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Sample records for aliphatic compounds isolation

  1. Bacterial isolates degrading aliphatic polycarbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, T; Hosoya, H; Tokiwa, Y

    1998-04-15

    Bacteria that degrade an aliphatic polycarbonate, poly(hexamethylene carbonate), were isolated from river water in Ibaraki. Prefecture, Japan, after enrichment in liquid medium containing poly(hexamethylene carbonate) suspensions as carbon source, and dilution to single cells. Four of the strains, 35L, WFF52, 61A and 61B2, degraded poly(hexamethylene carbonate) on agar plate containing suspended poly(hexamethylene carbonate). Degradation of poly(hexamethylene carbonate) was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography. Besides poly(hexamethylene carbonate), the strains were found to degrade poly(tetramethylene carbonate). The strains were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Strains 35L and WFF52 were tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Variovorax sp., respectively, while strains 61A and 61B2 constitute an unidentified branch within the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria.

  2. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  3. Biodegradation of Trihalomethanes and Other Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    The biological dehalogenation of common water pollutants such as trichloromethane (chloroform) and other halogenated aliphatic compounds was the subject of this project. Samples from diverse water environments such as from groundwater contaminated with halogenated compounds and wastewaters from regional treatment plants were studied to identify conditions that favor certain dehalogenation reactions over others. Gene probe analyses of DNA extracted from the dichlormethane-degrading wastewater indicated the presence of the gene coding for dichloromethane dehalogenase, indicating the genetic basis for the dechlorination activity observed. These studies indicate that methanogenic bacteria are the organisms responsible for the chloroform dechlorination. Dechlorination of a common chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11) was identified in samples taken from a regional aquifer contaminated with halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  4. Complete Detoxification of Short Chain Chlorinated Aliphatic Compounds: Isolation of Halorespiring Organisms and Biochemical Studies of the Dehalogenating Enzyme Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedje, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Work focused on the isolation and characterization of halorespiring populations, and the initial investigation of the dechlorinating enzyme systems. In addition, tools to evaluate the presence/activity to halorespiring populations in the environment were developed. The tools developed in this work (measurements of hydrogen consumption thresholds, molecular probes) are relevant for regulatory agencies in order to facilitate decisions on which bioremediation technology (biostimulation or bioaugmentation) is most promising at a particular site. In addition, a better understanding of the physiology of the halorespiring organisms as well as the biochemistry of the dehalogenating enzyme systems enhances our knowledge of how these organisms can successfully be employed in the bioremediation of contaminated sites.

  5. Interaction of gaseous aromatic and aliphatic compounds in thermophilic biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-yuan; Wang, Can

    2015-12-30

    Two thermophilic biofilters were applied in treating a mixture of gaseous aromatic (benzene) and aliphatic compounds (hexane) to evaluate the interaction of the compounds. The performance of the biofilters was investigated in terms of removal efficiencies, elimination capacity, kinetic analysis, interaction indices, and microbial metabolic characteristics. Results showed that the removal performance of benzene was unaffected by the addition of hexane. The removal efficiencies of benzene were maintained at approximately 80% and the biodegradation rate constant was maintained at 120 h(-1). However, the removal efficiencies of hexane decreased significantly from 60% to 20% and the biodegradation rate constant exhibited a distinct decrease from 93.59 h(-1) to 56.32 h(-1). The interaction index of benzene with the addition of hexane was -0.029, which indicated that hexane had little effect on the degradation of benzene. By contrast, the interaction index of hexane by benzene was -0.557, which showed that benzene inhibited the degradation of hexane significantly. Similar conclusions were obtained about the substrate utilization. Moreover, the utilization degree of carbon sources and the microbial metabolic activities in the biofilter treating hexane were significantly improved with the addition of benzene, whereas the addition of hexane had a slight effect on the microbial communities in the biofilter treating benzene. Conclusions could be obtained that when mixtures of benzene and hexane were treated using biofilters, the degradation of benzene, which was more easily degradable, was dominant and unaffected; whereas the degradation of hexane, which was less easily degradable, was inhibited because of the changing of microbes.

  6. Decomposition mechanisms of trinitroalkyl compounds: a theoretical study from aliphatic to aromatic nitro compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, Guillaume; Rotureau, Patricia; Minisini, Benoit

    2014-04-14

    The chemical mechanisms involved in the decomposition of trinitroethyl compounds were studied for both aliphatic and aromatic derivatives using density functional theory calculations. At first, in the case of 1,1,1-trinitrobutane, used as a reference molecule, two primary channels were highlighted among the five investigated ones: the breaking of the C-N bond and the HONO elimination. Then, the influence of various structural parameters was studied for these two reactions by changing the length of the carbon chain, adding substituents or double bonds along the carbon chain. If some slight changes in activation energies were observed for most of these features, no modification of the competition between the two investigated reactions was highlighted and the breaking of the C-N bond remained the favoured mechanism. At last, the reactions involving the trinitroalkyl fragments were highlighted to be more competitive than reactions involving nitro groups linked to aromatic cycles in two aromatic systems (4-(1,1,1-trinitrobutyl)-nitrobenzene and 2-(1,1,1-trinitrobutyl)-nitrobenzene). This showed that aromatic nitro compounds with trinitroalkyl derivatives decompose from their alkyl part and may be considered more likely as aliphatic than as aromatic regarding the initiation of their decomposition process.

  7. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in Candiota coal samples: novel series of bicyclic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.C.M.L.; Loureiro, M.R.B.; Cardoso, J.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was used to analyse aliphatic and aromatic fractions obtained from nine samples taken from two different seams of five boreholes in the Candiota coalfield (Lower Permian). The occurrence of certain tetracyclic diterpenoids among the aliphatic hydrocarbons, and the tricyclic diterpenoids simonellite and retene in the aromatic hydrocarbon concentrates, suggest an important input from conifers to the sedimentary biomass. This may explain the origin of a novel series of saturated and aromatic bicyclic compounds detected in the extracts which may be structurally related to the same precursor, possibly a conifer resin-derived tricyclic diterpenoid.

  8. A QSPR STUDY OF NORMAL BOILING POINT OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC ALKANES) USING MOLECULAR DESCRIPTORS

    OpenAIRE

    B. Souyei; M. Korichi

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) study is carried out to develop correlations that relate the molecular structures of organic compounds (Aliphatic Alkanes) to their normal boiling point (NBP) and two correlations were proposed for constitutionals and connectivity indices Models. The correlations are simple in application with good accuracy, which provide an easy, direct and relatively accurate way to calculate NBP. Such calculation gives us a model that gives results in r...

  9. Computation of Bond Dissociation Energies for Removal of Nitrogen Dioxide Groups in Certain Aliphatic Nitro Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Ju-Xiang; CHENG Xin-Lu; YANG Xiang-Dong; XIANG Shi-Kai

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bond dissociation energies for removal of nitrogen dioxide groups in 10 aliphatic nitro compounds, including nitromethane, nitroethylene, nitroethane, dinitromethane, 1-nitropropane, 2-nitropropane, 1-nitrobutane,2-methyl-2-nitropropane, nitropentane, and nitrohexane, are calculated using the highly accurate complete basis set (CBS-Q) and the three hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods B3LYP, B3PW91 and B3P86 with 6-31G** basis set.

  10. A QSPR STUDY OF NORMAL BOILING POINT OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC ALKANES USING MOLECULAR DESCRIPTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Souyei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR study is carried out to develop correlations that relate the molecular structures of organic compounds (Aliphatic Alkanes to their normal boiling point (NBP and two correlations were proposed for constitutionals and connectivity indices Models. The correlations are simple in application with good accuracy, which provide an easy, direct and relatively accurate way to calculate NBP. Such calculation gives us a model that gives results in remarkable correlations with the descriptors of blokes constitutionals (CON, and connectivity indices (CI (R2 = 0.950, δ = 0.766 (R2 = 0.969, δ = 0.782 respectively.

  11. Green Aza-Michael Reaction of Aliphatic Amines to á,(a)-Unsaturated Compounds in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-Wen; XIA Chun-Gu

    2004-01-01

    The hydroamination of olefins is a long-standing goal for transition metal catalysis. And the metal-catalyzed addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds is an unsolved, synthetically important problem. Although recent advances have made using lanthanide and precious metal complexes, there are few excellent catalyst that display broad functional group tolerance and useful rates for an intermolecular aza-Michael addition. As such, the development of efficient synthetic methods leading to a-amino carbonyl compounds and derivatives has attracted much attention in organic synthesis. Although recent advances have made this route more attractive, development of cheaper, simpler, and more efficient metal catalyst is highly desirable. We also have been interested in developing a reaction that uses catalytic quantities of minimally toxic, readily available, economic reagent should greatly contribute to the creation of environmental benign processes.The recent interest in aqueous medium metal-mediated carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom and formations led to the contributors for such reactions. Furthermore, development of organic reactions in water will contribute to the progress of green and quasi-nature catalysis chemistry. Surprisingly however, there is few report on conjugate additions of amines to a,a-unsaturated carbonyl compounds in water.Herein, we report a new protocol that employs air stable copper salts as efficient catalyst in the aza-Michael reaction under mild reaction conditions. Advantages of the protocol include high-yielding reactions that can be conducted at ambient temperature; the use of readily available and stable copper salts as the catalyst, and the reaction was successfully performed in environmental benign solvent, water.Finally, we have utilized a variety of aliphatic amines successfully with different á,(a)-unsaturated compounds catalyzed by simple hydrophilic ionic liquid, bmimBF4 in water. Interestingly, all the aliphatic amines gave

  12. A Comparative Study of Two Quantum Chemical Descriptors in Predicting Toxicity of Aliphatic Compounds towards Tetrahymena pyriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Hussain Pandith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum chemical parameters such as LUMO energy, HOMO energy, ionization energy (I, electron affinity (A, chemical potential (μ, hardness (η electronegativity (χ, philicity (ωα, and electrophilicity (ω of a series of aliphatic compounds are calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d level of theory. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR models are developed for predicting the toxicity (pIGC50 of 13 classes of aliphatic compounds, including 171 electron acceptors and 81 electron donors, towards Tetrahymena pyriformis. The multiple linear regression modeling of toxicity of these compounds is performed by using the molecular descriptor log P (1-octanol/water partition coefficient in conjunction with two other quantum chemical descriptors, electrophilicity (ω and energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO. A comparison is made towards the toxicity predicting the ability of electrophilicity (ω versus ELUMO as a global chemical reactivity descriptor in addition to log P. The former works marginally better in most cases. There is a slight improvement in the quality of regression by changing the unit of IGC50 from mg/L to molarity and by removing the racemates and the diastereoisomers from the data set.

  13. In Situ and Laboratory Studies on the Fate of Specific Organic Compounds in an Anerobic Landfill Leachate Plume, 2. Fate of Aromatic and Chlorinated Aliphatic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Bjarnadóttir, Helga; Winter, Pia L.;

    1995-01-01

    and laboratory batch microcosm experiments performed focusing on redox conditions, microbiology and the fate of 7 phenolic compounds. In this paper we present the results on the fate of 8 aromatic compounds and 4 chlorinated aliphatic compounds. Nitrobenzene was transformed at all distances from the landfill......The transformation of specific organic compounds was investigated by in situ and laboratory experiments in an anaerobic landfill leachate pollution plume at four different distances from the landfill. In a previous paper (Part 1, also published in this issue) we described the in situ microcosm...... the landfill. In general, good accordance with respect to compound transformation was observed between in situ and laboratory experiments, but in a few cases more compounds were transformed in in situ experiments than in the corresponding laboratory experiments....

  14. Content of carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, and volatile compounds in six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Ikram Bou; Tlili, Nizar; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Rubio, Ana Gracia Pérez; Perez-Camino, Maria Carmen; Albouchi, Ali; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the content of tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, carotenoids, and volatile compounds in the kernel oils from six walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties. The levels of β-carotene ranged between 0.22 and 0.62 mg/kg, followed by lutein (0.01-0.06 mg/kg). The total content of tocopherol ranged from 186.5 to 436.2 mg/kg of the extracted oil and the major isoform in all samples was γ-tocopherol. The most abundant phytosterol was β-sitosterol (974-1494 mg/kg) followed by campesterol then Δ-5-avenasterol. The major triterpenic alcohol was cycloartenol (226.4-532.1 mg/kg). Hexacosanol (9.71-28.15 mg/kg) was the major aliphatic alcohol. The detected volatile compounds were pentanal, hexanal, nonanal, 2-decenal and hexanol. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between varieties, which are probably due to genetic factors.

  15. Enhancement of Corrosion Protection of UV Curable Coatings in the Presence of Aliphatic and Aromatic Amine Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion inhibitors based on aromatic amine; 4-carboxy aniline (CA) and aliphatic amine; acrylamide (AA) were prepared. CA and AA amine compounds allowed reacting with epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO) at 130 degree C for 3h to prepare amine adducts ESO/ CA and ESO/ AA, respectively. The adducts were characterized by IR-spectroscopy and oxirane content determination. Different ratio of prepared adduct were added in coating formulations based on epoxy acrylate oligomers to evaluate them as corrosion inhibitors on metal substrates under UV radiation. Corrosion resistance tests and wt loss values were measured for all cured films, in addition to the physical and mechanical measurements. It was found that the coating films containing CA have high resistance for corrosion of metal than AA and the optimum concentration is 0.5%.

  16. Peculiarities in aromatization mechanism of low-molecular aliphatic compounds over high-silica zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isagulyants, G.V.; Gitis, K.M.; Dubinskij, Yu.G.; Timokhov, A.G.; Kornyshev, V.N. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Organicheskoj Khimii)

    1984-01-01

    By means of /sup 14/C labelled compounds, transformations of methanol, lower olefins and piperylene over high-silica zeolites the data on the mechanism of carbon sceleton growth in the course of olefins production from methanol and aromatic piperylene hydrocarbons are obtained. Compound transformations have been studied at the pulse microcatalytic installation with radiochromatographic analysis of products.

  17. Effects of halogenated aromatics/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics on estimating the persistence of future pharmaceutical compounds using a modified QSAR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Joo; Fox, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The effects of halogenated aromatics/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics on estimating the persistence of future pharmaceutical compounds were investigated using a modified half life equation. The potential future pharmaceutical compounds investigated were approximately 2000 pharmaceutical drugs currently undergoing the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) testing. EPI Suite (BIOWIN) model estimates the fates of compounds based on the biodegradability under aerobic conditions. While BIOWIN considered the biodegradability of a compound only, the half life equation used in this study was modified by biodegradability, sorption and cometabolic oxidation. It was possible that the potential future pharmaceutical compounds were more accurately estimated using the modified half life equation. The modified half life equation considered sorption and cometabolic oxidation of halogenated aromatic/aliphatics and nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics in the sub-surface, while EPI Suite (BIOWIN) did not. Halogenated aliphatics in chemicals were more persistent than halogenated aromatics in the sub-surface. In addition, in the sub-surface environment, the fates of organic chemicals were much more affected by halogenation in chemicals than by nitrogen(N)-heterocyclic aromatics.

  18. Limiting activity coefficients of some aromatic and aliphatic nitro compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benes, M.; Dohnal, V. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1999-09-01

    Limiting activity coefficients of nine nitroaromatic compounds and four nitroalkanes in water were determined in the range of environmentally related temperatures by measuring suitable phase equilibria. For liquid and solid nitroaromatics (nitrobenzene, 2-nitrotoluene, 3-nitrotoluene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzene, and 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene) the aqueous solubilities were measured by a conventional batch contacting method with UV spectrophotometric analysis, while for nitroalkanes (nitromethane, nitroethane, 1-nitropropane, and 2-nitropropane) the air-water partitioning (Henry`s law constant H{sub 12} or air-water partition coefficient K{sub aw}) was determined by the inert gas stripping method employing gas chromatography. Whenever possible, results were compared to literature values. Calculation of H{sub 12} or K{sub aw} for nitroaromatics from the measured solubilities is hindered by the lack of reliable vapor pressure data. On the basis of the temperature dependences of the solubilities measured, the enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution for the nitroaromatics in water were evaluated.

  19. Investigation on modes of toxic action to rats based on aliphatic and aromatic compounds and comparison with fish toxicity based on exposure routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Li, Jin J; Wen, Yang; Tai, Hong W; Yu, Yang; Qin, Wei C; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-06-01

    The modes of toxic action (MOAs) play an important role in the assessment of the ecotoxicity of organic pollutants. However, few studies have been reported on the MOAs in rat toxicity. In this paper, the toxic contributions of functional groups in 1255 aromatic compounds were calculated from regression and were then compared with the toxic contributions in aliphatic compounds. The results show that some functional groups have same toxic contributions both in aromatic and aliphatic compounds, but some have not. To investigate the MOAs in rat toxicity, the distribution of toxic ratio (TR) was examined for well-known baseline and less inert compounds and thresholds of log TR=0.3 and 0.5 were used to classify baseline, less inert and reactive compounds. The results showed that some compounds identified as baseline compounds in fish toxicity were also classified as baseline compounds in rat toxicity. Except for phenols and anilines which were identified as less inert compounds in fish toxicity, aromatic compounds with functional groups such as ether, nitrile, nitrophenol, isocyanatoe and chloro were identified as less inert chemicals in rat toxicity. Reactive compounds identified in fish toxicity exhibit greater toxicity to rats. These compounds can undergo nucleophilic substitution, acylation and Schiff base formation with biological macromolecules. The critical body residues (CBRs) calculated from absorption and bioconcentration show that log 1/CBRs in rat toxicity are not equal to that in fish for some compounds. It suggests that the exposure route can affect the identification of MOAs between these two species for these compounds.

