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Sample records for aliphatic secondary alcohols

  1. Syntheses of Enantiopure Aliphatic Secondary Alcohols and Acetates by Bioresolution with Lipase B from Candida antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richele P. Severino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435®, CALB efficiently catalyzed the kinetic resolution of some aliphatic secondary alcohols: (±-4-methylpentan-2-ol (1, (±-5-methylhexan-2-ol (3, (±-octan-2-ol (4, (±-heptan-3-ol (5 and (±-oct-1-en-3-ol (6. The lipase showed excellent enantioselectivities in the transesterifications of racemic aliphatic secondary alcohols producing the enantiopure alcohols (>99% ee and acetates (>99% ee with good yields. Kinetic resolution of rac-alcohols was successfully achieved with CALB lipase using simple conditions, vinyl acetate as acylating agent, and hexane as non-polar solvent.

  2. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

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    X. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical. The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA and butylamine (BA reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25. Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3, contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3 was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2, as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3. Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  3. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3), contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3) was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2), as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3). Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 CCN activity. Thermal gradient CCN

  4. Aliphatic nitro alcohols. Synthesis, chemical transformations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvekhgeimer, Mai-Genrikh A [A.N. Kosygin Moscow State Textile Academy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-31

    The data on the synthesis, chemical transformations and practical use of aliphatic nitro alcohols published over the last 25 years are described systematically and analysed. The bibliography includes 316 references.

  5. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 63, Revision 1 (FGE.63Rev1: Consideration of aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th and 69th meetings structurally related to saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids evaluated by EFSA in FGE.07Rev4 (2012

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    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA, and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 19 aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by the JECFA at the 59th and 69th meetings in 2002 and 2008. This revision is made due to inclusion of six additional substances, 4,8-dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-ol, 6-methylhepta-3,5-dien-2-one, octa-1,5-dien-3-one, (E,E-3,5-octadien-2-one, (3Z-4,8-dimethyl-3,7-nonadiene-2-one and 4,8-dimethyl-3,7-nonadien-2-yl acetate [FL-no: 02.252, 07.099, 07.190, 07.247, 07.256 and 09.936] cleared for genotoxicity concern. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel agrees with the application of the Procedure as performed by the JECFA for all 19 substances considered in this FGE and agrees with the JECFA conclusion, “No safety concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach.

  6. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-10-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed.

  7. Cloud condensation nuclei activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The resulting particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate ...

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones (chemical group 9 when used as flavourings for all animal species

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    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chemical group 9 consists of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones, of which 30 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of 2-oxopropanal because of issues related to the purity of the compound. The FEEDAP Panel concludes that lactic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, 4-oxovaleric acid, ethyl lactate, butyl lactate, butyl-O-butyryllactate, hex-3-enyl lactate, hexyl lactate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl 4-oxovalerate, diethylsuccinate and diethyl malonate are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use levels proposed when used as feed flavourings; octano-1,4-lactone, nonano-1,4-lactone, decano-1,4-lactone and undecano-1,4-lactone are safe at 20 mg/kg complete feed; butyro-1,4-lactone, pentano-1,4-lactone, hexano-1,4-lactone, heptano-1,4-lactone, octano-1,5-lactone, nonano-1,5-lactone, decano-1,5-lactone and undecano-1,5-lactone at 5 mg/kg complete feed; dodecano-1,4-lactone, dodecano-1,5-lactone, tetradecano-1,5-lactone, and pentadecano-1,15-lactone at a maximum of 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food producing animals and of 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. No safety concern was identified for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 9 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. All compounds should be considered as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitizers. The compounds do not pose a risk to the environment when used at concentrations considered safe for the target species. Since all compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  9. Enthalpy of cooperative hydrogen bonding in complexes of tertiary amines with aliphatic alcohols: Calorimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Solution enthalpies of aliphatic alcohols in tertiary amines and vice versa were measured. → The enthalpies of specific interaction of amines in aliphatic alcohols are lower than the enthalpies of hydrogen bonding in 1:1 complexes amine-alcohol determined in base media. → Hydrogen bond cooperativity factors in multi-particle complexes of alcohols with aromatic amines are approximately equal for all alcohols. → Hydrogen bond cooperativity factors in multi-particle complexes of alcohols with trialkylamines decrease with increasing of alkyl radical length in alcohol and amine molecules. - Abstract: The work is devoted to the investigation of thermodynamics of specific interaction of the tertiary aliphatic and aromatic amines with associated solvents as which aliphatic alcohols were taken. Solution enthalpies of aliphatic alcohols in amines (tri-n-propylamine, 2-methylpyridine, 3-methylpyridine, N-methylimidazole) as well as amines in alcohols were measured at infinite dilution. The enthalpies of specific interaction (H-bonding) in systems studied were determined based on experimental data. The enthalpies of specific interaction of amines in aliphatic alcohols significantly lower than the enthalpies of hydrogen bonding in complexes amine-alcohol of 1:1 composition determined in base media due to the reorganization of aliphatic alcohols as solvents. The determination of solvent reorganization contribution makes possible to define the hydrogen bonding enthalpies of amines with clusters of alcohols. Obtained enthalpies of hydrogen bonding in multi-particle complexes are sensitive to the influence of cooperative effect. It was shown, that hydrogen bond cooperativity factors in multi-particle complexes of alcohols with amines are approximately equal for all alcohols when pyridines and N-methylimidazole as solutes are used. At the same time, H-bonding cooperativity factors in complexes of trialkylamines with associative species of alcohols

  10. Coefficients of caffeine distribution in aliphatic alcohol-ammonium sulfate-water systems

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    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-11-01

    The extraction of caffeine with aliphatic alcohols C3-C9 from aqueous solutions in the presence of a salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate) is studied. Quantitative characteristics of extraction are calculated: the distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of recovery ( R, %). Relations are found between log D of caffeine and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the alcohol molecule, along with certain physicochemical properties of the extragents.

  11. Secondary aerosol formation from atmospheric reactions of aliphatic amines

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    S. M. Murphy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although aliphatic amines have been detected in both urban and rural atmospheric aerosols, little is known about the chemistry leading to particle formation or the potential aerosol yields from reactions of gas-phase amines. We present here the first systematic study of aerosol formation from the atmospheric reactions of amines. Based on laboratory chamber experiments and theoretical calculations, we evaluate aerosol formation from reaction of OH, ozone, and nitric acid with trimethylamine, methylamine, triethylamine, diethylamine, ethylamine, and ethanolamine. Entropies of formation for alkylammonium nitrate salts are estimated by molecular dynamics calculations enabling us to estimate equilibrium constants for the reactions of amines with nitric acid. Though subject to significant uncertainty, the calculated dissociation equilibrium constant for diethylammonium nitrate is found to be sufficiently small to allow for its atmospheric formation, even in the presence of ammonia which competes for available nitric acid. Experimental chamber studies indicate that the dissociation equilibrium constant for triethylammonium nitrate is of the same order of magnitude as that for ammonium nitrate. All amines studied form aerosol when photooxidized in the presence of NOx with the majority of the aerosol mass present at the peak of aerosol growth consisting of aminium (R3NH+ nitrate salts, which repartition back to the gas phase as the parent amine is consumed. Only the two tertiary amines studied, trimethylamine and triethylamine, are found to form significant non-salt organic aerosol when oxidized by OH or ozone; calculated organic mass yields for the experiments conducted are similar for ozonolysis (15% and 5% respectively and photooxidation (23% and 8% respectively. The non-salt organic aerosol formed appears to be more stable than the nitrate salts and does not quickly repartition back to the gas phase.

  12. Catalytic activity of carbon nanotubes in the conversion of aliphatic alcohols

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    Zhitnev, Yu. N.; Tveritinova, E. A.; Chernyak, S. A.; Savilov, S. V.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) obtained via the catalytic pyrolysis of hexane at 750°C were studied as the catalysts in conversion of C2-C4 alcohols. The efficiency of CNTs as catalysts in dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol was studied by means of pulse microcatalysis. The surface and structural characteristics of CNTs are investigated via SEM, TEM, DTA, BET, and XPS. CNTs are shown to be effective catalysts in the conversion of alcohols and do not require additional oxidative treatment. The regularities of the conversion of aliphatic alcohols, related to the properties of the CNTs surface and the structure of the alcohols are identified.

  13. Direct optical observation of the formation of some aliphatic alcohol radicals. A pulse radiolysis study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Janata

    2002-12-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms with some aliphatic alcohols in aqueous solutions were studied using pulse radiolysis. Based on the increase in optical absorption in the UV region, the rate constants for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol or -butyl alcohol were determined to be 9.0 × 108, 2.2 × 109, 2.0 × 109, 6.2 × 108 and 1.1 × 106, 1.8 × 107, 5.3 × 107, 2.3 × 105 dm3 mol-1 s-1 respectively. The bimolecular decay rate constants for the alcohol radicals produced in methanol and ethanol were evaluated to be 2 .4 × 109 and 1.5 × 109 dm3 mol-1 s-1. The values observed are in fairly good agreement with those reported earlier.

  14. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

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    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrates, do not undergo hydrolysis. At the same time, the viability of first four plants was observed for different levels of acetate concentration. The method of continuous preparative hydrolysis of the same acetates was worked out in Cyrtomium falcatum culture.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of aliphatic primary alcohols by quinolinium bromochromate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sonu Saraswat; Vinita Sharma; K K Banerji

    2003-02-01

    Oxidation of nine aliphatic primary alcohols by quinolinium bromochromate (QBC) in dimethylsulphoxide leads to the formation of the corresponding aldehydes. The reaction is first order with respect to both QBC and the alcohol. The reaction is catalysed by hydrogen ions. The hydrogen-ion dependence has the form: obs = + [H+]. The oxidation of [1,1-2H2]ethanol (MeCD2OH) exhibits a substantial primary kinetic isotope effect. The reaction has been studied in nineteen different organic solvents. The solvent effect was analysed using Taft’s and Swain's multiparametric equations. The rate of oxidation is susceptible to both polar and steric effects of the substituents. A suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  16. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of aliphatic alcohols by tetrabutylammonium tribromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Baghmar; Pradeep K Sharma

    2001-04-01

    Oxidation of nine primary aliphatic alcohols by tetrabutylammonium tribromide (TBATB) in aqueous acetic acid leads to the formation of the corresponding aldehydes. The reaction is first order with respect to TBATB. Michaelis-Menten type kinetics is observed with respect to alcohols. The reaction failed to induce the polymerization of acrylonitrile. Tetrabutylammonium chloride has no effect on the reaction rate. The proposed reactive oxidizing species is the tribromide ion. The oxidation of [1,1-2H2]ethanol exhibits a substantial kinetic isotope effect. The effect of solvent composition indicates that the rate increases with increase in the polarity of the solvent. The reaction is susceptible to both polar and steric effects of substituents. A mechanism involving transfer of a hydride ion in the ratedetermining step has been proposed.

  17. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 101. Alcohols + Hydrocarbons + Water. Part 2. C1-C3 Alcohols + Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Paweł; Góral, Marian; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara; Shaw, David G.; Mączyński, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria for 37 ternary systems of C1-C3 alcohols with aliphatic hydrocarbons and water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2012 are compiled. For 14 systems, sufficient data are available (two or more independent determinations) to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. In addition to the standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series, an additional criterion was used for each of the evaluated systems. These systems include one binary miscibility gap in the hydrocarbon + water subsystem and another one can be in the methanol + hydrocarbon subsystem. The binary tie lines were compared with the recommended values published previously.

  18. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes of Few Walls Using Aliphatic Alcohols as a Carbon Source

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    Francisco Espinosa-Magaña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes with single and few walls are highly appreciated for their technological applications, regardless of the limited availability due to their high production cost. In this paper we present an alternative process that can lead to lowering the manufacturing cost of CNTs of only few walls by means of the use of the spray pyrolysis technique. For this purpose, ferrocene is utilized as a catalyst and aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol or butanol as the carbon source. The characterization of CNTs was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The study of the synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs show important differences in the number of layers that constitute the nanotubes, the diameter length, the quantity and the quality as a function of the number of carbons employed in the alcohol. The main interest of this study is to give the basis of an efficient synthesis process to produce CNTs of few walls for applications where small diameter is required.

  19. Content of carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, and volatile compounds in six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Ikram Bou; Tlili, Nizar; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Rubio, Ana Gracia Pérez; Perez-Camino, Maria Carmen; Albouchi, Ali; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the content of tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, carotenoids, and volatile compounds in the kernel oils from six walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties. The levels of β-carotene ranged between 0.22 and 0.62 mg/kg, followed by lutein (0.01-0.06 mg/kg). The total content of tocopherol ranged from 186.5 to 436.2 mg/kg of the extracted oil and the major isoform in all samples was γ-tocopherol. The most abundant phytosterol was β-sitosterol (974-1494 mg/kg) followed by campesterol then Δ-5-avenasterol. The major triterpenic alcohol was cycloartenol (226.4-532.1 mg/kg). Hexacosanol (9.71-28.15 mg/kg) was the major aliphatic alcohol. The detected volatile compounds were pentanal, hexanal, nonanal, 2-decenal and hexanol. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between varieties, which are probably due to genetic factors.

  20. Close correlation between heat shock response and cytotoxicity in Neurospora crassa treated with aliphatic alcohols and phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, U.; Schweim, P.; Fracella, F.; Rensing, L. [Univ. of Bremen (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    In Neurospora crassa the aliphatic alcohols methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, and allyl alcohol and the phenolic compounds phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, sodium salicylate, and acetylsalicylic acid were analyzed with respect to their capacities to induce heat shock proteins (HSP) and to inhibit protein synthesis. Both the alcohols and phenols showed the greatest levels of HSP induction at concentrations which inhibited the overall protein synthesis by about 50%. The abilities of the different alcohols to induce the heat shock response are proportional to their lipophilicities: the lipophilic alcohol isobutanol is maximally inductive at about 0.6 M, whereas the least lipophilic alcohol, methanol, causes maximal induction at 5.7 M. The phenols, in general, show a higher capability to induce the heat shock response. The concentrations for maximal induction range between 25 mM (sodium salicylate) and 100 mM (resorcinol). Glycerol (4.1 M) shifted the concentration necessary for maximal HSP induction by hydroquinone from 50 to 200 mM. The results reveal that the induction of HSP occurs under conditions which considerably constrain cell metabolism. The heat shock response, therefore, does not represent a sensitive marker for toxicity tests but provides a good estimate for the extent of cell damage.

  1. Impacts of crystal metal on secondary aliphatic amine aerosol formation during dust storm episodes in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyang; Bei, Yiling

    2016-03-01

    Trimethylamine (TMA) enters the atmosphere from a variety of sources and is a ubiquitous atmospheric organic base. The atmospheric reaction mechanism of TMA with key atmospheric oxidants is important to predict its distribution and environmental behavior in the particle phase. While previous studies have extensively focused on the production of particle amine salts (i.e. trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO)) using chamber experiments, the atmospheric behavior of TMAO in the environment is still poorly understood. Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected at two sampling sites in Beijing from March 10 to May 10, 2012. We analyzed the samples for water-soluble ions, crystal metals, TMA, and TMAO. Water-soluble ions (e.g. SO42-, NO3-, NH4+), TMA, and TMAO were measured using ion chromatography, while crystal metal (e.g. Al, Fe, Mn) in PM2.5 was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two dust storms (DS) occurred during the sampling period on March 28 and April 28. Mineral dust impacted PM2.5 mass and composition greatly during dust storm days, as it contributed approximately 1.2-4.0 times greater on dust storm days versus non-dust storm days. We found TMAO concentrations were highly associated with aluminum in PM2.5. Further, we applied the density functional theory (DFT) method to confirm that aluminum plays a catalytic effect in the reaction of TMA with ozone (O3). Our work improves understanding of the effect of crystal metals on secondary aliphatic amine aerosol formation in the atmosphere.

  2. Racemization of enantiopure secondary alcohols by Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase

    KAUST Repository

    Musa, Musa M.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled racemization of enantiopure phenyl-ring-containing secondary alcohols is achieved in this study using W110A secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus (W110A TeSADH) and in the presence of the reduced and oxidized forms of its cofactor nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide. Racemization of both enantiomers of alcohols accepted by W110A TeSADH, not only with low, but also with reasonably high, enantiomeric discrimination is achieved by this method. Furthermore, the high tolerance of TeSADH to organic solvents allows TeSADH-catalyzed racemization to be conducted in media containing up to 50% (v/v) of organic solvents. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    OpenAIRE

    Q. G. J. Malloy; Li Qi; B. Warren; Cocker III, D. R.; M. E. Erupe; Silva, P J

    2009-01-01

    Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of ...

  4. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Erupe; Cocker III, D. R.; B. Warren; Li Qi; Q. G. J. Malloy; Silva, P J

    2008-01-01

    Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds found to be emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with NO3 has been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by ext...

  5. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Primary Aliphatic Amines with Nitrate Radical

    OpenAIRE

    Q. G. J. Malloy; Qi, L; B. Warren; Cocker III, D. R.; M. E. Erupe; Silva, P J

    2009-01-01

    Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CECERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extensio...

  6. A Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR Study of Aliphatic Alcohols by the Method of Dividing the Molecular Structure into Substructure

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    Bin Cheng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR analysis of aliphatic alcohols is presented. Four physicochemical properties were studied: boiling point (BP, n-octanol–water partition coefficient (lg POW, water solubility (lg W and the chromatographic retention indices (RI on different polar stationary phases. In order to investigate the quantitative structure–property relationship of aliphatic alcohols, the molecular structure ROH is divided into two parts, R and OH to generate structural parameter. It was proposed that the property is affected by three main factors for aliphatic alcohols, alkyl group R, substituted group OH, and interaction between R and OH. On the basis of the polarizability effect index (PEI, previously developed by Cao, the novel molecular polarizability effect index (MPEI combined with odd-even index (OEI, the sum eigenvalues of bond-connecting matrix (SX1CH previously developed in our team, were used to predict the property of aliphatic alcohols. The sets of molecular descriptors were derived directly from the structure of the compounds based on graph theory. QSPR models were generated using only calculated descriptors and multiple linear regression techniques. These QSPR models showed high values of multiple correlation coefficient (R > 0.99 and Fisher-ratio statistics. The leave-one-out cross-validation demonstrated the final models to be statistically significant and reliable.

  7. Dielectric studies of hydrogen bonded complexes tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) with long-chain aliphatic alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of dipolar complexation involving TBP and three long chain aliphatic alcohols namely 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol in a non-polar medium (benzene) was investigated from dielectric measurements at frequency 455 kHz and at temperature 303.16 K using modified Palit's method. The dipole moment of the complex (μbc), interaction dipole moment (Δμ), dipole moment of the H-bonded bridge (μ*) and induced polarization (ΔP) for the thermodynamically most favoured geometry of 1:1 complexes of these systems were computed. The results shows that complexation is due to partial proton transfer in all the cases studied and the tendency of complex formation is maximum in 1-heptanol system. (author)

  8. Oxidation of Aliphatic Alcohols by Using Precious Metals Supported on Hydrotalcite under Solvent- and Base-Free Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yufei; Feng, Junting; Brett, Gemma L; Liu, Yanan; Miedziak, Peter J; Edwards, Jennifer K; Knight, David W; Li, Dianqing; Hutchings, Graham J

    2015-10-12

    Precious metal nanoparticles supported on magnesium-aluminum hydrotalcite (HT), TiO2 , and MgO were prepared by sol immobilization and assessed for the catalytic oxidation of octanol, which is a relatively unreactive aliphatic alcohol, with molecular oxygen as the oxidant under solvent- and base-free conditions. Compared with the TiO2 - and MgO-supported catalysts, platinum HT gave the highest activity and selectivity towards the aldehyde. The turnover number achieved for the platinum HT catalyst was >3700 after 180 min under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, the results for the oxidation of different substrates indicate that a specific interaction of octanal with the platinum HT catalyst could lead to deactivation of the catalyst. PMID:26337897

  9. Secondary School Students: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This resource guide contains a list of materials on drug and alcohol prevention for secondary school students. The information is divided into three sections: (1) prevention materials, including information on inhalants, AIDS, sports and drugs, and sex and alcohol; (2) studies, articles, and reports on secondary school students, including…

  10. Proposed chemical mechanisms leading to secondary organic aerosol in the reactions of aliphatic amines with hydroxyl and nitrate radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Derek J.; Clark, Christopher H.; Tang, Xiaochen; Cocker, David R.; Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Silva, Philip J.

    2014-10-01

    The presence and importance of amines in the atmosphere, including aliphatic amines, continues to gain more attention. The atmospheric reaction mechanisms of these amines with key atmospheric radicals are important to predict both daytime and nighttime atmospheric chemistry. While previous studies have focused on the production of amine salts, this analysis looks at the importance of peroxy radical reactions to the formation of secondary organic aerosol. Atmospheric oxidation mechanisms are presented to explain the observed chemistry. A series of environmental chamber experiments were conducted in which aliphatic tertiary and secondary amines were reacted with either hydroxyl radical (OH) or nitrate radical (NO3). Chemical composition of the aerosol products was obtained with a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a Particle Into Liquid Sampler Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PILS-ToF-MS), while the chemical composition of the gas-phase products was obtained with a Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometer (SIFT-MS). A number of aerosol-phase mass spectra showed highly oxidized fragments at a much higher molecular weight (MW) than the amine precursor. It is proposed that these larger compounds are oligomers formed through peroxy radical reactions with hydrogen rearrangement. Another reaction pathway observed was the formation of amine salts. The relative importance of each pathway to the overall production of aerosol is found to be dependent on the type of amine and oxidant. For example, the oligomers were observed in the tertiary methyl amines, while the formation of amine salts was more prevalent in the secondary and tertiary ethyl amines.

  11. Temperature dependence studies on the electro-oxidation of aliphatic alcohols with modified platinum electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Panadda Katikawong; Tanakorn Ratana; Waret Veerasai

    2009-05-01

    Temperature dependence on the electro-oxidation of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol in 0.5 M H2SO4 were investigated with Pt and PtRu electrodes. Tafel slope and apparent activation energy were evaluated from the cyclic voltammetric data in the low potential region (0.3-0.5 V vs SHE). The CV results provided Tafel slopes for alcohols in the range of 200-400 mV dec-1 which indicated a difference in the rate determining step. The decrease in Tafel slope was only observed in the case of methanol for the Ru-modified Pt electrode. This indicates that Ru improves the rate of determining step for methanol while hindering it for the other alcohols. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was also used to evaluate the electro-oxidation mechanism of alcohols on these electrodes. The simulated EIS results provided two important parameters: charge transfer resistance () and inductance (). The $R^{-1}_{ct}$ and -1 represent the rate of alcohol electro-oxidation and rate of desorption of intermediate species, respectively. These values increased with the increasing of temperature. The results from two techniques were well agreed that the electro-oxidation of methanol was improved by raising the temperature and ruthenium modification.

  12. Alcohol and Young People: A Case for Supporting Education about Alcohol in Primary and Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John

    1996-01-01

    Cites research data showing that alcohol consumption begins early and is linked to other risk behaviors. Justifies a greater emphasis on alcohol education in elementary-secondary schools. A peer teaching approach in secondary education and a cross-curricular approach in primary education are described. (SK)

  13. Multiple spontaneous bone infarcts secondary to alcohol abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol induced spontaneous osteonecrosis is part of the differential diagnosis in patients with history of alcohol abuse and diffuse bone pain. Usually patients have a longer than 10 year history of alcohol abuse prior to the development of osteonecrosis. The femoral head is the commonest site involved, however, involvement of the long bones is also seen. Facial involvement is rarely seen. Fat embolism secondary to coexisting hyperlipidemia has been postulated as a possible cause of osteonecrosis in alcoholics. A case of multifocal spontaneous bone infarction with facial bone involvement in a 34 year old female alcoholic is described. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  14. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Erupe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds found to be emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with NO3 has been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO3, large yields of aerosol mass loadings (~44% for butylamine are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO2 in the total signal (<17% for all amines tested as detected by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. We propose a reaction mechanism between carbonyl containing species and the parent amine leading to formation of particulate imine products. These findings can have significant impacts on rural communities and lead to elevated nighttime PM loadings, when significant levels on NO3 exist.

  15. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO3, large aerosol mass yields (~44% for butylamine are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO2 in the total signal (<1% for all amines tested as detected by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. We propose a reaction mechanism between carbonyl containing species and the parent amine leading to formation of particulate imine products. These findings can have significant impacts on rural communities with elevated nighttime PM loadings, when significant levels of NO3 exist.

  16. Flash Points of Secondary Alcohol and n-Alkane Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esina, Zoya N; Miroshnikov, Alexander M; Korchuganova, Margarita R

    2015-11-19

    The flash point is one of the most important characteristics used to assess the ignition hazard of mixtures of flammable liquids. To determine the flash points of mixtures of secondary alcohols with n-alkanes, it is necessary to calculate the activity coefficients. In this paper, we use a model that allows us to obtain enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization data of the pure components to calculate the liquid-solid equilibrium (LSE) and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). Enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization data of secondary alcohols in the literature are limited; thus, the prediction of these characteristics was performed using the method of thermodynamic similarity. Additionally, the empirical models provided the critical temperatures and boiling temperatures of the secondary alcohols. The modeled melting enthalpy and enthalpy of vaporization as well as the calculated LSE and VLE flash points were determined for the secondary alcohol and n-alkane mixtures. PMID:26491811

  17. Multifocal Osteonecrosis Secondary to Chronic Alcohol Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazu Matsumoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal osteonecrosis is a relatively rare disorder with an estimated incidence of around 3% among patients diagnosed as having osteonecrosis. Multifocal osteonecrosis is caused by the several conditions including corticosteroid treatment, coagulation disorders, connective tissue disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, inflammatory bowel disease, renal transplantation, and underlying malignancies. Alcohol abuse is one of the risk factors for osteonecrosis, and alcohol-induced osteonecrosis is 5% among all the osteonecrosis. Furthermore, the overall incidence of alcohol-induced multifocal osteonecrosis was approximately 6% among all the osteonecrosis induced by the alcohol. Therefore, here, we report an extremely rare case of alcohol-induced multifocal osteonecrosis involving three joints (two knees and one hip and review the related literature.

  18. Oxidation of the Primary Alcoholic Moiety Selectively in the Presence of the Secondary Alcoholic Moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both primary and secondary alcoholic moieties are very sensitive to oxidation reactions. But sometimes it is necessary to oxidized only the primary alcoholic moiety. Such cases are usually found in Food Industries. In this situation, TEMPO (1, 1, 6, 6-Tetramethyl-1-Piperidine Oxoammonium) was used as an oxidizing agent. In this paper, Alpha starch was successfully oxidized using TEMPO as the oxidizing agent in combination with sodium hypochlorite with and without sodium bromide. The oxidation of primary alcoholic moiety only and the remaining untouched secondary alcoholic moiety were proved by infrared spectroscopy method.

  19. Application of lower aliphatic alcohols as reducing agents for increasing efficiency of the LCLD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenok, Dmitrii

    2014-05-01

    A method is described that is promising for application metal conductors on ceramic substrates during printed-circuit boards (PCBs) production without masking plate. The main idea of laser-induced metal deposition from solution (LCLD) consists of implementation of chemical micro reactor by using a focused laser beam. In this reactor the red/ox reaction would be initiated due to heating of a reaction medium. We used a 532 nm DPSS laser (power: 2100 mW) and water solutions of organic alcohols with low molecular weight, ethanol and isopropanol as reductants. The results of deposition were studied using the SEM, EDX methods and impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent resistance-capacitance circuit of copper tracks was constructed. The experiments showed that increasing the rate of deposition of nanostructured copper tracks up to 50 μm/s with electrical resistivity 5 Ohm/cm is possible by replacing the well-known reductants such as formaldehyde and D-sorbitol with iso-propanol.

  20. Correlations Between retention indices and molecular structure of aliphatic alcohols and of their benzoyl derivatives on phenyl substituted polysiloxane stationary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention indices of aliphatic alcohols of carbon number up to Cg, and of their benzoyl derivatives up to C7, were determined in columns packed with Chromo sorb G (AW-DMCS-HP) coated previously with 5% methyl, and methyl phenyl polysiloxanes with increasing polarity (SE-30, 0V-3, 0V-7, 0V-11, 0V-17 and OV-25). Correlations between retention indices and chain length for 1-alcohols, 2-alcohols, 3-alcohols, 1 , on -3-alcohols, 2-methyl-1-alcohols and for their corresponding benzoyl derivatives were calculated at 100, 120 and 140 degree centigree. In alcohols, a -CH2- group increases I approximately 100 units, and in their benzoyl derivatives from 80 to 100 units. Dispersion indices Δl , and positional and structural increments δI, were evaluated for -OH and benzoyl groups in terms of phase polarity and chain length. Effects of chain length, chain branching and double bond location on retention parameters were also studied. (Author) 23 refs

  1. THE EFFECT OF SULPHURIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ReO4 - BY THE LONG-CHAIN ALIPHATIC TERTIARY AMINES AND ALCOHOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander G. Kasikov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulphuric acid concentration on solvent extraction of ReO4- by the long-chain aliphatic tertiary amines and alcohols in a wide range of H2SO4 concentrations in initial solutions is discussed. It has been established that the influence of the sulphuric acid concentration on rhenium solvent extraction is largely due to the extraction process mechanism. In the case of the anion-exchange mechanism, ReO4- is best extracted from weakly acidic solutions, whereas when the hydrate-solvate mechanism takes place – from solutions containing 4-7 mole/l H2SO4.

  2. Ionic liquid-H2O Resulting in a Highly Chemoselective Oxidation of Benzylic Alcohols in the Presence of Aliphatic Analogues Catalyzed by Immobilized TEMPO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU,Ruijun; LEI,Ming; WEI,Hegeng; WANG,Yanguang

    2009-01-01

    In ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate([bmim][PF6])-H2O,a highly chemoselective oxidation of benzylic alcohols in the presence of aliphatic ones to the corresponding hydroxyl benzyl aldehydes and ketones was allowed in high yields using N-chlorosuccinimide(NCS)/NaBr/IL-TEMPO(ionic liquid immobilized 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl)as a facile and effective catalytic oxidation system.The medium,[bmiml[PF6],together with the catalyst IL-TEMPO could be easily recycled for ten runs without any influence on the efficacy of the reaction in terms of yield and selectivity of the product.

  3. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Livia T.C., E-mail: livia.vilela@ifrj.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IF-RJ), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-09-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  4. The prevalence of alcohol consumption in secondary school children and his contexts

    OpenAIRE

    ŘEBOUNOVÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The thesis The prevalence of alcohol consumption in secondary school children and his contexts is aimed at the problems of alcohol misuse among high school students. The thesis is divided into two parts theoretical and practical. The theoretical part is aimed at the definition of basic terms, is dedicated to the characteristic of alcohol as a socially tolerated drug, to consequences of excessive alcohol consumption and it also specifies an effect of alcohol among the young. The practical part...

  5. Possibility to predict the development of secondary depression in primary alcoholics during abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Gajić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The relationship between alcoholism and depression is observed in clinical trials. The factors which could predict persistence of secondary depression after alcohol withdrawal are not enough explored on admission. The differences between depressed (DA and non-depressed (NDA alcoholics regarding the degrees of severity of withdrawal, severity of depression and the intensity of cognitive dysfunctions were explored on admission to investigate possibility of prediction of the development of secondary depression in alcoholics. Methods. A group of primary male alcoholics (n=86 was recruited during inpatient treatment. After 4 weeks alcoholics were divided in the DA group (n=43 and NDA (n=43 group according to the score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. Clinical assessment of withdrawal, scoring on the Alcohol Dependency Severity Scale- ASD, and scoring on the Mini Mental Scale-MMSE were performed in all the participants on admission. The differences between the groups were tested by the Student's t-test. Results. The DA group showed the significantly higher severity of depression, higher levels of alcohol withdrawal symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions than the NDA group on admission. Conclusion. The specific group of depressive alcoholics was shown to be characterized by the higher severity of alcoholism and depression on admission, which could predict prolonged, secondary depression. Early detection and concurrent therapy of secondary depression could improve the treatment, and reduce the relapse of alcoholism.

  6. Ruthenium-catalyzed self-coupling of primary and secondary alcohols with the liberation of dihydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Ilya; Madsen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The dehydrogenative self-condensation of primary and secondary alcohols has been studied in the presence of RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene). The conversion of primary alcohols into esters has been further optimized by using magnesium nitride as an additive, which allows the reaction to take place at a temp......The dehydrogenative self-condensation of primary and secondary alcohols has been studied in the presence of RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene). The conversion of primary alcohols into esters has been further optimized by using magnesium nitride as an additive, which allows the reaction to take place...... at a temperature and catalyst loading lower than those described previously. Secondary alcohols were dimerized into racemic ketones by a dehydrogenative Guerbet reaction with potassium hydroxide as the additive. The transformation gave good yields of the ketone dimers with a range of alkan-2-ols, whereas more...

  7. Adolescent Males in Secondary School in Ireland: Alcohol Use and Depressed Mood

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Per capita alcohol consumption by Irish teenagers has doubled over the past three decades. There has also been a doubling of the suicide rate among young men. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between alcohol consumption and negative mood (as measured by elements of the Beck Depression Inventory) in a sample (n = 169) of final-year secondary school male students. A questionnaire was devised to ascertain frequency, type and quantity of alcohol consumed, as well as attitudes ...

  8. Etherification of Ferrocenyl Alcohol by Highly-efficient Ytterbium Triflate%Etherification of Ferrocenyl Alcohol by Highly-efficient Ytterbium Triflate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang, Ran; Shen, Yechen; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Xiaoping; Shao, Jinjun; Ji, Shunjun

    2011-01-01

    Nucleophilic substitution of ferrocenyl alcohols with various aliphatic alcohols in the presence of a catalytic amount of ytterbium triflate [Yb(OTf)3] was studied. It was found the unsymmetrical ferrocenyl ethers could be easily obtained in excellent yields when the reactions were performed in primary and secondary alcohols. However, in other organic non-alcoholic solvents such as acetonitrile, the formation of symmetrical ferrocenyl ethers rather than unsymmetrical ones was observed.

  9. Guided desaturation of unactivated aliphatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, Ana-Florina; Mendoza, Abraham; Gutekunst, Will R.; Fraga, Jorge Otero; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-08-01

    The excision of hydrogen from an aliphatic carbon chain to produce an isolated olefin (desaturation) without overoxidation is one of the most impressive and powerful biosynthetic transformations for which there are no simple and mild laboratory substitutes. The versatility of olefins and the range of reactions they undergo are unsurpassed in functional group space. Thus, the conversion of a relatively inert aliphatic system into its unsaturated counterpart could open new possibilities in retrosynthesis. In this article, the invention of a directing group to achieve such a transformation under mild, operationally simple, metal-free conditions is outlined. This ‘portable desaturase’ (TzoCl) is a bench-stable, commercial entity (Aldrich, catalogue number L510092) that is facile to install on alcohol and amine functionalities to ultimately effect remote desaturation, while leaving behind a synthetically useful tosyl group.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols and esters with esters containing tertiary alcohols ethers (chemical group 6 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical group 6 consists of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols and esters with esters containing tertiary alcohols ethers, of which 13 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The high use level proposed by the applicant for linalool (25 mg/kg complete feed is safe for salmonids, veal calves, cattle for fattening and pets (excluding cats without a margin of safety with the exception of dogs (SF = 1.4. The safe use level for pigs and dairy cows is 20, for piglets 12 and for poultry 10 mg/kg complete feed. The high use level of 5 mg/kg complete feed for linalyl acetate, linalyl butyrate, linalyl formate, linalyl propionate, linalyl isobutyrate, terpineol, α-terpineol and terpineol acetate and 4-terpinenol is safe for all species with a margin of safety of 1.2 to 12. For nerolidol, 2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-ol and 2-(4-methylphenylpropan-2-ol, the maximum safe concentration is 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry and 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for all other species. The absence of a margin of safety would not allow the simultaneous administration in feed and water for drinking of the following compounds: linalool, nerolidol, 2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-ol and 2-(4methylphenylpropan-2-ol. No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 6 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. All compounds should be considered as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitisers. All compounds of CG 6 are predicted to be safe to the soil compartment when used at levels safe to the target species. Using predictions based on chemical structure, 2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-ol and 2-(4-methylphenylpropan-2-ol were estimated to be safe to aquatic compartments. In the absence of experimental data, safety to aquatic compartments could not be established for linalyl butyrate, linalyl isobutyrate, terpineol acetate, 4

  11. Alcohol and Drug Use Among Vancouver Secondary School Students: 1970, 1974 and 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Marcus J.; Macurdy, E. Ann

    In 1970, 1974 and 1978 similar surveys of alcohol and drug use were conducted using 10% random samples of Vancouver secondary school students (grades 8-12). The reported use of alcohol increased from 61% in 1970 to 71% in 1974 and 78% in 1978, while the use of cannabis increased from 39% in 1970 to 42% in 1974 and 47% in 1978. The use of tobacco,…

  12. Incorporation of oxygen-18 into secondary alcohols of grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, G J; Mccain, D C; Jackson, L L

    1975-05-01

    Incorporation of 18-O2 and H2-18-O into the secondary alcohol moiety of wax esters in the grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes was determined by mass spectrometry. Results of this study show that oxygen-18 from 18-O2 was incorporated into the secondary alcohol, whereas no incorporation of oxygen-18 from H2-18-O was detected. The data suggest that the reaction, which hydroxylates n-alkanes at or near the center of the carbon chain, involves a mixed function oxidase type enzyme. PMID:1128177

  13. Teaching the Biological Consequences of Alcohol Abuse through an Online Game: Impacts among Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisch, Yvonne; Miller, Leslie M.; Beier, Margaret E.; Wang, Shu

    2012-01-01

    A multimedia game was designed to serve as a dual-purpose intervention that aligned with National Science Content Standards, while also conveying knowledge about the consequences of alcohol consumption for a secondary school audience. A tertiary goal was to positively impact adolescents' attitudes toward science through career role-play…

  14. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ebner, Davidâ C.

    2009-12-07

    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (-)-sparteine as a chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of the base and hydrogen-bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 degrees C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good-to-excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones.

