall along a density-adjusted calibration, indicating that ATR is relatively insensitive to glass composition, at least for calc-alkaline glasses. The following equation allows quantification of H2O in silicate glasses that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite: wt%H2O=(ω×A3450/ρ)+b where ω = 550 ± 21, b = −0.19 ± 0.03, ρ = density, in g/cm3, and A3450 is the ATR absorbance at 3450 cm−1. The ATR micro-FTIR technique is less sensitive than transmission FTIR, but requires only a singly polished sample for quantitative results, thus minimizing time for sample preparation. Compared with specular reflectance, it is more sensitive and better suited for imaging of H2O variations in heterogeneous samples such as melt inclusions. One drawback is that the technique can damage fragile samples and we therefore recommend mounting of unknowns in epoxy prior to polishing. Our calibration should hold for any Ge ATR crystals with the same incident angle (31°). Use of a different crystal type or geometry would require measurement of several H2O-bearing standards to provide a crystal

  4. High-efficiency ytterbium-free erbium-doped all-glass double cladding silicate glass fiber for resonantly-pumped fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zexuan; Geng, Jihong; Luo, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Shibin

    2014-02-01

    A highly efficient ytterbium-free erbium-doped silicate glass fiber has been developed for high-power fiber laser applications at an eye-safe wavelength near 1.55 μm. Our preliminary experiments show that high laser efficiency can be obtained from a relatively short length of the gain fiber when resonantly pumped at 1535 nm in both core- and cladding-pumping configurations. With a core-pumping configuration as high as 75%, optical-to-optical efficiency and 4 W output power were obtained at 1560 nm from a 1 m long gain fiber. When using a cladding-pumping configuration, approximately 13 W output power with 67.7% slope efficiency was demonstrated from a piece of 2 m long fiber. The lengths of silicate-based gain fiber are much shorter than their silica-based counterparts used in other experiments, which is significantly important for high-power narrow-band and/or pulsed laser applications.

  5. Kinetics and mechanisms of the conversion of silicate (45S5), borate, and borosilicate glasses to hydroxyapatite in dilute phosphate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhai; Day, Delbert E; Kittiratanapiboon, Kanisa; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2006-07-01

    Bioactive glasses with controllable conversion rates to hydroxyapatite (HA) may provide a novel class of scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering. The objective of the present work was to comprehensively characterize the conversion of a silicate bioactive glass (45S5), a borate glass, and two intermediate borosilicate glass compositions to HA in a dilute phosphate solution at 37 degrees Celsius. The borate glass and the borosilicate glasses were derived from the 45S5 glass by fully or partially replacing the SiO(2) with B(2)O(3). Higher B(2)O(3) content produced a more rapid conversion of the glass to HA and a lower pH value of the phosphate solution. Whereas the borate glass was fully converted to HA in less than 4 days, the silicate (45S5) and borosilicate compositions were only partially converted even after 70 days, and contained residual SiO(2) in a Na-depleted core. The concentration of Na(+) in the phosphate solution increased with reaction time whereas the PO(4) (3-) concentration decreased, both reaching final limiting values at a rate that increased with the B(2)O(3) content of the glass. However, the Ca(2+) concentration in the solution remained low, below the detection limit of atomic absorption, throughout the reaction. Immersion of the glasses in a mixed solution of K(2)HPO(4) and K(2)CO(3) produced a carbonate-substituted HA but the presence of the K(2)CO(3) had little effect on the kinetics of conversion to HA. The kinetics and mechanisms of the conversion process of the four glasses to HA are compared and used to develop a model for the process.

  6. The Effects of Salt Water on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth parameters of soda-lime silicate were measured in distilled and salt water of various concentrations in order to determine if stress corrosion susceptibility is affected by the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film. Past research indicates that solvents effect the rate of crack growth, however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the slow crack growth parameters A and n. However, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  7. Effects of Aqueous Solutions on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth (SCG) parameters of soda-lime-silicate were measured in distilled and saltwater of various concentrations in order to determine if the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film affects stress corrosion susceptibility. Past research indicates that solvents affect the rate of crack growth; however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the SCG parameters A and n at high concentrations; however, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  8. Spectral properties of erbium-doped heavy metal oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐时清; 杨中民; 戴世勋; 杨建虎; 戴能利; 林傲翔; 胡丽丽; 姜中宏

    2003-01-01

    Erbium-doped glasses showing a wide 1.55?m emission band are reported ina novel heavy metal oxyfluoride glass system SiO2-PbO-PbF2 and their optical properties such as emission spectra,fluorescence lifetime and the refractive index have been investigated.The broad and flat 4I13/2 →4I15/2 emission of Er3+ ions around 1.55μm can be used as host materials for potential optical amplifiers in wavelength-division-multiplexing network system.We find that with increasing PbF2 content in the glass composition,the fluorescence full width at half maximum and fluorescence lifetime of the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ increase,while refractive index and density decrease.

  9. Effect of Ti(+4) on in vitro bioactivity and antibacterial activity of silicate glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat; Hussain, Tousif; Bashir, Farooq; Ikhram, Hafeez

    2016-12-01

    A novel glass-ceramic series in (48-x) SiO2-36 CaO-4 P2O5-12 Na2O-xTiO2 (where x=0, 3.5, 7, 10.5 and 14mol %) system was synthesized by crystallization of glass powders, obtained by melt quenching technique. The differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC) was used to study the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the as prepared glasses. The crystallization behaviour of glasses was analyzed under non-isothermal conditions, and qualitative phase analysis of glass-ceramics was made by X-ray diffraction. The in vitro bioactivity of synthesized glass-ceramics was studied in stimulated body fluid at 37°C under static condition for 24days. The formation of hydroxyl-carbonated apatite layer; evident of bioactivity of the material, was elucidated by XRD, FTIR, AAS, SEM and EDX analysis. The result showed that partial substitution of TiO2 with SiO2 negatively influenced bioactivity; it decreased with increase in concentration of TiO2. As Ti(+4) having stronger field strength as compared to Si(+4) so its replacement became the cause for reduction in degradation that in turn improved the chemical stability. The compressive strength was also enhanced with progress addition of TiO2 in the system. The antibacterial properties were examined against Staphylococcus Epidermidis. Strong antibacterial efficacy was observed with the addition of TiO2 in the system.

  10. Role of elastic deformation in determining the mixed alkaline earth effect of hardness in silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Potuzak, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Glasses deform permanently as a result of indentation and the total resistance to deformation consists of three individual resistances, i.e., those to elastic deformation, densification, and plastic flow. The link between Vickers hardness and the resistances to densification and plastic flow has...... been investigated previously, but the link between the resistance to elastic deformation and hardness has not yet been studied. In this work, we investigate the link between elastic deformation during indentation and Vickers hardness in a series of mixed magnesium-barium boroaluminosilicate glasses. We...

  11. Solid-state autocatalysis and oscillatory reactions in silicate glass systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Kristensen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of autocatalysis and oscillatory behaviour in the solid-state where no decomposition process is involved. Our material system is solid-state silica glass impregnated with hydrogen. It is at the heart of photosensitivity in glass-based optical waveguides and devices......, which have many applications including telecommunication devices, fibre lasers, and optical sensors. Consequently, the results reported here extend the engineering of chemical complexity to a previously uncharted area in materials science of particular relevance to photonic applications. Diagnosis...

  12. Structure and aqueous reactivity of silicate glasses high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance contribution; Structure et reactivite aqueuse des verres silicates apport de la resonance magnetique nucleaire haute-resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeli, F

    2000-10-25

    This research aims at getting a better understanding of the relations which may exist between the chemical composition of the oxide silicate glasses, the structure and the aqueous reactivity. We study the cations present in most glasses, more particularly the radioactive waste glasses, and those which are more liable to bring information both about structure and reactivity. Among the experimental methods used, the nuclear magnetic resonance of multi-quantum magic-angle spinning (NMR MQ-MAS) has been carried out for the structural characterization of the pristine and altered glasses. In the first part, we discuss the possibility of deducting a type of information from a quantitative approach of the {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 17}O NMR MQ-MAS. In the second part, we apply this method to glasses containing between two and six oxides. The vitreous compositions studied permit to focus our attention on the influence of sodium, aluminum and calcium on their local structural environment. We point out an evolution of the distributions of bond distances and angles in relation to the glass chemical composition. We show the strong potentiality of the {sup 17}O used to probe the pristine and altered glasses. The influence of the different cations studied on the rate of glass dissolution is debated from the alterations made on short periods. On the basis of all these data, we discuss the importance of the structural effect which may influence the kinetic phenomena of alteration. (author)

  13. The Durability and Performance of Short Fibers for a Newly Developed Alkali-Activated Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Funke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the development of a fiber-reinforced alkali-activated binder (FRAAB with an emphasis on the performance and the durability of the fibers in the alkaline alkali-activated binder (AAB-matrix. For the development of the matrix, the reactive components granulated slag and coal fly ash were used, which were alkali-activated with a mixture of sodium hydroxide (2–10 mol/L and an aqueous sodium silicate solution (SiO2/Na2O molar ratio: 2.1 at ambient temperature. For the reinforcement of the matrix integral fibers of alkali-resistant glass (AR-glass, E-glass, basalt, and carbon with a fiber volume content of 0.5% were used. By the integration of these short fibers, the three-point bending tensile strength of the AAB increased strikingly from 4.6 MPa (no fibers up to 5.7 MPa (carbon after one day. As a result of the investigations of the alkali resistance, the AR-glass and the carbon fibers showed the highest durability of all fibers in the FRAAB-matrix. In contrast to that, the weight loss of E-glass and basalt fibers was significant under the alkaline condition. According to these results, only the AR-glass and the carbon fibers reveal sufficient durability in the alkaline AAB-matrix.

  14. Effect of Zn- and Ca-oxides on the structure and chemical durability of simulant alkali borosilicate glasses for immobilisation of UK high level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hua, E-mail: nzhangh@aliyun.com [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-93, 102413 Beijing (China); Corkhill, Claire L.; Heath, Paul G.; Hand, Russell J.; Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Spinel crystallization incorporates ZnO from base glass, displacing Mg and Ni. • Raman spectroscopy demonstrates significant impact on glass structure by addition of ZnO to base glass. • Addition of ZnO reduces glass dissolution rate at early time periods (up to 28 days). - Abstract: Compositional modification of United Kingdom high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses was investigated with the aim of understanding the impact of adopting a ZnO/CaO modified base glass on the vitrified product phase assemblage, glass structure, processing characteristics and dissolution kinetics. Crystalline spinel phases were identified in the vitrified products derived from the Na{sub 2}O/Li{sub 2}O and the ZnO/CaO modified base glass compositions; the volume fraction of the spinel crystallites increased with increasing waste loading from 15 to 20 wt%. The spinel composition was influenced by the base glass components; in the vitrified product obtained with the ZnO/CaO modified base glass, the spinel phase contained a greater proportion of Zn, with a nominal composition of (Zn{sub 0.60}Ni{sub 0.20}Mg{sub 0.20})(Cr{sub 1.37}Fe{sub 0.63})O{sub 4}. The addition of ZnO and CaO to the base glass was also found to significantly alter the glass structure, with changes identified in both borate and silicate glass networks using Raman spectroscopy. In particular, these glasses were characterised by a significantly higher Q{sup 3} species, which we attribute to Si–O–Zn linkages; addition of ZnO and CaO to the glass composition therefore enhanced glass network polymerisation. The increase in network polymerisation, and the presence of spinel crystallites, were found to increase the glass viscosity of the ZnO/CaO modified base glass; however, the viscosities were within the accepted range for nuclear waste glass processing. The ZnO/CaO modified glass compositions were observed to be significantly more durable than the Na{sub 2}O/Li{sub 2}O base glass up to 28 days, due to

  15. Structural Role of Alkali Cations in Calcium Aluminosilicate Glasses as Examined Using Oxygen-17 Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenaga, Sohei; Kanehashi, Koji; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Saito, Noritaka; Nakashima, Kunihiko

    2016-08-01

    The structural roles of alkali and calcium cations are important for understanding the physical and chemical properties of aluminosilicate melts and glasses. Recently, oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance (17O NMR) studies of calcium-sodium aluminosilicate glasses showed that these structural roles are not randomly given, but rather each cation has its own preferential role. However, the relationship between cation type and role preference in calcium aluminosilicate glass is not completely understood. In the present study, the structural roles of lithium, sodium, and potassium cations in selected calcium aluminosilicate glasses are investigated using 17O solid-state NMR experiments. Data from these experiments clearly show that potassium cations have a notably stronger tendency to act as charge compensators within the network structure, compared to sodium and lithium cations. The result of 17O NMR experiment also showed that sodium and lithium cations in part act as network modifier alongside with calcium cations.

  16. On the Paramagnetic Impurity Concentration of Silicate Glasses from Low-Temperature Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Silvia; Jug, Giancarlo

    2015-08-01

    The concentration of paramagnetic trace impurities in glasses can be determined via precise SQUID measurements of the sample's magnetization in a magnetic field. However, the existence of quasi-ordered structural inhomogeneities in the disordered solid causes correlated tunneling currents that can contribute to the magnetization, surprisingly, also at the higher temperatures. We show that taking into account such tunneling systems gives rise to a good agreement between the concentrations extracted from SQUID magnetization and those extracted from low-temperature heat capacity measurements. Without suitable inclusion of such magnetization contribution from the tunneling currents, we find that the concentration of paramagnetic impurities gets considerably over-estimated. This analysis represents a further positive test for the structural inhomogeneity theory of the magnetic effects in the cold glasses.

  17. Utilization of Mineral Wools as Alkali-Activated Material Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Yliniemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW and glass wool (GW were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated with a sodium aluminate solution. Compressive strengths of up to 30.0 MPa and 48.7 MPa were measured for RW and GW, respectively, with high flexural strengths measured for both (20.1 MPa for RW and 13.2 MPa for GW. The resulting alkali-activated matrix was a composite-type in which partly-dissolved fibers were dispersed. In addition to the amorphous material, sodium aluminate silicate hydroxide hydrate and magnesium aluminum hydroxide carbonate phases were identified in the alkali-activated RW samples. The only crystalline phase in the GW samples was sodium aluminum silicate. The results of this study show that mineral wool is a very promising raw material for alkali activation.

  18. 2 μm emission performance in Tm3+/Er3+ codoped silicate glasses under 800 nm and 980 nm excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ruijie; Lu, Yu; Tian, Ying; Huang, Feifei; Guo, Yanyan; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Junjie

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, mid-infrared 2 μm emission properties and energy transfer mechanism were investigated in Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped silicate glasses with optimized extra-low hydroxyl content ∂OH- (0.73 cm-1). The intensity parameters Ωt (t = 2, 4, 6) were calculated from the measured absorption spectra based on the Judd-Ofelt theory. The energy transfer efficiency from the Er3+:4I13/2 level to the Tm3+:3F4 level was calculated and reached up to 91.2% under 980 nm LD pumps and quantum efficiency is 63%. Meanwhile, the 1.85 μm band stimulated absorption and emission cross-sections of Tm3+:3F4 → 3H6 transitions were also obtained and analyzed. In addition, the measured ΔT (evaluate the glass forming ability) is as high as 297 °C, which shows that the silicate glass (SBET) possess good thermal stability. Hence, all of the present investigations indicate that the Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped silicate glasses have potential applications in 2 μm laser materials and may provide beneficial guide for investigation of population behaviors of Tm3+ ions at 2 μm emissions.

  19. Topological Principles of Borosilicate Glass Chemistry - An Invited Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauro, J.C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Youngman, R. E.

    Borosilicate glasses display a rich complexity of chemical behavior depending on the details of their composition and thermal history. We investigate the topological principles of borosilicate glass chemistry covering the extremes from pure borate to pure silicate end members. Based on NMR...... topological representation of alkali-alkaline earth-borosilicate glasses that enables the accurate prediction of properties such as glass transition temperature, liquid fragility, hardness, and configurational heat capacity. The implications of the glass topology are discussed in terms of both the temperature...

  20. Photocatalytic effect and Mössbauer study of iron titanium silicate glass prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Kubuki, Shiro; Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Sinkó, Katalin; Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ernő; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    2015-06-01

    A relationship between the photocatalytic effect and the local structure of 50Fe2O3ṡ (50- x)SiO2ṡ xTiO2 glass abbreviated as 50FS xTi prepared by sol-gel method was investigated by 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy (FeMS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-VIS). Mössbauer spectra of 50FS xTi glass before annealing showed a doublet with the isomer shift ( δ) and quadrupole splitting (Δ) of 0.41±0.01 mm s-1 and 0.75±0.02 mm s-1, indicating that Fe3+ formed FeO6 octahedra ( O h). A comparable δ of 0.36±0.02 mm s-1 and the larger Δ of 0.92±0.02 mm s-1 values were confirmed for 50FS xTi after annealed at 400 ∘ C for 3 h. These results indicates that the coordination number of iron polyhedra decreases from 6 to 4 due to annealing. UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectra of 50FS10Ti yielded two optical band gap energies ( E g's) of 2.05 eV and 3.55 eV. This result implied that 50FS10Ti has two optical band gaps in the visible area and UV area. A bleaching test performed by 10 mL of MB aqueous solution and 40 mg of powder 50FS10Ti glass sample showed that MB absorbance decreased from 3.16 to 0.43 after UV-visible light irradiation for 2 h with the first order rate constant ( k) of . These results prove that titanium containing iron silicate glass with the composition of 50Fe2O3ṡ40SiO2ṡ10TiO2 has the UV and visible light responsive photocatalytic effect.

  1. Generation of alkali-free and high-proton concentration layer in a soda lime glass using non-contact corona discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishii, Junji [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Funatsu, Shiro [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Harada, Kenji [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2013-08-14

    Formation mechanisms of alkali-free and high-proton concentration surfaces were investigated for a soda lime glass using a corona discharge treatment under an atmospheric pressure. Protons produced by high DC voltage around an anode needle electrode were incorporated into a sodium ion site in the anode side glass. The sodium ion was swept away to the cathode side as a charge carrier. Then it was discharged. The precipitated sodium was transformed to a Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} powder when the surface contacted with air. The sodium ion in the glass surface layer of the anode side was replaced completely by protons. The concentration of OH groups in the layer was balanced with the amount of excluded sodium ions. The substitution reaction of sodium ions with protons tends to be saturated according to a square root function of time. The alkali depletion layer formation rate was affected by the large difference in mobility between sodium ions and protons in the glass.

  2. Optical absorption and near infrared emission properties of Nd 3+ ions in alkali lead tellurofluoroborate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, S. A.; Jamalaiah, B. C.; Kumar, J. Suresh; Babu, A. Mohan; Moorthy, L. Rama; Jayasimhadri, M.; Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho Sueb; Yi, Soung Soo; Jeong, Jung Hyun

    2009-12-01

    Nd 3+ doped H 3BO 3-PbO-TeO 2-RF (R = Li, Na and K) glasses were prepared through melt quenching technique. Optical absorption and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence spectra were recorded at room temperature. The spectral intensities were analyzed in terms of the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) parameters ( Ω λ = 2, 4, 6). The covalency effect of Nd-O bond on the J-O parameters was estimated from the relative absorbance ratio (R) between 4I 9/2 → 4F 7/2 and 4I 9/2 → 4S 3/2 transitions. The effect of Nd-O covalency on the Ω4 and Ω6 intensity parameters as well as on the spontaneous emission probabilities ( AR) was discussed. Lomheim and Shazer hybrid method was applied to determine the fluorescence branching ratios ( βR) of each emission transition from the 4F 3/2 metastable level to its lower lying levels. The evaluated total radiative transition probabilities ( AT), stimulated emission cross-sections ( σe) and gain bandwidth parameters ( σe × Δ λP) were compared with the earlier reports.

  3. Intumescence and pore structure of alkali-activated volcanic glasses upon exposure to high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Structures formed with ground perlite, a natural volcanic glass, activated with NaOH solutions, are shown to possess the ability to expand up to ~225 % of their original volumes upon exposure to temperatures in the 200-600 °C range. Porous solid with 3-7 MPa compressive strength and ˜450 kg/m3 or higher density are obtained. The observed expansion is believed to occur due to a loss of silanol condensation water, as vapor and is accompanied by an up to ~20 % loss in mass. A drop in pH to near-neutral values supports this idea. The size and total amount of pores in the final solid are controlled by concentration of the NaOH solution and thermal processing conditions. The pores formed are observed to be ~1-10 μm to mm-sized. The ability of perlite-based solids to intumesce over specific temperature ranges could be beneficial in applications where absorption of thermal energy is necessary, such as passive fire protection.

  4. Alkali-silica reactions of mortars produced by using waste glass as fine aggregate and admixtures such as fly ash and Li2CO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Ilker Bekir; Boğa, Ahmet Raif; Bilir, Turhan

    2008-01-01

    Use of waste glass or glass cullet (GC) as concrete aggregate is becoming more widespread each day because of the increase in resource efficiency. Recycling of wastes is very important for sustainable development. When glass is used as aggregate in concrete or mortar, expansions and internal stresses occur due to an alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Furthermore, rapid loss in durability is generally observed due to extreme crack formation and an increase in permeability. It is necessary to use some kind of chemical or mineral admixture to reduce crack formation. In this study, mortar bars are produced by using three different colors of glass in four different quantities as fine aggregate by weight, and the effects of these glass aggregates on ASR are investigated, corresponding to ASTM C 1260. Additionally, in order to reduce the expansions of mortars, 10% and 20% fly ash (FA) as mineral admixture and 1% and 2% Li(2)CO(3) as chemical admixture are incorporated by weight in the cement and their effects on expansion are examined. It is observed that among white (WG), green (GG) and brown glass (BG) aggregates, WG aggregate causes the greatest expansion. In addition, expansion increases with an increase in amount of glass. According to the test results, it is seen that over 20% FA and 2% Li(2)CO(3) replacements are required to produce mortars which have expansion values below the 0.2% critical value when exposed to ASR. However, usages of these admixtures reduce expansions occurring because of ASR.

  5. Radiation-Induced Centers in Lead Silicate Glasses Irradiated by Stationary and Pulsed Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, I. S.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Konev, S. F.; Cholakh, S. O.

    2015-08-01

    Radiation-induced centers formed in heavy flint glasses irradiated by electron beams are investigated by the methods of optical and EPR spectroscopy. It is revealed that stable and short-living optical absorption centers of close natures are formed under irradiation by fast electrons. A correlation is established between the stable optical absorption bands and the EPR signals interpreted as signals of the (Pb2+)/h+ hole centers. The shortliving color centers are formed due to short-term distortion of the O-Pb bonds, and the stable centers are formed due to the spatial separation, thermalization, and subsequent stabilization of excited electrons and holes in tails of the localized states. Irradiation by electron beams leads to a change in the spectral characteristics of the fundamental absorption edge and, in particular, of the Urbach energy that determines the degree of structural disorder.

  6. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of the Atomic Structure of Zirconium-Doped Lithium Silicate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics, Zirconium-Doped Lithium Borate Glasses, and Vitreous Rare-Earth Phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Changhyeon

    In the first part of this work, the atomic-scale structure around rare-earth (RE = Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy, and Er) cations (RE3+) in rare-earth sodium ultraphosphate (REUP) glasses were investigated using RE LIII -edge (RE = Nd, Er, Dy, and Eu) and K-edge (RE = Pr and Dy) Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. (RE2O 3)x(Na2O)y(P2O5) 1-x-y glasses in the compositional range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.14 and 0.3 ≤ x + y ≤ 0.4 were studied. For the nearest oxygen shell, the RE-oxygen (RE-O) coordination number decreases from 10.8 to 6.5 with increasing RE content for Pr-, Nd-, Dy-, and Er-doped sodium ultraphosphate glasses. For Eu-doped samples, the Eu-O coordination number was between 7.5 and 8.8. Also, the RE-O mean distance ranges were between 2.43-2.45 A, 2.40-2.43 A, 2.36-2.38 A, 2.30-2.35 A, and 2.28-2.30 A for Pr-, Nd-, Eu-, Dy-, and Er-doped samples, respectively. In the second part, a series of Zr-doped (3-10 mol%) lithium silicate (ZRLS) glass-ceramics and their parent glasses and a series of Zr-doped (2-6 mol% ZrO2) lithium borate (ZRLB) glasses were investigated using Zr K-edge EXAFS and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Immediate coordination environments of all ZRLS glasses are remarkably similar for different compositions. For the nearest oxygen shell, the Zr-O coordination number ranges were between 6.1 and 6.3 for nucleated and crystallized samples, respectively. Also, the Zr-O mean distance remains similar around 2.10 A. For these glasses, the composition dependence of structural parameters was small. Small changes in the coordination environment were observed for ZRLS glass-ceramics after thermal treatments. In contrast, Zr coordination environment in ZRLB glasses appear to depend appreciably on the Zr concentration. For the nearest oxygen shell, the Zr-O coordination number increased from 6.1 to 6.8 and the Zr-O distance decreased from 2.18 A to 2.14 A with decreasing ZrO2 content.

  7. Formation of Na1+xV3O8 Nanoribbon Thin Film from V2O5 Xerogel on Sodium Silicate Glass Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yi; XU Jin-jie; LI Jun; YANG Wen-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Na1+xV3O8 nanoribbon thin film was successfully fabricated by annealing the V2O5 xerogel film on sodium silicate glass substrate at 450 ℃. It has been identified that the amount of sodium ions diffused into the V2O5 xerogel film increases with the high temperature of annealing treatment. The sodium glass substrate serves as a limited sodium source to induce the transformation from V2O5 to Na1+xV3O8.

  8. Structure and disorder in iron-bearing sodium silicate glasses and melts: High-resolution 29Si and 17O solid-state NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, S.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding of the effect of iron content on the structure (Si coordination environment and the degree of polymerization) of iron-bearing silicate melts and glasses is essential for studying their macroscopic properties and diverse geological processes in Earth's interior. Although the recent advances in high-resolution solid-state NMR techniques provide detailed structural information of a diverse iron-free oxide glasses with varying composition (e.g., Lee, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 2011, 108, 6847; Lee and Sung, Chem. Geol., 2008, 256, 326; Park and Lee, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2012, 80, 125; Lee et al., Phys. Rev., 103, 095501, 2009), their application to iron-bearing silicate glasses has a limited usefulness in resolving atomic configurations due to the effect of paramagnetic cation (i.e., Fe) on the NMR spectra. Here, we report the first ^{29}Si and ^{17}O NMR spectra for sodium-iron silicate glasses with varying iron content (Na_{2}O-Fe_{2}O_{3}-SiO_{2} glasses, up to 34.60 wt% Fe_{2}O_{3}), revealing previously unknown details of iron-induced changes in structure and disorder. While signal intensity decreases and peak width increases exponentially with increasing iron content [=Fe_{2}O_{3}/(Na_{2}O+Fe_{2}O_{3})], ^{29}Si MAS NMR spectra for sodium-iron silicate glasses present the slight peak shift and an asymmetrical peak broadening toward higher Q^{n} species with increasing iron content. This result implies an increase in the degree of polymerization with increasing iron content. Additionally, ^{29}Si spin-relaxation time (T_{1}) for the glasses decreases with increasing of iron content by several orders of magnitude. ^{17}O 3QMAS NMR spectra for the glasses show well-resolved non-bridging oxygen (NBO, Na-O-Si) and bridging oxygen (BO, Si-O-Si) even at relatively high iron content, providing the first direct experimental estimation of the degree of polymerization. In sodium-iron silicate glasses, the fraction of NBO decreases with increasing iron

  9. 高压电场对钠钙硅酸盐玻璃风化性能的影响%Influences of the Imposed High Voltage Electric Field on the Weathering Properties of Soda-lime Silicate Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪成; 刘启明

    2009-01-01

    The soda-lime silicate float gIass is imposed to high voltage electrostatic field at the annealing temperature range of the ghss.The in fluences of the leakage current intensity,processing temperature and time on the ehnical stabilityofgLassan.der high-voltage electrostatic field are researched.The use of chemical titration analysis tested alkali of glass surface to research the hydrolytic resistance of glass.The glass samples accelerated weathering tests are carried out using constant temperature and humidity chamber,and the glass microscope morphology after weathering is observed by metallographic microscope XJZ-6.The experimental results show that when leakage current strength is lower than l50μA/cm~2,with increase of the high voltage elec trostatic field,the chemical stability(hydrolytic resistance)of the glass surface near the cahode surface(air side)increases,and litde change is found in that of the side(tin permeability surface).%在玻璃退火温度范围内,对钠钙硅酸盐平板玻璃施加高压电场.研究了高压电场下处理温度、时间、电场强度及泄露电流对玻璃化学稳定性的影响.利用化学滴定法测试了玻璃表面析碱量,研究了玻璃的耐水性.利用恒温恒湿箱进行了加速风化实验,采用XJZ-6型金相显微镜观察玻璃样品风化后的形貌.实验表明,泄露电流强度不大于150 μA/cm~2,高压电场提高正极附近玻璃表面(空气面)的化学稳定性,同时负极附近玻璃表面(渗锡面)的化学稳定性变化不大.

  10. Finite size effect of proton-conductivity of amorphous silicate thin films based on mesoscopic fluctuation of glass network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yoshitaka; Habazaki, Hiroki; Nagata, Shinji; Nakao, Aiko; Kunitake, Toyoki; Yamaguchi, Shu

    2011-03-16

    The finite size effect of proton conductivity of amorphous silicate thin films, a-M(0.1)Si(0.9)O(x) (M = Al, Ga, Hf, Ti, Ta, and La), was investigated. The proton conductivity across films, σ, was measured in dry air by changing the thickness in the range of 10-1000 nm. σ of the films with M = Al, Ga, and Ta was elevated in a power law by decreasing thickness into less than a few hundred nanometers, and the increment was saturated at a thickness of several 10's of nanometers. On the other hand, σ of the films with M = Hf, Ti, and La was not related to the decrease of the thickness in the range of >10 nm. Thickness-dependent conductivity of the former could be numerically simulated by a percolative resistor network model that involves the randomly distributed array of two kinds of resistors R(1) and R(2) (R(1) > R(2)) in the form of a simple cubic-type lattice. High-resolution TEM clarified that a-M(0.1)Si(0.9)O(x) films involved heterogeneous microstructures made of the condensed domain and the surrounding uncondensed matrix due to the fluctuation of glass networks on the nanometer scale. The condensed domain had a wormlike shape with an average length of several 10's of nanometers and performed the role of the proton conduction pathway penetrating through the poorly conducting matrix. It was concluded that the thickness-dependent conductivity could be identical to finite-size scaling of the percolative network of the interconnected domains in the nanometer range.

  11. Enhanced 1.8 μm emission in Er3+/Tm3+co-doped lead silicate glasses under different excitations for near infrared laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婷婷; 唐国武; 陈晓东; 孙敏; 钱奇; 杨中民

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study of the fluorescence emission properties and energy transfer mechanism in Er3+/Tm3+co-doped lead sili-cate glasseswas reported. Enhanced nearinfrared 1.8 μm and visible up-conversion emissions were investigated under 808 and 980 nm excitations, respectively. The energy transfer mechanism between Er3+and Tm3+was analyzed according to the absorption spectra, the emission spectra and the level structures of Er3+and Tm3+. The energy transfer efficiency between Er3+and Tm3+reached 68.1% in the Er3+/Tm3+co-doped lead silicate glasses when pumped by 808 nm laser diode. Based on the absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt parameters, spontaneous emission probability, absorption and emission cross sections, gain coefficients were calculated and analyzed. Itwas found that the calculated emission cross section and the maximum gain coefficient around 1.8 μmwere 4.9×10–21cm2and 1.12cm–1, respectively. These results indicatedthat the Er3+/Tm3+co-doped lead-silicate glasses hadpotential application in near infrared lasers.

  12. A micro-scale investigation of melt production and extraction in the upper mantle based on silicate melt pockets in ultramafic xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bali, Eniko; Zanetti, A.; Szabo, C.;

    2008-01-01

    Mantle xenoliths in Neogene alkali basalts of the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary) frequently have melt pockets that contain silicate minerals, glass, and often carbonate globules. Textural, geochemical and thermobarometric data indicate that the melt pockets formed at rel...

  13. Better Alternative to "Astronomical Silicate": Laboratory-Based Optical Functions of Chondritic/Solar Abundance Glass With Application to HD161796

    CERN Document Server

    Speck, A K; Hofmeister, A M

    2015-01-01

    "Astronomical" or "circumstellar" silicate optical functions (real and imaginary indices of refraction n and k have been previously derived from compositionally and structurally disparate samples; past values were compiled from different sources in the literature, and are essentially kluges of observational, laboratory, and extrapolated or interpolated values. These synthetic optical functions were created because astronomers lack the quantitative data on amorphous silicates at all wavelengths needed for radiative transfer modeling. This paper provides optical functions that (1) are created with a consistent methodology, (2) use the same sample across all wavelengths, and (3) minimize interpolation and extrapolation wherever possible. We present electronic data tables of optical functions derived from mid-ultraviolet to far-infrared laboratory transmission spectra for two materials: iron-free glass with chondritic/solar atmospheric abundances, and metallic iron. We compare these optical functions to other pop...

  14. Highly thermally stable single-component white-emitting silicate glass for organic-resin-free white-light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Huang, Lin; Pan, Fengjuan; Wu, Mingmei; Wang, Jing; Chen, Yan; Su, Qiang

    2014-02-26

    Thermal management is still a great challenge for high-power phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) intended for future general lighting. In this paper, a series of single-component white-emitting silicate SiO2-Li2O-SrO-Al2O3-K2O-P2O5: Ce(3+), Tb(3+), Mn(2+) (SLSAKP: Ce(3+), Tb(3+), Mn(2+)) glasses that simultaneously play key roles as a luminescent convertor and an encapsulating material for WLEDs were prepared via the conventional melt-quenching method, and systematically studied using their absorption spectra, transmittance spectra, photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra in the temperature range 296-498 K, decay curves, and quantum efficiency. The glasses show strong and broad absorption in 250-380 nm region and exhibit intense white emission, produced by in situ mixing of blue-violet, green, and orange-red light from Ce(3+), Tb(3+), and Mn(2+) ions, respectively, in a single glass component. The quantum efficiency of SLSAKP: 0.3%Ce(3+), 2.0%Tb(3+), 2.0%Mn(2+) glass is determined to be 19%. More importantly, this glass shows good thermal stability, exhibiting at 373 and 423 K about 84.56 and 71.02%, respectively, of the observed room temperature (298 K) emission intensity. The chromaticity shift of SLSAKP: 0.3%Ce(3+), 2.0%Tb(3+), 2.0%Mn(2+) is 2.94 × 10(-2) at 498 K, only 57% of the commercial triple-color white-emitting phosphor mixture. Additionally, this glass shows no transmittance loss at the 370 nm emission of a UV-Chip-On-Board (UV-COB) after thermal aging for 240 h, compared with the 82% transmittance loss of epoxy resin. The thermal conductivity of the glass is about 1.07 W/mK, much larger than the 0.17 W/mK of epoxy resin. An organic-resin-free WLEDs device based on SLSAKP: 0.3%Ce(3+), 2.0%Tb(3+), 2.0%Mn(2+) glass and UV-COB is successfully demonstrated. All of our results demonstrate that the presented Ce(3+)/Tb(3+)/Mn(2+) tridoped lithium-strontium-silicate glass may serve as a promising candidate for high-power WLEDs.

  15. Experimental study on preparation of sodium silicate by purification of gangue and alkali melting activation%煤矸石除杂及碱融活化制取硅酸钠的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德顺; 吴红

    2013-01-01

    研究利用煤矸石中的硅元素制取硅酸钠,先将煤矸石粉在750℃下煅烧2h,除去有机质并破坏了煤矸石中的高岭石等矿物的晶型结构,再将煅烧过的煤矸石粉在95℃、液固比(mL/g)为8:1、质量分数为40%的硫酸中酸浸5h,煤矸石煅烧粉中的铁和铝等金属杂质离子的总去除率为86.93%;还研究了碱融活化条件对硅元素溶出率的影响,获得了适宜的碱融活化条件:m(酸浸粉):m(碳酸钠)=1:1.5、碱融温度为800 ℃、碱融时间为2h.在此条件下,硅元素溶出率大于75%,最终获得了硅酸钠溶液.%In order to utilize silicon in the coal gangue to prepare sodium silicate,the gangue powder was calcined at 750 ℃for 2 h firstly,then the organic matters were removed and the crystal structures of the minerals,such as kaolin in the gangue were destroyed.The calcined gangue powder was leached in sulfuric acid with mass fraction of 40% and liquid to solid ratio of 8:l at 95 ℃ for 5 h.The total removal ratio of impurity metal ions,such as iron and aluminum was 86.93%;the influences of the alkali melting activation conditions on the dissolution ratios of silicon element were investigated,then the suitable activation conditions were obtained:the mass ratio of acid leaching powder to sodium carbonate was 1:1.5,the alkali melting temperature was 800 ℃,and the alkali melting time was 2 h.Under these conditions silicon element dissolution ratio was more than 75% and the sodium silicate solution was obtained finally.