  20. Cytotoxic Compounds Isolated from Murraya tetramera Huang

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Xue You; Kai Yang; Cheng-Fang Wang; Wen-Juan Zhang; Ying Wang; Jiao Han; Li Fan; Shu-Shan Du; Zhu-Feng Geng; Zhi-Wei Deng

    2014-01-01

    A new compound and seven known compounds were isolated from Murraya tetramera Huang for the first time, and they were identified with NMR and MS spectral analysis. It was confirmed that the new compound was 10-methoxy-7-methyl-2H-benzo[g]chromen-2-one (3) and the others were β-eudesmol (1), trans-3β-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-8aβ-methyl-5-methylenedecalin-2-one (2), 5,7-dimethoxy-8-[(Z)-3'-methyl-butan-1',3'-dienyl]coumarin (4), 7-geranyloxy-6-methoxycoumarin (5), 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-o...

  1. Cytotoxic Compounds Isolated from Murraya tetramera Huang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Xue You

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new compound and seven known compounds were isolated from Murraya tetramera Huang for the first time, and they were identified with NMR and MS spectral analysis. It was confirmed that the new compound was 10-methoxy-7-methyl-2H-benzo[g]chromen-2-one (3 and the others were β-eudesmol (1, trans-3β-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl-8aβ-methyl-5-methylenedecalin-2-one (2, 5,7-dimethoxy-8-[(Z-3'-methyl-butan-1',3'-dienyl]coumarin (4, 7-geranyloxy-6-methoxycoumarin (5, 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-butylcoumarin (6, murrangatin acetate (7 and toddalenone (8. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (SMMC-7721, human bladder tumor cells (EJ, human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa, and human B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1 cells (BALL-1 was evaluated for all compounds. It was found that five of them displayed various degrees of cytotoxicity against different testing targets. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic activity against the five cell lines (A549, SMMC-7721, EJ, Hela and BALL-1. Compounds 2 and 5 showed significant cytotoxicity against three cell lines (A549, SMMC-7721 and BALL-1. Compound 4 showed significant cytotoxicity against three cell lines (A549, EJ and BALL-1. However, compound 3 only showed fair cytotoxicity against the BALL-1 cell line. The structure-active relationships were investigated as well. These active compounds might be potential lead compounds for the treatment of cancer.

  2. Chemical compounds isolated from Talinum triangulare (Portulacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Amorim, Ana Paula; de Carvalho, Almir Ribeiro; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Castro, Rosane Nora; de Oliveira, Marcia Cristina Campos; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo

    2014-10-01

    This first phytochemical study of Talinum triangulare Leach (Portulacaceae), also known as 'cariru', which is a commonly consumed food in Northern Brazil, allowed the isolation and structural determination of four new compounds: one acrylamide, 3-N-(acryloyl, N-pentadecanoyl) propanoic acid (5), and three new phaeophytins named (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-Ficuschlorin D acid (3(1),3(2)-didehydro-7-oxo-17(3)-O-phytyl-rhodochlorin-15-acetic acid), (13), Talichorin A (17R, 18R)-phaeophytin b-15(1)-hidroxy, 15(2),15(3)-acetyl-13(1)-carboxilic acid (14), and (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-phaeophytin b peroxylactone or (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-hydroperoxy-ficuschlorin D (16), together with twelve known compounds, including four phaeophytins (11,12, 15 and 17). The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, IR, HRESI-MS spectra, including GC-MS, and HPLC-UV analysis, as well as comparisons with the literature data. The CD spectra data analysis were used to define the absolute configuration of phaeophytins 12 (13(2)R, 17R, 18R)-13(2)-hydroxyphaeophytin a, 13 and 16, 15 (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-3(1),3(2)-didehydro-15(1)-hydroxyrhodochlorin-15-acetic acid δ-lactone-15(2)-methyl-17(3)-phytyl ester and 17 (17R, 18R)-purpurin 18-phytyl ester. PMID:24799228

  3. Long-chain aliphatic wax esters isolated from the sponge Chalinula saudensis (Demospongia along the Jeddah coast of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Chalinula saudensis, which occurs along the Jeddah coast, has only recently been isolated and identified. In this study, the total crude organic matter of the sponge was extracted by solvents. The total crude extract was further separated by partitioning it with hexane and water, then with water and chloroform, and finally with water and t-butanol. The chloroform layer was subjected to separation by preparative layer chromatography on silica. One fraction contained four long-chain fatty acid esters, C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 and C36H70 O2. The second ester, C30H60O2, has been identified in the fire corals Millepora dichotoma and Millepora platyphylla. The others have not previously been reported from marine organisms; however similar long-chain esters with different long aliphatic chains and with different molecular weights have been identified from other marine organisms. These compounds are normally waxy and their presence in Chalinula saudensis plays a vital role in the biosynthetic pathways. They also act as insulators against seasonal variations.A esponja Chalinula saudensis ocorre ao longo da costa de Jeddah, Arabia Saudita, mas apenas recentemente foi isolada e identificada. No presente estudo a matéria orgânica total da esponja foi extraída por solventes e o extrato foi separado por partição sucessiva através do emprego de hexano e água, clorofórmio e água e finalmente t-butanol e água. A camada contendo clorofórmio foi então separada por cromatografia em sílica. Os resultados mostraram a presença de ésteres de quatro ácidos graxos de cadeira longa (C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 e C36H70O2, sendo que o segundo deles foi também identificado nos corais Millepora dichotoma e Millepora platyphylla. Não se tem evidência da presença dos demais compostos em outros organismos marinhos, embora haja relatos para ésteres semelhantes de cadeia longa, mas contendo diferentes cadeias alifáticas e diferentes pesos

  4. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Gynura divaricata leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Chunpeng Wan; Yanying Yu; Shouran Zhou; Shuge Tian; Shuwen Cao

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phenolic constituents were the principle bioactivity compounds exist in Gynura divaricata, little phenolic compounds were reported from the plant previously. Materials and Methods: 60% ethanol extract from the leaves of Gynura divaricata were isolated and purified by column chromatography of Silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified by UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques. Additionally, a high-performance liquid chr...

  5. Report on three aliphatic dimethylarsinoyl compounds as common minor constituents in marine samples. An investigation using high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Julshamn, K.

    2005-01-01

    Three water-soluble aliphatic arsenicals, dimethylarsinoyl acetate (DMAA), dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (DMAE), and dimethylarsinoyl propionate (DMAP), were identified in marine biological samples. Sample extracts in methanol/water (1 + 1) were analysed by cation-exchange high-performance liquid...... chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICPMS). Eluate fractions from the HPLC/ICPMS analyses containing the compounds in question were collected and subjected to analysis by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), which provided supportive evidence...

  6. A New Compound Isolated from a Bioactive Streptomycete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Qing LI; Xue Shi HUANG; Ming Gang LI; Isabel SATrLER; Meng Liang WEN; Susanne GRABLEY

    2005-01-01

    A new compound, named (S)-α-acetylamino-β-(3-indole)propanol (1) was isolated, along with two known compounds teleocidin B 1 and emycin B from culture broth of a streptomycete strain YIM33176 (streptomyces pleomorphus). The structure of 1 was determined by detailed spectroscopic investigation.

  7. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  8. 脂肪族含氧有机物沸点的定量构效关系%Quantitative structure-property relationship of normal boiling point of aliphatic oxygen-containing organic compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万强; 曹晨忠

    2012-01-01

    The descriptors of polarizability effect index (PEI),the number of effective carbon (Nc,e(f)> the differences in PEI and Nc,eff between the branching chain and straight chain isomers,SPEI and δ Nc,eff,are derived from molecular structure. The quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) between these descriptors and boiling points of 520 aliphatic alcohols,ethers,aldehydes,ketones,acids,and esters were obtained separately. The QSPRs between these descriptors and boiling points were developed for 520 aliphatic oxygen-containing organic compounds by best subsets regression method. For the training set,the correlation coefficient R2 is 0. 9946 and the standard deviation GO is 6. 70 K. For the test set,R2 is 0. 9857 and s is 6. 10 K. The average relative error is 1. 19%. According to the regression equation,the influences of the number of effective carbon of alkyl,the role of functional groups and their interaction on the boiling point were analyzed. These results showed a good correlation between the boiling points of organic compounds and these descriptors derived from PEI for aliphatic alcohols,ethers,aldehydes,ketones,acids,and esters.

  9. Bioactivity of the compounds isolated from Blepharocalyx salicifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequias P. Siqueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is an endemic species that occurs at Southern America. This species was studied to intend to isolation of the active compounds that could be used in vitro model against leishmaniosis, tumoral cell and paracoccidioidomycosis. After Gel Permeation Chromatography, the ethanolic extract from leaves yielded sixteen fractions. Five compounds were isolated and assayed, showing activity against tumoral cells, from 3.33 to 12.83 µg.mL-1; Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis from 2.19 to 20.80 µg.mL-1 and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from 3.10 to 12.5 µg.mL-1.

  10. Guided desaturation of unactivated aliphatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, Ana-Florina; Mendoza, Abraham; Gutekunst, Will R.; Fraga, Jorge Otero; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-08-01

    The excision of hydrogen from an aliphatic carbon chain to produce an isolated olefin (desaturation) without overoxidation is one of the most impressive and powerful biosynthetic transformations for which there are no simple and mild laboratory substitutes. The versatility of olefins and the range of reactions they undergo are unsurpassed in functional group space. Thus, the conversion of a relatively inert aliphatic system into its unsaturated counterpart could open new possibilities in retrosynthesis. In this article, the invention of a directing group to achieve such a transformation under mild, operationally simple, metal-free conditions is outlined. This ‘portable desaturase’ (TzoCl) is a bench-stable, commercial entity (Aldrich, catalogue number L510092) that is facile to install on alcohol and amine functionalities to ultimately effect remote desaturation, while leaving behind a synthetically useful tosyl group.

  11. Isolation and Purification Chemical Compound from Melissa officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal A Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical study was done on the leaves of Melissa officinalis. The separations of the chemical components were carried out by different chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic method including nuclear magnetic resonance as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three compounds were isolated and identified as friedoolean-7-one , stigmasterol and betulinic acid.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Perez G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This review shows over 300 compounds isolated and identified from plants that previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. They have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and data are reported on their pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and other properties.

  13. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  14. Antibacterial compounds from marine Vibrionaceae isolated on a global expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Månsson, Maria; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held;

    2010-01-01

    isolated from distant oceanic regions. Chemotyping by LC-UV/MS underlined genetic relationships by showing highly similar metabolite profiles for each of the two V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains, respectively, but a unique profile for P. halotolerans. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified two...... known antibiotics as being responsible for the antibacterial activity; andrimid (from V. coralliilyticus) and holomycin (from P. halotolerans). Despite the isolation of already known antibiotics, our findings show that marine Vibrionaceae are a resource of antibacterial compounds and may have potential...

  15. Bioactive sesquiterpene lactones and other compounds isolated from Vernonia cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ui Joung; Miklossy, Gabriella; Chai, Xingyun; Wongwiwatthananukit, Supakit; Toyama, Onoomar; Songsak, Thanapat; Turkson, James; Chang, Leng Chee

    2014-01-01

    Four new sesquiterpene lactones, 8α-(2′Z-tigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide (1), 8α-(2′Z-tigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate (2), 8α-(4-hydroxytigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide (3), and 8α-hydroxy-13-O-tigloyl-hirsutinolide (4), along with seven known derivatives (5–11), three norisoprenoids (12–14), a flavonoid (15), and a linoleic acid derivative (16), were isolated from the chloroform partition of a methanol extract from the combined leaves and stems of Vernonia cinerea. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR, UV, and MS analyses. Compounds 1–16 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against the viability of U251MG glioblastoma and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that harbour aberrantly-active STAT3, compared to normal NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts that show no evidence of activated STAT3. Among the isolates, compounds 2 and 7 inhibited the aberrant STAT3 activity in glioblastoma or breast cancer cells. Further, compounds 7 and 8 inhibited viability of all three cell lines, compounds 2, 4, and 9 predominantly inhibited the viability of the U251MG glioblastoma cell line. PMID:24370662

  16. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Belén Joray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone (1, isoliquiritigenin (2, pinocembrin (3, 7-hydroxyflavanone (4, and 7,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavanone (5. Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1–5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6–9.9 μM and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5–30.0 μM. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound.

  17. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1-5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6-9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5-30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  18. Fibrinolytic Compounds Isolated from a Brown Alga, Sargassum fulvellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bao

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two of bioactive natural products were founded in a brown alga, Sargassum fulvellum. After isolation and purification, the molecular structures of these two products were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and GC-mass spectroscopy. The two compounds were identified to be 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl –glycerol (POGG and 1-O-myristoyl-2-O-oleoyl-3-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl – glycerol (MOGG which were obtained from Sargassum fulvellum for the first time. POGG and MOGG showed fibrinolytic activity in the reaction system of pro-u-PA and plasminogen.

  19. Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for detection of nitrogen containing aliphatic and aromatic compounds: resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopic investigation and on-line analytical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibel, T; Hafner, K; Mühlberger, F; Adam, T; Zimmermann, R

    2006-01-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) is an analytical method capable of on-line monitoring of trace compounds in complex matrices. A necessary prerequisite for substance selective detection is spectroscopic investigation of the target molecules. Several organic nitrogen compounds comprising aliphatic and aromatic amines, nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, and aromatic nitriles are spectroscopically investigated with a tunable narrow bandwidth optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser system providing a scannable wavelength range between 220 and 340 nm. These species are known as possible precursors in fuel-NO formation from combustion of solid fuels such as biomass and waste. A newly conceived double inlet system was used in this study, which allows rapid change between effusive and supersonic molecular beams. The resulting REMPI spectra of the compounds are discussed with respect to electronic transitions that could be utilized for a selective ionization of these compounds in complex mixtures such as combustion and process gases. The practicability of this approach is demonstrated by wavelength selected on-line REMPI-TOFMS detection of aniline and cyanonaphthalene in the burning chamber of a waste incineration plant. REMPI mass spectra recorded at different excitation wavelengths as well as variations in time show the utilization of species-selective REMPI-TOFMS detection for on-line monitoring of crucial substances in pollutant formation.

  20. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Astani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

  1. Bioassay Guided Isolation of Antibacterial Compounds from Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sule

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Chronic disease-causing bacteria of medical importance have developed resistance to antibiotics, hence, necessitating distinct and constant need for safe and efficient therapeutic agents. Plants are considered potent candidate for this aim. A way out of reducing antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on host is the employment of antibiotic resistance inhibitors of plant origin. Approach: About 5 kg pulverized Andrographis paniculata whole plant was macerated with MeOH at room temperature to get 305 g freeze dried MeOH extract. The bioautography of MeOH extract using Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis as indicator organisms revealed the presence of two potent antibacterial compounds. MeOH extract was further fractionated and purified by silica gel column chromatography which led to the isolation of a diterpene lactone and an entlabdane diterpene glycoside upon crystallization with absolute ethanol. Results: Two antibacterial compounds viz., 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-14-deoxyandrographolide and 14-deoxyandrographolide were successfully isolated and characterized. Their structures were exclusively elucidated through spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, 1H- and 13C NMR. Conclusion: A. paniculata possesses antibacterial activity and could be potential source of a new class of antibiotics that might be useful for infectious disease chemotherapy and control.

  2. Ecotoxicologically based environmental risk limits for several volatile aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong FMW de; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; Verbruggen EMJ; SEC

    2007-01-01

    This report describes ecotoxicological environmental risk limits derived for a number of volatile aliphatic hydrocarbons. On the basis of evaluated literature, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) proposes ecotoxicological environmental risk limits for these compounds

  3. Antibacterial Compounds from Marine Vibrionaceae Isolated on a Global Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Gram

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global research expedition, over 500 bacterial strains inhibitory towards pathogenic bacteria were isolated. Three hundred of the antibacterial strains were assigned to the Vibrionaceae family. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the phylogeny and bioactivity of five Vibrionaceae strains with pronounced antibacterial activity. These were identified as Vibrio coralliilyticus (two strains, V. neptunius (two strains, and Photobacterium halotolerans (one strain on the basis of housekeeping gene sequences. The two related V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains were isolated from distant oceanic regions. Chemotyping by LC-UV/MS underlined genetic relationships by showing highly similar metabolite profiles for each of the two V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains, respectively, but a unique profile for P. halotolerans. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified two known antibiotics as being responsible for the antibacterial activity; andrimid (from V. coralliilyticus and holomycin (from P. halotolerans. Despite the isolation of already known antibiotics, our findings show that marine Vibrionaceae are a resource of antibacterial compounds and may have potential for future natural product discovery.

  4. Isolation and Identification of Novel Compounds from Mulgedium tatarica DC.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yu-Lin; ZHOU Ya-Wei; YE Yun-Hua

    2003-01-01

    @@ Our study focused on the chemical constituents of Mulgedium tatarica that was collected from Inner Mongolia autonomous region of China. It is not only a folk medicinal herb but also a wild vegetable. It was reported that this plant showed several bioactivities, such as diuretic action, stimulating milk secretion, analgesia and haemorrhoidolysis. [1 ] Fatty acids and other volatile components of Mulgedium tatarica were detected by GC-MS for the first time. [2] From the ethanol extract of the whole plant of Mulgedium tatarica DC., two new compounds, named tataricoside and mulgedin A, have been isolated and characterized. Their structures were identified by UV, IR,HRFABMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, HMBC and 1H-1H COSY spectral analysis.