  15. [Alcohol use in young adolescents. A survey in French secondary schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, D; Rouchaud, A; Garcia, C; Roehrig, C; Ferley, J-P

    2015-05-01

    Among young adolescents, early use of alcohol has been shown to be related to later alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems in numerous epidemiologic studies. However, if drinking problems are now well documented in young people, few data are available on alcohol use in children and young adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and attitudes with respect to alcohol use among young adolescents entering their first year of secondary school (mean age, 11.5 years). Data were collected from the ESPACE program, a preventive program conducted in the educational district of Limoges, France. Of the 2268 respondents with complete data, 73.4% (77.1% in males vs. 69.9% in females; Pcannabis use (6.0% in regular users vs. 0.9% in occasional users and 0.2% in nonusers) were found to be significantly more frequent in regular alcohol users than in other students (Pdepressed, lacking self-assurance, dissatisfied with their physical appearance and their way of life, and they felt that they exhibited significantly more impairments in their interactions with parents, peers, and the school environment. Similarly, they were found to have significantly more frequently an inclination for risk behaviors and a significantly more positive view of drinking than other students. These results look almost like those reported in adolescents and young people, and show that the alcohol abuse pattern is drawn early in childhood. They also highlight the value of epidemiologic investigations for planning preventive interventions. PMID:25836668

  16. EXTRACTION OF BETULIN BY ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS C3-C4 FROM AN EXTERNAL LAYER OF A BIRCH BARK HYDROLYZED IN AQUEOUS ALKALINE SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Александрович Левданский

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It was established, that after hydrolysis of birch bark in water solution of alkali in the presence of isopropanol, butanol and isobutanol two layers were formed. The top layer contained betulin dissolved in alcohol, and the bottom layer contained a water-soluble alkali and its hydrolysis products of bark. Betulin was isolated by the separation and concentration of the alcohol layer. The structure of betulin was confirmed by methods of IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  17. Secondary Effects of an Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Students and/or Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-08-01

    The secondary effects of an alcohol prevention program (PAS) on onset of weekly smoking and monthly cannabis use are examined among >3000 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.64) randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention (PI), 2) student intervention (SI), 3) combined intervention (CI) and 4) control condition (CC). Rules about alcohol, alcohol use, and adolescents' self-control were investigated as possible mediators. PI had a marginal aversive effect, slightly increasing the risk of beginning to smoke at T1, and increased the likelihood of beginning to use cannabis use at T1 and T2. SI delayed the onset of monthly cannabis use at T3. CI increased the risk to use cannabis at T3. No mediational processes were found. In conclusion, though this study show mixed results, negative side effects of the PI were found, particularly at earlier ages. Moreover, these results indicate the need for multi-target interventions. PMID:27296663

  18. Substance Use Patterns Among First-Year College Students: Secondary Effects of a Combined Alcohol Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Grossbard, Joel R.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Kilmer, Jason R.; LEE, CHRISTINE M.; Turrisi, Rob; Larimer, Mary E.; Ray, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored secondary effects of a multi-site randomized alcohol prevention trial on tobacco, marijuana and other illicit drug use among a sample of incoming college students who participated in high school athletics. Students (N = 1275) completed a series of web-administered measures at baseline during the summer before starting college and ten months later. Students were randomized to one of four conditions: a parent-delivered intervention, a brief motivation enhancement inte...

  19. Understanding water effect on Candida antarctica lipase B activity and enantioselectivity towards secondary alcohols.

    OpenAIRE

    Léonard, Valérie; Marton, Z; Lamare, Sylvain; Hult, Karl; Graber, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    6 pages International audience The effect of water activity (aW) on Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) activity and enantioselectivity towards secondary alcohols was assessed. Experimental results for the resolution of racemic pentan-2-ol, hexan-3-ol, butan-2-ol and octan-4-ol by immobilized CALB-catalyzed acylation with methyl propanoate, were obtained by using a solid/gas reactor. Water and substrate adsorption mechanism on immobilized CALB, were then studied using moisture sorption a...

  20. Heterogeneous Chemistry of Carbonyls and Alcohols With Sulfuric Acid: Implications for Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Levitt, N.; Zhang, R.

    2006-12-01

    Recent environmental chamber studies have suggested that acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions of organic carbonyls lead to multifold increases in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass and acid-catalyzed reactions between alcohols and aldehydes in the condensed phase lead to the formation of hemiacetals and acetals, also enhancing secondary organic aerosol growth. The kinetics and mechanism of the heterogeneous chemistry of carbonyls and alcohols with sulfuric acid, however, remain largely uncertain. In this talk, we present measurements of heterogeneous uptake of several carbonyls and alcohols on liquid H2SO4 in a wide range of acid concentrations and temperatures. The results indicate that uptake of larger carbonyls is explained by aldol condensation. For small dicarbonyls, heterogeneous reactions are shown to decrease with acidity and involve negligible formation of sulfate esters. Hydration and polymerization likely explain the measured uptake of such small dicarbonyls on H2SO4 and the measurements do not support an acid- catalyzed uptake. Atmospheric implications from our findings will be discussed.

  1. Quantification of structurally related aliphatic amino alcohols in l-valinol by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation combined with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douša, Michal; Stach, Jan; Gibala, Petr; Lemr, Karel

    2016-03-01

    The amino alcohols in l-valinol were effectively separated and quantified using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with fluorescence detection. The influence of the mobile phase (salt type, buffer concentration, and pH) on retention was studied. A column TSKgel amide and mobile phase consisting of 10 mM acetate buffer pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) provided well-separated symmetric peaks of analytes. Fluorescence detection was performed using postcolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde/2-mercaptoethanol at an excitation and emission wavelength of 345 and 450 nm, respectively. Simple sample pretreatment and very high sensitivity represent the main advantages of the developed method. After validation, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial samples of l-valinol. PMID:26697727

  2. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  3. Lipase-catalyzed highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leandro H; Barcellos, Thiago

    2009-07-16

    The first application of enzymes as catalysts to obtain optically pure boron compounds is described. The kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipases was studied. Aromatic, allylic, and aliphatic secondary alcohols containing a boronate ester or boronic acid group were resolved by lipase from Candida antartica (CALB), and excellent E values (E > 200) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%) of both remaining substrates and acetylated product were obtained.

  4. Optical isopropanol biosensor using NADH-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Po-Jen; Ye, Ming; Suzuki, Takuma; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2016-10-01

    Isopropanol (IPA) is an important solvent used in industrial activity often found in hospitals as antiseptic alcohol rub. Also, IPA may have the potential to be a biomarker of diabetic ketoacidosis. In this study, an optical biosensor using NADH-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) for IPA measurement was constructed and evaluated. An ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED, λ=340nm) was employed as the excitation light to excite nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). A photomultiplier tube (PMT) was connected to a two-way branch optical fiber for measuring the fluorescence emitted from the NADH. S-ADH was immobilized on the membrane to catalyze IPA to acetone and reduce NAD(+) to be NADH. This IPA biosensor shows highly sensitivity and selectivity, the calibration range is from 500 nmol L(-1) to 1mmolL(-1). The optimization of buffer pH, temperature, and the enzyme-immobilized method were also evaluated. The detection of IPA in nail related cosmetic using our IPA biosensor was also carried out. The results showed that large amounts of IPA were used in these kinds of cosmetics. This IPA biosensor comes with the advantages of rapid reaction, good reproducibility, and wide dynamic range, and is also expected to use for clinical IPA detections in serum or other medical and health related applications.

  5. Optical isopropanol biosensor using NADH-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Po-Jen; Ye, Ming; Suzuki, Takuma; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2016-10-01

    Isopropanol (IPA) is an important solvent used in industrial activity often found in hospitals as antiseptic alcohol rub. Also, IPA may have the potential to be a biomarker of diabetic ketoacidosis. In this study, an optical biosensor using NADH-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) for IPA measurement was constructed and evaluated. An ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED, λ=340nm) was employed as the excitation light to excite nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). A photomultiplier tube (PMT) was connected to a two-way branch optical fiber for measuring the fluorescence emitted from the NADH. S-ADH was immobilized on the membrane to catalyze IPA to acetone and reduce NAD(+) to be NADH. This IPA biosensor shows highly sensitivity and selectivity, the calibration range is from 500 nmol L(-1) to 1mmolL(-1). The optimization of buffer pH, temperature, and the enzyme-immobilized method were also evaluated. The detection of IPA in nail related cosmetic using our IPA biosensor was also carried out. The results showed that large amounts of IPA were used in these kinds of cosmetics. This IPA biosensor comes with the advantages of rapid reaction, good reproducibility, and wide dynamic range, and is also expected to use for clinical IPA detections in serum or other medical and health related applications. PMID:27474326

  6. Brief Report: Disposable Income, and Spending on Fast Food, Alcohol, Cigarettes, and Gambling by New Zealand Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    We describe self-reported sources of income and expenditure, and the association between part-time employment and spending on fast food, alcohol, cigarettes, and gambling for a sample of 3434 New Zealand (NZ) secondary school students (mean age 15.0 years). Disposable income was usually received from parents and guardians, but nearly 40% of…

  7. Secondary Prevention with College Drinkers: Evaluation of an Alcohol Skills Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlahan, Daniel R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated prevention approaches for young adults (n=36) at risk for alcohol problems. Subjects were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral alcohol skills training, didactic alcohol information program, or assessment only. Found significant reduction over one year in alcohol consumption for total sample; directional findings consistently favored…

  8. A steric tethering approach enables palladium-catalysed C-H activation of primary amino alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Jonas; Pla, Daniel; Gorman, Timothy W.; Domingo, Victoriano; Haffemayer, Benjamin; Gaunt, Matthew J.

    2015-12-01

    Aliphatic primary amines are a class of chemical feedstock essential to the synthesis of higher-order nitrogen-containing molecules, commonly found in biologically active compounds and pharmaceutical agents. New methods for the construction of complex amines remain a continuous challenge to synthetic chemists. Here, we outline a general palladium-catalysed strategy for the functionalization of aliphatic C-H bonds within amino alcohols, an important class of small molecule. Central to this strategy is the temporary conversion of catalytically incompatible primary amino alcohols into hindered secondary amines that are capable of undergoing a sterically promoted palladium-catalysed C-H activation. Furthermore, a hydrogen bond between amine and catalyst intensifies interactions around the palladium and orients the aliphatic amine substituents in an ideal geometry for C-H activation. This catalytic method directly transforms simple, easily accessible amines into highly substituted, functionally concentrated and structurally diverse products, and can streamline the synthesis of biologically important amine-containing molecules.

  9. Iodine - catalyzed prins cyclization of aliphatic and aromatic ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, K.R.; Reddy, K.; Silva Junior, Luiz F., E-mail: luizfsjr@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2013-09-15

    Iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and ketones was investigated. Anhydrous conditions and inert atmosphere are not required in this metal-free protocol. The reaction of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalene-1-yl)propan-1-ol with six aliphatic symmetric ketones gave the desired products in 67-77% yield. Cyclization was performed with four aliphatic unsymmetric ketones, leading to corresponding pyrans in 66-76% yield. Prins cyclization was also accomplished with four aromatic ketones in 37-66% yield. Finally, Prins cyclization of the monoterpene isopulegol and acetone was successfully achieved. (author)

  10. Short Oligonucleotides Aligned in Stretched Humid Matrix: Secondary DNA Structure in Poly(vinyl alcohol) Environment

    KAUST Repository

    Hanczyc, Piotr

    2012-04-24

    We report that short, synthetic, double- as well as single-stranded DNA can be aligned in stretched humid poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix, and the secondary structure (nucleobase orientation) can be characterized with linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. Oligonucleotides of lengths varying between 10 (3.4 nm) and 60 bases (20.4 nm) were investigated with respect to structural properties in the gel-like polymer environment. The DNA conformation as a function of relative humidity reveals a strong dependence of helical structure of DNA on PVA hydration level, results of relevance for nanotechnical studies of DNA-based supramolecular systems. Also, the PVA gel could provide possibilities to test models for nucleic acid interactions and distribution in cell contexts, including structural stability of genetic material in the cell and PVA-packaging for gene delivery. A method by which duplex oligonucleotides, with sequences designed to provide specific binding sites, become amenable to polarized-light spectroscopy opens up new possibilities for studying structure in DNA complexes with small adduct molecules as well as proteins. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes (chemical group 1 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical group 1 (CG 1 consists of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes of which 86 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of ethyl oleate because of its insufficient purity. The following compounds are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use level proposed for feed flavourings: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, decanol, dodecanol, decyl acetate and dodecyl acetate. The remaining substances are considered safe for all animal species at 5 mg/kg complete feed (with a margin of safety between 1 and 120 and at 25 mg/kg complete feed (ethyl acetate and hexyl acetate, with a margin of safety between 2 and 6; and at 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry and 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for all other species (ethylacrylate, ethyl hex-3-enoate, ethyl trans-2-butenoate, ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl isovalerate, butyl isovalerate, methyl isovalerate, hexyl isobutyrate, methyl 2-methyl butyrate, pentyl isovalerate, butyl 2-methyl butyrate, hexyl isovalerate, ethyl 2-methyl butyrate, hexyl 2-methyl butyrate and methyl 2-methylvalerate. No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 1 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. The FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat all compounds under assessment as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and as skin sensitizers. No risk for the safety for the environment is foreseen. Since all 85 compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of branched-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing branched-chain alcohols and acetals containing branched-chain aldehydes (chemical group 2 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chemical group 2 consists of branched-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing branched-chain alcohols and acetals containing branched-chain aldehydes, of which 34 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The use of 2-methylpropionic acid, isopentyl acetate, 3-methylbutyl butyrate and 2-methylbutyl acetate is safe at the proposed use level of 25 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food producing animals and at 5 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. 2-Methylpropan-1-ol, isopentanol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutyraldehyde, 3-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylvaleric acid, 2-ethylbutyric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid, 4-methyloctanoic acid, isobutyl acetate, isobutyl butyrate, 3-methylbutyl propionate, 3-methylbutyl formate, glyceryl tributyrate, isobutyl isobutyrate, isopentyl isobutyrate, isobutyl isovalerate, isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate, 2-methylbutyl isovalerate and 2-methylbutyl butyrate are safe at the proposed use level of 5 mg/kg complete feed for all animal species. 3,7-Dimethyloctan-1-ol, 2-methylundecanal, 4-methylnonanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl hexanoate, 3-methylbutyl dodecanoate, 3-methylbutyl octanoate and 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutyrate are safe at a maximum of 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food-producing animals and of 1.0 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. No safety concern was identified for the consumer from the use of these compounds up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. All compounds should be considered as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitisers. The compounds do not pose a risk to the environment when used at concentrations considered safe for the target species. Since all compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  13. The effects of various alcohols on the secondary structural integrity of melittin, TH-10Aox, and Tc1 by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Hua; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2006-03-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of various alcohols on the structural integrity of three peptides: melittin with 2 α-helices, TH-10Aox with 3 β-strands, and Tc1 with 1 α-helix and 2 β-strands. The results reveal that the secondary structural integrity of these peptides increased with decreasing dielectric constant of the solvent, indicating that there is a positive correlation between the number of carbon atoms in alcohols and the stability of the secondary structures. In addition, TFE enhanced the secondary structural stability of these peptides to a greater extent than the other alcohols.

  14. Chiral auxiliary-mediated enantioenrichment of (+-)-ibuprofen, under Steglich conditions, with secondary alcohols derived from (R)-carvone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amongero, Marcela; Visnovezky, Damian; Kaufman, Teodoro S., E-mail: kaufman@iquir-conicet.gov.a [Instituto de Quimica Rosario (IQUIR, CONICET-UNR) (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina)

    2010-07-01

    The synthesis of a series of chiral secondary alcohols derived from (R)-carvone, and the stereochemical outcome of their reaction with (+-)-ibuprofen, is reported. The racemic drug was transformed into the corresponding diastereomeric esters mediated by DCC/DMAP, affording up to 5.7:1 diastereomeric ratios of the esters derived from either (S)- or (R)-ibuprofen, depending on the type of chiral auxiliary employed. (author)

  15. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  16. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  17. Unexpected properties of NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-1) in Trichomonas vaginalis and other microaerophilic parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsch, David; Williams, Catrin F; Lloyd, David; Duchêne, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Our previous observation that NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-1) is down-regulated in metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis isolates prompted us to further characterise the enzyme. In addition to its canonical enzyme activity as a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, a pronounced, so far unknown, background NADPH-oxidising activity in absence of any added substrate was observed when the recombinant enzyme or T. vaginalis extract were used. This activity was strongly enhanced at low oxygen concentrations. Unexpectedly, all functions of ADH-1 were efficiently inhibited by coenzyme A which is a cofactor of a number of key enzymes in T. vaginalis metabolism, i.e. pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). These observations could be extended to Entamoeba histolytica and Tritrichomonas foetus, both of which have a homologue of ADH-1, but not to Giardia lamblia which lacks an NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase. Although we could not identify the substrate of the observed background activity, we propose that ADH-1 functions as a major sink for NADPH in microaerophilic parasites at low oxygen tension.

  18. Unexpected properties of NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-1) in Trichomonas vaginalis and other microaerophilic parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsch, David; Williams, Catrin F; Lloyd, David; Duchêne, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Our previous observation that NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-1) is down-regulated in metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis isolates prompted us to further characterise the enzyme. In addition to its canonical enzyme activity as a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, a pronounced, so far unknown, background NADPH-oxidising activity in absence of any added substrate was observed when the recombinant enzyme or T. vaginalis extract were used. This activity was strongly enhanced at low oxygen concentrations. Unexpectedly, all functions of ADH-1 were efficiently inhibited by coenzyme A which is a cofactor of a number of key enzymes in T. vaginalis metabolism, i.e. pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). These observations could be extended to Entamoeba histolytica and Tritrichomonas foetus, both of which have a homologue of ADH-1, but not to Giardia lamblia which lacks an NADP-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase. Although we could not identify the substrate of the observed background activity, we propose that ADH-1 functions as a major sink for NADPH in microaerophilic parasites at low oxygen tension. PMID:23578856

  19. Differential effects of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates on lepidopteran herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, René; de Vos, Martin; Sun, Joel Y; Sønderby, Ida E; Halkier, Barbara A; Wittstock, Ute; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Glucosinolates are a diverse group of defensive secondary metabolites that is characteristic of the Brassicales. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Brassicaceae) lines with mutations that greatly reduce abundance of indole glucosinolates (cyp79B2 cyp79B3), aliphatic glucosinolates (myb28 myb29), or both (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29) make it possible to test the in vivo defensive function of these two major glucosinolate classes. In experiments with Lepidoptera that are not crucifer-feeding specialists, aliphatic and indole glucosinolates had an additive effect on Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval growth, whereas Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Manduca sexta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) were affected only by the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates. In the case of two crucifer-feeding specialists, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), there were no major changes in larval performance due to decreased aliphatic and/or indole glucosinolate content. Nevertheless, choice tests show that aliphatic and indole glucosinolates act in an additive manner to promote larval feeding of both species and P. rapae oviposition. Together, these results support the hypothesis that a diversity of glucosinolates is required to limit the growth of multiple insect herbivores. PMID:20617455

  20. Study on biodegradable aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiwang Chen; Licheng Tan; Lie Chen; Yan, Yang; Xiaofeng Wang [Nanchang University, Nanchang (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering. Inst. of Polymer Materials]. E-mail: ywchen@ncu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    Progress on biodegradable aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters based on aliphatic and aromatic diacids, diols and ester monomers was reviewed. The aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability. Physical properties and biodegradability of copolyesters varied with chain length of the aliphatic polyester segment and atacticity of copolyesters. The process ability of copolyesters could be improved significantly after incorporating a stiff chain segment through copolymerization of aliphatic polyesters with an aromatic liquid crystal element. The aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters as a new type of biodegradable materials could replace some general plastics in certain applications, namely biomedical and environmental friendly fields. (author)

  1. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  2. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  3. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  4. Room Temperature Reactivity Of Silicon Nanocrystals With Solvents: The Case Of Ketone And Hydrogen Production From Secondary Alcohols: Catalysis?

    KAUST Repository

    El-Demellawi, Jehad

    2015-05-29

    Although silicon nanoparticles dispersed in liquids are used in various applications ranging from bio-labeling to hydrogen production, their reactivities with their solvents and their catalytic properties re-main still unexplored. Here, we discovered that, because of their surface structures and mechanical strain, silicon nanoparticles react strongly with their solvents and may act as catalysts for the dehydrogenation, at room temperature, of secondary alcohols (e.g. isopropanol) to ketones and hydrogen. This catalytic reaction was followed by gas chromatography, pH measurements, mass spectroscopy and solidstate NMR. This discovery provides new understanding of the role played by silicon nanoparticles, and nanosilicon in general, in their stability in solvents in general as well as being candidates in catalysis.

  5. Alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents in Flemish secondary school in Brussels: effects of type of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berten Hans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research regarding socio-economic differences in alcohol and drug use in adolescence yields mixed results. This study hypothesizes that (1 when using education type as a proxy of one's social status, clear differences will exist between students from different types of education, regardless of students' familial socio-economic background; (2 and that the effects of education type differ according to their cultural background. Methods Data from the Brussels youth monitor were used, a school survey administered among 1,488 adolescents from the 3rd to 6th year of Flemish secondary education. Data were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression models. Results Controlling for their familial background, the results show that native students in lower educational tracks use alcohol and cannabis more often than students in upper educational tracks. Such a relationship was not found for students from another ethnic background. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that research into health risks should take into account both adolescents' familial background and individual social position as different components of youngsters' socio-economic background.

  6. EFSA Panel on F ood Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 63, Revision 2 (FGE.63Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59 th and 6 9 th meeting s ) structurally related to saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched - chain carboxylic acids evaluated by EFSA in FGE.07 Rev4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 20 substances, the information is adequate. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  7. Removal of the acyl donor residue allows the use of simple alkyl esters as acyl donors for the dynamic kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, Gerard K.M.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Broxterman, Quirinus B.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols using a lipase and a ruthenium catalyst required some improvements to make it suitable for its use in an industrial process. The use of p-chlorophenyl acetate as acyl donor is not desirable in view of the toxicity of the side product. We herein re

  8. Analysis of aliphatic waxes associated with root periderm or exodermis from eleven plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Dylan K; Rice, Adam; Pollard, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Aliphatic waxes can be found in association with suberized tissues, including roots. Non-polar lipids were isolated by rapid solvent extraction of mature regions of intact roots from eleven angiosperms, including both monocots and dicots. The majority of roots analyzed were taproots or tuberous taproots that had undergone secondary growth and thus were covered by a suberized periderm. The exceptions therein were maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), which present a suberized exodermis. The analysis herein focused on aliphatic waxes, with particular emphasis on alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs). AHCs were widely distributed, absent from only one species, were found in both aerial and subterranean portions of tuberous taproots, and were associated with the fibrous roots of both maize and rice. Most species also contained monoacylglycerols, fatty alcohols and/or free fatty acids. Carrot (Daucus carrota L.) was the outlier, containing only free fatty acids, sterols, and polyacetylenes as identified components. Sterols were the only ubiquitous component across all roots analyzed. Monoacylglycerols of ω-hydroxy fatty acids were present in maize and rice root waxes. For species within the Brassiceae, wax compositions varied between subspecies or varieties and between aerial and subterranean portions of taproots. In addition, reduced forms of photo-oxidation products of ω-hydroxy oleate and its corresponding dicarboxylic acid (10,18-dihydroxy-octadec-8-enoate, 9,18-dihydroxy-octadec-10-enoate and 9-hydroxyoctadec-10-ene-1,18-dioate) were identified as naturally occurring suberin monomers in rutabaga (Brassica napus subsp. rapifera Metzg.) periderm tissues.

  9. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic visceral pain secondary to chronic non-alcoholic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapural, Leonardo; Rakic, Mladen

    2008-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) suppresses visceral response to colon distension in an animal model. In humans, it may be an effective therapy for chronic pain of pelvic origin, irritable bowel syndrome, and persistent unspecified abdominal pain. Described here is the case of SCS for 38-year-old woman with visceral pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis. Previous therapies included numerous endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies, multiple pancreatic duct stenting, chemical and surgical sympathectomies with short-lasting pain relief. After the initial evaluation, the patient underwent retrograde epidural differential block to determine possible source of pain. Delay in pain recurrence after block suggested that the origin of her pain was visceral. After the psychologic evaluation, the patient underwent SCS trial over 14 days. She had 2 trial leads placed epidurally via T9-T10 paramedian entry with the tips of both leads positioned at T6 vertebral body. During the trial, visual analog scale pain score decreased from 8 to 1 cm, Pain Disability Index from 62 to 14, and opioid use from 150 to 0 mg of morphine sulfate equivalent a day. After the completion of successful SCS trial, she was implanted with dual octrode leads and rechargeable pulse generator. Median pain scores decreased from 8 to 1 at 3 months after the implant. Pain Disability Index changed from 62 to 15. Opiate use decreased to none. It seems that SCS may have a significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of visceral pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis. PMID:18496389

  10. The secondary alcohol and aglycone metabolites of doxorubicin alter metabolism of human erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Misiti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthracyclines, a class of antitumor drugs widely used for the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies, cause a cumulative dose-dependent cardiac toxicity whose biochemical basis is unclear. Recent studies of the role of the metabolites of anthracyclines, i.e., the alcohol metabolite doxorubicinol and aglycone metabolites, have suggested new hypotheses about the mechanisms of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. In the present study, human red blood cells were used as a cell model. Exposure (1 h at 37ºC of intact human red blood cells to doxorubicinol (40 µM and to aglycone derivatives of doxorubicin (40 µM induced, compared with untreated red cells: i a ~2-fold stimulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP and ii a marked inhibition of the red cell antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (~20% and superoxide dismutase (~60%. In contrast to doxorubicin-derived metabolites, doxorubicin itself induced a slighter PPP stimulation (~35% and this metabolic event was not associated with any alteration in glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase or superoxide dismutase activity. Furthermore, the interaction of hemoglobin with doxorubicin and its metabolites induced a significant increase (~22% in oxygen affinity compared with hemoglobin incubated without drugs. On the basis of the results obtained in the present study, a new hypothesis, involving doxorubicinol and aglycone metabolites, has been proposed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the doxorubicin-induced red blood cell toxicity.

  11. Oxidation of ethoxylated fatty alcohols to alkylpolyglycol carboxylic acids using noble metals as catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagredos, Angelos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of ethoxylated fatty alcohols to the corresponding carboxylic acids through dehydrogenation/ oxidation using noble-metal catalysts has been studied. Ethoxylated primary aliphatic alcohols, ethoxylated random secondary aliphatic alcohols and ethoxylated alkylphenols have been converted to the corresponding acids in the presence of a base. The noble metal catalysts Palladium and Platinum were used without significant degradation of the ethoxyl chain in yields that exceeded 90%. On the other hand, the catalysts Rhodium and Ruthenium gave yields of about 80% and 60% respectively.La conversión de alcoholes grasos etoxilados a los correspondientes ácidos carboxílicos por deshidrogenación/ oxidación con metales nobles como catalizador ha sido estudiada. Alcoholes primarios alifáticos etoxilados, alcoholes alifáticos secundarios etoxilados al azar y alquilfenoles etoxilados han sido convertidos a los correspondientes ácidos en presencia de base. Los catalizadores paladio y platino fueron usados sin degradación significativa de las cadenas etoxiladas con un rendimiento que excedió del 90%. Por otra parte catalizadores de rodio y rutenio produjeron rendimientos del 80 y 60%, respectivamente.

  12. CONTENT OF SECONDARY METABOLITES WITH INSECTICIDAL AND REPELLENT ACTIVITY IN THE ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT AND ESSENTIAL OIL OF CHAEROPHYLLUM AROMATICUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. VORONOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most of plant secondary metaboliteshave a safety function to protect plants from pathogens and herbivorous. The important role in the protection of plants from insect pests plays terpenoids and their derivatives.We studied the Chaerophyllumaromaticumessential oil composition in order toreveal the substances which have an insecticidal and repellent activity. This knowledge can make us closer to understand the biochemical basis of host choice in phytophagous, such as close related species of aphids that feed and not feed on Ch.aromaticum.An alcoholic extract and essential oil of Ch.aromaticum were prepared and analyzed with gas chromatography. The alcoholic extract of Ch.aromaticumcontained 39 individual substances.Aninsecticidal and repellent activityis known for14 of them. The average content of sabinenduring the growing season was 15.8 per cent(3.06 and 23.68 per cent at the beginning and at the end of season respectfully.Pinene (13.87%, limonene (1%,γ-terpinene (9.32%, germacrene (6.27%, catechol (3.12%, hydroquinone (3.21% were also presented in the high concentration. Thymol (0.52%, hydrocoumarin (0.71%, β-caryophyllene (0.87%, trans-β-farnesene (4.91%, carotol (3.82% were rarely detected during the growing season. 3-hexen-1-ol which is the phytophagous predator attractant,was only found at the end of the spring in a concentration near 1.5 percent.The total concentrationof metabolites with insecticidal and repellent activity in the Ch. aromaticumessential oil was 6.49 per cent in May, 24.35 per cent in June, and 37.37 per cent in July.The component composition of theessential oil varied during the period of observation. Except of sabinen, catechol and hydroquinone were only presented at the beginning of May.In June the number of toxic componentsincreases to 10 substances, but in July decreases to 8 ones.

  13. Synthesis of novel naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and esters and their anticancer evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkathip, Boonsong; Akkarasamiyo, Sunisa; Hasitapan, Komkrit; Sittikul, Pichamon; Boonyalai, Nonlawat; Kongkathip, Ngampong

    2013-02-01

    Fourteen new naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and seventeen naphthoquinone aliphatic esters were synthesized in nine to ten steps from 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid with 9-25% overall yield for the amides, and 16-21% overall yield for the esters. The key step of the amide synthesis is a coupling reaction between amine and various aliphatic acids using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM) as a coupling agent while for the ester synthesis, DCC/DMAP or CDI was used as the coupling reagent between aliphatic acids and naphthoquinone alcohol. Both naphthoquinone amides and esters were evaluated for their anticancer activity against KB cells. It was found that naphthoquinone aliphatic amides showed stronger anticancer activity than those of the esters when the chains are longer than 7-carbon atoms. The optimum chain of amides is expected to be 16-carbon atoms. In addition, naphthoquinone aliphatic esters with α-methyl on the ester moiety possessed much stronger anticancer activity than the straight chains. Decatenation assay revealed that naphthoquinone amide with 16-carbon atoms chain at 15 μM and 20 μM can completely inhibit hTopoIIα activity while at 10 μM the enzyme activity was moderately inhibited. Molecular docking result also showed the same trend as the cytotoxicity and decatenation assay. PMID:23313636

  14. Bacterial isolates degrading aliphatic polycarbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, T; Hosoya, H; Tokiwa, Y

    1998-04-15

    Bacteria that degrade an aliphatic polycarbonate, poly(hexamethylene carbonate), were isolated from river water in Ibaraki. Prefecture, Japan, after enrichment in liquid medium containing poly(hexamethylene carbonate) suspensions as carbon source, and dilution to single cells. Four of the strains, 35L, WFF52, 61A and 61B2, degraded poly(hexamethylene carbonate) on agar plate containing suspended poly(hexamethylene carbonate). Degradation of poly(hexamethylene carbonate) was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography. Besides poly(hexamethylene carbonate), the strains were found to degrade poly(tetramethylene carbonate). The strains were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Strains 35L and WFF52 were tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Variovorax sp., respectively, while strains 61A and 61B2 constitute an unidentified branch within the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria.

  15. Comparative Studies on Mass Spectrometric Fragmentation of Linear Chiral Secondary Alcohols (R) -1-(4-Alkylphenyl) and (R) -1-(4-Alkoxyphenyl/Alkylthiophenyl) Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mass spectrometric behaviour of (R)-1-(4-alkylphenyl) alcohols, 1-(4-alkoxylphenyl) alcohols, and 1-(4-alkylthiophenyl) alcohols were studied with the aid of mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry under electron impact ionization. All the title compounds show a tendency to eliminate a water molecule to form alkene ions and undergo an a-cleavage to produce protonated aldehyde ions by the loss of alkyl radicals. Except these two common fragment ions, they also show some different fragmentations due to with or without oxy/thioether-linkage.

  16. Solvent-free oxidation of secondary alcohols to carbonyl compounds by 1, 3-Dibromo-5, 5-Dimethylhydantoin (DBDMH) and 1, 3-Dichloro-5, 5-Dimethylhydantoin (DCDMH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaei, Ardeshir; Abbasi, Fatemeh, E-mail: Khazaei_1326@yahoo.com, E-mail: fatemehabbasi807@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Organic Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kianiborazjani, Maryam [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Bushehr Payame Noor University (PNU), Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saednia, Shahnaz [Young Researchers Club, Toyserkan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Toyserkan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Aldehydes and ketones are important intermediates, especially for the construction of carbon-skeletons. The oxidation of alcohols is so important that a large number of methods and reagents have been reported for this purpose. N-halo reagents are widely used in organic synthesis and as a continuation of our interest in the application of N-halo compounds in organic synthesis, dibromo dimethylhydantoin (DBDMH) and dichloro dimethylhydantoin (DCDMH) were used for the oxidation of alcohols and our ongoing work on development of highly efficient oxidation protocols. We observed the oxidation of secondary alcohols with stoichiometric amounts of DBDMH and DCDMH under solvent-free conditions in the range of temperature 70-80 deg C. (author)

  17. Palladium-catalyzed dehydrative heck olefination of secondary aryl alcohols in ionic liquids: towards a waste-free strategy for tandem synthesis of stilbenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Shard, Amit; Bharti, Richa; Thopate, Yogesh; Sinha, Arun Kumar

    2012-03-12

    All in one: a tandem strategy has been developed wherein secondary aryl alcohols are directly coupled with aryl halides to provide stilbenoids through a dehydrative Heck sequence in the ionic liquid [hmim]Br, and with water as a by-product under microwave irradiation. Classical methods do not permit this sequence to proceed in one pot, and some methods require multiple steps. hmim=1-n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry. PMID:27191559

  19. Understanding young adult physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in community colleges and 4-year post-secondary institutions: A cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lust Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adults experience many adverse health behavior changes as they transition from adolescence into adulthood. A better understanding of the relationships between health promoting and risky health behaviors may aid in the development of health promotion interventions for various types of young adult post-secondary students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine associations between alcohol and tobacco use and physical activity among 2-year and 4-year college students. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using 2007 survey data, collected as part of an on-going post-secondary health surveillance system in Minnesota. Students were randomly selected to participant from 14 Minnesota colleges and universities (six 2-year community and/or technical colleges, eight 4-year post-secondary institutions. The 2007 surveillance data included 9,931 respondents. Results The prevalence of demographic characteristics and health behaviors (e.g., physical activity, tobacco use differed between young adults attending 2-year and 4-year post-secondary institutions; in general, those attending 2-year institutions are representative of more at-risk populations. Overall, higher levels of moderate, vigorous and strengthening physical activity were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and lower levels of smoking. In general, despite the disparities in the prevalence of these risk behaviors, the associations between the behaviors did not differ substantially between 2-year and 4-year post-secondary populations. Conclusions These findings illustrate links between leading risk behaviors. Interventions targeting multiple risk behaviors among young adults may warrant further consideration. Overall, future research is needed to support and inform young adult health promotion efforts that may be implemented in a wide array of post-secondary institutions.

  20. Study on the Synthesis and Biodegradation of Aliphatic Polyester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An aliphatic polyester, poly(hexalene adipate) (PHA) and an aliphatic copolyester, poly (hexalene adipate succinate) (PHAS) were synthesized by direct condensation of corresponding binary acid and binary alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, p-toluene sulfonic acid. The biodegradation of these polyesters were studied in the laboratory by enzyme attack and outdoor soil burial. The results show that these polyesters have good biodegradability and the copolyester PHAS, even displayed a better biodegradability than the polyester PHA. In the presence of Penicillium chrysogenum the weight loss reached 18.3% for the PHAS (film thickness 1.0 mm)and 9.1% for the PHA (film thickness 1.0 mm) after 28 days. Outdoor soil burial tests indicate that these polyesters also have good biodegradability in natural conditions. The weight loss reached 14.2% for PHAS (film thickness 0.1 mm) and 6.7% for PHA (film thickness 0.1mm) after burying in soil for 36 days.