  16. Influence of ZnO/MgO substitution on sintering, crystallisation, and bio-activity of alkali-free glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Saurabh; Goel, Ashutosh; Correia, Ana Filipa; Pascual, Maria J; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, José M F

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports on the influence of partial replacement of MgO by ZnO on the structure, crystallisation behaviour and bioactivity of alkali-free bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs). A series of glass compositions (mol%): 36.07 CaO-(19.24-x) MgO-x ZnO-5.61 P2O5-38.49 SiO2-0.59 CaF2 (x=2-10) have been synthesised by melt-quench technique. The structural changes were investigated by solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The sintering and crystallisation behaviours of glass powders were studied by hot-stage microscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. All the glass compositions exhibited good densification ability resulting in well sintered and mechanically strong GCs. The crystallisation and mechanical behaviour were studied under non-isothermal heating conditions at 850 °C for 1h. Diopside was the primary crystalline phase in all the GCs followed by fluorapatite and rankinite as secondary phases. Another phase named petedunnite was identified in GCs with ZnO content >4 mol. The proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) on GCs was revealed to be Zn-dose dependent with the highest performance being observed for 4 mol% ZnO.

  17. An evaluation of the processing conditions, structure, and properties (biaxial flexural strength and antibacterial efficacy) of sintered strontium-zinc-silicate glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Mark; Shea, Helen O'; Gunn, Lynda; Crowley, Dolores; Boyd, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    The use of artificial bone grafts has increased in order to satisfy a growing demand for bone replacement materials. Initial mechanical stability of synthetic bone grafts is very advantageous for certain clinical applications. Coupled with the advantage of mechanical strength, a material with inherent antibacterial properties would be very beneficial. A series of strontium-doped zinc silicate (Ca-Sr-Na-Zn-Si) glass ceramics have been characterized in terms of their crystalline structure, biaxial flexural strength and antibacterial efficacy based on the identification of optimum sintering conditions. All three glass ceramics, namely, BT110, BT111, and BT112 were found to be fully crystalline, with BT111 and BT112 comprising of biocompatible crystalline phases. The biaxial flexural strengths of the three glass ceramics ranged from 70 to 149 MPa and were shown to be superior to those of clinically established ceramics in dry conditions and following incubation in simulated physiological conditions. The bacteriostatic effect for each glass ceramic was also established, where BT112 showed an inhibitory effect against three of the most common bacteria found at implantation sites, namely, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of the evaluation suggest that the materials studied offer advantages over current clinical materials and indicate the potential suitability of the glass ceramics as therapeutic bone grafts.

  18. Femtosecond laser-induced modification of potassium-magnesium silicate glasses: An analysis of structural changes by near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuthe, T.; Höfner, M.; Reinhardt, F.; Tsai, W. J.; Bonse, J.; Eberstein, M.; Eichler, H. J.; Grehn, M.

    2012-05-01

    The effects of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation on the glass structure of alkaline silicate glasses were investigated by x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy using the beamline of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron synchrotron BESSY II in Berlin (Germany) by analyzing the magnesium K-edge absorption peak for different laser fluences. The application of fluences above the material modification threshold (2.1 J/cm2) leads to a characteristic shift of ˜1.0 eV in the K-edge revealing a reduced (˜3%) mean magnesium bond length to the ligated oxygen ions (Mg-O) along with a reduced average coordination number of the Mg ions.

  19. Study of structural and spectroscopic behavior of Sm3+ ions in lead-zinc borate glasses containing alkali metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi Kumar, M. V.; Babu, S.; Rajeswara Reddy, B.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2017-02-01

    High luminescence behavior of rare earth inorganic glasses have a variety of uses in the industry. In the past few decades, rare earth ions with characteristic photonics applications are being hosted by heavy metal oxide glasses. Among the rare earth ions Sm3+ ion has features which make it apt for high density optical storage. The authors of the paper have experimented to synthesize Sm3+ doped glasses. In this regard a new series of borate glasses doped with 1 mol% Sm3+ ion are developed by using melt-quenching technique. XRD, FTIR, optical absorption, luminescence techniques are used to study the various characteristics of Sm3+ ion in the present glass matrices. The XRD spectra confirms the amorphous nature of glasses. Further, the researchers have used differential thermal analysis to study the glass transition temperature. The structural groups in the prepared glasses are studied using Fourier transform infrared spectra. From the measurement of its optical absorption, three phenomenological Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6) have been computed. Based on these Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative properties such as radiative probabilities (Arad), branching ratios (β), and radiative life time (τR) are calculated. The excitation spectra of Sm3+ doped lithium heavy metal borate glass matrix is recorded under the emission wavelength of 600 nm. The emission spectra are recorded under 404 nm excitation wavelength. From various emission transitions, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 bands could be of interest for various applications. The decay profiles of 4G5/2 level exhibit single exponential nature in all the prepared glass matrices. The potassium glass matrix exhibits higher quantum efficiency than the other glass matrices. Finally, by going through these several spectroscopic characterizations, it is concluded that the prepared Sm3+ doped lead-zinc borate glasses might be useful for visible light applications.

  20. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength and microleakage of tricalcium silicate-based restorative material and radioopaque posterior glass ionomer restorative cement in primary and permanent teeth: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Guptha Raju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restoration of carious primary molars is still a major concern while treating the young children that too in deep carious lesion which extends below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ where pulp protection and achieving adequate marginal seal are very important to prevent secondary caries. The needs were met with the development of new materials. One such of new bioactive material is tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine, recommended for restoring deep lesions. Aim: To evaluate and compare shear bond strength and microleakage of tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine and glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP in primary and permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surface of crowns were ground flat. PVC molds were stabilized over flat dentin surface and filled with tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine/glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP according to group ascertained. Shear bond strength was evaluated using universal testing machine (INSTRON. Standardized Class II cavities were prepared on both primary and permanent teeth, and then restored with tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine/glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP according to group ascertained, over which composite resin material was restored using an open sandwich technique. Microleakage was assessed using dye penetration. Microleakage was examined using a stereomicroscope. Results: Results showed that glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP exhibited better shear bond strength than tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine. Mean microleakage score for glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP in permanent teeth was 1.52 and for primary teeth was 1.56. The mean microleakage for tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine in permanent teeth was 0.76 and for primary teeth was 0.60. Glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP exhibited more microleakage than tricalcium silicate-based restorative

  1. Mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated fly ash geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komljenović, M; Bascarević, Z; Bradić, V

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the properties of geopolymer obtained by alkali-activation of fly ash (FA), i.e. the influence of characteristics of the representative group of FA (class F) from Serbia, as well as that of the nature and concentration of various activators on mechanical and microstructural properties of geopolymers. Aqueous solutions of Ca(OH)(2), NaOH, NaOH+Na(2)CO(3), KOH and sodium silicate (water glass) of various concentrations were used as alkali activators. It was established that the nature and concentration of the activator was the most dominant parameter in the alkali-activation process. In respect of physical characteristics of FA, the key parameter was fineness. The geopolymer based on FA with the highest content of fine particles (<43 microm), showed the highest compressive strength in all cases. Regardless of FA characteristics, nature and concentration of the activator, the alkali-activation products were mainly amorphous. The formation of crystalline phases (zeolites) occurred in some cases, depending on the reaction conditions. The highest compressive strength was obtained using sodium silicate. Together with the increase of sodium silicate SiO(2)/Na(2)O mass ratio, the atomic Si/Al ratio in the reaction products was also increased. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, high strength was directly related to the high Si/Al ratio.

  2. Influence of ZnO/MgO substitution on sintering, crystallisation, and bio-activity of alkali-free glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Saurabh [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Goel, Ashutosh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 (United States); Correia, Ana Filipa [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pascual, Maria J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Hae-Won [Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN) & College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Ferreira, José M.F., E-mail: jmf@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports on the influence of partial replacement of MgO by ZnO on the structure, crystallisation behaviour and bioactivity of alkali-free bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs). A series of glass compositions (mol%): 36.07 CaO–(19.24 − x) MgO–x ZnO–5.61 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–38.49 SiO{sub 2}–0.59 CaF{sub 2} (x = 2–10) have been synthesised by melt–quench technique. The structural changes were investigated by solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The sintering and crystallisation behaviours of glass powders were studied by hot-stage microscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. All the glass compositions exhibited good densification ability resulting in well sintered and mechanically strong GCs. The crystallisation and mechanical behaviour were studied under non-isothermal heating conditions at 850 °C for 1 h. Diopside was the primary crystalline phase in all the GCs followed by fluorapatite and rankinite as secondary phases. Another phase named petedunnite was identified in GCs with ZnO content > 4 mol. The proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) on GCs was revealed to be Zn-dose dependent with the highest performance being observed for 4 mol% ZnO. - Highlights: • The addition of zinc to glasses decreased T{sub g} and promoted crystallisation. • Zinc enhanced the sintering ability and increased mechanical strength by 36%. • The apatite formation ability decreased with increasing Zn contents. • Zinc stimulated mesenchymal stem cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner.

  3. Optical Properties of K2O-Li2O-WO3-B2O3 Glasses: Evidence of Mixed Alkali Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edukondalu, Avula; Sripathi, T.; Kareem Ahmmad, Shaik; Rahman, Syed; Sivakumar, K.

    2017-02-01

    Glass with compositions xK2O-(30 - x)Li2O-10WO3-60B2O3 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 30 mol.% have been prepared using the normal melt quenching technique. The optical reflection and absorption spectra were recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range 300-800 nm. From the absorption edge studies, the values of the optical band gap ( E opt) and Urbach energy (Δ E) have been evaluated. The values of E opt and Δ E vary non-linearly with composition parameter, showing the mixed alkali effect. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single oscillator Wemple Di-Domenico model.

  4. Optical Properties of K2O-Li2O-WO3-B2O3 Glasses: Evidence of Mixed Alkali Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edukondalu, Avula; Sripathi, T.; Kareem Ahmmad, Shaik; Rahman, Syed; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-10-01

    Glass with compositions xK2O-(30 - x)Li2O-10WO3-60B2O3 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 30 mol.% have been prepared using the normal melt quenching technique. The optical reflection and absorption spectra were recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range 300-800 nm. From the absorption edge studies, the values of the optical band gap (E opt) and Urbach energy (ΔE) have been evaluated. The values of E opt and ΔE vary non-linearly with composition parameter, showing the mixed alkali effect. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single oscillator Wemple Di-Domenico model.

  5. Mixed alkali effect in borate glasses - electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption studies in Cu sup 2 sup + doped xNa sub 2 O- (30 - x)K sub 2 O- 70B sub 2 O sub 3 glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Chakradhar, R P S; Rao, J L; Ramakrishna, J

    2003-01-01

    The mixed alkali borate glasses xNa sub 2 O-(30 - x)K sub 2 O-70B sub 2 O sub 3 (5 sup sup 2 B sub 2 sub g) and a weak band on the higher energy side at 22 115 cm sup - sup 1 corresponding to the transition ( sup 2 B sub 1 sub g -> sup 2 E sub g). With x > 5, the higher energy band disappears and the lower energy band shifts slightly to the lower energy side. By correlating the EPR and optical absorption data, the molecular orbital coefficients alpha sup 2 and beta sub 1 sup 2 are evaluated for the different glasses investigated. The values indicate that the in-plane sigma bonding is moderately covalent while the in-plane pi bonding is significantly ionic in nature; these exhibit a minimum with x = 15, showing the MAE. The theoretical values of optical basicity of the glasses have also been evaluated. From optical absorption edges, the optical bandgap energies have been calculated and are found to lie in the range 3.00-3.40 eV. The physical properties of the glasses studied have also been evaluated with respe...

  6. Effect of gamma rays absorbed doses and heat treatment on the optical absorption spectra of silver ion-exchanged silicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, Khaled, E-mail: kafarah@gmail.com [Unité de recherche: Maîtrise et développement des techniques nucléaires à caractère pacifique, Centre National des Sciences et Technologie Nucléaires, 2020 Sidi-Thabet (Tunisia); ISTLS, University of Sousse (Tunisia); Hosni, Faouzi [Unité de recherche: Maîtrise et développement des techniques nucléaires à caractère pacifique, Centre National des Sciences et Technologie Nucléaires, 2020 Sidi-Thabet (Tunisia); Academie Militaire de Fondouk Jedid, 8012 Nabeul (Tunisia); Mejri, Arbi [Unité de recherche: Maîtrise et développement des techniques nucléaires à caractère pacifique, Centre National des Sciences et Technologie Nucléaires, 2020 Sidi-Thabet (Tunisia); Boizot, Bruno [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Hamzaoui, Ahmed Hichem [Centre National de Recherche en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Ouada, Hafedh [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés, Faculté des Sciences, University of Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2014-03-15

    Samples of a commercial silicate glass have been subjected to ion exchange at 320 °C in a molten mixture of AgNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3} with molar ratio of 1:99 and 5:95 for 60 min. The ion exchange process was followed by gamma irradiation in the dose range of 1–250 kGy and heating at the temperature of 550 °C for different time periods ranging from 10 to 582 min. The spectral absorption in UV–Vis range of the Ag–Na ion exchanged glass was measured and used to determine the states of silver prevailing in the glass during the ion exchange, the gamma irradiation and the heat treatment. The gamma irradiation induced holes and electrons in the glass structure leading to the creation of a brown colour, and silver ions trapped electrons to form silver atoms. We observed the first stage of aggregation after irradiation, as well as after heating. The silver atoms diffused and then aggregated to form nanoclusters after heating at 550 °C. A characteristic band at about 430 nm was induced. The surface Plasmon absorption of silver nanoclusters in the glass indicated that the nanoclusters radius grew between 0.9 and 1.43 nm with increasing of annealing time from 10 to 242 min and then saturated. We also found that the size of aggregates depends on the value of gamma radiation absorbed dose. Contrary to what was expected, we found that 20 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose corresponding to the larger size of the aggregates which decreases for absorbed doses above 20 kGy.

  7. Effect of gamma rays absorbed doses and heat treatment on the optical absorption spectra of silver ion-exchanged silicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Khaled; Hosni, Faouzi; Mejri, Arbi; Boizot, Bruno; Hamzaoui, Ahmed Hichem; Ben Ouada, Hafedh

    2014-03-01

    Samples of a commercial silicate glass have been subjected to ion exchange at 320 °C in a molten mixture of AgNO3 and NaNO3 with molar ratio of 1:99 and 5:95 for 60 min. The ion exchange process was followed by gamma irradiation in the dose range of 1-250 kGy and heating at the temperature of 550 °C for different time periods ranging from 10 to 582 min. The spectral absorption in UV-Vis range of the Ag-Na ion exchanged glass was measured and used to determine the states of silver prevailing in the glass during the ion exchange, the gamma irradiation and the heat treatment. The gamma irradiation induced holes and electrons in the glass structure leading to the creation of a brown colour, and silver ions trapped electrons to form silver atoms. We observed the first stage of aggregation after irradiation, as well as after heating. The silver atoms diffused and then aggregated to form nanoclusters after heating at 550 °C. A characteristic band at about 430 nm was induced. The surface Plasmon absorption of silver nanoclusters in the glass indicated that the nanoclusters radius grew between 0.9 and 1.43 nm with increasing of annealing time from 10 to 242 min and then saturated. We also found that the size of aggregates depends on the value of gamma radiation absorbed dose. Contrary to what was expected, we found that 20 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose corresponding to the larger size of the aggregates which decreases for absorbed doses above 20 kGy.

  8. Sol-gel synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of copper and zinc-doped silicate bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Julian; Caviedes, Pablo; Palza, Humberto

    2015-03-11

    Metal doping of bioactive glasses based on ternary 60SiO2-36CaO-4P2O5 (58S) and quaternary 60SiO2-25CaO-11Na2O-4P2O5 (NaBG) mol% compositions synthesized using a sol-gel process was analyzed. In particular, the effect of incorporating 1, 5 and 10 mol% of CuO and ZnO (replacing equivalent quantities of CaO) on the texture, in vitro bioactivity, and cytocompatibility of these materials was evaluated. Our results showed that the addition of metal ions can modulate the textural property of the matrix and its crystal structure. Regarding the bioactivity, after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) undoped 58S and NaBG glasses developed an apatite surface layer that was reduced in the doped glasses depending on the type of metal and its concentration with Zn displaying the largest inhibitions. Both the ion release from samples and the ion adsorption from the medium depended on the type of matrix with 58S glasses showing the highest values. Pure NaBG glass was more cytocompatible to osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2) than pure 58S glass as tested by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The incorporation of metal ions decreased the cytocompatibility of the glasses depending on their concentration and on the glass matrix doped. Our results show that by changing the glass composition and by adding Cu or Zn, bioactive materials with different textures, bioactivity and cytocompatibility can be synthesized.

  9. Silicates materials of high vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    Espe, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Materials of High Vacuum Technology, Volume 2: Silicates covers silicate insulators of special importance to vacuum technology. The book discusses the manufacture, composition, and physical and chemical properties of technical glasses, quartz glass, quartzware, vycor glass, ceramic materials, mica, and asbestos.

  10. L-Edge Xanes Measurements of the Oxidation State of Tungsten in Iron Bearing and Iron Free Silicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten is important in constraining core formation of the Earth because this element is a moderately siderophile element (depleted 10 relative to chondrites) and, as a member of the Hf-W isotopic system, it is useful in constraining the timing of core formation. A number of previous experimental studies have been carried out to determine the silicate solubility and metal-silicate partitioning behavior of W, including its concomitant oxidation state. However, results of previous studies are inconsistent on whether W occurs as W(4+) or W(6+). It is assumed that W(4+) is the cation valence relevant to core formation. Given the sensitivity to silicate composition of high valence cations, knowledge of the oxidation state of W over a wide range of fO2 is critical to understanding the oxidation state of the mantle and core formation processes. This study seeks to measure the W valence and change in valence state over the range of fO2 most relevant to core formation, around IW-2.

  11. The development of a potassium-sulfide glass fiber cell and studies on impurities in alkali metal-sulfur cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Potassium sulfur rechargeable cells, having as the electrolyte the thin walls of hollow glass fibers made from permeable glass, were developed. The cells had short lives, probably due to the construction materials and impurities in the potassium. The effect of the impurities in the analogous NA-S system was studied. Calcium, potassium, and NaOH/oxide impurities caused increased resistance or corrosion of the glass fibers. For long lived cell operation, the Na must contain less than 1 ppm Ca and less than a few ppm of hydroxide/oxide. Up to 150 ppm K can be tolerated. After purification of the Na anolyte, cell lifetimes in excess of 1000 deep charge-discharge cycles or over 8 months on continuous cycling at 10-30 percent depth of discharge were obtained.

  12. Research Progress in Wet Chemical Etching of Silicate Glass%硅酸盐玻璃的化学处理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成惠峰; 李要辉; 吴云龙; 傅国英; 纪毅璞

    2011-01-01

    氢氟酸溶液常用于硅酸盐玻璃的表面处理,其化学反应机理一直备受关注.本文从氢氟酸电离反应出发,全面归纳氢氟酸稀溶液电离机理、平衡常数以及各电离产物的作用,重点总结了HF-SiO2反应动力学、各研究理论模型、反应速率公式和反应机理.针对目前硅酸盐玻璃的化学处理研究现状,认为硅酸盐玻璃在高浓度氢氟酸溶液和氢氟酸/强酸混合溶液中化学处理的应用将是未来的研究方向.%The reaction mechanism of wet chemical etching of silicate glass in hydrofluoric acid has attracted extensive attention over many years. Ionization reaction in dilute HF solution was introduced. The ionization equation and equilibrium constants and the function of components in dilute HF solution were reviewed. And the reaction kinetics, model, reaction rate formula and etching mechanism of HF-SiO2 reaction were summarized. In the future the application of wet chemical etching in concentrated HF solution and HF-strong acid mixture of wet chemical etching of silicate glass would be studied.

  13. Role of PbO in EPR, optical properties and DC conductivity of vanadyl-doped alkali lead borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahlot, P.S. [Department of Physics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001 (India); Seth, V.P. [Department of Physics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001 (India); Agarwal, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar 25001 (India)]. E-mail: aagju@yahoo.com; Sanghi, S. [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar 25001 (India); Chand, P. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Goyal, D.R. [Department of Physics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001 (India)

    2005-01-31

    Glasses with composition xM{sub 2}O (0.30-x) PbO 0.70 B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M=Li, K) containing 2.0mol% of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} have been prepared in the range 0.00=glasses have been studied. Spin Hamiltonian parameters (SHPs), dipolar hyperfine parameter, P and Fermi contact interaction parameter, K and molecular orbital coefficients ({alpha}2 and {gamma}2) have been calculated. In these glasses there is an increase in the tetragonality of the V{sup 4+}O{sub 6} complex and the 3dxy orbit expands with an increase in the M{sub 2}O:PbO ratio. Values of the theoretical optical basicity, {lambda}{sub th}, have also been reported. Optical band gap increases with decrease in PbO content. For x>0.02, the DC conductivity of these glasses increases and activation energy decreases.

  14. Glass substrates crosslinked with tetracycline-imprinted polymeric silicate and CdTe quantum dots as fluorescent sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Mu-Rong [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Occupational Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hu, Chiung-Wen [Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jian-Lian, E-mail: cjl@mail.cmu.edu.tw [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-21

    A fluorescence-based sensor that combines the merits of quantum dots (QDs) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was first fabricated on a glass substrate via a sol–gel route. Some of the key performance factors, including silane selection, substrate etching, the reaction times of glass silanization and sol–gel polymerization, and the times and methods used for template stripping and loading, were discussed and determined. After fabricating the sensor on either a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) or a 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPS) modified glass substrate, APS showed a much better performance than MPS as both the capping reagent of QDs and the functional monomer of tetracycline-templated MIPs. The APS-QDs on APS-modified glass had a higher imprinted factor (IF = 5.6), a lower LOD (2.1 μM, 3σ), and a more stable signal (2.8%, n = 10 at 70 μM) than those on the MPS-modified glass (IF = 5.2, LOD = 6.5 μM, stability = 6.2%). Furthermore, the recoveries of tetracycline (70 μM) from BSA (133 μg/mL) and FBS (0.66 ppt) by the APS-modified glass were 98% (RSD = 3.5%, n = 5) and 97% (RSD = 5.7%), respectively. For the MPS-modified glass, recoveries of 95% (RSD = 7.2%) and 89% (RSD = 8.7%) were observed at 67 μg/mL of BSA and 0.33 ppt of FBS, respectively. - Highlights: • QD-MIP composites were first built on a glass substrate through a sol–gel route. • Two silanes were evaluated as both a surface modifier and a functional capping monomer. • Fluorescence enhancement by template on glass was different from quenching in solution.

  15. Silicate glass and mineral dissolution: calculated reaction paths and activation energies for hydrolysis of a q3 si by H3O+ using ab initio methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscenti, Louise J; Kubicki, James D; Brantley, Susan L

    2006-01-12

    Molecular orbital energy minimizations were performed with the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method on a [((OH)3SiO)3SiOH-(H3O+).4(H2O)] cluster to follow the reaction path for hydrolysis of an Si-O-Si linkage via proton catalysis in a partially solvated system. The Q3 molecule was chosen (rather than Q2 or Q1) to estimate the maximum activation energy for a fully relaxed cluster representing the surface of an Al-depleted acid-etched alkali feldspar. Water molecules were included in the cluster to investigate the influence of explicit solvation on proton-transfer reactions and on the energy associated with hydroxylating the bridging oxygen atom (Obr). Single-point energy calculations were performed with the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) method. Proton transfer from the hydronium cation to an Obr requires sufficient energy to suggest that the Si-(OH)-Si species will occur only in trace quantities on a silica surface. Protonation of the Obr lengthens the Si-Obr bond and allows for the formation of a pentacoordinate Si intermediate ([5]Si). The energy required to form this species is the dominant component of the activation energy barrier to hydrolysis. After formation of the pentacoordinate intermediate, hydrolysis occurs via breaking the [5]Si-(OH)-Si linkage with a minimal activation energy barrier. A concerted mechanism involving stretching of the [5]Si-(OH) bond, proton transfer from the Si-(OH2)+ back to form H3O+, and a reversion of [5]Si to tetrahedral coordination was predicted. The activation energy for Q3Si hydrolysis calculated here was found to be less than that reported for Q3Si using a constrained cluster in the literature but significantly greater than the measured activation energies for the hydrolysis of Si-Obr bonds in silicate minerals. These results suggest that the rate-limiting step in silicate dissolution is not the hydrolysis of Q3Si-Obr bonds but rather the breakage of Q2 or Q1Si-Obr bonds.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of lithium silicate (Li2SiO3) from waste glass: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Nichola J.; HURT, Andrew P.; Raza, Atiya

    2015-01-01

    Current environmental directives to conserve resources and to divert waste streams have generated significant interest in mineral recycling. In this respect, this preliminary study has demonstrated that lithium metasilicate can be prepared by hydrothermal reaction between waste container glass and lithium hydroxide solutions at 100 °C. Minor proportions of calcium hydroxide, calcite, lithium carbonate and tobermorite were also produced during the reaction. Percentage crystallinity and proport...

  17. Comparative investigation on the effect of alkaline earth oxides on the intensity of absorption bands due to Cu2+, Mn3+ and Cr3+ ions in ternary silicate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Singh; Aman; Anal Tarafder

    2004-06-01

    Absorption characteristics of Cu2+, Mn3+ and Cr3+ ions in ternary silicate (20Na2O.10RO.70SiO2, where R=Ca, Sr, Ba) glasses were investigated. The intensities of absorption bands due to Cu2+ ion was found to increase with increasing ionic radii of the alkaline earth ions whereas it was found to decrease in case of Mn3+ and Cr3+ ions with increasing ionic radii of the alkaline earth ions. The results were discussed in the light of relation between linear extinction coefficients of these ions and coulombic force of alkaline earth ions. The change in intensities of Cu2+, Mn3+ and Cr3+ ion is attributed due to change in silicate glass compositions.

  18. Calcium silicate cement-induced remineralisation of totally demineralised dentine in comparison with glass ionomer cement: tetracycline labelling and two-photon fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmeh, A R; Chong, E Z; Richard, G; Boyde, A; Festy, F; Watson, T F

    2015-02-01

    Two-photon fluorescence microscopy, in combination with tetracycline labelling, was used to observe the remineralising potentials of a calcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine(TM) ) and a glass ionomer cement (GIC:​Fuji​IX) on totally demineralised dentine. Forty demineralised dentine discs were stored with either cement in three different solutions: phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with tetracycline, phosphate-free tetracycline, and tetracycline-free PBS. Additional samples of demineralised dentine were stored alone in the first solution. After 8-week storage at 37 °C, dentine samples were imaged using two-photon fluorescence microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Samples were later embedded in PMMA and polished block surfaces studied by 20 kV BSE imaging in an SEM to study variations in mineral concentration. The highest fluorescence intensity was exhibited by the dentine stored with Biodentine(TM) in the PBS/tetracycline solution. These samples also showed microscopic features of matrix remineralisation including a mineralisation front and intra- and intertubular mineralisation. In the other solutions, dentine exhibited much weaker fluorescence with none of these features detectable. Raman spectra confirmed the formation of calcium phosphate mineral with Raman peaks similar to apatite, while no mineral formation was detected in the dentine stored in cement-free or PBS-free media, or with GIC. It could therefore be concluded that Biodentine(TM) induced calcium phosphate mineral formation within the dentine matrix when stored in phosphate-rich media, which was selectively detectable using the tetracycline labelling.

  19. Influence of alkali mixed effect on the mixing enthalpy in 0.7582O3-0.25[xNa2O-(1-x)K2O]glass system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Kouyate; A.E Ahoussou; A.Yapi; D.Diabate; J.Rogez; A.Trokourey

    2008-01-01

    The mixed alkali effect was investigated in the glass system 0.7582O3-0.25[xNa2O-(1-x)K2O]through thermodynamic properties.The calorimetric measurements were performed in HF solution calorimetry at 298 K,The mixing enthalpy values show non-linear behaviour upon substitution of one alkali ion by another.This thermodynamic non-idealiIy is caused by the slight variations of distance between metallic cations,the macromolecular structure being unchanged.It can be explained,at least qualitatively,using electrolyte theory based on the Coulombic interactions of charged species originally developed by Debye and Hiickel.

  20. Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  1. A study of redox kinetic in silicate melt; Etude cinetique des reactions d'oxydoreduction dans les silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to understand better iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate glasses and melts. Particular interest has been paid to the influence of temperature and chemical composition. For this purpose, the influence of alkali element content, iron content and network formers on the kinetics of redox reactions has been determined through XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed either near the glass transition or above the liquidus temperature. As a complement, electrical conductivity and RBS spectroscopy experiments have been made to characterize the diffusivity of the species that transport electrical charges and the reaction morphology, respectively. Temperature and composition variations can induce changes in the dominating redox mechanism. At a given temperature, the parameters that exert the strongest influence on redox mechanisms are the presence or lack of divalent cations and the existing decoupling between the mobility of network former and modifier elements. Near Tg, the diffusion of divalent cations, when present in the melt, controls the kinetics of iron redox reactions along with a flux of electron holes. Composition, through the degree of polymerization and the silicate network structure, influences the kinetics and the nature of the involved cations, but not the mechanisms of the reaction. Without alkaline earth elements, the kinetics of redox reactions are controlled by the diffusion of oxygen species. With increasing temperatures, the diffusivities of all ionic species tend to become similar. The decoupling between ionic fluxes then is reduced so that several mechanisms become kinetically equivalent and can thus coexist. (author)

  2. Topological principles of borosilicate glass chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M; Mauro, John C; Youngman, Randall E; Hogue, Carrie L; Potuzak, Marcel; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-11-10

    Borosilicate glasses display a rich complexity of chemical behavior depending on the details of their composition and thermal history. Noted for their high chemical durability and thermal shock resistance, borosilicate glasses have found a variety of important uses from common household and laboratory glassware to high-tech applications such as liquid crystal displays. In this paper, we investigate the topological principles of borosilicate glass chemistry covering the extremes from pure borate to pure silicate end members. Based on NMR measurements, we present a two-state statistical mechanical model of boron speciation in which addition of network modifiers leads to a competition between the formation of nonbridging oxygen and the conversion of boron from trigonal to tetrahedral configuration. Using this model, we derive a detailed topological representation of alkali-alkaline earth-borosilicate glasses that enables the accurate prediction of properties such as glass transition temperature, liquid fragility, and hardness. The modeling approach enables an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms governing macroscopic properties. The implications of the glass topology are discussed in terms of both the temperature and thermal history dependence of the atomic bond constraints and the influence on relaxation behavior. We also observe a nonlinear evolution of the jump in isobaric heat capacity at the glass transition when substituting SiO(2) for B(2)O(3), which can be accurately predicted using a combined topological and thermodynamic modeling approach.

  3. Ion Exchange in Glass-Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, George; Comte, Monique; Deneka, Matthew; Marques, Paulo; Pradeau, Philippe; Smith, Charlene

    2016-08-01

    In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque) and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness). There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass). The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change). This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  4. Effect of copper-doped silicate 13–93 bioactive glass scaffolds on the response of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro and on bone regeneration and angiogenesis in rat calvarial defects in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yinan; Xiao, Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Bal, B. Sonny [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212 (United States); Rahaman, Mohamed N., E-mail: rahaman@mst.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The release of inorganic ions from biomaterials could provide an alternative approach to the use of growth factors for improving tissue healing. In the present study, the release of copper (Cu) ions from bioactive silicate (13–93) glass scaffolds on the response of cells in vitro and on bone regeneration and angiogenesis in vivo was studied. Scaffolds doped with varying concentrations of Cu (0–2.0 wt.% CuO) were created with a grid-like microstructure by robotic deposition. When immersed in simulated body fluid in vitro, the Cu-doped scaffolds released Cu ions into the medium in a dose-dependent manner and converted partially to hydroxyapatite. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the scaffolds were not affected by 0.4 and 0.8 wt.% CuO in the glass but they were significantly reduced by 2.0 wt.% CuO. The percent new bone that infiltrated the scaffolds implanted for 6 weeks in rat calvarial defects (46 ± 8%) was not significantly affected by 0.4 or 0.8 wt.% CuO in the glass whereas it was significantly inhibited (0.8 ± 0.7%) in the scaffolds doped with 2.0 wt.% CuO. The area of new blood vessels in the fibrous tissue that infiltrated the scaffolds increased with CuO content of the glass and was significantly higher for the scaffolds doped with 2.0 wt.% CuO. Loading the scaffolds with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (1 μg/defect) significantly enhanced bone infiltration and reduced fibrous tissue in the scaffolds. These results showed that doping the 13–93 glass scaffolds with up to 0.8 wt.% CuO did not affect their biocompatibility whereas 2.0 wt.% CuO was toxic to cells and detrimental to bone regeneration. - Highlights: • First study to evaluate Cu ion release from silicate (13-93) bioactive glass scaffolds on osteogenesis in vivo • Released Cu ions influenced bone regeneration in a dose dependent manner • Lower concentrations of Cu ions had little effect on bone regeneration • Cu ion

  5. Studies on γ-ray induced structural changes in Nd{sup 3+} doped lead alumino silicate glasses by means of thermoluminescence for dosimetric applications in high dose ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundara Rao, M. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522 510, Guntur, A.P. (India); Gandhi, Y. [Department of Physics, Kakani Venkata Ratnam College, Nandigama 521 185, A.P. (India); Sanyal, Bhaskar [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Bhargavi, K. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522 510, Guntur, A.P. (India); Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University, Ul. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Veeraiah, N., E-mail: nvr8@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522 510, Guntur, A.P. (India)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: TL glow curves of PbO–SiO{sub 2}:Nd{sup 3+} glasses mixed with different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exposed to γ-rays of dose 5.0 kGy. - Highlights: • TL studies of Nd{sup 3+} ions doped lead alumino silicate glasses were carried out. • Highest TL output was observed in the glasses mixed with 10 mol% of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Different mechanisms responsible for TL emission were discussed. • Near linearity of the dose response was observed in the dose range of 1.0–3.0 kGy. • These glasses may be useful as dosimeters in processing perishable food commodities. - Abstract: Thermoluminescence (TL) studies on PbO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2}:Nd{sup 3+} glasses mixed with varying concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exposed to γ-rays of dose in the range 0–5.0 kGy were carried out. The TL emission exhibited a dosimetric peak at about 185 °C. The TL output under the glow peak increased with increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and also with the γ-ray dose. The mechanisms responsible for TL emission and enhancement of TL output with increase in the concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were quantitatively discussed in terms of induced structural defects in the vicinity of Nd{sup 3+} ions due to interaction of γ-rays with the glass network in the scenario of varying concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The dose response of these glass samples exhibited linear behavior in the medium dose range viz., 1.0–3.0 kGy. Finally, it is concluded that the glass containing the highest concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits high TL output and such glasses are useful for dosimetry in the range 1.0–3.0 kGy and hence these glasses may be useful for dosimetry in such high range of doses required for commercial radiation processing of perishable food commodities to extend their shelf-lives.

  6. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites

  7. Foam-like scaffolds for bone tissue engineering based on a novel couple of silicate-phosphate specular glasses: synthesis and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Baino, Francesco; Bretcanu, Oana; Verne, Enrica

    2009-11-01

    Glass-ceramic scaffolds mimicking the structure of cancellous bone were produced via sponge replication technique by using a polyurethane foam as template and glass powder below 30 lm as inorganic phase. Specifically, a SiO₂-based glass of complex composition and its corresponding P₂O₅-based "specular" glass were used as materials for scaffolding. The polymeric sponge was thermally removed and the glass powders were sintered to obtain a replica of the template structure. The scaffolds were investigated and compared from a structural, morphological and mechanical viewpoint by assessing their crystalline phases, volumetric shrinkage, pores content and interconnection, mechanical strength. In addition, the scaffolds were soaked in acellular simulated body fluid to investigate their in vitro behaviour. The produced scaffolds have a great potential for bone reconstructive surgery because their features, such as shape, strength, bioactivity and bioresorption, can be easily tailored according to the end use.

  8. Surface stress relaxation of oxide glasses: The effects on mechanical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzi, Peter Joseph

    A new glass strengthening mechanism based upon surface compressive stress formation by surface stress relaxation of glasses that were held under a tensile stress, at a temperature lower than the glass transition temperature, in low water vapor pressure, has been demonstrated. Although glass fibers are traditionally known to become mechanically weaker when heat-treated at a temperature lower than the glass transition temperature in the presence of water vapor, the strength was found to become greater than the as-received fiber strength when fibers were subjected to a sub-critical tensile stress during heat-treatment. The observed strengthening was attributed to surface compressive residual stress formation through surface stress relaxation during the sub-critical tensile stress application in the atmosphere containing water vapor. Surface stress relaxation of the same glass fibers was shown to take place under conditions identical to those experienced by the strengthened mechanical test specimens by observing permanent bending of the fiber. Furthermore, the magnitude and presence of the residual stresses formed during bending or tensile heat-treatments were confirmed by FTIR, fiber etching, and fiber slicing methods. The method can in principle be used to strengthen any oxide glass and is not subjected to the constraints of traditional strengthening methods such as a minimum thickness for tempering, or a glass containing alkali ions for ion-exchange. Thus far, the method has been successful in strengthening silica glass, E-glass, and soda-lime silicate glass by approximately 20-30%.