  5. Isolation of antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Sophora japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam M Abdallah

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Sophora japonica seeds resulted in the isolation of seven metabolites identified as: genistin (1, sophoricoside (2, sophorabioside (3, sophoraflavonoloside (4, genistein 7,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyransoide (5, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 → 6β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 2β-D-glucopyranoside (6 and rutin (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 showed significant estrogenic proliferative effect in MCF-7 cell in sub-cytotoxic concentration range. Compounds 1 and 2 showed minimal cell membrane damaging effect using LDH leakage assay. Accordingly, compound 2 (sophoricoside, (SPH was selected for further in-vivo studies as a potential anti-osteoporosis agent. The anti-osteoporotic effect of SPH was assessed in ovarectomized (OVX rats after oral administration (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg for 45 days compared to estradiol (10 µg/kg as a positive control. Only in a dose of 30 mg/kg, SPH regained the original mechanical bone hardness compared to normal non-osteoporotic group. However, SPH (15 mg/kg significantly increased the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP to normal level. Treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg increased the level of ALP to be higher than normal group. SPH (15 mg/kg did not significantly increase the serum level of osteocalcin (OC compared to OVX group. On the other hand, treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg significantly increased the level of OC to 78% higher than normal non-ovarectomized animals group. In addition, SPH (15 mg/kg decreased the bone resorption marker, acid phosphatase (ACP to normal level and SPH (30 mg/kg further diminished the level of serum ACP. Histopathologically, sophoricoside ameliorated the ovarectomy induced osteoporosis in a dose dependent manner. The drug showed thicker bony trabeculae, more osteoid, and more osteoblastic rimming compared to OVX group.

  6. 催化燃烧脂肪族氯代易挥发性有机物的研究进展%Developments in catalytic combustion of aliphatic chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽雷; 张新民; 李子健; 刘绍英; 王公应

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic combustion is one of the most effective routes for treatment of waste gases containing low concentration volatile organic compounds(VOC). In this paper, the reaction mechanism for aliphatic chlorinated volatile organic compounds were reviewed. The properties and characteristics of the currently most focused-on catalysts, such as noble metal, transition metal oxides, perovskite-type composite oxides and molecular sieve, were outlined, too, as well as their advantages and disadvantages and trends. Influence of water vapor and non-chlorinated hydrocarbons in the waste gases on the catalytic oxidation was discussed.%催化燃烧是处理低浓度挥发性有机物废气的有效方法.阐述了催化燃烧脂肪族氯代易挥发性有机物的反应机理,对贵金属、过渡金属氧化物、钙钛矿型复合氧化物和分子筛近年来研究较广泛和深入的催化剂体系的性能和特点进行了论述,分析催化剂的优缺点.讨论了反应原料气中水和非氯代有机物的加入对催化反应效果的影响,对今后研究和发展方向进行展望.

  7. Isolation and Characterization Chemical Compounds from the Brak of Garcinia rigida

    OpenAIRE

    Berna Elya

    2003-01-01

    Garcinia rigida is an Indonesia original plant growing on Sumatera, Java, Kalimantan, and Maluku. Most of its genus have been researched and proven as medicinal plants. Two compounds have been isolated from n-hexane stem-bark of Garcinia Rigida. The two compounds are Stigmasterol (compound A) and a triterpen oleanolic acid (compound B).

  8. Generation of standard gas mixtures of halogenated, aliphatic, and aromatic compounds and prediction of the individual output rates based on molecular formula and boiling point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorenz, Ute R; Kundel, Michael; Müller, Lars; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we describe a simple diffusion capillary device for the generation of various organic test gases. Using a set of basic equations the output rate of the test gas devices can easily be predicted only based on the molecular formula and the boiling point of the compounds of interest. Since these parameters are easily accessible for a large number of potential analytes, even for those compounds which are typically not listed in physico-chemical handbooks or internet databases, the adjustment of the test gas source to the concentration range required for the individual analytical application is straightforward. The agreement of the predicted and measured values is shown to be valid for different groups of chemicals, such as halocarbons, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic compounds and for different dimensions of the diffusion capillaries. The limits of the predictability of the output rates are explored and observed to result in an underprediction of the output rates when very thin capillaries are used. It is demonstrated that pressure variations are responsible for the observed deviation of the output rates. To overcome the influence of pressure variations and at the same time to establish a suitable test gas source for highly volatile compounds, also the usability of permeation sources is explored, for example for the generation of molecular bromine test gases.

  9. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3), contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3) was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2), as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3). Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 CCN activity. Thermal gradient CCN

  10. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical. The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA and butylamine (BA reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25. Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3, contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3 was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2, as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3. Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  11. Two Indole Derivatives and Phenolic Compound Isolated from Mushroom Phellinus linteus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sorasak Samchai; Prapairat Seephonkai; Chatthai Kaewtong

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the constituents from the dichloromethane fraction of the mushroom Phellinus lintues. METHODS: Silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography were used for the isolation and purification. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometric data. RESULTS: Two indole derivatives, 7-methoxyindole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1) and l-methylindole-3-carboxaldehyde (2), and a phenolic compound, (E)-4-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (3) were isolated. CONCLUSION: Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated for the first time from P. linteus.

  12. Elastic Compositions Based on Polyurethane/ Aliphatic Polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliphatic polyesters were prepared by melt condensation reaction of a dicarboxylic acid such as adipic and sebacic with different types of diol compounds in 1: 1.1 molar ratio. Ethylene glycol, di-, trio, tetra ethylene glycol and poly( ethylene glycol) with different molecular weights 1000, 4000, 6000 as well as the prepared hydroxy natural rubber were used as diol compounds. Polyurethane, with NCO/OH ratio equal 4, was synthesized from the reaction of toluene diisocyanate with poly(ethylene glycol) 1 000. The prepared polyurethane was mixed with different weight percentages of the prepared aliphatic polyesters. The film samples were tested mechanically, electrically and chemically. The results show that the weight percentage 10% of the added polyadipate or poly sebacate glycols improves flexibility, electrical volume resistivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss of unmodified rigid polyurethane film sample as well as reduces its swelling by aromatic solvents. All the above mentioned properties improve by increasing the hydrocarbon chain length of the glycol portion in the glycol used and the number of methylene in the aliphatic dicarboxylic acid. Compositions based on hydroxy natural rubber impart better properties than those based on ethylene glycols

  13. Isolation, partial purification and evaluation of bioactive compounds from leaves of Ageratum houstonianum

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Khan; Kumar, A; Rizvi, S.M.D.; M. Zeeshan

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation and partial purification of bioactive compounds from the crude methanol extracts of the leaves of Ageratum houstonianum (Asteraceae). The quantification and the identification of compounds in the crude extract and active bands isolated by preparative TLC were accomplished using GC-MS analysis. The most important compounds identified in the crude extract and active bands (AB-1 and AB-2) were 6-acetyl-7-methoxy-2, 2-dimethylchromene, hexadecanoic acid ...

  14. Isolation of bioactive biphenyl compounds from the twigs of Chaenomeles sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kwon, Oh Kil; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-01-15

    Investigation of the MeOH extract of Chaenomeles sinensis twigs resulted in the isolation of seven biphenyl compounds (1-7) including a new compound, chaenomin (1). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR data ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC), specific optical rotation, and chemical reaction. Compounds 2 and 6 showed potent cytotoxic activities against four cancer cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15), and compound 7 exhibited potent anti-neuroinflammatory and NGF-potentiating activity. PMID:26706168

  15. Bioactivity guided isolation of antimicrobial compounds from Lythrum salicaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Hans; Scher, Jochen M; Speakman, John-Bryan; Zapp, Josef

    2005-09-01

    Lythrum salicaria extracts showed activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and activity against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis and Microccocus luteus. Bioautography on thin-layer chromatograms was used to isolate the two antifungal triterpenoids oleanolic and ursolic acid. The hexahydroxydiphenoyl ester vescalagin was isolated as active principle of the antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the flavon-C-glucosides vitexin, isovitexin, orientin and isoorientin were isolated. PMID:15975734

  16. Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Coal Gasification Wastewater by Biofilm Reactor with Isolated Klebsiella sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Fang; HongJun Han; ChunYan Xu; Qian Zhao; LingHan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of phenolic compounds by one strain isolated from coal gasification wastewater ( CGW ) . 16S rRNA gene sequences homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate is belonged to the genus Klebsiella sp. The effect of different phenolic compounds on the isolate was investigated by determining OD600 and phenoloxidase activity, of which the results showed that the isolate can utilize phenol, 4-methyl phenol, 3, 5-dimethyl phenol and resorcinol as carbon resources. The biofilm reactor ( formed by the isolate) can resist the influent concentration of phenolic compounds as high as 750 mg/L when fed with synthetic CGW and incubated at optimum conditions. The capacity of improving the biodegradability of CGW through degrading phenolic compounds was testified with fed the biofilm reactor with real CGW. Thus, it might be an effective strain for bioaugmentation of CGW treatment.

  17. The Antibacterial Activity of Compounds Isolated from Oakmoss against Legionella pneumophila and Other Legionella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    野村, 陽恵; 一色, 恭徳; Sakuda, Keisuke; 佐久間, 克也; 近藤, 誠一

    2012-01-01

    Oakmoss is a natural fragrance ingredient exhibiting highly specific, potent antibacterial activity against Legionella pneumophila, a causative agent of severe water-bone pneumonia. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of individual compounds isolated from oakmoss was investigated against L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. A total of 18 known compounds and two minor novel compounds (i.e., 3-methoxy-5-methylphenyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate (compound 9) and 8-(2,4-dihydro...

  18. Anaerobic biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons: Ugly duckling to beautiful swan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, G.F.

    1999-10-01

    For many years anaerobic biological processes were reputed to be more sensitive than aerobic processes to toxic substances such as chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH) and thus a poor choice for treating water containing these compounds. This was especially true for water containing perchloroethylene (PCE) or trichloroethylene (TCE) because vinyl chloride, a human carcinogen, is produced when these two compounds are degraded anaerobically. Aerobic treatment with organisms containing oxygenase enzyme systems, which could fortuitously degrade a wide variety of chlorinated aliphatics (but not PCE), was favored. Recently, however, several enrichments and organisms have been isolated that will convert PCE and TCE into ethene and ethane, as shown by field data. Because of this evidence, anaerobic processes are now considered a significant alternative treatment for CAH contamination. Recent work at the University of Iowa, Iowa City, has focused on the effect of mixtures of CAHs on biotransformation of individual organic compounds and the potential for a combined methanogen-iron (Fe(0)) system to improve CAH bioremediation. At the concentration ranges tested, the presence of a mixture of CAHs seems to decrease rate of transformation of individual organics. However, there are important exceptions; in some cases a mixture of CAHs seems to facilitate transformation of an individual organic compound. Combination of an active methanogenic population with Fe(0) increases the rate and extent of transformation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. Results with PCE and 1,1,1-trichloroethane are less clear.

  19. Terrestrial plants: a potent source for isolation of eco-friendly antifouling compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    All over the world efforts are oriented towardes isolation of eco-friently antifouling toxins from marine plants and organisms. Consequently number of compounds having antifouling properties have been identified from marine plants and organisms...

  20. A Quantum Chemical and Statistical Study of Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Curcuma zedoaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Omer Abdalla Ahmed; Anouar, El Hassane; Shilpi, Jamil A; Trabolsy, Zuhra Bashir Khalifa Al; Zain, Sharifuddin Bin Md; Zakaria, Nur Shahidatul Shida; Zulkefeli, Mohd; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F; Malek, Sri Nurestri A; Rahman, Syarifah Nur Syed Abdul; Awang, Khalijah

    2015-01-01

    A series of 21 compounds isolated from Curcuma zedoaria was subjected to cytotoxicity test against MCF7; Ca Ski; PC3 and HT-29 cancer cell lines; and a normal HUVEC cell line. To rationalize the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds; a set of electronic; steric and hydrophobic descriptors were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) method. Statistical analyses were carried out using simple and multiple linear regressions (SLR; MLR); principal component analysis (PCA); and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). SLR analyses showed that the cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against a given cell line depend on certain descriptors; and the corresponding correlation coefficients (R2) vary from 0%-55%. MLR results revealed that the best models can be achieved with a limited number of specific descriptors applicable for compounds having a similar basic skeleton. Based on PCA; HCA and MLR analyses; active compounds were classified into subgroups; which was in agreement with the cell based cytotoxicity assay.

  1. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Autolytimycin, A New Compound Produced by Streptomyces Autolyticus JX-47

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Autolytimycin 1 was isolated from the culture filtrate ofStreptomyces autolyticus JX-47,together with two known compounds, lebstatin 2 and 17-O-demethyl-geldanamycin 3. These compounds showed the activities of anti-HSV-I. The structure of 1 was determined by spectral analysis.

  2. The isolation and characterization of an antibacterial compound from Terminalia sambesiaca (Combretaceae) / Sehlapelo Irene Mokgoatsane

    OpenAIRE

    Mokgoatsane, Sehlapelo Irene

    2011-01-01

    This was an investigation of the antimicrobial activity of the Terminalia species and isolation of the compound(s) responsible for such activity. Terminalia species are extensively used in the indigenous medicines in most parts of Africa. They are a source of many potent biologically active compounds. Terminalia sericea has been identified as one of the 51 most important African medicinal plants. There are several Terminalia species in South Africa and in this study the followi...

  3. Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1), cytochalasin D (2), 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3), cytochalasin B (4) and griseofulvin (5), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity. (author)

  4. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Bi-Fong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. Nees (Acanthaceae is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and anti-hepatotoxic; 14-deoxyandrographolide is immunomodulatory and anti-atherosclerotic. Among the less abundant compounds from A. paniculata, andrograpanin is both anti-inflammatory and anti-infective; 14-deoxy-14,15-dehydroandrographolide is anti-inflammatory; isoandrographolide, 3,19-isopropylideneandrographolide and 14-acetylandrographolide are tumor suppressive; arabinogalactan proteins are anti-hepatotoxic. The four flavonoids from A. paniculata, namely 7-O-methylwogonin, apigenin, onysilin and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid are anti-atherosclerotic.

  5. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Bi-Fong; Chao Wen-Wan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, a...

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Antibacterial Compounds from Sea Urchin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrina Olivia Akerina,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available method, toxicity potential using brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT method, bioactive compound using phytochemical method, and proximate composition by AOAC. This research was devided into two phases, the preliminary research was to determine the best body part of sea urchin showing antibacterial activity. Sea urchins were collected from Pramuka Island and extracted by meseration method. For the preliminary research, gonad extract showed the high antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus at 1.83 ± 0.74 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. The main research includes the determination of proximate composition, toxicity, bioactive compound, and antibacterial activity from the best body part of sea urchin. The proximate composition from gonad of sea urchin showed that water content 64.97 ± 0.08%; ash 2.72 ± 0.13%; lipid 19.73 ± 0.04%; protein 12.26 ± 0.3%, and 0.33 ± 0.17%, respectively. The detected bioactive compounds from the three different solvents of gonads extracts were steroid, triterpenoid and saponin. The result of lethal toxicity (LC50 from the three gonads extract was 471.861 ppm (n-hexane, 563.226 ppm (ethyl acetate and 577.531 ppm (methanolic, respectively. Gonads ethyl acetate extracts showed the highest antibacterial activity than n-hexane and methanolic extract, its inhibition zone was 2.71 mm against S. aureus and 4.13 against E. coli.

  7. Caerulomycin A- An antifungal compound isolated from marine actinomycetes.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ambavane, V.; Tokdar, P.; Parab, R.; Sreekumar, E.S.; Mahajan, G.B.; Mishra, P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Ranadive, P.

    cyanogriseus. Overall, Caerulomycin A was isolated from marine invertebrate-associated Actinoalloteichus sp. using optimized medium and fermentation conditions. Acknowledgements The authors are very grateful to Dr. Arun Balakrishnan, Senior Vice... Genetics Analysis Using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance and Maximum Parsimony Methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731-2739. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr121 [24] Antifungals Market to 2017—Generic Erosion of Major Polyenes...

  8. Characterization of a fluorescent compound isolated from Legionella pneumophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legionella pneumophila requires the presence of amino acids for growth and utilizes them for energy. Along with other amino acids, either phenylalanine or tyrosine is essential for the growth of the organism and tyrosine has been identified as an energy source. When L. pneumophila is grown in the presence of tyrosine, a brown melanin-like pigment is produced. A green fluorescent pigment, fg2, was isolated from centrifuged culture fluid after the organism was grown in the presence of tyrosine. Fg2 is water soluble with a molecular weight of 152 as determined by mass spectral analysis. A mutant of L. pneumophila unable to produce fg2 was isolated to assist in elucidation of the biosynthesis of fg2. Radiolabeling experiments were utilized to conclude that neither tyrosine nor any other amino acid was a precursor in the biosynthesis of fg2. Shikimic acid, an intermediate in tyrosine biosynthesis, was found to also be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of fg2. A series of experiments in which L. pneumophila was grown in a chemically defined medium containing various combinations of aromatic amino acids determined that fg2 and the brown pigment always occur in tandem

  9. Polar Compounds Isolated from the Leaves of Albertisia delagoensis (Menispermaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous infusions of the leaves of the shrub Albertisia delagoensis (Menispermaceae are used in South Africa in traditional Zulu medicine to alleviate a variety of symptoms, including fever, and intestinal problems. We report the analysis of such an aqueous extract using the HPLC-NMR technique. A number of polar compounds were identified, including proto-quercitol, nicotinic acid, allantoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid, phthalic acid and the aporphine alkaloid derivative roemrefidine. Allantoic acid and roemrefidine have been fully characterised by 1H- and 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. Earlier reports of antiplasmodial activity of roemrefidine and of A. delagoensis extracts are correlated with this study and with the antipyretic properties of neutral aqueous extracts.

  10. Biscogniauxone, a New Isopyrrolonaphthoquinone Compound from the Fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The properties and the production of new metabolites from the fungal strain LF657 isolated from the Herodotes Deep (2800 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea are reported in this study. The new isolate was identified as Biscogniauxia mediterranea based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. A new isopyrrolonaphthoquinone with inhibitory activity against glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β was isolated from this fungus. This is the first report of this class of compounds from a fungus isolated from a deep-sea sediment, as well as from a Biscogniauxia species.