  1. Tendencias en el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis de los escolares de Barcelona (1987-1999 Trends in tobacco, alcohol and cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils in Barcelona, Spain [1987-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ariza

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las tendencias en el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis entre los adolescentes escolarizados entre 1987 y 1999 de la ciudad de Barcelona. Métodos: Encuestas transversales realizadas a muestras representativas de escolares de segundo curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO entre 1987 y 1999. Los cuestionarios eran anónimos y autocontestados. Se dispone de datos de 5.013 escolares de la ciudad de Barcelona que participan en alguna de las 5 encuestas. Resultados: Tras disminuir de forma uniforme entre 1987 y 1996, en 1999 se observa un aumento del 13,4% en el consumo regular (diario o semanal de tabaco y del 38,7% en el consumo experimental de tabaco, respecto a las prevalencias observadas en 1996. Con respecto al consumo de alcohol, se observa una disminución global del 14% de los escolares que ha bebido al menos medio vaso de alcohol entre 1987 y 1999. El consumo problemático de alcohol se iguala en ambos sexos, y la proporción que declara haberse emborrachado alguna vez es en 1999 superior en las chicas (14,0% que en los chicos (10,5%. Mientras en 1996 un 6,9% declaraba haber probado cannabis, la proporción en 1999, sin diferencias entre sexos, era del 7,3% de la población estudiada. Conclusiones: En el período estudiado se observa un aumento del consumo regular de tabaco, una disminución del consumo de alcohol y una estabilización del consumo de cannabis. Las diferencias entre ambos sexos tienden a desaparecer.Objective: To describe trends in tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils in Barcelona between 1987 and 1999. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys administered to representative samples of pupils in the second year of secondary school between 1987 and 1999. The questionnaires were anonymous and self-completed. We present data from 5013 secondary school pupils from Barcelona who participated in one of the five surveys. Results: Regular smoking (daily and weekly showed a

  2. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based resilience intervention to decrease tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use in secondary school students: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodder Rebecca K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst schools provide a potentially appropriate setting for preventing substance use among young people, systematic review evidence suggests that past interventions in this setting have demonstrated limited effectiveness in preventing tobacco, alcohol and other drug use. Interventions that adopt a mental wellbeing approach to prevent substance use offer considerable promise and resilience theory provides one method to impact on adolescent mental well-being. The aim of the proposed study is to examine the efficacy of a resilience intervention in decreasing the tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the unit of randomisation will be undertaken. Thirty two schools in disadvantaged areas will be allocated to either an intervention or a control group. A comprehensive resilience intervention will be implemented, inclusive of explicit program adoption strategies. Baseline surveys will be conducted with students in Grade 7 in both groups and again three years later when the student cohort is in Grade 10. The primary outcome measures will include self-reported tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and other illicit drug use. Comparisons will be made post-test between Grade 10 students in intervention and control schools to determine intervention effectiveness across all measures. Discussion To the authors’ knowledge this is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive school-based resilience intervention, inclusive of explicit adoption strategies, in decreasing tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents attending disadvantaged secondary schools. Trial registration ACTRN12611000606987

  3. Microbial degradation of aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Kato, Satoshi; Shintani, Noboru; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Biodegradable plastics (BPs) have attracted much attention since more than a decade because they can easily be degraded by microorganisms in the environment. The development of aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability and an ideal replacement for the conventional nondegradable thermoplastics. The microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various aliphatic, aromatic, and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyester-degrading microorganisms and their enzymes have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. In this review, we have reported some new microorganisms and their enzymes which could degrade various aliphatic, aromatic, as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters like poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) (PBSA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydoxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalterate) (PHB/PHBV), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT), poly(butylene succinate-co-terephthalate) (PBST), and poly(butylene succinate/terephthalate/isophthalate)-co-(lactate) (PBSTIL). The mechanism of degradation of aliphatic as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has also been discussed. The degradation ability of microorganisms against various polyesters might be useful for the treatment and recycling of biodegradable wastes or bioremediation of the polyester-contaminated environments. PMID:24522729

  4. A biocatalytic approach towards sustainable furanic-aliphatic polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi; Woortman, Albert J. J.; van Ekenstein, Gert O. R. Alberda; Loos, Katja

    2015-01-01

    An eco-friendly approach towards furanic-aliphatic polyesters as sustainable alternatives to aromatic-aliphatic polyesters is presented. In this approach, biobased dimethyl 2,5-furandicarboxylate (DMFDCA) is polymerized with various (potentially) renewable aliphatic diols via Candida antarctica Lipa

  5. Alcohol and cannabis use among adolescents in Flemish secondary school in Brussels: effects of type of education

    OpenAIRE

    Berten Hans; Cardoen Dries; Brondeel Ruben; Vettenburg Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Research regarding socio-economic differences in alcohol and drug use in adolescence yields mixed results. This study hypothesizes that (1) when using education type as a proxy of one's social status, clear differences will exist between students from different types of education, regardless of students' familial socio-economic background; (2) and that the effects of education type differ according to their cultural background. Methods Data from the Brussels youth monitor ...

  6. Dual stereoselectivity in the dialkylzinc reaction using (-)-beta-pinene derived amino alcohol chiral auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Caitlin M; Bautista, April; Zaidlewicz, Marek; Krzemiński, Marek P; Oliver, Allen; Singaram, Bakthan

    2009-03-20

    (+)-Nopinone, prepared from naturally occurring (-)-beta-pinene, was converted to the two regioisomeric amino alcohols 3-MAP and 2-MAP in very good yield and excellent isomeric purity. Amino alcohol 3-MAP was synthesized by converting (+)-nopinone to the corresponding alpha-ketooxime. This was reduced to the primary amino alcohol and was converted to the morpholino group through a simple substitution reaction. 3-MAP was characterized by X-ray crystallography, which displayed the rigidity of the pinane framework. Amino alcohol 2-MAP was prepared from its trans isomer 2, which in turn was synthesized via hydroboration/oxidation of the morpholine enamine of (+)-nopinone. Two-dimensional NMR was used to characterize amino alcohol 2-MAP, and NOE was used to confirm its relative stereochemistry. These amino alcohols were employed as chiral auxiliaries in the addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde to obtain near-quantitative asymmetric induction in the products. The use of 3-MAP yielded (S)-phenylpropanol in 99% ee, and its regioisomer 2-MAP gave the opposite enantiomer, (R)-phenylpropanol, also in 99% ee. Other aromatic, aliphatic, and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes were implemented in this method, affording secondary alcohols in high yield and enantiomeric excess. Amino alcohols 2-MAP and 3-MAP were also found to be useful in the dimethylzinc addition reaction, both catalyzing the addition to benzaldehyde with nearly quantitative ee. Regioisomeric amino alcohols 2-MAP and 3-MAP, even though they were prepared from one enantiomer of nopinone, provide antipodal enantiofacial selectivity in the dialkylzinc addition reaction. This circumvents the necessity to synthesize amino alcohols derived from (-)-nopinone, which in turn requires the unnatural (+)-beta-pinene. Possible mechanistic insights are offered to explain the dual stereoselectivity observed in the diethylzinc addition reaction involving regioisomeric, pseudo-enantiomeric amino alcohols 3-MAP and 2-MAP.

  7. Elastic Compositions Based on Polyurethane/ Aliphatic Polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliphatic polyesters were prepared by melt condensation reaction of a dicarboxylic acid such as adipic and sebacic with different types of diol compounds in 1: 1.1 molar ratio. Ethylene glycol, di-, trio, tetra ethylene glycol and poly( ethylene glycol) with different molecular weights 1000, 4000, 6000 as well as the prepared hydroxy natural rubber were used as diol compounds. Polyurethane, with NCO/OH ratio equal 4, was synthesized from the reaction of toluene diisocyanate with poly(ethylene glycol) 1 000. The prepared polyurethane was mixed with different weight percentages of the prepared aliphatic polyesters. The film samples were tested mechanically, electrically and chemically. The results show that the weight percentage 10% of the added polyadipate or poly sebacate glycols improves flexibility, electrical volume resistivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss of unmodified rigid polyurethane film sample as well as reduces its swelling by aromatic solvents. All the above mentioned properties improve by increasing the hydrocarbon chain length of the glycol portion in the glycol used and the number of methylene in the aliphatic dicarboxylic acid. Compositions based on hydroxy natural rubber impart better properties than those based on ethylene glycols

  8. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 7, Revision 4 (FGE.07Rev4): Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids from chemical group 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For three substances [FL-no: 02.194, 02.211 and 02.255] the stereoisomeric compositions have not been given and for one substance [FL-no: 07.156] information on the composition of the stereoisomeric mixture is lacking....

  9. Corrosion inhibition of brass by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliphatic amines hexylamine (HCA), octylamine (OCA) and decylamine (DCA) have been used as corrosion inhibitors for (70/30) brass in 0.I M HCIO4. The inhibitor efficiency (%P) calculated using weight loss, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization and impedance methods was found to be in the order DCA> OCA> HCA. These adsorb on brass surface following bockris-swinkels' isotherm. DCA, OCA and HCA displaced 4, 3 and 2 molecules of water from interface respectively. Displacement of water molecules brought a great reorganization of double layer at the interface. These amines during corrosion form complexes with dissolved zinc and copper ions.(Author)

  10. Homoeologous GSL-ELONG gene replacement for manipulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa L. by marker assisted selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind H. Hirani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic glucosinolates are the predominant sulphur-rich plant secondary metabolites in economically important Brassica crops. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are involved in plant-microbe, plant-insect, plant-animal and plant-human interactions. It is, therefore, important to manipulate glucosinolate profiles and contents in Brassica species. In this study, aliphatic glucosinolates were genetically manipulated through homoeologous recombination in backcross lines followed by marker assisted selection in B. rapa. A resynthesized B. napus line, from a cross between B. rapa and B. oleracea, was backcrossed with Chinese cabbage doubled haploid line, RI16. Marker assisted selection for non-functional gene was performed in each backcross generations. Advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 were developed to identify homoeologous gene replacement and/or introgression. Reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates (gluconapoleiferin, glucoalyssin and glucobrassicanapin was observed in BC3F2 progenies of the recurrent parent that carried the GSL-ELONG gene. The GSL-ELONG positive backcross progenies were also screened by the A-genome and BraGSL-ELONG gene specific marker, which linked with 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The A-genome specific marker was absent in the plants of advanced backcross progenies which showed reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The results suggest that the functional allele had been replaced by the non-functional GSL-ELONG allele from B. oleracea. Some advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 positive for the GSL-ELONG allele and the A-genome specific SCAR marker BraMAM1-1 did not show reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates, suggesting that GSL-ELONG allele is recessive. Replacement of the functional locus in the A genome by non-functional counterpart in the C genome reduced the content of 5C aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa seeds with 20 micromoles per gram.

  11. Olfactory discrimination ability for aliphatic esters in squirrel monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, M; Freyer, D

    1997-08-01

    Using a behavioral paradigm designed to simulate olfactory-guided foraging, the ability of five squirrel monkeys to distinguish iso-amyl acetate from n- and iso-forms of other acetic esters (ethyl acetate to decyl acetate) and from other esters carrying the iso-amyl group (iso-amyl propionate to iso-amyl capronate) was investigated. We found (i) that all five animals were clearly able to discriminate between all odor pairs tested; (ii) a significant negative correlation between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length of both the aliphatic alcohol group and the aliphatic acid group of the esters; and (iii) that iso- and n-amyl acetate were perceived as qualitatively similar despite different steric conformation. Using a triple-forced choice procedure, 20 human subjects were tested on the same tasks in parallel and showed a very similar pattern of discrimination performance compared with the squirrel monkeys. Thus, the results of this study provide evidence of well-developed olfactory discrimination ability in squirrel monkeys for aliphatic esters and support the assumption that human and non-human primates may share common principles of odor quality perception. PMID:9279468

  12. Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic polycarbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artham, Trishul; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Polycarbonate is one of the most widely used engineering plastics because of its superior physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Understanding the biodegradation of this polymer is of great importance to answer the increasing problems in waste management of this polymer. Aliphatic polycarbonates are known to biodegrade either through the action of pure enzymes or by bacterial whole cells. Very little information is available that deals with the biodegradation of aromatic polycarbonates. Biodegradation is governed by different factors that include polymer characteristics, type of organism, and nature of pretreatment. The polymer characteristics such as its mobility, tacticity, crystallinity, molecular weight, the type of functional groups and substituents present in its structure, and plasticizers or additives added to the polymer all play an important role in its degradation. The carbonate bond in aliphatic polycarbonates is facile and hence this polymer is easily biodegradable. On the other hand, bisphenol A polycarbonate contains benzene rings and quaternary carbon atoms which form bulky and stiff chains that enhance rigidity. Even though this polycarbonate is amorphous in nature because of considerable free volume, it is non-biodegradable since the carbonate bond is inaccessible to enzymes because of the presence of bulky phenyl groups on either side. In order to facilitate the biodegradation of polymers few pretreatment techniques which include photo-oxidation, gamma-irradiation, or use of chemicals have been tested. Addition of biosurfactants to improve the interaction between the polymer and the microorganisms, and blending with natural or synthetic polymers that degrade easily, can also enhance the biodegradation.

  13. Controlled release of volatile secondary and tertiary alcohols by neighboring group participation: stepwise cyclization and re-opening of 2,2'-bis(carbamoyl)dibenzoates at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Alain; Govoni, Alexandra; de Saint Laumer, Jean-Yves; Frérot, Eric; Herrmann, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    Bioactive, volatile, secondary and tertiary fragrance alcohols are efficiently released by intramolecular neighboring-group-assisted hydrolysis of 2,2'-bis(carbamoyl)dibenzoates at neutral pH. The stepwise cyclization of 2,2'-[(methylimino)bis(propane-3,1-diylcarbamoyl)]dibenzoates is followed by the re-opening of the intermediately formed diphthalimide and proceeds in an overall four-step consecutive reaction sequence. Kinetic rate constants for all four reaction steps could be determined pairwise by reversed-phase HPLC. At neutral pH, secondary alcohols were released by one order of magnitude faster than the tertiary alcohols, and the rate constants for the re-opening of the diphthalimides were found to be in the same order of magnitude as the release of the tertiary alcohols. Dynamic headspace analysis on a dry cotton surface finally confirmed the efficient release of tertiary alcohols under mild reaction conditions generally encountered for applications in functional perfumery. PMID:19089821

  14. Thermodynamics of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in alcohol solutions: Calorimetry of solution, IR-spectroscopy and vapor pressure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Ksenia V.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2012-06-01

    The properties of solutes and their reactivity in aliphatic alcohols significantly depend on the formation of hydrogen bonds. In this work, calorimetric, FTIR-spectroscopic and gas chromatographic vapor pressure studies of hydrogen bonds of weak bases in solution of aliphatic alcohols were carried out. Enthalpies of solutions at infinite dilution of ketones, nitriles and acetates in methanol and octan-1-ol were measured. Obtained from the calorimetric data, the enthalpies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols unexpectedly found to be positive. IR spectra of solutions of ketones in aliphatic alcohols at infinite dilution were measured at different temperatures. Enthalpies of specific interaction in studied systems obtained from the spectroscopic data confirmed the endothermic process and are in good agreement with calorimetric results. Gibbs energies and entropies of specific interaction of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols were determined. Obtained results show, that the hydrogen bonding process of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols differs substantially from the formation of complexes 1:1 ROH⋯B (B - weak proton acceptor) in aprotic media. The complicated process of hydrogen bonding of weak bases in aliphatic alcohols apparently is controlled by the entropy factor, because these values are above zero.

  15. Iodine-Catalyzed Prins Cyclization of Homoallylic Alcohols and Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and aldehydes was investigated under metal-free conditions and without additives. Anhydrous conditions and inert atmosphere are not required. The reaction of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-ylpropan-1-ol and 21 aldehydes (aliphatic and aromatic in CH2Cl2 in the presence of 5 mol % of iodine gave 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[f]isochromenes in 54%–86% yield. Under similar conditions, the Prins cyclization of six alcohols containing an endocyclic double bond (primary, secondary, or tertiary led to dihydropyrans in 52%–91% yield. The acyclic homoallylic alcohols gave 4-iodo-tetrahydropyran in 29%–41% yield in the presence of 50 mol % of iodine. This type of substrate is the main limitation of the methodology. The relative configuration of the products was assigned by NMR and X-ray analysis. The mechanism and the ratio of the products are discussed, based on DFT calculations.

  16. 2-Butanol and butanone production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through combination of a B12 dependent dehydratase and a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase using a TEV-based expression system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Ghiaci

    Full Text Available 2-Butanol and its chemical precursor butanone (methyl ethyl ketone--MEK are chemicals with potential uses as biofuels and biocommodity chemicals. In order to produce 2-butanol, we have demonstrated the utility of using a TEV-protease based expression system to achieve equimolar expression of the individual subunits of the two protein complexes involved in the B12-dependent dehydratase step (from the pdu-operon of Lactobacillus reuteri, which catalyze the conversion of meso-2,3-butanediol to butanone. We have furthermore identified a NADH dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (Sadh from Gordonia sp. able to catalyze the subsequent conversion of butanone to 2-butanol. A final concentration of 4±0.2 mg/L 2-butanol and 2±0.1 mg/L of butanone was found. A key factor for the production of 2-butanol was the availability of NADH, which was achieved by growing cells lacking the GPD1 and GPD2 isogenes under anaerobic conditions.

  17. Selectively tritiated primary alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is suggested for the preparation of aliphatic primary alcohols selectively tritiated in the alpha position. The tritium donor is HTO; out of the catalysts tested, dichlorotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(VI) gave the best results. The isotopic exchange can be performed over the temperature region of 130-200 degC. The amount of side products formed is negligible. The specific activity of the product is determined by the specific activity of HTO used and by the reactant ratio. The method is analogous to the reaction with D2O described by S.L. Regen in 1974. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs

  18. Thermal stability of aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the molar mass (generation, number and type of end groups on the thermal stability of aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters are presented in this study. Different end groups were obtained by modification of the samples with chlorides of propionic acid and stearic acid. The thermal stability of the hyperbranched polyesters was determined by thermogravimetry using a NET-ZSCH TG 209 instrument in nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10°C/min. A comparison of the temperatures obtained for mass losses of 5 20 and 40 wt% for unmodified samples showed that the thermal stability increased up to the fourth generation and then remained practically constant. An increase in the thermal stability of modified samples of the second, third and fourth generation was observed.

  19. Development of aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Gautam, Santosh; Liu, Li; Dey, Jagannath; Chen, Wei; Mason, Ralph P.; Serrano, Carlos A.; Schug, Kevin A.; Tang, Liping

    2009-01-01

    None of the current biodegradable polymers can function as both implant materials and fluorescent imaging probes. The objective of this study was to develop aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers (BPLPs) and their associated cross-linked variants (CBPLPs) for biomedical applications. BPLPs are degradable oligomers synthesized from biocompatible monomers including citric acid, aliphatic diols, and various amino acids via a convenient and cost-effective polycondensation reaction. BPLPs can be further cross-linked into elastomeric cross-linked polymers, CBPLPs. We have shown representatively that BPLP-cysteine (BPLP-Cys) and BPLP-serine (BPLP-Ser) offer advantages over the traditional fluorescent organic dyes and quantum dots because of their preliminarily demonstrated cytocompatibility in vitro, minimal chronic inflammatory responses in vivo, controlled degradability and high quantum yields (up to 62.33%), tunable fluorescence emission (up to 725 nm), and photostability. The tensile strength of CBPLP-Cys film ranged from 3.25 ± 0.13 MPa to 6.5 ± 0.8 MPa and the initial Modulus was in a range of 3.34 ± 0.15 MPa to 7.02 ± 1.40 MPa. Elastic CBPLP-Cys could be elongated up to 240 ± 36%. The compressive modulus of BPLP-Cys (0.6) (1:1:0.6 OD:CA:Cys) porous scaffold was 39.60 ± 5.90 KPa confirming the soft nature of the scaffolds. BPLPs also possess great processability for micro/nano-fabrication. We demonstrate the feasibility of using BPLP-Ser nanoparticles (“biodegradable quantum dots”) for in vitro cellular labeling and noninvasive in vivo imaging of tissue engineering scaffolds. The development of BPLPs and CBPLPs represents a new direction in developing fluorescent biomaterials and could impact tissue engineering, drug delivery, bioimaging. PMID:19506254

  20. Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic polycarbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artham, Trishul; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Polycarbonate is one of the most widely used engineering plastics because of its superior physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Understanding the biodegradation of this polymer is of great importance to answer the increasing problems in waste management of this polymer. Aliphatic polycarbonates are known to biodegrade either through the action of pure enzymes or by bacterial whole cells. Very little information is available that deals with the biodegradation of aromatic polycarbonates. Biodegradation is governed by different factors that include polymer characteristics, type of organism, and nature of pretreatment. The polymer characteristics such as its mobility, tacticity, crystallinity, molecular weight, the type of functional groups and substituents present in its structure, and plasticizers or additives added to the polymer all play an important role in its degradation. The carbonate bond in aliphatic polycarbonates is facile and hence this polymer is easily biodegradable. On the other hand, bisphenol A polycarbonate contains benzene rings and quaternary carbon atoms which form bulky and stiff chains that enhance rigidity. Even though this polycarbonate is amorphous in nature because of considerable free volume, it is non-biodegradable since the carbonate bond is inaccessible to enzymes because of the presence of bulky phenyl groups on either side. In order to facilitate the biodegradation of polymers few pretreatment techniques which include photo-oxidation, gamma-irradiation, or use of chemicals have been tested. Addition of biosurfactants to improve the interaction between the polymer and the microorganisms, and blending with natural or synthetic polymers that degrade easily, can also enhance the biodegradation. PMID:17849431

  1. Ecotoxicologically based environmental risk limits for several volatile aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong FMW de; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; Verbruggen EMJ; SEC

    2007-01-01

    This report describes ecotoxicological environmental risk limits derived for a number of volatile aliphatic hydrocarbons. On the basis of evaluated literature, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) proposes ecotoxicological environmental risk limits for these compounds

  2. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  3. Extent to Which Selected Factors Contribute to Alcohol and Cigarette Use among Public Day Secondary Schools Male Students: A Case of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteyo, John; Kariuki, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The increase in alcohol and cigarettes use among young people than any population strata is of great concern. The use of alcohol that began in African traditional society as an activity for political, religious, cultural and social relations has evolved over time into a problem of dependence and addiction. Despite concerted prevention efforts,…

  4. Aliphatic esters as targets of esterase activity in the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Liao, Ling-Hsiu; Jogesh, Tania; Berenbaum, May R

    2012-02-01

    As a specialist on the reproductive structures of Pastinaca sativa and species in the related genus Heracleum, the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella) routinely encounters a distinctive suite of phytochemicals in hostplant tissues. Little is known, however, about the detoxification mechanisms upon which this species relies to metabolize these compounds. In this study, larval guts containing hostplant tissues were homogenized, and metabolism was determined by incubating reactions with and without NADPH and analyzing for substrate disappearance and product appearance by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we found indications of carboxylesterase activity, in the form of appropriate alcohol metabolites for three aliphatic esters in hostplant tissues-octyl acetate, octyl butyrate, and hexyl butyrate. Involvement of webworm esterases in hostplant detoxification subsequently was confirmed with metabolism assays with pure compounds. This study is the first to implicate esterases in lepidopteran larval midgut metabolism of aliphatic esters, ubiquitous constituents of flowers and fruits. In addition, this method confirmed that webworms detoxify furanocoumarins and myristicin in their hostplants via cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism, and demonstrated that these enzymes also metabolize the coumarin osthol and the fatty acid derivative palmitolactone. PMID:22350520

  5. Electrochemical oxidation of aliphatic amines and their attachment to carbon and metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenier, Alain; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Gallardo, Iluminada; Pinson, Jean; Vilà, Neus

    2004-09-14

    The electrochemical oxidation of aliphatic amines (primary, secondary, and tertiary) has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and preparative electrolysis. The oxidation mechanisms have been established, and the lifetimes of the radical cations have been measured for secondary and tertiary amines. These results have been put in parallel with the attachment of amines to glassy carbon, Au, and Pt electrodes by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). It is then possible to show that it is not the radical cation but the radical obtained after the deprotonation which reacts with the electrode surface. XPS results also point to the existence of a covalent bond between Au or Pt and the organic moiety.

  6. Alcoholism - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  7. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  8. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  9. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Gaete-Eastman, Carlos; Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H.

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where ...

  10. Reducing drinking to cope among heavy episodic drinking college women: Secondary outcomes of a web-based combined alcohol use and sexual assault risk reduction intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Bountress, Kaitlin E

    2016-10-01

    College students are at high risk for engaging in heavy episodic drinking and for experiencing sexual assault. Further, drinking to cope with anxiety motives are associated with sexual assault history and drinking, and thus should be examined when targeting both sexual assault and drinking in college populations. The current study examined the effectiveness of decreasing coping with anxiety drinking motives among underage heavy episodic drinking college women (n=264). Results indicate that a web-based combined alcohol use and sexual assault risk reduction intervention was effective at decreasing drinking to cope with anxiety motives among those with stronger drinking to cope with anxiety motives at baseline. However, the alcohol-only and sexual assault-only interventions were not. Decreases in drinking motives were associated with decreases in heavy episodic drinking. This suggests that alcohol interventions in college populations may not be effectively targeting drinking motives and this preliminary study provides evidence indicating that targeting alcohol and sexual assault together may decrease drinking to cope motives among a high risk population. PMID:27262965

  11. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  12. Introducing Aliphatic Substitution with a Discovery Experiment Using Competing Electrophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Timothy P.; Mostovoy, Amelia J.; Curran, Margaret E.; Berger, Clara

    2016-01-01

    A facile, discovery-based experiment is described that introduces aliphatic substitution in an introductory undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. Unlike other discovery-based experiments that examine substitution using two competing nucleophiles with a single electrophile, this experiment compares two isomeric, competing electrophiles…

  13. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop ...

  14. ODD-EVEN EFFECT OF LYOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE PROPERTIES OF AROMATIC-ALIPHATIC COPOLYAMIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-zhong Lu; Yan-qing Lian; Xiao-gong Wang; Qi-xiang Zhou; Dc-shah Liu

    2001-01-01

    A series of aromatic-aliphatic copolyamides containing different aliphatic diamine units was synthesized by low temperature solution polycondensation. The liquid crystalline critical concentration (c*) and liquid crystalline critical temperature (7*) of these copolyamides exhibited an odd-even zigzag effect with the odd-even variation of carbon atom number in the aliphatic dimes used.

  15. Segregation and Alteration of Phenolic and Aliphatic Components of Root and Leaf Litter by Detritivores and Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, T. R.; Altmann, J.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Kalbitz, K.; Gamblin, D.; Nierop, K.

    2012-12-01

    The physical and microbial transformation of plant detritus in the litter layer and soil is accompanied by chemical separation of progressively soluble fractions and their movement into the rhizosphere driving subsequent soil processes. We investigated the combined action of specific detritivores, microbial decay, and leaching on the chemical separation of plant aromatic and aliphatic components from root, wood, and leaf tissue using 13C-TMAH thermochemolysis. This method enabled the simultaneous analysis of hydrolyzable tannin and lignin fragments, substituted fatty acids, and condensed tannin composition and revealed process-specific chemical transformations to plant secondary compounds. Long-term incubation and field sampling demonstrated how plant residues are progressively leached of the water soluble, oxidized fragments generated through decay. The residues appeared only slightly altered, in the case of brown rot wood, or enriched in aliphatic fragments, in the case of leaf and root tissue. Water extractable fractions were always selectively dominated by polyphenolics, either as demethylated lignin or tannins, and nearly devoid of aliphatic materials, despite high concentrations in the starting materials. Additionally, for plant materials with high tannin contents, such as pine needles, consumption and passage through some arthropod guts revealed what appeared to be microbially-mediated methylation of phenols, and a loss of tannins in leachates. These findings are indications for an in-situ phenol detoxification mechanism. This research provides important information regarding the links between biochemical decay and the chemical nature of organic matter removed and remaining in the soil profile.

  16. Platinum-Catalyzed, Terminal-Selective C(sp(3))-H Oxidation of Aliphatic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Sanford, Melanie S

    2015-10-14

    This Communication describes the terminal-selective, Pt-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H oxidation of aliphatic amines without the requirement for directing groups. CuCl2 is employed as a stoichiometric oxidant, and the reactions proceed in high yield at Pt loadings as low as 1 mol%. These transformations are conducted in the presence of sulfuric acid, which reacts with the amine substrates in situ to form ammonium salts. We propose that protonation of the amine serves at least three important roles: (i) it renders the substrates soluble in the aqueous reaction medium; (ii) it limits binding of the amine nitrogen to Pt or Cu; and (iii) it electronically deactivates the C-H bonds proximal to the nitrogen center. We demonstrate that this strategy is effective for the terminal-selective C(sp(3))-H oxidation of a variety of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. PMID:26439251

  17. The relationship between third-codon position nucleotide content, codon bias, mRNA secondary structure and gene expression in the drosophilid alcohol dehydrogenase genes Adh and Adhr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, D B; Chen, Y; Stephan, W

    2001-01-01

    To gain insights into the relationship between codon bias, mRNA secondary structure, third-codon position nucleotide distribution, and gene expression, we predicted secondary structures in two related drosophilid genes, Adh and Adhr, which differ in degree of codon bias and level of gene expression. Individual structural elements (helices) were inferred using the comparative method. For each gene, four types of randomization simulations were performed to maintain/remove codon bias and/or to maintain or alter third-codon position nucleotide composition (N3). In the weakly expressed, weakly biased gene Adhr, the potential for secondary structure formation was found to be much stronger than in the highly expressed, highly biased gene Adh. This is consistent with the observation of approximately equal G and C percentages in Adhr ( approximately 31% across species), whereas in Adh the N3 distribution is shifted toward C (42% across species). Perturbing the N3 distribution to approximately equal amounts of A, G, C, and T increases the potential for secondary structure formation in Adh, but decreases it in Adhr. On the other hand, simulations that reduce codon bias without changing N3 content indicate that codon bias per se has only a weak effect on the formation of secondary structures. These results suggest that, for these two drosophilid genes, secondary structure is a relatively independent, negative regulator of gene expression. Whereas the degree of codon bias is positively correlated with level of gene expression, strong individual secondary structural elements may be selected for to retard mRNA translation and to decrease gene expression. PMID:11606539

  18. Fatty Aldehyde and Fatty Alcohol Metabolism: Review and Importance for Epidermal Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, William B.

    2013-01-01

    Normal fatty aldehyde and alcohol metabolism is essential for epidermal differentiation and function. Long-chain aldehydes are produced by catabolism of several lipids including fatty alcohols, sphingolipids, ether glycerolipids, isoprenoid alcohols and certain aliphatic lipids that undergo α- or ω-oxidation. The fatty aldehyde generated by these pathways is chiefly metabolized to fatty acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, alternately known as ALDH3A2), which also functions to oxidize...

  19. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  20. Hypervalent iodine/TEMPO-mediated oxidation in flow systems: a fast and efficient protocol for alcohol oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Ambreen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypervalent iodine(III/TEMPO-mediated oxidation of various aliphatic, aromatic and allylic alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds was successfully achieved by using microreactor technology. This method can be used as an alternative for the oxidation of various alcohols achieving excellent yields and selectivities in significantly shortened reaction times.

  1. Dehydrogenative Coupling of Primary Alcohols To Form Esters Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Madsen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] catalyzes the direct condensation of primary alcohols into esters and lactones with the release of hydrogen gas. The reaction is most effective with linear aliphatic alcohols and 1,4-diols and is believed to proceed with a ruthenium dihydride as the c...

  2. Biodegradation of Trihalomethanes and Other Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    The biological dehalogenation of common water pollutants such as trichloromethane (chloroform) and other halogenated aliphatic compounds was the subject of this project. Samples from diverse water environments such as from groundwater contaminated with halogenated compounds and wastewaters from regional treatment plants were studied to identify conditions that favor certain dehalogenation reactions over others. Gene probe analyses of DNA extracted from the dichlormethane-degrading wastewater indicated the presence of the gene coding for dichloromethane dehalogenase, indicating the genetic basis for the dechlorination activity observed. These studies indicate that methanogenic bacteria are the organisms responsible for the chloroform dechlorination. Dechlorination of a common chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11) was identified in samples taken from a regional aquifer contaminated with halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  3. Aliphatics hydrocarbon content in surface sediment from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAzis, M.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary aliphatic hydrocarbons content have been studied quantitatively and qualitatively using GC/MS method in eight coastal stations located in the Jakarta Bay, North of Jakarta, Indonesia. The total concentrations n-alkanes have ranged from 480 μg.kg-1to 1,935 μg.kg-1sediment dry weight. Several ratios (e.g. CPI24-32, NAR, TAR, Pr/Phy, n-C17/Pr, n- C18/Phyt,n-C29/n-C17, Ʃn-alkanes/n-C16LMW/HMW, Paq and TMD) were used to evaluate the possible sources of terrestrial-marine inputs of these hydrocarbons in the sediments. The various origins of aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally biogenic, including both terrigenous and marine, with an anthropogenic pyrolytic contribution (petrogenic and biogenic combustion). Two stations (G,H) were thehighest concentration and had potential risk to environment

  4. Swift Heavy Ion Induced Modification of Aliphatic Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the high energy heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers is studied. Two polymer groups, namely polyvinyl polymers (PVF, PVAc, PVA and PMMA) and fluoropolymers (PVDF, ETFE, PFA and FEP) were used in this work. Polyvinyl polymers were investigated since they will be used as insulating materials in the superconducting magnets of the new ion accelerators of the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz-Centre of Heavy I...

  5. Reactions of aliphatic free radicals with transition metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulse radiolytic study of the reactions of copper ions with free aliphatic radicals was carried out. It was found that all the aliphatic radicals studied react with Cusub(aq)sup(+) and Cusub(aq)sup(2+), forming an unstable compound, with a carbon-copper σ bond, according to the reaction Mnsub(aq)sup(n+)+ . CR1R2R3 → M-CR1R2Rsub(3)sup(n+). It was also found that the rates of formation of the intermediate compounds, their half-lives and their decomposition mechanism depend on the properties of the radical and the cation. Experiments for the determination of the influence of macrocyclic ligands of the Curtis type on the stability of intermediate compounds failed because of insufficient concentrations of these ligands. The processes of ligand hydridization, isomerization and decomposition for the macrocylic complexes Cusup(I)L were also studied. These complexes, which are unstable, are formed as a result of the reaction of the stable Cusup(II)L complexes with certain free aliphatic radicals

  6. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  7. Aqueous Media Oxidation of Alcohols with Ammonium Persulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IMANZADEH, Gholam Hassan; ZAMANLOO, Mohammad R.; MANSOORI, Yaghoob; KHODAYARI, Ali

    2007-01-01

    Oxidation of series of various primary and secondary alcohols to corresponding carbonyl compounds with ammonium persulfate in aqueous media was described. No over oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids and secondary alcohols to esters was observed. Under such conditions benzoin was converted to benzoic acid.

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) have similar missions and therefore similar facilities and structures in similar environments. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of an applied coating system. The most common topcoats used in coating systems are polyurethanes that contain isocyanates. Isocyanates are classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes resulting in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) quantifies the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coatings. The estimates in this CBA are to be used for assessing the relative merits of the selected alternatives. The actual economic effects at any specific facility will depend on the alternative material or technology implemented, the number of actual applications converted, future workloads, and other factors . The participants initially considered eighteen (18) alternative coatings as described in the Potential Alternatives Report entitled Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB. Of those, 8 alternatives were selected for testing in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, and the Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives 10 Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both of which were prepared by ITB. A joint Test Report entitled Joint Test Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB, documents the results of the laboratory and field testing, as well as any

  9. Application of the ERAS model to volumetric properties of binary mixtures of banana oil with primary and secondary alcohols (C1-C4) at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Mahboobe [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarei, Hosseinali, E-mail: zareih@basu.ac.i [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The densities of binary mixtures of {l_brace}isoamyl acetate + alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol){r_brace}, including those of pure liquids, over the entire composition range were measured at temperatures (293.15 to 333.15) K and atmospheric pressure by means of a vibrating-tube densimeter. The excess molar volume, V{sub m}{sup E}, thermal expansion coefficients, {alpha}, and their excess values, {alpha}{sup E}, were calculated from density data. The V{sub m}{sup E} values are positive over the entire range of composition and temperature and become more positive with increasing temperature for all of the mixtures except for the (isoamyl acetate + methanol) mixture. The V{sub m}{sup E} values were correlated by Redlich-Kister equation and the extended real associated solution (ERAS) model was used for describing V{sub m}{sup E} values at T = 303.15 K.

  10. Comparison of finishing application for aliphatic polyurethane dispersions and polyurethane/polyacrylate composite emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, S; Zhang, Zhongyi

    2010-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic cationic aqueous polyurethane (PU-1, PU-2), aliphatic anionic aqueous polyurethanes (PU-3, PU-4) were prepared with polyether glycol, polyether polyol, toluene diisocyanate and isophorone diisocyanate as raw materials. The core-shell polyurethane/polyacrylate composite emulsions (PUA-5, PUA-6) as well as interpenetrating PUA composite emulsions (PUA-7,PUA-8) were prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization, the aliphatic anionic aqueous PU dispersions were used as seed p...

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Aliphatic-Aromatic Hyperbranched Polyesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐黎明; 张晓龙; 邱藤; 刘德山

    2002-01-01

    Hyperbranched polymers possess special architectures and have potential applications in various areas. In this study, two AB2 monomers, dipropyl 5-(hydroxyethoxy) isophthalate (I) and 5-hydroxyethoxyisophthaic acid (II), were prepared. By bulk polycondensation of each monomer, two aliphatic-aromatic hyperbranched polyesters were prepared and characterized by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared with all-aromatic hyperbranched polyesters, the prepared polymers showed lower glass transition temperatures in connection with the moderate decrease in their decomposition temperatures.

  12. Synthesis of aliphatic amidediol and used as a novel mixed plasticizer for thermoplastic starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian She Zhang; Jiu Gao Yu; Ying Wu; Xiao Fei Ma

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,aliphatic amidediol was synthesized and mixed with glycerol used as a plasticizer for preparing thermoplastic starch (AGPTPS).The yield of aliphatic amidediol was 91%.FT-IR expressed that the mixture of aliphatic amidediol and glycerol formed stronger and stable hydrogen bond with starch molecules compared to the native cornstarch.By scanning electron microscope (SEM) native cornstarch granules were proved to transfer to a homogeneous continuous system.After being stored for a period time at room temperature,the mechanical properties of AGPTPS were also studied.As a mixed plasticizer,aliphatic amidediol and glycerol would be practical to extend TPS application scopes.

  13. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  14. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  15. Polarized Raman spectra and intensities of aliphatic amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmler, Hans J.; Eysel, Hans H.

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectra of aliphatic α- L-amino acids, glycine, alanine, and valine were re-investigated both in aqueous solution and deuterium oxide solution. The spectra were taken of the zwitterionic and of the completely deprotonated form of the amino acids. Spectra of leucine and isoleucine were studied in water at the isoelectric point. Spectra were recorded both with parallel and perpendicular polarization and the isotropic and anisotropic scattering components were isolated. The integrated intensities of CH stretch, CC stretch and carboxylate bend vibrations are discussed. Linear relations between the number of CC and CH bonds and the total scattered intensity in the appropriate spectral regions are observed. The sum over the carboxylate modes shows characteristic intensities for the first three members of the aliphatic amino acids. An increase of isotropic scattering of ϱ co 2 near 510 cm -1 with increasing chain length of the amino acid (or with increasing concentration) is interpreted as the result of micelle formation.

  16. Ultrasonic and Volumetric Investigations of -Butyrolactone with Aliphatic Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Jyothi Koppula

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Densities ( and speeds of sound (u have been determined for the binary liquid mixtures of -butyrolactone (GBL with 1-propanol (1-Pro, 2-propanol (2-Pro, 1-butanol (1-But and 2-butanol (2-But at 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K and entire composition range. From the experimental results, the excess molar volume (V E , and deviation in isentropic compressibility (s were calculated. The computed properties have been fitted to a Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation to derive binary coefficients and standard deviations.