  9. Effect of copper-doped silicate 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds on the response of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro and on bone regeneration and angiogenesis in rat calvarial defects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yinan; Xiao, Wei; Bal, B Sonny; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2016-10-01

    The release of inorganic ions from biomaterials could provide an alternative approach to the use of growth factors for improving tissue healing. In the present study, the release of copper (Cu) ions from bioactive silicate (13-93) glass scaffolds on the response of cells in vitro and on bone regeneration and angiogenesis in vivo was studied. Scaffolds doped with varying concentrations of Cu (0-2.0wt.% CuO) were created with a grid-like microstructure by robotic deposition. When immersed in simulated body fluid in vitro, the Cu-doped scaffolds released Cu ions into the medium in a dose-dependent manner and converted partially to hydroxyapatite. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the scaffolds were not affected by 0.4 and 0.8wt.% CuO in the glass but they were significantly reduced by 2.0wt.% CuO. The percent new bone that infiltrated the scaffolds implanted for 6weeks in rat calvarial defects (46±8%) was not significantly affected by 0.4 or 0.8wt.% CuO in the glass whereas it was significantly inhibited (0.8±0.7%) in the scaffolds doped with 2.0wt.% CuO. The area of new blood vessels in the fibrous tissue that infiltrated the scaffolds increased with CuO content of the glass and was significantly higher for the scaffolds doped with 2.0wt.% CuO. Loading the scaffolds with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (1μg/defect) significantly enhanced bone infiltration and reduced fibrous tissue in the scaffolds. These results showed that doping the 13-93 glass scaffolds with up to 0.8wt.% CuO did not affect their biocompatibility whereas 2.0wt.% CuO was toxic to cells and detrimental to bone regeneration.

  10. Y2O3掺杂对硅酸盐玻璃结构及其熔体黏度的影响%Effect of Y2O3 Dopant on Structure and Viscosity of Silicate Glass and Melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王觅堂; 程金树; 李梅; 何峰

    2013-01-01

    Silicate glasses and melts, soda lime silicate glass frits with various contents of Y2O3 were prepared via melting-quenching in water The effect of Y2O3 on the structure and viscosity was investigated. The samples were characterized by Raman spectrometer and viscometer, respectively. The melting temperature was obtained based on the Arrhenius equation. Some expressions for the glass structure (i.e., fraction of non-bridging oxygen, average number of non-bridging oxygen per tetrahedron, average number of oxygen pre tetrahedron and average number of bridging comers per tetrahedron) were proposed. The results show that Y2O3 doped into soda lime silicate glass can change the [SiO4] tetrahedron structural unit, and the average number of non-bridging oxygen per tetrahedron and the average number of oxygen pre tetrahedron both increase and the average number of bridging corners per tetrahedron decreases with increasing the content of Y2O3. In addition, the incorporation of Y2O3 also decreases the viscosity and melting temperature of soda lime silicate glass.%为了探索稀土氧化物Y2O3掺杂对硅酸盐玻璃结构及其高温熔体黏度的影响,用熔融-水淬法制得了掺杂不同含量Y2O3的Na2O-CaO-SiO2系玻璃料,采用激光共聚焦Raman光谱仪和高温旋转黏度计分别对玻璃料进行了Raman光谱和黏度的测试,根据Arrhenius方程推算了玻璃的熔制温度,同时给出了计算玻璃结构中每个四面体中的氧数、非桥氧数、平均桥数及非桥氧比例的公式.结果表明:Y2O3的掺杂使得Na2O-CaO-SiO2系玻璃中,具有不同非桥氧的结构单元之间发生了一定转化.随着Y2O3掺杂量的增加,玻璃中每个四面体中的氧数和非桥氧数都逐渐增大,玻璃中每个四面体中的连接数降低.此外Y2O3的掺杂降低了Na2O-CaO-SiO2系玻璃的高温黏度与熔制温度,且与玻璃结构的变化规律相一致.

  11. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vladimír Živica

    2004-04-01

    Growing demands on the engineering properties of cement based materials and the urgency to decrease unsuitable ecologic impact of Portland cement manufacturing represent significant motivation for the development of new cement corresponding to these aspects. One category represents prospective alkali activated cements. A significant factor influencing their properties is alkali activator used. In this paper we present a new high effective alkali activator prepared from silica fume and its effectiveness. According to the results obtained this activator seems to be more effective than currently used activators like natrium hydroxide, natrium carbonate, and water glass.

  12. Glasses in the D'Orbigny Angrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, M. E.; Kurat, G.; Brandstätter, F.; Bonnin-Mosbah, M.; Metrich, N.

    2001-03-01

    The D'Orbigny angrite contains abundant glasses, a phase which has not been previously reported from any other angrite. Glasses fill in part open druses and intersticial spaces between major silicates, or occur as glass inclusions in olivine.

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Metal Silicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lii Kwang-Hwa

    2004-01-01

    Organically templated metal phosphates have been extensively studied because of interesting structural chemistry and potential applications in catalysis. However, in most cases the organic templates cannot be removed without collapse of the frameworks. This is in contrast to the high thermal stability and extensive applications of zeolites in refinery and petrochemical processes.Therefore, studies have been directed to the synthesis of transition metal silicates to produce more stable frameworks. Our synthetic methods are twofold, namely mild hydrothermal reactions in Teflon-lined autoclaves at 100-200 ℃ using organic amines as templates and high-temperature,high-pressure hydrothermal reactions in gold ampoules contained in a high-pressure reaction vessel at ca. 550 ℃ and 150 Mpa using alkali metal cations as templates. In this presentation I will report the high-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structures, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of a number of new silicates of indium, uranium, and transition metals.

  14. Why neutron guides may end up breaking down? Some results on the macroscopic behaviour of alkali-borosilicate glass support plates under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffy, R.; Kreuz, M. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 20156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Beaucour, J., E-mail: beaucour@ill.fr [Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 20156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Köster, U. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 20156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bermejo, F.J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, E-20886 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we report on a first part of a study on the mechanisms leading to brittle fracture in neutron guides made of glass as structural element. Such devices are widely used to deliver thermal and cold neutron beams to experimental lines in most large neutron research facilities. We present results on macroscopic properties of samples of guide glass substrates which are subjected to neutron irradiation at relatively large fluences. The results show a striking dependence of some of the macroscopic properties such as density, shape or surface curvature upon the specific chemical composition of a given glass. The relevance of the present findings for the installation of either replacement guides at the existing facilities or for the deployment of instruments for ongoing projects such as the European Spallation Source is briefly discussed.

  15. Reaction pathway led by silicate structure transformation on decomposition of CaSiO3 in alkali fusion process using NaOH%NaOH碱熔分解CaSiO 3过程中导致硅酸盐结构转变的反应路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昌明; 王国承; 李胜利; 艾新港; 王子睿; 翟玉春

    2015-01-01

    以NaSiO 3·9H 2 O和CaCl 2为原料,通过化学沉积法合成链状硅酸盐(CaSiO 3)。采用拉曼光谱、X射线衍射和红外光谱研究其在NaOH碱熔过程中的分解机制。结果表明,CaSiO 3在碱熔过程中链状结构的硅氧四面体结构逐渐断裂、转变生成岛状结构的硅氧四面体。CaSiO3分解过程中同时生成3种中间体:Ca2SiO4, Na2CaSiO4和Na2SiO3,最终产物是Ca(OH)2和 Na4SiO4。因此,CaSiO3在NaOH碱熔融反应过程中存在两条反应途径,分别以离子交换和硅酸盐骨架结构改变为主要形式,碱熔过程中硅酸盐结构的变化贯穿于整个反应过程。%The mechanism of decomposition of calcium inosilicate (CaSiO3) synthesized through chemical deposition method using analytical reagent NaSiO3∙9H2O and CaCl2 during the alkali fusion process using NaOH was investigated by Raman spectroscopy in situ, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the tetrahedral silica chains within CaSiO3 are gradually disrupted and transformed into nesosilicate with the isolated SiO4 tetrahedra at the beginning of the alkali fusion process. The three intermediates including Ca2SiO4, Na2CaSiO4 and Na2SiO3 appear simultaneously in the decomposition of CaSiO3, while the final products are Ca(OH)2 and Na4SiO4. It can be concluded that there exist two reaction pathways in the alkali fusion process of CaSiO3: one is ion exchange, the other is in the main form of the framework structure change of silicate. The reaction pathway is led by silicate structure transformation in the alkali fusion process.

  16. Broadband infrared light-emitting patterns in optical glass by laser-induced nanostructuring of NiO-doped alkali-gallium germanosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotarev, S V; Lipatiev, A S; Golubev, N V; Ignat'eva, E S; Malashkevich, G E; Mudryi, A V; Priseko, Y S; Lorenzi, R; Paleari, A; Sigaev, V N

    2013-02-15

    In this Letter, we show functionalization of NiO-doped 7.5Li(2)O·2.5Na(2)O·20Ga(2)O(3)·35SiO(2)·35GeO(2) glass by space-selective nanocrystallization via exposure to the focused beam of a pulsed copper vapor laser (510.6 and 578.2 nm) at temperature close to the glass transition point (570°C). Irradiated areas drastically change their color, caused by electronic transitions of Ni(2+) dopant ions, without any alteration of the optical quality. Importantly, irradiated regions acquire broadband infrared luminescence (centered at about 1400 nm and possessing 400 nm effective bandwidth) typical of Ni(2+) ions in crystalline environment, and by positive change of refractive index (more than 10(-3)). Spectroscopic and diffractometric data of the irradiated regions indeed resemble those previously observed in thermally nanocrystallized glass, with Ni(2+) ions embedded in γ-Ga(2)O(3) nanocrystals. The results demonstrate the possibility of laser writing nanocrystallized multifunction patterns in germanosilicate glasses for the fabrication of active integrated devices.

  17. High Pressure Response of Siliceous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    BOROFLOAT (borosilicate) SCHOTT X Air & Tin X X Air & Tin Fe-containing soda lime silicate Dulles Glass and Mirror X Air & Tin X Air & Tin Opal...hydrated silica) Excalibur Mineral Corporation X X Glass Ceramic ROBAX SCHOTT X X X Single Crystal Ceramic α-Quartz Jim Coleman Crystal...examined in this study conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Army TARDEC. Some were glasses (fused silica or fused

  18. 氢氧化钠溶液对硼硅酸盐玻璃光学和润湿性能的影响%Influence of Sodium Hydroxide Solution on the Optical and Wetting Properties of Borate Silicate Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥曼; 王亮; 陈宇; 王波; 张永哲; 严辉

    2015-01-01

    To improve the optical and wetting properties of the boron silicate glass with lowcost, a thin layer of anti-reflection and self-cleaning properties was prepared by chemical etching method on glass surface. Chemical corrosion of glass after pretreatment with sodium hydroxide solution,scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology of the glass before and after etching. By adjusting the concentration of etching solution, the variation trend of the transmittance and the contact angle of the glass surface were measured with the spectrophotometer and the contact angle meter. Results show that the micro groove is formed on the surface after etching by 0. 05 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution, the length is about 100 nm, the width is about 10 nm, and the distribution is uniform and the transmittance of the glass is up to 94. 85%, which is 4. 15% higher than that of the original substrate. The contact angle is reduced from 53. 13 ° to 3. 25 ° . The optical properties and the self-cleaning performanceof the glasshave been effectively improved.%为低成本提高硼硅酸盐玻璃光学和润湿性能,采用化学刻蚀法在玻璃表面制备具有减反和自清洁性能的薄层. 利用NaOH溶液对预处理后的玻璃进行化学刻蚀,采用扫描电镜( scanning electron microscopy,SEM)对刻蚀前后玻璃表面形貌进行了观察,通过调控刻蚀液浓度,分别采用分光光度计和接触角仪测量玻璃表面的透光率和接触角随浓度的变化趋势. 结果表明:经0. 05 mol/L的氢氧化钠溶液刻蚀后,在表面形成长约为100 nm、宽约为10 nm、分布比较均匀的细微沟槽,玻璃的透过率达94. 85%,比原始基片提高了4. 15%,接触角从53. 13°降至3. 25°,玻璃的光学性能和自清洁性能得到了有效的提高.

  19. Origin of hydrous alkali feldspar-silica intergrowth in spherulites from intra-plate A2-type rhyolites at the Jabal Shama, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surour, Adel A.; El-Nisr, Said A.; Bakhsh, Rami A.

    2016-03-01

    Miocene rhyolites (19.2 ± 0.9 Ma) at the Jabal Shama in western Saudi Arabia represent an example of rift-related silicic volcanism that took place during the formation of the Red Sea. They mostly consist of tuffaceous varieties with distinct flow banding, and pea-sized spherulites, obsidian and perlitized rhyolite tuffs. Although they have the geochemical signature of A2-type rhyolites, these silicic rocks are not typically alkaline but alkali-calcic to calc-alkaline. They developed in a within-plate regime and possibly derived from a recycled mafic subducted slab in depleted sub-continental mantle beneath the western Arabian plate. The Jabal Shama rhyolites are younger in age than their Miocene counterparts in Yemen and Ethiopia. The Jabal Shama spherulites consist of hydrous alkali feldspar-silica radial intergrowths with an occasional brown glass nucleus. Carbonate- and glass-free spherulites give up to 4.45 wt% L.O.I. The hydrous nature of these silicates and the absence of magnetite in the spherulites is a strong indication of oxidizing conditions. The spherulites contain hydrous feldspars with up to ∼6 wt% H2O, and they develop by diffusion and devitrification of glass in the rhyolite tuff at ∼800 °C. Owing to higher undercooling due to supersaturation, the radial hydrous phases within spherulites might grow faster and led to coagulation. The polygonal contacts between spherulites and the ∼120° dihedral angle suggest solid-state modification and recrystallization as the process of devitrification proceeds as low as ∼300 °C. The sum of FeO + MgO is positively correlated with total alkalies along with magnetite oxidation in the matrix to Fe-oxyhydroxides, and to the incorporation of OH- into silicates within the spehrulites themselves. Structural H2O in glass of the Jabal Shama perlite (obsidian) is considerable (∼9-12 wt%) with 3.72-5.6 wt% L.O.I. of the whole-rock. The presence of deleterious silica impurities would lower the ore grade due to

  20. Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds from Novel ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ and Sinter-Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Elsayed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous wollastonite-diopside glass-ceramics have been successfully obtained by a new gel-casting technique. The gelation of an aqueous slurry of glass powders was not achieved according to the polymerization of an organic monomer, but as the result of alkali activation. The alkali activation of a Ca-Mg silicate glass (with a composition close to 50 mol % wollastonite—50 mol % diopside, with minor amounts of Na2O and P2O5 allowed for the obtainment of well-dispersed concentrated suspensions, undergoing progressive hardening by curing at low temperature (40 °C, owing to the formation of a C–S–H (calcium silicate hydrate gel. An extensive direct foaming was achieved by vigorous mechanical stirring of partially gelified suspensions, comprising also a surfactant. The open-celled structure resulting from mechanical foaming could be ‘frozen’ by the subsequent sintering treatment, at 900–1000 °C, causing substantial crystallization. A total porosity exceeding 80%, comprising both well-interconnected macro-pores and micro-pores on cell walls, was accompanied by an excellent compressive strength, even above 5 MPa.

  1. Photoionization in alkali lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knize, R J; Zhdanov, B V; Shaffer, M K

    2011-04-11

    We have calculated photoionization rates in alkali lasers. The photoionization of alkali atoms in the gain medium of alkali lasers can significantly degrade the laser performance by reducing the neutral alkali density and with it the gain. For a ten atmosphere Rb laser and a Cs exciplex laser, the photoionization induced alkali atom loss rates are greater than 10(5) sec(-1). These high loss rates will quickly deplete the neutral alkali density, reducing gain, and may require fast, possibly, supersonic flow rates to sufficiently replenish the neutral medium for CW operation.

  2. Bonding strength of resin cement to silicate glass ceramics for dental CAD/CAM systems is enhanced by combination treatment of the bonding surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakura, Yusuke; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Fujishima, Akihiro; Kunii, Jun; Miyazaki, Takashi; Kawawa, Tadaharu

    2007-09-01

    To increase the bond strength of CAD/CAM-fabricated, leucite-reinforced glass ceramics with a resin cement, the effects of the following were investigated: surface modification by tribochemical (TBC) treatment, followed by combined application of a silane coupling agent and a functional monomer as a primer. Bond strength was evaluated by a shear bond test. It was found that a silane coupling agent was useful for all the surfaces, particularly for the TBC-treated surface. This was because of the presence of a silica layer on the modified surface. The combination of a silane coupling agent and a functional monomer on the TBC surface allowed marked improvement in bonding, whereby the bonding endured 20,000 cycles of thermal cycling. Therefore, TBC treatment in combination with a silane coupling agent and a functional monomer as a primer substantially increased the bond strength of CAD/CAM-fabricated glass ceramics with resin cement, if the treatment conditions were appropriate.

  3. Rare earth doped silicate-oxyfluoride glass ceramics incorporating LaF3 nano-crystals for UV-LED color conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suk-Rok; Choi, Yong Gyu; Im, Won Bin; Lee, Ki Seok; Chung, Woon Jin

    2013-09-01

    Rare earth doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics with LaF3 nano-crystals formed inside were fabricated for color converter of UV-LED. Among various rare earth ions, Dy3+ and Eu3+ showed practically utilizable visible emissions under UV-LED excitation of 365 nm. The visible emission has been improved by the formation of LaF3 brought by heat treatment. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy along with its energy dispersive spectra confirmed the formation of LaF3 nano-crystals. Compositional dependence and the effects of heat treatment conditions on the visible emissions have been investigated. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the glasses were also examined for Dy3+ singly doped and co-doped samples. The effect of LaF3 nano-crystals and co-dopants on the visible emission properties of Dy3+ was discussed.

  4. Milk-alkali syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  5. Si- and alkali-rich melt inclusions in minerals of mantle peridotites from eastern China: Implication for lithospheric evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Qicheng; SUI; Jianli; XU; Ping; LI; Ni; SUN; Qian; WANG; Tuanhua

    2006-01-01

    Minerals of spinel- and garnet-facies mantle xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic basalts from eastern China (North China, Northeastern China and Southeastern China coastal area) contains lots of melt inclusions. Studies on these melt inclusions show that the glass inclusions are rich in SiO2 (60%―68%) and alkalis (K2O+Na2O=5%―11%, especially for K2O) as well as volatiles such as H2O and CO2 (2%―7%), which belong to dacites and andesites of the high-K calcic alkali series rocks with few shoshonites. High Al and Ca diopside in melt inclusion is the product of melt crystallization at high temperature and pressure, rather than the product of devitrification. Results show that these K-rich (in general K2O>3%) intermediate-acidic silicate melt inclusions have characteristics of continent without a genetical link to host basalts and their phenocrystic minerals. Thus, these trapped melt inclusions represent melts of Mesozoic lithospheric mantle-crust interaction and imply that the continental lithospheric mantle beneath eastern China had undergone fragmentation and recreation processes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic periods. This result undoubtly provides important implication for the evolution of sub-continental lithosphere beneath eastern China. We propose that these Si- and alkalis-rich melts should be responsible for the mantle chemical heterogeneity underneath eastern China.

  6. FT-IR and 29 Si-NMR for evaluating aluminium silicate precursors for geopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Fischer, H.R.; Verkuijlen, M.H.W.; Eck, E.R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Geopolymers are systems of inorganic binders that can be used for sustainable, cementless concrete and are formed by alkali activation of an aluminium–silicate precursor (often secondary resources like fly ash or slag). The type of aluminium– silicate precursor and its potential variations within on

  7. Effect of Network Modifiers on Spectroscopic Properties of Erbium-doped Phosphate Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Gangfeng; JIANG Zhonghong; DENG Zaide; YIN Bing; YING Tingzhao; FENG Zhouming

    2005-01-01

    The integrated absorption cross section Σabs, peak emission cross section σemi, Judd-Ofeld intensity parameters Ωt(t=2,4,6), and spontaneous emission probability AR of Er3+ ions were determined for Erbium doped alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses. It is found the compositional dependence of σemi is almost similar to that of Σabs, which is determined by the sum of Ωt (3Ω2+10Ω4+21Ω6). In addition, the compositional dependence of Ωt was studied in these glass systems. As a result, compared with Ω4 and Ω6, the Ω2 has a stronger compositional dependence on the ionic radius and content of modifiers. The covalency of Er-O bonds in phosphate glass is weaker than that in silicate glass, germanate glass, aluminate glass, and tellurate glass, since Ω6 of phosphate glass is relatively large. AR is affected by the covalency of the Er3+ ion sites and corresponds to the Ω6 value.

  8. An investigation of waste glass-based geopolymers supplemented with alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Mary U.

    An increased consideration of sustainability throughout society has resulted in a surge of research investigating sustainable alternatives to existing construction materials. A new binder system, called a geopolymer, is being investigated to supplement ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete, which has come under scrutiny because of the CO2 emissions inherent in its production. Geopolymers are produced from the alkali activation of a powdered aluminosilicate source by an alkaline solution, which results in a dense three-dimensional matrix of tetrahedrally linked aluminosilicates. Geopolymers have shown great potential as a building construction material, offering similar mechanical and durability properties to OPC. Additionally, geopolymers have the added value of a considerably smaller carbon footprint than OPC. This research considered the compressive strength, microstructure and composition of geopolymers made from two types of waste glass with varying aluminum contents. Waste glass shows great potential for mainstream use in geopolymers due to its chemical and physical homogeneity as well as its high content of amorphous silica, which could eliminate the need for sodium silicate. However, the lack of aluminum is thought to negatively affect the mechanical performance and alkali stability of the geopolymer system. 39 Mortars were designed using various combinations of glass and metakaolin or fly ash to supplement the aluminum in the system. Mortar made from the high-Al glass (12% Al2O3) reached over 10,000 psi at six months. Mortar made from the low-Al glass (geopolymers. A moderate metakaolin replacement (25-38% by mass) was found to positively affect the compressive strength of mortars made with either type of glass. Though the microstructure of the mortar was quite indicative of mechanical performance, composition was also found to be important. The initial stoichiometry of the bulk mixture was maintained fairly closely, especially in mixtures made with fine

  9. Oxygen isotope and petrological study of silicate inclusions in IIE iron meteorites and their relationship with H chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathryn H.; Greenwood, Richard C.; Scott, Edward R. D.; Franchi, Ian A.; Anand, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    large regolith blanket that facilitated subsequent slow cooling. The IIE parent body has probably experienced numerous subsequent less catastrophic collisions. The development of alkali glass textures in some differentiated inclusions is probably the result of one of these later events.

  10. Rapid quantitative determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks and soils employing fused glass discs using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, A. Keshav; Khanna, Tarun C.; Mohan, K. Rama

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a calibration procedure and provides the data achieved for accuracy, precision, reproducibility and the detection limits for major (Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Ti, P) and trace (Ba, Cr, Cu, Hf, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ta, Th, U, Y, Zn, Zr) elements in the routine analysis of geological and environmental samples. Forty-two rock and soil reference materials were used to calibrate and evaluate the analytical method using a sequential wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Samples were prepared as fused glass discs and analysis performed with a total measuring time of thirty-one minutes. Another set of twelve independent reference materials were analyzed for the evaluation of accuracy. The detection limits and accuracy obtained for the trace elements (1-2 mg/kg) are adequate both for geochemical exploration and environmental studies. The fitness for purpose of the results was also evaluated by the quality criteria test proposed by the International Global Geochemical Mapping Program (IGCP) from which it can be deduced that the method is adequate considering geochemical mapping application and accuracy obtained is within the expected interval of certified values in most cases.

  11. Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te ultrasmall quantum dots growth in a silicate glass matrix by the fusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Noelio Oliveira; Lima Fernandes, Guilherme de; Almeida Silva, Anielle Christine [Laboratório de Novos Materiais Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38408-100 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo; Gómez, Jorge Antônio [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-29

    In this study, we synthesized Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te ultrasmall quantum dots (USQDs) in SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass system using the fusion method. Growth of these Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs was confirmed by optical absorption, atomic force microscopy (AFM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. The blueshift of absorption transition with increasing manganese concentration gives evidence of incorporation of manganese ions (Mn{sup 2+}) in CdTe USQDs. AFM, TEM, and MFM confirmed, respectively, the formation of high quality Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs with uniformly distributed size and magnetic phases. Furthermore, EPR spectra showed six lines associated to the S = 5/2 spin half-filled d-state, characteristic of Mn{sup 2+}, and confirmed that Mn{sup 2+} are located in the sites core and surface of the CdTe USQD. Therefore, synthesis of high quality Cd{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Te USQDs may allow the control of optical and magnetic properties.

  12. The effect of boron oxide on the composition, structure, and adsorptivity of glass surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaut, Robert A.

    Boron oxide has been added to commercial silicate glasses for many years to aid in lowering melting temperatures, lowering thermal expansion, and controlling chemical durability. The fact that simple borate glasses have rather high thermal expansion and low chemical durability attests to the unique influence of boron oxide additions upon the properties of silicate glasses. However, the impact of boron oxide additions upon surface properties of multicomponent borosilicates such as adsorption and reactivity is not yet well understood. In particular, the presence of multiple coordination states for boron is expected to introduce adsorption sites with different acidic or basic behavior, but their existence is yet unproven. To investigate these effects, multicomponent sodium aluminosilicate glasses have been prepared with varying sodium and boron concentrations and drawn into moderately high-surface-area continuous filament fibers. A relatively new technique, boron K-edge Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is applied to study the local boron coordination at fracture and melt-derived fiber surfaces of these glasses. This structural information is combined with surface compositional information by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to characterize the local atomic structure of boron at the as-formed glass surface. Finally, this information is used to interpret the adsorptivity of these as-formed and leached surfaces toward short-chain alcohol molecules through a new Inverse Gas Chromatography---Temperature Programmed Desorption (IGC-TPD) experiment. The results clearly show that boron additions to alkali-free glass surfaces introduce a unique adsorption site which is not present on boron-free glass surfaces and is easily removed by leaching in acidic solutions.

  13. Irradiations effects on the structure of boro-silicated glasses: long term behaviour of nuclear waste glassy matrices; Effets d'irradiations sur la structure de verres borosilicates - comportement a long terme des matrices vitreuses de stockage des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfils, J. de

    2007-09-15

    This work deals with the long term behaviour of R7T7-type nuclear waste glasses and more particularly of non-active boro-silicated glasses made up of 3 or 5 oxides. Radioactivity of active glasses is simulated by multi energies ions implantations which reproduce the same defects. The damages due to the alpha particles are simulated by helium ions implantations and those corresponding to the recoil nucleus are obtained with gold ions ones. Minor actinides, stemming from the used fuel, is simulated by trivalent rare-earths (Eu{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+}). In a first part, we have shown by macroscopic experiments (Vickers hardness - swelling) and optical spectroscopies (Raman - ATR-IR) that the structure of the glassy matrices is modified under implantations until a dose of 2,3.10{sup 13} at.cm{sup -2}, which corresponds to a R7T7 storage time estimated at 300 years. Beyond this dose, no additional modifications have been observed. The second part concerns the local environment of the rare-earth ions in glasses. Two different environments were found and identified as follows: one is a silicate rich one and the other is attributed to a borate rich one. (author)

  14. Microstructure and Engineering Properties of Alkali Activated Fly Ash -as an environment friendly alternative to Portland cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Alkali activated fly ash (AAFA), also named “geopolymer”, has emerged as a novel engineering material in the construction industry. This material is normally formed by the reaction between fly ash and aqueous hydroxide or alkali silicate solution. With proper mix design, AAFA can present comparable

  15. Fine Structure of Ag-Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles in Silicate Glass%硅酸盐玻璃中银铜双金属纳米颗粒的精细结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建富; 杨修春; 黄敏; 姜政; 黄宇营

    2012-01-01

    采用离子交换结合热处理方法制备了银铜纳米颗粒/硅酸盐玻璃复合材料。利用扩展X射线吸收精细结构谱和紫外-可见吸收光谱对复合材料中银铜纳米晶的精细结构进行了表征和分析。结果表明:玻璃中银铜纳米颗粒各自分散在玻璃基质中;银纳米颗粒的Ag-Ag键长由于制备过程中产生的张应力使标准银箔发生了膨胀;铜纳米颗粒表面的Cu-O配位数由于Cu-Cu配位的出现而降低,且Cu-Cu配位数远小于标准铜箔中Cu-Cu的配位数,其键长也发生了收缩。%Bimetallic Ag-Cu nano-particles were prepared via ion-exchange and subsequently thermal treatment. The formation process and local structure of Ag-Cu nano-particles in composite materials were characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure technique and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicate that Ag and Cu nano-particles exist in the silicate glass. Compared to the corresponding value of Ag foil, the nearest-neighboring Ag-Ag distance expanded due to the tensile stress in the synthesis process. The Cu-Cu coordination appeared, inducing a decrease of the Cu-O coordination number. The Cu-Cu coordination number was smaller than the corresponding value of Cu foil, and the Cu-Cu distance contracted compared to the corresponding value of Cu foil.

  16. Alkali-activated cementitious materials: Mechanisms, microstructure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weimin

    The goal of this study was to examine the activation reaction, microstructure, properties, identify the mechanisms of activation, and achieve an enhanced understanding of activation processes occurring during the synthesis of alkali activated cementitious materials (AAC). The discussions classify the following categories. (1) alkali activated slag cement; (2) alkali activated portland-slag cement; (3) alkali activated fly ash-slag cement; (4) alkali activated pozzolana-lime cement; (5) alkali activated pozzolana cement. The activators involved are NaOH, KOH; Nasb2SOsb4;\\ Nasb2COsb3;\\ CaSOsb4, and soluble silicate of sodium and potassium. The effect of alkali activation on the microstructure of these materials were analyzed at the micro-nanometer scale by SEM, EDS, ESEM, and TEM. Also sp{29}Si and sp{27}Al MAS-NMR, IR, Raman, TGA, and DTA were performed to characterize the phase in these systems. Slag, fly ash, silica fume, as well as blended cements containing mixtures of these and other components were characterized. A set of ordinary portland cement paste samples served as a control. This study confirmed that AAC materials have great potential because they could generate very early high strength, greater durability and high performance. Among the benefits to be derived from this research is a better understanding of the factors that control concrete properties when using AAC materials, and by controlling the chemistry and processing to produce desired microstructures and properties, as well as their durability.

  17. Photoactive transparent nano-crystalline glass-ceramic for remazole red dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gad-Allah, Tarek A., E-mail: tareqabdelshafy@yahoo.ca [Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre, Cairo 12311 (Egypt); Margha, Fatma H. [Department of Glass Research, National Research Centre, Cairo 12311 (Egypt)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Preparation and characterization of novel transparent nanocrystalline glass-ceramic. ► Precipitation of photoactive phases by using controlled heat-treatment. ► Conservation of transparency along with photoactivity. ► Using the prepared nanocrystalline glass-ceramic in water purification. -- Abstract: Transparent glass ceramic material was prepared from alkali-borosilicate glass containing titania by proper heat treatment scheme. The prepared samples were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction and UV–visible spectroscopy. The applied heat treatment program allowed the crystallization of nano-crystalline anatase, rutile, barium titanate, titanium borate and silicate phases while maintaining the transparency. The precipitated nano-crystalline anatase and rutile phases were responsible for the observed high photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples. Samples of 24.29 and 32.39 TiO{sub 2} wt% showed better efficiency for the decolorization of remazole red dye compared with commercial-TiO{sub 2} used in preparation of glass-ceramic. The reuse of prepared glass-ceramic photocatalyst with nearly same efficiency for different times was also proved.

  18. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.

    2015-11-01

    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  19. In situ alkali-silica reaction observed by x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtis, K.E.; Monteiro, P.J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    In concrete, alkali metal ions and hydroxyl ions contributed by the cement and reactive silicates present in aggregate can participate in a destructive alkali-silica reaction (ASR). This reaction of the alkalis with the silicates produces a gel that tends to imbibe water found in the concrete pores, leading to swelling of the gel and eventual cracking of the affected concrete member. Over 104 cases of alkali-aggregate reaction in dams and spillways have been reported around the world. At present, no method exists to arrest the expansive chemical reaction which generates significant distress in the affected structures. Most existing techniques available for the examination of concrete microstructure, including ASR products, demand that samples be dried and exposed to high pressure during the observation period. These sample preparation requirements present a major disadvantage for the study of alkali-silica reaction. Given the nature of the reaction and the affect of water on its products, it is likely that the removal of water will affect the morphology, creating artifacts in the sample. The purpose of this research is to observe and characterize the alkali-silica reaction, including each of the specific reactions identified previously, in situ without introducing sample artifacts. For observation of unconditioned samples, x-ray microscopy offers an opportunity for such an examination of the alkali-silica reaction. Currently, this investigation is focusing on the effect of calcium ions on the alkali-silica reaction.

  20. Effect of the Composite of Natural Zeolite and Fly Ash on Alkali-Silica Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiao-xin; FENG Nai-qian; HAN Dong

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the composite of natural zeolite and fly ash on alkali-silica reaction ( ASR ) was studied with natural alkali-reactive aggregate and quartz glass aggregate respecthvely. The expansive experiment of mortar bar and concrete prism was completed. The results show that ASR can be suppressed effectively by the composite of natural zeolite and fly ash.

  1. SOVIET TRENDS IN ORIENTED GLASS-FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLASS TEXTILES, *PLASTICS, *REINFORCING MATERIALS, ADHESION, BINDERS, DEFORMATION, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, EPOXY RESINS , FIBERS, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, POLYMERS, PROCESSING, SILICATES, STYRENES, TEXTILES, VISCOSITY

  2. Understanding the composition-structure-bioactivity relationships in diopside (CaO·MgO·2SiO₂)-tricalcium phosphate (3CaO·P₂O₅) glass system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Saurabh; Semitela, Ângela; Goel, Ashutosh; Xiang, Ye; Du, Jincheng; Lourenço, Ana H; Sousa, Daniela M; Granja, Pedro L; Ferreira, José M F

    2015-03-01

    The present work is an amalgamation of computation and experimental approach to gain an insight into composition-structure-bioactivity relationships of alkali-free bioactive glasses in the CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5 system. The glasses have been designed in the diopside (CaO·MgO·2SiO2; Di)-tricalcium phosphate (3CaO·P2O5; TCP) binary join by varying the Di/TCP ratio. The melt-quenched glasses have been investigated for their structure by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). In all the investigated glasses silicate and phosphate components are dominated by Q(2) (Si) and Q(0) (P) species, respectively. The apatite forming ability of the glasses was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy after immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1 h and 14 days, while their chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO 10993-14. All the investigated glasses showed good bioactivity without any substantial variation. A significant statistical increase in metabolic activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) when compared to the control was observed for Di-60 and Di-70 glass compositions under both basal and osteogenic conditions.

  3. Properties of Hooked Steel Fibers Reinforced Alkali Activated Material Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, alkali activated material was produced by using Class F fly ash from Manjung power station, Lumut, Perak, Malaysia. Fly ash then was activated by alkaline activator which is consisting of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Hooked end steel fibers were added into the alkali activated material system with percentage vary from 0 % – 5 %. Chemical compositions of fly ash were first analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF. All hardened alkali activated material samples were tested for density, workability, and compression after 28 days. Results show a slight increase of density with the addition of steel fibers. However, the workability was reduced with the addition of steel fibers content. Meanwhile, the addition of steel fibers shows the improvement of compressive strength which is about 19 % obtained at 3 % of steel fibers addition.

  4. Six White Dwarfs with Circumstellar Silicates

    CERN Document Server

    Jura, M; Zuckerman, B

    2008-01-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope spectra reveal 10 micron silicate emission from circumstellar dust orbiting six externally-polluted white dwarfs. Micron-size glasses with an olivine stoichiometry can account for the distinctively broad wings that extend to 12 microns; these particles likely are produced by tidal-disruption of asteroids. The absence of infrared PAH features is consistent with a scenario where extrasolar rocky planets are assembled from carbon-poor solids.

  5. Analysis of early medieval glass beads - Glass in the transition period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmit, Žiga; Knific, Timotej; Jezeršek, David; Istenič, Janka

    2012-05-01

    Glass beads from graves excavated in Slovenia and dated archaeologically to the 7th-10th century AD were analysed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method. The results indicate two groups of glass; natron glass made in the Roman tradition and glass made with alkalis from the ash of halophytic plants, which gradually replaced natron glass after c. 800 AD. The alkalis used in the second group of glass seem to be in close relation to a variant of the Venetian white glass that appeared several centuries later. The origin of this glass may be traced to glass production in Mesopotamia and around the Aral Sea. All the mosaic beads with eye decoration, as well as most of the drawn-segmented and drawn-cut beads analysed, are of plant-ash glass, which confirms their supposed oriental origin.