  11. Study on biodegradable aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiwang Chen; Licheng Tan; Lie Chen; Yan, Yang; Xiaofeng Wang [Nanchang University, Nanchang (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering. Inst. of Polymer Materials]. E-mail: ywchen@ncu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    Progress on biodegradable aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters based on aliphatic and aromatic diacids, diols and ester monomers was reviewed. The aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability. Physical properties and biodegradability of copolyesters varied with chain length of the aliphatic polyester segment and atacticity of copolyesters. The process ability of copolyesters could be improved significantly after incorporating a stiff chain segment through copolymerization of aliphatic polyesters with an aromatic liquid crystal element. The aromatic/aliphatic copolyesters as a new type of biodegradable materials could replace some general plastics in certain applications, namely biomedical and environmental friendly fields. (author)

  12. Isolation of an extremely halophilic arhaeon Natrialba sp. C21 able to degrade aromatic compounds and to produce stable biosurfactant at high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemili-Talbi, Souad; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Akmoussi-Toumi, Siham; Angar, Yassmina; Gana, Mohamed Lamine

    2015-11-01

    Natrialba sp. strain C21 was isolated from oil contaminated saline water in Ain Salah (Algeria) and has exhibited a good potential for degrading phenol (3% v/v), naphthalene (3% v/v), and pyrene (3% v/v) at high salinity with high growth, enzymatic activity and biosurfactant production. Successful metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds of the strain Natrialba sp. C21 appears to require the ortho-cleavage pathway. Indeed, assays of the key enzymes involved in the ring cleavage of catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase indicated that degradation of the phenol, naphthalene and pyrene by strain Natrialba sp. C21 was via the ortho-cleavage pathway. Cells grown on aromatic hydrocarbons displayed greater ortho-activities mainly towards catechol, while the meta-activity was very low. Besides, biosurfactants derived from the strain C21 were capable of effectively emulsifying both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and seem to be particularly promising since they have particular adaptations like the increased stability at high temperature and salinity conditions. This study clearly demonstrates for the first time that strain belonging to the genera Natrialba is able to grow at 25% (w/v) NaCl, utilizing phenol, naphthalene, and pyrene as the sole carbon sources. The results suggest that the isolated halophilic archaeon could be a good candidate for the remediation process in extreme environments polluted by aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, the produced biosurfactant offers a multitude of interesting potential applications in various fields of biotechnology.

  13. Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Microalgae in Chronic Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Talero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of onset of cancer is influenced by poorly controlled chronic inflammatory processes. Inflammatory diseases related to cancer development include inflammatory bowel disease, which can lead to colon cancer, or actinic keratosis, associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, which can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Chronic inflammatory states expose these patients to a number of signals with tumorigenic effects, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins release and ROS production. In addition, the participation of inflammasomes, autophagy and sirtuins has been demonstrated in pathological processes such as inflammation and cancer. Chemoprevention consists in the use of drugs, vitamins, or nutritional supplements to reduce the risk of developing or having a recurrence of cancer. Numerous in vitro and animal studies have established the potential colon and skin cancer chemopreventive properties of substances from marine environment, including microalgae species and their products (carotenoids, fatty acids, glycolipids, polysaccharides and proteins. This review summarizes the main mechanisms of actions of these compounds in the chemoprevention of these cancers. These actions include suppression of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, stimulation of antimetastatic and antiangiogenic responses and increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

  14. Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-15

    The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, owing to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited concerning their extracts and fraction composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants in in vitro and in vivo systems. Generally, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty-five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals. PMID:26333346

  15. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

  16. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambrosio, Steven M. [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, Chunhua [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ding, Haiming, E-mail: ding.29@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). {yields} Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). {yields} Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. {yields} The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. {yields} Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not

  17. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). → Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). → Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. → The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. → Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF

  18. Project Summary. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated the potential of an innovative approach to aquifer restoration: enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (...

  19. Calamistrin E, the First Annonaceous Acetogenin with Double Bond in Aliphatic Chain from Genus Uvaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Calamistrin E, the first Annonaceous acetogenin with C=C bond in the aliphatic chain from the genus Uvaria was isolated from U. calamistrata. Its structure including relative and absolute configurations was determined by chemical derivation and spectral analysis.

  20. Isolation and identification of antimicrobial compound from Mentha longifolia L. leaves grown wild in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bayati Firas A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae leaves have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation by the indigenous people of Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In the present study, an antimicrobial compound was isolated and characterized, and its biological activity was assessed. Methods The compound was isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oil using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of the compound was assessed using both disc diffusion and microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Results A known compound was isolated from the essential oil of the plant and was identified as (- menthol. The isolated compound was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against seven selected pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast Candida albicans. Menthol at different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 was active against all tested bacteria except for P. aeruginosa, and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against S. mutans (zone of inhibition: 25.3 mm using the disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration MIC values ranged from 15.6–125.0 μg/ml, and the most promising results were observed against S. aureus and S. mutans (MIC 15.6 μg/ml while, S. faecalis, S. pyogenis and L. acidophilus ranked next (MIC 31.2 μg/ml. Furthermore, menthol achieved considerable antifungal activity against the yeast C. albicans (zone of inhibition range: 7.1–18.5 mm; MIC: 125.0. Conclusion The isolation of an antimicrobial compound from M. longifolia leaves validates the use of this plant in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation.

  1. Antifeedant Activity of Extracts & Isolated Compounds of Two Himalayan Plants Against A Polyphagous Pest Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Negi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexane and methanolic extracts of plant Scutellaria scandens and Hyptis suveolens was prepared and compounds were isolated by means of column chromatography. The antifeedant activity of methanol and hexane extracts were tested for antifeedant activity using leaf dip method in term of % growth reduction.Isolated compounds were tested for antifeedant activity using duel choice leaf disc method against Spodoptera litura a polyphagous pest of cotton rice, tomato, tobacco, groundnut, castor and legumes. Methanol extracts of Scutellaria scandens exhibit maximum growth reduction followed by hexane extract of Hyptis suveolens , hexane extract of Scutellaria scandens and methanol extract Hyptis suveolens

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Compounds Isolated from the Root Woods of Erythrina droogmansiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJG Yaya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, to characterize secondary metabolites from methanolic extract of the root woods of Erythrina droogmansiana and to assess the antioxidant activity of the crude extract and isolated compounds. The phytochemical study led to the isolation of 3-(3’,4’-methelenedioxyphenyl-2,3-epoxypropanol (1, asperphenamate (2 and three flavonoids namely genistein, diadzein and 4’,5,7-trihydroxy-8-prenylisoflavone. These compounds were characterized using their 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC, HSQC, COSY, mass spectral and the literature. To evaluate antioxidant activity of crude extract and isolated compounds, the radical scavenging (DPPH and Ferric Reducing Ability Power (FRAP were performed using ascorbic acid as standard. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate radical scavenging potential with IC50 value of 3.14 and 3.31 mg/ml respectively, and moderate reducing power ability with value of 0.14±0.01 mgAAE/mg and 0.21±0.01 mgAAE/mg respectively. The more active compound was genistein (3 with IC50 value of 1.96 mg/ml for the DPPH radical scavenging potential and 0.24±0.02 mgAAE/mg for its ability to reduce iron.

  3. Chemopreventive Effects of Oplopantriol A, a Novel Compound Isolated from Oplopanax horridus, on Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiyu Zhang; Chunhao Yu; Chun-Feng Zhang; Xiao-Hui Wu; Xiao-Dong Wen; Samantha Anderson; Wei Du; Wei-Hua Huang; Shao-Ping Li; Chong-Zhi Wang; Chun-Su Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Oplopanax horridus is a North American botanical that has received limited investigations. We previously isolated over a dozen of the constituents from O. horridus, and among them oplopantriol A (OPT A) is a novel compound. In this study, we firstly evaluated the in vivo chemoprevention activities of OPT A using the xenograft colon cancer mouse model. Our data showed that this compound significantly suppressed tumor growth with dose-related effects (p < 0.01). Next, we characterized the co...

  4. Isolation and identification of cytotoxic compounds from the rhizomes of Paris quadrifolia L.

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Gajdus; Zbigniew Kaczynski; Anna Kawiak; Ewa Lojkowska; Justyna Stefanowicz-Hajduk; J. Renata Ochocka; Piotr Stepnowski

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paris quadrifolia L. is a medicinal plant which contains steroidal saponins. The present study reports isolation and structural identification of six pennogenyl saponins obtained from P. quadrifolia rhizomes. The four spirostan saponins were obtained from P. quadrifolia for the first time. The cytotoxic effects of the sub-fractions and six compounds isolated from the plant extract were evaluated on tumour cells. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract from the rhizomes of P. quadri...

  5. Isolation,Purification and Identification of the Spermicidal Active Compound from Neem Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Zhongqiong(殷中琼); Gao Ping; Gao Rong; Jiang Dehong; Liu Kun; Liu Shigui

    2004-01-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the chloroform extract of the neem oil has resulted in the isolation of one new esters derivatives named 2-Octadecanoic acid-4-Palmitic acid-2,4-Pentanediyl ester (compound 1). Its structure is deduced on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The test of in vitro spermicidal activity of the compound 1 shows that the compound 1 can kill all sperms of Kunming mice in vitro in less than 20 sec at the concentration of 2mg/ml.

  6. New cytotoxic compounds of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naidan; Zhang, Chunyan; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Huang, Baokang

    2016-04-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of a culture of the endophytic fungus Alternaria species G7 in Broussonetia papyrifera, a new compound altertoxin IV (1) together with nine known compounds were isolated and identified by means of bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, among which the absolute configuration of compound 1, a new tetrahydroperylenone derivative, was determined by means of X-Ray Crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were subjected to cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines (A549, MG-63, and SMMC-7721). Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activities against tested cell lines, with IC50 values of 1.47, 2.11 and 7.34 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compound 4 also exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against cell lines MG-63 and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 0.53 and 2.92 μg/mL. Endophytic fungi Alternaria from B. papyrifera might be promising sources of natural bioactive and novel metabolites.

  7. New cytotoxic compounds of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naidan; Zhang, Chunyan; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Huang, Baokang

    2016-04-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of a culture of the endophytic fungus Alternaria species G7 in Broussonetia papyrifera, a new compound altertoxin IV (1) together with nine known compounds were isolated and identified by means of bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, among which the absolute configuration of compound 1, a new tetrahydroperylenone derivative, was determined by means of X-Ray Crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were subjected to cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines (A549, MG-63, and SMMC-7721). Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activities against tested cell lines, with IC50 values of 1.47, 2.11 and 7.34 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compound 4 also exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against cell lines MG-63 and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 0.53 and 2.92 μg/mL. Endophytic fungi Alternaria from B. papyrifera might be promising sources of natural bioactive and novel metabolites. PMID:27001249

  8. Isolation, identification and quantification of unsaturated fatty acids, amides, phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids from potato peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Ma, Qiong; Cao, Ye; Ma, Jian-Nan; Ma, Chao-Mei

    2012-12-15

    Eleven compounds were isolated from potato peels and identified. Their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. The main components of the potato peels were found to be chlorogenic acid and other phenolic compounds, accompanied by 2 glycoalkaloids, 3 low-molecular-weight amide compounds, and 2 unsaturated fatty acids, including an omega-3 fatty acid. The potato peels showed more potent radical scavenging activity than the flesh. The quantification of the 11 components indicated that the potato peels contained a higher amount of phenolic compounds than the flesh. These results suggest that peel waste from the industry of potato chips and fries may be a source of useful compounds for human health. PMID:22980823

  9. Copaifera langsdorffii: evaluation of potential gastroprotective of extract and isolated compounds obtained from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivane Lemos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGastric ulcer is a prevalent gastrointestinal disease, and the drugs currently used in the treatment produce several adverse effects. In this context, the search for new therapeutic antiulcer agents is essential, and medicinal plants have great potential. Here, we investigated the gastroprotective properties of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Fabaceae, hydroalcoholic extract obtained from leaves and its isolated compounds. The phytochemistry studies and the compounds isolations were performed using chromatographic and spectroscopic methodologies. The hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated using ethanol/HCl, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, stress-induced-ulcer and chronic ulcer-model. The effects on gastric content volume, pH, total acidity and mucus stomach production were evaluated in the pylorus ligated-model. The C. langsdorffii extract obtained from leaves (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg reduced the injured area compared to control group in all experiments. The extract showed a significant decrease in the total gastric juice acidity and an increase in mucus production (500 mg/kg when compared to vehicle. Among isolated compounds (30 mg/kg α-humulene, β-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide showed greater gastroprotective activity in the ethanol/HCl induced ulcer model. The data herein obtained shown that C. langsdorffii leaves extract and isolated compounds from it, presented gastroprotective properties in different animal models of gastric ulcer. These effects may be associated with the ability of the extract to decrease gastric secretion and increase the mucus production.

  10. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia Wheni Indrianingsih; Sanro Tachibana; Rizna Triana Dewi; Kazutaka Itoh

    2015-01-01

    To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume (Q. gilva). Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as catechin (1), epicatechin (2), and tiliroside (3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of (22.55 ± 2.23) µmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of (28.08 ± 2.39) µmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of (40.86 ± 3.45) µmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of (160.24 ± 8.15) µmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of (28.36 ± 0.11) µmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with (168.60 ± 5.15) and (920.60 ± 10.10) µmol/L, respectively. Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva confirmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  11. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia; Wheni; Indrianingsih; Sanro; Tachibana; Rizna; Triana; Dewi; Kazutaka; Itoh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume(Q. gilva).Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identii ed as catechin(1), epicatechin(2), and tiliroside(3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations(IC50) of(22.55 ± 2.23) μmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of(28.08 ± 2.39) μmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of(40.86 ± 3.45) μmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of(160.24 ± 8.15) μmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of(28.36 ± 0.11) μmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with(168.60 ± 5.15) and(920.60 ± 10.10) μmol/L, respectively.Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva coni rmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  12. A Quantum Chemical and Statistical Study of Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Curcuma zedoaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Abdalla Ahmed Hamdi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of 21 compounds isolated from Curcuma zedoaria was subjected to cytotoxicity test against MCF7; Ca Ski; PC3 and HT-29 cancer cell lines; and a normal HUVEC cell line. To rationalize the structure–activity relationships of the isolated compounds; a set of electronic; steric and hydrophobic descriptors were calculated using density functional theory (DFT method. Statistical analyses were carried out using simple and multiple linear regressions (SLR; MLR; principal component analysis (PCA; and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. SLR analyses showed that the cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against a given cell line depend on certain descriptors; and the corresponding correlation coefficients (R2 vary from 0%–55%. MLR results revealed that the best models can be achieved with a limited number of specific descriptors applicable for compounds having a similar basic skeleton. Based on PCA; HCA and MLR analyses; active compounds were classified into subgroups; which was in agreement with the cell based cytotoxicity assay.

  13. Yeast α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1, quercetin (2, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4, rutin (5, chlorogenic acid (6 and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7. All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively.

  14. Sulfated phenolic compounds from Limonium caspium: Isolation, structural elucidation, and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadetskaya, Anastassiya V.; Tarawneh, Amer H.; Zhusupova, Galiya E.; Gemejiyeva, Nadezhda G.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Cutler, Stephen J.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Three new compounds, (2S,3S)-5-methyldihydromyricetin (1), (2S,3S)-5-methyldihydromyricetin-3′-O-sulfate (2) and β-D-glucopyranoside, 3-methyl, but-3-en-1-yl 4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (3) have been isolated from the Limonium caspium, together with dihydromyricetin (4), dihydromyricetin-3′-O-sulfate (5), myricetin-3′-O-sulfate (6), 5-methylmyricetin (7), myricetin (8), myricetin-3-O-β-glucoside (9), as well as phloridzin (10), and tyramine (11). Compounds 5 and 6 were isolated for the first time as acids. This is the first report of all these compounds from this plant. Their structures were established by extensive NMR studies (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H–1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC) as well as HRESIMS. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial and antileishmanial activities. Compounds 7, 8 and 9 exhibited good antifungal activity against Candida glabrata with IC50 values of 6.79, 15.37 and 8.53 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 8 displayed significant antimalarial activity against resistant and sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 1.82 and 1.51 μg/mL, respectively. Compounds 1, 4, 6, 8 and 9 showed excellent activity against Trypanosoma brucei with IC50 values of 6.93, 9.65, 8.52, 7.67 and 6.31 μg/mL, respectively. To date, this is the first report on the phytochemical and biological activity of secondary metabolites from L. caspium. PMID:26025854

  15. Two New Compounds Isolated from Liriope muscari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Chao Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds, (2S,3R-methyl 7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-3-(hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-carboxylate (1 and (4R,5S-5-(3-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylphenyl-4-isopropyldihydrofuran-2-one (2, tentatively named norcurlignan and limlactone, respectively, were isolated from Liriope muscari, together with the known compound (−-pinoresinol (3. The structures of these compounds were elucidated and characterized on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR, CD and MS data. The in vitro antioxidant activities of compounds 13 were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods.