  17. Refractive indices of ternary liquid mixtures containing aliphatic alcohols at several temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The refractive indices of ternary liquid mixtures (2-propanol+2-butanol+ethanol and (chloroform+2-propanol+2-butanol were measured at 20, 25, 30, and 35°C, and atmospheric pressure. The results were used to calculate the refractive index deviations over the entire mole fraction range for the mixtures. The refractive index deviations for the ternary mixtures were further fitted to empirical correlations (Cibulka Nagata-Tamura, and Lopez et al to estimate the ternary fitting parameters. Standard deviations and average percentage deviations from the regression lines are shown. The best fit was obtained by the Nagata-Tamura empirical correlation. Some of the existing predictive equations for the refractive index deviations (Tsao-Smith, Köhler, and Colinet were tested.

  18. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Fatty Alcohols against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Inoue

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus of long-chain fatty alcohols was investigated, with a focus on normal alcohols. The antibacterial activity varied with the length of the aliphatic carbon chain and not with the water/octanol partition coefficient. 1-Nonanol, 1-decanol and 1-undecanol had bactericidal activity and membrane-damaging activity. 1-Dodecanol and 1-tridecanol had the highest antibacterial activity among the long-chain fatty alcohols tested, but had no membrane-damaging activity. Consequently, it appears that not only the antibacterial activity but also the mode of action of long-chain fatty alcohols might be determined by the length of the aliphatic carbon chain.

  20. Reactive Extraction of Alcohols from Apolar Hydrocarbons with Aqueous Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous solutions are evaluated as sustainable reactive extraction solvents for the recovery of monohydroxyl alcohols (benzyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, cyclohexanol) present in few-percent concentrations in apolar hydrocarbons (toluene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane) by considering two approaches. An aqueous solution containing a reactive extractant, like borate salts, borate complexes, a monosalt of dicarboxylic acid,hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins, and silver nitrate, shows limited potential to be used. Another approach, in which the alcohol is chemically modified prior to the extraction into an easy-extractable form, in this case a monoesterlcarboxylic acid, shows much more potential. An environmentally benign aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate can provide a distribution ratio of benzyl alcohol up to 200, leaving the solubility of the organic solvent in the aqueous solution unchanged relative to pure water and therefore increasing the selectivity with two orders of magnitude. The modification of aromatic, cyclo-aliphatic, and linear aliphatic alcohols can be performed efficiently in the apolar organic solvent without need for a catalyst. The recovery of the modified alcohol can be performed by back-extraction in combination with a spontaneous hydrolysis.

  1. Light Induced C-C Coupling of 2-Chlorobenzazoles with Carbamates, Alcohols, and Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Alexander; Lahm, Günther; Opatz, Till

    2016-06-01

    A light induced, transition-metal-free C-C coupling reaction of 2-chlorobenzazoles with aliphatic carbamates, alcohols, and ethers is presented. Inexpensive reagents, namely sodium acetate, benzophenone, water, and acetonitrile, are employed in a simple reaction protocol using a cheap and widely available 25 W energy saving UV-A lamp at ambient temperature. PMID:27128627

  2. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... significantly less often in female compared to male patients (75% vs. 94%; P alcohol misusers were under treatment with thiamine/B-vitamins and/or disulfiram before admission. There was a significant difference (P ... practitioner wrote alcohol misuse on the admission form and when he did not (37% vs. 10%). At admission, treatment was begun in 54%, and by the discharge 78% were under treatment. Further quality assurance in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with alcohol problems is needed....

  3. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 3 (FGE.10Rev3): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 63 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, including additional two substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission R...... for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For four substances evaluated through the Procedure, the stereoisomeric composition has not been specified sufficiently....

  4. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    . The Panel concluded that the 61 substances do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For four...

  5. Mass spectrometry study of the sublimation of aliphatic dipeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badelin, V. G.; Tyunina, E. Yu.; Krasnov, A. V.; Tyunina, V. V.; Giricheva, N. I.; Girichev, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    The sublimation of glycyl-L-α-alanine (Gly-Ala), L-α-alanyl-L-α-alanine (Ala-Ala), and DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-valine (Ala-Val) aliphatic dipeptides is studied by electron ionization mass spectrometry in combination with Knudsen effusion. The temperature range in which substances sublime as monomer molecular forms is determined. Enthalpies of sublimation Δs H°( T) are determined for Gly-Ala, Ala-Ala, and Ala-Val. It is shown that the enthalpy of sublimation of dipeptides increases with an increase in the side hydrocarbon radical. The unknown Δs H°(298) values for 17 amino acids and nine dipeptides are estimated using the proposed "structure-property" correlation model, in which the geometry and electron characteristics of molecules are used as structural descriptors.

  6. A Study of the Solvation Structure of L-Leucine in Alcohol-Water Binary Solvents through Molecular Dynamics Simulations and FTIR and NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Hatomoto, Yohei; Tonegawa, Junko; Tsutsumi, Youichi; Umecky, Tatsuya

    2015-10-26

    The solvation structures of l-leucine (Leu) in aliphatic-alcohol-water and fluorinated-alcohol-water solvents are elucidated for various alcohol contents by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and IR, and (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. The aliphatic alcohols included methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, whereas the fluorinated alcohols were 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The MD results show that the hydrophobic alkyl moiety of Leu is surrounded by the alkyl or fluoroalkyl groups of the alcohol molecules. In particular, TFE and HFIP significantly solvate the alkyl group of Leu. IR spectra reveal that the Leu C-H stretching vibration blueshifts in fluorinated alcohol solutions with increasing alcohol content, whereas the vibration redshifts in aliphatic alcohol solutions. When the C-H stretching vibration blueshifts in the fluorinated alcohol solutions, the hydrogen and carbon atoms of the Leu alkyl group are magnetically shielded. Consequently, TFE and HFIP molecules may solvate the Leu alkyl group through the blue-shifting hydrogen bonds.

  7. Sodium hypochlorite oxidation of petroleum aliphatic contaminants in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, François; Chaouki, Jamal

    2016-02-01

    This research project investigated the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation of aliphatic petroleum contaminants (C10-C50) in a calcareous soil (average 5473 ppm C10-C50, 15 wt% Ca), which had been excavated from a contaminated industrial site. The decontamination objective was to lower the C10-C50 concentration to 700 ppm. CO2 acidity was used in the project to boost the NaClO oxidation yield and seems to have played a role in desorbing the natural organic matter. The experimental conditions were a 2- to 16-h reaction time, at room temperature, with a 1 to 12.5 wt% NaClO oxidative solution and a fixed 2:1 solution-to-soil ratio. With a 3 wt% NaClO solution and with a CO2 overhead, the NaClO dosage requirement was maintained below 60 g NaClO/g of oxidized C10-C50 over the entire decontamination range. The strong chlorine smell remaining after the reaction was completed suggests that part of the NaClO requirement can be recycled. Except traces of chloroform, there were no regulation-listed organochloride contaminants detected on either the treated soil samples or leachates and the total count of chlorinated compounds in treated soil samples was below the detection limit of 250 mg/kg. The NaClO oxidation mechanism on aliphatic substrates might be triggered by transition metals, such as manganese, but no attempt has been made to investigate the oxidation mechanism. Further investigations would include a constant-fed NaClO system and other techniques to lower the required NaClO dosage. PMID:26702553

  8. Hydrolytic And Enzymatic Degradation Characteristics Of Biodegradable Aliphatic Polysters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Suming

    2004-01-01

    Aliphatic polyesters, especially those derived from lactide (PLA), glycolide (PGA) and ε-caprolactone (PCL), are being investigated worldwide for applications in the field of surgery (suture material, devices for internal bone fracture fixation), pharmacology (sustained drug delivery systems), and tissue engineering (scaffold for tissue regeneration) [1,2]. This is mainly due to their good biocompatibility and variable degradability. These polymers present also a growing interest for environmental applications in agriculture (mulch films) and in our everyday life (packaging material)as the development of biodegradable materials is now considered as one of the potential solutions to the problem of plastic waste management.For both biomedical and environmental applications, it is of major importance to understand the degradation characteristics of the polymers. The hydrolytic degradation of aliphatic polyesters has been investigated by many research groups. Our group has shown that degradation of PLAGA large size devices is faster inside than at the surface. This heterogeneous degradation is due to the autocatalytic effect of carboxylic endgroups formed by ester bond cleavage. Moreover,degradation-induced morphological and compositional changes were also elucidated. In the case of PCL, the hydrolytic degradation is very slow due to its hydrophobicity and crystallinity.The enzymatic degradation of these polymers has been investigated by a number of authors. A specific enzyme, proteinase K, has been shown to have significant effects on PLA degradation. This enzyme preferentially degrade L-lactate units as opposed to D-lactate ones, amorphous zones as opposed to crystalline ones [3]. The enzymatic degradation of PCL polymers has also been investigated. A number of lipase-type enzymes were found to significantly accelerate the degradation of PCL despite its high crystallinity. In the case of PLA/PCL blends, the two components exhibited well separated crystalline domains

  9. Rapid and Ecofriendly Esterification of Alcohols with 2-Acylpyridazinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom-economical esterification is of great importance in green chemistry. In this work, we demonstrated the catalyst and additive free esterification of alcohols by their reaction with 2-acyl-4,5-dichloropyridazin-3(2H)-ones without solvent at 100 .deg. C. Aliphatic and aromatic alcohols were converted into the corresponding esters in good to excellent yields. It is noteworthy that the reaction is solvent-free, atom-economic, easy-workup, and rapid and that the process is inexpensive

  10. Photoacylation of alcohols in neutral medium

    OpenAIRE

    Débieux, Jean-Luc; Cosandey, Anne; Helgen, Céline; Christian G. Bochet

    2007-01-01

    We report here conditions which allow the photoacylation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols with N-acetyl-5,7-dinitroindoline under exceptionally mild conditions, at wavelengths harmless to most functional groups, including otherwise photosensitive ones.

  11. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). 721.3830 Section 721.3830 Protection of... products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant..., reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (PMN P-99-0531) is subject to...

  12. Efficient Synthesis of Optically Active Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.S. Chen; Z.R. Dong; Y.Y. Li; B.Z. Li; Y. Xing; W.Y. Shen; G. Chen; X.Q. Zhang; J. X. Gao

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Optically active secondary alcohols are versatile building blocks for synthesis of unnatural biological active compounds and functional materials. Therefore, study on efficient synthesis of optically active alcohols is becoming an important subject in synthetic organic chemistry. Catalytic asymmetric reduction of carbonyl compounds is a practical method to create chiral alcohols. For the past decades, a large number of catalytic methods have been developed to achieve this goal.

  13. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-24

    Essential facts Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an excess of fat in the liver that is not the result of excessive alcohol consumption or other secondary causes, such as hepatitis C. According to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, fatty liver - steatosis - affects between 20% and 30% of the population and its prevalence is increasing. PMID:27641564

  14. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ziraldo, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  15. Reactions of aliphatic free radicals with copper cations in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium-saturated solutions containing copper sulphate and an aliphatic alcohol (methanol, ethanol or propan-2-ol) were pulse irradiated. The kinetics of the reactions thus initiated were followed by the spectrophotometric and conductometric techniques. The results indicate that all three radicals, CR1R2OH, react with Cu2+sub(aq) to yield Cu+sub(aq) + CR1R2O+H3O+. CH2OH radicals react with Cu+sub(aq) according to Cu+sub(aq) + CH2OH yields reversibly Cusup(II) -CH2OH+, K approximately 5 x 103 dm3 mol-1. (Note: In writing Cusup(II) - R+ or Cusup(III) - R2+ the accepted nomenclature is followed for organometallic compounds. This notation does not imply that the nature of the chemical bond is ionic. Furthermore, the results indicate that the Cu - C bond has at least partially a covalent nature.) The corresponding equilibrium constants for Cusup(II) - CH(CH3)OH+ and Cusup(II) - C(CH3)2OH+ are too low to be measured and the corresponding intermediates are not observed. Cu+sub(aq) reacts with the β radicals, CH2CH2OH and CH2CH(CH3)OH, according to Cu+sub(aq) + CH2CR1R2OH → Cusup(II) - CH2CR1R2OH+. The latter intermediates decompose via acid catalysed reactions to yield Cu2+sub(aq) + H2C = CR1R2 + H2O. (author)

  16. 脂肪族含氧有机物沸点的定量构效关系%Quantitative structure-property relationship of normal boiling point of aliphatic oxygen-containing organic compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万强; 曹晨忠

    2012-01-01

    The descriptors of polarizability effect index (PEI),the number of effective carbon (Nc,e(f)> the differences in PEI and Nc,eff between the branching chain and straight chain isomers,SPEI and δ Nc,eff,are derived from molecular structure. The quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) between these descriptors and boiling points of 520 aliphatic alcohols,ethers,aldehydes,ketones,acids,and esters were obtained separately. The QSPRs between these descriptors and boiling points were developed for 520 aliphatic oxygen-containing organic compounds by best subsets regression method. For the training set,the correlation coefficient R2 is 0. 9946 and the standard deviation GO is 6. 70 K. For the test set,R2 is 0. 9857 and s is 6. 10 K. The average relative error is 1. 19%. According to the regression equation,the influences of the number of effective carbon of alkyl,the role of functional groups and their interaction on the boiling point were analyzed. These results showed a good correlation between the boiling points of organic compounds and these descriptors derived from PEI for aliphatic alcohols,ethers,aldehydes,ketones,acids,and esters.

  17. [Exposure to phtalates and their presence in alcoholic beverages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurica, Karlo; Uršulin-Trstenjak, Natalija; Vukić Lušić, Darija; Lušić, Dražen; Smit, Zdenko

    2013-06-01

    Phthalates are phthalic acid and aliphatic alcohol esters used as additives to plastic in order to improve its softness, flexibility, and elongation. Phthalates are highly mobile and migrate easily from plastic products into the environment due to their physical and chemical properties. This study briefly describes the characteristics and distribution of phthalates in the environment, their toxic effects on human health, the legislation regarding the maximum allowed concentration of phthalates in drinking water and products intended for infants, as well as the tolerable daily intake. Special attention is given to the methods of determining phthalates and their levels in alcoholic beverages, with an overview of phthalate occurrences and concentrations in plum brandy made in Croatia. A segment on denatured alcohol and illegally marketed alcohol is also included, as well as guidelines for the effective monitoring of the routes of human exposure to phthalates. PMID:23819941

  18. Assessment of the environmental risk of long chain alcohols (LCOH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, Scott; Sanderson, Hans; Fisk, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    An environmental assessment of long-chain alcohols (LCOH) has recently been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Aliphatic Alcohols Consortium. LCOH are used primarily as intermediates, as a precursor...... on a toxic units (TU) approach were determined for various scenarios of exposure and effects extrapolation. The global average TU ranged from 0.048 to 0.467 depending on the scenario employed suggesting a low risk to the environment. The fact that environmental exposure calculations include large fractions...... to alcohol-based surfactants and as alcohol per se in a wide variety of consumer product applications. Global production volume is approximately 1.58 million metric tonnes. The OECD HPV assessment covers linear to slightly branched LCOH ranging from 6 to 22 alkyl carbons (C). LCOH biodegrade exceptionally...

  19. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  20. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  2. VC复合脂肪酸酯的合成及抗氧化性能%SYNTHESIS AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF ASCORBYL COMPOSITE ALIPHATIC ESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯光炷; 谢文磊

    2001-01-01

    猪油与甲醇进行酯交换制备复合脂肪酸甲酯,得率97.2%.再以浓硫酸为溶剂和催化剂,VC和复合脂肪酸甲酯进行酯交换合成VC复合脂肪酸酯.考察了反应时间、反应物配比及浓硫酸用量对酯交换反应的影响,结果表明,最适宜的反应条件为:n(VC)∶n(复合脂肪酸酯)为1∶1.2,反应时间为26h,n(浓H2SO4)∶n(VC+复合脂肪酸酯)为1∶0.15,反应温度为25℃,产率达76%.产品的抗氧化性能测试表明VC复合脂肪酸酯是一种优良的无毒抗氧化剂.%Ascorbyl composite aliphatic ester was synyhesized by transesterificantion of L-ascorbic acid with methyl composite aliphatic ester which is synthesized from lard and methyl alcohol using concentrated sulfuric acid as sol ve nt and catalyst. The yield was up to 76%. The effects of reaction temperature, r atio of reactant, amount of concentrated sulfuric acid on transesterification ha ve been investigated. The optimum synthetic conditions are that the ratio of Vc to composite aliphatic ester is 1∶1.2,reaction time is 26 h, the ratio of conce ntrated H2SO4 to composite aliphatic ester is 1∶0.15,reaction temperatur e is 25 ℃ .The test of antioxidant shows that Ascorbyl composite aliphatic ester is a good oxidant without poison.

  3. Alcohol and self-harm in Anuradhapura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Jayasena, Chandima; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala;

    Background: Research has shown that alcohol use is associated with self-harm and suicide, which is also the case in Sri Lanka where high numbers of individuals admitted to hospitals after self-harming are under influence of alcohol. Internationally, it has been highlighted that alcohol use may harm...... the personal network of the drinker and lead to secondary traumatization. This can appear as emotional distress, financial difficulties and lead to domestic violence and in some cases self-harm and suicide. This interplay between alcohol and self-harm was investigated in individuals, families and communities...... that they have not or rarely seek assistance to overcome alcohol-related or other problems in their household. Conclusions and recommendations: Preliminary findings show that alcohol plays a significant role in self-harm – but in different ways. Strategies seeking to prevent alcohol-related self-harm should...

  4. Ice Nucleation by Alcohols Arranged in Monolayers at the Surface of Water Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Michal; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Lahav, Meir; Leiserowitz, Leslie

    1990-11-01

    Monolayers of aliphatic long-chain alcohols induced nucleation of ice at temperatures approaching 0^circC, in contrast with water-soluble alcohols, which are effective antifreeze agents. The corresponding fatty acids, or alcohols with bulky hydrophobic groups, induce freezing at temperatures as much as 12^circC lower. The freezing point induced by the amphiphilic alcohols was sensitive not only to surface area per molecule but, for the aliphatic series (C_nH2n + 1OH), to chain length and parity. The freezing point for chains with n odd reached an asymptotic temperature of 0^circC for an upper value of n = 31; for n even the freezing point reached a plateau of -8^circC for n in the upper range of 22 to 30. The higher freezing point induced by the aliphatic alcohols is due to formation of ordered clusters in the uncompressed state as detected by grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. The diffraction data indicate a close lattice match with the ab layer of hexagonal ice.

  5. Liquid-crystalline aromatic-aliphatic copolyester bioresorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oca, Horacio Montes; Wilson, Joanne E; Penrose, Andrew; Langton, David M; Dagger, Anthony C; Anderson, Melissa; Farrar, David F; Lovell, Christopher S; Ries, Michael E; Ward, Ian M; Wilson, Andrew D; Cowling, Stephen J; Saez, Isabel M; Goodby, John W

    2010-10-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of a series of liquid-crystalline aromatic-aliphatic copolyesters are presented. Differential scanning calorimetry showed these polymers have a glass transition temperature in the range 72 degrees C-116 degrees C. Polarised optical microscopy showed each polymer exhibits a nematic mesophase on heating to the molten state at temperatures below 165 degrees C. Melt processing is demonstrated by the production of injection moulded and compression moulded specimens with Young's modulus of 5.7 +/- 0.3 GPa and 2.3 +/- 0.3 GPa, respectively. Wide-angle X-ray scattering data showed molecular orientation is responsible for the increase of mechanical properties along the injection direction. Degradation studies in the temperature range 37 degrees C-80 degrees C are presented for one polymer of this series and a kinetic constant of 0.002 days(-1) is obtained at 37 degrees C assuming a first order reaction. The activation energy (83.4 kJ mol(-1)) is obtained following the Arrhenius analysis of degradation, showing degradation of this material is less temperature sensitive compared with other commercially available biodegradable polyesters. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility data are presented and it is shown the unique combination of degradative, mechanical and biological properties of these polymers may represent in the future an alternative for medical device manufacturers.

  6. Shape memory polymers based on uniform aliphatic urethane networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T S; Bearinger, J P; Herberg, J L; Marion III, J E; Wright, W J; Evans, C L; Maitland, D J

    2007-01-19

    Aliphatic urethane polymers have been synthesized and characterized, using monomers with high molecular symmetry, in order to form amorphous networks with very uniform supermolecular structures which can be used as photo-thermally actuable shape memory polymers (SMPs). The monomers used include hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), trimethylhexamethylenediamine (TMHDI), N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine (HPED), triethanolamine (TEA), and 1,3-butanediol (BD). The new polymers were characterized by solvent extraction, NMR, XPS, UV/VIS, DSC, DMTA, and tensile testing. The resulting polymers were found to be single phase amorphous networks with very high gel fraction, excellent optical clarity, and extremely sharp single glass transitions in the range of 34 to 153 C. Thermomechanical testing of these materials confirms their excellent shape memory behavior, high recovery force, and low mechanical hysteresis (especially on multiple cycles), effectively behaving as ideal elastomers above T{sub g}. We believe these materials represent a new and potentially important class of SMPs, and should be especially useful in applications such as biomedical microdevices.

  7. Electrospun aliphatic polycarbonates as tailored tissue scaffold materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Alexander; Kröger, Mario; Döring, Manfred; Niederer, Kerstin; Pindel, Elvira; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2007-04-01

    Two different aliphatic polycarbonates were synthesised from CO(2) and the respective epoxides. Poly(propyl carbonate) (PPC) was prepared by heterogeneous catalysis with zinc glutarate. Poly(cyclohexyl carbonate) (PCHC) was prepared via living copolymerisation homogeneously catalysed by a 3-amino-2-cyanoimidoacrylate zinc acetate complex and subjected to electrospinning. The obtained nanofibres had a well-defined morphology free of beads along the fibres and with slightly porous structures on their surface. Subsequently, low-power deep UV irradiations, previously applied for photochemical surface modifications of two-dimensional and three-dimensional scaffolds from biostable polymers, were performed. Here, an effect on surface and bulk properties of PPC nanofibres was observed. Surface modifications of both polymers affected plasma protein adsorption. Photochemical bulk modifications observed for the first time on PPC nanofibres are indicating the possibility of spatial control of biodegradation rates, hence allow for control of the progression of host/implant interactions in vivo. In particular PPC was used for cell culture of L929 fibroblasts and primary rat hepatocytes. Even delicate primary cells showed good adhesion to the scaffolds and high viability.

  8. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R;

    1994-01-01

    = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Significantly increased incidences were found of cancer in the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx, lung and pleura and secondary cancer. The women had significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.0). The men developed prostatic cancer...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...

  9. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  10. Project Summary. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated the potential of an innovative approach to aquifer restoration: enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (...

  11. Fully Biobased Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters from Renewable Resources : Enzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi; Alberda van Ekenstein, Gerhard; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Fully biobased saturated and unsaturated aliphatic polyesters and oligoesters are successfully prepared by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)-catalyzed polycondensations of succinate, itaconate, and 1,4-butanediol. The effects of monomer substrates and polymerization methods on enzymatic polycondens

  12. Thermally reversible thermoset materials based on the chemical modification of alternating aliphatic polyketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya Hermosilla, Rodrigo Andrés

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focused on the synthesis and characterization of different kinds of reversible thermosets and thermoset nanocomposite materials by using alternating aliphatic polyketone (PK) as raw material. Fundamental knowledge was generated regarding the molecular design of new polymers via chemical

  13. Calamistrin E, the First Annonaceous Acetogenin with Double Bond in Aliphatic Chain from Genus Uvaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Calamistrin E, the first Annonaceous acetogenin with C=C bond in the aliphatic chain from the genus Uvaria was isolated from U. calamistrata. Its structure including relative and absolute configurations was determined by chemical derivation and spectral analysis.

  14. Facile synthesis of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase using peptide coupling reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Andersen, Heidi Gertz; Christensen, Jørn B.;

    2004-01-01

    Peptide coupling reagents can be used as versatile reagents for the formation of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase from the corresponding solid-phase anchored aliphatic primary amines. The formation of the thioureas is fast and highly chemoselective, and proceeds via formation...... of the intermediate isothiocyanate. The isothiocyanate and subsequent thiourea formation take place under standard peptide coupling conditions using carbon disulfide as the 'amino acid'. The thioureas are released from the resin and isolated in moderate to high yields....

  15. On the Aliphatic versus Aromatic Content of the Carriers of the "Unidentified" Infrared Emission Features

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xuejuan; Li, Aigen; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the so-called "unidentified" infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 micrometer are characteristic of the stretching and bending vibrations of aromatic hydrocarbon materials, the exact nature of their carriers remains unknown: whether they are free-flying, predominantly aromatic gas-phase molecules, or amorphous solids with a mixed aromatic/aliphatic composition are being debated. Recently, the 3.3 and 3.4 micrometer features which are commonly respectively attributed to aromatic and aliphatic C-H stretches have been used to place an upper limit of ~2\\% on the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers (i.e. the number of C atoms in aliphatic chains to that in aromatic rings). Here we further explore the aliphatic versus aromatic content of the UIE carriers by examining the ratio of the observed intensity of the 6.2 micrometer aromatic C-C feature (I6.2) to that of the 6.85 micrometer aliphatic C-H deformation feature (I6.85). To derive the intrinsic...

  16. Sources and distribution of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Neuquen River, Argentine Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monza, Liliana B; Loewy, Ruth M; Savini, Mónica C; Pechen de d'Angelo, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution and probable sources of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (AHs, PAHs) were investigated in surface sediments collected along the bank of the Neuquen River, Argentina. Total concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons ranged between 0.41 and 125 μg/g dw. Six stations presented low values of resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons and the n-alkane distribution indexes applied suggested a clear biogenic source. These values can be considered the baseline levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons for the river sediments. This constitutes important information for the assessment of future impacts since a strong impulse in the exploitation of shale gas and shale oil in these zones is nowadays undergoing. For the other 11 stations, a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons of petrogenic and biogenic origin was observed. The spatial distribution reflects local inputs of these pollutants with a significant increase in concentrations in the lower course, where two major cities are located. The highest values of total aliphatic hydrocarbons were found in this sector which, in turn, was the only one where individual PAHs were detected.

  17. Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David S.; Blessing, James E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

  18. Aliphatic polyester block polymers: renewable, degradable, and sustainable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmyer, Marc A; Tolman, William B

    2014-08-19

    Nearly all polymers are derived from nonrenewable fossil resources, and their disposal at their end of use presents significant environmental problems. Nonetheless, polymers are ubiquitous, key components in myriad technologies and are simply indispensible for modern society. An important overarching goal in contemporary polymer research is to develop sustainable alternatives to "petro-polymers" that have competitive performance properties and price, are derived from renewable resources, and may be easily and safely recycled or degraded. Aliphatic polyesters are particularly attractive targets that may be prepared in highly controlled fashion by ring-opening polymerization of bioderived lactones. However, property profiles of polyesters derived from single monomers (homopolymers) can limit their applications, thus demanding alternative strategies. One such strategy is to link distinct polymeric segments in an A-B-A fashion, with A and B chosen to be thermodynamically incompatible so that they can self-organize on a nanometer-length scale and adopt morphologies that endow them with tunable properties. For example, such triblock copolymers can be useful as thermoplastic elastomers, in pressure sensitive adhesive formulations, and as toughening modifiers. Inspired by the tremendous utility of petroleum-derived styrenic triblock copolymers, we aimed to develop syntheses and understand the structure-property profiles of sustainable alternatives, focusing on all renewable and all readily degradable aliphatic polyester triblocks as targets. Building upon oxidation chemistry reported more than a century ago, a constituent of the peppermint plant, (-)-menthol, was converted to the ε-caprolactone derivative menthide. Using a diol initiator and controlled catalysis, menthide was polymerized to yield a low glass transition temperature telechelic polymer (PM) that was then further functionalized using the biomass-derived monomer lactide (LA) to yield fully renewable PLA

  19. Pharmacological activities of cilantro's aliphatic aldehydes against Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages. PMID:25340465

  20. Interaction of gaseous aromatic and aliphatic compounds in thermophilic biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-yuan; Wang, Can

    2015-12-30

    Two thermophilic biofilters were applied in treating a mixture of gaseous aromatic (benzene) and aliphatic compounds (hexane) to evaluate the interaction of the compounds. The performance of the biofilters was investigated in terms of removal efficiencies, elimination capacity, kinetic analysis, interaction indices, and microbial metabolic characteristics. Results showed that the removal performance of benzene was unaffected by the addition of hexane. The removal efficiencies of benzene were maintained at approximately 80% and the biodegradation rate constant was maintained at 120 h(-1). However, the removal efficiencies of hexane decreased significantly from 60% to 20% and the biodegradation rate constant exhibited a distinct decrease from 93.59 h(-1) to 56.32 h(-1). The interaction index of benzene with the addition of hexane was -0.029, which indicated that hexane had little effect on the degradation of benzene. By contrast, the interaction index of hexane by benzene was -0.557, which showed that benzene inhibited the degradation of hexane significantly. Similar conclusions were obtained about the substrate utilization. Moreover, the utilization degree of carbon sources and the microbial metabolic activities in the biofilter treating hexane were significantly improved with the addition of benzene, whereas the addition of hexane had a slight effect on the microbial communities in the biofilter treating benzene. Conclusions could be obtained that when mixtures of benzene and hexane were treated using biofilters, the degradation of benzene, which was more easily degradable, was dominant and unaffected; whereas the degradation of hexane, which was less easily degradable, was inhibited because of the changing of microbes.

  1. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  2. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. You may ... alcohol content). If you have a parent with alcohol use disorder, you are more at risk for alcohol problems. ...

  3. Ionic liquid mediated esterification of alcohol with acetic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beilei ZHOU; Yanxiong FANG; Hao GU; Saidan ZHANG; Baohua HUANG; Kun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Highly efficient esterification of alcohols with acetic acid by using a Bransted acidic ionic liquid, i.e., 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium hydrogen sulfate ([Hnmp]HSo4), as catalyst has been realized. The turnover numbers (TON) were able to reach up to 11000 and turnover frequency (TOF) was 846. The catalytic system is suitable for the esterification of long chain aliphatic alcohols, benzyl alcohol and cyclohexanol with good yields of esters. The procedure of separating the product and catalyst is simple, and the catalyst could be reused. [Hnmp]HSO4 had much weaker corrosiveness than H2SO4. The corrosive rate of H2SO4 was 400 times more than that of [Hnmp]HSO4 to stainless steel.

  4. The Diversity of Anti-Microbial Secondary Metabolites Produced by Fungal Endophytes: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit host plants without causing disease and are reported to be reservoirs of metabolites that combat microbes and other pathogens. Here we review diverse classes of secondary metabolites, focusing on anti-microbial compounds, synthesized by fungal endophytes including terpenoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, aliphatic compounds, polyketides, and peptides from the interdisciplinary perspectives of biochemistry, genetics, fungal biology, host plant biology, huma...

  5. The diversity of anti-microbial secondary metabolites produced by fungal endophytes: An interdisciplinary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Walaa Kamel Mousa; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit host plants without causing disease and are reported to be reservoirs of metabolites that combat microbes and other pathogens. Here we review diverse classes of secondary metabolites, focusing on anti-microbial compounds, synthesized by fungal endophytes including terpenoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, aliphatic compounds, polyketides and peptides from the interdisciplinary perspectives of biochemistry, genetics, fungal biology, host plant biology, human...

  6. Controlled oxidation of aliphatic CH bonds in metallo-monooxygenases: mechanistic insights derived from studies on deuterated and fluorinated hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Sheng; Luo, Wen-I; Yang, Chung-Ling; Tu, Yi-Jung; Chang, Chun-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Chi-Yao; Chan, Sunney I; Yu, Steve S-F

    2014-05-01

    The control over the regio- and/or stereo-selective aliphatic CH oxidation by metalloenzymes is of great interest to scientists. Typically, these enzymes invoke host-guest chemistry to sequester the substrates within the protein pockets, exploiting sizes, shapes and specific interactions such as hydrogen-bonding, electrostatic forces and/or van der Waals interactions to control the substrate specificity, regio-specificity and stereo-selectivity. Over the years, we have developed a series of deuterated and fluorinated variants of these hydrocarbon substrates as probes to gain insights into the controlled CH oxidations of hydrocarbons facilitated by these enzymes. In this review, we illustrate the application of these designed probes in the study of three monooxygenases: (i) the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), which oxidizes straight-chain C1-C5 alkanes and alkenes to form their corresponding 2-alcohols and epoxides, respectively; (ii) the recombinant alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) from Pseudomonas putida GPo1, which oxidizes the primary CH bonds of C5-C12 linear alkanes; and (iii) the recombinant cytochrome P450 from Bacillus megaterium, which oxidizes C12-C20 fatty acids at the ω-1, ω-2 or ω-3 CH positions.

  7. CZE study on adsorption processes of aliphatic and aromatic amines on PMMA chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masár, Marián; Kruk, Pavol; Luc, Milan; Bodor, Róbert; Danč, Ladislav; Troška, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Adsorption processes on a PMMA chip linked with CZE separations of a group of 13 aliphatic and aromatic mono- and di-amines were studied. Due to the lack of chromophores within aliphatic amines, contact conductivity detection implemented directly onto the chip was used for monitoring of cationic CZE separations. To prevent an adsorption of studied amines to the chip channels, the surface of PMMA chip was modified by dynamic coating. Different surface modifiers, such as aliphatic oligoamines (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine), were added to the BGE solutions filling the chip channels. The effect of various concentrations of surface modifiers on peak profiles and separation parameters of amines was monitored. Of these, mainly, aliphatic di-amines and aromatic mono-amines adversely affected the CZE resolution of a whole group of analytes by their strong adsorption to the chip channels. A propionate BGE with pH 3.2 containing 100 μM triethylenetetramine and 25 mM 18-crown-6-ether was found suitable for CZE resolution of 12 from a total of 13 amines studied. Simple dynamic modification of the surface of PMMA chip enabled fast (analysis time lasted 9 min), sensitive (sub-μM LODs reached) and reproducible (1-3% RSD of the peak areas) CZE analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic amines.

  8. [Secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  9. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Catalytic asymmetric hydroamination of unactivated internal olefins to aliphatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Shi-Liang; Niu, Dawen; Liu, Peng; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2015-07-01

    Catalytic assembly of enantiopure aliphatic amines from abundant and readily available precursors has long been recognized as a paramount challenge in synthetic chemistry. Here, we describe a mild and general copper-catalyzed hydroamination that effectively converts unactivated internal olefins—an important yet unexploited class of abundant feedstock chemicals—into highly enantioenriched α-branched amines (≥96% enantiomeric excess) featuring two minimally differentiated aliphatic substituents. This method provides a powerful means to access a broad range of advanced, highly functionalized enantioenriched amines of interest in pharmaceutical research and other areas.

  10. On the aliphatic versus aromatic content of the carriers of the `unidentified' infrared emission features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. J.; Glaser, R.; Li, Aigen; Zhong, J. X.

    2016-10-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm are characteristic of the stretching and bending vibrations of aromatic hydrocarbon materials, the exact nature of their carriers remains unknown: whether they are free-flying, predominantly aromatic gas-phase molecules, or amorphous solids with a mixed aromatic/aliphatic composition are being debated. Recently, the 3.3 and 3.4 μm features which are commonly respectively attributed to aromatic and aliphatic C-H stretches have been used to place an upper limit of ˜2 per cent on the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers (i.e. the number of C atoms in aliphatic chains to that in aromatic rings). Here we further explore the aliphatic versus aromatic content of the UIE carriers by examining the ratio of the observed intensity of the 6.2 μm aromatic C-C feature (I6.2) to that of the 6.85 μm aliphatic C-H deformation feature (I6.85). To derive the intrinsic oscillator strengths of the 6.2 μm stretch (A6.2) and the 6.85 μm deformation (A6.85), we employ density functional theory to compute the vibrational spectra of seven methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and their cations. By comparing I6.85/I6.2 with A6.85/A6.2, we derive the fraction of C atoms in methyl(ene) aliphatic form to be at most ˜10 per cent, confirming the earlier finding that the UIE emitters are predominantly aromatic. We have also computed the intrinsic strength of the 7.25 μm feature (A7.25), another aliphatic C-H deformation band. We find that A6.85 appreciably exceeds A7.25. This explains why the 6.85 μm feature is more frequently detected in space than the 7.25 μm feature.

  11. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in Candiota coal samples: novel series of bicyclic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.C.M.L.; Loureiro, M.R.B.; Cardoso, J.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was used to analyse aliphatic and aromatic fractions obtained from nine samples taken from two different seams of five boreholes in the Candiota coalfield (Lower Permian). The occurrence of certain tetracyclic diterpenoids among the aliphatic hydrocarbons, and the tricyclic diterpenoids simonellite and retene in the aromatic hydrocarbon concentrates, suggest an important input from conifers to the sedimentary biomass. This may explain the origin of a novel series of saturated and aromatic bicyclic compounds detected in the extracts which may be structurally related to the same precursor, possibly a conifer resin-derived tricyclic diterpenoid.

  12. Oxidation of Alcohols Catalyzed by Ruthenium Complexes with Iodosylbenzene as Oxidant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Qiang LEI; Qiao Xiang KANG; Xiang Zhen BAI; Zhi Wang YANG; Qing Hua ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Five ruthenium complexes such as Phen-Ru-Phen, Phen-Ru-Bipy, Phen-Ru-Quin,Quin-Ru-Quin and Bipy-Ru-Quin (where Phen=1, 10-phenanthroline, Quin=8-hydroxyquinoline,Bipy=2, 2′-bipyridine) were synthesized and used as catalysts for the oxidation of benzylic and primary aliphatic alcohols with iodosylbenzene as oxidant. The oxidations were carried out at room temperature, affording the corresponding aldehydes and ketones with high selectivity.