  6. Nouvelle approche pour le suivi de la réactivité de phases SiO2 soumises à la Réaction Alcali Silice (RAS New approach for monitoring the reactivity of SiO2 phases subject to Alkali Silica Reaction (SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harfouche M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons suivi- au moyen de la microscopie électronique à balayage environnementale (MEBE la diffraction X et la spectroscopie d’absorption des rayons X sous rayonnement synchrotron (XANES- la réactivité de certaines phases SiO2 lors du processus de la Réaction Alcali Silice (RAS. Cette réactivité est étroitement liée à la structure locale autour des atomes de silicium ainsi qu’à la présence d’impuretés comme le fer. Dans le cas du silex brut, la raie blanche du seuil K du fer ressemble davantage à celle de Fe3O4 ce qui permet de déduire la présence d’un mélange de Fe2+/Fe3+ dans le silex de départ. Après réaction, l’allure du spectre d’absorption des rayons X au seuil K du fer du silex est conservée avec un léger déplacement de la raie blanche vers les hautes énergies. Cette augmentation montre une prédominance de la valence Fe3+ au détriment de la valence Fe2+. Les résultats montrent que le fer participe à la stabilisation de la structure des phases formées. Cette étude peut être étendue à d’autres éléments traces présents dans la structure du silex de départ. In this study the reactivity of some SiO2 phases under Alkali Silica Reaction (RAS process is followed, using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy X-ray synchrotron radiation (XANES. This reactivity is closely related to the local structure around the silicon atoms and the presence of impurities such as iron. In the case of flint raw skate white iron K line is more like that of Fe3O4 which allows to deduce the presence of a mixture of Fe2+ / Fe3+ in the flint to start. After reaction, the shape of the spectrum of X-ray absorption K edge of iron in the flint is retained with a slight displacement of the white stripe to high energies. This increase shows a predominance of the valence Fe3+ at the expense of Fe2+ valence. The results show that iron is involved in stabilizing the

  7. XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR Spectroscopy of In Situ Crystallization of Lithium Disilicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, T.; Mogus-Milankovic, A.; Ray, C. S.; Lesher, C. E.; Youngman, R.; Day, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a Li2O-2SiO2 (LS2) glass was investigated as a function of pressure and temperature up to 6 GPa and 750 C respectively, using XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Glass densified at 6 GPa has an average Si-O-Si bond angle approx.7deg lower than that found in glass processed at 4.5 GPa. At 4.5 GPa, lithium disilicate crystallizes from the glass, while at 6 GPa a new high pressure form of lithium metasilicate crystallizes. The new phase, while having lithium metasilicate crystal symmetry, contains at least 4 different Si sites. NMR results for 6 GPa sample indicate the presence of Q4 species with (Q(sup 4))Si-O-Si(Q(sup 4)) bond angles of approx.157deg. This is the first reported occurrence of Q(sup 4) species with such large bond angles in alumina free alkali silicate glass. No five- or six- coordinated Si are found.

  8. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  9. ALKALI RESISTANT CATALYST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gasses. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a catalyst and the use of a catalyst for the selective removal of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia from gases containing a significant amount...... of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  10. Effect of alkali metal oxides R2O (R=Na, K) on 1.53 μm luminescence of Er3+-doped Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses for optical amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵营刚; 石冬梅

    2013-01-01

    This paper reported the thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of Ga2O3-GeO2-Na2O-K2O (GGNK) glasses doped with Er3+. The GGNK glasses were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectra, absorption and infra-red-visible fluorescence spectra. Measured DSC result showed that these glasses possessed an excellent stability (ΔT=188.6 oC). The relationship between glass composition and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters and other optical properties of Er3+, such as the absorption and stimulated emission cross-sections, were clarified. Meanwhile an intense broadband 1.53-μm emission with a full width at half-maximum of 51 nm and peak emission cross-section of 9.32×10-21 cm2 of Er3+-doped GGNK glass was obtained upon 980 nm di-ode-laser excitation. Effects of K2O replacing Na2O on the thermal stability and spectroscopic properties were investigated. It was found that the incorporation of K2O into Er3+-doped Ga2O3-GeO2-Na2O glass could effectively improve the 1.53μm emission luminescence. The results showed that GGNK glass might be more attractive host material for their application in C-band optical fiber amplifiers.

  11. SUMMARY OF 2010 DOE EM INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM STUDIES OF WASTE GLASS STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Choi, A.; Marra, J.; Billings, A.

    2011-02-07

    Collaborative work between the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and SIA Radon in Russia was divided among three tasks for calendar year 2010. The first task focused on the study of simplified high level waste glass compositions with the objective of identifying the compositional drivers that lead to crystallization and poor chemical durability. The second task focused on detailed characterization of more complex waste glass compositions with unexpectedly poor chemical durabilities. The third task focused on determining the structure of select high level waste glasses made with varying frit compositions in order to improve models under development for predicting the melt rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glasses. The majority of these tasks were carried out at SIA Radon. Selection and fabrication of the glass compositions, along with chemical composition measurements and evaluations of durability were carried out at SRNL and are described in this report. SIA Radon provided three summary reports based on the outcome of the three tasks. These reports are included as appendices to this document. Briefly, the result of characterization of the Task 1 glasses may indicate that glass compositions where iron is predominantly tetrahedrally coordinated have more of a tendency to crystallize nepheline or nepheline-like phases. For the Task 2 glasses, the results suggested that the relatively low fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated boron and the relatively low concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} available to form [BO{sub 4/2}]{sup -}Me{sup +} and [AlO{sub 4/2}]{sup -}Me{sup +} tetrahedral units are not sufficient to consume all of the alkali ions, and thus these alkali ions are easily leached from the glasses. All of the twelve Task 3 glass compositions were determined to be mainly amorphous, with some minor spinel phases. Several key structural units such as metasilicate chains and rings were identified, which confirms the current modeling

  12. Polymer-Layer Silicate Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela

    Nowadays, some of the material challenges arise from a performance point of view as well as from recycling and biodegradability. Concerning these aspects, the development of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites can provide possible solutions. This study investigates how to obtain polymer layered...... silicate nanocomposites and their structure-properties relationship. In the first part of the thesis, thermoplastic layered silicates were obtained by extrusion. Different modification methods were tested to observe the intercalation treatment effect on the silicate-modifier interactions. The silicate...

  13. Characterizing Amorphous Silicates in Extraterrestrial Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Wang, A.; Krawczynski, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous silicates are common in extraterrestrial materials. They are seen in the matrix of carbonaceous chondrites as well as in planetary materials. Tagish Lake is one of the most primitive carbonaceous meteorites in which TEM and XRD analyses found evidence for poorly crystalline phyllosilicate-like species; Raman spectra revealed amorphous silicates with variable degree of polymerization and low crystallinity. On Mars, CheMin discovered amorphous phases in all analyzed samples, and poorly crystalline smectite in mudstone samples. These discoveries pose questions on the crystallinity of phyllosilicates found by remote sensing on Mars, which is directly relevant to aqueous alteration during geologic history of Mars. Our goal is to use spectroscopy to better characterize amorphous silicates. We use three approaches: (1) using silicate glasses synthesized with controlled chemistry to study the effects of silicate polymerization and (2) using phyllosilicates synthesized with controlled hydrothermal treatment to study the effect of crystallinity on vibrational spectroscopy, finally (3) to use the developed correlations in above two steps to study amorphous phases in meteorites, and those found in future missions to Mars. In the 1st step, silicate glasses were synthesized from pure oxides in a range of NBO/T ratios (from 0 to 4). Depending on the targeted NBO/T and composition of mixed oxides, temperatures for each experiment fell in a range from 1260 to 1520 °C, run for ~ 4 hrs. The melt was quenched in liquid N2 or water. Homogeneity of glass was checked under optical microscopy. Raman spectra were taken over 100 spots on small chips free of bubbles and crystals. We have observed that accompanying an increase of NBO/T, there is a strengthening and a position shift of the Raman peak near 1000 cm-1 (Si-Onon-bridging stretching mode), and the weakening of broad Raman peaks near 500 cm-1 (ring breathing mode) and 700cm-1 (Si-Obridging-Si mode). We are building the

  14. Disordered Silicates in Space: a Study of Laboratory Spectra of "Amorphous" Silicates

    CERN Document Server

    Speck, Angela K; Hofmeister, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    We present a laboratory study of silicate glasses of astrophysically relevant compositions including olivines, pyroxenes and melilites. With emphasis on the classic Si-O stretching feature near 10 microns, we compare infrared spectra of our new samples with laboratory spectra on ostensibly similar compositions, and also with synthetic silicate spectral data commonly used in dust modeling. Several different factors affect spectral features including sample chemistry (e.g., polymerization, Mg/Fe ratio, oxidation state and Al-content) and different sample preparation techniques lead to variations in porosity, density and water content. The convolution of chemical and physical effects makes it difficult to attribute changes in spectral parameters to any given variable. It is important that detailed chemical and structural characterization be provided along with laboratory spectra. In addition to composition and density, we measured the glass transition temperatures for the samples which place upper limits on the ...

  15. Alkali-ions diffusion, mullite formation, and crystals dissolution during sintering of porcelain bodies: Microstructural approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonelli, C.; Kamseu, E.; Boccaccini, Dino

    2009-01-01

    The effect of alkali-silicate glassy matrix as replacement for feldspar in soft and hard porcelain compositions was studied. SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to evidence phase evolution. For each composition, the influence of soaking time was evaluated. The difference in chemical...... composition (amount of alkali and alumina) between the two types of porcelain studied influenced the final microstructure: density, pore size and shape, and mullite content. Quartz dissolution was more important in soft porcelain where the mullitization was limited by the low amount of alumina compared...... to hard porcelain. Replacing the feldspar by alkali-silicate glassy matrices with similar chemical composition, the amount of secondary mullite and mechanical properties increased in both soft and hard compositions....

  16. Evaluation of the effect of sodium silicate addition to mine backfill, Gelfill L Part 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Kermani; F.P. Hassani; E. Aflaki; M. Benzaazoua; M. Nokken

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties of sodium silicate-fortified backfill, called Gelfill, were investi-gated by conducting a series of laboratory experiments. Two configurations were tested, i.e. Gelfill and cemented hydraulic fill (CHF). The Gelfill has an alkali activator such as sodium silicate in its materials in addition to primary materials of mine backfill which are tailings, water and binders. Large numbers of samples of Gelfill and CHF with various mixture designs were cast and cured for over 28 d. The me-chanical properties of samples were investigated using uniaxial compression test, and the results were compared with those of reference samples made without sodium silicate. The test results indicated that the addition of an appropriate amount of an alkali activator such as sodium silicate can enhance the mechanical (uniaxial compressive strength) and physical (water retention) properties of backfill. The microstructure analysis conducted by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) revealed that the addition of sodium silicate can modify the pore size distribution and total porosity of Gelfill, which can contribute to the better mechanical properties of Gelfill. It was also shown that the time and rate of drainage in the Gelfill specimens are less than those in CHF specimens made without sodium silicate. Finally, the study showed that the addition of sodium silicate can reduce the required setting time of mine backfill, which can contribute to increase mine production in accordance with the mine safety.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of sodium silicate addition to mine backfill, Gelfill − Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kermani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mechanical properties of sodium silicate-fortified backfill, called Gelfill, were investigated by conducting a series of laboratory experiments. Two configurations were tested, i.e. Gelfill and cemented hydraulic fill (CHF. The Gelfill has an alkali activator such as sodium silicate in its materials in addition to primary materials of mine backfill which are tailings, water and binders. Large numbers of samples of Gelfill and CHF with various mixture designs were cast and cured for over 28 d. The mechanical properties of samples were investigated using uniaxial compression test, and the results were compared with those of reference samples made without sodium silicate. The test results indicated that the addition of an appropriate amount of an alkali activator such as sodium silicate can enhance the mechanical (uniaxial compressive strength and physical (water retention properties of backfill. The microstructure analysis conducted by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP revealed that the addition of sodium silicate can modify the pore size distribution and total porosity of Gelfill, which can contribute to the better mechanical properties of Gelfill. It was also shown that the time and rate of drainage in the Gelfill specimens are less than those in CHF specimens made without sodium silicate. Finally, the study showed that the addition of sodium silicate can reduce the required setting time of mine backfill, which can contribute to increase mine production in accordance with the mine safety.

  18. Polymeric, Metallic, and Other Glasses in Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-ceramic glasses are not adequately discussed in introductory chemistry. Such glasses include polycarbonate, which many corrective lenses are made of, amber, enamel, gelatin, hard candy, coal, refrigerated glycerol, and metallic glasses that have been marketed in recent decades. What is usually discussed in elementary texts is siliceous glass,…

  19. Mecanismes d'action des fines et des granulats de verre sur la reaction alcali-silice et la reaction pouzzolanique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idir, Rachida

    Recycling composite glass with different colours in order to be manufactured into new glass products is at present not economically viable. Therefore, the search for new issues other than stockpile areas or dumping sites could be a serious opportunity. To a certain extent, one of the possible solutions is to use the recycled glass in manufacturing cements and in the preparation of concrete mixtures. However, it is essential to manage the two main behaviours that the glass can have when used in cement-based materials: (1) the use of glass as coarse aggregates reveals harmful behaviour related to alkali-silica reaction; (2) on the other hand, it can result in useful behaviour related to pozzolanic reaction if used as fine particles. Furthermore, the significant alkali content should not be overlooked as their mass corresponds to about 13% of the total mass of the glass and as they may activate the alkali-silica reaction. An experimental programme was conducted to provide answers to the various questions raised about the use of glass in cement-based materials. The first part of this work was primarily devoted to the evaluation of the reactive potential of glass in mortars (alkali and pozzolanic reactions). At this stage, nine classes of glass particles ranging from 3mum to 2.5 mm were considered. Then, fine glass particles were used in order to counteract the negative effect of some classes of coarse aggregates having revealed alkali-reactive behaviour. The second part of this work was performed to study the mechanisms that could explain the behaviours of fine and coarse particles in aqueous and concentrated environments. Different answers have been proposed to explain the observed behaviour in terms of grain sizes of glass. Keywords: Glass, Powder, Pozzolan, aggregates, alkali-reaction, alkali-aggregate reaction, alkali-silica reaction, Pouzzolanicity, alkalis, Mortars

  20. Investigation on Structures and Properties of Yb3+-Doped Laser Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shujiang; Lu Anxian; Tang Xiaodong; He Shaobo

    2006-01-01

    The Yb3+-doped silicate, phosphate and borophosphate laser glasses were prepared by means of conventional melt quenching technology.The physical and spectral properties of the glasses were investigated.The results show that, due to the existence of OH-, the fluorescence lifetime of phosphate glass is shorter than that of silicate glass, so silicate glass has better spectral properties than phosphate glass.Silicate glass has better mechanical and thermal properties than phosphate glass, but with the addition of B2O3, mechanical and thermal properties of phosphate glass are improved greatly without fluorescence quenching effect.This kind of borophosphate glass can be used in high average power solid state lasers.

  1. Lessons from a “Failed” Experiment: Zinc Silicates with Complex Morphology by Reaction of Zinc Acetate, the Ionic Liquid Precursor (ILP Tetrabutylammonium Hydroxide (TBAH, and Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Taubert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available At elevated temperatures, the ionic liquid precursor (ILP tetrabutylammonium hydroxide reacts with zinc acetate and the glass wall of the reaction vessel. While the reaction of OH- with the glass wall is not surprising as such and could be considered a failed experiment, the resulting materials are interesting for a variety of applications. If done on purpose and under controlled conditions, the reaction with the glass wall results in uniform, well-defined hemimorphite Zn4Si2O7(OH2·nH2O and willemite Zn2SiO4 microcrystals and films. Their morphology can be adjusted by variation of the reaction time and reaction temperature. The hemimorphite can be transformed to Zn2SiO4 via calcination. The process is therefore a viable approach for the fabrication of porous films on glass surfaces with potential applications as catalyst support, among others.

  2. INFLUENCE OF GLASS CULLET IN CEMENT PASTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Karamberi; E.Chaniotakis; D.Papageorgiou; A.Moutsatsou

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates glass and cement compatibility with a view to use glass as a cement replacement. Amber, flint and green glasses were chosen due to their prevalence in the Greek market as packaging materials. The factors under investigation were the pozzolanicity of the glass cullet, the hydration rate and the mechanical strength development of the cement pastes, as well as the expansion of the specimens due to alkali-silica reaction.Moreover, the potential enhancement of glass pozzolanic activity was examined. The results of the study were encouraging to show the potentiality of utilising glass cullet in cementitious products.

  3. Silicic Large Igneous Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Scott Bryan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are the end-product of huge additions of magma to the continental crust both at the surface and at depth. Since the first categorisation of LIPs by Coffin & Eldholm (1994), it has been recognised that LIPs are more varied inform, age and character, and this includes the recognition of Silicic LIPs. Silicic LIPs are the largest accumulations of primary volcaniclastic rocks at the Earth's surface with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 and extrusive and subvolcanic intrusive volumes >0.25 Mkm3. The Late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic Silicic LIP events are the best recognised and are similar in terms of their dimension, crustal setting, volcanic architecture and geochemistry.

  4. Summary Report: Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.; Turo, Laura A.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

    2011-09-23

    Glass-ceramic waste form development began in FY 2010 examining two combined waste stream options: (1) alkaline earth (CS) + lanthanide (Ln), and (2) + transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by the uranium extraction (UREX+) separations process. Glass-ceramics were successfully developed for both options however; Option 2 was selected over Option 1, at the conclusion of 2010, because Option 2 immobilized all three waste streams with only a minimal decrease in waste loading. During the first year, a series of three glass (Option 2) were fabricated that varied waste loading-WL (42, 45, and 50 mass%) at fixed molar ratios of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali both at 1.75. These glass-ceramics were slow cooled and characterized in terms of phase assemblage and preliminary irradiation stability. This fiscal year, further characterization was performed on the FY 2010 Option 2 glass-ceramics in terms of: static leach testing, phase analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and irradiation stability (electron and ion). Also, a new series of glass-ceramics were developed for Option 2 that varied the additives: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0-6 mass%), molar ratio of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali (1.75 to 2.25) and waste loading (50, 55, and 60 mass%). Lastly, phase pure powellite and oxyapatite were synthesized for irradiation studies. Results of this fiscal year studies showed compositional flexibility, chemical stability, and radiation stability in the current glass-ceramic system. First, the phase assemblages and microstructure of all of the FY 2010 and 2011 glass-ceramics are very similar once subjected to the slow cool heat treatment. The phases identified in these glass-ceramics were oxyapatite, powellite, cerianite, and ln-borosilicate. This shows that variations in waste loading or additives can be accommodated without drastically changing the phase assemblage of the waste form, thus making the processing and performance

  5. The calcium-alkali syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Mariangeli; Fenves, Andrew Z.; Emmett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The milk-alkali syndrome was a common cause of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal failure in the early 20th century. It was caused by the ingestion of large quantities of milk and absorbable alkali to treat peptic ulcer disease. The syndrome virtually vanished after introduction of histamine-2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors. More recently, a similar condition called the calcium-alkali syndrome has emerged as a common cause of hypercalcemia and alkalosis. It is usually caused b...

  6. Viscous sealing glass compositions for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Woon; Brow, Richard K.

    2016-12-27

    A sealant for forming a seal between at least two solid oxide fuel cell components wherein the sealant comprises a glass material comprising B.sub.2O.sub.3 as a principal glass former, BaO, and other components and wherein the glass material is substantially alkali-free and contains less than 30% crystalline material.

  7. Replacement of glass in the Nakhla meteorite by berthierine: Implications for understanding the origins of aluminum-rich phyllosilicates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martin R.; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias

    2016-09-01

    A scanning and transmission electron microscope study of aluminosilicate glasses within melt inclusions from the Martian meteorite Nakhla shows that they have been replaced by berthierine, an aluminum-iron serpentine mineral. This alteration reaction was mediated by liquid water that gained access to the glasses along fractures within enclosing augite and olivine grains. Water/rock ratios were low, and the aqueous solutions were circumneutral and reducing. They introduced magnesium and iron that were sourced from the dissolution of olivine, and exported alkalis. Berthierine was identified using X-ray microanalysis and electron diffraction. It is restricted in its occurrence to parts of the melt inclusions that were formerly glass, thus showing that under the ambient physico-chemical conditions, the mobility of aluminum and silicon were low. This discovery of serpentine adds to the suite of postmagmatic hydrous silicates in Nakhla that include saponite and opal-A. Such a variety of secondary silicates indicates that during aqueous alteration compositionally distinct microenvironments developed on sub-millimeter length scales. The scarcity of berthierine in Nakhla is consistent with results from orbital remote sensing of the Martian crust showing very low abundances of aluminum-rich phyllosilicates.

  8. Alkali Aggregate Reaction in Alkali Slag Cement Mortars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By means of "Mortar Bar Method",the ratio of cement to aggregate was kept as a constant 1∶2.25,the water-cement ratio of the mixture was 0.40,and six prism specimens were prepared for each batch of mixing proportions with dimensions of 10×10×60mm3 at 38±2℃ and RH≥95%, the influences of content and particle size of active aggregate, sort and content of alkali component and type of slag on the expansion ratios of alkali-activated slag cement(ASC) mortars due to alkali aggregate reaction(AAR) were studied. According to atomic absorption spectrometry,the amount of free alkali was measured in ASC mortars at 90d.The results show above factors affect AAR remarkably,but no dangerous AAR will occur in ASC system when the amount of active aggregate is below 15% and the mass fraction of alkali is not more than 5% (Na2O).Alkali participated in reaction as an independent component, and some hydrates containing alkali cations were produced, free alkalis in ASC system can be reduced enormously.Moreover,slag is an effective inhibitor, the possibility of generating dangerous AAR in ASC system is much lower at same conditions than that in ordinary Portland cement system.

  9. Natural Alkali Shifts to the Methanol Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Inner Mongolia Yuanxing Natural Alkali Co., Ltd. (Natural Alkali SZ: 000683) established in 1997 is a large chemical enterprise with new energy as its leading business and natural gas chemicals and natural alkali chemicals as the supplement business.

  10. Illustration of alkali corrosion mechanisms in high temperature thermal insulation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneziris, C.G.; Fischer, U.; Schlegel, E. [Technical Univ. of Freiberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Alkali attack is a chronic problem in the most popular high temperature applications such as blast furnaces, gasifiers, glass furnaces and cement kilns. Especially in the last years the problem of alkali corrosion is dramatically increased due to the waste burning and the combustion of the so called secondary fuels in kilns at high temperature processes. The German cement industry uses up to 100 percent of secondary fuels - a little or no coal, oil or gas- but mainly burnable waste. According to the literature destruction of the refractory can occur by the formation of low-melting low-viscosity liquids, or, more usually by the formation of dry expansive alkali-aluminosilicate compounds that result to chemical spalling. This work explores due to laboratory experiments supported partially by post mortem industrial trials the chemical interactions between alkali species and established refractory materials and illustrates four main alkali corrosion mechanisms. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns; Analisis de Hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos. I. Determinacion por cromatografia de gases con columnas capilares de vidrio de silice fundida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1987-07-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs.

  12. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  13. Thermochemistry of Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of vapor and condensed phases of silicates are crucial in many fields of science. These quantities address fundamental questions on the formation, stability, transformation, and physical properties of silicate minerals and silicate coating compositions. Here the thermodynamic activities of silica and other species in solid solution have been measured by the analysis of the corresponding high temperature vapors using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS). In first set of experiments KEMS has been used to examine the volatility sequence of species (Fe, SiO, Mg, O2 and O) present in the vapor phase during heating of fosterite-rich olivine (Fo93Fa7) up to 2400 C and to measure the Fe, SiO and Mg activities in its solid solution. The data of fosterite-rich olivine are essential for thermochemical equilibrium models to predict the atmospheric and surface composition of hot, rocky exoplanets (Lava Planets). In the second set of experiments the measured thermodynamic activities of the silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems are used to assess their reactivity and degradation recession as environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments (e.g. non-moveable parts of gas turbine engine).

  14. Discovery of ancient silicate stardust in a meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann N; Zinner, Ernst

    2004-03-05

    We have discovered nine presolar silicate grains from the carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. Their anomalous oxygen isotopic compositions indicate formation in the atmospheres of evolved stars. Two grains are identified as pyroxene, two as olivine, one as a glass with embedded metal and sulfides (GEMS), and one as an Al-rich silicate. One grain is enriched in 26Mg, which is attributed to the radioactive decay of 26Al and provides information about mixing processes in the parent star. This discovery opens new means for studying stellar processes and conditions in various solar system environments.

  15. Ion-Exchange Interdiffusion Model with Potential Application to Long-Term Nuclear Waste Glass Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhu, Zihua; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2016-05-13

    Abstract: Ion exchange is an integral mechanism influencing the corrosion of glasses. Due to the formation of alteration layers in aqueous conditions, it is difficult to conclusively deconvolute the process of ion exchange from other processes, principally dissolution of the glass matrix. Therefore, we have developed a method to isolate alkali diffusion that involves contacting glass coupons with a solution of 6LiCl dissolved in functionally inert dimethyl sulfoxide. We employ the method at temperatures ranging from 25 to 150 °C with various glass formulations. Glass compositions include simulant nuclear waste glasses, such as SON68 and the international simple glass (ISG), glasses in which the nature of the alkali element was varied, and glasses that contained more than one alkali element. An interdiffusion model based on Fick’s second law was developed and applied to all experiments to extract diffusion coefficients. The model expands established models of interdiffusion to the case where multiple types of alkali sites are present in the glass. Activation energies for alkali ion exchange were calculated and the results are in agreement with those obtained in glass strengthening experiments but are nearly five times higher than values reported for diffusion-controlled processes in nuclear waste glass corrosion experiments. A discussion of the root causes for this apparent discrepancy is provided. The interdiffusion model derived from laboratory experiments is expected to be useful for modeling glass corrosion in a geological repository when the silicon concentration is high.

  16. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  17. Heat Capacity of Hydrous Silicate Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, G.; Whittington, A. G.; Stechern, A.; Behrens, H.

    2015-12-01

    We determined the heat capacities of four series of glasses and liquids of basaltic and basaltic andesite compositions including two natural remelts from Fuego volcano, Guatemala, and two Fe-free analogs. The samples are low-alkali, Ca- and Mg-rich aluminosilicates with non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally-coordinated cation ratios (NBO/T) ranging between 0.33 and 0.67. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were performed at atmospheric pressure between room temperature and ≈100 K above the glass transition for hydrous samples and up to ≈1800 K for dry samples. The water contents investigated range up to 5.34 wt.% (16.4 mol%). Water does not measurably affect the heat capacity of glasses (T glass transition, there is a ≈30-40% change in heat capacity, which generally gets larger with increasing water content and with decreasing polymerization. The onset of the glass transition in hydrous samples also occurs below the Dulong-Petit limit of 3R/g atom. We see little change in liquid heat capacity with increasing water content; hydrous liquid heat capacities are within 3-6% of the dry liquid, at low temperatures just above the glass transition. However, dry liquids show a decrease in heat capacity with increasing temperature above the glass transition, from supercooled to superliquidus temperatures. Liquid heat capacity values just above the glass transition range between 95-100 J/mol K, whereas liquid heat capacity values at superliquidus temperatures are between 85-91 J/mol K. Comparison with other studies of the heat capacity of hydrous glasses and liquids shows that the liquid heat capacity of strongly depolymerized samples (NBO/T ≥ 0.8) increases with increasing water content, whereas depolymerized samples (0.4 ≤ NBO/T ≤ 0.8) or polymerized samples (NBO/T ≤ 0.4) generally show little change or a moderate decrease in liquid heat capacity with increasing water content.

  18. Behaviour of Silicate Melts in Respect of Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金民; 叶大年

    1989-01-01

    The volumes per oxygen of some silicate melts have been calculated and then compared with those of silicate glasses.It is suggested that the volume of a silicate melt can be divided into two parts.One is contri buted by the silicon-oxygen network and the other by the “oxides”.Variation patterns of VPOs suggest that the volume of the Si-O network generally remains unchanged and the expansion of the melt is caused mainly by the locat expansion of the “oxides”.It is further proposed that the radius of O2- shows little variation,in striking contrast to the radius of cations.The mechanism governing the expansion is discussed in detail.

  19. Structural and crystallisation study of a rare earth alumino borosilicate glass designed for nuclear waste confinement; Etude de la structure et du comportement en cristallisation d'un verre nucleaire d'aluminoborosilicate de terre rare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintas, A

    2007-09-15

    This work is devoted to the study of a rare earth alumino borosilicate glass, which molar composition is 61,81 SiO{sub 2} - 3,05 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 8,94 B{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 14,41 Na{sub 2}O - 6,33 CaO - 1,90 ZrO{sub 2} - 3,56 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and envisaged for the immobilization of nuclear wastes originating from the reprocessing of high discharge burn up spent fuel. From a structural viewpoint, we investigated the role of the modifier cations on the arrangement of the glass network through different modifications of the glass composition: variation of the Na/Ca ratio and modification of the nature of the alkali and alkaline earth cations. The NMR and Raman spectroscopic techniques were useful to determine the distribution of modifier cations among the glass network and also to cast light on the competition phenomena occurring between alkali and alkaline earth cations for charge compensation of [AlO{sub 4}]{sup -} and [BO{sub 4}]{sup -} species. The neodymium local environment could be probed by optical absorption and EXAFS spectroscopies which enabled to better understand the insertion mode of Nd{sup 3+} ions among the silicate domains of the glass network. Concerning the crystallization behavior we were interested in how the glass composition may influence the crystallization processes and especially the formation of the apatite phase of composition Ca{sub 2}Nd{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}. In particular, this work underlined the important role of both alkaline earth and rare earth cations on the crystallization of the apatite phase. (author)

  20. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2017-01-17

    A method for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock. The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  1. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  2. Nonmare volcanism on the Moon: Photometric evidence for the presence of evolved silicic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Watkins, M. J.; Coman, E.; Giguere, T. A.; Stopar, J. D.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-03-01

    Images and photometric data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are used to investigate regions of the Moon inferred from previous remote sensing compositional studies to be associated with nonmare, silicic volcanics. Specifically, LROC NAC imagery, with photometry normalized to account for local slopes using NAC Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), was used to investigate the exposed areas associated with the Compton-Belkovich Volcanic Complex (CBVC), Hansteen Alpha Volcanic Complex (HAVC), Lassell Massif (LM), Gruithuisen Domes (GD), and ejecta of Aristarchus Crater (AC). Photometric studies of spacecraft landing sites, for which ground-truth compositional data exist, allow us to study the relationship between photometric properties of soils and their mineralogical and chemical compositions. The silicic regions have high reflectance and single scattering albedos that are consistent with different proportions of highly reflective minerals including alkali feldspar and quartz, and low concentrations of mafic minerals. Of the silicic sites studied, the CBVC has the highest reflectance values and single scattering albedos. Silicic pyroclastic deposits may also occur at the CBVC, and we present evidence from laboratory spectra that an addition of up to ∼20 wt% glassy silicic materials to a highlands-type regolith simulant can account for the increased reflectance of these volcanic regions. Reflectance variations across and within the sites can be explained by mixing of felsic mineral components, evolved-to-intermediate silicic compositions, and/or silicic pyroclastic deposits.

  3. Flexural, Impact Properties and Sem Analysis of Bamboo and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao. H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Flexural, Impact properties and Scanning electron microscope analysis of Bamboo/glass fibers Reinforced polyester Hybrid composites were studied. The effect of alkali treatment of the bamboo fibers on these properties was also studied. It was observed that the Flexural, impact properties of the hybrid composite increase with glass fiber content. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in the hybrid composites. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treated leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glass/Bamboo reinforced polyester composites. The effect of alkali treatment on the bonding between Glass/Bamboo composites was also studied.

  4. Nitrogen distribution between aqueous fluids and silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Huang, Ruifang; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Keppler, Hans

    2015-02-01

    The partitioning of nitrogen between hydrous fluids and haplogranitic, basaltic, or albitic melts was studied at 1-15 kbar, 800-1200 °C, and oxygen fugacities (fO2) ranging from the Fe-FeO buffer to 3log units above the Ni-NiO buffer. The nitrogen contents in quenched glasses were analyzed either by electron microprobe or by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), whereas the nitrogen contents in fluids were determined by mass balance. The results show that the nitrogen content in silicate melt increases with increasing nitrogen content in the coexisting fluid at given temperature, pressure, and fO2. Raman spectra of the silicate glasses suggest that nitrogen species change from molecular N2 in oxidized silicate melt to molecular ammonia (NH3) or the ammonium ion (NH4+) in reduced silicate melt, and the normalized Raman band intensities of the nitrogen species linearly correlate with the measured nitrogen content in silicate melt. Elevated nitrogen contents in silicate melts are observed at reduced conditions and are attributed to the dissolution of NH3/NH4+. Measured fluid/melt partition coefficients for nitrogen (DNfluid/ melt) range from 60 for reduced haplogranitic melts to about 10 000 for oxidized basaltic melts, with fO2 and to a lesser extent melt composition being the most important parameters controlling the partitioning of nitrogen. Pressure appears to have only a minor effect on DNfluid/ melt in the range of conditions studied. Our data imply that degassing of nitrogen from both mid-ocean ridge basalts and arc magmas is very efficient, and predicted nitrogen abundances in volcanic gases match well with observations. Our data also confirm that nitrogen degassing at present magma production rates is insufficient to accumulate the atmosphere. Most of the nitrogen in the atmosphere must have degassed very early in Earth's history and degassing was probably enhanced by the oxidation of the mantle.

  5. Sol-Gel Synthesis and Luminescent Characteristic of Doped Eu3+ Silicate-Silica Phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liangzhun; Yu Xibin; Yang Shiping; Zhou Pingle; Tang Jinfeng; Peng Xiudong

    2005-01-01

    Eu-doped silicate complex gel nano-particles was obtained by sol-gel process and characterized with TEM, XRD, PL, etc. The well dispersed particles have particle size about 60~70 nm with specific surface area 98.3 m2·g-1. The complex gel phosphor gives a broad and strong luminescent emission originating from Eu2+ ions centered at 425 nm. The emission band shifts to shorter wavelengths with the increase of the ion radius of the alkali earth metals, but the band becomes red-shifted gradually with the increase of the ion radius of the alkali metals(except Li+). These divalent Eu2+ ions originate in inequivalent substitution of the alkaline earth ions. The presence of alkaline ions is favorable for the increasing emission intensity of the Eu2+ and lowering crystalline temperature of the silicate complex gel.

  6. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  7. Ultra flat supercontinuum generation in silicate dual core microstructured fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczynski, R.; Pysz, D.; Martynkien, T.; Lorenc, D.; Kujawa, I.; Nasilowski, T.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Stepien, R.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we report on ultra flat supercontinuum generation in dual core photonic crystal fiber pumped in the normal dispersion regime. The fiber cladding is fabricated from custom NC21 borosilicate glass while the fiber cores is made of commercially available F2 high index lead-silicate glass from Schott Corp. We investigated the supercontinuum characteristics for single and double core excitation by a Ti:Sapphire oscillator delivering 100 fs pulses centered at 800 nm with an energy of 4.2 nJ. Dual core pumping resulted in appreciable flattening of the supercontinuum spectra in the range 875 - 950 nm.

  8. Dentin-cement Interfacial Interaction: Calcium Silicates and Polyalkenoates

    OpenAIRE

    Atmeh, A.R.; Chong, E.Z.; Richard, G; Festy, F.; Watson, T.F.

    2012-01-01

    The interfacial properties of a new calcium-silicate-based coronal restorative material (Biodentine™) and a glass-ionomer cement (GIC) with dentin have been studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and two-photon auto-fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation (SHG) imaging. Results indicate the formation of tag-like structures alongside an interfacial layer called the “mineral infiltration zone”, where the alkaline c...

  9. Performance comparison of SCHOTT laser glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark J.; Hayden, Joseph S.

    2011-06-01

    Laser performance measurements (quasi-CW) were made of various Nd-doped SCHOTT catalog laser glasses: LG-680, LG-750, LG-760, LG-770, APG-1, and APG-2; all but the first, a silicate, are phosphate glasses. Nominal Nd3+ doping was approximately 3 × 1020 ions/cm3. An end-pumped, laser diode geometry was used and input powers, pump pulse length, and pump rep-rates were kept low to avoid thermal lensing (4 W, 1 msec, and 0.1 Hz, respectively). As expected, the phosphate glasses performed better than the silicate glass. Slope efficiencies ranged from 25% for LG-680 up to nearly 33% for LG-760. APG-1, designed for high rep-rate, high-power systems, performed nearly the same in this particular configuration as glasses designed for high-energy applications (e.g., LG-770).

  10. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers mining and processing of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the extensive pulmonary damage in humans was the result of direct occupational inhalation of the dusts and noted that lesions seen in animals were affected by particle size, fiber length, and concentration. The Panel considers that most of the formulations are not respirable and of the preparations that are respirable, the concentration of the ingredient is very low. Even so, the Panel considered that any spray containing these solids should be formulated to minimize their inhalation. With this admonition to the cosmetics industry, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe as currently used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel did note that the cosmetic ingredient, Talc, is a hydrated magnesium silicate

  11. Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Misture

    2012-09-30

    Two series of silicate glasses that contain gallium as the primary critical component have been identified and optimized for viscous sealing of solid oxide fuel cells operating from 650 to 850°C. Both series of glass sealants crystallize partially upon heat treatment and yield multiphase microstructures that allow viscous flow at temperatures as low as 650°C. A fully amorphous sealant was also developed by isolating, synthesizing and testing a silicate glass of the same composition as the remnant glassy phase in one of the two glass series. Of ~40 glasses tested for longer than 500 hours, a set of 5 glasses has been further tested for up to 1000h in air, wet hydrogen, and against both yttria-stabilized zirconia and aluminized stainless steel. In some cases the testing times reached 2000h. The reactivity testing has provided new insight into the effects of Y, Zr, and Al on bulk and surface crystallization in boro-gallio-silicate glasses, and demonstrated that at least 5 of the newly-developed glasses are viable viscous sealants.