  16. Isolation and Identification of an Antiproliferative Compound from Fructose-Tryptophan Maillard Reaction Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Su Jeong; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Kim, Min Young; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Song, Jin; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-04-20

    This study was performed to isolate and identify a compound with antiproliferative activity against human stomach cancer cell lines, from fructose-tryptophan Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The MRPs, prepared from a fructose-tryptophan solution heated at 130 °C for 2 h, were fractionated into five solvent fractions: n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The highest antiproliferative activity was found in the chloroform fraction (85.93% at 200 μg/mL), and the active compound from this chloroform fraction was purified by silica gel column chromatography, TLC, and preparative HPLC. The antiproliferative activity (IC50) of the active compound was 42.24 μg/mL, and the active compound was identified as perlolyrine (C16H10N2O2) by (1)H/(13)C NMR, DEPT, HMBC, and LC-ESI-MS. Therefore, this research may be useful in developing perlolyrine as a functional therapeutic agent. PMID:27041128

  17. Solubilization and Transformation of Insoluble Zinc Compounds by Fungi Isolated from a Zinc Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanawat Sutjaritvorakul

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated from zinc-containing rocks and mining soil. They were screened for the ability to solubilize and transform three insoluble zinc compounds: ZnO, Zn3(PO4, and ZnCO3. Fungi were plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA medium which was supplemented with 0.5% (w/v of insoluble zinc compounds. Of the strains tested, four fungal isolates showed the highest efficiency for solubilizing all the insoluble zinc compounds, producing clearing zone diameters > 40 mm. These were identified as a Phomopsis spp., Aspergillus sp.1, Aspergillus sp.2, and Aspergillus niger. Zinc oxide was the most easily solubilized compound and it was found that 87%, 52%, and 61% of the tested fungi (23 isolates were able to solubilize zinc oxide, zinc phosphate, and zinc carbonate, respectively. Precipitation of zinc-containing crystals was observed in zinc oxide-containing agar medium underneath colonies of Aspergillus sp.1, and these were identified as zinc oxalate. It is suggested that these kinds of fungi have the potential application in bioremediation practices for heavy metal contaminated soils.

  18. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-07-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase) is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of (1)H and (13)C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (Tyrosol). Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential. PMID:24031942

  19. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Specian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of ¹H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (Tyrosol. Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential.

  20. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase) is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of 1H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (Tyrosol). Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential. PMID:24031942

  1. Antioxidant, 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Compounds Isolated from the Ferula lutea Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Znati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of the Ferula lutea (Poir. Maire flowers has led to the isolation of a new compound, (E-5-ethylidenefuran-2(5H-one-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, designated ferunide, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enoic acid (2, reported for the first time as a natural product, together with nine known compounds, verbenone-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4, methyl caffeate (5, methyl 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinate (6, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7, isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside, narcissin (8, (−-marmesin (9, isoimperatorin (10 and 2,3,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (11. Compounds 3–10 were identified for the first time in Ferula genus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (compound 2, as well as by comparison with literature data. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated. Results showed that compound 7 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 18 ± 0.5 µmol/L and 19.7 ± 0.7 µmol/L by DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation, respectively. The compound 6 exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 5.3 ± 0.1 µmol/L against 5-lipoxygenase. In addition, compound 5 was found to be the most cytotoxic, with IC50 values of 22.5 ± 2.4 µmol/L, 17.8 ± 1.1 µmol/L and 25 ± 1.1 µmol/L against the HCT-116, IGROV-1 and OVCAR-3 cell lines, respectively.

  2. Valuation of potential heart-affine compounds by use of the isolated perfused rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-organocation complexes were screened for heart affinity using the isolated perfused rat heart. The 99mTc-I compounds are better extracted by the heart and retained in it than the 99mTc-III compounds. 99mTcCl2(DMPE)2+ shows low uptake (15%) and fast washout, but no impairment of uptake after incubation with human serum albumin (HSA). With a modified preparation, initial uptake is not much better (18%), but washout is clearly diminished. 99mTc(DMPE)3+ is taken up to a greater extent (33%) if administered solely, but when given in conjunction with HSA, uptake decreases to about 4% because of strong affinity of the complex to the protein, but this compound persists well in the tissue. Detergents like between 80 and dioctylsulphosuccinate are able to cause higher uptake of 99mTc(DMPE)3+ even in the presence of HSA, thus indicating a diminished binding of the compound to the protein. 99mTc(CN-t-butyl)6+ shows very high uptake (80%) by the heart, which is only moderately diminished by addition of HSA (to 38%), and persists excellently in the myocardium. Basic features of the compounds such as accumulation in and elimination from the myocardium as well as plasma protein binding and their mutual relationships are well reflected by the isolated heart model. (orig.)

  3. Isolation and Identification of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza-Stimulatory Compounds from Clover (Trifolium repens) Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Muraleedharan G.; Safir, Gene R.; Siqueira, Jose O.

    1991-01-01

    Two isoflavonoids isolated from clover roots grown under phosphate stress were characterized as formononetin (7-hydroxy,4′-methoxy isoflavone) and biochanin A (5,7-dihydroxy,4′-methoxy isoflavone). At 5 ppm, these compounds stimulated hyphal growth in vitro and root colonization of an undescribed vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, a Glomus sp. (INVAM-112). The permethylated products of the two compounds were inactive. These findings suggest that the isoflavonoids studied may act as signal molecules in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis. PMID:16348409

  4. Isolation and Structural Speculation of Herbicide-Active Compounds from the Metabolites of Pythium aphanidermatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-hui; ZHANG Jin-lin; LIU Ying-chao; CAO Zhi-yan; HAN Jian-min; YANG Juan; DONG Jin-gao

    2013-01-01

    Natural herbicides, or environment-friendly bioherbicides have been attracted more and more attentions. Isolation and structural identification of natural herbicide-active compounds from plant pathogens has been proved to be an effective approach for novel lead discovery of the pesticide development. In this study, the metabolites of the mutant strain PAM1, which obtained from PA1 of Pythium aphanidermatum (Eds.) Fitzp by ultraviolet radiation were separated and identified by HPLC, NMR, and IR. The results revealed that three active compounds including 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid and two indole derivatives, exhibited inhibition activity on the elongation of radical and coleoptile of Digtaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

  5. Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Lignin of Empty Bunch Palm Fiber and Their Effects on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Prayuwidayati; T. C. Sunarti; Sumardi; Subeki; K. G. Wiryawan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of bioactive compounds isolated from purified lignin formacell (PLF) of empty bunch palm fiber as natural antimicrobes and their effects on in vitro rumen fermentation. The first experiment was inhibition test of 11 bioactive compounds isolated from PLF, using disc diffusion method against the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the most potential bioactive compounds were then used in ...

  6. Isolation and Identification of the Phenolic Compounds from the Roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. and Their Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Wang; Lu He; Zi-Long Zhang; Xin Liu; Shuang Zhang; Guang-Shu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Four phenolic compounds were isolated from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods, their structures were identified as methyl 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosy-5-hydroxy-3-methoxylbenzoate (1), 3,3′,4′-tri-O-methylellagic acid (2), fisetinidol-(4α-8)-catechin (3), and (+)-catechin (4). Compound 1 is a new phenolic glycoside and compounds 2 and 3 were isolated...

  7. Antioxidant activities of isolated compounds from stems of Mimosa invisa Mart. ex Colla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane M. Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phytochemical study of stems of Mimosa invisa (Mimosaceae and the evaluation of the antioxidant potential of isolated compounds. Cromatografic techniques were employed to isolate salicifoliol, pinoresinol, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl, quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranosyl lupeol, β-amyrin, sitosterol, p-hydroxy coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde (vanillin, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid and 4',6,7- trimethoxy flavonol. The latter had been previously described but the spectrometric data shown indicated the structure required review. The antioxidant activity of the compounds was evaluated by the DPPH test and capability of NBT reduction by superoxide radicals. Quercetin glycosides showed lower antioxidant potential than quercetin and, salicifoliol was found to be more active than pinoresinol.

  8. Antioxidant activities of isolated compounds from stems of Mimosa invisa Mart. ex Colla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the phytochemical study of stems of Mimosa invisa (Mimosaceae) and the evaluation of the antioxidant potential of isolated compounds. Chromatographic techniques were employed to isolate salicifoliol, pinoresinol, quercetin, quercetin-3-Orhamnopyranosyl, quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranosyl lupeol, -amyrin, sitosterol, p-hydroxy coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde (vanillin), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid and 4',6,7- trimethoxy flavonol. The latter had been previously described but the spectrometric data shown indicated the structure required review. The antioxidant activity of the compounds was evaluated by the DPPH test and capability of NBT reduction by superoxide radicals. Quercetin glycosides showed lower antioxidant potential than quercetin and, salicifoliol was found to be more active than pinoresinol. (author)

  9. Antioxidant activities of isolated compounds from stems of Mimosa invisa Mart. ex Colla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Rosane M. [Departamento de Quimica e Exatas, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil); Alves, Clayton Q.; David, Jorge M.; Rezende, Larissa C. de; Lima, Luciano S., E-mail: jmdavid@ufba.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); David, Juceni P. [Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Queiroz, Luciano P. de [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of stems of Mimosa invisa (Mimosaceae) and the evaluation of the antioxidant potential of isolated compounds. Chromatographic techniques were employed to isolate salicifoliol, pinoresinol, quercetin, quercetin-3-Orhamnopyranosyl, quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranosyl lupeol, -amyrin, sitosterol, p-hydroxy coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde (vanillin), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid and 4',6,7- trimethoxy flavonol. The latter had been previously described but the spectrometric data shown indicated the structure required review. The antioxidant activity of the compounds was evaluated by the DPPH test and capability of NBT reduction by superoxide radicals. Quercetin glycosides showed lower antioxidant potential than quercetin and, salicifoliol was found to be more active than pinoresinol. (author)

  10. Isolation and Characterization Compounds From Hexane and Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Peperomia pellucida L.

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    Sri Hartati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Peperomia pellucida was used traditionally in Indonesia for health treatment: wounds, boils, pimples, abscesses, abdominal pain, colic, gout, kidney, rheumatic pain, fatigue headache, furuncles, conjunctivitis and anti dermatogenic and also for dengue treatment. The isolation compounds from hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of Peperomia pellucida L. are conducted by maceration of the dry herbs sample with methanol and partition with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were fractionated by gravitation column chromatography and eluted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol by the gradient. The structure was elucidated base on spectroscopy data of NMR proton and carbon for one and two dimension, LCMS and FT-IR. The isolation founded three compounds are stigmasterol, analogue of pheophytin and β-sitosterol-D-glucopyranoside.

  11. Antifungal, antioxidant and larvicidal activities of compounds isolated from the heartwood of Mansonia gagei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiew, P; Ioset, J R; Kokpol, U; Chavasiri, W; Hostettmann, K

    2003-02-01

    Eleven compounds isolated from the heartwood of Mansonia gagei were tested for their antifungal activities against Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans, as well as for their larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti and radical scavenging properties in a DPPH assay. Mansonone C (4) was found to be the most interesting compound with antifungal activities against Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans as well as for its larvicidal properties against Aedes aegypti. Mansonone E (5) was active against Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans. Two coumarin derivatives, mansorin A (1) and mansorin B (2) were also found to be active against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while mansonone N (9) was the only isolated product to show radical scavenging properties. PMID:12601687

  12. Isolation and antimicrobial activity of two phenolic compounds from Pulicaria odora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoubeiri, A; Gadhi, C A; Fdil, N; Benharref, A; Jana, M; Vanhaelen, M

    2005-06-01

    The essential oil of Pulicaria odora, a Moroccan medicinal plant; was analyzed by GC-MS, and subjected to column chromatography on silica gel. Two major constituents were isolated and identified as 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenol (1) and isobutyric acid 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenylester (2), by analysis of spectroscopic data (MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments). The isolated compounds are reported for the first time from Pulicaria genus. The essential oil and its major constituents (compounds 1 and 2) were examined for antibacterial and antifungal activity in vitro using the diffusion and dilution methods. Results showed that the essential oil and the 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenol (1) exhibited a very significant antibacterial and antifungal activity, while the isobutyric acid 2-isopropyl-4-methylphenylester (2) was inactive for all tested strains.

  13. Reactions of aliphatic free radicals with transition metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulse radiolytic study of the reactions of copper ions with free aliphatic radicals was carried out. It was found that all the aliphatic radicals studied react with Cusub(aq)sup(+) and Cusub(aq)sup(2+), forming an unstable compound, with a carbon-copper σ bond, according to the reaction Mnsub(aq)sup(n+)+ . CR1R2R3 → M-CR1R2Rsub(3)sup(n+). It was also found that the rates of formation of the intermediate compounds, their half-lives and their decomposition mechanism depend on the properties of the radical and the cation. Experiments for the determination of the influence of macrocyclic ligands of the Curtis type on the stability of intermediate compounds failed because of insufficient concentrations of these ligands. The processes of ligand hydridization, isomerization and decomposition for the macrocylic complexes Cusup(I)L were also studied. These complexes, which are unstable, are formed as a result of the reaction of the stable Cusup(II)L complexes with certain free aliphatic radicals

  14. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanion L. Jothy; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Lai Ngit Shin; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Yee Ling Lau; Yeng Chen; Zuraini Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary...

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Potential Bioactive Compounds from Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv Stringy Seed Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    T JN Okonkwo; P O Osadebe

    2013-01-01

    Summary. Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv, a tropical climber, is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Among other uses, it is utilized in the management of malaria and inflammatory related diseases in ethno medicine. Thus its stringy seed pulp (LOSSP) was subjected to isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds. A fresh portion of LOSSP was air-dried, pulverized, defatted with petroleum ether and subsequently extracted with acetone and distilled water succes...

  16. An Antimicrobial Compound Isolated from Cinnamomum Iners Leaves with Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Mahsufi Mansor; Marina Shah; Sabariah Ismail; Jayant Indurkar; Fazlina Mustaffa

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum iners standardized leave methanolic extract (CSLE), its fractions and isolated compounds. CSLE and fractions were subjected to disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests using different Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and yeast. Within the series of fractions tested, the ethyl acetate fraction was the most active, particularly against methicil...

  17. Isolation and structural elucidation of a new cyclohexenone compound from Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2009-08-01

    A new cyclohexenone compound was isolated as a mixture of enantiomers from a culture filtrate of Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The relative structure was determined to be 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl-cyclohex-2-enone on the basis of MS, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR spectroscopic analyses, including 2D-NMR experiments. Resolution of the enantiomers was conducted by a coupling reaction with (S)-MTPA-Cl followed by HPLC separation. PMID:19661717

  18. Facile synthesis of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase using peptide coupling reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Andersen, Heidi Gertz; Christensen, Jørn B.;

    2004-01-01

    Peptide coupling reagents can be used as versatile reagents for the formation of aliphatic isothiocyanates and thioureas on solid phase from the corresponding solid-phase anchored aliphatic primary amines. The formation of the thioureas is fast and highly chemoselective, and proceeds via formation...... of the intermediate isothiocyanate. The isothiocyanate and subsequent thiourea formation take place under standard peptide coupling conditions using carbon disulfide as the 'amino acid'. The thioureas are released from the resin and isolated in moderate to high yields....

  19. Isolation of natural compounds from Phlomis stewartii showing α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Bushra; Riaz, Naheed; Saleem, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad Akram; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alam, Umber; Rafiq, Hafiza Mehwish; Tareen, Rasool Bakhsh; Jabbar, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    Stewartiiside (1), a phenylethanoid glycoside and three 28-nortriterpenoids: stewertiisins A-C [(17R)-19(18→17)-abeo-3α,18β,23,24-tetrahydroxy-28-norolean-12-ene, 2; (17R)-19(18→17)-abeo-2α,16β,18β,23,24-pentahydroxy-28-norolean-12-en-3-one, 3; (17R)-19(18→17)-abeo-2α,3α,23,24-tetrahydroxy-28-noroleane-11,13-diene, 4] together with eight known compounds: lunariifolioside (5), notohamosin A (6), phlomispentanol (7), isorhamnetin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), tiliroside (9), caffeic acid (10), p-hydrxybenzoic acid (11) and oleanolic acid (12) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of whole plant of Phlomis stewartii. The structures of these isolates (1-12) were elucidated by the combination of 1D ((1)H and (13)C NMR), 2D (HMQC, HMBC COSY, NOESY) NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (EIMS, HREIMS, FABMS, HRFABMS) and in comparison with literature data of related compounds. All the isolates (1-12) showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging between 14.5 and 355.4 μM, whereas, compounds 1, 5, 9 and 10 showed promising α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values below 30 μM.

  20. Biofilm inhibition activity of compounds isolated from two Eunicea species collected at the Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Martínez Díaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biofilm has a primary role in the pathogenesis of diseases and in the attachment of multicellular organisms to a fouled surface. Because of that, the control of bacterial biofilms has been identified as an important target. In the present study, five lipid compounds isolated from soft coral Eunicea sp. and three terpenoids together with a mixture of sterols from Eunicea fusca collected at the Colombian Caribbean Sea showed different effectiveness against biofilm formation by three marine bacteria associated with immersed fouled surfaces, Ochrobactrum pseudogringnonense,Alteromona macleodii and Vibrio harveyi, and against two known biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The pure compounds were characterized by NMR, HRESI-MS, HRGC-MS and optical rotation. The most effective compounds were batyl alcohol (1 and fuscoside E peracetate (6, acting against four strains without affecting their microbial growth. Compound 1 showed biofilm inhibition greater than 30% against A. macleodii, and up to 60% against O. pseudogringnonense,V. harveyi and S. aureus. Compound 6 inhibited O. pseudogringnonense and V. harveyi between 25 and 50%, and P. aeruginosa or S. aureus up to 60% at 0.5 mg/ml. The results suggest that these compounds exhibit specific biofilm inhibition with lower antimicrobial effect against the bacterial species assayed.