  13. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  14. Heteropolymolybdate as a New Reaction-controlled Phase-transfer Catalyst for Efficient Alcohol Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Huan WENG; Jin Yan WANG; Xi Gao JIAN

    2006-01-01

    A new catalytic process for the synthesis of aldehyde from alcohol by oxidation with H2O2 with high selectivity was studied. In this system, heteropolymolybdate [C7H7N(CH3)3]3{PO4[MoO(O2)2]4} was utilized as the reaction-controlled phase-transfer catalyst to catalyze oxidation of benzyl and aliphatic alcohols. The molar ratio of H2O2 and alcohol was 0.75, no other by-products were detected by gas chromatography, the results of oxidation reaction indicated that the catalyst has high activity and stability.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  16. Swift heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-15

    In this thesis, the high energy heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers is studied. Two polymer groups, namely polyvinyl polymers (PVF, PVAc, PVA and PMMA) and fluoropolymers (PVDF, ETFE, PFA and FEP) were used in this work. Polyvinyl polymers were investigated since they will be used as insulating materials in the superconducting magnets of the new ion accelerators of the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz-Centre of Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. In order to study ion-beam induced degradation, all polymer foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (U, Au, Sm, Xe) and experimentation sites (beam lines X0 and M3) over a large fluence regime (1 x 10{sup 10} - 5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}). Five independent techniques, namely infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, residual gas analysis (RGA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass loss analysis (ML), were used to analyze the irradiated samples. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that ion irradiation led to the decrease of characteristic band intensities showing the general degradation of the polymers, with scission of side groups and the main backbone. As a consequence of the structural modification, new bands appeared. UV-Vis transmission analysis showed an absorption edge shift from the ultraviolet region towards the visible region indicating double bond and conjugated double bond formation. On-line massspectrometric residual gas analysis showed the release of small gaseous fragment molecules. TGA analysis gave evidence of a changed thermal stability. With ML analysis, the considerable mass loss was quantified. The results of the five complementary analytical methods show how heavy ion irradiation changes the molecular structure of the polymers. Molecular degradation mechanisms are postulated. The amount of radiation damage is found to be sensitive to the used type of ionic

  17. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of oligoesters of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid with aliphatic diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Broek, van den Lambertus A.M.; Serra, Juan L.; Llama, María J.; Boeriu, Carmen G.

    2015-01-01

    2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid is a platform chemical for the production of biobased polymers and materials. This study reports the synthesis of furan oligoesters via polytransesterification of dimethyl furan-2,5-dicarboxylate and linear α, ω-aliphatic diols with chain length ranging from C2 to C12,

  18. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  19. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated the potential of enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (TCE), cis-and trans-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE), an...

  20. Selection of ionic liquids for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from aromatic/aliphatic mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G. Wytze; Podt, Anita (J.G.); Haan, de André B.

    2005-01-01

    The separation of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes) from C4 to C10 aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures is challenging since these hydrocarbons have boiling points in a close range and several combinations form azeotropes. In this work, we investigated the separation of t

  1. PATTERN RECOGNITION ANALYSIS OF A SET OF MUTAGENIC ALIPHATIC N-NITROSAMINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of 21 mutagenic aliphatic N-nitrosamines were subjected to a pattern recognition analysis using ADAPT software. Four descriptors based on molecular connectivity, geometry and sigma charge on nitrogen were capable of achieving a 100% classification using the linear learning ...

  2. Recovery of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Oil Field Sludge using Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Bhutto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of aliphatic HC (Hydrocarbons in the oily sludge of Kunnar oil and gas field, Pakistan was attempted by means of previously isolated and developed Bacillus sp. Both autoclaved and non-autoclaved sludge samples were analyzed for a reaction time of 30 days with pH 7 and temperature of 380C in 50 ml MSM growth media for the sludge concentration of 5, 10 and 50% with 2, 4 and 6ml of Bacillus sp. relatively, in air atmosphere. Stabilization of the samples by microbial activity resulted in the decrease in TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon concentration by 60, 69 and 87% in autoclaved samples in contrast to the decrease of 70, 84 and 94% observed in non-autoclaved samples, relatively. Hydrocarbon degradation in oily sludge was investigated via GC which transpired that 97 and 99% concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons in autoclaved and non-autoclaved samples was removed at 5% of TPH concentration, relatively. However, with 10% TPH concentration aliphatic hydrocarbons reduction was 68% in autoclaved samples to that of 87% in non-autoclaved samples. Further increase in the hydrocarbons concentration by 50% yielded in the removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons by 65% in autoclaved samples as compared to 98% decrease in non-autoclaved samples.

  3. STUDY ON THE PHASE TRANSITION KINETICS OF THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE AROMATIC-ALIPHATIC COPOLYESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Minhui; WANG Xiaogong; LIU Deshan; ZHOU Qixiang

    1991-01-01

    The phase transition kinetics of thermotropic liquid crystalline aromatic-aliphatic regular copolyester:(X) were studied by DSC. By means of Kissinger's method the kinetic equation and parameters including activation energy, rate order and preexponential factor for phase transition from nematic to isotropic were obtained. The activation energy from crystal to nematic was also presented.

  4. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

    2010-01-13

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable aliphatic polyesters using dibutylmagnesium as initiator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Liu; Zhi Yong Wei; Min Qi

    2007-01-01

    Aliphatic polyesters were synthesized via the ring opening polymerization of the corresponding lactones initiated with dibutylmagnesium both in bulk and in solution.The resulting polymers were characterized by 1H, 13C NMR, GPC and XRD.The results indicated that dibutylmagnesium is an effective initiator for the ring opening polymerization of lactones.

  6. Enantioselective alcohol synthesis using ketoreductases, lipases or an aldolase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorgedrager, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The demand for optically pure secondary alcohols, which has grown rapidly in recent years, has spurred the development of adequate enantioselective synthetic procedures. Although there are various chemical methods available, biocatalysts are increasingly applied due to their natural characteristic t

  7. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  8. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  9. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  10. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  11. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  12. Cofactor engineering of Lactobacillus brevis alcohol dehydrogenase by computational design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.; Looger, L.L.; Raedts, J.G.J.; Dijkhuizen, S.; Hummel, W.; Henneman, H.G.; Daussmann, T.; Oost, van der J.

    2009-01-01

    The R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (Lb-ADH) catalyzes the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones to the corresponding secondary alcohols. It is stable and has broad substrate specificity. These features make this enzyme an attractive candidate for biotechnologica

  13. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  14. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  15. Catalytic synthesis of key intermediates of β-receptor agonist -chiral α-halo secondary alcohols by CBS catalysts%CBS催化合成β-受体激动剂关键中间体——手性α-卤代仲醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鸽; 卓广澜

    2011-01-01

    A series of chiral α-halo secondary alcohols, the key intermediates of D-receptor agonists, was obtained via asymmetric reduction of α-halo-acetophenone derivatives catalyzed by Corey-Bakshi-Shibata (CBS) catalyst (R/S)-α,ct-diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinemethanol and their yield and optical purity were better.%用CBS催化剂中的R/S-α,α-二苯基脯氨醇为催化剂不对称还原α-卤代苯乙酮衍生物,得到系列手性α-卤代仲醇--β-受体激动剂关键中间体,反应具有较好的收率,产物光学纯度高.

  16. Determinants of alcohol usage among youth in Kotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijepčević Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A significant number of alcohol users is being recorded among young people while the limit when young people resorting to alcohol is approaching younger age groups. The aim of this study was to determine the general prevalence and structure of young consumers, as well as risk factors for alcohol use among adolescents. Method: The study included 200 respondents. The sample is defined out of classes of all secondary schools at the territory, where one class per school out all four high school grades entered the sample by random choice. The survey instrument was a specifically designed questionnaire and response rate of the classes was 100%. Results: The survey showed that almost half of high school Kotor confirmed to have consumed alcohol. Among children who consume alcohol, almost one half indicated that their parents also use alcoholic beverages and the data show a statistically significant association between alcohol use among parents and their children. Respondents, who do not consume alcoholic beverages, consider the presence of smoking among their friends more often. Students who do not consume alcohol, more frequently point to the harmful effects of using these substances on health and a statistically significant difference between the attitudes of students who do not consume alcohol and those who do was demonstrated in relation to the harmful effects of alcohol on health. Conclusions: Alcohol use is widespread among young people and at the same time there is a significant association between alcohol consumption in parents and their children. The use of alcohol among young people in correlation with the use of tobacco, and the young who consume alcohol are more often found in the company of peers who smoke, compared to their friends who do not use alcohol. Children who do not use alcohol more frequently emphasize the harmful effects of its using on health.

  17. Visual Recognition of Aliphatic and Aromatic Amines Using a Fluorescent Gel: Application of a Sonication-Triggered Organogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xuelei; Yu, Xudong; Lan, Haichuang; Ge, Xiaoting; Li, Yajuan; Zhen, Xiaoli; Yi, Tao

    2015-06-24

    A naphthalimide-based fluorescent gelator (N1) containing an alkenyl group has been designed and characterized. This material is able to gelate alcohols via a precipitate-to-gel transformation when triggered with ultrasound for less than 2 min (S-gel). The gelation process in n-propanol was studied by means of absorption, fluorescence, and IR spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, and X-ray diffraction patterns. The fluorescence intensity of N1 decreased during the gelation process in a linear relationship with the sonication time. The S-gel of N1 could be used to sense aliphatic and aromatic amines by measuring the change in the signal output. For example, the addition of propylamine to the S-gel of N1 resulted in a dramatic enhancement of the fluorescence intensity, accompanied by a gel-to-sol transition. On the contrary, when the S-gel of N1 was treated with aromatic amines such as aniline, fluorescence was quenched and there was no gel collapse. The sensing mechanisms were studied by (1)H NMR, small-angle X-ray scattering, SEM and spectroscopic experiments. It is proposed that isomerization of the alkenyl group of N1 from the trans to cis form occurs when the S-gel is treated with propylamine, resulting in a gel-sol transition. However, the aromatic aniline molecules prefer to insert into the gel networks of N1 via hydrogen-bonding and charge-transfer interactions, maintaining the gel state. As potential applications, testing strips of N1 were prepared to detect aniline. PMID:26040296

  18. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  19. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  20. Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilda, T; Kamminga, AH; Reinders, P; Baron, W; Vlieg, JETV; Beintema, JJ

    2001-01-01

    Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenases and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) are presented. Like alcohol dehydrogenases from other Drosophila species, the enzyme from D, simulans is more active on secondary than on primary alcohols, although ethanol is i

  1. Volumetric and viscometric study of molecular interactions in the mixtures of some secondary alcohols with equimolar mixture of ethanol and N,N-dimethylacetamide at 308.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreekanth, K. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sravana Kumar, D. [Dr. V.S. Krishna Government Degree College, Visakhapatnam 530 013, Andhra Pradesh (India); Kondaiah, M. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India); Krishna Rao, D., E-mail: krdhanekula@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2011-02-15

    Densities and viscosities of mixtures of isopropanol, isobutanol and isoamylalcohol with equimolar mixture of ethanol and N,N-dimethylacetamide have been measured at 308.15 K over the entire composition range. Deviations in viscosity, excess molar volume and excess Gibb's free energy of activation of viscous flow have been calculated from the experimental values of densities and viscosities. Excess properties have been fitted to the Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation and the corresponding standard deviations have been calculated. The experimental data of viscosity have been used to test the applicability of empirical relations of Grunberg-Nissan, Hind-McLaughlin, Katti-Chaudhary and Heric-Brewer for the systems studied. Molecular interactions in the liquid mixtures have been investigated in the light of variation of deviation and of excess values in evaluated properties. -- Research highlights: {yields} Volumetric and viscometric studies of liquid mixtures are useful in pharmacy field. {yields} Molecular interactions in ethanol and N,N-dimethylacetamide with alcohols are studied. {yields} Weak interactions observed due to rupture of hydrogen bond between alcohol molecules. {yields} Measured viscosity values compared with theoretical values obtained by polynomials.

  2. 两亲性脂肪族聚氨酯的合成与表征%Svnthesis and Characterization of Amphiphilic Aliphatic Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立柱; 赵辉鹏; 张高奇; 查刘生

    2011-01-01

    A series of amphiphilic aliphatic polyurethanes with different molecular weights from 10000 to 50000 were synthesized using isophorone diisocyanate as polyisocyanates poly (ethylene glycol) of molecular weight 6000 as polyol, and cetyl alcohol as end capping reagent. Their structure and the rheological property of their aqueous dispersion were characterized by fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy( FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance(1 H-NMR), gel permeation chromatography-light scattering( GPC-LS), and advanced rotational rheometer.The results showed that the number-averaged molecular weights and end capping ratios of amphiphilic aliphatic polyurethanes could be obtained by the integral area of related 1 H-NMR peaks, and their number-averaged molecular weight were nearly consistent with the results measured by GPC-LS and the theoretical values. At the same concentration, as the hydrophobic block contents of the amphiphilic aliphatic polyurethanes increased, the zero shear viscosity was enhanced and the onset concentration of shear thinning was decreased.%采用异佛尔酮二异氰酸酯和相对分子质量为6000的聚乙二醇为原料、十六醇为封端剂,合成了相对分子质量在10000~50000范围内的一系列两亲性脂肪族聚氨酯.用傅立叶变换红外光谱(FT-IR)、核磁共振氢谱(1H-NMR)、凝胶渗透色谱-光散射联用仪(GPC-LS)、高级旋转流变仪对两亲性聚氨酯的结构及其水分散液的流变性能进行了研究.结果表明,用1H-NMR谱图中相关峰的面积通过计算得到两亲性脂肪族聚氨酯的数均相对分子质量和疏水链段的封端率,数均相对分子质量大小与GPC-LS测得的结果以及理论值基本一致.在相同浓度情况下,随着两亲性聚氨酯分子链中疏水链段含量的增加,其水分散液的零剪切粘度增大,开始出现剪切变稀的剪切速率减小.

  3. [Secondary dyslipidemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargová, V; Pytliak, M; Mechírová, V

    2012-03-01

    Dyslipidemias rank among the most important preventabile factors of atherogenesis and its progression. This topic is increasingly being discussed as e.g. more than 50% of Slovak population die on atherosclerotic complications. According to etiology we distinguish primary dyslipidemias with strictly genetic background and secondary ones with origin in other disease or pathological state. Secondary dyslipidemias accompany various diseases, from common (endocrinopathies, renal diseases etc) to rare ones (thesaurismosis etc.) and represents one of symptoms of these diseases. Apart from particular clinical follow up of diagnosed dysipidemias, basic screening and secondary causes as well as treatment due to updated guidelines is recuired. In this review we present the most frequent dyslipidemias of clinical practice.

  4. Effect of temperature on strontium extraction from nitric acid medium using crown ether - aliphatic alcohol as the organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of Sr(II) from 4.0 M nitric acid was carried out employing dicyclohexano 18 crown 6 (DCH18C6) in octanol and its mixtures with butanol at varying temperature. The thermodynamic parameter ΔH was computed from the Van't Hoff plot and ΔS and ΔG values were calculated. An interesting trend was observed in the enthalpy and entropy changes with varying diluent concentration. (author)

  5. Study of enrichment factors for six β-blockers in aliphatic alcohols by hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Lian; Jing, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Lin; Ran, Cong-Cong; Du, Chao-Hui; Jiang, Ye

    2015-10-01

    The selectivity of a suitable organic solvent is key for extraction in liquid-phase microextraction experiments. Nevertheless, the screening process remains a daunting task. Our research aimed to study the relationship between extraction efficiency and extraction solvents, analytes, and finally select the appropriate extraction solvent. In the present article, β-blockers and six extraction solvents were chosen as the models and hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction was conducted. The relationship was built by statistical analysis on the data. Factors affecting extraction efficiency including the logarithms of the octanol/water partition coefficient (logPo/w ) of analytes, acid dissociation constants, the logarithms of the octanol/water partition coefficient of solvents and pH of the sample solution were investigated. The results showed that a low water solubility of extraction solvent is the foundation to ensure higher extraction efficiency. Moreover, when ΔlogPo/w > 0, a higher extraction efficiency is observed at lower ΔlogPo/w , on the contrary, when ΔlogPo/w < 0, extraction efficiency is higher as the absolute value of ΔlogPo/w becomes greater. Finally, the relationship between enrichment factor and extraction solvents, analytes was established and a helpful guidance was provided for the selection of an optimal solvent to obtain the best extraction efficiency by liquid-phase microextraction. PMID:26224511

  6. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  7. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  8. Secondary restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Yun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the latest findings related to secondary restless legs syndrome (RLS systematically. There were a variety of causes. Renal failure, injury of spinal cord and peripheral nerve were related risk factors. During pregnancy, the levels of folic acid and iron diminished and many hormone levels underwent significant changes, which might also be predisposing factors for RLS. The underlying dopamine dysfunction might affect Pakinson's disease (PD patients with RLS symptoms. In addition, there were some evidences which would illustrate some drugs (mainly antidepressants, antipsychotics, histamine receptor antagonist, smoking, caffeine, alcohol and migraine might be associated with the prevalence of RLS, or even the severity of the disease. Clinicians should pay more attention to early diagnosis and treatment plan to improve the quality of life of these patients.

  9. Self-assembly of short peptides composed of only aliphatic amino acids and a combination of aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbalakshmi, Chilukuri; Manorama, Sunkara V; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2012-05-01

    The morphology of structures formed by the self-assembly of short N-terminal t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) and C-terminal methyl ester (OMe) protected and Boc-deprotected hydrophobic peptide esters was investigated. We have observed that Boc-protected peptide esters composed of either only aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids or aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids in combination with aromatic amino acids, formed highly organized structures, when dried from methanol solutions. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic images of the peptides Boc-Ile-Ile-OMe, Boc-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ile-Ile-OMe and Boc-Trp-Ile-Ile-OMe showed nanotubular structures. Removal of the Boc group resulted in disruption of the ability to form tubular structures though spherical aggregates were formed. Both Boc-Leu-Ile-Ile-OMe and H-Leu-Ile-Ile-OMe formed only spherical nanostructures. Dynamic light scattering studies showed that aggregates of varying dimensions were present in solution suggesting that self-assembly into ordered structures is facilitated by aggregation in solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy data show that although all four of the protected peptides adopt well-defined tertiary structures, upon removal of the Boc group, only H-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ile-Ile-OMe had the ability to adopt β-structure. Our results indicate that hydrophobic interaction is a very important determinant for self-assembly and presence of charged and aromatic amino acids in a peptide is not necessary for self-assembly. PMID:22431418

  10. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  11. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  12. A study of aliphatic amino acids using simulated vibrational circular dichroism and Raman optical activity spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Aravindhan; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Vibrational optical activity (VOA) spectra, such as vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra, of aliphatic amino acids are simulated using density functional theory (DFT) methods in both gas phase (neutral form) and solution (zwitterionic form), together with their respective infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of the amino acids. The DFT models, which are validated by excellent agreements with the available experimental Raman and ROA spectra of alanine in solution, are employed to study other aliphatic amino acids. The inferred (IR) intensive region (below 2000 cm-1) reveals the signature of alkyl side chains, whereas the Raman intensive region (above 3000 cm-1) contains the information of the functional groups in the amino acids. Furthermore, the chiral carbons of the amino acids (except for glycine) dominate the VCD and ROA spectra in the gas phase, but the methyl group vibrations produce stronger VCD and ROA signals in solution. The C-H related asymmetric vibrations domina...

  13. Aliphatic C-H---Anion Hydrogen Bonds: Weak Contacts or Strong Interactions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Pedzisa, Lee [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations, MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ, are used to determine C H---Cl hydrogen bond energies for a series of XCH3 donor groups in which the electron-withdrawing ability of X is varied over a wide range of values. When attached to polarizing substituents, aliphatic CH groups are moderate to strong hydrogen bond donors, exhibiting interaction energies comparable to those obtained with O H and N H groups. The results explain why aliphatic C H donors are observed to function as competitive binding sites in solution and suggest that such C H---anion contacts should be considered as possible contributors when evaluating the denticity of an anion receptor.

  14. Determination of aliphatic organic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Gatta, Maria

    2002-01-01

    A new ion exclusion HPLC procedure accomplished with a pulsed electrochemical detection for the determination of several common aliphatic acids is described. A triple-step waveform of the applied potentials, based on the formation/inhibition of PtOH species on the electrode surface, is successfully used for sensitive detection of several aliphatic acids in flowing systems avoiding pre- or postcolumn derivatization and/or cleanup procedures. Under optimal chromatographic conditions (i.e., 50 mM HClO(4)) the proposed method allowed detection limits between 0.5 and 7 microM for all investigated acids, and the dynamic linear range spanned generally over 1 or 2 orders of magnitude. Determination of citric, malic, tartaric, lactic, formic, and acetic acids in several foods and beverages was performed, in approximately 15 min, without the necessity of any sample pretreatment. PMID:11754537

  15. Study on Aromatization of C6 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons on ZRP Zeolite Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongjun; Xie Chaogang

    2004-01-01

    The performance of ZRP zeolite catalysts for aromatization of C6 aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a pulsed microreactor. The influence of metal modified ZRP zeolites on aromatization reaction was also studied, coupled with comparison of aromatization tendencies of olefins, paraffins and paraffins with different degrees of chain branching. Test results had shown that the lower the silicon/aluminum ratio in the ZRP zeolite, the higher the aromatization reactivity of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Modification of ZRP zeolite by zinc and its zinc content had apparent impact on the yield and distribution of aromatics. The aromatization tendency of olefins was apparently better than paraffins, while the aromatization tendency of monomethyl paraffins was better than that of straight-chain paraffins with the exception of dimethyl paraffins, which had worse aromatization tendency because of their steric hindrance.

  16. Chelating bis-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of iron(ii) containing bipyridyl ligands as catalyst precursors for oxidation of alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mara F; Cardoso, Bernardo de P; Barroso, Sónia; Martins, Ana M; Royo, Beatriz

    2016-09-14

    Chelating bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (bis-NHC) complexes of iron(ii) containing pyridyl ligands have been prepared by the reaction of [FeCl2L] [L = bipy (1), phen (2)] with [LiN(SiMe3)2] and a bis(imidazolium) salt. The [Fe(bis-NHC)L(I)2] complexes were active pre-catalysts in the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol with tert-butyl hydroperoxide in neat conditions, affording a quantitative yield of acetophenone in 4.5 h. The catalyst could be reused up to six cycles giving a turnover number (TON) of 1500. Various secondary alcohols, both aromatic and aliphatic were selectivity oxidised to the corresponding ketones in excellent yields. Compound 1 is stable in acetonitrile solution for ca. 4 h, although after 16 h, it evolves to a mixture of [Fe(bis-NHC)(bipy)2]I2 (3), [Fe(bipy)3](2+) and bis-imidazolium salt. The molecular structure of 3 has been determined by X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:27506414

  17. Development and Characterization of Novel Interpenetrating Network (IPN) Foams from Epoxy Ester and Aliphatic Epoxy Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Kanuprasad; Desai, Dhirubhai; Bhuva, Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) was reacted with acrylate monomer at variable molar ratios. The reaction between glycerine and epichlorohydrine form glycidyl ether of polyol aliphatic epoxy resin. The resultant resins were characterized duly. Both the resins were mixed at different ratios with constant high shear stirring. The obtained mixture and suitable additives were heated at 150oC for one and half hour. The so called Interpenetrating Network (IPN) transformed into foams. The per...

  18. Hydrogenation of Aliphatic Alkenes in a High-Temperature High-Pressure Packed-Bed Microreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Stavárek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    This contribution presents results of the characterization of a new high-temperature high-pressure integrated packed-bed microreactor (MCTU 600 from Ehrfeld Mikrotechnik BTS GmbH) for lab-scale catalyst testing. As the model reaction we used the hydrogenation of C4-C5 aliphatic alkenes heterogeneously catalyzed by Pt/Al2O3 or Pd/Al2O3.

  19. Pattern recognition analysis of a set of mutagenic aliphatic N-nitrosamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Nesnow, S; Langenbach, R; Mass, M J

    1985-01-01

    A set of 21 mutagenic aliphatic N-nitrosamines were subjected to a pattern recognition analysis using ADAPT software. Four descriptors based on molecular connectivity, geometry and sigma charge on nitrogen were capable of achieving a 100% classification using the linear learning machine or iterative least squares algorithms. Three descriptors were capable of a 90.5% and two descriptors of a 85.7% overall correct classification. Three of the four descriptors were each capable of classifying 15...

  20. Production of aliphatic carboxylic acids during the alkali catalysed decomposition of cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Efhil, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of cellulosic materials under alkaline condition (sodium hydroxide) using High performance ion exclusion chromatography (HPIEC) Dionex ICS‐3000 to analyse the samples at different temperatures (at room, at 50 °C, at 90 °C), under atmosphere of N2 during 188 hours, by using acrylic acid as internal standard, resulted in complex mixture of compounds, including isosaccharinic acid. The retention time of aliphatic organic acids measured under the conditions outlined i...

  1. A QSPR STUDY OF NORMAL BOILING POINT OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC ALKANES) USING MOLECULAR DESCRIPTORS

    OpenAIRE

    B. Souyei; M. Korichi

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) study is carried out to develop correlations that relate the molecular structures of organic compounds (Aliphatic Alkanes) to their normal boiling point (NBP) and two correlations were proposed for constitutionals and connectivity indices Models. The correlations are simple in application with good accuracy, which provide an easy, direct and relatively accurate way to calculate NBP. Such calculation gives us a model that gives results in r...

  2. Synthesis and reactivity of aliphatic sulfur pentafluorides from substituted (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes

    OpenAIRE

    Vida, Norbert; Václavík, Jiří; Beier, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of 3- and 4-pentafluorosulfanyl-substituted anisoles and phenols with hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid provided a mixture of SF5-substituted muconolactone, maleic, and succinic acids. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the aliphatic SF5 compounds was presented and their chemical reactivity was investigated. SF5-substituted para-benzoquinone was synthesized; its oxidation led to an improved yield of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid. The reaction of SF5-substituted maleic...

  3. Modification of nano-sized layered double hydroxides by long-chain organic aliphatic surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    RAMASAMY ANBARASAN; SEUNG SOON IM; WANDUC LEE

    2008-01-01

    The inter-layer anion of layered double hydroxides (LDH) with a hydrotalcite (HT)-like structure was ion-exchanged with various organic surfactants, particularly with long chain aliphatic surfactants. After the ion-exchange process, the basal spacing of the LDH was increased and the increase of the basal spacing depended on various factors, such as the intercalation capacity functionality and orientation capability of the surfactant. Of the employed surfactants, stearic acid intercalated LDH ...

  4. Computation of Bond Dissociation Energies for Removal of Nitrogen Dioxide Groups in Certain Aliphatic Nitro Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Ju-Xiang; CHENG Xin-Lu; YANG Xiang-Dong; XIANG Shi-Kai

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bond dissociation energies for removal of nitrogen dioxide groups in 10 aliphatic nitro compounds, including nitromethane, nitroethylene, nitroethane, dinitromethane, 1-nitropropane, 2-nitropropane, 1-nitrobutane,2-methyl-2-nitropropane, nitropentane, and nitrohexane, are calculated using the highly accurate complete basis set (CBS-Q) and the three hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods B3LYP, B3PW91 and B3P86 with 6-31G** basis set.

  5. Unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly porous metal-organic framework made of extended aliphatic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunhao; Lee, Jeongyong; Olson, David H; Emge, Thomas J; Bi, Wenhua; Eibling, Matthew J; Li, Jing

    2008-12-14

    High and unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly stable guest-free microporous metal-organic framework constructed on rigid aliphatic ligands, H(2)bodc and ted, is reported in this work. PMID:19082093

  6. The influence of chemical composition of aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters on their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtczak, Malgorzata; Galeski, Andrzej; Piorkowska, Ewa [Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sienkiewicza 112, 90-363 Lodz (Poland); Dutkiewicz, Slawomir [Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibres, Marii Sklodowskiej-Curie 19/27, 90-570 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The chain microstructure and properties of a series of aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters in a range of compositions from 10 to 100% of aromatic components were studied by examining melting and crystallization behaviors, dynamic mechanical response, morphology, wide- (WAXS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and tensile deformation. Chain microstructure was analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR. The results indicate that most of copolyesters used in this study have essentially random distribution of comonomers. Copolyesters with more than 30 mol% of aromatic part crystallize with a crystal structure characteristic for homopolymer poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). However, some of the reflections from crystal planes are shifted towards lower diffraction angles as compared to butylene terephthalate homoplymer. The phase transition temperatures decrease with increasing aliphatic content. By means of polarized light microscopy (PLM), small-angle light scattering (SALS) and SAXS, crystallization behavior of a selected aliphatic-aromatic copolyester was further explored. Selected copolyester crystallizes in the form of thin fibrous crystals, few nanometers thick, which is the main factor influencing the depression of its melting temperature.

  7. Exploring mild enzymatic sustainable routes for the synthesis of bio-degradable aromatic-aliphatic oligoesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Alessandro; Guarneri, Alice; Brandauer, Martin; Acero, Enrique Herrero; Peerlings, Henricus; Gardossi, Lucia; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-05-01

    The application of Candida antarctica lipase B in enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of aromatic-aliphatic oligoesters is here reported. The aim of the present study is to systematically investigate the most favorable conditions for the enzyme catalyzed synthesis of aromatic-aliphatic oligomers using commercially available monomers. Reaction conditions and enzyme selectivity for polymerization of various commercially available monomers were considered using different inactivated/activated aromatic monomers combined with linear polyols ranging from C2 to C12 . The effect of various reaction solvents in enzymatic polymerization was assessed and toluene allowed to achieve the highest conversions for the reaction of dimethyl isophthalate with 1,4-butanediol and with 1,10-decanediol (88 and 87% monomer conversion respectively). Mw as high as 1512 Da was obtained from the reaction of dimethyl isophthalate with 1,10-decanediol. The obtained oligomers have potential applications as raw materials in personal and home care formulations, for the production of aliphatic-aromatic block co-polymers or can be further functionalized with various moieties for a subsequent photo- or radical polymerization. PMID:26762794

  8. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of aliphatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Mia T.; Richman, Aviva R.; Elrod, Matthew J.; Garland, Rebecca M.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    Field observations of atmospheric aerosols have established that organic compounds compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the physical/chemical pathway by which organic compounds are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols remains unclear. The potential role of acid-catalyzed reactions of organic compounds on acidic aerosols has been explored as a possible chemical pathway for the incorporation of organic material into aerosols. In the present study, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the kinetics of formation of the products of the acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reaction of a range of aliphatic aldehydes (C 2-C 8). The experiments were carried out at various sulfuric acid concentrations and a range of temperatures in order to estimate the rate constants of such reactions on sulfuric acid aerosols under tropospheric conditions. The rate constants were generally found to decrease as the chain length of the aliphatic aldehyde increased (except for acetaldehyde, which had an unusually small rate constant), increase as a function of sulfuric acid concentration as predicted by excess acidity theory, and showed normal Arrhenius behavior as a function of temperature. While the kinetic data are generally consistent with previous laboratory reports of aldehyde reactivity in various sulfuric acid media, the aldol condensation reactions involving aliphatic aldehydes do not appear fast enough to be responsible for significant transfer of organic material into atmospheric aerosols.

  9. Kinetics of aerobic cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, João; Frascari, Dario; Pozdniakova, Tatiana; Danko, Anthony S

    2016-05-15

    This review analyses kinetic studies of aerobic cometabolism (AC) of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) from 2001-2015 in order to (i) compare the different kinetic models proposed, (ii) analyse the estimated model parameters with a focus on novel HAHs and the identification of general trends, and (iii) identify further research needs. The results of this analysis show that aerobic cometabolism can degrade a wide range of HAHs, including HAHs that were not previously tested such as chlorinated propanes, highly chlorinated ethanes and brominated methanes and ethanes. The degree of chlorine mineralization was very high for the chlorinated HAHs. Bromine mineralization was not determined for studies with brominated aliphatics. The examined research period led to the identification of novel growth substrates of potentially high interest. Decreasing performance of aerobic cometabolism were found with increasing chlorination, indicating the high potential of aerobic cometabolism in the presence of medium- and low-halogenated HAHs. Further research is needed for the AC of brominated aliphatic hydrocarbons, the potential for biofilm aerobic cometabolism processes, HAH-HAH mutual inhibition and the identification of the enzymes responsible for each aerobic cometabolism process. Lastly, some indications for a possible standardization of future kinetic studies of HAH aerobic cometabolism are provided. PMID:26874310

  10. Identification of micro-pollutant sources in urban areas. Advantage of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In urban areas, important amounts of hydrocarbons are released in the environment and a significant part of these pollutants concentrate in the sewage system leading to environmental problems. Many studies are based only on the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to identify the origin of environmental contamination. This work aims at demonstrating the advantage of aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkanes) in the identification of pollutant sources in urban environments. Their specificity and relative distribution allow the identification and follow up of many hydrocarbon generating sources. The analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbon pathways has permitted to build up an important database for the signature of these pollutants. The coarse fraction of the sewage sludges is mainly contaminated by exhaust particulates and lubricating oils, while the organic fraction and the bio-film concentrate the biological and petroleum product contributions. The estimation of the level of degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons indicates a shorter residence time in the organic and bio-film layer with respect to the coarse deposit. (J.S.)

  11. Exploring mild enzymatic sustainable routes for the synthesis of bio-degradable aromatic-aliphatic oligoesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Alessandro; Guarneri, Alice; Brandauer, Martin; Acero, Enrique Herrero; Peerlings, Henricus; Gardossi, Lucia; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-05-01

    The application of Candida antarctica lipase B in enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of aromatic-aliphatic oligoesters is here reported. The aim of the present study is to systematically investigate the most favorable conditions for the enzyme catalyzed synthesis of aromatic-aliphatic oligomers using commercially available monomers. Reaction conditions and enzyme selectivity for polymerization of various commercially available monomers were considered using different inactivated/activated aromatic monomers combined with linear polyols ranging from C2 to C12 . The effect of various reaction solvents in enzymatic polymerization was assessed and toluene allowed to achieve the highest conversions for the reaction of dimethyl isophthalate with 1,4-butanediol and with 1,10-decanediol (88 and 87% monomer conversion respectively). Mw as high as 1512 Da was obtained from the reaction of dimethyl isophthalate with 1,10-decanediol. The obtained oligomers have potential applications as raw materials in personal and home care formulations, for the production of aliphatic-aromatic block co-polymers or can be further functionalized with various moieties for a subsequent photo- or radical polymerization.

  12. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  13. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 have distinct functions in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sixue; Glawischnig, Erich; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Naur, Peter; Jørgensen, Bodil; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Hansen, Carsten H; Rasmussen, Hasse; Pickett, John A; Halkier, Barbara A

    2003-03-01

    Cytochromes P450 of the CYP79 family catalyze the conversion of amino acids to oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a group of natural plant products known to be involved in plant defense and as a source of flavor compounds, cancer-preventing agents and bioherbicides. We report a detailed biochemical analysis of the substrate specificity and kinetics of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, two cytochromes P450 involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using recombinant CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, we show that CYP79F1 metabolizes mono- to hexahomomethionine, resulting in both short- and long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates. In contrast, CYP79F2 exclusively metabolizes long-chain elongated penta- and hexahomomethionines. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 are spatially and developmentally regulated, with different gene expression patterns. CYP79F2 is highly expressed in hypocotyl and roots, whereas CYP79F1 is strongly expressed in cotyledons, rosette leaves, stems, and siliques. A transposon-tagged CYP79F1 knockout mutant completely lacks short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, but has an increased level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, especially in leaves and seeds. The level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates in a transposon-tagged CYP79F2 knockout mutant is substantially reduced, whereas the level of short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates is not affected. Biochemical characterization of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, and gene expression analysis, combined with glucosinolate profiling of knockout mutants demonstrate the functional role of these enzymes. This provides valuable insights into the metabolic network leading to the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates, and into metabolic engineering of altered aliphatic glucosinolate profiles to improve nutritional value and pest resistance. PMID:12609033

  14. Fatty Aldehyde and Fatty Alcohol Metabolism: Review and Importance for Epidermal Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Normal fatty aldehyde and alcohol metabolism is essential for epidermal differentiation and function. Long-chain aldehydes are produced by catabolism of several lipids including fatty alcohols, sphingolipids, ether glycerolipids, isoprenoid alcohols and certain aliphatic lipids that undergo α- or ω-oxidation. The fatty aldehyde generated by these pathways is chiefly metabolized to fatty acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, alternately known as ALDH3A2), which also functions to oxidize fatty alcohols as a component of the fatty alcohol:NAD oxidoreductase (FAO) enzyme complex. Genetic deficiency of FALDH/FAO in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) results in accumulation of fatty aldehydes, fatty alcohols and related lipids (ether glycerolipids, wax esters) in cultured keratinocytes. These biochemical changes are associated with abnormalities in formation of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum and impaired delivery of their precursor membranes to the stratum corneum (SC). The defective extracellular SC membranes are responsible for a leaky epidermal water barrier and ichthyosis. Although lamellar bodies appear to be the pathogenic target for abnormal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism in SLS, the precise biochemical mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Nevertheless, studies in SLS highlight the critical importance of FALDH and normal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism for epidermal function. PMID:24036493

  15. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: mmattos@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2014-05-15

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  16. Secondary peritonitis caused by Streptomyces viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Datta (Priya); S. Arora (Shilpa); A. Jain (Ashok); J. Chander (Jagdish); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStreptomyces organisms are soil inhabitants rarely causing nonmycetomic infections. We describe a case of secondary peritonitis caused by Streptomyces viridis in a chronic alcoholic patient who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and pain in the abdomen. The most likely source of

  17. Selective oxidation of alcohols over nickel zirconium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdol R. Hajipour; Hirbod Karimi; Afshin Koohi

    2015-01-01

    Nickel zirconium phosphate nanoparticles were found to function as efficient catalysts for the selec-tive oxidation of a wide range of alcohols to their corresponding ketones and aldehydes using H2O2 as an oxidizing agent and without any organic solvents, phase transfer catalysts, or additives. The steric and electronic properties of various substrates had significant influence on the reaction con-ditions required to achieve acetylation. The results showed that this method can be applied for the chemoselective oxidation of benzyl alcohols in the presence of aliphatic alcohols. The catalyst used in the current study was characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, NH3-TPD, Py-FTIR, N2 adsorp-tion-desorption, SEM and TEM. These analyses revealed that the interlayer distance in the catalyst increased from 0.75 to 0.98 nm when Ni2+ was intercalated between the layers, whereas the crystal-linity of the material was reduced. The nanocatalyst could also be recovered and reused at least seven times without any discernible decrease in its catalytic activity. This new method for the oxi-dation of alcohols has several key advantages, including mild and environmentally friendly reaction conditions, short reaction time, excellent yields and a facile work-up.