  12. Epitaxial Growth of a Methoxy-Functionalized Quaterphenylene on Alkali Halide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Sun, Rong; Parisi, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of the methoxy functionalized para-quaterphenylene (MOP4) on the (001) faces of the alkali halides NaCl and KCl and on glass is investigated by a combination of lowenergy electron diffraction (LEED), polarized light microscopy (PLM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X...

  13. A model for phosphate glass topology considering the modifying ion sub-network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Christian; Mauro, J.C.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we establish a temperature dependent constraint model of alkali phosphate glasses considering the structural and topological role of the modifying ion sub-network constituted by alkali ions and their non-bonding oxygen coordination spheres. The model is consistent with availa......In the present paper we establish a temperature dependent constraint model of alkali phosphate glasses considering the structural and topological role of the modifying ion sub-network constituted by alkali ions and their non-bonding oxygen coordination spheres. The model is consistent...... with available structural data by NMR and molecular dynamics simulation and dynamic data such glass transition temperature (Tg) and liquid fragility (m). Alkali phosphate glasses are exemplary systems for developing constraint model since the modifying cation network plays an important role besides the primary...... phosphate network. The proposed topological model predicts the changing trend of the Tg and m with increasing alkali oxide content for alkali phosphate glasses, including an anomalous minimum at around 20 mol% alkali oxide content. We find that the minimum in Tg and m is caused by increased connectivity...

  14. Healing of lithographically introduced flaws in glass and glass containing ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackler, H.D.

    1992-12-01

    The morphological evolution of cylindrical pores or channels'' and crack-like cavities in glass and glass-containing ceramics at elevated temperatures was studied. The systems studied were: Coming 7056 alkali borosilicate glass, soda-lime glass (microscope slides), a commercially available 96% Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]with [approx]5--10% intergranular glass, 96% Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] bonded to sapphire, and a model sapphire/glass/sapphire system fabricated by diffusion bonding etched and unetched pieces of sapphire onto which 30--50 nm of SiO[sub 2] had been sputter deposited. These systems span a broad range of glass contents, and permit observation of healing behavior with varying glass content. The results were compared with analytical models and results of similar studies in completely crystalline systems.

  15. Healing of lithographically introduced flaws in glass and glass containing ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackler, H.D.

    1992-12-01

    The morphological evolution of cylindrical pores or ``channels`` and crack-like cavities in glass and glass-containing ceramics at elevated temperatures was studied. The systems studied were: Coming 7056 alkali borosilicate glass, soda-lime glass (microscope slides), a commercially available 96% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}with {approx}5--10% intergranular glass, 96% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bonded to sapphire, and a model sapphire/glass/sapphire system fabricated by diffusion bonding etched and unetched pieces of sapphire onto which 30--50 nm of SiO{sub 2} had been sputter deposited. These systems span a broad range of glass contents, and permit observation of healing behavior with varying glass content. The results were compared with analytical models and results of similar studies in completely crystalline systems.

  16. An extended topological model for binary phosphate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Christian; Rodrigues, B.P.; Wondraczek, L.;

    2014-01-01

    We present a topological model for binary phosphate glasses that builds on the previously introduced concepts of the modifying ion sub-network and the strength of modifier constraints. The validity of the model is confirmed by the correct prediction of Tg(x) for covalent polyphosphoric acids where......, but for larger ions a significant fraction is broken. By accounting for the fraction of intact modifying ion related constraints, qγ, the Tg(x) of alkali phosphate glasses is predicted. By examining alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth metaphosphate glasses we find that the effective number of intact...

  17. Influence of addition of B2O3 on properties of Yb3+ -doped phosphate laser glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-jiang; LU An-xian; TANG Xiao-dong; HE Shao-bo

    2006-01-01

    The three host glasses doped with Yb3+ were prepared by means of conventional melt quenching technol ogy, and the influence on physical and spectral properties of phosphate glass due to addition of B2O3 was investigated and compared with silicate glass. The results show that due to the existence of OH- impurities which induce thenon-radiative route, the fluorescence lifetime of phosphate glass is shorter, so silicate glass has better spectral properties than phosphate glass. Silicate glass has more excellent thermal-mechanical properties than phosphate glass,but with the addition of B2O3, thermal-mechanical properties of phosphate glass are improved greatly without fluo rescence quenching effect, and this kind of borophosphate glass will be the candidate to be used in high average pow er solid state laser.

  18. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Zhao, Yazhao; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-04-05

    Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al2O3 from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C-A-S-H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH)2 with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl2Si2O8·4H2O and Na2Al2Si2O8·H2O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C-A-S-H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  19. Alkali-silica reaction resistant concrete using pumice blended cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Uma

    Durability of structures is a major challenge for the building industry. One of the many types of concrete deterioration that can affect durability is alkali-silica reaction (ASR). ASR has been found in most types of concrete structures, including dams, bridges, pavements, and other structures that are 20 to 50 years old. The degradation mechanism of ASR produces a gel that significantly expands in the presence of water as supplied from the surrounding environment. This expansion gel product can create high stresses and cracking of the concrete, which can lead to other forms of degradation and expensive structural replacement costs. The four essential factors that produce an expansive ASR gel in concrete are the presence of alkalis, siliceous aggregate, moisture, and free calcium hydroxide (CH). If concrete is starved of any one of these essential components, the expansion can be prevented. Reducing CH through the use of a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) such as natural pozzolan pumice is the focus of this research. By using a pozzolan, the amount of CH is reduced with time based on the effectiveness of the pozzolan. Many pozzolans exist, but one such naturally occurring pozzolanic material is pumice. This research focuses on determining the effect of a finely ground pumice as a SCM in terms of its resistance to ASR expansion, as well as improving resistance to other potential concrete durability mechanisms. In spite of having high alkali contents in the pumice, mixtures containing the SCM pumice more effectively mitigated the ASR expansion reaction than other degradation mechanisms. Depending on the reactivity of the aggregates and fineness of the pumice, 10-15% replacement of cement with the pumice was found to reduce the ASR expansion to the acceptable limits. The amount of CH remaining in the concrete was compared to the ASR expansion in order to improve understanding of the role of CH in the ASR reaction. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X

  20. Environmental silicate nano-biocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Pollet, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites focuses on nano-biocomposites, which are obtained by the association of silicates such as bioclays with biopolymers. By highlighting recent developments and findings, green and biodegradable nano-composites from both renewable and biodegradable polymers are explored. This includes coverage of potential markets such as packaging, agricultures, leisure and the fast food industry. The knowledge and experience of more than twenty international experts in diverse fields, from chemical and biochemical engineering to applications, is brought together in four different sections covering: Biodegradable polymers and Silicates, Clay/Polyesters Nano-biocomposites, Clay/Agropolymers Nano-biocomposites, and Applications and biodegradation of Nano-biocomposites. By exploring the relationships between the biopolymer structures, the processes, and the final properties Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites explains how to design nano-materials to develop new, valuable, environmenta...

  1. Sol-Gel Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  2. Process for recovering alkali metals and sulfur from alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2016-10-25

    Alkali metals and sulfur may be recovered from alkali monosulfide and polysulfides in an electrolytic process that utilizes an electrolytic cell having an alkali ion conductive membrane. An anolyte solution includes an alkali monosulfide, an alkali polysulfide, or a mixture thereof and a solvent that dissolves elemental sulfur. A catholyte includes molten alkali metal. Applying an electric current oxidizes sulfide and polysulfide in the anolyte compartment, causes alkali metal ions to pass through the alkali ion conductive membrane to the catholyte compartment, and reduces the alkali metal ions in the catholyte compartment. Liquid sulfur separates from the anolyte solution and may be recovered. The electrolytic cell is operated at a temperature where the formed alkali metal and sulfur are molten.

  3. A negative ion source for alkali ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van

    1980-01-01

    An ion source is described which delivers negative alkali ions. With this source, which consists of a duoplasmatron and a charge exchange canal with alkali vapour, negative Li, Na and K ions are produced. The oven in which alkali metals are evaporated can reach temperatures up to 575°C.

  4. Alkali binding in hydrated Portland cement paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The alkali-binding capacity of C–S–H in hydrated Portland cement pastes is addressed in this study. The amount of bound alkalis in C–S–H is computed based on the alkali partition theories firstly proposed by Taylor (1987) and later further developed by Brouwers and Van Eijk (2003). Experimental data

  5. Effect of silicate pretreatment, post-sealing and additives on corrosion resistance of phosphated galvanized steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sodium silicate (water glass) pretreatment before phosphating, silicate post-sealing after phosphating and adding silicate to a traditional phosphating solution were respectively carried out to obtain the improved phosphate coatings with high corrosion resistance and coverage on hot-dip galvanized(HDG) steel. The corrosion resistance, morphology and chemical composition of the coatings were investigated using neutral salt spray(NSS) tests, scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS). The results show that pretreatment HDG steel with silicate solutions, phosphate coatings with finer crystals and higher coverage are formed and the corrosion resistance is enhanced. Adding silicate to a traditional phosphating solution, the surface morphology of the coatings is nearly unchanged. The corrosion resistance of the coatings is mainly dependent on phosphating time.Phosphating for a longer time (such as 5 min), the corrosion resistance, increasing with concentration of silicate, is improved significantly. Post-sealing the phosphated HDG steel with silicate solutions, the pores among the zinc phosphate crystals are sealed with the films containing Si, P, O and Zn and the continuous composite coatings are formed. The corrosion resistance of the composite coatings, related to the pH value, contents of hydrated gel of silica and Si2O52- and post-sealing time, is increased markedly. The improved coatings with optimal corrosion resistance are obtained for phosphating 5 min and post-sealing with 5 g/L silicate solution for 10 min.

  6. Fabrication method for microscopic vapor cells for alkali atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluktsian, T; Urban, C; Bublat, T; Giessen, H; Löw, R; Pfau, T

    2010-06-15

    A quantum network that consists of several components should ideally work on a single physical platform. Neutral alkali atoms have the potential to be very well suited for this purpose due to their electronic structure, which involves long-lived nuclear spins and very sensitive highly excited Rydberg states. In this Letter, we describe a fabrication method based on quartz glass to structure arbitrary shapes of microscopic vapor cells. We show that the usual spectroscopic properties known from macroscopic vapor cells are almost unaffected by the strong confinement.

  7. Process for Converting Waste Glass Fiber into Value Added Products, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, Raymond T.

    2005-12-31

    Nature of the Event: Technology demonstration. The project successfully met all of its technical objectives. Albacem has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Vitro Minerals Inc., a specialty minerals company, to commercialize the Albacem technology (website: www.vitrominerals.com). Location: The basic research for the project was conducted in Peoria, Illinois, and Atlanta, Georgia, with third-party laboratory verification carried out in Ontario, Canada. Pilot-scale trials (multi-ton) were conducted at a facility in South Carolina. Full-scale manufacturing facilities have been designed and are scheduled for construction by Vitro Minerals during 2006 at a location in the Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina tri-state area. The Technology: This technology consists of a process to eliminate solid wastes generated at glass fiber manufacturing facilities by converting them to value-added materials (VCAS Pozzolans) suitable for use in cement and concrete applications. This technology will help divert up to 250,000 tpy of discarded glass fiber manufacturing wastes into beneficial use applications in the concrete construction industry. This technology can also be used for processing glass fiber waste materials reclaimed from monofills at manufacturing facilities. The addition of take-back materials and reclamation from landfills can help supply over 500,000 tpy of glass fiber waste for processing into value added products. In the Albacem process, waste glass fiber is ground to a fine powder that effectively functions as a reactive pozzolanic admixture for use in portland ce¬ment-based building materials and products, such as concrete, mortars, terrazzo, tile, and grouts. Because the waste fiber from the glass manufacturing industry is vitreous, clean, and low in iron and alkalis, the resulting pozzolan is white in color and highly consistent in chemical composition. This white pozzolan, termed VCAS Pozzolan (for Vitreous Calcium-Alumino-Silicate). is

  8. Immiscible silicate liquids and phosphoran olivine in Netschaëvo IIE silicate: Analogue for planetesimal core-mantle boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roosbroek, Nadia; Hamann, Christopher; McKibbin, Seann; Greshake, Ansgar; Wirth, Richard; Pittarello, Lidia; Hecht, Lutz; Claeys, Philippe; Debaille, Vinciane

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated a piece of the Netschaëvo IIE iron meteorite containing a silicate inclusion by means of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Netschaëvo contains chondrule-bearing clasts and impact melt rock clasts were also recently found. The examined inclusion belongs to the latter and is characterized by a porphyritic texture dominated by clusters of coarse-grained olivine and pyroxene, set in a fine-grained groundmass that consists of new crystals of olivine and a hyaline matrix. This matrix material has a quasi-basaltic composition in the inner part of the inclusion, whereas the edge of the inclusion has a lower SiO2 concentration and is enriched in MgO, P2O5, CaO, and FeO. Close to the metal host, the inclusion also contains euhedral Mg-chromite crystals and small (olivine crystallites containing up to 14 wt% P2O5, amorphous material, and interstitial Cl-apatite crystals. The Si-rich silicate glass globules show a second population of Fe-rich silicate glass droplets, indicating they formed by silicate liquid immiscibility. Together with the presence of phosphoran olivine and quenched Cl-apatite, these textures suggest rapid cooling and quenching as a consequence of an impact event. Moreover, the enrichment of phosphorus in the silicate inclusion close to the metal host (phosphoran olivine and Cl-apatite) indicates that phosphorus re-partitioned from the metal into the silicate phase upon cooling. This probably also took place in pallasite meteorites that contain late-crystallizing phases rich in phosphorus. Accordingly, our findings suggest that oxidation of phosphorus might be a general process in core-mantle environments, bearing on our understanding of planetesimal evolution. Thus, the Netschaëvo sample serves as a natural planetesimal core-mantle boundary experiment and based on our temperature estimates, the following sequence of events takes place: (i) precipitation of olivine (1400-1360 °C), (ii) re

  9. Volume changes in glass induced by an electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavenda, Tadeáš, E-mail: gavendat@vscht.cz [Department of Glass and Ceramics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technická 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Gedeon, Ondrej [Department of Glass and Ceramics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technická 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Jurek, Karel [Institute of Physics, Academy of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-03-01

    Three glasses (float, borosilicate float and Schott D263 glasses) were irradiated by 50 keV electron beams with doses within the range of 0.21–318.5 kC/m{sup 2}. Volume changes induced by electron bombarding were monitored by means of Atomic Force Microscopy. Incubation doses, related to mobility of alkali ions, were measured. Low doses showed compaction of all glasses while higher doses revealed volume inflation, except for borosilicate float glass. Both surfaces of float glass were irradiated and significant differences between them were found.

  10. Volume changes in glass induced by an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavenda, Tadeáš; Gedeon, Ondrej; Jurek, Karel

    2014-03-01

    Three glasses (float, borosilicate float and Schott D263 glasses) were irradiated by 50 keV electron beams with doses within the range of 0.21-318.5 kC/m2. Volume changes induced by electron bombarding were monitored by means of Atomic Force Microscopy. Incubation doses, related to mobility of alkali ions, were measured. Low doses showed compaction of all glasses while higher doses revealed volume inflation, except for borosilicate float glass. Both surfaces of float glass were irradiated and significant differences between them were found.

  11. Stardust silicates from primitive meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2004-04-29

    Primitive chondritic meteorites contain material (presolar grains), at the level of a few parts per million, that predates the formation of our Solar System. Astronomical observations and the chemical composition of the Sun both suggest that silicates must have been the dominant solids in the protoplanetary disk from which the planets of the Solar System formed, but no presolar silicates have been identified in chondrites. Here we report the in situ discovery of presolar silicate grains 0.1-1 microm in size in the matrices of two primitive carbonaceous chondrites. These grains are highly enriched in 17O (delta17O(SMOW) > 100-400 per thousand ), but have solar silicon isotopic compositions within analytical uncertainties, suggesting an origin in an oxygen-rich red giant or an asymptotic giant branch star. The estimated abundance of these presolar silicates (3-30 parts per million) is higher than reported for other types of presolar grains in meteorites, consistent with their ubiquity in the early Solar System, but is about two orders of magnitude lower than their abundance in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles. This result is best explained by the destruction of silicates during high-temperature processing in the solar nebula.

  12. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Alkali Activated Colombian Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Criado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural and mechanical properties of alkali activated binders based on blends of Colombian granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and fly ash (FA were investigated. The synthesis of alkali activated binders was conducted at 85 °C for 24 h with different slag/fly ash ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100. Mineralogical and microstructural characterization was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Mechanical properties were evaluated through the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio. The results show that two different reaction products were detected in the slag/fly ash mixtures, a calcium silicate hydrate with Al in its structure (C-A-S-H gel and a sodium aluminosilicate hydrate (N-A-S-H gel with higher number of polymerized species and low content in Ca. It was found that with the increase of the amount of added slag, the amount of C-A-S-H gel increased and the amount of N-A-S-H gel decreased. The matrix was more dense and compact with almost absence of pores. The predominance of slag affected positively the compressive strength, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, with 80% slag and 20% fly ash concrete being the best mechanical performance blend.

  13. Mbosi: An anomalous iron with unique silicate inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Davis, Andrew M.; Clarke, Roy S., Jr.; Wasson, John T.

    1996-09-01

    The Mbosi iron meteorite contains millimeter size silicate inclusions. Mbosi is an ungrouped iron meteorite with a Ge/Ga ratio >10, which is an anomalous property shared with the five-member IIF iron group, the Eagle Station pallasites and four other ungrouped irons. Neither the IIF group nor the four other ungrouped irons are known to have silicate inclusions. Chips from three Mbosi inclusions were studied, but most of the work concentrated on a whole 3.1 mm circular inclusion. This inclusion consists of a mantle and a central core of different mineralogies. The mantle is partially devitrified quartz-normative glass, consisting of microscopic crystallites of two pyroxenes and plagioclase, which are crystalline enough to give an x-ray powder diffraction pattern but not coarse enough to permit analyses of individual minerals. The core consists of silica. The bulk composition does not match any known meteorite type, although there is a similarity in mode of occurrence to quartz-normative silicate inclusions in some HE irons. Mbosi silicate appears to be unique. The bulk rare earth element (REE) pattern of the mantle is flat at ≅ 7×C1; the core is depleted in REE but shows a small positive Eu anomaly. The O-isotope composition of bulk silicate lies on a unit slope mixing line (parallel and close to the C3 mixing line) that includes the Eagle Station pallasites and the iron Bocaiuva (related to the IIF irons); all of these share the property of having Ge/Ga ratios >10. It is concluded that Mbosi silicate represents a silica-bearing source rock that was melted and injected into metal. Melting occurred early in the history of the parent body because the metal now shows a normal Widmanstätten structure with only minor distortion that was caused when the parent body broke up and released meteorites into interplanetary space. The cause of Ge/Ga ratios being >10 in these irons is unknown. The fact that silicates in Mbosi, Bocaiuva (related to IIF irons) and the Eagle

  14. FTIR Analysis of Alkali Activated Slag and Fly Ash Using Deconvolution Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madavarapu, Sateesh Babu

    The studies on aluminosilicate materials to replace traditional construction materials such as ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to reduce the effects caused has been an important research area for the past decades. Many properties like strength have already been studied and the primary focus is to learn about the reaction mechanism and the effect of the parameters on the formed products. The aim of this research was to explore the structural changes and reaction product analysis of geopolymers (Slag & Fly Ash) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and deconvolution techniques. Spectroscopic techniques give valuable information at a molecular level but not all methods are economic and simple. To understand the mechanisms of alkali activated aluminosilicate materials, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR has been used where the effect of the parameters on the reaction products have been analyzed. To analyze complex systems like geopolymers using FTIR, deconvolution techniques help to obtain the properties of a particular peak attributed to a certain molecular vibration. Time and temperature dependent analysis were done on slag pastes to understand the polymerization of reactive silica in the system with time and temperature variance. For time dependent analysis slag has been activated with sodium and potassium silicates using two different `n'values and three different silica modulus [Ms- (SiO2 /M2 O)] values. The temperature dependent analysis was done by curing the samples at 60°C and 80°C. Similarly fly ash has been studied by activating with alkali hydroxides and alkali silicates. Under the same curing conditions the fly ash samples were evaluated to analyze the effects of added silicates for alkali activation. The peak shifts in the FTIR explains the changes in the structural nature of the matrix and can be identified using the deconvolution technique. A strong correlation is found between the concentrations of silicate monomer in the

  15. Glass transition temperature and conductivity in Li2O and Na2O doped borophosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwajeet, J. S.; Sankarappa, T.; Ramanna, R.; Sujatha, T.; Awasthi, A. M.

    2015-08-01

    Two alkali doped Borophosphate glasses in the composition, (B2O3)0.2. (P2O5)0.3. (Na2O)(0.5-x). (Li2O)x, where x = 0.05 to 0.50 were prepared by standard melt quenching method at 1200K. Non-crystalline nature was confirmed by XRD studies. Room temperature density was measured by Archimedes principle. DC conductivity in the temperature range from 300K to 575K has been measured. Samples were DSC studied in the temperature range from 423K to 673K and glass transition temperature was determined. Glass transition temperature passed through minima for Li2O con.2centration between 0.25 and 0.30 mole fractions. Activation energy of conduction has been determined by analyzing temperature variation of conductivity determining Arrhenius law. Conductivity passed through minimum and activation passed through maximum for Li2O content from 0.25 to 0.30 mole fractions. Glass transition temperature passed through minimum for the same range of Li2O content. These results revealed mixed alkali effect taking place in these glasses. It is for the first time borophosphate glasses doped with Li2O and Na2O have been studied for density and dc conductivity and, the mixed alkali effect (MAE) has been observed.

  16. Glass sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  17. Positron-alkali atom scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  18. The Glass and Jade Road-the Cultural and Technical Exchange of Silicate Based Artefacts with Foreign Countries Before Qin Dynasty%玻璃和玉石之路—兼论先秦硅酸盐质文物的中、外文化和技术交流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干福熹

    2013-01-01

    nondestructive analysis belonged to soda-lime silicate system.By comparing the decorative design and application of colour agent,we found that the ancient eye-beads unearthed in Xichuan and Sui countries were imported from the ancient Egypt,which could promote the glass compound (eye) bead making technology in the ancient China.The sources of ancient Chinese Jade stones and pigment materials,as well as their exchange with foreign countries were discussed in this paper.By analyzing the material origin,sources and application of jade stones of nephrite,turquoise and lapis lazuli,we considered that the ancient pigment materials of lapis lazuli was came from Afghanistan,and the turquoise jade stones were possibly imported from Persia (i.e.,ancient Iran).The suddenly increase of the jade artefacts of nephrite with tremolite mineral between Xia and Shang Dynasties indicated that the nephrite minerals came from a new source,probably from Hetian,Xinjiang,China.According to the archaeological materials,a road map of transportation of ancient glasses and jade stones from West to East in 1 500~500 B.C.was proposed,showing the ancient steppe road connected Western Asia and Central Asia with Inner China.The movement of steppe nomad tribes and technical exchange in Eurasia in the proto-history period was also discussed.

  19. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  20. Use of slag/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends in the production of alkali-activated materials

    OpenAIRE

    María V. Borrachero; Jordi Payá; José Monzó; Lourdes Soriano; Mauro M. Tashima; José L.P. Melges; Jorge L. Akasaki; Vinícius N. Castaldelli

    2013-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter (ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part...

  1. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  2. Modification of the glass surface induced by redox reactions and internal diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Deubener, Joachim; Yue, Yuanzheng

    In this paper we report a novel way to modify the glass surface in favor of some physical performances. The main step is to perform iso-thermal treatments on the selected silicate glasses containing transition metal at temperatures near the glass transition temperature for various durations under...

  3. Energetics of glass fragmentation: Experiments on synthetic and natural glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Russell, J. K.; Kennedy, L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Natural silicate glasses are an essential component of many volcanic rock types including coherent and pyroclastic rocks; they span a wide range of compositions, occur in diverse environments, and form under a variety of pressure-temperature conditions. In subsurface volcanic environments (e.g., conduits and feeders), melts intersect the thermodynamically defined glass transition temperature to form glasses at elevated confining pressures and under differential stresses. We present a series of room temperature experiments designed to explore the fundamental mechanical and fragmentation behavior of natural (obsidian) and synthetic glasses (Pyrex™) under confining pressures of 0.1-100 MPa. In each experiment, glass cores are driven to brittle failure under compressive triaxial stress. Analysis of the load-displacement response curves is used to quantify the storage of energy in samples prior to failure, the (brittle) release of elastic energy at failure, and the residual energy stored in the post-failure material. We then establish a relationship between the energy density within the sample at failure and the grain-size distributions (D-values) of the experimental products. The relationship between D-values and energy density for compressive fragmentation is significantly different from relationships established by previous workers for decompressive fragmentation. Compressive fragmentation is found to have lower fragmentation efficiency than fragmentation through decompression (i.e., a smaller change in D-value with increasing energy density). We further show that the stress storage capacity of natural glasses can be enhanced (approaching synthetic glasses) through heat treatment.

  4. Effect of silicate incorporation on in vivo responses of α-tricalcium phosphate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Tatsukawa, Eri; Shibata, Yasuaki; Umemoto, Shota; Yokoi, Taishi; Ioku, Koji; Ikeda, Tohru

    2016-05-01

    In addition to calcium phosphate-based ceramics, glass-based materials have been utilized as bone substitutes, and silicate in these materials has been suggested to contribute to their ability to stimulate bone repair. In this study, a silicate-containing α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) ceramic was prepared using a wet chemical process. Porous granules composed of silicate-containing α-TCP, for which the starting composition had a molar ratio of 0.05 for Si/(P + Si), and silicate-free α-TCP were prepared and evaluated in vivo. When implanted into bone defects that were created in rat femurs, α-TCP ceramics either with or without silicate were biodegraded, generating a hybrid tissue composed of residual ceramic granules and newly formed bone, which had a tissue architecture similar to physiological trabecular structures, and aided regeneration of the bone defects. Supplementation with silicate significantly promoted osteogenesis and delayed biodegradation of α-TCP. These results suggest that silicate-containing α-TCP is advantageous for initial skeletal fixation and wound regeneration in bone repair.

  5. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Long, W.

    1984-01-01

    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  6. Topological Principles of Borosilicate Glass Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, J. C.; Youngman, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses display a rich complexity of chemical behavior depending on the details of their composition and thermal history. Noted for their high chemical durability and thermal shock resistance, borosilicate glasses have found a variety of important uses from common household...... and laboratory glassware to high-tech applications such as liquid crystal displays. In this paper, we investigate the topological principles of borosilicate glass chemistry covering the extremes from pure borate to pure silicate end members. Based on NMR measurements, we present a two-state statistical...... earthborosilicate glasses that enables the accurate prediction of properties such as glass transition temperature, liquid fragility, and hardness. The modeling approach enables an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms governing macroscopic properties. The implications of the glass topology are discussed...

  7. Spectroscopic Properties of Nd3+-Doped High Silica Glass Prepared by Sintering Porous Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new kind of Nd3+-doped high silica glass (SiO2>96% (mass fraction)) was obtained by sintering porous glass impregnated with Nd3+ ions. The absorption and luminescence properties of high silica glass doped with different Nd3+ concentrations were studied. The intensity parameters Ωt (t=2, 4, 6), spontaneous emission probability, fluorescence lifetime, radiative quantum efficiency, fluorescence branching ratio, and stimulated emission cross section were calculated using the Judd-Ofelt theory. The optimal Nd3+ concentration in high silica glass was 0.27% (mole fraction) because of its high quantum efficiency and emission intensity. By comparing the spectroscopic parameters with other Nd3+-doped oxide glasses and commercial silicate glasses, the Nd3+-doped high silica glasses are likely to be a promising material used for high power and high repetition rate lasers.

  8. Performance characterization of rigid polyurethane foam with refined alkali lignin and modified alkali lignin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-ming; YU Fei; FANG Gui-zhen; YANG Hui-jun

    2009-01-01

    The two kinds of rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared with respectively adding the refined alkali lignin and alkali lignin modified by 3-chloro-1,2-epoxypropane to be instead of 15% of the polyether glycol in weight. The indexes of mechanical performance, apparent density, thermal stability and aging resistance were separately tested for the prepared PU foams. The results show that the mechanical property, thermal insulation and thermal stability for PU foam with modified alkali lignin are excellent among two kinds of PU foams and control samples. The additions of the refined alkali lignin and modified alkali lignin to PU foam have little effect on the natural aging or heat aging resistance except for decreasing hot alkali resistance apparently. Additionally, the thermal conductivity of modified alkali lignin PU foam is lowest among two kinds of PU foams and control samples. The alkali lignin PU foam modified by 3-chloro-1,2-epoxypropane could be applied in the heat preservation field.

  9. 21 CFR 872.6670 - Silicate protector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6670 Silicate protector. (a) Identification. A silicate protector is a device made of silicone intended to be applied with an absorbent tipped applicator to...

  10. Thermogravimetric analysis of phase transitions in cement compositions mixed by sodium silicate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedosov Sergey Viktorovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the capability to modify cement by mechanical activation of sodium silicate water solution. Admixtures or blends of binding agents were employed for modifying concrete properties. The liquid glass is applied to protect from chemically or physically unfavorable environmental impacts, such as acidic medium and high temperature. The sodium silicate is a high-capacity setting accelerator. The increasing of the liquid glass proportion in the mix leads to the degradation of the cement paste plasticity and for this reason it is necessary to reduce the amount of liquid glass in the cement paste. The activation of dilute water solution of sodium silicate into rotary pulsating apparatus directly before tempering of the cement paste is an effective way to decrease mass fraction of liquid glass in the cement paste. The results of the combined influence of liquid glass and mechanical activation on physicochemical processes taking place in cement stone are represented in this research. Thermogravimetric analysis was used in order to study cement blends. Thermogravimetric analysis of modified cement stone assays was performed by thermo analyzer SETARAM TGA 92-24. The results of the analysis of phase transition taking place under high-temperature heating of cement stone modified by the mechanical activation of the water solution of the sodium silicate were introduced. Thermograms of cement stone assays were obtained at different hardening age. The comparison of these thermograms allows us to come to a conclusion on the formation and the retention during long time of a more dense structure of the composite matrix mixed by the mechanical activation of sodium silicate water solution. The relation between the concrete composition and its strength properties was stated. Perhaps, the capability of modified concrete to keep calcium ions in sparingly soluble hydrosilicates leads to the increase in its durability and corrosion resistance.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Silicate Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng; NING Congqin; ZHOU Yue; CHEN Lei; LIN Kaili; CHANG Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Four kinds of pure silicate ceramic particles, CaSiO3, Ca3SiO5, bredigite and akermanite were prepared and their bactericidal effects were systematically investigated. The phase compositions of these silicate ceramics were characterized by XRD. The ionic concentration meas urement revealed that the Calcium (Ca) ion concentration were relatively higher in Ca3SiO5 and bredigite, and much lower in CaSiO3 and akermanite. Accordingly, the pH values of the four silicate ceramics extracts showed a positive correlation with the particle concentrations. Meanwhile, by decreasing the particle size, higher Ca ion concentrations can be achieved, leading to the increase of aqueous pH value as well. In summary, all of the four silicate ceramics tested in our study showed antibacterial effect in a dose-dependent manner. Generally, the order of their antibacterial activity against E.coli from strong to weak is Ca3SiO5, bredigite, CaSiO3 and akermanite.

  12. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  13. Pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate as an alternative precursor for SiO{sub 2}-coated carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrena, M.I., E-mail: ibarrena@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gomez de Salazar, J.M.; Soria, A.; Matesanz, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    This work reported basically aims at understanding the extent of SiO{sub 2}-coated carbon nanofibers using two different sol-gel precursors for the silicate glass. The silicate precursors employed were tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The first route consisted in an acid hydrolysis and polycondensation of the TEOS and the second one in a polycondensation of the pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The techniques of Fourier Infra Red spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the materials obtained. Both kinds of SiO{sub 2} precursor can coat the CNF effectively. However, the use of pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate (faster gelation times and higher surface areas) can be considered a low-cost and facile alternative with respect to the use of TEOS, to obtain industrially silica-coated carbon nanofibers.

  14. Influence of granitic aggregates from Northeast Brazil on the alkali-aggregate reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes Neto, David de Paiva; Santana, Rodrigo Soares de; Barreto, Ledjane Silva, E-mail: pvgomes@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias dos Materiais e Engenharia; Conceicao, Herbert; Lisboa, Vinicios Anselmo Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2014-08-15

    The alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete structures is a problem that has concerned engineers and researchers for decades. This reaction occurs when silicates in the aggregates react with the alkalis, forming an expanded gel that can cause cracks in the concrete and reduce its lifespan. The aim of this study was to characterize three coarse granitic aggregates employed in concrete production in northeastern Brazil, correlating petrographic analysis with the kinetics of silica dissolution and the evolution of expansions in mortar bars, assisted by SEM/EDS, XRD, and EDX. The presence of grains showing recrystallization into individual microcrystalline quartz subgrains was associated with faster dissolution of silica and greater expansion in mortar bars. Aggregates showing substantial deformation, such as stretched grains of quartz with strong undulatory extinction, experienced slower dissolution, with reaction and expansion occurring over longer periods that could not be detected using accelerated tests with mortar bars. (author)

  15. Modelling The Effects of Aggregate Size on Alkali Aggregate Reaction Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Z. Sekrane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at developing models to predict the potential expansion of concrete containing alkali-reactive aggregates. The paper gives measurements in order to provide experimental data concerning the effect of particle size of an alkali-reactive siliceous limestone on mortar expansion. Results show that no expansion was measured on the mortars using small particles (0.5-1.0 mm while the particles (1.0–2.0 mm gave the largest expansions (0.217%. Two models are proposed, the first one studies the correlations between the measured expansions and the size of aggregates, the second one calculates the thickness of the porous zone necessary to take again all the volume of the gel created.

  16. Bioactive Glasses in Dentistry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi Z

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses are silicate-based and can form a strong chemical bond with the tissues. These biomaterials are highly biocompatible and can form a hydroxyapatite layer when implanted in the body or soaked in the simulated body fluid. Due to several disadvantages, conventional glass processing method including melting of glass components, is replaced by sol-gel method with a large number of benefits such as low processing temperature, higher purity and homogeneity and therefore better control of bioactivity. Bioactive glasses have a wide range of applications, particularly in dentistry. These glasses can be used as particulates or monolithic shapes and porous or dense constructs in different applications such as remineralization or hypersensitivity treatment. Some properties of bioactive glasses such as antibacterial properties can be promoted by adding different elements into the glass. Bioactive glasses can also be used to modify different biocompatible materials that need to be bioactive. This study reviews the significant developments of bioactive glasses in clinical application, especially dentistry. Furthermore, we will discuss the field of bioactive glasses from beginning to the current developments, which includes processing methods, applications, and properties of these glasses.

  17. Relationship between topological order and glass forming ability in densely packed enstatite and forsterite composition glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, S; Akola, J; Morita, H; Suzuya, K; Weber, J K R; Wilding, M C; Benmore, C J

    2011-09-06

    The atomic structures of magnesium silicate melts are key to understanding processes related to the evolution of the Earth's mantle and represent precursors to the formation of most igneous rocks. Magnesium silicate compositions also represent a major component of many glass ceramics, and depending on their composition can span the entire fragility range of glass formation. The silica rich enstatite (MgSiO(3)) composition is a good glass former, whereas the forsterite (Mg(2)SiO(4)) composition is at the limit of glass formation. Here, the structure of MgSiO(3) and Mg(2)SiO(4) composition glasses obtained from levitated liquids have been modeled using Reverse Monte Carlo fits to diffraction data and by density functional theory. A ring statistics analysis suggests that the lower glass forming ability of the Mg(2)SiO(4) glass is associated with a topologically ordered and very narrow ring distribution. The MgO(x) polyhedra have a variety of irregular shapes in MgSiO(3) and Mg(2)SiO(4) glasses and a cavity analysis demonstrates that both glasses have almost no free volume due to a large contribution from edge sharing of MgO(x)-MgO(x) polyhedra. It is found that while the atomic volume of Mg cations in the glasses increases compared to that of the crystalline phases, the number of Mg-O contacts is reduced, although the effective chemical interaction of Mg(2+) remains similar. This unusual structure-property relation of Mg(2)SiO(4) glass demonstrates that by using containerless processing it may be possible to synthesize new families of dense glasses and glass ceramics with zero porosity.

  18. Silicate Composition of the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Fogerty, Shane; Watson, Dan M; Sargent, Benjamin A; Koch, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. Analysis of the well-known 9.7{\\mu}m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modelled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modelling the optical depth along lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and {\\zeta} Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as "polivene." Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapez...