  1. Purification and characterization of antifungal compounds from Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 isolated from kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eun Hye; Yang, Eun Ju; Woo, Eun Rhan; Chang, Hae Choon

    2014-08-01

    Strain HD1 with antifungal activity was isolated from kimchi and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Antifungal compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were active against food- and feed-borne filamentous fungi and yeasts in a spot-on-the-lawn assay. Antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 was stronger against filamentous fungi than yeast. Antifungal compounds were purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and recycling preparative-HPLC. Structures of the antifungal compounds were elucidated by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Active compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were identified as 5-oxododecanoic acid (MW 214), 3-hydroxy decanoic acid (MW 188), and 3-hydroxy-5-dodecenoic acid (MW 214). To investigate the potential application of these antifungal compounds for reduction of fungal spoilage in foods, Korean draft rice wine was used as a food model. White film-forming yeasts were observed in control draft rice wine after 11 days of incubation. However, film-forming yeasts were not observed in draft rice wine treated with SPE-prepared culture supernatant of Lb. plantarum HD1 (equivalent to 2.5% addition of culture supernatant) until 27 days of incubation. The addition of antifungal compounds to Korean draft rice wine extended shelf-life up to 27 days at 10 °C without any sterilization process. Therefore, the antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 may lead to the development of powerful biopreservative systems capable of preventing food- and feed-borne fungal spoilage.

  2. Isolation of phytotoxic compounds from tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima swingle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Quaranta, Emilia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2003-02-26

    The aqueous root extract of Ailanthus altissima showed allelopathic activity against radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. "Saxa"), garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.), and purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) seeds. A bioassay-oriented purification of active extracts, chromatographic fractions, and compounds demonstrated dose-dependent activity on germination and radicle growth of test seeds; radish seed was the most sensitive to allelochemicals. Active compounds have been isolated: ailanthone, ailanthinone, chaparrine, and ailanthinol B (quassinoid derivatives); the alkaloid 1-methoxycanthin-6-one is not active. The compound with greatest inhibitory activity is ailanthone. The data obtained suggest a possible use of tree-of-heaven root extracts or of its active constituents as natural herbicides. PMID:12590453

  3. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant seed revealed the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. The isolation of active compounds was carried out in four steps: multiple extractions, fractionation using column chromatography and purification using preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The structure of separated compounds was determined on the basis of mass spectrometry data. One compound was identified is roseanone. Conclusions: The MS analysis on the active fraction from seed extract of C. fistula confirmed the presence of roseanone with antiyeast activity.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Song-Chwan; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2008-06-25

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam is a large evergreen tree cultivated throughout Southeast Asia for its fruits. Its leaves and roots have been used for medicinal purposes. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Three phenolic compounds were characterized as artocarpesin [5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-(3-methylbut-3-enyl) flavone] ( 1), norartocarpetin (5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) ( 2), and oxyresveratrol [ trans-2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene] ( 3) by spectroscopic methods and through comparison with data reported in the literatures. The anti-inflammatory effects of the isolated compounds ( 1- 3) were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. These three compounds exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity. The results indicated that artocarpesin ( 1) suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) through the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein expressions. Thus, artocarpesin ( 1) may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated disorders. PMID:18500810

  5. Aromatic compound degradation by iron reducing bacteria isolated from irrigated tropical paddy soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wenjing; WANG Hongtao; HUANG Changyong; W. Reichardt

    2008-01-01

    Forty-six candidate phenol/benzoate degrading-iron reducing bacteria were isolated from long term irrigated tropical paddy soils by enrichment procedures. Pure cultures and some prepared mixed cultures were examined for ferric oxide reduction and phenol/benzoate degradation. All the isolates were iron reducers, but only 56.5% could couple iron reduction to phenol and/or benzoate degradation, as evidenced by depletion of phenol and benzoate after one week incubation. Analysis of degradative capability using Biolog MT plates revealed that most of them could degrade other aromatic compounds such as ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and hydroxybenzoate. Mixed-cultures and soft samples displayed greater capacity for aromatic degradation and iron reduction than pure bacterial isolates, suggesting that these reactions may be coupled via a consortia-based mechanism in paddy soils.

  6. In vitro antifungal potentials of bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester isolated from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (Acanthaceae) inflorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maghdu Nainamohamed Abubacker; Palaniyappan Kamala Devi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (L. cristata) and to assess antifungal potentials of the isolated compound. Methods: Aqueous extracts of L. cristata inflorescence were used for this study. The major bioactive compound isolated was tested for antifungal activities. Results: The major bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester was isolated from the inflorescence of L. cristata. The bioactive compound was tested for antifungal potentials and found to be highly effective to plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fulcatum NCBT 146, Fusarium oxysporum NCBT 156 and Rhizoctonia solani NCBT 196 as well as for the human pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata MTCC 2030 and Microsporum canis MTCC 2820. Conclusions: The results justify the antifungal potentials of both plant and human pathogenic fungi. The plant bioactive compound will be helpful in herbal antifungal formulations.

  7. Isolation of cholinesterase and β-secretase 1 inhibiting compounds from Lycopodiella cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thu; To, Dao Cuong; Tran, Manh Hung; Oh, Sang Ho; Kim, Jeong Ah; Ali, Md Yousof; Woo, Mi-Hee; Choi, Jae Sue; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-07-01

    Three new serratene-type triterpenoids (1-3) and a new hydroxy unsaturated fatty acid (13) together with nine known compounds (4-12) were isolated from Lycopodiella cernua. The chemical structures were established using NMR, MS, and Mosher's method. Compound 13 showed the most potent inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with an IC50 value of 0.22μM. For butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity, 5 showed the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 0.42μM. Compound 2 showed the most potent activity with an IC50 of 0.23μM for BACE-1 inhibitory activity. The kinetic activities were investigated to determine the type of enzyme inhibition involved. The types of AChE inhibition shown by compounds 4, 5, and 13 were mixed; BChE inhibition by 5 was competitive, while 2 and 6 showed mixed-types. In addition, molecular docking studies were performed to investigate the interaction of these compounds with the pocket sites of AChE. The docking results revealed that the tested inhibitors 3, 4, and 13 were stably present in several pocket domains of the AChE residue. PMID:26003344

  8. Phenolic compounds isolated from Pilea microphylla prevent radiation-induced cellular DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punit Bansal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Six phenolic compounds namely, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (1, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (2, luteolin-7-O-glucoside (3, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside (4, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (5 and quercetin (6 were isolated from the whole plant of Pilea microphylla using conventional open-silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Further, these compounds were characterized by 1D, 2D NMR techniques and high-resolution LC–MS. Compounds 1–3 and 6 exhibited significant antioxidant potential in scavenging free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS and SOD with IC50 of 3.3–20.4 μmol/L. The same compounds also prevented lipid peroxidation with IC50 of 10.4–32.2 μmol/L. The compounds also significantly prevented the Fenton reagent-induced calf thymus DNA damage. Pre-treatment with compounds 1–3 and 6 in V79 cells attenuated radiation-induced formation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and DNA damage, correlating the antioxidant activity of polyphenols with their radioprotective effects. Compounds 1, 3 and 6 significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation, presumably due to 3′,4′-catechol ortho-dihydroxy moiety in the B-ring, which has a strong affinity for phospholipid membranes. Oxidation of flavonoids, with catechol structure on B-ring, yields a fairly stable ortho-semiquinone radical by facilitating electron delocalization, which is involved in antioxidant mechanism. Hence, the flavonoid structure, number and location of hydroxyl groups together determine the antioxidant and radioprotection mechanism.

  9. Structure and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds isolated from the edible fruits and stem bark of Harpephyllum caffrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Roshila; Koorbanally, Neil A; Shahidul Islam, Md; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant activity in edible fruits is an important characteristic in the choice of fruits for human consumption, and has profound influence on nutrition and health. Two pharmacologically active triterpenoids, β-sitosterol and lupeol, and the powerful flavan-3-ol antioxidant, (+)-catechin, were isolated from the edible fruits of Harpephyllum caffrum while a mixture of cardanols, an alkyl p-coumaric acid ester, and (+)-catechin were isolated from the stem bark. This is the first report of these compounds being isolated from this plant. The antioxidant capacity of (+)-catechin was higher than the other isolated compounds as well as the known antioxidant, ascorbic acid. PMID:25310809

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Salix matsudana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-zhi Sun

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A bioassay-guided in vitro screen has revealed that a 70% methanol extract of the leaves of Salix matsudana shows considerable inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2. A subsequent phytochemical study led to the isolation of a new flavonoid, matsudone A (1, together with five known flavonoids – luteolin (2, isoquercitrin (3, 7-methoxyflavone (4, luteolin 7-O-glucoside (5, 4',7-dihydroxyflavone (6 – and two phenolic glycosides, leonuriside A (7 and piceoside (8. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR studies, high resolution ESI mass spectroscopic analyses and comparisons with literature data. The isolated compounds 1-8 were tested for their inhibitory activities against COX-1 and COX-2. Compounds 1, 5 and 6 were found to have potent inhibitory effect on COX-2 and compounds 3-5 exhibited moderate inhibition against COX-1.

  11. HPTLC Fingerprint Profile and Isolation of Marker Compound of Ruellia tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya L. Chothani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to identification, isolation, and quantification of marker in R. tuberosa (Acanthaceae. HPTLC fingerprinting was carried out for various extract of root, stem, and leaf of R. tuberosa. From the HPTLC fingerprint the florescent band (under 366 nm at : 0.56 (mobile phase chloroform : toluene : ethyl acetate (6 : 3 : 1, v/v was found in leaf, root, and stem of R. tuberosa. So, the florescent band (under 366 nm at : 0.56 was isolated as marker compound RT-F2 from root of R. tuberosa. The marker compound RT-F2 was quantified by using HPTLC technique. The percentage (W/W amount of RT-F2 was found to 40.0% and 44.6% in petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extract of R. tuberosa roots, respectively. Further study is suggested to characterization and biological nature of marker compound.

  12. Antifungal activity of natural compounds against Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dbora Oro; Andria Heissler; Eliandra Mirlei Rossi; Diane Scapin; Patrcia da Silva Malheiros; Everton Boff

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the antifungal effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oils and honey against strains of Candida sp. from HIV-positive patients in order to subsidize new therapeutic strategies for candidiasis. Methods: The study evaluated the antifungal effect of natural antimicrobials against 30 strains of Candida sp. isolated from oral cavities in HIV-infected patients. Then, they were compared to the action of fluconazole and amphotericin B. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by the broth macrodilution technique and the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum fungicidal concentration were determined. Results: Among all antifungals evaluated in this study, amphotericin B was the one showing the best results; however, all compounds studied here showed inhibitory activities against isolates of Candida sp. Honey (0.031 3 to 64 μg/mL) demonstrated fungistatic activity inhibiting 70% of the isolates. C. zeylanicum essential oil (0.0313 to 64 μg/mL) inhibited 93.3% of the Candida strains and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (0.0313 to 64 μg/mL) was able to inhibit 73.3% of them. Conclusions: Therefore, all natural compounds evaluated in this study, especially C. zeylanicum essential oil, may become promising agents for oral candidiasis therapy including in HIV-positive patients.

  13. Antifungal activity of natural compounds against Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Débora; Oro; Andréia; Heissler; Eliandra; Mirlei; Rossi; Diane; Scapin; Patrícia; da; Silva; Malheiros; Everton; Boff

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum(C. zeylanicum) and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oils and honey against strains of Candida sp. from HIV-positive patients in order to subsidize new therapeutic strategies for candidiasis.Methods: The study evaluated the antifungal effect of natural antimicrobials against 30 strains of Candida sp. isolated from oral cavities in HIV-infected patients. Then, they were compared to the action of fl uconazole and amphotericin B. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by the broth macrodilution technique and the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum fungicidal concentration were determined.Results: Among all antifungals evaluated in this study, amphotericin B was the one showing the best results; however, all compounds studied here showed inhibitory activities against isolates of Candida sp. Honey(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) demonstrated fungistatic activity inhibiting 70% of the isolates. C. zeylanicum essential oil(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) inhibited 93.3% of the Candida strains and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) was able to inhibit 73.3% of them.Conclusions: Therefore, all natural compounds evaluated in this study, especially C. zeylanicum essential oil, may become promising agents for oral candidiasis therapy including in HIV-positive patients.

  14. Isolation and identification of cytotoxic compounds from the rhizomes of Paris quadrifolia L.

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    Jerzy Gajdus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paris quadrifolia L. is a medicinal plant which contains steroidal saponins. The present study reports isolation and structural identification of six pennogenyl saponins obtained from P. quadrifolia rhizomes. The four spirostan saponins were obtained from P. quadrifolia for the first time. The cytotoxic effects of the sub-fractions and six compounds isolated from the plant extract were evaluated on tumour cells. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract from the rhizomes of P. quadrifolia were partinioned using column chromatography. The saponins were isolated from the obtained sub-fractions by isocratic RP HPLC and their structures were determined by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and MALDI TOF MS. The cytotoxic effects of the sub-fractions and the isolated compounds were tested against human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60, human cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa and human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 using the [(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: Six pennogenyl saponins were isolated from P. quadrifolia rhizomes: pennogenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2]-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 4-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→ 2]-β-D-glucopyranoside (6. Pennogenyl saponins 5 and 6 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HL-60, HeLa and MCF-7 tumour cells with IC 50 values of 1.0 ± 0.04 μg/ml, 1.8 ± 0.072 μg/ml and 2.4 ± 0.096 μg/ml respectively, and 2.0 ± 0.08 μg/ml, 2.5 ± 0.125 μg/ml and 3.2 ± 0.128 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: Compounds 1 -4 were isolated from this species for the first time.

  15. Pharmacological activities of cilantro's aliphatic aldehydes against Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages. PMID:25340465

  16. Anti-proliferative effect of a compound isolated from Cassia auriculata against human colon cancer cell line HCT 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakkirajan, M; Prabhu, N M; Arulvasu, C; Beulaja, M; Manikandan, R; Thiagarajan, R; Govindaraju, K; Prabhu, D; Dinesh, D; Babu, G; Dhanasekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The compound was isolated from leaves of Cassia auriculata and its structure was characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and lactate dehydrogenase assay of isolated compound was tested against human colon cancer cell line HCT 15. The isolated compound, 4-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-7-(2-ethoxyphenyl)benzo[h][1,4,7]triazecin-8(1H)-one at 25μg/ml concentration and by 48h showed 50% inhibition of human colon cancer cells (HCT 15). The results suggest that isolated compound from C. auriculata has potential to prevent colon cancer cell line.

  17. Elusive 2H-1,2-oxasiletes through reactions of an isolable dialkylsilylene with diazocarbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaowen; Xiao, Xu-Qiong; Li, Zhifang; Lu, Qiong; Lai, Guoqiao; Kira, Mitsuo

    2015-09-28

    The reactions of isolable dialkysilylene 1 with 2-diazo-1,2-diphenylethanone and ethyl 2-diazo-2-phenylacetate gave elusive silacycles, 2H-1,2-oxasiletes 2 and 3, respectively, in high yields. Because these reactions occur at low temperatures of ca.-30 °C, initial complexation of the silylene to the carbonyl oxygen of the diazocarbonyl compounds is suggested to trigger dinitrogen elimination followed by cyclization. In contrast, a six-membered cyclic diazo compound 8 and 1-sila-2,3-diazabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-3-ene 10 were obtained in good yields by the reaction of 1 with less reactive ethyl 2-diazo-3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate 7 and trimethylsilyldiazomethane 9. Molecular structures of 2, 3, 8 and 10 were determined by X-ray crystallography.

  18. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marsni, Zouhir; Torres, Ascension; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macias, Francisco A

    2015-07-22

    The work described herein is a continuation of our initial studies on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 of bioactive substances from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna. The selected SFE extract showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay, in Petri dish phytotoxicity bioassays, and in the hydroponic culture of tomato seeds. Chromatographic fractionations of the extracts and a spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compounds showed 52 substances belonging to 10 different chemical classes, which were mainly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. Heliannuol M (31), helivypolides K and L (36, 37), and helieudesmanolide B (38) are described for the first time in the literature. Metabolites have been tested in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay with good results in a noteworthy effect on germination. The most active compounds were also tested on tomato seeds, heliannuol A (30) and leptocarpin (45) being the most active, with values similar to those of the commercial herbicide. PMID:26151222

  19. Bioactivity-guided isolation of new antiproliferative compounds from Juniperus foetidissima Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmood; Suleimani Dehkordi, Ibrahim; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Syed Majid, Ayatollahi; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Based on a literature survey on cytotoxic medicinal plants, Juniper species were identified as interesting source of antitumor compounds. Using bioassay-guided fractionation against Caov-4 cancer cells on acetone extract of leaves and branchlets of Juniperus foetidissima led to the isolation of a new 3H-benzofuaran-2-one: 4-methyl-3-methoxy-3H-benzofuaran-2-one (1), a new sesquiterpene: 4,9(α)-dihydroxy-nardosin-6-en (2) and an already known labdane-type diterpene: 15-hydroxy-8(17),13(E)-labdadiene-19-carboxilic acid (3). Compounds 1-3 exhibited cytotoxic effects, with moderate cytotoxicity against the EJ-138 bladder and CAOV-4 ovary cancer cell lines. PMID:26506268

  20. Isolation and identification of compounds present in rhizomes of Paris axialis H. Li and study of their cytotoxic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xianxiao; Gao, Wenyuan; Man, Shuli; GAO, YING; Huang, Luqi; Liu, Changxiao

    2011-01-01

    Ten compounds were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris axialis H. Li (PA). Based on spectral data, the isolated compounds were identified as Diosgenin (1), Paris saponin V (2), Paris saponin VI (3), Paris saponin I 4), Paris saponin H (5), Paris saponin II (6), Paris saponin VII (7), luteolin (8), luteoloside (9), isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-glycopyranoside (10). Their cytotoxicity on LA795 cells was evaluated. Paris saponins and flavonoids have synergistic ...