  18. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an altern

  19. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  20. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  1. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  2. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  3. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  4. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  6. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  7. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  8. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  9. Nalmefene and its use in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, A; Bruguera, P; López-Pelayo, H

    2014-05-01

    Nalmefene is the first available drug approved in the E.U. to reduce alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction in alcohol use in heavy drinkers diminishes mortality risk and socio-economic burden. Nalmefene has shown efficacy at 6 months in alcohol-dependent patients with high or very high drinking risk levels in reducing total alcohol consumption (-7.6 g/day [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.6 to -3.5]; P = 0.0003), heavy drinking days (-2.00 days/month [95% CI: -3.00 to -1.00]; P ⟨ 0.00001) and other secondary outcome measures such as γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, drinking risk level and Clinical Global Impression. It is generally well tolerated and has limited contraindications and interactions. As-needed dosage is a novel concept in the addictions field, which may overcome limitations of traditional regimens. In the pivotal trials, nalmefene was taken 52% of the days and compliance with the as-needed treatment regimen was good (above 80% of the days) in 68% of the nalmefene-treated patients. A new pharmacological approach combined with a brief psychosocial intervention for alcoholism is available and appears to be feasible, safe and efficacious. PMID:24918835

  10. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  11. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  12. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  13. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  14. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  15. Polyvinyl alcohol and gelatin sponge particle embolization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm complicating chronic alcoholic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Song Guan; Long Sun; Xiang-Ping Zhou; Xiao Li; Ze-Jun Fei; Xiao-Hua Zheng; Qing He

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effectiveness of and complications associated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gelatin sponge particles embolization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm complicating chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.METHODS: A 42-year-old man with splenic artery pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to chronic alcoholic pancreatitis was admitted. We used PVA and gelatin sponge partides embo lization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm by superselective embolization techniques.RESULTS: The splenic artery pseudoaneurysm was successfully controlled with splenic embolization. The patient was discharged in 9 d with complete recovery. CONCLUSION: This case confirms that superselective transcatheter embolization by PVA and gelatin sponge particles may represent an effective treatment for pseudoaneurysm caused by chronic alcoholic pancreatitis in the absence of other therapeutic alternatives.

  16. Ultrastructure of Escherichia coli cells under the action of a novel derivative of aryl aliphatic aminoalcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronova M.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Novel derivatives of aryl aliphatic aminoalcohols were examined for antimicrobial activity. Compound KVM-114 (4-(1,1,3,3-tetrabutyl phenoxy-3-dimethylamino-2-propanol hydrochloride was found as a selective against gram-negative bacteria. Objective. Investigation of compound KVM-114 influence on E. coli ultrastructure. Methods. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by serial dilution method in Muller-Hinton broth. Bacteria (Escherichia coli for transmission electron microscopy samples preparation was grown to exponential phase and then was exposed to the subinhibitory concentration of KVM-114 for 1 h and 24 h. Results. Intact E. coli cells were rod-shaped with rounded ends. A light layer, allowing clear visualization of the cell wall, was observed between the сytoplasm and cytoplasmic membrane. Lipopolysaccharide layer was well distinguished as well. Cytoplasm was filled with ribosomes and polyribosomes. 1 hour exposition to KVM-114 at a subinhibitory concentration resulted in the absence of polyribosomes in the cytoplasm. Increase of electron density of lipopolysaccharide layer and cell wall indicate alteration of cell envelope. Prolongation of the incubation period to 24 hours led to cell recovery: no changes were observed, compared to control cells. The data obtained suggest compound’s ability to alter cell envelope and metabolic activity, however, subinhibitory concentration is apparently not sufficient for total inhibition of E. coli growth. Conclusion. The derivative of aryl aliphatic aminoalcohols, compound KVM-114, possesses inhibitory activity against gram-negative bacteria. E. coli treatment with this compound resulted in structural changes of the cell wall and alteration of intracellular processes. Citation: Dronova ML, Voychuk SI, Vrynchanu NO. [Ultrastructure of Escherichia coli cells under the action of a novel derivative of aryl aliphatic aminoalcohols]. Morphologia. 2014;8(4:26-9. Ukrainian.

  17. Solid state and sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures of cyclic aliphatic dicarboxylic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Booth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS has been used to measure for the first time the solid state vapour pressures of a series of aliphatic cyclic dicarboxylic acids with increasing ring size. Additionally the atmospherically important compounds; cis-pinonic acid and levoglucosan were also measured. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC was used to measure melting points, enthalpies and entropies of fusion, which were used to determine sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures for the compounds. The sub-cooled liquid vapour pressure of straight chain, branched and cyclic dicarboxylic acids was compared to a selection of estimation methods.

  18. Simultaneous determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs and PCTs in pork liver by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barros, C. [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez Pineiro, M.E. [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Simal Lozano, J. [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lage Yusty, M.A. [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    A multicomponent extraction/concentration procedure has been developed for the enrichment of PCBs, PCTs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (pristane, C{sub 18}, C{sub 19}, C{sub 20}, C{sub 22}, C{sub 24}, C{sub 28}, C{sub 32} and C{sub 36}) in pork liver. These components of the enriched extract were then simultaneously determined by gas chromatography. Mean recoveries ranged from 81.5% for pristane to 93% for PCBs; CV % (0.9-6.7) indicated the method to be both precise and reproducible. (orig.)

  19. Using the Griess colorimetric nitrite assay for measuring aliphatic β-nitroalcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Quan; Paik, David C

    2012-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that aliphatic β-nitroalcohols (BNAs) may represent a useful class of compounds for topical therapeutic corneoscleral cross-linking agents. Thus, this study was undertaken in order to standardize a simple method for nitroalcohol quantitation based on a denitration step followed by colorimetric Griess nitrite assay. Conditions necessary for denitration included a pH of 7-9 and heating for 1 hour at 100°C. Standard curves for two mono-nitroalcohols (2-nitroethanol and...

  20. A QSPR STUDY OF NORMAL BOILING POINT OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC ALKANES USING MOLECULAR DESCRIPTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Souyei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR study is carried out to develop correlations that relate the molecular structures of organic compounds (Aliphatic Alkanes to their normal boiling point (NBP and two correlations were proposed for constitutionals and connectivity indices Models. The correlations are simple in application with good accuracy, which provide an easy, direct and relatively accurate way to calculate NBP. Such calculation gives us a model that gives results in remarkable correlations with the descriptors of blokes constitutionals (CON, and connectivity indices (CI (R2 = 0.950, δ = 0.766 (R2 = 0.969, δ = 0.782 respectively.

  1. Design, Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activities of Novel Aliphatic Amino-Substituted Flavonoids

    OpenAIRE

    Guannan Liu; Zhen Ge; Mengdan Zhao; Yifeng Zhou

    2013-01-01

    A series of flavonoids 9a–f, 13b, 13d, 13e and 14a–f bearing diverse aliphatic amino moieties were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the ECA-109, A-549, HL-60, and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Most of the compounds exhibited moderate to good activities. The structure-activity relationships were studied, revealing that the chalcone skeleton is the most preferable for cytotoxic activities. Chalcone 9d was the most promising compound due to its high potency ag...

  2. The C--H Stretching Features at 3.2--3.5 Micrometer of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Aliphatic Sidegroups

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xuejuan; Glaser, Rainer; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The so-called unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 micrometer are ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of astrophysical regions. The UIE features are characteristic of the stretching and bending vibrations of aromatic hydrocarbon materials, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. The 3.3 micrometer aromatic C--H stretching feature is often accompanied by a weaker feature at 3.4 micrometer. The latter is often thought to result from the C--H stretch of aliphatic groups attached to the aromatic systems. The ratio of the observed intensity of the 3.3 micrometer aromatic C--H feature to that of the 3.4 micrometer aliphatic C--H feature allows one to estimate the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers, provided that the intrinsic oscillator strengths of the 3.3 micrometer aromatic C--H stretch (A3.3) and the 3.4 micrometer aliphatic C--H stretch (A3.4) are known. While previous studies on the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers were mostly based on the A3.4...

  3. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Slovenian coastal area (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajt, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    The distribution and sources of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in sediments at seven sites around the Slovenian coastal area. The potential toxicological significance was also assessed using biological thresholds. The results of the analyses showed higher concentrations of hydrocarbons in the Port of Koper and in the Marina of Portoroz. The influence of pollution was also evident in rather higher concentrations of hydrocarbons in the surrounding area in the Bays of Koper and Piran. Concentrations of hydrocarbons decrease toward the central part of the Gulf of Trieste. The major component of the aliphatic fraction was the unresolved complex mixture. Concentrations of the total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons were in a range from 689 to 3,164 ng g(-1). Concentrations of the total PAHs were between 330 and 1,173 ng g(-1). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily of pyrolytic origin with some smaller contributions of the petrogenic, while the aliphatic are mostly of petrogenic origin with significant amounts of biogenic derived compounds of terrestrial and marine origin. Strong evidence of the diagenetic origin of perylene in the investigated area was also found. Quite a good linear relationship between PAH concentration and TOC and between aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations and TOC was observed. The principal component analysis showed differences between the nearshore and offshore sites. In general, the investigated area is moderately contaminated by hydrocarbons. Concentrations of PAHs, hydrocarbons of high concern, are below the levels (effects range low and the effects range median) associated with adverse biological effects. PMID:22270593

  4. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest......Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  5. Substrate specificity and stereoselectivity of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. Kinetic evaluation of binding and activation parameters controlling the catalytic cycles of unbranched, acyclic secondary alcohols and ketones as substrates of the native and active-site-specific Co(II)-substituted enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, H W; Maurer, P; Schneider-Bernlöhr, H; Sartorius, C; Zeppezauer, M

    1991-11-01

    1. The steady-state parameters kcat and Km and the rate constants of hydride transfer for the substrates isopropanol/acetone; (S)-2-butanol, (R)-2-butanol/2-butanone; (S)-2-pentanol, (R)-2-pentanol/2-pentanone; 3-pentanol/3-pentanone; (S)-2-octanol and (R)-2-octanol have been determined for the native Zn(II)-containing horse-liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) and the specific active-site-substituted Co(II)LADH. 2. A combined evaluation of steady-state kinetic data and rate constants obtained from stopped-flow measurements, allowed the determination of all rate constants of the following ordered bi-bi mechanism: E in equilibrium E.NAD in equilibrium E.NAD.R1R2 CHOH in equilibrium E.NADH.R1R2CO in equilibrium E.NADH in equilibrium E. 3. On the basis of the different substrate specificities of LADH and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH), a procedure has been developed to evaluate the enantiomeric product composition of ketone reductions. 2-Butanone and 2-pentanone reductions revealed (S)-2-butanol (86%) and (S)-2-pentanol (95%) as the major products. 4. The observed enantioselectivity implies the existence of two productive ternary complexes; E.NADH.(pro-S) 2-butanone and E.NADH.(pro-R) 2-butanone. All rate constants describing the kinetic pathways of the system (S)-2-butanol, (R)-2-butanol/2-butanone have been determined. These data have been used to estimate the expected enantiomer product composition of 2-butanone reductions using apparent kcat/Km values for the two different ternary-complex configurations of 2-butanone. Additionally, these data have been used for computer simulations of the corresponding reaction cycles. Calculated, simulated and experimental data were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the system (S)-2-butanol, (R)-2-butanol/2-butanone is the first example of a LADH-catalyzed reaction for which the stereochemical course could be described in terms of rate constants of the underlying mechanism. 5. The effects of Co(II) substitution on the

  6. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  7. Halides with Fifteen Aliphatic C–H···Anion Interaction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Genggongwo; Aliakbar Tehrani, Zahra; Kim, Dongwook; Cho, Woo Jong; Youn, Il-Seung; Lee, Han Myoung; Yousuf, Muhammad; Ahmed, Nisar; Shirinfar, Bahareh; Teator, Aaron J.; Lastovickova, Dominika N.; Rasheed, Lubna; Lah, Myoung Soo; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2016-07-01

    Since the aliphatic C–H···anion interaction is relatively weak, anion binding using hydrophobic aliphatic C–H (Cali–H) groups has generally been considered not possible without the presence of additional binding sites that contain stronger interactions to the anion. Herein, we report X-ray structures of organic crystals that feature a chloride anion bound exclusively by hydrophobic Cali–H groups. An X-ray structure of imidazolium-based scaffolds using Cali–H···A‑ interactions (A‑ = anion) shows that a halide anion is directly interacting with fifteen Cali–H groups (involving eleven hydrogen bonds, two bidentate hydrogen-bond-type binding interactions and two weakly hydrogen-bonding-like binding interactions). Additional supporting interactions and/or other binding sites are not observed. We note that such types of complexes may not be rare since such high numbers of binding sites for an anion are also found in analogous tetraalkylammonium complexes. The Cali–H···A‑ interactions are driven by the formation of a near-spherical dipole layer shell structure around the anion. The alternating layers of electrostatic charge around the anion arise because the repulsions between weakly positively charged H atoms are reduced by the presence of the weakly negatively charged C atoms connected to H atoms.

  8. Halides with Fifteen Aliphatic C-H···Anion Interaction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Genggongwo; Aliakbar Tehrani, Zahra; Kim, Dongwook; Cho, Woo Jong; Youn, Il-Seung; Lee, Han Myoung; Yousuf, Muhammad; Ahmed, Nisar; Shirinfar, Bahareh; Teator, Aaron J; Lastovickova, Dominika N; Rasheed, Lubna; Lah, Myoung Soo; Bielawski, Christopher W; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-01-01

    Since the aliphatic C-H···anion interaction is relatively weak, anion binding using hydrophobic aliphatic C-H (Cali-H) groups has generally been considered not possible without the presence of additional binding sites that contain stronger interactions to the anion. Herein, we report X-ray structures of organic crystals that feature a chloride anion bound exclusively by hydrophobic Cali-H groups. An X-ray structure of imidazolium-based scaffolds using Cali-H···A(-) interactions (A(-) = anion) shows that a halide anion is directly interacting with fifteen Cali-H groups (involving eleven hydrogen bonds, two bidentate hydrogen-bond-type binding interactions and two weakly hydrogen-bonding-like binding interactions). Additional supporting interactions and/or other binding sites are not observed. We note that such types of complexes may not be rare since such high numbers of binding sites for an anion are also found in analogous tetraalkylammonium complexes. The Cali-H···A(-) interactions are driven by the formation of a near-spherical dipole layer shell structure around the anion. The alternating layers of electrostatic charge around the anion arise because the repulsions between weakly positively charged H atoms are reduced by the presence of the weakly negatively charged C atoms connected to H atoms. PMID:27444513

  9. Using of mass spectrum for prognosis of melting temperature of monatomic aliphatic spirits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In present article researching possibility of prediction of melting temperature (MT) of monatomic aliphatic spirits with using mass-spectra as descriptors structure of molecules. Mass-spectra of 84 aliphatic spirits were used. Mass-spectra were preliminarily transformed on special formula before calculations for receiving work dates of descriptors. Calculations fulfilled with help of the computer program PROGROC. Quality of prediction characterized by coefficient of R-correlation between predicted and experimental dates MT and standard s-deviation. Coefficient of R-correlation between experimental and calculated dates account for 0.9785, standard s-deviation = 11.25 deg. C. Singly R and S for training and control excerpt equally 0.9789 and 11.31 deg. C, 0,9789 and 8.87 deg. C accordingly. Advantage of workable by us method lie in that, what on comparable with literature data of accuracy for prediction property is enough to have only mass-spectrum of substance

  10. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate fallout of Alexandria, Egypt: Sources and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboul-Kassim, T.A.T.; Simoneit, B.R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Particulate fallout samples (PFS) were collected in Alexandria, and their aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compositions were determined both quantitatively and qualitatively to characterize the homologous and biomarker compounds in terms of their original sources. The results show that all samples contain aliphatic hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, UCM, isoprenoids, tri- and tetracyclic terpanes, hopanes, and steranes/diasteranes. The main source of these compounds is from petrochemical contamination with trace input of terrestrial higher plant wax. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are considered to be combustion products from fossil fuels such as petroleum, are also widely distributed in all samples. Multivariate statistical analysis, including extended Q-mode factor analysis and linear programming technique, was performed in order to reduce the hydrocarbon data set into a meaningful number of end members (sources). This analysis indicates that there are two significant end members explaining 90% of the total variation among the samples and confirming petrochemical (79.6%), and thermogenic/pyrolytic (10.4%) sources in the PFS model. 65 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Branched aliphatic alkanes of shell bar section in Qarhan Lake, Qaidam Basin and their paleoclimate significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuCai; CHANG FengQin; LI Bin; LEI GuoLiang; CHEN Yue; ZHANG WenXiang; NIU Jie; FAN HongFang; YANG MingSheng

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers of paleolake deposits from Qarhan Salt Lake in Qaidam Basin, northwest China were systematically analyzed and the A-C series compounds of branched aliphatic alkanes with quaternary substituted carbon atom (BAQCs) were identified. The homologous distinguished three series, A-C,were identified as 5,5-diethylalkanes, 6,6-diethylalkanes and 5-butyl, 5-ethylalkanes series, and their relative abundance was A > B > C. Series A and C were characterized by odd carbon numbers, whereas series B was characterized by even carbon numbers. The high values of series A corresponded with the high values of series B and C. Therefore, it can be concluded that series A, B and C possess a similar biological origin. The abundance of series A was relatively Iow in the lower part of the section compared with that in the upper part, implying that these series originated from bacteria and/or algae more prevalent in fresh-mesohaline water, and such kinds of bacteria and/or algae are most likely to be thermophilous species. The A25/nC25 ratio differences in the section show that such branched aliphatic alkanes can be treated as one kind of environmental change proxy for paleolake evolution and may provide important information for the climate reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene.

  12. Decomposition mechanisms of trinitroalkyl compounds: a theoretical study from aliphatic to aromatic nitro compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, Guillaume; Rotureau, Patricia; Minisini, Benoit

    2014-04-14

    The chemical mechanisms involved in the decomposition of trinitroethyl compounds were studied for both aliphatic and aromatic derivatives using density functional theory calculations. At first, in the case of 1,1,1-trinitrobutane, used as a reference molecule, two primary channels were highlighted among the five investigated ones: the breaking of the C-N bond and the HONO elimination. Then, the influence of various structural parameters was studied for these two reactions by changing the length of the carbon chain, adding substituents or double bonds along the carbon chain. If some slight changes in activation energies were observed for most of these features, no modification of the competition between the two investigated reactions was highlighted and the breaking of the C-N bond remained the favoured mechanism. At last, the reactions involving the trinitroalkyl fragments were highlighted to be more competitive than reactions involving nitro groups linked to aromatic cycles in two aromatic systems (4-(1,1,1-trinitrobutyl)-nitrobenzene and 2-(1,1,1-trinitrobutyl)-nitrobenzene). This showed that aromatic nitro compounds with trinitroalkyl derivatives decompose from their alkyl part and may be considered more likely as aliphatic than as aromatic regarding the initiation of their decomposition process.

  13. Extraction and solubility characteristics of metal aliphatic carboxylates in a hexane medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extractions of 30 metal ions with aliphatic carboxylic acids into hexane were carried out to understand their extraction behavior. Results were expressed in an area-graph form for metal partitions among the three (aqueous, organic and/or solid) phases in the range pH 1-9. The difference in half-extraction pH (pH1/2) between various metals can be explained by the electrostatic effect (hard acids) and the polarizability. According to the solubility of the metal complexes into organic phase, the thirty metal ions were divided into two groups. The metal ions with high ionic potential (group A) were generally extractable by every carboxylic acid tested. The large size metal ions (group B) precipitated at the liquid/liquid interface by n-aliphatic carboxylic acids and were perfectly extracted by 2-ethylhexanoic acid. We propose that this difference in the group B is caused by interface-coagulation through inter-molecular hydrophobic bond formation in the former, while the branched chain in the carboxylic acid weakens the interaction in the latter. For group A, therefore, most of the extracted species would be origomers so that no coagulation would occur. (author)

  14. New aliphatic glycerophosphoryl-containing polyurethanes: synthesis, platelet adhesion and elution cytotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetti, Daniela; D'Arrigo, Paola; Giordano, Carmen; Macchi, Piero; Servi, Stefano; Tessaro, Davide

    2009-04-01

    in this study new poly(ether)urethanes (PeUs) based on aliphatic diisocyanates were synthesized with phospholipid-like residues as chain extenders. The primary objective was to prepare new polyurethanes from diisocyanates that are less toxic than the aromatic ones widely used in medical-grade polyurethanes, in order to investigate the effect of the different aromatic or aliphatic hard segment content on the final properties of the materials. Some glycerophospho residues were simultaneously introduced to enhance the hemocompatibility of these materials. Polymers were prepared by a conventional two-step solution polymerization procedure using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDi) and dodecametilendiisocyanate (DDi) and poly(1,4-butanediol) with molecular weight 1000 to form prepolymers, which were subsequently polymerized with 1-glycerophosphorylcholine (1-GPC) or glycerophosphorylserine (GPS) to act as chain extenders. The reference polymers bearing 1,4-butandiol (BD) were also synthesized. The polymers obtained were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (fT-iR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H nmR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The hemocompatibility of synthesized segmented polyurethanes was preliminarily investigated by platelet-rich plasma contact studies and related scanning electron microscopy (Sem) photographs as well as by cell viability assay after cell exposure to material elutions to assess the effect of any toxic leachables coming out from the samples. Two of the polymers gave interesting results, suggesting the desirability of further investigation into their possible use in biomedical devices. PMID:19569028

  15. Hyperbranched Aliphatic Polyester Modified Activated Carbon Particles with Homogenized Surface Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Liuxue

    The hyperbranched aliphatic polyester grafted activated carbon (HAPE-AC), was successfully prepared by the simple "one-pot" method. The surface functional groups of commercial activated carbon particles were homogenized to hydroxyl groups by being oxidized with nitric acid and then reduced with lithium tetrahydroaluminate (LiAlH4) at first. Secondly, the surface hydroxyl groups were used as the active sites for the solution polycondensation of the AB2 monomer, 2, 2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA), with the catalysis of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The homogenization of the surface groups of the activated carbon particles and the graft polymerization of the hyperbranched aliphatic polyester were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The products were also characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The competitive adsorption properties of the products toward the heavy metal ions (Cu(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II)) also proved the translations of the surface groups.

  16. Phase diagrams in blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid with various aliphatic polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phase behavior with immiscibility, miscibility, crystalline morphology, and kinetic analysis in blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB with aliphatic polyesters such as poly(butylene adipate (PBA, poly(ethylene adipate (PEA, poly(trimethylene adipate (PTA, or poly(ethylene succinate (PESu, respectively, were explored mainly using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and polarized-light optical microscopy (POM. Immiscibility phase behavior with reversible upper-critical-solution-temperature (UCST is common in the PHB/polyester blends. The polyester/polyester blend of PHB/PTA is partially miscible with no UCST in melt and amorphous glassy states within a composition range of PTA less than 50 wt%. The miscible crystalline/crystalline blend exhibits ring-banded spherulites at Tc = 50~100°C, with inter-ring spacing dependent on Tc. All immiscible or partially miscible PHB/polyester blends, by contrast, exhibit disrupted ringbanded spherulites or discrete spherical phase domains upon cooling from UCST to crystallization. The blends of PHB with all other aliphatic polyesters, such as PESu, PEA, PBA, etc. are only partially miscible or immiscible with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST at 180~221°C depending on blend composition. UCST with reversibility was verified.

  17. Structure-property relationship in aliphatic polyamide/polyaniline surface layered composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatyeyeva, K., E-mail: kateryna.fatyeyeva@univ-rouen.fr [Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 50 Kharkivske shose, Kyiv 02160 (Ukraine); Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087, Universite du Maine, Av. Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Laboratoire Polymeres, Biopolymeres et Surfaces, UMR 6270 and FR 3038 CNRS, Universite de Rouen, Bd. Maurice de Broglie, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan cedex (France); Pud, A.A. [Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 50 Kharkivske shose, Kyiv 02160 (Ukraine); Bardeau, J.-F.; Tabellout, M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087, Universite du Maine, Av. Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Synthesis of surface conducting polymers based on aliphatic polyamides and polyaniline. {yields} The study revealed the layered structure of the surface conductive composites. {yields} Different dielectric relaxation processes were found as a function of doping agent and polyaniline oxidation state. {yields} Conductivity value (10{sup -4}-10{sup -11} S cm{sup -1}) enables the use of such composites as antistatic/electrostatic discharge materials. - Abstract: Conducting polymer composite films based on different aliphatic polyamides (PA) (PA-6, PA-11 and PA-12) have been synthesized by in situ aniline polymerization inside a surface layer of the PA host matrix. Dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss of these films are explained in terms of the interfacial polarization. The real part of permittivity is found to be higher in the PA/polyaniline (PANI) composite films than in the virgin PA polymer matrix. Such behaviour is attributed to the interaction between PA and PANI molecular chains and to the conductivity increase after the aniline polymerization. The performed confocal Raman spectrometry and X-ray diffraction studies also confirmed the presence of interactions between PA and PANI molecular chains.

  18. Anaerobic biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons: Ugly duckling to beautiful swan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, G.F.

    1999-10-01

    For many years anaerobic biological processes were reputed to be more sensitive than aerobic processes to toxic substances such as chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH) and thus a poor choice for treating water containing these compounds. This was especially true for water containing perchloroethylene (PCE) or trichloroethylene (TCE) because vinyl chloride, a human carcinogen, is produced when these two compounds are degraded anaerobically. Aerobic treatment with organisms containing oxygenase enzyme systems, which could fortuitously degrade a wide variety of chlorinated aliphatics (but not PCE), was favored. Recently, however, several enrichments and organisms have been isolated that will convert PCE and TCE into ethene and ethane, as shown by field data. Because of this evidence, anaerobic processes are now considered a significant alternative treatment for CAH contamination. Recent work at the University of Iowa, Iowa City, has focused on the effect of mixtures of CAHs on biotransformation of individual organic compounds and the potential for a combined methanogen-iron (Fe(0)) system to improve CAH bioremediation. At the concentration ranges tested, the presence of a mixture of CAHs seems to decrease rate of transformation of individual organics. However, there are important exceptions; in some cases a mixture of CAHs seems to facilitate transformation of an individual organic compound. Combination of an active methanogenic population with Fe(0) increases the rate and extent of transformation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. Results with PCE and 1,1,1-trichloroethane are less clear.

  19. Determination of aliphatic aldehydes by liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Contursi, Michela

    2005-01-21

    An electrochemical detection method for short-chain saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes separated by liquid chromatography in moderately acidic medium is described. A triple-step waveform of the potentials applied to the polycrystalline platinum electrode, is proposed for sensitive detection of aliphatic aldehydes in flowing streams avoiding tedious pre- or post-column derivatization and/or cleanup procedures. The influences of the perchloric acid concentration and dissolved oxygen in the mobile phase, on the amperometric and chromatographic performance were evaluated and considered in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. Under the optimised experimental conditions (i.e., deoxygenated 50mM HClO4) the proposed analytical method allowed detection limits between 0.2 microM for acrolein and 2.5 microM for valeraldehyde. Regression analysis of calibration data indicates that responses for all investigated compounds are linear over about 2 orders of magnitude above the LOD, with correlation coefficients >0.990. The method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acrolein in real matrices such as spiked water and red wines with good mean recoveries (81-97%). PMID:15700464

  20. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the biodegradability of aromatic aliphatic copolyester film and their blend with corn starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable and green plastics have been studied in the last years. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of electron beam irradiation on the biodegradability of aromatic aliphatic copolyester film and their blend with corn starch. The samples were irradiated at different doses 10 and 40 kGy in a linear accelerator. The biodegradability of the materials was evaluated by two methods: soil simulated and enzymatic. In the method enzymatic when it was used α-amylase, the irradiated samples presented faster biodegradation than the references non irradiated. The blend of aromatic aliphatic copolyester with corn starch (EcobrasR) irradiated presented a bigger biodegradability than the aromatic aliphatic copolyester (EcoflexR) film in both methods studied. (author)

  1. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  2. Prospective Effects of Possible Selves on Alcohol Consumption in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F.; Park, Chang G.; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents’ alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade pred...

  3. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  4. Contribution of Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase to Metabolism of Alcohols in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, Bryce V.; Leidal, Kevin G.; Murch, Bruce P.; Green, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5–20 mmole/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmole/kg•h. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5–10 mmole/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmole/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6 ± 1 mmole/kg•h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD+ for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD+ for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD+ is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified. PMID:25641189

  5. Direct β-C(sp(3))-H Functionalization of Aliphatic Amines to α,β-Unsaturated Imines, Aldehydes, and Chromenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sumana; Mahato, Sujit; Jana, Chandan K

    2015-08-01

    A metal-free method for direct β-C(sp(3))-H functionalization of aliphatic amine was developed. The method is based on a reaction that yields enamine directly from the corresponding aliphatic amine, which otherwise requires the aid of metallic reagent and/or external oxidant. The reaction is operationally simple, general, and highly efficient in functionalizing both cyclic and acyclic amines. Structurally diverse unsaturated imines were obtained from N-heterocycles, while acyclic amines provided 2-alkyl cinnamaldehyde and benzopyran derivatives with excellent E/Z-selectivity. PMID:26204435

  6. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  7. A novel and selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols with polymer-supported periodic acid under mild aprotic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Pourali; Mehrosadat Tabaean; S. Mohamad Reza Nazifi

    2012-01-01

    A new polymeric oxidizing reagent was prepared by supporting periodic acid on poly(1,4-phenylene-2,5-pyridine dicarboxyamide).This polymeric reagent was used for the selective oxidation of primary benzylic alcohols to the corresponding benzaldehydes in CH3CN at reflux conditions.Excellent selectivity was observed between primary benzyl alcohols and secondary ones as well as non-benzylic alcohols in the oxidation reactions.Allylic alcohols were also converted to the corresponding aldehydes with good yields.

  8. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  9. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... into a purchase basket. An experimental design controlled the beverages’ price variation. Applying an intra-individual research design, respondents’ purchases were simulated under current and increased taxes. Findings: A market potential for low and very low wine products of up to ten percent of the wine market...

  10. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  11. Transferable force field for alcohols and polyalcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Teuler, Jean-Marie; Boutin, Anne

    2009-04-30

    A new force field has been developed for alcohol and polyalcohol molecules. Based on the anisotropic united-atom force field AUA4 developed for hydrocarbons, it only introduces one new anisotropic united atom corresponding to the hydroxyl group OH. In the case of polyalcohols and complex molecules, the calculation of the intramolecular electrostatic energy is revisited. These interactions are calculated between charges belonging to the different local dipoles of the molecule, one dipole being defined as a group of consecutive charges globally neutral. This new method allows avoiding the use of empirical scaling parameters commonly introduced to calculate 1-4 electrostatic interactions. The transferability of the proposed potential is demonstrated through the simulation of a wide variety of alcohol families: primary alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol), secondary alcohols (propan-2-ol), tertiary alcohols (2-methylpropan-2-ol), phenol, and diols (1,2-ethanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol). Monte Carlo simulations carried out in the Gibbs ensemble lead to a good agreement between calculated and experimental data for the thermodynamic properties along the liquid/vapor saturation curve, for the critical point coordinates and for the liquid structure at room temperature. Additional simulations were performed on the methanol + n-butane system showing the capability of the proposed potential to reproduce the azeotropic behavior of such mixtures with a good agreement. PMID:19344171

  12. Purification and characterization of benzyl alcohol- and benzaldehyde- dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Basu, Aditya; Phale, Prashant S

    2011-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86 utilizes benzyl alcohol via catechol and methylnaphthalenes through detoxification pathway via hydroxymethylnaphthalenes and naphthaldehydes. Based on metabolic studies, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase (BADH) and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BZDH) were hypothesized to be involved in the detoxification pathway. BADH and BZDH were purified to apparent homogeneity and were (1) homodimers with subunit molecular mass of 38 and 57 kDa, respectively, (2) NAD(+) dependent, (3) broad substrate specific accepting mono- and di-aromatic alcohols and aldehydes but not aliphatic compounds, and (4) BADH contained iron and magnesium, while BZDH contained magnesium. BADH in the forward reaction converted alcohol to aldehyde and required NAD(+), while in the reverse reaction it reduced aldehyde to alcohol in NADH-dependent manner. BZDH showed low K (m) value for benzaldehyde as compared to BADH reverse reaction. Chemical cross-linking studies revealed that BADH and BZDH do not form multi-enzyme complex. Thus, the conversion of aromatic alcohol to acid is due to low K (m) and high catalytic efficiency of BZDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BADH is a novel enzyme and diverged during the evolution to gain the ability to utilize mono- and di-aromatic compounds. The wide substrate specificity of these enzymes enables strain to detoxify methylnaphthalenes to naphthoic acids efficiently.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  14. Children of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-01-01

    The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...

  15. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  16. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    OpenAIRE

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2013-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit i...

  17. Mortality of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (sternorrhyncha: aleyrodidae adults by aliphatic and aromatic synthetic sucrose esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The B-strain of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius is a key pest of several crops and chemical control is the main control method used by growers, although reduction in efficacy due to insecticide resistance has already been reported. The aim of this work was to investigate the insecticidal effect of an array of synthetic sucrose esters with the aliphatic and aromatic groups on whitefly adults. Sucrose butyrate, caprate, octanoate, palmitate, oleate, octaacetate, phthalate, benzoate, and sucrose diacetate hexaisobutyrate were tested. The solutions were prepared and applied on the adults caught on yellow sticky traps using the Potter spray tower. Long-chains sucrose aliphatic esters were more effective against the silverleaf whiteflies and the highest mortality was obtained with sucrose oleate and sucrose octanoate. Since these compounds were tensoactive, sodium dodecylsulphate was also tested for the comparison but no effect was observed. Sucrose butyrate and other aliphatic and aromatic sucrose polyesters showed negligible effect on the silverleaf whiteflies.O biótipo B de B. tabaci Gennadius tem se destacado como uma praga-chave de diversas culturas. O controle químico tem sido a principal tática de controle utilizada, embora já se tenha observado redução na eficiência dos produtos devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diversos ésteres de sacarose com grupos alifáticos ou aromáticos sobre adultos de mosca-branca. Butirato de sacarose, caprato, octanoato, palmitato, oleato, actaacetato, ftlato, benzoato e diacetato hexaisobutirato de sacarose foram testados. Soluções de éster de sacarose foram preparadas e aplicadas sobre adultos capturados em armadilhas adesivas utilizando Torre de Potter. Ésteres alifáticos de sacarose com longas cadeias foram mais efetivos contra mosca-branca e as maiores taxas de mortalidade foram obtidas com oleato e octanoato de sacarose. Uma vez que

  18. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  19. Conformations of 1-heptene secondary ozonide as studied by low temperature FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariseviciute, R.; Ceponkus, J.; Sablinskas, V.; Kimtys, L.

    2007-11-01

    Conformational diversity of the 1-heptene secondary ozonides (SOZ) in solid neat films as well as isolated in Ar or CO 2 matrices was studied by the means of FT-IR absorption spectroscopy. The ozonization reaction was performed at 77 K in the neat films of the reactants. The spectra of the ozonide were analyzed by combining the experimental data with the results of theoretical calculations performed at B3LYP 6-311++G (3df, 3pd) level. It was found that the samples of 1-heptene secondary ozonide exist as a mixture of three dominating conformers. The most stable conformer is the one with O-O half-chair configuration of the five membered ring, the aliphatic radical attached to the ring in equatorial position and the aliphatic chain being in gauche (∠OCCC ≈ -60°) position. The other two stable conformers are equatorial with aliphatic chain in anti (∠OCCC ≈ 180°) and gauche (∠OCCC ≈ 60°) positions. It was found from Van't Hoff plots that Δ H of the equatorial anti conformer is equal to 0.24 ± 0.03 kJ/mol. The experimental value of Δ H is in reasonable accordance to the calculated one - 0.5 kJ/mol.

  20. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Gaete-Eastman, Carlos; Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  1. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Gaete-Eastman, Carlos; Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  2. Low-temperature microchip nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis of aliphatic primary amines: applications to Titan chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Morgan L; Stockton, Amanda M; Mora, Maria F; Willis, Peter A

    2013-01-15

    We demonstrate microchip nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (μNACE) analysis of primary aliphatic amines (C1-C18) in ethanol down to -20 °C as a first step in adapting microfluidic protocols for in situ analysis on Titan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a nonaqueous separation at -20 °C on-chip. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 1.0 nM to 2.6 nM, and we identified several primary amines ranging in length from C2 to C16 in Titan aerosol analogue (tholin) samples; new amines were also detected in a tholin sample exposed to oxygen and liquid water. This preliminary work validates the sensitivity and efficacy of microfluidic chemical analysis of complex organics with relevance to Titan aerosols and surface deposits. PMID:23214444

  3. Purification of wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines is investigated. Extraction of cadmium is extensively examined regarding the importance of the aqueous phase, the diluent and the amine. The solubility of tri-n-octyl-amine is determined in water and phosphoric acid solutions. Properties of valuable constituent such as uranium and yttrium are screened. Modelling of the system is performed by adapting Bromley's model for electrolytes to the different dissociation/association equilibria in the aqueous phase. In the organic phase simple expressions are used for the non-ideal behaviour. Amine-acid equilibria are investigated for all acids present in industrial phosphoric acid. New extraction constants are calculated for phosphoric and hydro- fluosilic acid. Calculations are compared with experiments both from binary and multicomponent acid mixtures

  4. Modification of nano-sized layered double hydroxides by long-chain organic aliphatic surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMASAMY ANBARASAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The inter-layer anion of layered double hydroxides (LDH with a hydrotalcite (HT-like structure was ion-exchanged with various organic surfactants, particularly with long chain aliphatic surfactants. After the ion-exchange process, the basal spacing of the LDH was increased and the increase of the basal spacing depended on various factors, such as the intercalation capacity functionality and orientation capability of the surfactant. Of the employed surfactants, stearic acid intercalated LDH showed the highest increase of the basal spacing, which was confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR results supported the interaction of the surfactants with the LDH. In addition, an increase in the thermal stability of the dodecanedioic acid intercalated HT was evidenced by the TGA method.

  5. Propargyl-functional aliphatic polycarbonate obtained from carbon dioxide and glycidyl propargyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilf, Jeannette; Frey, Holger

    2013-09-01

    The synthesis of propargyl-functional poly(carbonate)s with different content of glycidyl propargyl ether (GPE) units is achieved via the copolymerization of propargyl glycidyl ether and carbon dioxide. A new type of functional poly(carbonate) synthesized directly from CO(2) and the glycidyl ether is obtained. The resulting polymers show moderate polydispersities in the range of 1.6-2.5 and molecular weights in the range of 7000-10 500 g mol(-1). The synthesized copolymers with varying number of alkyne functionalities and benzyl azide are used for the copper-catalyzed Huisgen-1,3-dipolar addition. Moreover, the presence of vicinal alkyne groups opens a general pathway to produce functional aliphatic poly(carbonate)s from a single polymer scaffold.