  19. Surface characterization of silicate bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Marta

    2012-03-28

    The success of an implanted prosthetic material is determined by the early events occurring at the interface between the material and the body. These events depend on many surface properties, with the main ones including the surface's composition, porosity, roughness, topography, charge, functional groups and exposed area. This review will portray how our understanding of the surface reactivity of silicate bioceramics has emerged and evolved in the past four decades, owing to the adoption of many complementary surface characterization tools. The review is organized in sections dedicated to a specific surface property, each describing how the property influences the body's response to the material, and the tools that have been adopted to analyse it. The final section introduces the techniques that have yet to be applied extensively to silicate bioceramics, and the information that they could provide.

  20. Extreme early solar system chemical fractionation recorded by alkali-rich clasts contained in ordinary chondrite breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Misawa, Keiji; Okano, Osamu; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Simon, Justin I.; Tappa, Michael J.; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2017-01-01

    New K-Ca and Rb-Sr isotopic analyses have been performed on alkali-rich igneous rock fragments in the Yamato (Y)-74442 and Bhola LL-chondritic breccias to better understand the extent and timing of alkali enrichments in the early solar system. The Y-74442 fragments yield a K-Ca age of 4.41 ± 0.28 Ga for λ(40K) = 0.5543 Ga-1 with an initial 40Ca/44Ca ratio of 47.1618 ± 0.0032. Studying the same fragments with the Rb-Sr isotope system yields an age of 4.420 ± 0.031 Ga for λ(87Rb) = 0.01402 Ga-1 with an initial ratio of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7203 ± 0.0044. An igneous rock fragment contained in Bhola shows a similar alkali fractionation pattern to those of Y-74442 fragments but does not plot on the K-Ca or Rb-Sr isochron of the Y-74442 fragments. Calcium isotopic compositions of whole-rock samples of angrite and chondrites are primordial, indistinguishable from mantle-derived terrestrial rocks, and here considered to represent the initial composition of bulk silicate Earth. The initial ε40Ca value determined for the source of the alkali clasts in Y-74442 that is ∼0.5 ε-units higher than the solar system value implies an early alkali enrichment. Multi-isotopic studies on these alkali-rich fragments reveal that the source material of Y-74442 fragments had elemental ratios of K/Ca = 0.43 ± 0.18, Rb/Sr = 3.45 ± 0.66 and K/Rb ∼ 170, that may have formed from mixtures of an alkali-rich component (possibly an alkali-enriched gaseous reservoir produced by fractionation of early nebular condensates) and chondritic components that were flash-heated during an impact event on the LL-chondrite parent body ∼4.42 Ga ago. Further enrichments of potassium and rubidium relative to calcium and strontium as well as a mutual alkali-fractionation (K/Rb ∼ 50 and heavier alkali-enrichment) would have likely occurred during subsequent cooling and differentiation of this melt. Alkali fragments in Bhola might have undergone similar solid-vapor fractionation processes to those of Y

  1. Biogenic silicate accumulation in sediments, Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuegang; SONG Jinming; DAI Jicui; YUAN Huamao; LI Ning; LI Fengye; SUN Song

    2006-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that low silicate content in seawater is a major limiting factor to phytoplankton primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. However the reason of Si-limitation remains poorly understood. In the present study we measured the biogenic silicate content and discussed the accumulation of silicate in Jiaozhou Bay sediment. The results show that the biogenic silica content in the sediment of the Jiaozhou Bay is obviously much higher than those in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. The BSi:TN ratios and BSi:16P ratios in the sediment are > 1 and the OC:BSi ratio in sediment is lower than these of Redfield ratio (106:16), indicating that the decomposition rate of OC is much higher than that for BSi in similar conditions. Therefore, the majority of the biogenic silicate was buried and thus did not participate in silicate recycling. Silicate accumulation in sediment may explain why Si limits the phytoplankton growth in the Jiaozhou Bay. Comparing the flux of biogenic silicate from sediments with primary production rate, it can be concluded that only 15.5% of biogenic silicate is hydrolyzed during the journey from surface to bottom in seawater, thus approximate 84.5% of biogenic silicate could reach the bottom. The silicate releasing rate from the sediment to seawater is considerably lower than that of sedimentation of biogenic silicate, indicating silicate accumulation in sediment too. In a word, the silicate accumulation in sediment is the key reason of silicate limiting to phytoplankton growth in Jiaozhou Bay.

  2. Bioactive Glass and Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo R. Boccaccini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, bioactive glasses have been used to fill and restore bone defects. More recently, this category of biomaterials has become an emerging research field for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds on the basis of melt-derived bioactive silicate glass compositions and relevant composite structures. Starting with an excerpt on the history of bioactive glasses, as well as on fundamental requirements for bone tissue engineering scaffolds, a detailed overview on recent developments of bioactive glass and glass-ceramic scaffolds will be given, including a summary of common fabrication methods and a discussion on the microstructural-mechanical properties of scaffolds in relation to human bone (structure-property and structure-function relationship. In addition, ion release effects of bioactive glasses concerning osteogenic and angiogenic responses are addressed. Finally, areas of future research are highlighted in this review.

  3. PMR-15/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites For Improved Thermal Stability And Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi; Scheiman, Daniel; Faile, Michael; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Montmorillonite clay was organically modified by co-exchange of an aromatic diamine and a primary alkyl amine. The clay was dispersed into a PMR (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants)-15 matrix and the glass transition temperature and thermal oxidative stability of the resulting nanocomposites were evaluated. PMR-15/ silicate nanocomposites were also investigated as a matrix material for carbon fabric reinforced composites. Dispersion of the organically modified silicate into the PMR-15 matrix enhanced the thermal oxidative stability, the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and interlaminar shear strength of the polymer matrix composite.

  4. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  5. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—Cast Stone and Alkali Alumino-Silicate Geopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Parker, Kent E.; Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2010-06-28

    PNNL is conducting screening tests on the candidate waste forms to provide a basis for comparison and to resolve the formulation and data needs identified in the literature review. This report documents the screening test results on the Cast Stone cementitious waste form and the Geopolymer waste form. Test results suggest that both the Cast Stone and Geopolymer appear to be viable waste forms for the solidification of the secondary liquid wastes to be treated in the ETF. The diffusivity for technetium from the Cast Stone monoliths was in the range of 1.2 × 10-11 to 2.3 × 10-13 cm2/s during the 63 days of testing. The diffusivity for technetium from the Geopolymer was in the range of 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s through the 63 days of the test. These values compare with a target of 1 × 10-9 cm2/s or less. The Geopolymer continues to show some fabrication issues with the diffusivities ranging from 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s for the better-performing batch to from 1.2 × 10-9 to 1.8 × 10-11 cm2/s for the poorer-performing batch. In the future more comprehensive and longer term performance testing will be conducted, to further evaluate whether or not these waste forms will meet the regulation and performance criteria needed to cost-effectively dispose of secondary wastes.

  6. Potential Applications of Alkali-Activated Alumino-Silicate Binders in Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    pipe, tunnel linings, walls, decks and structural beams and pil- ings (Glukhovskii 1974; Glukhovskii, Rostovskava and Rumyra 1980). 11. Russian research...a - fr-.~ - IIr NIP Figure 6.f Placing PYRAMENTTM concrete using a skip bucket and wooden formwork ff.. Figure 7. Working and screeding the patch

  7. Exfoliation of Egyptian Blue and Han Blue, two alkali earth copper silicate-based pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Salguero, Tina T

    2014-04-24

    In a visualized example of the ancient past connecting with modern times, we describe the preparation and exfoliation of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10, the colored components of the historic Egyptian blue and Han blue pigments. The bulk forms of these materials are synthesized by both melt flux and solid-state routes, which provide some control over the crystallite size of the product. The melt flux process is time intensive, but it produces relatively large crystals at lower reaction temperatures. In comparison, the solid-state method is quicker yet requires higher reaction temperatures and yields smaller crystallites. Upon stirring in hot water, CaCuSi4O10 spontaneously exfoliates into monolayer nanosheets, which are characterized by TEM and PXRD. BaCuSi4O10 on the other hand requires ultrasonication in organic solvents to achieve exfoliation. Near infrared imaging illustrates that both the bulk and nanosheet forms of CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 are strong near infrared emitters. Aqueous CaCuSi4O10 and BaCuSi4O10 nanosheet dispersions are useful because they provide a new way to handle, characterize, and process these materials in colloidal form.

  8. Effects of Modulus and Modifying Agent on Aging of Water Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hailan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the content of water glass before and after adding modifying agent by TMS-GC method, it was found that different modulus of water glass led to decrease of silicate content at different levels after a period of storage, and the modifying agent could retard the aging of water glass. It has remarkable significance on the theory and practical application of water glass chemistry.

  9. Structural and topological aspects of borophosphate glasses and their relation to physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Christian; Youngman, R.E.; Wang, J.;

    2015-01-01

    We establish a topological model of alkali borophosphate and calcium borophosphate glasses that describes both the effect of the network formers and network modifiers on physical properties. We show that the glass transition temperature (Tg), Vickers hardness (HV), liquid fragility (m) and isobaric...

  10. Development of a new laboratory technique for high-temperature thermal emission spectroscopy of silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rachel J.; Ramsey, Michael S.; King, Penelope L.

    2013-05-01

    the prevalence of glass and molten silicates in volcanic environments, and the important role of surface emissivity in thermal infrared (TIR) measurements, it is imperative to characterize accurately the spectral features associated with silicate glasses and melts. A microfurnace has been developed specifically for use with a laboratory Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer to collect the first in situ TIR emission spectra of actively melting and cooling silicate glasses. The construction, implementation, and calibration of the microfurnace spectrometer system are presented here. Initial testing of the microfurnace is also discussed, which includes acquisition of thermal emission spectra of a quartz powder (unmelted), a melted and cooled oligoclase feldspar, and glassy melt of rhyolitic composition. Unlike a solid material, which may only have bending and stretching vibrations within its molecular structure, a fully molten material will exhibit several more degrees of freedom in structural movement, thus changing its spectral character. Differences in spectral behavior and morphology are observed between a glass in a solid state and its molten counterpart, confirming previous field measurements of lower emissivity upon melting. This laboratory microfurnace system has been designed to quantify the TIR emission spectral behavior of glassy materials in various physical states. Ultimately, it is hoped that the microfurnace data will help improve the ability of field-based, airborne, and spaceborne TIR data to characterize glassy volcanic terranes.

  11. Glass recycling in cement production--an innovative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guohua; Lee, Harry; Young, King Lun; Yue, Po Lock; Wong, Adolf; Tao, Thomas; Choi, Ka Keung

    2002-01-01

    An innovative approach of using waste glass in cement production was proposed and tested in a laboratory and cement production plant. The laboratory characterization of 32 types of glass show that the chemical composition of glass does not vary significantly with its color or origin but depends on its application. The alkali content of glass, a major concern for cement production varies from 0 to 22%. For the glass bottles mainly found in Hong Kong waste glasses, the alkali content (Na2O) ranges from 10 to 19% with an average around 15%. There is no significant change of the SO2 content in the gas exhaust of the rotary kiln when about 1.8 t/h of glass bottles were loaded along with the 280-290 t/h raw materials. The content of NOx, mainly depends on the temperature of the kiln, does not show significant change either. The SO3 content of the clinker is comparable with that obtained without the loading of glass. The alkaline content shows a slight increase but still within three times the standard deviation obtained from the statistical data of the past year. The detailed analysis of the quality of the cement product shows that there is not any significant impact of glass for the feeding rate tested.

  12. Detection of structural heterogeneity of glass melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    2004-01-01

    The structural heterogeneity of both supercooled liquid and molten states of silicate has been studied using calorimetric method. The objects of this study are basaltic glasses and liquids. Two experimental approaches are taken to detect the structural heterogeneity of the liquids. One is the hyp......The structural heterogeneity of both supercooled liquid and molten states of silicate has been studied using calorimetric method. The objects of this study are basaltic glasses and liquids. Two experimental approaches are taken to detect the structural heterogeneity of the liquids. One...... and the crystal-memory effect of the liquids above their liquidus temperature are detected. Clear dependences of the structural heterogeneity of the liquids on the maximum upscan temperature and on the chemical composition are found by conducting calorimetric measurements. The origin of such dependences...... is discussed. The ordered structure of glass melts above the liquidus temperature is indirectly characterized by use of X-ray diffraction method. The new approaches are of importance for monitoring the glass melting and forming process and for improving the physical properties of glasses and glass fibers....

  13. Modification of resin modified glass ionomer cement by addition of bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanezhad, Alireza; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Udoh, Koichi; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Sawase, Takashi; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, sol-gel derived nanoparticle calcium silicate bioactive glass was added to the resin-modified light cure glass-ionomer cement to assess the influence of additional bioactive glass nanoparticles on the mechanical and biological properties of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. The fabricated bioactive glass nanoparticles added resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (GICs) were immersed in the phosphate buffer solution for 28 days to mimic real condition for the mechanical properties. Resin-modified GICs containing 3, 5 and 10 % bioactive glass nanoparticles improved the flexural strength compared to the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and the samples containing 15 and 20 % bioactive glass nanoparticles before and after immersing in the phosphate buffer solution. Characterization of the samples successfully expressed the cause of the critical condition for mechanical properties. Cell study clarified that resin-modified glass-ionomer cement with high concentrations of bioactive glass nanoparticles has higher cell viability and better cell morphology compare to control groups. The results for mechanical properties and toxicity approved that the considering in selection of an optimum condition would have been a more satisfying conclusion for this study.

  14. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  15. Nanosized alkali-metal-doped ethoxotitanate clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Trzop, Elzbieta; Makal, Anna; Sokolow, Jesse D; Coppens, Philip

    2013-05-06

    The synthesis and crystallographic characterization of alkali-metal-doped ethoxotitanate clusters with 28 and 29 Ti atoms as well as a new dopant-free Ti28 cluster are presented. The light-metal-doped polyoxotitanate clusters in which the alkali-metal atom is the critical structure-determining component are the largest synthesized so far. Calculations show that doping with light alkali atoms narrows the band gap compared with the nondoped crystals but does not introduce additional energy levels within the band gap.

  16. The influence of metakaolin substitution by slag in alkali-activated inorganic binders for civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.; Rieger, D.; Kovářík, T.; Novotný, P.; Franče, P.; Pola, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this study the effect of metakaolin replacement by milled blast furnace slag in alkali-activated geopolymeric binder was investigated in accordance to their rheological and mechanical properties. It was demonstrated that slag addition into the metakaolin binder can improve mechanical properties of final products. Our investigation was focused on broad interval of metakaolin substitution in the range from 100 to 40 volume per cents of metakaolin so that the volume content of solids in final binder was maintained constant. Prepared binders were activated by alkaline solution of potassium silicate with silicate module of 1.61. The particle size analyses were performed for determination of particle size distribution. The rheological properties were determined in accordance to flow properties by measurements on Ford viscosity cup and by oscillatory measurements of hardening process. For the investigation of hardening process, the strain controlled small amplitude oscillatory rheometry was used in plane-plate geometry. For determination of applied mechanical properties were binders filled by ceramic grog in the granularity range 0-1 mm. The filling was maintained constant at 275 volume per cents in accordance to ratio of solids in dry binder. The mechanical properties were investigated after 1, 7 and 28 days and microstructure was documented by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that slag addition have beneficial effect not only on mechanical properties of hardened binder but also on flow properties of fresh geopolymer paste and subsequent hardening kinetics of alkali-activated binders.

  17. Rb-Sr Isotopic Systematics of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simo, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2012-01-01

    Alkali-rich igneous fragments were identified in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Kr henberg (LL5)], Bhola (LL3-6) and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4), and show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkaline elements. The K-Rb-Cs-rich fragments in Kr henberg, Bhola, and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography (olivine + pyroxene + glass), suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials. We have undertaken Rb-Sr isotopic studies on alkali-rich fragments in Y-74442 to precisely determine their crystallization ages and the isotopic signatures of their precursor material(s).

  18. Influence of Na diffusion on thermochromism of vanadium oxide films and suppression through mixed-alkali effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mark J.; Wang, Junlan, E-mail: junlan@u.washington.edu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Vanadium oxide films were reactively sputtered on three types of glass substrates. • Na diffusion from soda-lime glass undesirably inhibited thermochromism. • Na diffusion was suppressed by replacing half of sodium in glass with potassium. • Mixed-alkali effect promotes thermochromic VO{sub 2} films on glass substrates. - Abstract: Vanadium(IV) oxide possesses a reversible first-order phase transformation near 68 °C. Potential applications of the material include advanced optical devices and thermochromic smart windows. In this study, vanadium oxide films were grown on three types of glass substrates using reactive DC magnetron sputtering and were then annealed in air. The substrates were characterized with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and the films were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry. The results show that the composition of the substrate has a major impact on the microstructure and optical properties of the deposited films. Sodium (Na) in the glass can undesirably inhibit thermochromism; however, replacing half of the Na with potassium (K) suppresses the Na diffusion and promotes the nucleation of pure VO{sub 2} with superior thermochromic functionality. The improved performance is attributed to the mixed-alkali effect between Na and K. These findings are both scientifically and technologically important since soda (Na{sub 2}O) is an essential flux material in glass products such as windows.

  19. Origin of Chinese ancient glasses——study on the earliest Chinese ancient glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Fuxi; CHENG Huansheng; LI Qinghui

    2006-01-01

    The earliest Chinese ancient glasses before the West Han Dynasty (200 BC) from different regions are studied. The glass samples were unearthed from Hunan, Hubei, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong and Xinjiang of China. The chemical composition of these glasses samples is analyzed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It is shown that the glass chemical compositions belong to barium-lead silicate BaO-PbO-SiO2, potash soda lime silicate K2O (Na2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O>1), soda potash lime silicate Na2O (K2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O<1) and potash silicate K2O-SiO2 glass systems, respectively. The origins of the earliest Chinese ancient glasses are discussed from the archaeological and historical points of view. These four types of Chinese ancient glasses were all made in Chinese territory using local raw materials. The glass preparation technology was related to the Chinese ancient bronze metallurgy and proto-porcelain glaze technology. The glass technology relationship between the East and the West is analyzed at the same time.

  20. Development of Biomedical Polymer-Silicate Nanocomposites: A Materials Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung Wu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical polymer-silicate nanocomposites have potential to become critically important to the development of biomedical applications, ranging from diagnostic and therapeutic devices, tissue regeneration and drug delivery matrixes to various bio-technologies that are inspired by biology but have only indirect biomedical relation. The fundamental understanding of polymer-nanoparticle interactions is absolutely necessary to control structure-property relationships of materials that need to work within the chemical, physical and biological constraints required by an application. This review summarizes the most recent published strategies to design and develop polymer-silicate nanocomposites (including clay based silicate nanoparticles and bioactive glass nanoparticles for a variety of biomedical applications. Emerging trends in bio-technological and biomedical nanocomposites are highlighted and potential new fields of applications are examined.

  1. Alkali basalts and enclosed ultramafic xenoliths near Ushuaia, Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel

    2016-01-01

    At the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego a few outcrops and erratic boulders of alkali basaltic rocks with ultramafic enclaves have been studied. Alkali basalt plugs or pipes hitherto identified are scarce, and host rocks are constituted by slates that belong to Mesozoic deposition. The petrography, texture and composition of the basalt and xenoliths were investigated by petrographic microscope and electron microprobe analysis. Xenocrysts of amphibole and alkali feldspar, phenocrysts of nepheline, olivine, spinel, phlogopite and Fe-Ti minerals (10 %) and a diversity of xenoliths, mainly lherzolitic, pyroxenite and wehrlitic nodules (15 %), but also from metamorphic rocks provenance, are contained in the basalt groundmass (75 %). This finer-grained material is made up of laths or needles of plagioclase, pyroxene, opaque minerals, apatite and glass, with intersertal, hyalopilitic and pilotaxitic. Locally, rock has an even granoblastic texture. Former amygdules are filled by analcite, zeolites, sodalite and calcite. The normative classification, based on nepheline content, conclude that this rock is an alkali basalt. The chemical classification, considering immobile elements as Zr/TiO2 versus Nb/Y indicate an alkali basalt too and plots over the TAS diagram fall in the foidite (Na-rich or nephelinite) and basanite fields. The REE patterns are fractionated (La/Yb primitive mantle normalized is approximately 30). The K-Ar isotopic technique on individual macrocrysts gave ages of 146 ± 5 Ma (amphibole) and 127 ± 4 Ma (alkali feldspar); and K-Ar whole rock datum reported 8.3 ± 0.3 Ma. Nevertheless, fertile samples show geochemical features typical of deep derived material thus, based on the position in the actual tectonic setting, indicate that the basalt is older than its isotopic age.

  2. Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, E.; Tornos, J.

    1985-04-01

    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.

  3. Milk Alkali and Hydrochlorothiazide: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Parvez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia is a relatively common clinical problem in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Primary pathophysiology is the entry of calcium that exceeds its excretion into urine or deposition in bone into circulation. Among a wide array of causes of hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are the most common, accounting for greater than 90 percent of cases. Concordantly, there has been a resurgence of milk-alkali syndrome associated with the ingestion of large amounts of calcium and absorbable alkali, making it the third leading cause of hypercalcemia (Beall and Scofield, 1995 and Picolos et al., 2005. This paper centers on a case of over-the-counter calcium and alkali ingestion for acid reflux leading to milk alkali with concordant use of thiazide diuretic for hypertension.

  4. Silicate condensation in Mira variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gail, Hans-Peter; Pucci, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    We study whether the condensation of silicate dust in Mira envelopes could be caused by cluster formation by the abundant SiO molecules. For a simplified model of the pulsational motions of matter in the the outer layers of a Mira variable which is guided by a numerical model for Mira pulsations, the equations of dust nucleation and growth are solved in the co-moving frame of a fixed mass element. It is assumed that seed particles form by clustering of SiO molecules. The calculation of the nucleation rate is based on the experimental data of Nuth and Donn (1982). The quantity of dust formed is calculated by a moment method and the calculation of radiation pressure on the dusty gas is based on a dirty silicate model. Dust nucleation occurs in the model at the upper culmination of the trajectory of a gas parcel where it stays for a considerable time at low temperatures while subsequent dust growth occurs during the descending part of the motion and continues after the next shock reversed motion. It is found tha...

  5. Spectral chemistry of green glass-bearing 15426 regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.; Dyar, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    The detection of appreciable concentrations of ferric iron in a synthetic green glass equilibrated at an oxygen fugacity of 10 to the -11th atm prompted a Moessbauer spectral study of pristine emerald-green glass spherules carefully handpicked from regolith sample 15426. No Fe(3+) ions were detected in this lunar sample or in a synthetic green glass simulant equilibrated at fO2 = 10 to the -14th atm, suggesting that the green glass clods in rock 15426 formed under conditions of correspondingly low oxygen fugacities. The Moessbauer spectra indicated the presence of olivine crystallites in the lunar emerald green glass spherules. Measurements of homogeneous and partially devitrified synthetic silicate glasses revealed that significant changes of coordination environment about Fe(2+) ions in the glass structure occur during crystallization of olivine crystals from the melt.

  6. Glass Glimpsed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology.......Glass in poetry as it reflects the viewer and as its power of reflection are both reduced and enhanced by technology....

  7. Cosmos & Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1996-01-01

    The article unfolds the architectural visions of glass by Bruno Taut. It refers to inspirations by Paul Sheerbart and litterature and the Crystal Chain, also it analyses the tectonic univers that can be found in the glass pavillion for the Werkbund exposition in Cologne....

  8. Strength and durability performance of alkali-activated rice husk ash geopolymer mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Yong; Lee, Byung-Jae; Saraswathy, Velu; Kwon, Seung-Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation carried out to develop the geopolymer concrete based on alkali-activated rice husk ash (RHA) by sodium hydroxide with sodium silicate. Effect on method of curing and concentration of NaOH on compressive strength as well as the optimum mix proportion of geopolymer mortar was investigated. It is possible to achieve compressive strengths of 31 N/mm(2) and 45 N/mm(2), respectively for the 10 M alkali-activated geopolymer mortar after 7 and 28 days of casting when cured for 24 hours at 60°C. Results indicated that the increase in curing period and concentration of alkali activator increased the compressive strength. Durability studies were carried out in acid and sulfate media such as H2SO4, HCl, Na2SO4, and MgSO4 environments and found that geopolymer concrete showed very less weight loss when compared to steam-cured mortar specimens. In addition, fluorescent optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have shown the formation of new peaks and enhanced the polymerization reaction which is responsible for strength development and hence RHA has great potential as a substitute for ordinary Portland cement concrete.

  9. The interfacial chemistry of organic materials on commercial glass surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joy

    The hydrolytic stability of glass is dependent on its composition. Glasses are exposed to water during their processing and in many applications; therefore, their surface or interface with other materials must withstand hydrolytic attack. Multi-component silicate glasses are widely used but have been the least studied. In coatings-based applications, these glasses come in contact with organosilanes and organic molecules where the adsorption may be affected by surface water. For example, the influence of glass composition on the wet strength of a glass/polymer composite material is unclear, but it is presumed to be driven by the hydrolytic stability of the interfacial chemistry. Organosilanes are critical for increasing the performance of composite materials in humid environments but the precise manner by which the improvement occurs has not been verified. The current school of thought is that the application of silane coatings on a multi-component glass surface transforms the chemically heterogeneous surface into a homogenous and hydrolytically stable surface. In this study, multi-component silicate glass surfaces were silanized by both aqueous and non-aqueous methods. The effect of glass composition and surface hydration on silane coverage was quantified by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The monolayer-level adsorption results showed that the low-sodium content glasses had greater coverage than a high-sodium content glass in dry conditions in contrast to an equivalent coverage in wet conditions. The hydrolytically-stable coverage on multi-component silicate glass surfaces by both silanization methods was found to be sub-monolayer. A thin film model in conjunction with XPS and Infrared Spectroscopy was used to probe the interfacial region of a fiberglass insulation material containing a sodium-rich multi-component silicate glass and an acrylate resin binder. Upon the application of the aqueous binder, the leaching of sodium from the glass promoted

  10. Yb-doped yttria-alumino-silicate nano-particles based optical fibers: Fabrication and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Kir'yanov, A. V.; Das, S.; Bhadra, S. K.; Barmenkov, Yu. O.; Martinez-Gamez, A. A.; Lucio-Martínez, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    An efficient method to fabricate transparent glass ceramic fibers containing in-situ grown Yb 3+ doped oxide nano-particles based on yttria-alumino-silicate glass is presented. These large-mode area Yb 3+ doped fibers having a core diameter around 25.0 μm were drawn by a proper control over the involved process parameters; by this, the size of nano-particles was maintained within 5-10 nm. The main spectroscopic and laser properties of the fabricated fibers along with the nano-structuration results are reported. These results reveal that the developed method offers new scopes for the contemporary Yb 3+ fiber based devices.

  11. Biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers in the human lung.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    There is now a substantial body of experimental data on the pulmonary biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers (MMVSF), but human data are seriously lacking. Our knowledge in this field is essentially limited to a few reports of measurements of fibers retained in lung tissue samples taken at autopsy from workers manufacturing these products. Three types of exposure were studied: fibrous glass, mineral wool, and refractory ceramic fibers. Overall, the available data do not provide e...

  12. Bioactive glasses potential biomaterials for future therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Gurbinder

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the history, origin and basic characteristics of bioactive materials. It includes a chapter dedicated to hydroxyapatite mineral, its formation and its bioactive properties. The authors address how cytotoxicity is a determining step for bioactivity. Applications of bioactive materials in the contexts of tissue regeneration, bone regeneration and cancer therapy are also covered. Silicate, metallic and mesoporous glasses are described, as well as the challenges and future prospects of research in this field.

  13. Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Bamboo/Glass Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sudha Madhuri,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical resistance of Bamboo/Glass reinforced Polyester hybrid composites to acetic acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Benzene, Toluene, Carbon tetrachloride and Water was studied. The tensile and impact properties of these composites were also studied. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo fibers on these properties was studied. It was observed that the tensile and impact properties of the hybrid composites increase with glass fiber content. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glsss/Bamboo fiber composites by SEM. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in hybrid composites. The hybrid fiber composites showed better resistance to the chemicals mentioned above. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treatment leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations.

  14. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT CONTAINING PHOSPHOROUS SLAG AND FLY ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo You

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorous slag is an industrial waste which potentially pollutes environments. The aim of the present work is to use phosphorous slag as a raw material to produce alkali-activated cement. The influence of mix proportion of phosphorous slag and fly ash, alkali content and modulus of water glass on the properties of alkali-activated phosphorous slag and fly ash cement (AA-PS-FA-C was studied. The results show that AA-PS-FA-C with normal setting performance and desirable mechanical properties can be prepared using water glass as the activator. Changing the fly ash content in the range of 0-40 wt% has only a small influence on the setting time of AA-PS-FA-C. The strengths significantly decrease when the fly ash content exceeds 30 wt%. The carbonation resistance of AA-PS-FA-C is similar to that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC, while the frost resistance is much better. The hardened paste of AA-PS-FA-C is much more compact than OPC paste.

  15. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Charles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through cocondensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules.

  16. Effect of MAE on the properties of phosphate edge-cladding glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenggang Zhao; Guonian Wang; Lili Hu

    2007-01-01

    Edge-cladding is a key factor in improving saturated small signal gain coefficient βs of large laser disc glass. In this paper, the glasses were melted with traditional method. The influences of mixed alkali effect (MAE) on refractive index, thermal expansion coefficient α, glass transition temperature Tg, dilatometer softening temperature Td, and relative chemical durability of phosphate edge-cladding glasses were studied.The results reveal that when Li/(Na + Li) = 0.5, Tg, Td, and dissolution rate (DR) reach a minimal value.These results are preferred in phosphate edge-cladding glasses.

  17. Influence of sodium silicate concentration on structural and tribological properties of microarc oxidation coatings on 2017A aluminum alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Aytekin, E-mail: apolat@nigde.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde 51100 (Turkey); Makaraci, Murat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Usta, Metin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2010-08-20

    In this paper, thick and hard oxide coatings resistant to wear were produced on 2017A-T6 Al alloy by the microarc oxidation (MAO) technique in an alkali electrolyte consisting of different sodium silicate concentrations (0-8 g/l). The coatings were characterized by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface profilometry. Microhardness, scratch adhesion and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were also performed to evaluate the tribological properties of the coatings. The influence of sodium silicate concentration on the structural and tribological properties of the MAO coatings was discussed. Results reveal that increasing sodium silicate concentration from 0 to 8 g/l in the electrolyte caused an increase in the electrolyte conductivity (from 7.71 to 18.1 mS/cm) and a decrease in positive final voltage (from 627 to 590 V) in the MAO process. In response to the increase in sodium silicate concentration, the thickness, surface roughness (R{sub a}) and critical load (L{sub c}) corresponding to adhesive failure of the coatings were increased simultaneously from 74 to 144 {mu}m, and 4.4 to 6.58 {mu}m, and 127.76 to 198.54 N, respectively. At the same time, the phase structure and composition of the coatings also varied by the participation of silicate ions in the reactions and their incorporation into the coating structure. Moreover, it was observed that the coating formed in the low sodium silicate concentration (4 g/l) had higher surface hardness (2020 HV) and improved wear resistance than the one (1800 HV) formed in the high sodium silicate concentration (8 g/l). The coatings produced in three different electrolytic solutions provided an excellent wear resistance and a load carrying capacity compared to the uncoated aluminum alloy.

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Waste Glass Powder on ASR Expansion Induced by Waste Glass Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed research is carried out to ascertain the inhibitory effect of waste glass powder (WGP on alkali-silica reaction (ASR expansion induced by waste glass aggregate in this paper. The alkali reactivity of waste glass aggregate is examined by two methods in accordance with the China Test Code SL352-2006. The potential of WGP to control the ASR expansion is determined in terms of mean diameter, specific surface area, content of WGP and curing temperature. Two mathematical models are developed to estimate the inhibitory efficiency of WGP. These studies show that there is ASR risk with an ASR expansion rate over 0.2% when the sand contains more than 30% glass aggregate. However, WGP can effectively control the ASR expansion and inhibit the expansion rate induced by the glass aggregate to be under 0.1%. The two mathematical models have good simulation results, which can be used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of WGP on ASR risk.

  19. Alkali activation of recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from fluidised-bed combustion: Stabilisation/solidification of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yliniemi, Juho; Pesonen, Janne; Tiainen, Minna; Illikainen, Mirja

    2015-09-01

    Recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from a fluidized bed boiler was alkali-activated and granulated with a sodium-silicate solution in order to immobilise the heavy metals it contains. The effect of blast-furnace slag and metakaolin as co-binders were studied. Leaching standard EN 12457-3 was applied to evaluate the immobilisation potential. The results showed that Ba, Pb and Zn were effectively immobilised. However, there was increased leaching after alkali activation for As, Cu, Mo, Sb and V. The co-binders had minimal or even negative effect on the immobilisation. One exception was found for Cr, in which the slag decreased leaching, and one was found for Cu, in which the slag increased leaching. A sequential leaching procedure was utilized to gain a deeper understanding of the immobilisation mechanism. By using a sequential leaching procedure it is possible fractionate elements into watersoluble, acid-soluble, easily-reduced and oxidisable fractions, yielding a total 'bioavailable' amount that is potentially hazardous for the environment. It was found that the total bioavailable amount was lower following alkali activation for all heavy metals, although the water-soluble fraction was higher for some metals. Evidence from leaching tests suggests the immobilisation mechanism was chemical retention, or trapping inside the alkali activation reaction products, rather than physical retention, adsorption or precipitation as hydroxides.

  20. Sealing of cracks in cement using microencapsulated sodium silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaros, P.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Cement-based materials possess an inherent autogenous self-healing capability allowing them to seal, and potentially heal, microcracks. This can be improved through the addition of microencapsulated healing agents for autonomic self-healing. The fundamental principle of this self-healing mechanism is that when cracks propagate in the cementitious matrix, they rupture the dispersed capsules and their content (cargo material) is released into the crack volume. Various healing agents have been explored in the literature for their efficacy to recover mechanical and durability properties in cementitious materials. In these materials, the healing agents are most commonly encapsulated in macrocontainers (e.g. glass tubes or capsules) and placed into the material. In this work, microencapsulated sodium silicate in both liquid and solid form was added to cement specimens. Sodium silicate reacts with the calcium hydroxide in hydrated cement paste to form calcium-silicate-hydrate gel that fills cracks. The effect of microcapsule addition on rheological and mechanical properties of cement is reported. It is observed that the microcapsule addition inhibits compressive strength development in cement and this is observed through a plateau in strength between 28 and 56 days. The improvement in crack-sealing for microcapsule-containing specimens is quantified through sorptivity measurements over a 28 day healing period. After just seven days, the addition of 4% microcapsules resulted in a reduction in sorptivity of up to 45% when compared to specimens without any microcapsule addition. A qualitative description of the reaction between the cargo material and the cementitious matrix is also provided using x-ray diffraction analysis.

  1. S-Isotope Fractionation between Fluid and Silicate Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiege, A.; Holtz, F.; Shimizu, N.; Behrens, H.; Mandeville, C. W.; Simon, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Large amounts of sulfur (S) can be released from silicate melts during volcanic eruption. Degassing of magma can lead to S-isotope fractionation between fluid and melt. However, experimental data on fluid-melt S-isotope fractionation are scarce and no data exist for silicate melts at temperatures (T) > 1000°C. Recent advances in in situ S-isotope analyses using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) enable determinations of the isotopic composition in silicate glasses with low S content [1] and allow us to investigate experimentally fluid-melt S-isotope fractionation effects in magmatic systems. Isothermal decompression experiments were conducted in internally heated pressure vessels (IHPV). Volatile-bearing (~3 to ~8 wt% H2O, 140 to 2700 ppm S, 0 to 1000 ppm Cl) andesitic and basaltic glasses were synthesized at ~1040°C, ~500 MPa and log(fO2) = QFM to QFM+4 (QFM: quartz-magnetite-fayalite buffer). The decompression experiments were carried out at T = 1030 to 1200°C and similar fO2. Pressure (P) was released continuously from ~400 MPa to 150, 100 or 70 MPa with rates (r) ranging from 0.001 to 0.2 MPa/s. The samples were either rapidly quenched after decompression or annealed for various times (tA) at final conditions (1 to 72 h) before quenching. The volatile-bearing starting glasses and the partially degassed experimental glasses were analyzed by electron microprobe (e.g. Cl-, S-content), IR-spectroscopy (H2O content) and SIMS (δ34S). The gas-melt isotope fractionation factors (αg-m) were estimated following Holloway and Blank [2] and utilizing mass balance calculations. The results show that αg-m remains constant within error over the investigated range of r and tA, reflecting fluid-melt equilibrium fractionation of S isotopes for given T and fO2. Data obtained for oxidizing conditions (~QFM+4) are in agreement with observations in arc magmas [3] and close to what is predicted by previous theoretical and experimental data [4; 5; 6]; e.g. a α(SO2 gas - SO42

  2. Relaxation phenomena in rubber/layered silicate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS is employed in order to investigate relaxation phenomena occurring in natural rubber (NR, polyurethane rubber (PUR and PUR/NR blend based nanocomposites, reinforced by 10 parts per hundred (phr Layered Silicates (LS. Nanocomposites and matrices were examined under identical conditions in a wide frequency (10–1 to 106 Hz and temperature (–100 to 50°C range. Experimental data are analyzed in terms of electric modulus formalism. The recorded relaxation phenomena include contributions from both the polymer matrices and the nanofiller. Natural rubber is a non-polar material and its performance is only slightly affected by the presence of layered silicates. Polyurethane rubber exhibits four distinct relaxation processes attributed, with ascending relaxation rate, to Interfacial Polarization (IP, glass/rubber transition (α-mode, local motions of polar side groups and small segments of the polymer chain (β, γ-mode. The same processes have been detected in all systems containing PUR. IP is present in all nanocomposites being the slowest recorded process. Finally, pronounced interfacial relaxation phenomena, occurring in the PUR+10 phr LS spectra, are attributed to nanoscale effects of intercalation and exfoliation.