  1. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts and Isolated Compounds from Myrciariaferruginea (Myrtaceae

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    Cinthia Costa de Lima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated for the first time the antibacterial activity, cell viability and migration ability on 3T3 murine fibroblast cells of extracts and isolated compounds [lupeol (1, hexamethylcoruleoellagic acid (2 and a mixture of 1 and betulinaldehyde (3] of Myrciaria ferruginea. In antibacterial assays extracts were susceptible only against S. aureus (MIC 500 μg/mL and S. epidermidis (MIC ranging from 7.8 to 500 μg/mL and compounds 1-3have shown no significant activity. In trials for c ell viability, with exception of MeOH-H 2O fraction from leaves (viable cells > 90%, both the crude extract and other fractions showed inhibition of cell growth (viable cells ≤ 80% at 15.625 and 31.25 μg/mL; while the samples from stems, with the exception of CHCl 3 fraction that showed strong cytotoxic effect at the lowest concentration tested (15.625 μg/mL, the other fractions were not cytotoxic. Compounds (1-3 inhibited cell viability in dose dependent manner (15.625 to 500 μg/mL. Mixture containing 1 and 3 showed inhibitions only in concentrations greater than 62.5 μg/mL while compound 2 decreased from the lowest concentration tested. In scratch wound assay, these compoundsnot increased the population of fibroblasts at concentrations less than 62.5 μg/mL.

  2. Antimutagenic Compounds of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Isolation and Structural Elucidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Hernández, Javier; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco-Javier; Velázquez, Carlos; Ocaño-Higuera, Víctor-Manuel; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Robles-Sánchez, Maribel; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the main cause of mortality worldwide; thus, the search of chemopreventive compounds to prevent the disease has become a priority. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has been reported as a source of compounds with chemopreventive activities. In this study, shrimp lipids were extracted and then fractionated in order to isolate those compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity. The antimutagenic activity was assessed by the inhibition of the mutagenic effect of aflatoxin B1 on TA98 and TA100 Salmonella tester strains using the Ames test. Methanolic fraction was responsible for the highest antimutagenic activity (95.6 and 95.9% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and was further separated into fifteen different subfractions (M1–M15). Fraction M8 exerted the highest inhibition of AFB1 mutation (96.5 and 101.6% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and, after further fractionation, four subfractions M8a, M8b, M8c, and M8d were obtained. Data from 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry analysis of fraction M8a (the one with the highest antimutagenic activity), suggest that the compound responsible for its antimutagenicity is an apocarotenoid. PMID:27006678

  3. Antimutagenic Compounds of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei: Isolation and Structural Elucidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-María López-Saiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the main cause of mortality worldwide; thus, the search of chemopreventive compounds to prevent the disease has become a priority. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei has been reported as a source of compounds with chemopreventive activities. In this study, shrimp lipids were extracted and then fractionated in order to isolate those compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity. The antimutagenic activity was assessed by the inhibition of the mutagenic effect of aflatoxin B1 on TA98 and TA100 Salmonella tester strains using the Ames test. Methanolic fraction was responsible for the highest antimutagenic activity (95.6 and 95.9% for TA98 and TA100, resp. and was further separated into fifteen different subfractions (M1–M15. Fraction M8 exerted the highest inhibition of AFB1 mutation (96.5 and 101.6% for TA98 and TA100, resp. and, after further fractionation, four subfractions M8a, M8b, M8c, and M8d were obtained. Data from 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry analysis of fraction M8a (the one with the highest antimutagenic activity, suggest that the compound responsible for its antimutagenicity is an apocarotenoid.

  4. Goniothalamin, a cytotoxic compound, isolated from Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thomson var. macrophyllus

    OpenAIRE

    Niwat Keawpradub; Arunporn Itharat; Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul; Puttachat Sangprapan; Boonsong Wangsintaweekul

    2005-01-01

    Bioassay guided fractionation by brine shrimp lethality test led to isolation of a cytotoxic compound, goniothalamin, from the root and stem of Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thomson var. macrophyllus. Goniothalamin showed a promising cytotoxicity (SRB assay) against colon cancer cell line (IC50 = 0.51±0.02 μg/ml), breast cancer cell lines (IC50= 0.95±0.02 μg/ml) and lung carcinoma (IC50 = 3.51± 0.03 μg/ml). LDH assay of goniothalamin suggested that it had no toxicity on cell m...

  5. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of an Unknown compound from Murraya alternans (Kurz)Swingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new taxon of a species, Murraya alternans (Kurz) Swingle (Myanmar name, Naganaing) the series of Murraya belonging to the family Rutaceae had been recognized by Peter G. Waterman in 1986. However, this species has not been undertaken in botanical, medical, and chemical aspects. In this paper, scientific study on this taxon was chemically carried out for the first time. One of the unknown compounds was isolated from this species by column and high performance liquid chromatographic methods. It's partial structure could also be elucidated by spectral analysis such as IR, MS, H NMR(400MHz), C NMR (100MHz) spectrometry respectively. (author)

  6. Cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from Teloxys graveolens: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Juárez Rocha, Victorino; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; González-Hernández, Iliana Elvira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2015-09-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, the cysticidal activity of organic extracts of Teloxys graveolens was evaluated. The in vitro activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against Taenia crassiceps cysts was tested and the selectivity index relative to human fibroblasts was determined. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of the methanolic extract at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg in the murine cysticercosis model was evaluated. The ultrastructural effects in vitro and in vivo of the methanolic extract were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, a bioassay-guided fractionation for the isolation of the cysticidal components was performed. Our in vitro findings revealed that all extracts exhibited good cysticidal activity with EC50 values from 44.8 to 67.1 µg/mL. Although the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts displayed low cytotoxicity, the methanolic extract was the most selective. The methanolic extract also showed in vivo efficacy which was similar to that obtained with ABZ. Significant alterations were found on the germinal layer of the cysts, with a high accumulation of granules of glycogen and vacuoles. The bioguided fractionation of methanolic extract led to the isolation of three flavonoids: chrysin, pinocembrin and pinostrobin; among them, pinocembrin was the compound that displayed cysticidal activity. This is the first study which reveals that T. graveolens could be a potential source for cysticidal and non-toxic compounds. PMID:26072200

  7. A new steroidal compound (β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl isolated from Caesalpinia gilliesii flowers

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    Samir Mohamed Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of total extracts from leaves, flowers and pods of Caesalpinia gilliesii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinoideae. In addition, a detailed phytochemical investigation of flower extracts was carried out to isolate and elucidate the structures of the bioactive compounds. Flower extract was the most cytotoxic against MCF7 and HepG2 cancer cells with IC50 values of 10 and 15.6 µg/mL, respectively. A new β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was isolated from dichloromethane fraction of flowers together with another known sterol (daucosterol, and two flavonoids (isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnoside. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was the most active compound against both HepG2 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 13.1 and 14.4 µg/mL, respectively. Isorhamnetin possesses a moderate antioxidant activity with an IC50 value 370 µg/mL as determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay.Industrial relevance. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl and the other phytosterols are responsible for the cytotoxicity of the extracts which would correlate with the known abortifacient, antimalarial and anthelmintic properties, which can provide a cheap alternative drug.Keywords. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant; Caesalpinia gilliesii; β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl; daucosterol; isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside

  8. Natural antifouling compounds produced by a novel fungus Aureobasidium pullulans HN isolated from marine biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2013-12-15

    A fungus, Aureobasidium pullulans, was isolated from marine biofilm and identified. A bioassay-guided fractionation procedure was developed to isolate and purify antifouling compounds from A. pullulans HN. The procedure was: fermentation broth-aeration and addition of sodium thiosulfate-graduated pH and liquid-liquid extraction-SPE purification-GC-MS analysis. Firstly, the fermentation broth was tested for its toxicity. Then it was treated with aeration and addition of sodium thiosulfate, and its toxicity was almost not changed. Lastly, antifouling compounds were extracted at different pH, the extract had high toxicity at pH 2 but almost no toxicity at pH 10, which suggested the toxicants should be fatty acids. The EC50 of the extract against Skeletonema costatum was 90.9 μg ml(-1), and its LC50 against Balanus amphitrete larvae was 22.2 μg ml(-1). After purified by HLB SPE column, the EC50 of the extract against S. costatum was 49.4 μg ml(-1). The myristic and palmitic acids were found as the main toxicants by GC-MS. PMID:24210009

  9. Molluscicidal activity of compounds isolated from Euphorbia conspicua N. E. Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euphorbia conspicua latex was fractionated into triterpenic and irritant fractions I and II. The triterpenic fraction afforded 15 known compounds and a new triterpene, 3β-(E)- cinnamoyleuphorbol. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol was isolated from irritant fraction II. The compounds euphol, 3β-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene, 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol and 20-O-Acetyl- 3-O-angeloylingenol were evaluated for molluscicidal activity. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol presented LC100 value of 1 mg mL-1, equivalent to that of the standard molluscicide niclosamide. Compounds euphol, 3β-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene and 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol showed low molluscicidal activity. Mutagenic assays (Ames test with strains TA 98, 100 and 102) were performed with 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix). In V79 cells, the cytotoxicity of 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol was evaluated using the MTT assay and the genotoxicity was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) with or without S9 mix. Mutagenic or genotoxic activity was not detected, and no significant cytotoxicity was observed for 3β-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol at lower doses. (author)

  10. Molluscicidal activity of compounds isolated from Euphorbia conspicua N. E. Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Rosalina C.S. [Chemistry Department, Agostinho Neto University, Luanda (Angola); Mendonca, Dina I.M.D. de; Vieira, Liliana, E-mail: disabel@ubi.p [Textile and Paper Materials Center, University of Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Santos, Aldenir F. dos; Silva, Luciana A. da; Sant' Ana, Antonio E.G. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Gaspar, Jorge F.; Martins, Celia; Rueff, Jose [Department of Genetics , Faculty of Medical Sciences, New University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    Euphorbia conspicua latex was fractionated into triterpenic and irritant fractions I and II. The triterpenic fraction afforded 15 known compounds and a new triterpene, 3{beta}-(E)- cinnamoyleuphorbol. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol was isolated from irritant fraction II. The compounds euphol, 3{beta}-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene, 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol and 20-O-Acetyl- 3-O-angeloylingenol were evaluated for molluscicidal activity. 20-O-Acetyl-3-O-angeloylingenol presented LC100 value of 1 mg mL{sup -1}, equivalent to that of the standard molluscicide niclosamide. Compounds euphol, 3{beta}-acetoxyeupha-8,24-diene and 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol showed low molluscicidal activity. Mutagenic assays (Ames test with strains TA 98, 100 and 102) were performed with 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix). In V79 cells, the cytotoxicity of 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol was evaluated using the MTT assay and the genotoxicity was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) with or without S9 mix. Mutagenic or genotoxic activity was not detected, and no significant cytotoxicity was observed for 3{beta}-(E)-cinnamoyleuphorbol at lower doses. (author)

  11. Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Insecticidal Potentials of Oxalis corniculata and Its Isolated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxalis corniculata is a common medicinal plant widely used against numerous infectious diseases. The agrochemical potential of methanolic extract, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions were assessed to measure the antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities of the plant. The crude, chloroform, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed excellent activities against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis but have no activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly the crude, n-hexane, and chloroform fractions were also found to have significant activity against fungal strains including Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flexneri, and Aspergillus flavus and have no activity against Aspergillus niger. Chemical pesticides have shown very good results at the beginning, but with the passage of time the need was realized to use the natural plant sources for the safe control of insects. The current study will provide minor contribution towards it. High mortality rate was recorded for the crude extract and chloroform fraction against Tribolium castaneum. The two isolated compounds 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (1 and 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyflavone (2 were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities. The results showed that compound 2 was more active than compound 1 against the tested bacterial strains and insects.

  12. Isolation of Antioxidant Compound from Endophytic Fungi Acremonium sp. from the Twigs of Kandis Gajah

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    Rizki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungi Chrisonilia sitophila, Acremonium sp., and Penicillium sp. have been isolated from the tissues ofthe twigs of kandis gajah. All of the fungi strains were grown in 3 L potatoe dextrose broth medium (PDB at a roomtemperature for 28 days. To extract the antioxidant compounds, the culture broth were filtered for mycelia removalfollowed by extraction and evaporation. All of the extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. The extract of Acremonium sp. have strong activity withIC50 value of 10.3 μg/mL, which is equivalent to ascorbic acid activity with IC50 value of 9.8 μg/mL. The extract wassubjected to column chromatography on Si gel twice to obtain a high purity antioxidant compound in the form of yellowoil. The molecular structure was determined based on spectroscopic data, including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC,HMBC, and COSY. The compound was determined as sesquiterpene 3,5-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyltrideca-2,9,11-triene-4,8-dione.

  13. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

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    Jamil Maryam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L. used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry. PMID:27191559

  15. 超声波辅助下KHSO4催化胺与α,β-不饱和化合物的Aza-Michael反应研究%Study of Aza-Michael addition of aliphatic amines to α,β-unsaturated compounds catalyzed by a KHSO4 under ultrasound -irradiated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清寒; 赵志刚

    2012-01-01

    The Aza-Michael addition of α β-unsaturated compounds with aliphatic amines under ultrasound irradiation in water and KHSO4 as catalyst at room temperature can afford the corresponding Michael addition products rapidly in high yields. The advantages of this methodology are the experimental simplicity, rapid, selectivity and environmentally benign, which will contribute to the progress of green chemistry. The target compounds were confirmed by MS, IR and 'HNMR data.%超声波辅助条件下,水作溶剂,KHSO4有效的催化了脂肪族胺与α,β-不饱和化合物的Aza-Michael共轭加成反应,快速高收率地得到了Michael加成产物β-氨基化合物.该方法除了实验简单、反应速度快及选择性好外,还对环境友好,有助于绿色化学的进程.所有产物的结构均经质谱、红外光谱和核磁共振氢谱分析进行确证.

  16. Screening and isolation of the algicidal compounds from marine green alga Ulva intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Jin, Haoliang; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Wei; Li, Yahe; Xu, Nianjun

    2016-07-01

    Twenty species of seaweed were collected from the coast of Zhejiang, China, extracted with ethanol, and screened for algicidal activity against red tide microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo and Prorocentrum micans. Inhibitory effects of fresh and dried tißsues of green alga Ulva intestinalis were assessed and the main algicidal compounds were isolated, purified, and identified. Five seaweed species, U. intestinalis, U. fasciata, Grateloupia romosissima, Chondria crassicaulis, and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, were investigated for their algicidal activities. Fresh tissues of 8.0 and 16.0 mg/mL of U. intestinalis dissolved in media significantly inhibited growth of H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Dried tissue and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of U. intestinalis at greater than 1.2 and 0.04 mg/mL, respectively, were fatal to H. akashiwo, while its water and EtOAc extracts in excess of 0.96 and 0.32 mg/mL, respectively, were lethal to P. micans. Three algicidal compounds in the EtOAc extracts were identified as 15-ethoxy-(6z,9z,12z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (I), (6E,9E,12E)-(2-acetoxy- β-D-glucose)-octadecatrienoic acid ester (II) and hexadecanoic acid (III). Of these, compound II displayed the most potent algicidal activity with IC50 values of 4.9 and 14.1 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Compound I showed moderate algicidal activity with IC50 values of 13.4 and 24.7 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. These findings suggested that certain macroalgae or products therefrom could be used as effective biological control agents against red tide algae.

  17. Apoptosis mediated anti-proliferative effect of compound isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves against human colon cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakkirajan, M.; Prabhu, N. M.; Manikandan, R.; Beulaja, M.; Prabhu, D.; Govindaraju, K.; Thiagarajan, R.; Arulvasu, C.; Dhanasekaran, G.; Dinesh, D.; Babu, G.

    2014-06-01

    A compound was isolated from Cassia auriculata leaves and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The in vitro anticancer effect of the compound isolated from C. auriculata was evaluated in human colon cancer cells HCT 15 by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology analysis and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase. The isolated compound 4-(2,5 dichlorobenzyl)-2,3,4,5,6,7 hexahydro7(4 methoxyphenyl)benzo[h][1,4,7] triazecin8(1H)-one showed 50% inhibition of HCT 15 cells when tested at 20 μg/ml after 24 h incubation. Cytotoxicity, nuclear morphology and lactate dehydrogenase assays clearly show potent anticancer activity of the isolated compound against colon cancer. Thus, the in vitro findings suggest that the compound isolated from C. auriculata leaves have potent anti-cancer properties with possible clinical applications.

  18. Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy-Armel Bounda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT, officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment.

  19. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ISOLATED COMPOUND FROM MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA SEEDS GIVES SIGNIFICANT ANALGESIC EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirantan S. Chakma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the analgesic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of isolated compound from M.longifolia seeds in rats and mice model. All three animal groups were administered the aq. and alc.ext of M.longifolia at a dose of 4 mg to 64 mg/kg body weight. The standard drug diclofenac 5 mg/kg b.w is used in three screening method. The paw licking time, tail withdrawal time and chemical writhings in mice both aq. and alc. extracts of M.longifolia prevents significant dose dependent anti-nociceptive effect. Diclofenac 5 mg/kg failed to alter significantly the antinociceptive effect of 16 to 32 mg of both extracts or the effect on chemical assay.

  20. Examinations Of The Matrix Isolation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra Of Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, W. M.

    1989-12-01

    Matrix isolation Fourier transform infrared spectra (MI/FT-IR), mass spectra (MS), carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C-NMR) spectra, condensed phase infrared spectra and vapor phase infrared (IR) spectra are presented for a series of terpene compounds. Subtle differences in positional and configurational isomers commonly found with terpenes could be easily detected by the. MI/FT-IR spqctra. The results are comparable in some aspects to those obtainable from IJC-NMR and thin film IR, however, most importantly, they are acquired at the low nanogram level for MI/FTIR as compared to the milligram level for the other techniques. These results represent an advance in the technology available for the analysis of complex mixtures such as essential oils containing terpene-like molecules.