  6. Synthesis and reactivity of aliphatic sulfur pentafluorides from substituted (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Norbert; Václavík, Jiří; Beier, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of 3- and 4-pentafluorosulfanyl-substituted anisoles and phenols with hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid provided a mixture of SF5-substituted muconolactone, maleic, and succinic acids. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the aliphatic SF5 compounds was presented and their chemical reactivity was investigated. SF5-substituted para-benzoquinone was synthesized; its oxidation led to an improved yield of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid. The reaction of SF5-substituted maleic anhydride and para-benzoquinone with cyclopentadiene afforded the Diels-Alder adducts. Decomposition of 3-(pentafluorosulfanyl)muconolactone in acidic, neutral and basic aqueous media was investigated and the decarboxylation of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid provided 3-(pentafluorosulfanyl)acrylic acid. PMID:26877813

  7. Design, Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activities of Novel Aliphatic Amino-Substituted Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guannan Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of flavonoids 9a–f, 13b, 13d, 13e and 14a–f bearing diverse aliphatic amino moieties were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the ECA-109, A-549, HL-60, and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Most of the compounds exhibited moderate to good activities. The structure-activity relationships were studied, revealing that the chalcone skeleton is the most preferable for cytotoxic activities. Chalcone 9d was the most promising compound due to its high potency against the examined cancer cell lines (its IC50 values against ECA-109, A549, HL-60 and PC-3 cells were 1.0, 1.5, 0.96 and 3.9 μM, respectively.

  8. A systems biology approach identifies a R2R3 MYB gene subfamily with distinct and overlapping functions in regulation of aliphatic glucosinolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Elken Sønderby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucosinolates are natural metabolites in the order Brassicales that defend plants against both herbivores and pathogens and can attract specialized insects. Knowledge about the genes controlling glucosinolate regulation is limited. Here, we identify three R2R3 MYB transcription factors regulating aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by combining several systems biology tools. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MYB28 was identified as a candidate regulator of aliphatic glucosinolates based on its co-localization within a genomic region controlling variation both in aliphatic glucosinolate content (metabolite QTL and in transcript level for genes involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates (expression QTL, as well as its co-expression with genes in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. A phylogenetic analysis with the R2R3 motif of MYB28 showed that it and two homologues, MYB29 and MYB76, were members of an Arabidopsis-specific clade that included three characterized regulators of indole glucosinolates. Over-expression of the individual MYB genes showed that they all had the capacity to increase the production of aliphatic glucosinolates in leaves and seeds and induce gene expression of aliphatic biosynthetic genes within leaves. Analysis of leaves and seeds of single knockout mutants showed that mutants of MYB29 and MYB76 have reductions in only short-chained aliphatic glucosinolates whereas a mutant in MYB28 has reductions in both short- and long-chained aliphatic glucosinolates. Furthermore, analysis of a double knockout in MYB28 and MYB29 identified an emergent property of the system since the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates in these plants could not be predicted by the chemotype of the single knockouts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It seems that these cruciferous-specific MYB regulatory genes have evolved both overlapping and specific regulatory capacities. This provides a unique system within which to

  9. Amperometric detection and electrochemical oxidation of aliphatic amines and ammonia on silver-lead oxide thin-film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Jisheng

    1996-01-08

    This thesis comprises three parts: Electrocatalysis of anodic oxygen-transfer reactions: aliphatic amines at mixed Ag-Pb oxide thin-film electrodes; oxidation of ammonia at anodized Ag-Pb eutectic alloy electrodes; and temperature effects on oxidation of ethylamine, alanine, and aquated ammonia.

  10. Selective preparation of terminal alkenes from aliphatic carboxylic acids by a palladium-catalysed decarbonylation-eliminiation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Trialkylamines were used as additives in the decarbonylation–elimination reaction catalysed by the combination of palladium(II) chloride and DPE-Phos. Aliphatic carboxylic acids were transformed at relatively low temperature into terminal alkenes in high yield and high selectivity, without the need

  11. STUDY ON THE SEQUENCE STRUCTURE OF SBR BY 13C- NMR METHOD Ⅱ . PEAK ASSIGNMENT FOR ALIPHATIC CARBONS SPECTRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Shuke; CHEN Xiaonong; HU Liping; YAN Baozhen

    1990-01-01

    The study on 13C-NMR spectra of aliphatic carbon region of emulsion-processed and solution-processed ( by lithium catalyst ) SBR was carried out. The assignments for more than thirty odd peaks observed experimentally were made by using " corresponding analysis " method, combined with the empirical parameters reported in literature. The peak intensities were calculated based on Bernoullian statistic assumption.

  12. Sources and distribution of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediments from the Ushuaia Bay (Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendatore, Marta G; Nievas, Marina L; Amin, Oscar; Esteves, José L

    2012-03-01

    The environmental quality of Ushuaia Bay, located at the southernmost tip of South America, is affected by the anthropogenic pressure of Ushuaia city. In this study, levels and sources of hydrocarbons in coastal sediments were assessed. Aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions ranged between 5.5 and 1185.3 μg/g dry weight and PAHs from not detected to 360 ng/g. Aliphatic diagnostic indices, the nalkanes homologous series occurrence, Aliphatic Unresolved Complex Mixtures (AliUCMs), and pristane and phytane isoprenoids indicated a petrogenic input. Some sites showed biogenic features masked by the anthropogenic signature. Particularly in port areas biodegradation processes were evident. PAH ratios showed a mixture of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Aliphatic and aromatic UCMs were strongly correlated, reflecting chronic pollution. Three areas were distinguished inside the bay: (1) east, with low hydrocarbons impact; (2) central, where hydrocarbons accumulation was related to source proximity and sediment characteristics; (3) south-west, where sediment characteristics and current circulation favour hydrocarbons accumulation. PMID:22189069

  13. Liquid-phase synthesis of bridged peptides using olefin metathesis of a protected peptide with a long aliphatic chain anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Keisuke; Komiya, Chiaki; Shigenaga, Akira; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Takahashi, Daisuke; Otaka, Akira

    2015-02-01

    Bridged peptides including stapled peptides are attractive tools for regulating protein-protein interactions (PPIs). An effective synthetic methodology in a heterogeneous system for the preparation of these peptides using olefin metathesis and hydrogenation of protected peptides with a long aliphatic chain anchor is reported.

  14. Metalloradical-Catalyzed Selective 1,2-Rh-H Insertion into the Aliphatic Carbon-Carbon Bond of Cyclooctane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.W. Chan; B. de Bruin; K.S. Chan

    2015-01-01

    The selective aliphatic carboncarbon activation of cyclo-octane (c-octane) was achieved via the Rh-II(ttp)-catalyzed 1,2-addition of Rh(ttp)H to give Rh(ttp)(n-octyl) (ttp = tetratolylporphyrinato dianion) in good yield under mild reaction conditions. This mechanism is further supported by DFT calcu

  15. Structural characterisation of aliphatic, non-hydrolyzable biopolymers in freshwater algae and a leaf cuticle by ruthenium tetroxide degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Moerkerken, P.; Gelin, F.; Baas, M.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1998-01-01

    Aliphatic, non-hydrolyzable biopolymers were subjected to RuO4-oxidation in order to examine the potential of this method in revealing details on their structures. The method was tested on model compounds first and found to cleave alkyl chains of aromatic moieties, double bonds and ether bonds. Oxid

  16. Intramolecular Acylation of Aryl- and Aroyl-Aliphatic Acids by the Action of Pyrophosphoryl Chloride and Phosphorus Oxychloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Rayyan

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Both pyrophosphoryl chloride and phosphorus oxychloride react with aryl aliphatic acids to form mixed anhydrides which undergo intramolecular acylation to afford cyclic ketones without the addition of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. Aryl and aroylbenzoic acids could be cyclized to the corresponding anthrones and anthraquinones respectively.

  17. STUDIES ON MISCIBILITY OF POLY (ε-CAPROLACTONE) AND ALIPHATIC POLYCARBONATE BLENDS AND DETERMINATION OF THEIR INTERACTION PARAMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; HUANG Yuhui; SONG Mo; CONG Guangmin

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the miscibility of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and aliphatic polycarbonate (AP C) is studied by using DSC. The results show that PCL and APC are miscible in all ranges of composition. The interaction parameter between the polymers is calculated from the melting point depression data. Using optical microscope, the shapes of the PCL spherulites in the blends are observed.

  18. Ru/Me-BIPAM-Catalyzed Asymmetric Addition of Arylboronic Acids to Aliphatic Aldehydes and α-Ketoesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Watanabe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric arylation of aliphatic aldehydes and α-ketoesters with arylboronic acids has been developed, giving chiral alkyl(arylmethanols and α-hydroxy esters in good yields. The use of a chiral bidentate phosphoramidite ligand (Me-BIPAM achieved excellent enantioselectivities.

  19. The impact of the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates on water transport under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mcarmen eMartinez-Ballesta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolatesExposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered glucosinolates biosynthesis in a similar way in WT and the single mutant and differently in the double mutant. The results indicate that short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates may contribute to water saving under salt stress

  20. Preparation and characterization of protein loaded microspheres based on a hydroxylated aliphatic polyester, poly (lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassemi, A.H.; van Steenbergen, M.J.; Talsma, H.; van Nostrum, C.F.; Jiskoot, W.; Crommelin, D.J.A.; Hennink, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a novel hydroxylated aliphatic polyester, poly (lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (PLHMGA), as controlled release system for pharmaceutical proteins. Dextran Blue (as a macromolecular model compound) and lysozyme-loaded PLHMGA and

  1. Analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuaki ITO; Kazuhiko TANAKA; Jun SAKAMOTO; Kazuya NAGAOKA; Yohichi TAKAYAMA; Takashi KANAHORI; Hiroshi SUNAHARA; Tsuneo HAYASHI; Shinji SATO; Takeshi HIROKAWA

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids ( formic,acetic,propionic,iso-butyric,n-butyric,iso-valeric and n-valeric acid) in anaerobic digestion process waters for biogas production was examined by ion-exclusion chromatography with dilute acidic eluents (benzoic acid,perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and sulfuric acid) and non-suppressed conductivity/ultraviolet (UV) detection.The columns used were a styrene/divinylbenzene-based strongly acidic cation-exchange resin column ( TSKgel SCX) and a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column ( TSKgel Super IC-A/C ).Good separation was performed on the TSKgel SCX in shorter retention times.For the TSKgel Super IC-A/C,peak shape of the acids was sharp and symmetrical in spite of longer retention times.In addition,the mutual separation of the acids was good except for iso- and n-butyric acids.The better separation and good detection was achieved by using the two columns (TSKgel SCX and TSKgel Super IC-A/C connected in series),lower concentrations of PFBA and sulfuric acid as eluents,non-suppressed conductivity detection and UV detection at 210 nm.This analysis was applied to anaerobic digestion process waters.The chromatograms with conductivity detection were relatively simpler compared with those of UV detection.The use of two columns with different selectivities for the aliphatic carboxylic acids and the two detection modes was effective for the determination and identification of the analytes in anaerobic digestion process waters containing complex matrices.

  2. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Müller

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Monomethylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and diethylamine (DEA were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0 to 30 pg m−3 for MA, 130 to 360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5 to 110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2 to 520 pg m−3 for MA, 100 to 1400 pg m−3 for DMA, 90 to 760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm indicates that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC content ranged from 0.2 to 2.5%C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the organic nitrogen in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the total detected nitrogen content in submicron particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N to 1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines. This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  3. Occurrence of selected aliphatic amines in source water of major cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng Zhang; Shuoyi Ren; Jianwei Yu; Min Yang

    2012-01-01

    The formation of toxic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs),such as nitrosamines,halonitromethanes and haloacetonitriles,from reactions between chlorine/chloramine and dissolved organic nitrogen in drinking water has caused great concern with regarding public health.This study revealed the occurrence of 17 aliphatic amines,some of which have been confirmed to be the precursors of N-DBPs,in source water across China.A sensitive method based on benzenesulfonyl chloride derivatization and liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC-MS analysis was established for the simultaneous analysis of the selected amines in aqueous samples.In total,37 source water samples from the capital cities of 20 provinces were collected for the survey.Among the 17 amines,14 were detected with an average frequency of detection of 36%.The most relevant amines in terms of frequency and maximum concentrations detected were dimethylamine (100%,24.82 μg/L),methylamine (78%,0.92 μg/L),N-methylethylamine (70%,8.84 μg/L),propylamine (59%,10.69 μg/L),diethylamine (54%,3.76 μg/L),N-methylbutylamine (35%,3.07 μg/L),N-ethylpropylamine (35%,0.52 μg/L),and piperidine (32%,2.35 μg/L).This is the first large scale survey of the aliphatic amines occurrence in source water in the world.The wide presence of nitrosamine precursors like dimethylamine,N-methylethylamine and diethylamine,and the precursors of haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes like methylamine and propylamine suggests that better source water management is required to ensure the safety of drinking water.

  4. Study of the electron beam irradiation effect on some properties of aromatic aliphatic copolyester films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable and green plastics are the new tendency in the world. The effect of the electron beam irradiation in aromatic aliphatic copolyester and the blend with corn starch films (EcoflexR and EcobrasR) were studied by tensile strength at break, elongation at break, Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), crosslinking degree and biodegradability. The measurements in both, the machine direction and the transverse direction were made for mechanical tests. It was found that, the electron irradiation caused an increase in the strength at break of the blend with corn starch film, when doses of up to 10 kGy were applied. A significant decrease of the elongation at break of the blend with corn starch was observed at doses of 10 kGy and 40 kGy. It was not found important change in tensile properties for aromatic aliphatic copolyester. Structural changes of the samples (crosslinking or degradation) by SEM were not observed. The FT-IR identified the characteristic peaks of each involved functional group (copolyester and corn starch). However, it was not found bands of oxidation of the samples. In the DSC, changes in the melting temperature of the irradiated EcoflexR and EcobrasR samples, was not identified when compared with the samples of reference. However, it was verified a reduction in the melting enthalpy of the EcobrasR samples after irradiation. The EcobrasR material presented crosslinking, when submitted to doses of 10 kGy and 40 kGy. The EcoflexR material did not present crosslinking when submitted to these doses. The biodegradability of the materials was evaluated by two methods of test: soil simulated and enzymatic. In both methods, the irradiated samples presented faster biodegradation than the references not irradiated. (author)

  5. Intoxicación por alcoholes Alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roldán

    2003-01-01

    protect the patient from secondary complications. Methanol, or alcohol fuel, is used as a solvent, and can also be found as an adulterant of alcoholic drinks. Poisoning by oral means is the most frequent. Oxidized in the liver through dehydrogenase enzyme alcohol, toxicity is due to its metabolites, formaldehyde and formic acid. The clinical picture basically consists of cephalea, nausea, vomiting, hypotension and depression of the central nervous system. The optic nerve is especially sensitive, with total and irreversible blindness as a possible result. Ethylenglicol is used as a solvent and as an antifreeze; toxicity is due to an accumulation of its metabolites. The clinical picture includes symptoms that are held in common with methylalcohol intoxication. Kidney failure due to tubular necrosis and the deposit of oxalate crystals can occur.

  6. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 18,146 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 29,001 ...

  7. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  8. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  10. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  11. Alcohol on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  12. Teaching About Alcohol in Connecticut Schools - A Guide for Teachers and Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, William J.; Bloomberg, Wilfred

    Guidelines for secondary teachers involved in teaching about the use of alcohol are presented. Sections include (1) aims and objectives, (2) content, (3) facts about alcoholism, (4) suggested student activities and teaching procedures, and (5) methods of student evaluation. Selected teacher, student, and supplementary references are listed.…

  13. The Influence of Parental Warmth and Control on Latino Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongro-Wilson, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Latino adolescent alcohol use is related to substance use, later life addiction, and other negative outcomes. The lack of knowledge on parenting and the parent-youth relationship in Latino families in the context of acculturation and its affects on alcohol use prompted this study. Secondary data analysis using the Add Health data set indicates…

  14. Alcohol and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  15. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  16. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  17. Inpatient treatment of the psychiatric patient with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean-Bayog, M

    1987-05-01

    Patients with both alcoholism and mental illness, or the one masquerading as the other, are very common and often puzzling and discouraging to clinicians. This article reviews several aspects of these problems: epidemiologic studies show that substantial proportions of mentally ill people suffer from alcoholism, and these disorders interlock in complex ways, each exacerbating the other. Many physicians feel uncomfortable working with alcoholic people, mostly because of poor training, and this impinges on difficulties of giving excellent care to these taxing patients. Complexities and resistances to interviewing obstruct evaluation. Interviewing and history taking techniques and the reason for them are discussed. The decision whether a patient needs medical or psychiatric hospitalization, alcoholism rehabilitation, or outpatient psychiatric or alcoholism treatment is reviewed along with the management and sequencing of treatment for primary and secondary alcoholism with concomitant psychosis, mania, depression, panic disorder, and adult attention deficit disorder. Clinical intervention and referral for the patient on a medical or surgical floor who may have alcoholism is discussed. Two special clinical problems, the differential diagnosis of postdetoxification depression and the risks of using alcohol cross-tolerant drugs, are also reviewed. PMID:2884166

  18. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physi...

  19. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  20. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  1. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  2. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  3. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  4. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  5. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  6. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  7. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  8. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  9. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  10. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  11. Electron-beam curing of epoxy resins: effect of alcohols on cationic polymerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N N Ghosh; G R Palmese

    2005-10-01

    Electron-beam (e-beam) induced polymerization of epoxy resins proceeds via cationic mechanism in presence of suitable photoinitiator. Despite good thermal properties and significant processing advantages, epoxy-based composites manufactured using e-beam curing suffer from low compressive strength, poor interlaminar shear strength, and low fracture toughness. A detailed understanding of the reaction mechanism involving e-beam induced polymerization is required to properly address the shortcomings associated with ebeam curable resin systems. This work investigated the effect of hydroxyl containing materials on the reaction mechanism of e-beam induced cationic polymerization of phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE). The alcohols were found to play important roles in polymerization. Compared to hydroxyl group of aliphatic alcohol, phenolic hydroxyl group is significantly less reactive with the oxonium active centre, generated during e-beam induced polymerization of epoxy resin system.

  12. Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Magnesium Oxide Nanorods for Oxidation of Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emayavaramban, P; Babu, S Ganesh; Karvembu, R; Kadirvelu, K; Dharmaraj, N

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on magnesium oxide nanorods (Au-MgO) have been synthesised by a solution based chemical reduction method. Au-MgO nanorods were found to be an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for oxidation of alcohols with hydrogen peroxide in aqueous medium at room temperature. To find out the best reaction conditions for oxidation, optimization of catalyst quantity, solvent, mole equivalence of hydrogen peroxide were carried out. The scope of the reaction was extended to several aromatic and aliphatic alcohols, product yields were quantified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectroscopy. Heterogeneity and reusability tests were performed. The use of water as a solvent and hydrogen peroxide as co-catalyst at room temperature makes the reaction interesting from sustainable development point of view.

  13. Nucleophilic addition of nitriles to secondary terpene alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, N.G.; Popova, L.A.; Nesterov, G.V.

    1987-01-10

    The addition of nitriles of varying nucleophilicity to isocamphanol and exo-1,5,5-trimethyl-bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-ol (isofenchol) was investigated. The authors examined the effect of the reaction conditions on the yield and structure of the target products of the reaction: N-substituted amides. As a result of the study, it was shown that in the reaction with chloroacetonitrile, propionitrile, methoxypropionitrile, isovaleronitrile, and phenylacetonitrile under the conditions of the Ritter reaction, isocamphanol is transformed into the corresponding substituted exo-N-acyl-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-ylamines, as in the reaction with aceto- and benzonitriles, due to 2,6-hydride displacement accompanied by Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. The structures of these amides were demonstrated by PMR spectroscopy.

  14. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  15. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  16. [Alcohol and working life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  17. Self-esteem, perceived self-efficacy, consumption of tobacco and alcohol in secondary students from urban and rural areas of Monterrey, Nuevo León, México Autoestima, autoeficacia percibida, consumo de tabaco y alcohol en estudiantes de educación secundaria de área urbana y rural de Monterrey, Nuevo León, México Auto-estima, auto-eficácia percebida, consumo de tabaco e álcool entre estudantes do ensino fundamental, das áreas urbana e rural, de Monterrey, Nuevo León, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martínez Maldonado

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to know the differences, if any, in the consumption of tobacco and alcohol among adolescents from urban and rural areas, and if self-esteem and self-efficacy are related to the consumption in these two groups of adolescents from secondary schools in urban and rural areas of Nuevo León México, from January to June in 2006. The study was based on the theoretical concepts of self-esteem, perceived self-efficacy and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The design was descriptive and correlational with a sample of 359 students. A substantial difference was found in the consumption of tobacco among secondary students from urban and rural areas (U= 7513.50, p = .03. The average consumption in urban area was higher (average chi = .35 than in the rural area (average chi = .14. A negative and significant relation was found between the quantity of drinks consumed on a typical day and self-esteem (r s = - .23, p El propósito del estudio fue conocer si existen diferencias en el consumo de tabaco y alcohol en adolescentes del área urbana y rural y si la autoestima y la autoeficacia se relacionan con el consumo en estos dos grupos de adolescentes que estudian en la educación secundaria en el área urbana y rural de Nuevo León México, entre enero y junio de 2006. El estudio se realizó bajo los conceptos teóricos de autoestima, autoeficacia percibida y consumo de alcohol y tabaco. El diseño fue descriptivo y correlacional. La muestra fue de 359 estudiantes. Se encontró diferencia significativa de consumo de tabaco en estudiantes de secundaria urbana y rural (U= 7513.50, p=.03 siendo más alta la media de consumo en área urbana (media ji =.35 que en la rural (media ji =.14. Se encontró relación negativa y significativa de cantidad de bebidas consumidas en un día típico y la autoestima (r s=-.23, pO propósito deste estudo foi verificar diferenças no consumo de tabaco e álcool entre adolescentes das áreas urbana e rural, e se a

  18. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  19. Episodic Alcohol Consumption by Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Pereverzev, Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-01-01

    AbstractThis paper presents evidence that even rare episodic alcohol consumption by young people is not harmless. Unsafe rare episodic alcohol consumption by youths (students) was reflected in the reduced attention concentration and lower academic buoyancy, compared to those who completely abstain from alcohol. Key Words: Alcohol, youth, students, attention concentration, academic buoyancy 

  20. Application of Topology Index in Aliphatic Aldehydes,Fatty Amines and Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Boiling Point%拓扑指数在脂肪醛、脂肪胺及脂肪烃沸点中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长会; 吴启勋; 侯庆高; 高宴梓; 李洪囡; 张瑞

    2013-01-01

    Two matrices and a topological index W were defined,then,topological index W was put into nonlinear regression with the boiling point of aliphatic aldehydes, fatty amines and aliphatic hydrocarbons, respectively, and with good results,the correlation coefficient reaches a good level. The established topological index and two kinds of matrix are easy and convenient to use, which can quickly predict the boiling point of the molecule.%定义了两种矩阵和一种拓扑指数W,将拓扑指数W分别与脂肪醛、脂肪胺及脂肪烃的沸点进行非线性回归,取得了较好的结果,相关性系数达到了良好级别.建立的拓扑指数和两种矩阵简洁方便,可以快速预测分子的沸点.

  1. Different aliphatic dicarboxylates affected assemble of new coordination polymers constructed from flexible-rigid mixed ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, seven coordination polymers: [Cd(C5H6O4)(C10H8N2)]n (1), [Zn(C5H6O4)(C10H8N2)]n (2), [Cd(C6H8O4)(C10H8N2)]n (3), {[Mn(C10H8N2)(H2O)4] (C4H4O4).4H2O}n (4), [Mn5(C4H4O4)4(O)]n (5), [Cd(C4H4O4)(C10H8N2)(H2O)]n (6) and [Zn(C6H6O4)(C12H8N2)(H2O)]n (7) were synthesized and characterized by single-crystallographic X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 are two-dimensional layers connected by glutarate anions and 4,4'-bpy. Unlike compounds 1 and 2, compound 3 is a two-fold interpenetration network. Compound 4 is a one-dimensional chain-like structure, which is further extended to two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure with hydrogen bond. During the synthesis of compound 4, to our surprise, we got compound 5; compound 5 is an interesting three-dimensional network composed of pentanuclear Mn(II) building units and succinate anions. Compound 6 is also a two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure composed of one-dimensional chain-like structure with hydrogen bonds and Π-Π interactions. Compound 7 is also a one-dimensional chain-like structure, which is further connected with the same kind of interaction to generate two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibit fluorescent property at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Seven complexes composed by 3D metal ions, aliphatic acid ligand and rigid bidentate nitrogen ligands: 4,4'-bpy, 2,2'-bpy and 1,10'-phen. With the change of the carbon number of the backbone of aliphatic dicarboxylate ligand, we can synthesize different complexes with various structures

  2. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herrmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Monomethylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and diethylamine (DEA were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0–30 pg m−3 for MA, 130–360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5–110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2–520 pg m−3 for MA, 100–1400 pg m−3 for DMA and 90–760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm indicate that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC content ranged from 0.2–2.5% C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the nitrogen content in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the detected nitrogen species in sub-micrometer particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N–1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines. This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  3. Green Aza-Michael Reaction of Aliphatic Amines to á,(a)-Unsaturated Compounds in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-Wen; XIA Chun-Gu

    2004-01-01

    The hydroamination of olefins is a long-standing goal for transition metal catalysis. And the metal-catalyzed addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds is an unsolved, synthetically important problem. Although recent advances have made using lanthanide and precious metal complexes, there are few excellent catalyst that display broad functional group tolerance and useful rates for an intermolecular aza-Michael addition. As such, the development of efficient synthetic methods leading to a-amino carbonyl compounds and derivatives has attracted much attention in organic synthesis. Although recent advances have made this route more attractive, development of cheaper, simpler, and more efficient metal catalyst is highly desirable. We also have been interested in developing a reaction that uses catalytic quantities of minimally toxic, readily available, economic reagent should greatly contribute to the creation of environmental benign processes.The recent interest in aqueous medium metal-mediated carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom and formations led to the contributors for such reactions. Furthermore, development of organic reactions in water will contribute to the progress of green and quasi-nature catalysis chemistry. Surprisingly however, there is few report on conjugate additions of amines to a,a-unsaturated carbonyl compounds in water.Herein, we report a new protocol that employs air stable copper salts as efficient catalyst in the aza-Michael reaction under mild reaction conditions. Advantages of the protocol include high-yielding reactions that can be conducted at ambient temperature; the use of readily available and stable copper salts as the catalyst, and the reaction was successfully performed in environmental benign solvent, water.Finally, we have utilized a variety of aliphatic amines successfully with different á,(a)-unsaturated compounds catalyzed by simple hydrophilic ionic liquid, bmimBF4 in water. Interestingly, all the aliphatic amines gave

  4. Studies of the physical, yield and failure behavior of aliphatic polyketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Nicole Renee

    This thesis describes an investigation into the multiaxial yield and failure behavior of an aliphatic polyketone terpolymer. The behavior is studied as a function of: stress state, strain rate, temperature, and sample processing conditions. Results of this work include: elucidation of the behavior of a recently commercialized polymer, increased understanding of the effects listed above, insight into the effects of processing conditions on the morphology of the polyketone, and a description of yield strength of this material as a function of stress state, temperature, and strain rate. The first portion of work focuses on the behavior of a set of samples that are extruded under "common" processing conditions. Following this reference set of tests, the effect of testing this material at different temperatures is studied. A total of four different temperatures are examined. In addition, the effect of altering strain rate is examined. Testing is performed under pseudo-strain rate control at constant nominal octahedral shear strain rate for each failure envelope. A total of three different rates are studied. An extension of the first portion of work involves modeling the yield envelope. This is done by combining two approaches: continuum level and molecular level. The use of both methods allows the description of the yield envelope as a function of stress state, strain rate and temperature. The second portion of work involves the effects of processing conditions. For this work, additional samples are extruded with different shear and thermal histories than the "standard" material. One set of samples is processed with shear rates higher and lower than the standard. A second set is processed at higher and lower cooling rates than the standard. In order to understand the structural cause for changes in behavior with processing conditions, morphological characterization is performed on these samples. In particular, the effect on spherulitic structure is important. Residual

  5. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  6. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other persons of the same age. 26 Consequences—Researchers estimate that each year: 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor-vehicle crashes. 27 ...

  7. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  8. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26: 259–279, 2005. PMID: ...

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  10. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  11. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  12. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... development. There also may be problems with the face and bones. Tests include: Blood alcohol level in pregnant women who show signs of being drunk (intoxicated) Brain imaging studies (CT or MRI) after the child is born Pregnancy ultrasound

  13. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  14. Alcohol and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... other things. For example, excessive amounts of alcoholic consumption could be harmful by increasing the risk of ...

  15. Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of 5-Carbon Sugar Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacher, Alan H.; Frye, John G.; Werpy, Todd A.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2005-01-01

    PNNL, in cooperation with the USDOE and CRADA partners, National Corn Growers Association and Archer Daniels Midland, has developed a new class of catalysts based on Nickel and Rhenium with very effective performance for highly selective, high conversion hydrogenolysis of five–carbon sugar alcohols to useful glycols. The Ni-Re catalyst appears to exhibit preferential hydrogenolysis of the carbon-carbon bonds of secondary carbons over primary carbons of the 5-carbon sugar alcohols tested. In addition, the catalyst has demonstrated significant and unique primary C-O bond hydrogenolysis activity in its ability to convert glycerol into 1,2- propylene glycol, which is then stable in the presence of this class of catalysts. The rhenium containing catalysts are found to have higher activity and better selectivity to desired glycols than previously reported catalysts. A continuous flow reactor lifetime test of over 1500 hours also demonstrated the requisite high stability for an industrially attractive process.

  16. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring di...

  17. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and moto...

  18. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  19. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  20. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters derived from bis-(4-hydroxybenzoyloxy)-2-methyl-1,4-benzene and aliphatic dicarboxylic acid chlorides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Khudbudin Mulani; Mohasin Momin; Nitin Ganjave; Nayaku Chavan

    2015-09-01

    A series of thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters derived from bis-(4-hydroxybenzoyloxy)-2-methyl-1,4-benzene (BHBOMB) and aliphatic dicarboxylic acid chlorides were investigated. All these polyesters were synthesized by interfacial polycondensation method and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffractometer. These polyesters consist of BHBOMB as a mesogenic diol and aliphatic diacid chlorides were used as flexible spacers. The length of oligomethylene units in polymer was varied from the trimethylene to the dodecamethylene groups. The transition temperatures and thermodynamic properties were studied for all these polymers. All these polyesters were soluble in chlorinated solvents such as chloroform, dichloromethane, dichloroethane, etc. More importantly, all these polyesters exhibited very large mesophase stability.

  1. One- and two-dimensional divalent copper coordination polymers based on kinked organodiimine and long flexible aliphatic dicarboxylate ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallika Krishnan, Subhashree; Supkowski, Ronald M.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2008-11-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis under acidic conditions has afforded a pair of divalent copper coordination polymers containing the kinked dipodal tethering organodiimine 4,4'-dipyridylamine (dpa) and flexible long-chain aliphatic dicarboxylate ligands. The new materials were characterized by single crystal X-ray structure determination, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. [CuCl(suberate) 0.5(dpa)] ( 1) manifests 1-D ladder-like motifs aggregated into 3-D through hydrogen bonding and copper-mediated supramolecular interactions. Extension of the aliphatic chain within the dicarboxylate ligand by one methylene unit resulted in {[Cu(azelate)(dpa)(H 2O)] · 3H 2O} ( 2), a (4,4) rhomboid grid 2-D coordination polymer encapsulating acyclic water molecule trimers.

  2. The aerobic oxidation of alcohols with a ruthenium porphyrin catalyst in organic and fluorinated solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchenko, Vasily N; Severin, Kay; Gagné, Michel R

    2008-06-01

    Carbonylruthenium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin Ru(TPFPP)(CO) was utilized for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. The in situ activation of the catalyst with mCPBA provided a species capable of catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols with molecular oxygen. The choice of solvent and additive was crucial to obtaining high activity and selectivity. Secondary aromatic alcohols were oxidized in the presence of the ruthenium porphyrin and tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide in the solvent bromotrichloromethane, enabling high yields to be achieved (up to 99%). Alternatively, alcohols could be oxidized in perfluoro(methyldecalin) with the ruthenium porphyrin at higher temperatures (140 degrees C) and elevated oxygen pressures (50 psi).

  3. Aliphatic ketones from Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) induce paralysis on root knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Manconi, Francesca; Leonti, Marco; Maxia, Andrea; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2011-07-13

    This paper reports on the use of Ruta chalepensis L. extracts as a potential nematicide against root knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica . The essential oil (REO) and methanol extract (RME) of R. chalepensis were tested against second-stage juveniles, with REO inducing paralysis in both species (EC(50/1d) = 77.5 and 107.3 mg/L) and RME being selective for M. incognita (EC(50/1d) = 1001 mg/L). Chemical characterization of extracts was done by means of GC-MS and LC-MS, revealing mainly aliphatic ketones and coumarins, respectively. The first-ranking volatile nematicidal component in terms of individual activity against both species was 2-undecanone (EC(50) = 20.6 and 22.5 mg/L for M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively). This fact together with its high concentration in the most active extract found in this study, namely, REO (2926 mg/kg), categorizes 2-undecanone among the nematicidal principles of R. chalepensis. On the contrary, coumarins rutin and 8-methoxypsoralen were not found to be nematicidal at concentrations of ≤500 mg/L. Interestingly, M. incognita was found more sensitive than M. javanica.

  4. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-01

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal - a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance. PMID:25296798

  5. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: Aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, Victor [Bereozovaya 2A, Konstantinovo, Moscow Region 140207 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-07

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal – a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance.

  6. Comparison of decomposition characteristics between aromatic and aliphatic VOCs using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal efficiency of n-decane (C10H22) by electron beam was the highest among aliphatic VOCs of concern, and that of n-hexane (C6H14), n-butane (C4H10), and methane (CH4) followed. On the other hand, in terms of aromatic VOC decomposition efficiencies, benzene (C6H6) decomposition was the lowest and that of toluene (C7H8), ethylbenzene (C8H10), and p-xylene (C8H10) were similar. It was also found that there was increase in by-product (untreated VOC, CO, CO2, O3, and other compounds) formation as well as all VOC removal efficiencies. It was demonstrated that the removal efficiency of VOC increased as its concentration decreased and the irradiation dose increased. In addition, low removal efficiency was observed because helium was relatively stable compared to the other gases, and nothing but electrons produced by electron accelerator reacted with VOC. It was also found that relative humidity had some effects on the decomposition rates of VOC. The removal efficiency at the 100% RH condition was slightly higher than that at 7.4% RH (dry condition) due to OH radical formation. (author)

  7. A Novel Guided Bone Regeneration Membrane Composed of Nano-hydroxyapatite and Aliphatic Polyester-amide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized nano-hydroxyapatite ( n-HA ) varing in weight from 10% to 30%was used as filler to make guided bone regeneration (GBR) composite membranes with novel aliphatic polyesteramide (PEA). The structure and properties of PEA and its n- HA composites were investigated through TEM, IR,XRD , SEM and EDX. The shape and size of the n-HA crystals are similar to the apatite crystals in natural bone.Molecule interactions are present between the n- HA and PEA in the composite, which allows the uniform dispersion of n- HA in PEA matrix. This contributes enhanced mechanical property and bioactivity to the composite. The cytocompatibility of the composites has been investigated by culturing osteoblasts on the membranes. Good cell attachment and proliferation manner were observed on the membranes after 1 week. These results suggest that the PEA/n- HA composite membrane prepared in this study may serve as barrier membranes for guided bone regeneration and potential candidate scaffold for tissue engineering.

  8. Solid, double-metal cyanide catalysts for synthesis of hyperbranched polyesters and aliphatic polycarbonates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joby Sebastian; Srinivas Darbha

    2014-03-01

    Fe-Zn and Co-Zn double-metal cyanide (DMC) complexes exhibit highly efficient and selective catalytic activity for synthesis of hyperbranched polyesters (glycerol-succinic acid (G-SA) and glycerol-adipic acid (G-AA)) and aliphatic polycarbonates (via., alternative co-polymerization of cyclohexene oxide and CO2), respectively. The influence of method of preparation of DMC, in particular the mode of addition of reagents, on its physicochemical and catalytic properties was investigated. Co-Zn DMC was found highly selective for polycarbonate (than polyethers) formation. Catalysts prepared using tert-butanol and PEG-4000 as complexing and co-complexing agents, respectively, were found superior to those prepared without these agents. Apart from its role as a coordinating ligand, tert-butanol activated the Lewis acidic Zn2+ sites for reactions in polyester and polycarbonate formation. Hydrophobicity, micro-mesoporosity, acid strength and the amount of coordinated complexing agent are some of the crucial factors influenced the catalytic activity of DMC complexes.

  9. {Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons in gas and particle phases in two sites of Mexico: MILAGRO project}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Muñoz, O.; Villalobos-Pietrini, R.; Castro, T.; Gaspariano-Larino, R.