  3. Impurity detection in alkali-metal vapor cells via nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, B.; Ishikawa, K.

    2016-11-01

    We use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of alkali metals sealed in glass vapor cells to perform in situ identification of chemical contaminants. The alkali Knight shift varies with the concentration of the impurity, which in turn varies with temperature as the alloy composition changes along the liquidus curve. Intentional addition of a known impurity validates this approach and reveals that sodium is often an intrinsic contaminant in cells filled with distilled, high-purity rubidium or cesium. Measurements of the Knight shift of the binary Rb-Na alloy confirm prior measurements of the shift's linear dependence on Na concentration, but similar measurements for the Cs-Na system demonstrate an unexpected nonlinear dependence of the Knight shift on the molar ratio. This non-destructive approach allows monitoring and quantification of ongoing chemical processes within the kind of vapor cells which form the basis for precise sensors and atomic frequency standards.

  4. Optically amplifying planar glass waveguides: Laser on a chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    The objective of this work was to devlop optically amplifying planar wavguides, using erbium-doped germano-silicate glass films deposited by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition). The waveguides should exhibit enough gain to be useful as optical amplifiers in integrated planar lightw...

  5. Studies and testing of antireflective (AR) coatings for soda-lime glass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastirik, E.M.; Sparks, T.G.; Coleman, M.G.

    1978-05-01

    Experimental results on this feasibility study to establish processes for producing antireflection films on glass coverings for encapsulated solar cells are very encouraging. Efforts have been concentrated in three areas: acid etching of glass, plasma etching of glass, and acid development of sodium silicate films on glass. The best transmission to date has been achieved through the acid etching technique, while the most durable films have been produced from development of sodium silicate films. Control of the acid etching technique is presently inadequate for production implementation, and large scale application methods for sodium silicate films need further definition. While films having excellent antireflective properties have been fabricated by plasma etching techniques, all have been water soluble, disqualifying the films from a weatherability standpoint.

  6. Determination of Reactive Surface Area of Melt Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier,W.L.; Roberts, S.; Smith, D.K.; Hulsey, S.; Newton,L.; Sawvel, A.; Bruton, C.; Papelis, C.; Um, W.; Russell, C. E.; Chapman,J.

    2000-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of natural and manmade silicate glasses, and nuclear melt glass was undertaken in order to derive an estimate of glass reactive surface area. Reactive surface area is needed to model release rates of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass in the subsurface. Because of the limited availability of nuclear melt glasses, natural volcanic glass samples were collected which had similar textures and compositions as those of melt glass. A flow-through reactor was used to measure the reactive surface area of the analog glasses in the presence of simplified NTS site ground waters. A measure of the physical surface area of these glasses was obtained using the BET gas-adsorption method. The studies on analog glasses were supplemented by measurement of the surface areas of pieces of actual melt glass using the BET method. The variability of the results reflect the sample preparation and measurement techniques used, as well as textural heterogeneity inherent to these samples. Based on measurements of analog and actual samples, it is recommended that the hydraulic source term calculations employ a range of 0.001 to 0.01 m{sup 2}/g for the reactive surface area of nuclear melt glass.

  7. Utilization of recycled glass derived from cathode ray tube glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2011-08-30

    Rapid advances in the electronic industry led to an excessive amount of early disposal of older electronic devices such as computer monitors and old televisions (TV) before the end of their useful life. The management of cathode ray tubes (CRT), which have been a key component in computer monitors and TV sets, has become a major environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop sustainable alternative methods to manage hazardous CRT glass waste. This study assesses the feasibility of utilizing CRT glass as a substitute for natural aggregates in cement mortar. The CRT glass investigated was an acid-washed funnel glass of dismantled CRT from computer monitors and old TV sets. The mechanical properties of mortar mixes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of CRT glass were investigated. The potential of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and leachability of lead were also evaluated. The results confirmed that the properties of the mortar mixes prepared with CRT glass was similar to that of the control mortar using sand as fine aggregate, and displayed innocuous behaviour in the ASR expansion test. Incorporating CRT glass in cement mortar successfully prevented the leaching of lead. We conclude that it is feasible to utilize CRT glass in cement mortar production.

  8. Reuse of ground waste glass as aggregate for mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, V; Gnappi, G; Moriconi, G; Montenero, A

    2005-01-01

    This work was aimed at studying the possibility of reusing waste glass from crushed containers and building demolition as aggregate for preparing mortars and concrete. At present, this kind of reuse is still not common due to the risk of alkali-silica reaction between the alkalis of cement and silica of the waste glass. This expansive reaction can cause great problems of cracking and, consequently, it can be extremely deleterious for the durability of mortar and concrete. However, data reported in the literature show that if the waste glass is finely ground, under 75mum, this effect does not occur and mortar durability is guaranteed. Therefore, in this work the possible reactivity of waste glass with the cement paste in mortars was verified, by varying the particle size of the finely ground waste glass. No reaction has been detected with particle size up to 100mum thus indicating the feasibility of the waste glass reuse as fine aggregate in mortars and concrete. In addition, waste glass seems to positively contribute to the mortar micro-structural properties resulting in an evident improvement of its mechanical performance.

  9. Structures and optical properties of tellurite glasses and glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert Theodore, Jr.

    The structures and optical properties of (K2O)15(Nb 2O5)15(TeO2)70 glass and glass ceramic have been studied in order to understand the second harmonic generation observed from the glass ceramic. We have used 93Nb NMR, Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, small angle x-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and powder x-ray and neutron scattering. We find that there is a microstructure consistent with binodal phase separation leading to spherical inclusions ˜20 nm in size. Upon heat treatment, these domains become nanocrystals of K2Te 4O9. A theory of optical heterogeneity is used to describe the observed second harmonic generation which is ˜95 times more intense that quartz. The chi(2) value for this material is 3.0 x 10-9 esu. A second project has used 125Te and 17O NMR to study alkali tellurite glasses in the system (M2O) x(TeO2)10-x, where M = Li, Na or K and x = 1, 2 or 3. The 125Te results show that complex models of network modification are needed to explain the resulting spectra that include a distribution of polyhedral tellurite units at all compositions. The 17O results show that there is a clear distinction between bridging and non-bridging oxygen sites in tellurite crystals and that sophisticated NMR experiments should be able to distinguish them in the glasses. Further, we have used Extended Huckel theory tight-binding calculations to predict the 17O NMR shifts of SiO2, GeO 2 and TeO2. We find that these calculations allow accurate predictions of the chemical shifts based solely on the trend in valence orbital size, and that expensive calculations of electron currents need not be used for this application.

  10. Characterization of low concentration uranium glass working materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppich, G. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wimpenny, J. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leever, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hutcheon, I. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ryerson, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-22

    A series of uranium-doped silicate glasses were created at (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) LLNL, to be used as working reference material analogs for low uranium concentration research. Specifically, the aim of this effort was the generation of well-characterized glasses spanning a range of concentrations and compositions, and of sufficient homogeneity in uranium concentration and isotopic composition, for instrumentation research and development purposes. While the glasses produced here are not intended to replace or become standard materials for uranium concentration or uranium isotopic composition, it is hoped that they will help fill a current gap, providing low-level uranium glasses sufficient for methods development and method comparisons within the limitations of the produced glass suite. Glasses are available for research use by request.

  11. Selection of non-adsorbing alkali components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-11-01

    This project consists of three phases of laboratory experimental study. In phase I (screening), eight candidate materials, 304SS (serves as a base material for comparison), Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy X, Haynes No. 188, Allonized 304SS, Pt-coated 304SS, and ceramic-coated 304SS, will be subjected to atmospheric TGA study under the simulated PFBC (oxidizing) environment with and without alkali vapor doping. Each candidate material will be evaluated for its resistance toward alkali-vapor capture. In addition, a post-test metallographic characterization of the sample will be performed to obtain a better understanding of the alkali capture mechanism and material behavior. The material(s) with little or no alkali-vapor adsorption will be selected as the promising material(s) for the Phase II study. In Phase II, the promising material(s) will be further tested in the TGA under elevated pressure to simulate the PFBC environment (in terms of temperature, pressure, and gas composition). The effect of pressure on the extent of alkali-vapor adsorption will be evaluated, and the test samples will be metallographically characterized. The most promising candidate material(s) will be identified and recommended for further tesfing in the actual PFBC environment. In Phase III, four materials will be selected from the eight candidate materials screened in the PFBC environment and will be evaluated for their alkali-vapor capture by atmospheric TGA under the coal gasification fuel gas (reducing) environment. The tested samples will also be metallographically characterized. The most promising material(s) will be identified and recommended for further testing in the actual coal gasification environment.

  12. Selection of non-adsorbing alkali components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This project consists of three phases of laboratory experimental study. In phase I (screening), eight candidate materials, 304SS (serves as a base material for comparison), Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy X, Haynes No. 188, Allonized 304SS, Pt-coated 304SS, and ceramic-coated 304SS, will be subjected to atmospheric TGA study under the simulated PFBC (oxidizing) environment with and without alkali vapor doping. Each candidate material will be evaluated for its resistance toward alkali-vapor capture. In addition, a post-test metallographic characterization of the sample will be performed to obtain a better understanding of the alkali capture mechanism and material behavior. The material(s) with little or no alkali-vapor adsorption will be selected as the promising material(s) for the Phase II study. In Phase II, the promising material(s) will be further tested in the TGA under elevated pressure to simulate the PFBC environment (in terms of temperature, pressure, and gas composition). The effect of pressure on the extent of alkali-vapor adsorption will be evaluated, and the test samples will be metallographically characterized. The most promising candidate material(s) will be identified and recommended for further tesfing in the actual PFBC environment. In Phase III, four materials will be selected from the eight candidate materials screened in the PFBC environment and will be evaluated for their alkali-vapor capture by atmospheric TGA under the coal gasification fuel gas (reducing) environment. The tested samples will also be metallographically characterized. The most promising material(s) will be identified and recommended for further testing in the actual coal gasification environment.

  13. Degradation of glass in the soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romich, H.; Gerlach, S.; Mottner, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fur Silicatforschung (ISC), Wertheim-Bronnbach (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Glass has been produced and used in Europe for over 2000 years. Glass objects from the Roman period onwards have been excavated during the last centuries. In general, Roman glass is chemically quite stable, and often the only sign of chemical alteration is an iridescent surface, caused by the leaching of cations, which leads to the formation of a hydrated silica-rich layer. Medieval potash glasses are much less durable, and their surfaces are often found deeply leached, sometimes to a point that no unaltered glass remains. These surfaces may be coherent, though fragile, or they are laminar, with no cohesion between the layers at all. In this study an analytical examination of a series of fragments of archaeological glass retrieved from different sites near Cologne and Stuttgart (Germany) has been carried out. Samples of corroded glasses were analysed by optical microscopy and SEM/EDX (surface and cross sections) in order to obtain information about the chemical composition of the bulk glass and the weathered layers. Since the environmental parameters have constantly varied for archaeological objects, mechanistic studies have to rely on laboratory experiments under controlled conditions. For an extensive exposure programme standardised soil or natural garden earth was used, for which the pH was modified. Several corrosion sensitive potash-lime silicate glasses have been designed to study the effect of glass composition. A model glass consisting of SiO{sub 2} (54.2), CaO (28.8) and K{sub 2}O (17.0 weight-%) mostly lead to the formation of a crust on the leached layer, with a total thickness of 100 micrometer (for soil with pH 7 to 8, 12 months exposure). Model glasses also containing Al, Mg and P have built up preferably laminated structures (total thickness up to 200 micrometer). This presentation will give an overview about the variety of degradation phenomena observed on originals and compare the results with controlled laboratory

  14. Cu-doped photovoltaic glasses by ion exchange for sunlight down-shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardegan, M.; Cattaruzza, E.

    2016-11-01

    Ion exchange process is a widely studied synthesis technique for the controlled modification of silicate glass composition and properties, being moreover an easy and cheap approach. Silicate glasses containing copper are known to exhibit a broad luminescent band peaked around 500 nm, ascribed to 3d10-3d94s1 electronic transition of Cu+ ions; this band turns out to be much promising for the realization of down-shifting systems, being excited in the UV and near-UV region. Luminescent Cu-doped silicate glass sheets suitable as down-shifters to be used for covering solar cells have been prepared by thermal ion exchange. Synthesis of the Cu-doped glasses has been done by dipping pure silicate sheets (commercially used as cover of photovoltaic panels) into a fused copper salt mixture at temperature of 400 °C, for duration between a few minutes and some hours; two different types of copper chloride salt mixtures were explored, with the aim at obtaining luminescent glasses able to improve the Si cell yield. Absorption and luminescence glass features were collected and compared. The performance of the different samples was tested by a solar simulator, measuring the output power of a Si solar cell covered with the Cu-doped glass slides.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  17. Spectroscopic investigations on glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics developed for nuclear waste immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caurant, D.

    2014-05-01

    Highly radioactive nuclear waste must be immobilized in very durable matrices such as glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics in order to avoid their dispersion in the biosphere during their radioactivity decay. In this paper, we present various examples of spectroscopic investigations (optical absorption, Raman, NMR, EPR) performed to study the local structure of different kinds of such matrices used or envisaged to immobilize different kinds of radioactive wastes. A particular attention has been paid on the incorporation and the structural role of rare earths—both as fission products and actinide surrogates—in silicate glasses and glass-ceramics. An example of structural study by EPR of a ceramic (hollandite) irradiated by electrons (to simulate the effect of the β-irradiation of radioactive cesium) is also presented.

  18. The long-term durability of low alkali cements. Evidence from new natural analog sites in Europe and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W. Russell [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Laine, Heini M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Khoury, Hani [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Geology

    2015-07-01

    The long-term durability of low alkali cements is of interest where they are under consideration as repository tunnel and exploration borehole seals and plugs. It is essential to have an appropriate understanding of their longevity to inform decisions on their potential use in a repository environment. Archaelogical analogues of low alkali cement have been studied for some time. Thomassin and Rassineux (1992), for example, reviewed some of the literature on Gallo-Roman cement-based materials and noted that one of the most impressive examples is the 1700 year old Roman mortar used in Hadrian's Wall (UK) which still contains substantial amounts of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate) compounds. These mortars were studied specifically with the behaviour of an ILW repository in mind (Jull and Lees 1990). However, plugs and seals will generally be required to be durable for longer than the few thousand years which can be accessed via archaeological analogues, so it is essential to turn to natural systems for evidence of longer term durability. To date, there have been no reported studies on natural low alkali cements. In principle, however, such cements should exist and the Bituminous Marl Formation, which hosts the natural OPC cements in Jordan (Pitty and Alexander, 2011), is a likely source. This Formation constitutes a widespread terrain which stretches from Syria in the north, through Israel and Jordan to Saudi Arabia in the south. The natural cement was formed by the combustion of organic rich limestones, a process which continues today. In Syria and northern Jordan, for example, the Formation is punctured by Late Oligocene to Quaternary volcanics so sites which include pozzolanic ash mixed with the Bituminous Marl exist and, on combustion, should produce natural low alkali cements. A site in northern Jordan is currently under investigation for evidence of long-term fresh groundwater/low alkali cement interaction and the preliminary results of the study will be

  19. Experimental, in-situ carbon solution mechanisms and isotope fractionation in and between (C-O-H)-saturated silicate melt and silicate-saturated (C-O-H) fluid to upper mantle temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2017-02-01

    Our understanding of materials transport processes in the Earth relies on characterizing the behavior of fluid and melt in silicate-(C-O-H) systems at high temperature and pressure. Here, Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine structure of and carbon isotope partitioning between melts and fluids in alkali aluminosilicate-C-O-H systems. The experimental data were recorded in-situ while the samples were at equilibrium in a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell at temperatures and pressures to 825 °C and >1300 MPa, respectively. The carbon solution equilibrium in both (C-O-H)-saturated melt and coexisting, silicate-saturated (C-O-H) fluid is 2CO3 + H2O + 2Qn + 1 = 2HCO3 + 2Qn. In the Qn-notation, the superscript, n, is the number of bridging oxygen in silicate structural units. At least one oxygen in CO3 and HCO3 groups likely is shared with silicate tetrahedra. The structural behavior of volatile components described with this equilibrium governs carbon isotope fractionation factors between melt and fluid. For example, the ΔH equals 3.2 ± 0.7 kJ/mol for the bulk 13C/12C exchange equilibrium between fluid and melt. From these experimental data, it is suggested that at deep crustal and upper mantle temperatures and pressures, the δ13C-differences between coexisting silicate-saturated (C-O-H) fluid and (C-O-H)-saturated silicate melts may change by more than 100‰ as a function of temperature in the range of magmatic processes. Absent information on temperature and pressure, the use of carbon isotopes of mantle-derived magma to derive isotopic composition of magma source regions in the Earth's interior, therefore, should be exercised with care.

  20. [A study of phonon vibration like modes for aggregation structure in silicate melts by high temperature Raman spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei-Cang; Li, Ru-Bi; Shang, Tong-Ming; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Jian-Hua; You, Jing-Lin

    2010-05-01

    Silicate melts are special fractal dimension system that is metastable state of near-way order and far-way disorder. In this paper, the size of nanometer aggregation structure and the frequences of phonon vibration like mode in the low dimension silicate series (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and Na2-Al2O3-SiO2 series) synthesized via high temperature melting and sol gel methods were measured by means of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), low wavenumber Raman spectrum (LWRS) and high temperature Raman spectrum (HTRS in situ measuring). The nanometer self-similarity aggregation structure(it's size is about a few nm to a few tens nm) and phonic phonon vibration like modes of low temperature silicate gel, high temperature silicate melts and it's quenching glasses phases were obtained. So a quantitative method by HTRS for measuring the aggregation size in the high temperature melts was established. The results showed that the aggregation size of the silicate melts is smaller at high temperature than at room temperature and the number of bridge oxygen in one Si-O tetrahedron in network structure units is decreasing at high temperature. This study work provides important theory and information for deliberating geochemistry characteristic, crystallization & evolution of natural magma and enhancing performance of low dimension silicate matelials.

  1. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: Glass design, structure, bioactivity, cellular interactions, and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Furqan A., E-mail: furqan.ali.shah@biomaterials.gu.se

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are known to bond to both hard and soft tissues. Upon exposure to an aqueous environment, BG undergoes ion exchange, hydrolysis, selective dissolution and precipitation of an apatite layer on their surface, which elicits an interfacial biological response resulting in bioactive fixation, inhibiting further dissolution of the glass, and preventing complete resorption of the material. Fluorine is considered one of the most effective in-vivo bone anabolic factors. In low concentrations, fluoride ions (F{sup −}) increase bone mass and mineral density, improve the resistance of the apatite structure to acid attack, and have well documented antibacterial properties. F{sup −} ions may be incorporated into the glass in the form of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) either by part-substitution of network modifier oxides, or by maintaining the ratios of the other constituents relatively constant. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses (FBGs) enhance and control osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralisation. And with their ability to release fluoride locally, FBGs make interesting candidates for various clinical applications, dentinal tubule occlusion in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. This paper reviews the chemistry of FBGs and the influence of F{sup −} incorporation on the thermal properties, bioactivity, and cytotoxicity; and novel glass compositions for improved mechanical properties, processing, and bioactive potential. - Highlights: • Fluoride ions form charged CaF{sup +} species rather than Si–F bonds. • Fluoride incorporation lowers glass transition and crystallisation temperatures. • Oxynitride and oxyfluoronitride glasses with superior mechanical properties • Mixed-alkali and alkali-free compositions with better processing characteristics.

  2. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  3. Intermediate- and extended-range order in phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuya, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ako, Hyogo (Japan)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Price, D.L.; Loong, Chun-Keung [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Martin, S.W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The structure of sodium ultraphosphate glasses, (Na{sub 2}O){sub x}(P{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 100-x} (x = 0, 10, 20), and alkali metaphosphate glasses, MePO{sub 3} (Me = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) have been studied by neutron diffraction. Structural features in the neutron structure factors S(Q) characteristic of intermediate-range (Q {approx_lt} 3 {angstrom}{sup -1}) order were identified. The feature of intermediate-range order in the pure phosphate glass (v-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is accounted for by the P{sub 4}O{sub 10} molecule packing model. The addition of the alkali metal modifier, Na, has drastic affect on the intermediate-range structure due to destruction of the PO{sub 4} network structure. Around x {approximately} 50 a new peak arises at lower Q than the intermediate-range order peak, which is found in the S(Q)`s of all alkali metaphosphate glasses, associated with extended-range order. The length scale of extended-range order increases with Me{sup +} size. These phenomena can be explained by the behavior of oxygen atoms. i.e. PO{sub 4} chain-like units ordering around the Me{sup +}.

  4. Naturally occurring glasses: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Haaker, R.F.

    1979-04-01

    Volcanic glasses are very often altered by weathering and leaching and recrystallize to their fine-grained equivalents (rhyolites, felsites). The oldest volcanic glasses are dated at 40 million years before the present, but the majority are much younger. Devitrification textures was produced experimentally; and hydration rates for volcanic glasses were determined as a function of composition, temperature, and climate. Presence of water and temperature are the most important rate controlling variables. Even material that may still be described as glassy often exhibits evidence of alteration and recrystallization. Of the volcanic glasses that are preserved in the geologic record, it would be rare to describe such a glass as pristine. Despite the common alteration and recrystallization effects observed in volcanic glasses, glasses formed as a result of impact, tektites and lunar glasses, may occur in substantially unaltered form. In the case of tektites, their resistance to alteration is a result of their high SiO/sub 2/ content and low alkali content. Lunar glasses have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years because they exist in an environment with a low oxygen fugacity and an extremely low water vapor partial presssure. Thus one might expect glasses of particular compositions or in specific types of environment to be stable for long periods of time. These conclusions are applied to radioactive waste disposal over several time periods (0-30h, 30h-20y, 20-200y).

  5. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  6. Design and Implementation of Alkali Activated Cement For Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseson, Alexander James

    Herein, progress is presented on the design and implementation of technology for sustainable development in general and international development in particular. Necessarily interdisciplinary, the work draws upon the tools and techniques of Mechanical, Materials, and Civil Engineering; and History & Politics. The work was conducted along two paths, the first being the theory and methodology of sustainable development. A flexible design and dissemination framework was developed, Technology Seeding, defined as: development by the transfer and participatory adaptation of appropriate proven conceptual designs. The methodology was developed in part through two case studies which implemented, respectively, wood-turning lathes in Tanzania and upland rice planters in Thailand. The second path is the design and investigation of alkali-activated cements (AACs) for practical use. Those developed herein, for US markets, comprise ground granulated blast furnace slag, soda ash (sodium carbonate), and up to 68 wt.% granular limestone. Mixture Design of Experiment (DOE) was utilized to guide empirical and theoretical analysis of performance (e.g. compressive strength), economic & ecological aspects (e.g. cost, CO2 production, energy consumption), and chemistry (e.g. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffractograms). Models were derived to understand the impact of mix design on performance and for optimization. Successful formulations are hydraulic and cure at room temperature, with strengths as high as 41 MPa at 3 days and 65 MPa at 28 days. Some of these formulations, compared to OPC, are competitive in performance, reduce cost by up to 40%, and reduce both CO2 production and energy consumption by up to 97%. Major chemical products include calcium silicate hydrates / calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (C-(A)-S-H), gaylussite, and calcite (both newly formed and remaining from limestone). Calcite/dolomite and C-(A)-S-H both contribute to strength. A fraction of the limestone is consumed

  7. The role of silicate surfaces on calcite precipitation kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmann, Gabrielle J.; Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Bovet, Nicolas Emile

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to illuminate how calcite precipitation depends on the identity and structure of the growth substrate. Calcite was precipitated at 25°C from supersaturated aqueous solutions in the presence of seeds of either calcite or one of six silicate materials: augite, enstatite......, labradorite, olivine, basaltic glass and peridotite rock. Calcite saturation was achieved by mixing a CaCl2-rich aqueous solution with a NaHCO3-Na2CO3 aqueous buffer in mixed-flow reactors containing 0.5-2g of mineral, rock, or glass seeds. This led to an inlet fluid calcite saturation index of 0.6 and a p......H equal to 9.1. Although the inlet fluid composition, flow rate, and temperature were identical for all experiments, the onset of calcite precipitation depended on the identity of the seeds present in the reactor. Calcite precipitated instantaneously and at a constant rate in the presence of calcite...

  8. Positronium impact ionization of Alkali atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, D

    2015-01-01

    Target ionization processes of alkali atoms by Positronium impact are investigated. Calculations are performed in the frame work of model potential formalism using the Coulomb distorted eikonal approximation. Interesting qualitative features are noted both in the scattered Ps and the ejected electron distributions in differential as well as double differential levels of the collision cross sections.

  9. Etching of glass microchips with supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karásek, Pavel; Grym, Jakub; Roth, Michal; Planeta, Josef; Foret, František

    2015-01-07

    A novel method of etching channels in glass microchips with the most tunable solvent, water, was tested as an alternative to common hydrogen fluoride-containing etchants. The etching properties of water strongly depend on temperature and pressure, especially in the vicinity of the water critical point. The chips were etched at the subcritical, supercritical and critical temperature of water, and the resulting channel shape, width, depth and surface morphology were studied by scanning electron microscopy and 3D laser profilometry. Channels etched with the hot water were compared with the chips etched with standard hydrogen fluoride-containing solution. Depending on the water pressure and temperature, the silicate dissolved from the glass could be re-deposited on the channel surface. This interesting phenomenon is described together with the conditions necessary for its utilization. The results illustrate the versatility of pure water as a glass etching and surface morphing agent.

  10. Structure and Chemistry in Halide Lead-Tellurite Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Windisch, Charles F.; Washton, Nancy M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.

    2013-02-11

    A series of TeO2-PbO glasses were fabricated with increasing fractions of mixed alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide chlorides. The glass and crystal structure was studied with Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. As the chloride fraction increased, the medium-range order in the glass decreased up to a critical point (~14 mass% of mixed chlorides), above which the glasses became phase-separated. Resulting phases are a TeO2/PbO-rich phase and a crystalline phase rich in alkali chlorides. The 125Te NMR indicates, contrary to previous studies, that Te site distribution did not change with increased concentrations of M+, M2+, and M3+ cations, but rather is controlled by the Te/Pb molar ratio. The 207Pb NMR shows that two Pb species exist and their relative concentration changes nearly linearly with addition of the mixed chlorides, indicating that the additives to the TeO2-PbO glass are accommodated by changing the Pb species. The 23Na and 35Cl NMR indicate that Na and Cl are distributed in the single-phase glass phase up to the critical point, and at higher concentrations partition to crystalline phases. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the sample at the critical point contains ~10 nm seed nuclei that increase in size and concentration with exposure to the electron beam.

  11. Raman microspectroscopy investigation of Ag ion-exchanged glass layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A; Giarola, M; Cattaruzza, E; Gonella, F; Mardegan, M; Trave, E; Quaranta, A; Mariotto, G

    2012-11-01

    The ion-exchange process is widely used to dope silicate glass layers with silver, aimed at controlling the Ag state in view of possible applications, ranging from light waveguide fabrication to nanostructured composite glass synthesis. The silver doped glass structure as well as its prescribed properties depend on both the preparation parameters and the subsequent treatments. Several structural aspects are still open with regard either to the modification of the glass incorporating the dopant, or to clustering phenomena silver undergoes as a function of its local concentration and state, which are in turn strongly dependent on the preparation route. Systematic characterizations of these systems are mandatory to address the role of the various synthesis parameters in giving rise to the observed features, thus pointing out the effective methodologies for the fabrication of silicate glass layers with the desired properties. In this work, the results of micro-Raman, optical absorption and photoluminescence characterizations are presented for soda-lime glass slides doped with silver by Ag(+)-Na+ exchange and subsequent thermal treatments in air. In particular, a cross-section profiling analysis by Raman micro-spectroscopy was performed on Ag ion-exchanged samples after treatment at some different temperatures. The experimental findings allow to elucidate the role of the treatment temperature in the clustering process related to the local Ag concentration inside the exchanged glass layer.

  12. Carbonation Characteristics of Alkali-Activated Blast-Furnace Slag Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Il Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated ground granulated blast-slag (AAS is the most obvious alternative material for ordinary Portland cement (OPC. However, to use it as a structural material requires the assessment and verification of its durability. The most important factor for a durability evaluation is the degree of carbonation resistance, and AAS is known to show lower performance than OPC. A series of experiments was conducted with a view to investigate the carbonation characteristics of AAS binder. As a consequence, it was found that the major hydration product of AAS was calcium silicate hydrate (CSH, with almost no portlandite, unlike the products of OPC. After carbonation, the CSH of AAS turned into amorphous silica gel which was most likely why the compressive strength of AAS became weaker after carbonation. An increase of the activator dosage leads AAS to react more quickly and produce more CSH, increasing the compaction, compressive strength, and carbonation resistance of the microstructure.

  13. Structural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of PMR-15/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi (Technical Monitor); Dean, Derrick; Abdalla, Mohamed; Green, Keith; Small, Sharee

    2003-01-01

    In the first year of this research, we successfully synthesized and characterized Polymer/ Layered Silicate nanocomposite using the polyimide PMR-15 as the polymer and several layered silicate nanoparticles. We have scaled up the process to allow fabrication of monoliths using these nanocomposites. The morphology of these systems was found to evolve during processing to an exfoliated structure for one system and intercalated for the rest. Correlation with Transmission Electron Microscopy studies is underway. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed a significant increase in the thermomechanical properties (E' and E'') of 2.5 wt.% clay loaded nanocomposites in comparison to the neat polyimide. Increasing the clay loading to 5 wt.% decreased these properties. Higher glass transition temperatures were observed for 2.5 wt.% nanocomposites compared to the neat polyimide. A lower coefficient of thermal expansion was observed only for the PGV/PMR-15 nanocomposite. An improvement in the flexural properties (modulus, strength and elongation) was observed for the 2.5 wt.% nanocomposite but not for the 5 wt.% nanocomposites. The improved barrier properties polymer/ silicate nanocomposites suggest that moisture uptake should be decreased for PMR-15 nanocomposites. The results of some recent experiments to examine delineate the ability of the silicate nanoparticles in improving the hydrolytic degradation of PMR-15 will be discussed.

  14. On the spectra luminescence properties of charoite silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Guinea, J. [Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, Geology, Calle Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2 Madrid 28006 (Spain)], E-mail: guinea@mncn.csic.es; Townsend, P.D. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, E Sussex (United Kingdom); Can, N. [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Correcher, V.; Sanchez-Munoz, L. [CIEMAT, Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Avenue Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Finch, A.A. [Centre for Advanced Materials, University of St Andrews, Irvine Building, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); Hole, D. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, E Sussex (United Kingdom); Avella, M.; Jimenez, J. [Department of Fisica Materia Condensada, ETSI Industriales, University of Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Khanlary, M. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, E Sussex (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Charoite is a hydrous alkali calcium silicate mineral [K{sub 4}NaCa{sub 7}Ba{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.05}(Si{sub 6}O{sub 15}){sub 2}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})Si{sub 4}O{sub 9}(OH).3(H{sub 2}O)] exhibiting an intense lilac colour related to Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} colour centres. These ions also contribute to a strong luminescence at {approx}585 and 705 nm. This work studies the thermal dependence of these luminescent centres by (i) thermoluminescence (TL) of pre-heated and pre-irradiated charoite aliquots, (ii) by time-resolved cathodoluminescence (TRS-CL) at room and cryogenic temperatures (RT and CT), (iii) by spatially resolved spectra CL under scanning electron microscopy (SRS-CL-SEM) and (iv) by ion beam spectra luminescence (IBL) with H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and {sup 4}He{sup +} ions at RT and LT. The main peak, {approx}585 nm, is linked to a transition {sup 4}T{sub 1,2} (G){yields}{sup 6}A{sub 7}(S) in Mn{sup 2+} ions in distorted six-fold coordination and the emission at {approx}705 nm with Fe{sup 2+}{yields}Fe{sup 3+} oxidation in Si{sup 4+} lattice sites. Less intense UV-blue emissions at 340 and 390 nm show multi-order kinetic TL glow curves involving continuous processes of electron trapping and de-trapping along with an irreversible phase transition of charoite by de-hydroxylation and lattice shortening of {delta}a=0.219 A, {delta}b=0.182 A; {delta}c=0.739 A. The Si-O stressed lattice of charoite has non-bridging oxygen or silicon vacancy-hole centres, and Si-O bonding defects which seem to be responsible for the 340 nm emission. Extrinsic defects such as the alkali (or hydrogen)-compensated [AlO{sub 4}/M{sup +}] centres could be linked with the 390 nm emission. Large variations in 585 and 705 nm intensities are strongly temperature dependent, modifying local Fe-O and Mn-O bond distances, short-range-order luminescence centres being very resistant under the action of the heavy ion beam of {sup 4}He{sup +}. The SRS-CL demonstrates strong spatial

  15. Influence of silicate anions structure on desilication in silicate-bearing sodium aluminate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 张闻; 齐天贵; 彭志宏; 周秋生; 李小斌

    2016-01-01

    The structural changes of silicate anions in the desilication process with the addition of calcium hydrate alumino-carbonate were studied by measuring Raman spectra, infrared spectra and corresponding second derivative spectra. The results show that the desilication ratio in the solution prepared by the addition of sodium silicate (solution-SS) is much greater than that in the solution by the addition of green liquor (solution-GL), and low alumina concentration in the sodium aluminate solutions facilitates the desilication process. It is also shown that alumino-silicate anions in the solution-GL, and Q3 polymeric silicate anions in solution-SS are predominant, respectively. In addition, increasing the concentration of silica favors respectively the formation of the alumino-silicate or the Q3 silicate anions in the solution-GL or the solution-SS. Therefore, it can be inferred that the low desilication ratio in the silicate-bearing aluminate solution is mainly attributed to the existence of alumino-silicate anions.

  16. Bleaching versus poling: Comparison of electric field induced phenomena in glasses and glass-metal nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovskii, A. A.; Melehin, V. G.; Petrov, M. I.; Svirko, Yu. P.; Zhurikhina, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    By examining the electric field induced processes in glasses and glass-metal nanocomposites (GMN) we propose mechanism of the electric field assisted dissolution (EFAD) of metal nanoparticles in glass. We show that in both glass poling and EFAD processes, the strong (up to 1 V/nm) local electric field in the subanodic region is due to the presence of "slow" hydrogen ions bonded to nonbridging oxygen atoms in glass matrix. However, the origin of these hydrogen ions in glass and GMN is different. Specifically, when we apply the electric field to a virgin glass, the enrichment of the glass with hydrogen species takes place in the course of the poling. In GMN, the hydrogen ions have been incorporated into the glass matrix during metal nanoparticles formation via reduction in a metal by hydrogen, i.e., before the electric field was applied. The EFAD of metal nanoparticles resembles the electric field stimulated diffusion of metal film in glass (the important difference however is that in GMN, there is no direct contact of dissolving metal entity with anodic electrode). This similarity makes it possible to estimate the energy of thermal activated transition of silver atoms from a nanoparticle to glass matrix as ˜1.3 eV. Electroneutrality of the GMN requires emission of electrons from nanoparticles. Photoconductivity spectra of soda-lime glasses and the results of numerical calculations of band structure of fused silica, sodium disilicate and sodium-calcium-silicate glass enable us to evaluate the bandgap and the position of electron mobility edge in soda-lime glass. The evaluated values are ˜6 eV and ˜1.2 eV below vacuum level, respectively. The bent of the glass band structure in strong electric field permits a direct tunneling of Fermi electrons from silver nanoparticle (4.6 eV below the vacuum level) to the glass conductivity band. Evaluated in accordance with the Fowler-Nordheim equation the magnitude of electric field necessary to establish comparable electron

  17. Modifying glass surfaces via internal diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, M.M.; Yue, Y.Z.; Deubener, J.

    2010-01-01

    - ions in the network and their strong attraction to the modifying ions, whereas the latter is due to the requirement of the charge neutrality. The role of N3- in driving OD is verified by the composition profile of the surface layer of the glass treated in pure N-2 gas. The OD exerts pronounced impacts......The surface chemistry and structure of iron-bearing silicate glasses have been modified by means of heat-treatment around the glass transition temperature under different gaseous media at ambient pressure. When the glasses are heat-treated in atmospheric air, oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ occurs, which...... leads to outward diffusion (OD) of divalent cations (primarily Mg2+), i.e., diffusion from the interior of the glass to the surface, and thereby, to formation of an oxide surface nano-layer. in contrast, when the glasses are heat-treated in H-2/N-2 gas containing 10 vol.% H-2, reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2...

  18. Process for Converting Waste Glass Fiber into Value Added Products, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, Raymond T.

    2005-12-31

    Nature of the Event: Technology demonstration. The project successfully met all of its technical objectives. Albacem has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Vitro Minerals Inc., a specialty minerals company, to commercialize the Albacem technology (website: www.vitrominerals.com). Location: The basic research for the project was conducted in Peoria, Illinois, and Atlanta, Georgia, with third-party laboratory verification carried out in Ontario, Canada. Pilot-scale trials (multi-ton) were conducted at a facility in South Carolina. Full-scale manufacturing facilities have been designed and are scheduled for construction by Vitro Minerals during 2006 at a location in the Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina tri-state area. The Technology: This technology consists of a process to eliminate solid wastes generated at glass fiber manufacturing facilities by converting them to value-added materials (VCAS Pozzolans) suitable for use in cement and concrete applications. This technology will help divert up to 250,000 tpy of discarded glass fiber manufacturing wastes into beneficial use applications in the concrete construction industry. This technology can also be used for processing glass fiber waste materials reclaimed from monofills at manufacturing facilities. The addition of take-back materials and reclamation from landfills can help supply over 500,000 tpy of glass fiber waste for processing into value added products. In the Albacem process, waste glass fiber is ground to a fine powder that effectively functions as a reactive pozzolanic admixture for use in portland ce¬ment-based building materials and products, such as concrete, mortars, terrazzo, tile, and grouts. Because the waste fiber from the glass manufacturing industry is vitreous, clean, and low in iron and alkalis, the resulting pozzolan is white in color and highly consistent in chemical composition. This white pozzolan, termed VCAS Pozzolan (for Vitreous Calcium-Alumino-Silicate). is

  19. Speciation of phytate ion in aqueous solution. Alkali metal complex formation in different ionic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Concetta; Milea, Demetrio; Pettignano, Alberto; Sammartano, Silvio

    2003-08-01

    The acid-base properties of phytic acid [ myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis(dihydrogen phosphate)] (H(12)Phy; Phy(12-)=phytate anion) were studied in aqueous solution by potentiometric measurements ([H+]-glass electrode) in lithium and potassium chloride aqueous media at different ionic strengths (0iodide (Et(4)NI; e.g., at I=0.5 mol L(-1), log K(3)(H)=11.7, 8.0, 9.1, and 9.1 in Et(4)NI, LiCl, NaCl and KCl, respectively; the protonation constants in Et(4)NI and NaCl were already reported), owing to the strong interactions occurring between the phytate and alkaline cations present in the background salt. We explained this in terms of complex formation between phytate and alkali metal ions. Experimental evidence allows us to consider the formation of 13 mixed proton-metal-ligand complexes, M(j)H(i)Phy((12-i-j)-), (M+ =Li+, Na+, K+), with jstability of alkali metal complexes follows the trend Li+ > or =Na+K+. Some measurements were also performed at constant ionic strength (I=0.5 mol L(-1)), using different mixtures of Et(4)NI and alkali metal chlorides, in order to confirm the formation of hypothesized and calculated metal-proton-ligand complex species and to obtain conditional protonation constants in these multi-component ionic media.

  20. Subtask 6.6 - SiAION Coatings for Alkali-Resistant Silicon Nitride. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-25

    The efficiency of a gas turbine can be improved by increasing operating temperature. Construction materials should both meet high strength requirements and exhibit hot alkali corrosion resistance. Structural ceramics based on silicon nitride are promising candidates for high temperature engineering applications because of their high strength and good resistance to corrosion. Their performance varies significantly with the mechanical properties of boundary phases which, in turn, depend on their chemical composition, thickness of the amorphous phase, and the deformation process. To make silicon nitride ceramics tough, SiAlON ceramics were developed with controlled crystallization of the amorphous grain boundary phase. Crystallization of the grain boundary glass improves the high temperature mechanical properties of silicon nitride ceramics. Thus, the knowledge of silicon oxynitride ceramics corrosion behavior in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} becomes important for engineers in designing appropriate part for turbines working at high temperatures. So far there has been no report concerning alkali attack on SiAlON ceramics in the presence of SO{sub 2} and chlorine in flue gas. The goal of this project was to investigate alkali corrosion of SiAlON-Y structural ceramics under combustion conditions in the presence of sodium derived components.

  1. Electrical conductivity and viscosity of borosilicate glasses and melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrt, Doris; Keding, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    , 0 to 62·5 mol% B2O3, and 25 to 85 mol% SiO2. The glass samples were characterised by different methods. Refractive indices, density and thermal expansion were measured. Phase separation effects were investigated by electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of glasses and melts were determined...... by impedance measurements in a wide temperature range (250 to 1450°C). The activation energies were calculated by Arrhenius plots in various temperature regions: below the glass transition temperature, Tg, above the melting point, Tl, and between Tg and Tl. Viscosity measurements were carried out...... with different methods from Tg to the melt. The measured data were fitted and the activation energies calculated. Simple exponential behaviour was found only in very narrow temperature ranges. The effect of B2O3 in sodium borosilicate glasses and melts is discussed in comparison with sodium silicate glasses...

  2. Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K M; Miura, K; Sugimoto, N; Hirao, K

    1996-11-01

    With the goal of being able to create optical devices for the telecommunications industry, we investigated the effects of 810-nm, femtosecond laser radiation on various glasses. By focusing the laser beam through a microscope objective, we successfully wrote transparent, but visible, round-elliptical damage lines inside highsilica, borate, soda lime silicate, and f luorozirconate (ZBLAN) bulk glasses. Microellipsometer measurements of the damaged region in the pure and Ge-doped silica glasses showed a 0.01-0.035 refractive-index increase, depending on the radiation dose. The formation of several defects, including Si E' or Ge E' centers, nonbridging oxygen hole centers, and peroxy radicals, was also detected. These results suggest that multiphoton interactions occur in the glasses and that it may be possible to write three-dimensional optical circuits in bulk glasses with such a focused laser beam technique.

  3. Investigations of Optical Coherence Properties in an Erbium-doped Silicate Fiber for Quantum State Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Staudt, M U; Afzelius, M; Jaccard, D; Tittel, W; Gisin, Nicolas; Staudt, Matthias U.; Hastings-Simon, Sara R.; Afzelius, Mikael; Jaccard, Didier; Tittel, Wolfgang; Gisin, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    We studied optical coherence properties of the 1.53 $\\mu$m telecommunication transition in an Er$^{3+}$-doped silicate optical fiber through spectral holeburning and photon echoes. We find decoherence times of up to 3.8 $\\mu$s at a magnetic field of 2.2 Tesla and a temperature of 150 mK. A strong magnetic-field dependent optical dephasing was observed and is believed to arise from an interaction between the electronic Er$^{3+}$ spin and the magnetic moment of tunneling modes in the glass. Furthermore, we observed fine-structure in the Erbium holeburning spectrum originating from superhyperfine interaction with $^{27}$Al host nuclei. Our results show that Er$^{3+}$-doped silicate fibers are promising material candidates for quantum state storage.

  4. Core formation in silicate bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, F.; O'Brien, D. P.; Kleine, T.

    2008-12-01

    Differentiation of a body into a metallic core and silicate mantle occurs most efficiently if temperatures are high enough to allow at least the metal to melt [1], and is enhanced if matrix deformation occurs [2]. Elevated temperatures may occur due to either decay of short-lived radio-isotopes, or gravitational energy release during accretion [3]. For bodies smaller than the Moon, core formation happens primarily due to radioactive decay. The Hf-W isotopic system may be used to date core formation; cores in some iron meteorites and the eucrite parent body (probably Vesta) formed within 1 My and 1-4~My of solar system formation, respectively [4]. These formation times are early enough to ensure widespread melting and differentiation by 26Al decay. Incorporation of Fe60 into the core, together with rapid early mantle solidification and cooling, may have driven early dynamo activity on some bodies [5]. Iron meteorites are typically depleted in sulphur relative to chondrites, for unknown reasons [6]. This depletion contrasts with the apparently higher sulphur contents of cores in larger planetary bodies, such as Mars [7], and also has a significant effect on the timing of core solidification. For bodies of Moon-size and larger, gravitational energy released during accretion is probably the primary cause of core formation [3]. The final stages of accretion involve large, stochastic collisions [8] between objects which are already differentiated. During each collision, the metallic cores of the colliding objects merge on timescales of a few hours [9]. Each collision will reset the Hf-W isotopic signature of both mantle and core, depending on the degree to which the impactor core re-equilibrates with the mantle of the target [10]. The re-equilibration efficiency depends mainly on the degree to which the impactor emulsifies [11], which is very uncertain. Results from N-body simulations [8,12] suggest that significant degrees of re- equilibration are required [4,10]. Re

  5. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  6. Infrared spectra of FHF - in alkali halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunnilall, C. J.; Sherman, W. F.

    1982-03-01

    The bifluoride ion, FHF -, has been substitutionally isolated within single crystal samples of several different alkali halides. Infrared spectra of these crystals have been studied for sample temperatures down to 8K when half-bandwidths of less than 1 cm -1 have been observed. (Note that at room temperature ν 3 is observed to have a half-bandwidth of about 40 cm -1). The frequency shifts and half-bandwidth changes caused by cooling are considered together with the frequency shifts caused by pressures up to 10 k bar. The low temperature spectra clearly indicate that FHF - is a linear symmetrical ion when substitutionally isolated within alkali halides of either the NaCl or CsCl structure.

  7. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.

    2010-05-11

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  8. Electrical, dielectric and structural properties of borovanadate glass systems doped with samarium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graca, M.P.F.; Nico, C.; Soares, R.; Costa, L.C.; Valente, M.A. [Physics Department, I3N, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, Aveiro (Portugal); Fawzy, H.; Badr, Y. [Laser Science and Interactions Department, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, NILES, Cairo University (Egypt); Elokr, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-11-15

    Glasses doped with rare earth (RE) ions are widely studied due to the numerous applications of these systems (active media for solid state lasers, optical telecommunication, non-linear optical materials, electro-optic devices, etc.). Boron trioxide, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is a known glass forming oxide with a relative low melting temperature. The addition of a transition metal oxide, such as V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, promotes the exhibition of semiconducting properties making these promising systems for several technological applications, such that ones involved in solar energy conversion devices. It is known that alkali borovanadate glasses, like alkali borate glasses themselves, are ionically conducting materials. Despite their importance there are only few studies on these glasses reported on literature. Thus, the alkali-borovanadate glass system constitutes a family with high interest from the electrical and dielectric point of view. The effect of the increment of alkali quantity in the electrical and dielectric response of these glasses and the physical/structural explanation are questions which will be addressed. In this work, the transparent glass samples with molar composition 0.01Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.99[0.85B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-(0.15-x)Li{sub 2}O-xV{sub 2}O{sub 5}] with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.35, 0.5 and 2 (mol%) were prepared by conventional melting technique. The prepared samples were fully characterized using different experimental techniques such as, differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrical and dielectric measurements. The samples structure, electrical and dielectric properties as a function of vanadium ions content was explored and discussed (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Mineralogy and trace element chemistry of the Siliceous Earth of Barmer basin, Rajasthan: Evidence for a volcanic origin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Sisodia; U K Singh; G Lashkari; P N Shukla; A D Shukla; N Bhandari

    2005-04-01

    We report the presence of a 3-5 cm thick loose fragmental layer in the Siliceous Earth at Matti ka Gol in the Barmer basin of Rajasthan. Petrographic, chemical and mineralogical study reveals the presence of abundant volcanic debris such as glass shards, agglutinates, hollow spheroids, kinked biotites, feldspars showing oscillatory zoning, olivines, ilmenite and native iron. The presence of similar particles in the whole section suggests that the Siliceous Earth is a volcanic ash. Stratigraphic correlation, palynological and microvertebrate data suggest that the Siliceous Earth may have deposited over a short span of time during the Upper Cretaceous to Lower Palaeocene. In view of the possibility that this section may contain K/T impact debris, we looked for grains having impact signatures. Some patches of the Siliceous Earth of Bariyara show the presence of Ni-rich (< 0.5%) vesicular glasses, sanidine spherules, magnesioferrite crystals, soot, etc., but because of their low abundance, it is not possible to establish if they are volcanic, micrometeorite ablation products or a part of the K/T impact ejecta.

  10. ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT MORTARS CONTAINING RECYCLED CLAY-BASED CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Puertas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of clay-based waste as an aggregate for concrete production is an amply studied procedure. Nonetheless, research on the use of this recycled aggregate to prepare alkaline cement mortars and concretes has yet to be forthcoming. The present study aimed to determine: the behaviour of this waste as a pozzolan in OPC systems, the mechanical strength in OPC, alkali-activated slag (AAS and fly ash (AAFA mortars and the effect of partial replacement of the slag and ash themselves with ground fractions of the waste. The pozzolanic behaviour of clay-based waste was confirmed. Replacing up to 20 % of siliceous aggregate with waste aggregate in OPC mortars induced a decline in 7 day strength (around 23 wt. %. The behaviour of waste aggregate in AAMs mortars, in turn, was observed to depend on the nature of the aluminosilicate and the replacement ratio used. When 20 % of siliceous aggregate was replaced by waste aggregate in AAS mortars, the 7 day strength values remained the same (40 MPa. In AAFA mortars, waste was found to effectively replace both the fly ash and the aggregate. The highest strength for AAFA mortars was observed when they were prepared with both a 50 % replacement ratio for the ash and a 20 % ratio for the aggregate.

  11. Pyrolysis characteristic of kenaf studied with separated tissues, alkali pulp, and alkali li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kojima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the potential of kenaf as a new biomass source, analytical pyrolysis was performed using various kenaf tissues, i.e., alkali lignin and alkali pulp. The distribution of the pyrolysis products from the whole kenaf was similar to that obtained from hardwood, with syringol, 4-vinylsyringol, guaiacol, and 4-vinylguaiacol as the major products. The phenols content in the pyrolysate from the kenaf core was higher than that from the kenaf cuticle, reflecting the higher lignin content of the kenaf core. The ratios of the syringyl and guaiacyl compounds in the pyrolysates from the core and cuticle samples were 2.79 and 6.83, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major pyrolysis product obtained from the kenaf alkali pulp, although glycol aldehyde and acetol were also produced in high yields, as previously observed for other cellulosic materials. Moreover, the pathways for the formation of the major pyrolysis products from alkali lignin and alkali pulp were also described, and new pyrolysis pathways for carbohydrates have been proposed herein. The end groups of carbohydrates bearing hemiacetal groups were subjected to ring opening and then they underwent further reactions, including further thermal degradation or ring reclosing. Variation of the ring-closing position resulted in the production of different compounds, such as furans, furanones, and cyclopentenones.

  12. Sulfate Resistance of Alkali Activated Pozzolans

    OpenAIRE

    Bondar, Dali

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of sulfate attack on geopolymer concrete, made from an alkali activated natural pozzolan (AANP) has been studied in this paper. Changes in the compressive strength, expansion and capillary water absorption of specimens have been investigated combined with phases determination by means of X-ray diffraction. At the end of present investigation which was to evaluate the performance of natural alumina silica based geopolymer concrete in sodium and magnesium sulfate solution, the l...

  13. Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Alkali-Silica Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chengzhi; WANG Aiqin

    2008-01-01

    The influence of silica fume,slag and fly ash on alkali-silica reaction under the condition of 70℃ is studied.The results show that silica,slag and fly ash may inhibit alkali-silica reaction only under suitable content.When the content is less than 10%,silica fume does not markedly influence the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 15%-20%,silica fume only may delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 30%-70%,slag may only delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction,but cannot inhibit the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 10%,fly ash does not markedly influence the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is 20%-30%,fly ash may only delay the expansion of alkali-silica reaction,but cannot inhibit the expansion of alkali-silica reaction.When the content is over 50%,it is possible that fly ash can inhibit effectively alkali-silica reaction.

  14. Layered amphibolite sequence in NE Sardinia, Italy: remnant of a pre-Variscan mafic silicic layered intrusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, Marcello; Puxeddu, Mariano; Cruciani, Gabriele; Dini, Andrea; Loi, Marilisa

    2005-04-01

    analogies with Siberian, Deccan and proto-Atlantic rift tholeiites. Comparisons with Thingmuli, Skaergaard and Kiglapait rocks and with experimental data suggest that the Monte Plebi intrusion was an open-to-oxygen system with fO2 ≥ FMQ. Mafic and ultramafic samples yielded ɛNd(460)=+0.79 /+3.06 and 87Sr/86Sr=0.702934-0.703426, and four silicic samples ɛNd(460)=-0.53/-1.13; 87Sr/86Sr=0.703239-0.703653. Significant differences in Nd isotope ratios between mafic and silicic rocks prove that both groups evolved separately in deeper magma chambers, from different mantle sources, with negligible interaction with crustal material, and were later repeatedly injected within a shallower magma chamber. The spectrum of Sr and Nd isotope data is consistent with a slightly enriched mantle metasomatized during an event earlier than 460 Ma. The metasomatising component was represented by alkali-Th-rich fluids of crustal origin rather than by sedimentary materials, able to modify alkali and Sr-Nd isotope systematics. Monte Plebi layered amphibolites might represent the first example of a strongly metamorphosed fragment of an early Paleozoic mafic silicic layered intrusion emplaced in a thinning continental crust and then tectonically dismembered by Variscan orogeny.

  15. Ion Pairing in Alkali Nitrate Electrolyte Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Yi Qin

    2016-03-10

    In this study, we investigate the thermodynamics of alkali nitrate salt solutions, especially the formation of contact ion pairs between alkali cation and nitrate anion. The ion-pairing propensity shows an order of LiNO3 activity coefficients and suggest that the empirical "law of matching water affinity" is followed by these alkali nitrate salt solutions. The spatial patterns of contact ion pairs are different in the three salt solutions studied here: Li(+) forms the contact ion pair with only one oxygen of the nitrate while Na(+) and K(+) can also be shared by two oxygens of the nitrate. In reproducing the salt activity coefficient using Kirkwood-Buff theory, we find that it is essential to include electronic polarization for Li(+) which has a high charge density. The electronic continuum correction for nonpolarizable force field significantly improves the agreement between the calculated activity coefficients and their experimental values. This approach also improves the performance of the force field on salt solubility. From these two aspects, this study suggests that electronic continuum correction can be a promising approach to force-field development for ions with high charge densities.

  16. Melting and solidification of Bi nanoparticles in a germanate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Jiménez de Castro, M.; Fernández Navarro, J. M.; Morhange, J. F.; Ricolleau, C.

    2007-08-01

    A very large melting-solidification hysteresis of Bi nanoparticles embedded in a bulk alkali germanate glass is reported. Heating and cooling cycles are reproducible and show reversible transitions. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the glass contains nanocrystals of elementary Bi which are a few tenths of a nanometre in size. Upon heating above the Bi melting temperature the glass transmission increases up to 10% with respect to the initial value, which is most likely related to Bi melting. Upon cooling this high transmission state remains up to temperatures as low as 436 K. This behaviour is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy measurements. This nanostructured glass with a high refractive index can be used in nonlinear optical applications as well as an optical thermo-sensor.

  17. Melting and solidification of Bi nanoparticles in a germanate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haro-Poniatowski, E [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Avenida San Rafael Atlixco No. 186 Colonia Vicentina, CP 09340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Castro, M Jimenez de [Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, J M Fernandez [Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Morhange, J F [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UMR-CNRS 7588, Universite Paris VI et Paris VII, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris (France); Ricolleau, C [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques and Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, UMR 7162, CNRS/Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris Cedex (France)

    2007-08-08

    A very large melting-solidification hysteresis of Bi nanoparticles embedded in a bulk alkali germanate glass is reported. Heating and cooling cycles are reproducible and show reversible transitions. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the glass contains nanocrystals of elementary Bi which are a few tenths of a nanometre in size. Upon heating above the Bi melting temperature the glass transmission increases up to 10% with respect to the initial value, which is most likely related to Bi melting. Upon cooling this high transmission state remains up to temperatures as low as 436 K. This behaviour is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy measurements. This nanostructured glass with a high refractive index can be used in nonlinear optical applications as well as an optical thermo-sensor.

  18. Comparison in interfacial phenomena in electric-field assisted anodic bonding of Kovar-glass and Kovar/Al film-glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Anodic bonding of Kovar-glass and Kovar/Al film-glass were performed at temperatures of 513(¨)K to 663(¨)K under the static electric voltage of 500(¨)V, in order to compare the interfacial phenomena in electric-field assisted anodic bonding of Kovar-glass and Al-glass . SEM and EPMA were used to observe and analyzed the interfacial region. The growth rate of the alkali ions depletion layers in Kovar/Al-glass joint was slower than that in Kovar-glass joint. But the activation energies for the growth of depletion layers are about the same for both kinds of joint.

  19. Residual stresses and phase transformations in Ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Fabian

    Due to their high melting temperature, low density, and good thermomechanical stability, silicon-based ceramics (SiC, Si3N4) are some of the most promising materials systems for high temperature structural applications in gas turbine engines. However, their silica surface layer reacts with water vapor contained in combustion environments. The resulting hydroxide layer volatilizes, leading to component recession. Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) have been developed to shield the substrate from degradation. Next generation coatings for silicon-based ceramics based on ytterbium silicates have shown a promising combination of very low and good thermomechanical properties. The focus of this thesis is threefold: In the first part, phase transformations in plasma sprayed ytterbium silicates were investigated. Plasma sprayed materials are known to contain large amounts of amorphous material. Phase changes during the conversion from amorphous to crystalline materials were investigated as they have been known to lead to failure in many coatings. The second part of this work focused on measuring residual stresses in multilayer EBCs using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). Strains were resolved spatially, with probe sizes as small as 20 um. Stresses were calculated using mechanical properties of ytterbium silicates, determined with in-situ loading and heating experiments. In-situ and ex-situ heating experiments allowed for the study of changes in stress states that occur in these EBC materials during heating and cooling cycles. Lastly, the interaction of ytterbium silicates with low-melting environmental calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) glasses was studied. Synchrotron XRD was used to study the influence of CMAS on the stress state in the coating, X-ray computed tomography was used to provide 3D images of coatings, and EDS and TEM analysis were used to study the interactions at the CMAS/ytterbium silicate interface in detail.

  20. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking... agent in food in an amount not in excess of that reasonably required to produce its intended effect. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food...

  1. Stability of calcium silicate in basic solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 李小斌; 彭志宏; 周秋生

    2003-01-01

    Mixture of CaO and SiO2 was sintered at 1 200 or 1 400 ℃ according to the mole ratio of CaO/SiO2 of 1 or 2, and then calcium silicate was leached in pure caustic or soda solution. The results indicated that calcium silicate exists much more stably in caustic solution than that in soda solution, and CaO*SiO2 is more stable than β-2CaO*SiO2 whether in caustic solution or in soda solution. The increase of sintering temperature favored the stability of calcium silicate in the leaching process. When β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in soda solution, the increase of leaching temperature and time resulted in decomposing of more calcium silicate. And when β-2CaO*SiO2 was leached in caustic solution at high temperature, much 2CaO*SiO2*H2O but little CaO*SiO2*H2O appeared in slag.

  2. Thermalization of different alkali and alkali-earth elements at the TRI{mu}P facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidling, P.D., E-mail: P.Shidling@rug.n [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Giri, G.S.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.L.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Santra, B.; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O.O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-10-01

    Radioactive isotopes produced by the in-flight method are converted into low-energy ions with a thermal ionizer (TI) ion catcher, the operation of which is based on a hot cavity ion source. The extraction efficiency of the TI for different alkali and alkali-earth elements has been studied and compared to a model based on diffusion only. The model describes the stationary limit, i.e. the extraction efficiency, as well as the dynamic response of the TI output when the primary beam is switched on and off.

  3. COMPARISON OF SOL-GEL SILICATE COATINGS ON Ti SUBSTRATE

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the submitted work was to prepare and to characterize two types of silicate coatings prepared by the sol-gel method using the dip-coating technique on a titanium substrate. Efforts have been made to use mechanical properties of bio-inert titanium and bioactive properties of a silicate layer enriched with an admixture of compounds identified below. The first group consisted of silicate coatings containing silver, brushite and monetite. The other group of silicate coatings cont...

  4. The fatty acids and alkanes of Satureja adamovicii Silic and Satureja fukarekii Silic (NOTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSANKA KITIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The content and composition of fatty acids and alkanes of Satureja adamovicii Silic and Satureja fukarekii Silic were analized by GC. It was found that unsaturated acids prevailed and that the major components were palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. The hydrocarbon fractions of pentane extracts were shown to consist of the alkane homologues (C17 to C34 with nonacosane and hentriacontane being prevailing compounds.

  5. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. Alkali cation specific adsorption onto fcc(111) transition metal electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J N; McCrum, I T; Janik, M J

    2014-07-21

    The presence of alkali cations in electrolyte solutions is known to impact the rate of electrocatalytic reactions, though the mechanism of such impact is not conclusively determined. We use density functional theory (DFT) to examine the specific adsorption of alkali cations to fcc(111) electrode surfaces, as specific adsorption may block catalyst sites or otherwise impact surface catalytic chemistry. Solvation of the cation-metal surface structure was investigated using explicit water models. Computed equilibrium potentials for alkali cation adsorption suggest that alkali and alkaline earth cations will specifically adsorb onto Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces in the potential range of hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution catalysis in alkaline solutions.

  7. Performance at high temperature of alkali-activated slag pastes produced with silica fume and rice husk ash based activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the mechanical properties, and structural changes induced by high temperature exposure, of alkali-silicate activated slag cements produced with sodium silicates derived from silica fume (SF and rice husk ash (RHA. Similar reaction products were identified, independent of the type of silicate used, but with subtle differences in the composition of the C-S-H gels, leading to different strength losses after elevated temperature exposure. Cements produced with the alternative activators developed higher compressive strengths than those produced with commercial silicate. All samples retained strengths of more than 50 MPa after exposure to 600 °C, however, after exposure to 800 °C only the specimens produced with the RHA-based activator retained measurable strength. This study elucidated that silicate-activated slag binders, either activated with commercial silicate solutions or with sodium silicates based on SF or RHA, are stable up to 600 °C.Este estudio evaluó las propiedades mecánicas, y cambios estructurales inducidos por exposición a temperaturas elevadas, de cementos de escoria activada alcalinamente producidos con silicatos sódicos derivados de humo de sílice (SF y ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (RHA. Se identificaron productos de reacción similares, independiente del tipo de silicato utilizado, pero con diferencias menores en la composición de las geles C-S-H, lo cual indujo diferentes pérdidas de resistencia posterior a exposición a temperaturas elevadas. Los cementantes producidos con los activadores alternativos desarrollaron resistencias a la compresión más altas que aquellos producidos con silicato comercial. Todas las muestras retuvieron resistencias de más de 50 MPa posterior a la exposición a 600 °C, sin embargo, posterior a la exposición a 800 °C únicamente muestras producidas con activadores de RHA retuvieron resistencias medibles. Este estudio elucidó que cementantes de escoria activada con

  8. Glass-forming Ability and Chemical Stability of Mag-neto-optical Glass Heavily Doped with Rare Earth Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hairong; ZHANG Chunxiang; LIU Liying; CHEN Guoping; TANG Baojun

    2009-01-01

    The glass-forming region of B_2O_3-Al_2O_3-SiO_2(BAS)glass heavily doped with rare earth oxides was investigated by an effective method,and the chemical stability was investigated by powder method.Influences of rare earth oxides on the glass-forming ability and the chemical stability of the BAS glass were also discussed.The experimental results show that the BAS glass-forming re-gion expands firstly with the increase of the Tb_2O_3 content up to 30mol%and then shrinks.The acid-resistant capacity of the BAS glass doped with rare earth oxides is the lowest,the water-resistant capacity is secondary,and the alkali-resistant capacity is the best.Besides,the glass chemical stability can be improved by doping appropriate amount of rare earth oxides.Moreover,the stronger the ionic polarization ability of the rare earth ions is,the better the chemical stability of the BAS glass will be.

  9. Glass Fibers: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Mäder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1930s, the process of melting glass and subsequently forming fibers, in particular discontinuous fiber glass or continuous glass filaments, evolved into commercial-scale manufacturing.[...

  10. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  11. 碱激发矿渣混凝土干缩特性研究%Study on Drying Shrinkage Characteristics of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢光位; 余政兵; 傅博

    2013-01-01

    The drying shrinkage characteristics of alkali activated slag concrete (AASC) is studied under different water cement ratios, activators and al-kali equivalents and compared with that of ordinary portland cement concrete. The results show that AASC has better drying shrinkage performance than ordinary portland cement concrete and its drying shrinkage ratio reduces with water cement ratio increases, the drying shrinkage ratio of AASC activated by sodium silicate is the largest, the drying shrinkage steadily increases with the increase of alkali equivalent and the ratio increases with the increase of sodium silicate module if sodium silicate is used as the activator.%  该文研究了水胶比、激发剂种类、碱当量不同情况下的碱激发矿渣混凝土的干缩性能,并与普通硅酸盐水泥混凝土的干缩性能进行对比。结果表明:碱激发矿渣混凝土比普通硅酸盐水泥混凝土干缩大,其干缩率随水灰比的增大而减小;水玻璃激发的碱激发矿渣混凝土干缩率最大;随碱当量增大,碱激发矿渣混凝土的干缩逐渐增大;采用水玻璃作为激发剂,碱激发矿渣混凝土的干缩率随水玻璃模数的增大而增大。

  12. The Influence of Calcined Clay Pozzolan, Low-Cao Steel Slag and Granite Dust On the Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sarfo-Ansah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low CaO steel slag, calcined clay and granite dust on the alkali-silica reaction was investigated over a period of 35 days under accelerated curing conditions. The mineral admixtures were used to replace varying portions of high alkali Portland limestone cement up to an admixture content of 25% in order to study their effect on the alkali-silica reaction (ASR. Portland limestone cement used for the study had a total Na2Oeq of 4.32. XRD analysis of hydrated mortar bar samples confirmed the formation of an expansive sodium silica gel in the reference Portland cement mortar bar as the agent responsible for ASR. Stable calcium silicates were formed in the mortar bars containing calcined clay in increasing quantities whilst the presence of the sodium silicate gel decreased.The occurrence of these stable silicates in hydrated samples containing steel slag and granite dust was however minimal, compared to calcined clay cement mortars. The highest expansion was recorded for granite dust mortar bars, reaching a maximum of 25.98% at 35 days. Mortar-bar expansion decreased as calcined clay content in the cement increased;mortar bars with 25% calcined clay were the least expansive recording expansion less than 0.1% at all test ages. Whilst the expansion was reduced by between 42.5% and 107.8% at 14 days with increasing calcined clay content, expansion rather increased between 36.8% and 169.5% at 14 days with increasing granite dust content.Steel slag mortar bars experienced reduction in 14 days expansion between 14.3% - 46.2%.The study confirms that steel slag and calcined clay pozzolan have greater influence on ASR in mortar bars than granite dust and shows that calcined clay and low CaO steel slag could be considered as remedial admixtures for ASR at replacement levels of 25% and 15% respectively.

  13. Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Neeway, James J.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that control the durability of nuclear waste glass is paramount if reliable models are to be constructed so that the glass dissolution rate in a given geological repository can be calculated. Presently, it is agreed that (boro)silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4) with higher [H4SiO4] leading to lower dissolution rates. Once the reaction has slowed as a result of the buildup of H4SiO4, another increase in the rate has been observed that corresponds to the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alteration products. However, it has also been observed that the concentration of silica-bearing solution species does not significantly decrease, indicating saturation, while other glass tracer elements concentrations continue to increase, indicating that the glass is still dissolving. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a representative zeolitic silica-bearing alteration product, analcime [Na(AlSi2O6)∙H2O]. To simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH)3), and amorphous silica. The pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix for amorphous silica was substituted for the glass pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix because it has been shown that silicate glasses act as a silica-only solid with respect to kinetic considerations. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution rate constant at a constant analcime precipitation rate constant. From the simulations we conclude, firstly, that the rate of glass dissolution is dependent on the kinetics of

  14. (abstract) Fundamental Mechanisms of Electrode Kinetics and Alkali Metal Atom Transport at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of electrode kinetics and mass transport of alkali metal oxidation and alkali metal cation reduction at the solid electrolyte/porous electrode boundary as well as alkali metal transport through porous metal electrodes has important applications in optimizing device performance in alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) cells which are high temperature, high current density electrochemical cells. Basic studies of these processes also affords the opportunity to investigate a very basic electrochemical reaction over a wide range of conditions; and a variety of mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. The temperature range of these investigations covers 700K to 1240K; the alkali metal vapor pressures range from about 10(sup -2) to 10(sup 2) Pa; and electrodes studied have included Mo, W, Mo/Na(sub 2)MoO(sub 4), W/Na(sub 2)WO(sub 4), WPt(sub x), and WRh(sub x) (1.0 alkali metal vapor and alkali metal vapor/solid electrolyte/vapor cells have been used to characterize the reaction and transport processes. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes.

  15. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  16. The spectroscopic studies of gel-derived glasses and glass-ceramics in the Na 2O (Li 2O)-B 2O 3-P 2O 5-SiO 2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, A.; Handke, M.

    2001-09-01

    The gel-derived borophosphosilicate materials containing Na + and Li + cations by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods were studied. The results obtained enabled one to define the structure of samples containing up to 10% mol. BPO 4. The alkali ions, Na + and Li + can be treated as borate and phosphate network depolymerisators. There is also no evidence of boron coordination changes, from trigonal to tetrahedral caused by Na 2O and Li 2O oxide addition to pure borophosphosilicate materials. Concurrently, the silicate network is left unchanged. The bands due to the B-O bond vibrations are not observed in the IR spectra of the crystalline materials, obtained by heating samples of composition analogous to amorphous ones. Such bands are present in the spectra of crystalline alkali-free samples of the same BPO 4 content. The amorphous and crystalline alkali-containing samples by the EDX microprobe were also studied. The results obtained showed that the heating of alkali borophosphosilicate samples caused the volatilisation of boron, phosphorus and alkali compounds from the structures studied. Such a process does not take place in case of alkali-free samples.

  17. Chemical interactions and configurational disorder in silicate melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ottonello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Thermodynamics of quasi-chemical and polymeric models are briefly reviewed. It is shown that the two classes are mutually consistent, and that opportune conversion of the existing quasi-chemical parameterization of binary interactions in MO-SiO2 joins to polymeric models may be afforded without substantial loss of precision. It is then shown that polymeric models are extremely useful in deciphering the structural and reactive properties of silicate melts and glasses. They not only allow the Lux-Flood character of the dissolved oxides to be established, but also discriminate subordinate strain energy contributions to the Gibbs free energy of mixing from the dominant chemical interaction terms. This discrimination means that important information on the short-, medium- and long-range periodicity of this class of substances can be retrieved from thermodynamic analysis. Lastly, it is suggested that an important step forward in deciphering the complex topology of the inhomogeneity ranges observed at high SiO2 content can be performed by applying SCMF theory and, particularly, Matsen-Schick spectral analysis, hitherto applied only to rubberlike materials.

  18. The Study of Intensity Performance of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash%碱激发粉煤灰力学性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡楠楠; 李柱凯

    2012-01-01

    以氢氧化钠、水玻璃及水泥对粉煤灰(掺入一定量氧化钙)进行活性激发,采用蒸汽养护制度在80℃的条件下对粉煤灰试样进行蒸汽养护,研究水灰比、碱激发剂的种类、碱的掺量等因素对碱激发粉煤灰的强度发展规律。研究结果表明:水灰比对碱激发粉煤灰的强度发挥有很大的作用,当达到成型要求时其适宜的水灰比一般为0.38;复掺比单掺的效果好,其中氢氧化钠和水泥的复掺效果优于水玻璃和水泥的复掺效果;水玻璃和氢氧化钠作为激发剂激发粉煤灰时的最佳掺加量为10%。%The development principle of intensity of alkali-activated fly ash with water cement ration,the variation of their alkali type,content of alkali by NaOH,sodium silicate and cement activating fly ash(mix in CaO) on condation at 80 ℃ steam conserve was studied.The results showed that water cement ration had large effect on alkali-activated fly ash intensity,feasible water cement ration was 0.38 while it was fit for molding;together blending was superior to solely blending,the activated effect of NaOH and cement together blending was superior to sodium silicate and cement blending together.The best content of sodium silicate and NaOH was 10%when they used as alkali-activated reagent to solely activate the fly ash.

  19. Enhancement of thermal neutron shielding of cement mortar by using borosilicate glass powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-Kil; Lee, Jun-Cheol; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2017-05-01

    Concrete has been used as a traditional biological shielding material. High hydrogen content in concrete also effectively attenuates high-energy fast neutrons. However, concrete does not have strong protection against thermal neutrons because of the lack of boron compound. In this research, boron was added in the form of borosilicate glass powder to increase the neutron shielding property of cement mortar. Borosilicate glass powder was chosen in order to have beneficial pozzolanic activity and to avoid deleterious expansion caused by an alkali-silica reaction. According to the experimental results, borosilicate glass powder with an average particle size of 13µm showed pozzolanic activity. The replacement of borosilicate glass powder with cement caused a slight increase in the 28-day compressive strength. However, the incorporation of borosilicate glass powder resulted in higher thermal neutron shielding capability. Thus, borosilicate glass powder can be used as a good mineral additive for various radiation shielding purposes.