    2009-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are markers of anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources1; meanwhile PAHs are generated by incomplete combustion sources2. The last ones are important compounds due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties3,4. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs in gas and particles phases of the atmospheric aerosol and to determine the day and night time behavior during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local Global and Research Observations) campaign. The gas phase was collected on polyurethane foam, while particles less than 2.5 m (PM2.5) were collected on glass fiber filters covered with Teflon (TIGF, pallflex) of 8x10 in. Samplings were carried out with a high volume sampler (Tisch) with a flow of 1.13 m3 min-1 at two sites: Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0) and Tecamac (T1) located at North and Northeast of Mexico City, respectively during day (7:00 am-7:00 pm) and night time (7:00 pm-7:00 am) from 1 to 29 of March, 2006. Ninteen PAHs and 23 aliphatic hydrocarbons from n-C13H28 to n-C35H72 were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in impact mode. The samples were spiked with deuterads PAHs and aliphatics hydrocarbons before ultrasound extraction. Medians comparisons were made with Mann-Whitney U test. PAHs with molecular weight (MW) less than 228 g mol-1 were distributed in the gas phase, in both sites. Higher concentrations of PAHs ≥ 228 g mol-1 in PM2.5, were observed during night period (p

  10. Composition and sources of aliphatic lipids and sterols in sediments of a tropical island, southern South China Sea: preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Tahir, N; Pang, S Y; Abdullah, N A; Suratman, S

    2013-12-01

    Near-shore surface sediment was collected from five stations off Redang Island located on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Freeze-dried sediments were Soxhlet extracted and then fractionated using column chromatography into aliphatic and polar fractions. Determination of these fractions was carried out using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentration of total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments ranged from 157 to 308 ng/g. The distribution of aliphatic fraction showed the presence of n-alkanes ranging from nC15 to nC33 with a minor odd-to-even predominance exhibiting carbon maximum, depending on station, at nC17, nC26, nC29 or nC31. Calculation of Carbon Preference Index (CPI) for CPI(15-33) gave values ranging from 1.09 to 1.46. n-Alkanol in all sediment exhibits even-to-odd carbon predominance ranging from nC16 to nC28 and maximising at nC22. n-Fatty acids distribution ranged from nC14 to nC24 with a dominant maximum at nC16 and exhibiting high values of short chain fatty acids (≤nC20) to long chain fatty acids (>nC20) ratios. Unsaturated fatty acids, particularly nC16:1 and nC18:1 is also ubiquitous in all samples. Cholesterol is the most abundant compound amongst the sterol group ranging from 42.8 to 62.6% of the total sterols. β-Sitosterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol, are also present but of relatively lower amount. These observations suggest that the aliphatic lipids and sterols in the study area originate, mainly, from biogenic sources of marine microbial with minor contribution from epiticular waxes of terrestrial plants.

  11. Synthesis and properties of novel aliphatic polycarbonate from carbon dioxide with 1,2-butylene oxide and ε-caprolactone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Fei Liu; Ke Long Huang; Dong Ming Peng; Su Qin Liu; Hong Wu

    2007-01-01

    A new degradable aliphatic poly(butylene-co-ε-caprolactone carbonate) (PBCL) was synthesized through the terpolymerization of carbon dioxide, 1,2-butylene oxide (BO) and ε-caprolactone (CL), a polymer supported bimetallic complex (PBM) was used as a catalyst. The terpolymers prepared were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, WXRD and DSC. The hydrolysis tests were carried out to appraise the degradability of the copolymers.

  12. Analysis of. gamma. -radiolysis products of aqueous solutions of esters of aliphatic amino acids by the PMR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panin, V.I.; Sidorov, P.S.; Usatyi, A.F.

    1987-09-01

    The ..gamma..-radiolysis of aqueous solutions of methyl esters of aliphatic amino acids and peptides was investigated by the method of nuclear (proton) magnetic resonance (PMR). The resonance lines appearing in the PMR spectra of the irradiated systems were identified, and a conclusion was drawn about the molecular structure of the radiolysis products. The kinetics of the accumulation of radiolysis products was studied, and the values of their radiation yields were estimated.

  13. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  14. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  15. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  16. In-situ micro-FTIR Study of Thermal Changes of Organics in Tagish Lake Meteorite: Behavior of Aliphatic Oxygenated Functions and Effects of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Nakashima, Satoru; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Systematic in-situ FTIR heating experiments of Tagish Lake meteorite grains have been performed in order to study thermal stability of chondritic organics. Some aliphatic model organic substances have also been used to elucidate effects of hydrous phyllosilicate minerals on the thermal stability of organics. The experimental results indicated that organic matter in the Tagish Lake meteorite might contain oxygenated aliphatic hydrocarbons which are thermally stable carbonyls such as ester and/or C=O in ring compounds. The presence of hydrous phyllosilicate minerals has a pronounced effect on the increase of the thermal stability of aliphatic and oxygenated functions. These oxygenated aliphatic organics in Tagish Lake can be formed during the aqueous alteration in the parent body and the formation temperature condition might be less than 200 C, based especially on the thermal stability of C-O components. The hydrous phyllosilicates might provide sites for organic globule formation and protected some organic decomposition

  17. Distribution and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids in surface sediments of a tropical estuary south west coast of India (Cochin estuary)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gireeshkumar, T.R.; Deepulal, P.M.; Chandramohanakumar, N.

    Surface sediments samples from the Cochin estuary were measured for elemental, stable isotopic and molecular biomarkers (aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids) to study the sources and distribution of sedimentary organic matter. Concentrations...

  18. Aliphatic acid-conjugated antimicrobial peptides--potential agents with anti-tumor, multidrug resistance-reversing activity and enhanced stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Qiu, Qianqian; Ma, Ke; Wang, Xuekun; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-07-28

    Compared with traditional therapeutics, antimicrobial peptides as novel anti-tumor agents have prominent advantages of higher specificity and circumvention of multi-drug resistance. In a previous study, we found that B1, an antimicrobial peptide derived from Cathelicidin-BF15, presented specific anti-tumor activity against several tumor cells. Since aliphatic chain-conjugated peptides have shown ameliorative activity and stability, we conjugated aliphatic acids with different lengths to the amino terminal of B1. All the conjugated peptides exhibited improved anti-tumor activity over B1. Further investigations revealed that the peptides were capable of disrupting the cell membrane, stimulating cytochrome c release into the cytosol, which results in apoptosis. The peptides also acted against multidrug resistant cells and had multidrug resistance-reversing effects. Additionally, conjugation of aliphatic acid enhanced the peptide stability in plasma. In summary, aliphatic acid-modified peptides might be promising anti-tumor agents in the future. PMID:26083110

  19. The perception of tobacco and alcohol advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    VONDRÁKOVÁ, Radka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to find out what is the position of the Czech society to advertising, tobacco and alcoholic products and advertising of these products, if this position differs for men and for women and for university students. In order to achieve my goals, I used the analysis of secondary data from Market & Media & Lifestyle -- TGI, the analysis of primary data obtained from the internet questionnaire and comparison of results of both analyses. On this basis, I came to conclusion tha...

  20. The Cer-cqu gene cluster determines three key players in a β-diketone synthase polyketide pathway synthesizing aliphatics in epicuticular waxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Lizette Marais; Adamski, Nikolai M.; Christensen, Caspar Elo;

    2016-01-01

    Aliphatic compounds on plant surfaces, called epicuticular waxes, are the first line of defense against pathogens and pests, contribute to reducing water loss and determine other important phenotypes. Aliphatics can form crystals affecting light refraction, resulting in a color change and allowing...... affect overall protein structure or specific active site residues. The rich diversity of identified mutations will facilitate future studies of three key enzymes involved in synthesis of plant apoplast waxes....

  1. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  2. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  3. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.; et al. Gender differences in moderate drinking effects. Alcohol Research & Health 23:55–64, 1999. (5) Loft, S. ; ... A.; and Sullivan, E. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol on brain structure. American Journal of Psychiatry 158: ...

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  5. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  6. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  7. Reactions of B/sub 12r/ with aliphatic free radicals: a pulse-radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra of the intermediates formed in the reactions of B/sub 12r/ with the free radicals Br2-., CO2-., .CH2C(CH3)2OH, .C(CH3)2OH, . CH2CHO, and .CH(OH)CH2OH are reported. The results indicate that Br2-. oxidizes B/sub 12r/ to B/sub 12a/, via an inner-sphere mechanism, and CO2- . reduces B/sub 12r/ to B/sub 12s/. All the aliphatic free radicals studied, .R, react with B/sub 12r/, yielding as the first product a pseudocoenzyme denoted Co/sup III/-R. Co/sup III/-CH2C(CH3)2OH is stable for over a second in the pH range 3 to 10 as is Co/sup III/-CH2CHO. The latter compound hydrolyzes in acid solutions to yield B/sub 12a/ and CH3CHO. Co/sup III/-C(CH3)2OH and Co/sup III/-CH(OH)CH2OH decompose heterolytically to yield mainly B/sub 12s/; a side reaction that probably yields Co/sup III/-H via a β-hydride shift is also observed. The kinetics of decomposition of Co/sup III/-CH(OH)CH2OH in neutral solutions are reported. No water elimination from the latter intermediate occurs. The reasons for the latter observation are discussed. 6 figures

  8. Biodegradable aliphatic-aromatic copolyester/corn starch blend composite reinforced with coffee parchment husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Valquiria A.; Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Gomes, Michelle G.; Ortiz, Angel V.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colombo, Maria A., E-mail: valquiriaalves36@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia da Zona Leste (FATEC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, studies have shown that the addition of natural fiber or proper filler is an effective strategy for achieving improved properties in biodegradable polymer materials. Moreover, is especially important if such fibers are residues of agro-industrial processes. In this work, a promising technique to develop biodegradable polymer matrix composite based on aliphatic-aromatic copolyester/corn starch blend (Evela®) and coffee parchment husk, which is residue from coffee processing is described. The biodegradable polymeric blend (Evela®) with 5 % (w/w) of ball-milled coffee parchment husk fiber powder, with size ≤250 μm, without any modification was prepared by melt-mixing processing, using a twin screw extruder machine and then pelletized. In a second step, the pelletized Evela®)/coffee parchment (Composite) was then dried at 70 ± 2 deg C for 24 h in a circulating air oven, fed into injection molding machine and test specimens were obtained. The Composite specimen samples were irradiated using an electron beam accelerator, at radiation dose of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), tensile tests and sol-gel analysis and the correlation between their properties was discussed. In addition, coffee parchment husk fiber characterization by SEM, EDS, XRD and WDXRF have also been carried out with a view to evaluate its importance in determining the end-use properties of the composite. (author)

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS CAUSED BY ARYL ALIPHATIC AMINOALCOHOL DERIVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronova M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of antimicrobial resistance has created a critical need of the novel antimicrobial agents. One of the promising chemical classes for its development are aryl aliphatic aminoalcohols. New compounds of this class were synthesized at the Institute of organic chemistry (Kiev, Ukraine, by Y. Korotkiy. After the screening studies compound KVM-194 was selected as the potent antistaphylococcal agent. The aim of the study was to examine ultrastructural changes in the bacterial cells under the influence of the compound KVM-194. Materials and methods. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was used in all experiments. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by serial macrodilution method in Mueller-Hinton broth. Bacteria were exposed to the 0,5 MIC and 5 MICs of the KVM- 194 for 1 h and 24 h. Ultrastructure of intact and treated Staphylococcus aureus cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy after contrasting by osmium tetraoxide and lead citrate. Results and Discussion. The compound KVM-194 possesses a distinct antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, the minimum inhibitory concentration is 1.25 μg/ml. We found that exposure to KVM-194 at a subinhibitory concentration resulted in alterations of the cell morphology even after 1 h of treatment. The roughness of the cell surface and emerging of the intracellular particles of different electron density were observed. Increase of the incubation time to 24 h led to detachment of membrane from cytoplasm, multimembrane structures within cells emergence and formation of nonpolar septum. 1 h exposition to suprainhibitory concentration of KVM-194 resulted in nucleoid fragmentation, septum abnormalities and necrosis of some cells. We found that increasing of the incubation period to 24 h led to exacerbation of alterations: cell wall rupture, leakage of cytoplasm and a large number of lysed cells were registered. Conclusion. Observed alterations, suggest the possible

  10. Gamma-irradiation stability of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic polyanhydrides--ricinoleic acid based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teomim, D; Mäder, K; Bentolila, A; Magora, A; Domb, A J

    2001-01-01

    The effect of terminal sterilization by gamma-irradiation on several ricinoleic acid based polyanhydrides was investigated. The following polymers were used: poly(ricinoleic acid maleate) [P(RAM)], poly(ricinoleic acid succinate) [P(RAS)], poly(hydroxy stearic acid succinate) [P(HSAS)], poly(hydroxy stearic acid maleate) [P(HSAM)], and their copolymers with sebacic acid. The polymers were irradiated with an absorbed dose of 2.5 or 10 Mrad by means of a 60Co source under dry ice or at room temperature. No differences were found between samples irradiated under dry ice and at room temperature. Polymers prepared from monomers containing maleate residues, which contain double bonds adjusted to the anhydride linkage along the polymer chain, decreased in molecular weight, became insoluble, and showed fast hydrolytic degradation. For example, p(RAM), p(HSAM), and their copolymers with sebacic acid decreased in Mw from about 10,000 to about 2000, and from about 30,000 to about 5000, respectively, while polymers based on RAS and HSAS remained stable. This phenomenon was explained by an anhydride interchange-self-depolymerization process of the unsaturated anhydride bonds induced by gamma-irradiation. This explanation was supported by the depolymerization of another class of polymers having an anhydride bond between two double bonds, fumaric acid anhydride polymers. The anhydride bond that lies between two double bonds was found to be more sensitive to gamma-irradiation. This anhydride bond may be cleaved to form two radicals that further react with aliphatic anhydride bonds along the polymer chain to form inter- and/or intracyclization products. PMID:11710004

  11. In vitro and in vivo degradation profile of aliphatic polyesters subjected to electron beam sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dånmark, S; Finne-Wistrand, A; Schander, K; Hakkarainen, M; Arvidson, K; Mustafa, K; Albertsson, A-C

    2011-05-01

    Degradation characteristics in response to electron beam sterilization of designed and biodegradable aliphatic polyester scaffolds are relevant for clinically successful synthetic graft tissue regeneration. Scaffold degradation in vitro and in vivo were documented and correlated to the macroscopic structure and chemical design of the original polymer. The materials tested were of inherently diverse hydrophobicity and crystallinity: poly(L-lactide) (poly(LLA)) and random copolymers from L-lactide and ε-caprolactone or 1,5-dioxepan-2-one, fabricated into porous and non-porous scaffolds. After sterilization, the samples underwent hydrolysis in vitro for up to a year. In vivo, scaffolds were surgically implanted into rat calvarial defects and retrieved for analysis after 28 and 91days. In vitro, poly(L-lactide-co-1,5-dioxepan-2-one) (poly(LLA-co-DXO)) samples degraded most rapidly during hydrolysis, due to the pronounced chain-shortening reaction caused by the sterilization. This was indicated by the rapid decrease in both mass and molecular weight of poly(LLA-co-DXO). Poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (poly(LLA-co-CL)) samples were also strongly affected by sterilization, but mass loss was more gradual; molecular weight decreased rapidly during hydrolysis. Least affected by sterilization were the poly(LLA) samples, which subsequently showed low mass loss rate and molecular weight decrease during hydrolysis. Mechanical stability varied greatly: poly(LLA-co-CL) withstood mechanical testing for up to 182 days, while poly(LLA) and poly(LLA-co-DXO) samples quickly became too brittle. Poly(LLA-co-DXO) samples unexpectedly degraded more rapidly in vitro than in vivo. After sterilization by electron beam irradiation, the three biodegradable polymers present widely diverse degradation profiles, both in vitro and in vivo. Each exhibits the potential to be tailored to meet diverse clinical tissue engineering requirements. PMID:21316490

  12. Synthesis and characterization of aromatic and aliphatic ether bridged polymers containing carbazole moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, İsmet, E-mail: kayaismet@hotmail.com; Temizkan, Kevser; Aydın, Aysel

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: Novel ether bridged polymers containing carbazole moieties were synthesized via elimination of HBr. Fluorescence measurements of the polymers were performed using N,N′-dimethyl formamide solutions. The morphologic properties of the polymers were investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Thermal stabilities were determined TGA measurements. -- Highlights: • Novel ether bridged polymers containing carbazole moieties were synthesized via elimination of HBr. • Fluorescence measurements of the polymers were performed using DMF solutions. • The morphologic properties of the polymers were investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy. • Thermal stabilities were determined TGA measurements. -- Abstract: In this study, the polymers were synthesized ether bridged containing carbazole moieties via HBr elimination. Also, these polymers include the aliphatic chains at the different lengths and aromatic groups in their structures. However, the polymers were characterized by FT-IR, NMR and UV–vis spectroscopy, and their thermal stabilities were determined via TGA measurements. Fluorescence measurements were performed using N,N′-dimethyl formamide solutions and also, the optimization of the concentrations to obtain maximal emission intensity was investigated in N,N′-dimethyl formamide. The morphologic properties of the polymers were investigated at different particle sizes by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the number average molecular weight (M{sub n}), weight average molecular weight (M{sub w}) and polydispersity index (PDI) values of the polymers were determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) technique. Resultantly, the remarkable properties related to the fluorescence and thermal measurements of the polymers were obtained. Therefore, these polymers could be used in various application fields because of the fluorescent and thermal properties.

  13. Effect of aliphatic, monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic, heterocyclic and sulphur-containing amino acids on Leishmania spp. chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, E; Zacarias, A K; Pérez, S; Vanegas, O; Köhidai, L; Padrón-Nieves, M; Ponte-Sucre, A

    2015-11-01

    In the sand-fly mid gut, Leishmania promastigotes are exposed to acute changes in nutrients, e.g. amino acids (AAs). These metabolites are the main energy sources for the parasite, crucial for its differentiation and motility. We analysed the migratory behaviour and morphological changes produced by aliphatic, monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic, heterocyclic and sulphur-containing AAs in Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis and demonstrated that L-methionine (10-12 m), L-tryptophan (10-11 m), L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid (10-6 m), induced positive chemotactic responses, while L-alanine (10-7 m), L-methionine (10-11 and 10-7 m), L-tryptophan (10-11 m), L-glutamine (10-12 m) and L-glutamic acid (10-9 m) induced negative chemotactic responses. L-proline and L-cysteine did not change the migratory potential of Leishmania. The flagellum length of L. braziliensis, but not of L. amazonensis, decreased when incubated in hyperosmotic conditions. However, chemo-repellent concentrations of L-alanine (Hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) and L-glutamic acid (hypo-osmotic conditions) decreased L. braziliensis flagellum length and L-methionine (10-11 m, hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) decreased L. amazonensis flagellum length. This chemotactic responsiveness suggests that Leishmania discriminate between slight concentration differences of small and structurally closely related molecules and indicates that besides their metabolic effects, AAs play key roles linked to sensory mechanisms that might determine the parasite's behaviour.

  14. Degradation kinetics of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by methane oxidizers naturally-associated with wetland plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C L; Goltz, M N; Agrawal, A

    2014-12-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) are common groundwater contaminants that can be removed from the environment by natural attenuation processes. CAH biodegradation can occur in wetland environments by reductive dechlorination as well as oxidation pathways. In particular, CAH oxidation may occur in vegetated wetlands, by microorganisms that are naturally associated with the roots of wetland plants. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cometabolic degradation kinetics of the CAHs, cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cisDCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1TCA), by methane-oxidizing bacteria associated with the roots of a typical wetland plant in soil-free system. Laboratory microcosms with washed live roots investigated aerobic, cometabolic degradation of CAHs by the root-associated methane-oxidizing bacteria at initial aqueous [CH4] ~1.9mgL(-1), and initial aqueous [CAH] ~150μgL(-1); cisDCE and TCE (in the presence of 1,1,1TCA) degraded significantly, with a removal efficiency of approximately 90% and 46%, respectively. 1,1,1TCA degradation was not observed in the presence of active methane oxidizers. The pseudo first-order degradation rate-constants of TCE and cisDCE were 0.12±0.01 and 0.59±0.07d(-1), respectively, which are comparable to published values. However, their biomass-normalized degradation rate constants obtained in this study were significantly smaller than pure-culture studies, yet they were comparable to values reported for biofilm systems. The study suggests that CAH removal in wetland plant roots may be comparable to processes within biofilms. This has led us to speculate that the active biomass may be on the root surface as a biofilm. The cisDCE and TCE mass losses due to methane oxidizers in this study offer insight into the role of shallow, vegetated wetlands as an environmental sink for such xenobiotic compounds.

  15. Biodegradable aliphatic-aromatic copolyester/corn starch blend composite reinforced with coffee parchment husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, studies have shown that the addition of natural fiber or proper filler is an effective strategy for achieving improved properties in biodegradable polymer materials. Moreover, is especially important if such fibers are residues of agro-industrial processes. In this work, a promising technique to develop biodegradable polymer matrix composite based on aliphatic-aromatic copolyester/corn starch blend (Evela®) and coffee parchment husk, which is residue from coffee processing is described. The biodegradable polymeric blend (Evela®) with 5 % (w/w) of ball-milled coffee parchment husk fiber powder, with size ≤250 μm, without any modification was prepared by melt-mixing processing, using a twin screw extruder machine and then pelletized. In a second step, the pelletized Evela®)/coffee parchment (Composite) was then dried at 70 ± 2 deg C for 24 h in a circulating air oven, fed into injection molding machine and test specimens were obtained. The Composite specimen samples were irradiated using an electron beam accelerator, at radiation dose of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), tensile tests and sol-gel analysis and the correlation between their properties was discussed. In addition, coffee parchment husk fiber characterization by SEM, EDS, XRD and WDXRF have also been carried out with a view to evaluate its importance in determining the end-use properties of the composite. (author)

  16. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  17. Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duester, G; Farrés, J; Felder, M R; Holmes, R S; Höög, J O; Parés, X; Plapp, B V; Yin, S J; Jörnvall, H

    1999-08-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family encodes enzymes that metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Studies on 19 vertebrate animals have identified ADH orthologs across several species, and this has now led to questions of how best to name ADH proteins and genes. Seven distinct classes of vertebrate ADH encoded by non-orthologous genes have been defined based upon sequence homology as well as unique catalytic properties or gene expression patterns. Each class of vertebrate ADH shares 80% sequence identity such as the case for class I ADH where humans have three class I ADH genes, horses have two, and mice have only one. Presented here is a nomenclature that uses the widely accepted vertebrate ADH class system as its basis. It follows the guidelines of human and mouse gene nomenclature committees, which recommend coordinating names across species boundaries and eliminating Roman numerals and Greek symbols. We recommend that enzyme subunits be referred to by the symbol "ADH" (alcohol dehydrogenase) followed by an Arabic number denoting the class; i.e. ADH1 for class I ADH. For genes we recommend the italicized root symbol "ADH" for human and "Adh" for mouse, followed by the appropriate Arabic number for the class; i.e. ADH1 or Adh1 for class I ADH genes. For organisms where multiple species-specific isoenzymes exist within a class, we recommend adding a capital letter after the Arabic number; i.e. ADH1A, ADH1B, and ADH1C for human alpha, beta, and gamma class I ADHs, respectively. This nomenclature will accommodate newly discovered members of the vertebrate ADH family, and will facilitate functional and evolutionary studies. PMID:10424757

  18. The Temporal Relationship Between Alcohol, Marijuana, Angry Affect, and Dating Violence Perpetration: A Daily Diary Study With Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; McNulty, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Although a robust literature documents a positive association between alcohol and intimate partner violence (IPV), there is limited temporal research on this relation. Moreover, the role of marijuana in influencing IPV has been mixed. Thus, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the temporal relationship between alcohol and marijuana use and dating violence perpetration. A secondary aim was to examine whether angry affect moderated the temporal relation between alcohol and mariju...

  19. Alcoholic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Corey D.; Guidot, David M.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to its well-known association with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia), alcohol abuse now is recognized as an independent factor that increases by three- to four-fold the incidence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe form of acute lung injury with a mortality rate of 40 to 50 percent. This translates to tens of thousands of excess deaths in the United States each year from alcohol-mediated lung injury, which is comparable to scarring of the liver (i.e., cirrhosis) in...

  20. Alcohol, cannabis y accidentalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Olave Porrua, Leticia; Matos Larrinaga, Jesús; Salguero Noguera, Martín; Ramos Cejudo, Juan; Mae Wood, Cristina; Iruarrizaga Díez, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    Se ha desarrollado este trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de concentrar los últimos avances en investigación del consumo de alcohol y cannabis y su infl uencia en la conducción. Se realizaron tres búsquedas sistemáticas en la base de datos Psycinfo, introduciendo las palabras clave 'alcohol' AND 'traffi c'y 'cannabis' AND 'traffi c', restringida a los últimos cinco años (de enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2010). El presente trabajo incluye los datos más relevantes sobre prevalen...

  1. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  2. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  3. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  4. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  5. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it okay to drink when pregnant? What is alcohol? Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient ... sugars, and starches. Top of Page How does alcohol affect a person? Alcohol affects every organ in ...

  6. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  7. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  8. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  9. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  10. Is the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin a risk factor for alcoholic liver disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duygu Dee Harrison-Findik

    2009-01-01

    Despite heavy consumption over a long period of time,only a small number of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease. This alludes to the possibility that other factors,besides alcohol, may be involved in the progression of the disease. Over the years, many such factors have indeed been identified, including iron. Despite being crucial for various important biological processes, iron can also be harmful due to its ability to catalyze Fenton chemistry. Alcohol and iron have been shown to interact synergistically to cause liver injury. Iron-mediated cell signaling has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of experimental alcoholic liver disease. Hepcidin is an iron-regulatory hormone synthesized by the liver,which plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. Both acute and chronic alcohol exposure suppress hepcidin expression in the liver. The sera of patients with alcoholic liver disease, particularly those exhibiting higher serum iron indices, have also been reported to display reduced prohepcidin levels. Alcohol-mediated oxidative stress is involved in the inhibition of hepcidin promoter activity and transcription in the liver. This in turn leads to an increase in intestinal iron transport and liver iron storage. Hepcidin is expressed primarily in hepatocytes.It is noteworthy that both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells are involved in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. However, the activation of Kupffer cells and TNF-α signaling has been reported not to be involved in the down-regulation of hepcidin expression by alcohol in the liver. Alcohol acts within the parenchymal cells of the liver to suppress the synthesis of hepcidin. Due to its crucial role in the regulation of body iron stores, hepcidin may act as a secondary risk factor in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. The clarification of the mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts iron homeostasis will allow for further understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease.

  11. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  12. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  13. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  14. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  15. Alcohol, marihuana and youth

    OpenAIRE

    KREJČOVÁ, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this work is misusing alcohol and illicit addicting substances (primarily marijuana) by students at high schools. The research was done at specifically chosen high school by questionnaires, that helped to uncover student?s experiences with illicit addicting substances.

  16. Saying No to Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  17. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at home: Failure in school; truancy Lack of friends; withdrawal from classmates Delinquent behavior, such as stealing or violence Frequent physical complaints, such as headaches or stomachaches Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or Aggression towards other children Risk taking behaviors Depression or ...

  18. Hydrogen Bonding Interaction between N-methylformamide and Alcohols%N-甲基甲酰胺与醇的氢键相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAMACHANDRAN, Krishnamurthy; DHARMALINGAM, Kurunthu; SIVAGURUNATHAN, Periyasamy

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen bonding interactions between N-methylformamide and primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols have been studied using the FT1R spectroscopic method. The most likely association complex between alcohol and N-methylformamide is the 1:1 stoichiometric complex formed between the hydroxyl group of alcohol and the carbonyl group of N-methylformamide. The formation constant of the 1:1 complexes has been calculated using the Nash method. It appears that the primary alcohols have larger formation constant compared with the secondary and tertiary alcohols. The results showed that the proton-donating ability of the alcohols decreased in the order: primary>secondary>tertiary, and that the association constant increased with the increase in carbon chain of the alkyl group of alcohols.

  19. Alcohol use following an alcohol challenge and a brief intervention among alcohol-dependent individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bacio, GA; Lunny, KF; Webb, JN; Ray, LA

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The study examined the effects of an alcohol challenge on naturalistic drinking among alcohol-dependent individuals and explored brief motivational interviewing (MI) as a potential intervention for these participants. Method Alcohol-dependent individuals (n = 32, eight females) completed the intake assessment, alcohol challenge, one MI session, and 1-month follow-up (87.5% retention) where they completed measures of drinking and motivation for change. Results As expe...

  20. Direct enantioseparation of underivatized aliphatic 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids with a quinine-based zwitterionic chiral stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Federica; Pataj, Zoltán; Gross, Harald; Sardella, Roccaldo; Natalini, Benedetto; Lindner, Wolfgang; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2014-10-10

    While aliphatic 2-hydroxyalkanoic acids have been more or less successfully enantioseparated with various chiral stationary phases by HPLC and GC, analogous applications on underivatized aliphatic 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids are completely absent in the scientific literature. With the aim of closing this gap, the enantioseparation of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 3-hydroxydecanoic acid and 3-hydroxymyristic acid has been performed with two ion-exchange type chiral stationary phases (CSPs): one containing the anion-exchange type tert-butyl carbamoyl quinine chiral selector motif (Chiralpak QN-AX), and the other carrying the new zwitterionic variant based on trans-(S,S)-2-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid-derivatized quinine carbamate (Chiralpak ZWIX(+)) as the chiral selector and enantiodiscriminating element, respectively. The zwitterionic enantiorecognition material provided better results in terms of enantioselectivity and resolution compared to the anion-exchanger CSP at reduced retention times due to the intramolecular counterion effect imposed by the sulfonic acid moiety and its competition with the 3-hydroxyalkanoic acid analyte for ionic interaction at the quininium-anion exchanger site. It is thus recommended as the CSP of first choice for enantioseparations of the class of aliphatic 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids. With use of polar organic eluent composed of ACN/MeOH/AcOH - 95/5/0.05 (v/v/v), a good compromise in terms of analysis time and enantioresolution quality was accomplished. The major experimental variables have been investigated for optimization of the resolution and allowed to derive information on the enantiorecognition mechanism. Corresponding Chiralpak ZWIX(-), based on pseudo-enantiomeric selector derived from quinidine and trans-(R,R)-2-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid with opposite configurations provided reversed enantiomer elution orders. It has further to be stressed that these separations can be obtained with mass spectrometry compatible mobile phases.

  1. Characterization, Distribution, Sources and Origins of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Surface Sediment of Prai Strait, Penang, Malaysia: A Widespread Anthropogenic Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Sakari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons are one of the most serious and important class of pollutants that face to many countries including Malaysia. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contain straight chain alkane; derive from anthropogenic and natural sources to the marine environment. The multi-purpose strait of Prai is located in the Northwest of Peninsular Malaysia plays an important economic role in the Southeast Asia. Twenty surface sediment samples were collected using Eckman dredge to measure the concentration and determine the characterization, sources and origins of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in December 2006. Samples (top 4 cm were extracted with Soxhlet, treated with activated copper and subjected to 2 steps column chromatography for purification and fractionation. Alkane fraction injected into Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID for instrumental analysis. The results showed that total n-alkane concentrations are ranging from 512 to 10770 ng/mg d. w. Carbon Preferences Index (CPI revealed an extreme widespread anthropogenic input and naturally derived (CPI= 0 to 4.88 hydrocarbons in the study area. The ratio of C31/C19 indicated that natural hydrocarbons are generating from terrestrial vascular plants and transferring by rivers. The characteristics of Major Hydrocarbons provided evidences that oil and its derivatives either fresh or degraded are the major contributors of the pollution in the study area. Statistical approaches also confirmed that 85% of study area affected by oil sources of pollution. It is seen that aliphatic hydrocarbons mostly transfer by lateral input to the marine environment than atmospheric movements.

  2. Perceived parental alcohol problems, internalizing problems and impaired parent-child relationships among 71,988 young people in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Veronica S C; Bloomfield, Kim; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To test the hypothesis that young people with perceived parental alcohol problems have poorer parent-child relationships and more emotional symptoms, low self-esteem, loneliness, and depression than young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis......-child relationships (e.g. lack of parental interest: OR = 1.96 for boys; 2.29 for girls) compared with young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. The associations were not significantly stronger for mother's alcohol problems or if the young person lived with the parent with perceived alcohol problems....... CONCLUSION: Boys and girls in secondary education in Denmark who report perceived parental alcohol problems have significantly higher odds of internalizing problems and poorer parent-child relationships compared with young people without perceived parental alcohol problems....

  3. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-09-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  4. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas

  5. Use of Aliphatic n-Alkynes To Discriminate Soil Nitrification Activities of Ammonia-Oxidizing Thaumarchaea and Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Anne E.; Vajrala, Neeraja; Giguere, Andrew T.; Gitelman, Alix I; Arp, Daniel J.; Myrold, David D.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis; Bottomley, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3)-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and thaumarchaea (AOA) co-occupy most soils, yet no short-term growth-independent method exists to determine their relative contributions to nitrification in situ. Microbial monooxygenases differ in their vulnerability to inactivation by aliphatic n-alkynes, and we found that NH3 oxidation by the marine thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus was unaffected during a 24-h exposure to ≤20 μM concentrations of 1-alkynes C8 and C9. In contrast, NH3 oxidation ...

  6. Physico-chemical properties of binary mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic solvents at 313 K on acoustical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahire, S. L.; Morey, Y. C.; Agrawal, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Density (ρ), viscosity (η), and ultrasonic velocity ( U) of binary mixtures of aliphatic solvents like dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with aromatic solvents viz. chlorobenzene (CB), bromobenzene (BB), and nitrobenzene (NB) have been determined at 313 K. These parameters were used to calculate the adiabatic compressibility (β), intermolecular free length ( L f), molar volume ( V m), and acoustic impedance ( Z). From the experimental data excess molar volume ( V m E ), excess intermolecular free length ( L f E )), excess adiabatic compressibility (βE), and excess acoustic impedance ( Z E) have been computed. The excess values were correlated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to obtain their coefficients and standard deviations (σ).

  7. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482

  8. Reversible reactions of cycloalkane solvent holes. 1. Reactions of cis- and trans-decalin#lgbullet#+ with alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that solvent holes in cis- and trans-decalin form complexes with aliphatic alcohols that live 1-100 ns, depending on the solute and the solvent temperature. This complexation has near-zero activation energy and occurs with rate constants of (1-1.2) x 1011 M-1 s-1 in trans-decalin and 3 x 1010 M-1 s-1 in cis-decalin. The metastable complex decays by proton transfer (for alcohols higher than ethanol); in concentrated solutions a diffusion-controlled reaction of the complex with a second alcohol molecule occurs. While the stability of the complex increases with the carbon number of the alcohol, the standard heat of the complexation decreases in the opposite direction (ΔHo changes from -39 kJ/mol for ethanol to -25 kJ/mol for tert-butanol). The decrease in the standard entropy is small (ΔSo298 > -80 J mol-1 K-1), approaching zero for higher alcohols. We argue that this thermochemistry is due to the polaronic nature of the solvent holes

  9. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-01-01

    Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial s...

  10. Determination of Aliphatic Acid and Ester in Ganoderma lucidum by Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry%气相色谱-飞行时间质谱测定灵芝中脂肪酸(酯)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李前荣; 潘振; 尹浩

    2004-01-01

    The extracts of Ganoderma lucidum capsule powder (A) and natural ganoaerma lucidum (B) have been and analyzed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A great quantity of aliphatic acid (ester)Was observed at tR= 18min and tR = 20min, including the unsaturated aliphatic acid which is valuable. The relative content of aliphatic acid in sample A was 49.6%, of which 19.4% was linoleic acid, and those in sample B was 32.6%, of which 7.0% was linoleic acid. The relative content of aliphatic acids in sample A was higher than that in sample B.

  11. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... to postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration...

  12. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    by type of alcohol. However, we found a linear association between total alcohol consumption and total or free testosterone in both groups of men. Young and fertile men who consumed >20 units of alcohol per week had, respectively, 24.6 pmol/l (95% confidence interval 16.3-32.9) and 19.7 pmol/l (7......STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...

  13. The effect of fluorine substitution in alcohol-amine complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Schou; Du, Lin; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum

    2014-01-01

    The effect of fluorine substitution on the hydrogen bond strength in alcohol-amine molecular complexes was investigated, with a combination of vapour phase infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. The complexes were combined from methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and trifluoroethanol (TFE...... formation were determined by combining a calculated intensity and the measured integrated absorbance. The observation of two transitions in the alcohol-DMA complexes provides an opportunity for two independent determinations of the equilibrium constants. Molecular interactions between the monomers were...... elucidated by Natural Bond Orbital, Atoms in Molecules and Non-covalent Interactions analysis. We find that the alcohol-amine complexes with TFE as the hydrogen bond donor form stronger hydrogen bonds and that secondary interactions between the monomers increase from MeOH to EtOH to TFE. TFE is a stronger...

  14. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  15. Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

  16. Role of alcohol metabolism in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Baker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4 and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6. Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1 alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2 there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD.

  17. Secondary Traumatization in Vietnam Veterans' Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J; Gerszberg, Nicole; Dohrenwend, Bruce P

    2016-08-01

    This research focused on secondary traumatization of wives and offspring of 115 male Vietnam veterans, a subsample from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study who had one or more children aged 6 to 16 years and had had a clinical interview. Traumatization was defined as meeting criteria for lifetime war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Secondary traumatization was operationalized by elevated scores on children's internalizing or externalizing behavior problems and on wives' demoralization. There was evidence of secondary traumatization in the veterans' sons (odds ratio [OR] = 20.31 for internalizing behavior problems). Current PTSD in the veterans was associated with demoralization in their wives or partners (β = 0.24), which in turn was associated with behavior problems in their daughters (ORs = 2.67 and 4.61 for internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, respectively; these were adjusted for veteran's PTSD). Demoralization of the wife or partner was also associated with current alcoholism in the veterans (β = 0.30, adjusting for veteran's PTSD). These associations were also adjusted for other veteran risk factors, including severity of combat exposure, involvement in harming civilians or prisoners, and prewar vulnerability. Even with the degree of secondary traumatization present, the veterans' children appeared at least as healthy as counterparts in the general population. PMID:27529559

  18. LINEAR SOLVATION ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MLC SYSTEMS WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE MOBILE PHASES MODIFIED BY ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS OR CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markov, Vadym V.; Boichenko, Alexander P.; Loginova, Lidia P.

    2012-01-01

    The Linear Solvation Energy Relationships (LSER) have been successfully used for the modeling of partition and retention of the set of test compounds in different systems. The properties of micellar chromatographic systems with the mobile phases on the basis of sodium dodecylsulphate modified (ODS)

  19. (Vapor + liquid) equilibria of the binary mixtures of m-cresol with C1-C4 aliphatic alcohols at 95.5 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubble point temperatures at 95.5 kPa, over the entire composition range, are measured for the binary mixtures formed by m-cresol with: methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and n-, iso-, sec-, and tert-butanols - using a Swietoslawski-type ebulliometer. The liquid phase composition - bubble point temperature measurements are well represented by the Wilson model. (Vapor + liquid) equilibria predicted from the model are presented

  20. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.