  1. Goniothalamin, a cytotoxic compound, isolated from Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume Hook. f. & Thomson var. macrophyllus

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    Niwat Keawpradub

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay guided fractionation by brine shrimp lethality test led to isolation of a cytotoxic compound, goniothalamin, from the root and stem of Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume Hook. f. & Thomson var. macrophyllus. Goniothalamin showed a promising cytotoxicity (SRB assay against colon cancer cell line (IC50 = 0.51±0.02 μg/ml, breast cancer cell lines (IC50= 0.95±0.02 μg/ml and lung carcinoma (IC50 = 3.51± 0.03 μg/ml. LDH assay of goniothalamin suggested that it had no toxicity on cell membrane. Cytotoxic evaluation of goniothalamin to normal cell revealed moderate toxicity against skin fibroblast (IC50 = 26.73± 1.92 μg/ml and human fibroblast (IC50 = 11.99±0.15 μg/ml.

  2. Isolation of Streptomyces sp. strain capable of butyltin compounds degradation with high efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Przemysław; Długoński, Jerzy

    2009-11-15

    Dibutyltin (DBT), a widely used plastic stabilizer, has been detected in the environment as well as in human tissues. DBT is considered to be highly neurotoxic and immunotoxic. Hence, DBT needs to be considered as a potential toxic chemical. Degradation of butyltin compounds by Streptomyces sp. isolated from plant waste composting heaps was studied. Glucose grown cells degraded organotin from 10 to 40 mg l(-1). After 1 day of incubation 90% of DBT (added at 20 mg l(-1)) was converted to less toxic derivative--monobutyltin (MBT). DBT metabolism was inhibited by metyrapone addition, a known cytochrome P-450 inhibitor. It could provide evidence that cytochrome P-450 system is involved in DBT metabolism in Streptomyces sp. IM P102. Moreover, according to our knowledge, the degradation of DBT by actinobacterium has not been previously described. PMID:19592163

  3. Anticancer effect of two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong ZHANG; Hai-yan PENG; Guo-hao XIA; Ming-yan WANG; Ying HAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn (Cunabic acid and ent-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid) on the proliferation of Human Liver Cancer (HLC) cell line SMMC-7721 and its mechanism. METHODS: Inhibition of cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. The morphological changes of SMMC-7721 cells were observed under inverted phase-contrast microscope, fluorescent microscope,transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Flow cytometer (FCM) was used to calculate the cell apoptotic rate, and immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the regulation of gene expression. RESULTS: The proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells was obviously inhibited after being treated with Cunabic acid at the concentration >5 μmol/L and ent-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid >10 μmol/L. The biggest inhibitory effect was 81.05 % when treated with Cunabic acid at the concentration of 25 μmol/L. The effect had a linear relationship with concentration. The result indicated that drug-treated cells exhibit typical morphological changes of apoptosis, including condensed chromatin and a reduction in volume. Sub-G0/G1 peak was found by FCM analysis and the cell cycle was arrested at G0/G1 stage. The apoptotic rates of the cells treated by Cunabic acid and ent-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid were 43.31% and 24.95 %, respectively. It was visualized by immunohistochemical staining that the d.rugs down-regulated the gene expression of bcl-2 gene and up-regulated that of bax gene. CONCLUSION: The two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn, Cunabic acid and entkauran-19-al-17-oic acid can obviously inhibit the proliferation of HLC cell line SMMC-7721. The mechanism is correlated with the induction of cell apoptosis by down-regulating the gene expression of bcl-2 gene and upregulating that of bax gene.

  4. Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziola Barry

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though important in the context of food microbiology and as potential pathogens in immuno-compromised humans, bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pediococcus are best known for their association with contamination of ethanol fermentation processes (beer, wine, or fuel ethanol. Use of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin by some industries to combat Pediococcus contaminants is long-standing, yet knowledge about the resistance of pediococci to antimicrobial agents is minimal. Here we examined Pediococcus isolates to determine whether antibiotic resistance is associated with resistance to hops, presence of genes known to correlate with beer spoilage, or with ability to grow in beer. Results Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed.

  5. Proteinase-producing halophilic lactic acid bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation and their ability to produce volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2010-07-15

    Halophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fish sauce mashes fermented at 1 to 12 months. Seven out of sixty-four isolates were selected according to their proteolytic activity and growth at 25% NaCl for characterization and investigation of volatile compound production. All selected isolates were Gram-positive cocci with pairs/tetrads and grew at 0-25% NaCl, pH 4.5-9.0. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 99% homology to Tetragenococcus halophilus ATCC 33315. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of all isolates were also similar to those of T. halophilus ATCC 33315. These isolates were, thus, identified as T. halophilus. All isolates hydrolyzed fish protein in the medium containing 25% NaCl. Intracellular aminopeptidase of 7 isolates exhibited the highest activity of 2.85-3.67 U/ml toward Ala-p-nitroanilide (Ala-pNA). T.halophilus strains MS33 and M11 showed the highest alanyl aminopeptidase activity (Phalophilus MS33 and MRC5-5-2 were 1-propanol, 2-methylpropanal, and benzaldehyde, corresponding to major volatile compounds in fish sauce. T.halophilus appeared to play an important role in volatile compound formation during fish sauce fermentation. PMID:20541276

  6. Effects-driven chemical fractionation of heavy fuel oil to isolate compounds toxic to trout embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Jason M; Adams, Julie; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Hodson, Peter V; Brown, R Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) spills account for approximately 60% of ship-source oil spills and are up to 50 times more toxic than medium and light crude oils. Heavy fuel oils contain elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-PAHs, known to be toxic to fish; however, little direct characterization of HFO toxicity has been reported. An effects-driven chemical fractionation was conducted on HFO 7102 to separate compounds with similar chemical and physical properties, including toxicity, to isolate the groups of compounds most toxic to trout embryos. After each separation, toxicity tests directed the next phase of fractionation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis correlated composition with toxicity, with a focus on PAHs. Low-temperature vacuum distillation permitted the separation of HFO into 3 fractions based on boiling point ranges. The most toxic of these fractions underwent wax precipitation to remove long-chain n-alkanes. The remaining PAH-rich extract was further separated using open column chromatography, which provided distinct fractions that were grouped according to increasing aromatic ring count. The most toxic of these fractions was richest in PAHs and alkyl-PAHs. The results of the present study were consistent with previous crude oil studies that identified PAH-rich fractions as the most toxic.

  7. Chemopreventive Effects of Oplopantriol A, a Novel Compound Isolated from Oplopanax horridus, on Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oplopanax horridus is a North American botanical that has received limited investigations. We previously isolated over a dozen of the constituents from O. horridus, and among them oplopantriol A (OPT A is a novel compound. In this study, we firstly evaluated the in vivo chemoprevention activities of OPT A using the xenograft colon cancer mouse model. Our data showed that this compound significantly suppressed tumor growth with dose-related effects (p < 0.01. Next, we characterized the compound’s growth inhibitory effects in human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT-116 and SW-480. With OPT A treatment, these malignant cells were significantly inhibited in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner (both p < 0.01. The IC50 was approximately 5 µM for HCT-116 and 7 µM for SW-480 cells. OPT A significantly induced apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. From further mechanism explorations, our data showed that OPT A significantly upregulated the expression of a cluster of genes, especially the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and caspase family, suggesting that the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptotic pathway plays a key role in OPT A induced apoptosis.

  8. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Characterization of Wound Healer Compounds from Morus nigra L. (Moraceae

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    Esra Küpeli Akkol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaves and fruits of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae are used for the treatment of wounds especially mouth sore in Turkish traditional medicine. The present study was designed to investigate wound healing activity of M. nigra by using incision and excision wound models. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by Whittle method. Lyophilized fruit extract (MNF displayed significant wound healing activity, while aqueous leaf extract of M. nigra (MNL did not. Through biological activity guided fractionation technique, MNF was subjected to successive solvent extraction. Among the subextracts obtained, n-butanol (MNF-n-BuOH subextract was found to possess wound healing activity. MNF -n-BuOH was subjected Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain three fractions, which then applied to the same biological activity tests. Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from the active fraction and their structures were identified as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, respectively. The isolates were investigated for their in vitro enzyme inhibitory activities.

  9. An experimental evaluation of in vitro immunomodulatory activity of isolated compound of Ricinus communis on human neutrophils

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    Arvind Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the in vitro immunomodulatory activity of Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae was determined on human neutrophils. The isolated compound (tannin of R. communis leaves was screened for its possible immunomodulatory activity by carrying out nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans, neutrophil locomotion and chemotaxis. The isolated compound was tested at concentrations, viz. 10 μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml. The isolated compound of R. communis showed predominantly significant activity on human neutrophils in all the parameters tested, which was comparable to the standard and control at different concentrations, indicating the possible immunostimulating effect.

  10. The polyphasic description of a Desmodesmus spp. isolate with the potential of bioactive compounds production

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    El Semary, NA.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polyphasic approach was applied to describe a colony-forming Desmodesmus species collected from the Nile River, Maadi area, Helwan district, Egypt. The isolate grows best at moderate temperature and relatively high light intensity. The phenotypic features revealed the presence of both unicellular and colonial forms of the isolate and the latter form was either 2-4 celled. Cells were 4-6 mm ± 0.5 at their widest point and 11-15 mm ± 0.48 in their length with spiny projections that encircled the cells. Cells were heavily-granulated and enclosed within common mucilaginous sheath. Colonial forms were developed through production of daughter cells within mother cell. Molecular analysis using 18S rRNA gene showed some similarity to its nearest relative (Desmodesmus communis whereas the phylogenetic analyses clustered it together with other Desmodesmus spp. and away from Scenedesmus spp. from the database. However, the use of ITS-2 as a phylotaxonomic marker proved to be more resolving and confirmed the generic identity of the isolate as Desmodesmus spp. The fatty acid composition revealed the presence of saturated palmitic fatty acid as the most abundant component followed by monounsaturated palmitoleic acid whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids were in relatively low abundance. The palmitoleic acid in particular is suggested to be involved in active defense mechanism. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins and absence of tannins. Fractions of methanolic extracts showed antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacterial strains including multi-drug resistant ones. This study documents the presence of this strain in the River Nile and highlights its biotechnological potential as a source of bioactive compounds.

  11. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of extracts of Tibouchina candolleana (melastomataceae, isolated compounds and semi-synthetic derivatives against endodontic bacteria

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    Fernanda M. dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phytochemical study of the extracts from aerial parts of Tibouchina candolleana as well as the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of extracts, isolated compounds, and semi-synthetic derivatives of ursolic acid against endodontic bacteria. HRGC analysis of the n-hexane extract of T. candolleana allowed identification of b-amyrin, a-amyrin, and b-sitosterol as major constituents. The triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated from the methylene chloride extract and identified. In addition, the flavonoids luteolin and genistein were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified. The antimicrobial activity was investigated via determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC using the broth microdilution method. Amongst the isolated compounds, ursolic acid was the most effective against the selected endodontic bacteria. As for the semi-synthetic ursolic acid derivatives, only the methyl ester derivative potentiated the activity against Bacteroides fragilis.

  12. Polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum:biological activity and structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina Santiago; Lin Sun; Murray Herbert Gibson Munro; Jacinta Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum. Methods: Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database. Results: Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated from the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%) and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone was inactive against the tested targets. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi.

  13. Pharmacological evaluation of the semi-purified fractions from the soft coral Eunicella singularis and isolation of pure compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Deghrigue, Monia; Festa, Carmen; Ghribi, Lotfi; D’auria, Maria Valeria; De Marino, Simona; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Ben Said, Rafik; Bouraoui, Abderrahman

    2014-01-01

    Background Gorgonians of the genus Eunicella are known for possessing a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antiproliferative and antibacterial effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effect of the organic extract and its semi-purified fractions from the white gorgonian Eunicella singularis and the isolation and identification of pure compound(s) from the more effective fraction. Methods Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated, us...

  14. Antidiabetic Effect of Oral Borapetol B Compound, Isolated from the Plant Tinospora crispa, by Stimulating Insulin Release

    OpenAIRE

    Lokman, Faradianna E.; Gu, Harvest F.; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Keh Leong Chia; Claes-Göran Östenson

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the antidiabetic properties of borapetol B known as compound 1 (C1) isolated from Tinospora crispa in normoglycemic control Wistar (W) and spontaneously type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Methods. The effect of C1 on blood glucose and plasma insulin was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. The effect of C1 on insulin secretion was assessed by batch incubation and perifusion experiments using isolated pancreatic islets. Results. An acute oral administration of C1...

  15. IN-SITU AQUIFER RESTORATION OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATICS BY METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated the potential of enhanced in-situ biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents by a bacterial community grown on methane under aerobic conditions. The target chlorinated compounds were trichloroethene (TCE), cis-and trans-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE), an...

  16. Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahuman, A; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of A. indicum. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. indicum led to the separation and identification of a beta-sitosterol as a potential new mosquito larvicidal compound with LC50 value of 11.49, 3.58 and 26.67 ppm against Aedes aegypti L, Anopheles stephensi Liston and C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. beta-sitosterol has been recognized as the active ingredient of many medicinal plant extracts. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated toxicity against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. This article reports the isolation and identification of the beta-sitosterol as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. There are no reports of beta-sitosterol in the genus A. indicum, and their larvicidal activities are being evaluated for the first time. Results of this study show that the petroleum ether extract of A. indicum may be considered as a potent source and beta-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:18176816

  17. Hemolytic and cytotoxic effects of saponin like compounds isolated from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocoma erinaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaheh Amini; Mohammad Nabiuni; Javad Baharara; Kazem Parivar; Javad Asili

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and characterize the saponin from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocomaerinaceus Methods: In an attempt to prepare saponin from brittle star, collected samples were minced and extracted with ethanol, dichloromethane, n-buthanol. Then, concentrated n-butanol extract were loaded on HP-20 resin and washed with dionized water, 80% ethanol and 100%ethanol respectively. Subsequently, detection of saponin was performed by foaming property, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hemolytic analysis on thin layer chromatography. The cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells was evaluated through 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay and under invert microscopy.Results:) and to evaluate its hemolytic and cytotoxic potential. method. The presence of C-H bond, C-O-C and OH in fourier transform infrared spectrum of fraction 80% ethanol is characteristic feature in the many of saponin compounds. Hemolytic assay revealed HD50 value was 500 µg/mL. MTT assay exhibited that saponin extracted in IC50 value of 25 µg/mL inducsd potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells in 24 h and 12.5 µg/mL in 48 h, meanwhile in lower concentration did not have considerable effect against HeLa cells.Conclusions:The existence of saponin in Ophiocoma erinaceus were approved by phytochemical These findings showed that only 80% ethanol fraction Persian Gulf brittle star contained saponin like compounds with hemolytic activity which can be detected simply by phytochemical that can be appreciable for future anticancer research.

  18. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  19. Microbial degradation of aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Kato, Satoshi; Shintani, Noboru; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Biodegradable plastics (BPs) have attracted much attention since more than a decade because they can easily be degraded by microorganisms in the environment. The development of aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability and an ideal replacement for the conventional nondegradable thermoplastics. The microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various aliphatic, aromatic, and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyester-degrading microorganisms and their enzymes have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. In this review, we have reported some new microorganisms and their enzymes which could degrade various aliphatic, aromatic, as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters like poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) (PBSA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydoxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalterate) (PHB/PHBV), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT), poly(butylene succinate-co-terephthalate) (PBST), and poly(butylene succinate/terephthalate/isophthalate)-co-(lactate) (PBSTIL). The mechanism of degradation of aliphatic as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has also been discussed. The degradation ability of microorganisms against various polyesters might be useful for the treatment and recycling of biodegradable wastes or bioremediation of the polyester-contaminated environments. PMID:24522729

  20. ANTI PEPTIC ULCER ACTTIVITY OF AN ISOLATED COMPOUND (AS–1) FROM THE LEAVES OF Amaranthus spinosus L.

    OpenAIRE

    DEBIPRASAD GHOSH; PRASENJIT MITRA; TANAYA GHOSH; PRASANTA KUMAR MITRA

    2013-01-01

    An active compound (AS-1) was isolated from the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus L. and its antiulcer activity was studied against ethanol induced gastric ulcer and cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in albino rats. Significant antiulcer activity of AS-1 was observed in all the models. AS-1 thus provides a scientific rationale for the use as antiulcer drug.

  1. Chemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the resin Ladano, of its essential oil and of the isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, C; Stahl, B; Anastassaki, T; Gazouli, M; Tzouvelekis, L S; Rallis, M

    1999-02-01

    Fractionation of the resin Ladano from Cistus creticus subsp. creticus and susceptibility testing using the chromatographic fractions showed that its antistaphylococcal activity was mainly due to the diterpene sclareol. The antimicrobial activity of its essential oil, of the chromatographic fractions, and of the isolated compounds was also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus hominis. PMID:10083849

  2. Isolation and structural elucidation of cytotoxic compounds from the root bark of Diospyros quercina (Baill.) endemic to Madagascar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatiany Pierre Ruphin; Robijaona Baholy; Randrianarivo Emmanuel; Raharisololalao Amelie; Marie-Therese Martin; Ngbolua Kotote-Nyiwa

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and characterize the cytotoxic compounds from Diospyros quercina (Baill.) G.E. Schatz&Lowry (Ebenaceae). Methods: An ethno-botanical survey was conducted in the south of Madagascar from July to August 2010. Bio-guided fractionation assay was carried out on the root bark of Diospyros quercina, using cytotoxicity bioassay on murine P388 leukemia cell lines as model. The structures of the cytotoxic compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Results: Biological experiments resulted in the isolation of three bioactive pure compounds (named TR-21, TR-22, and TR-23) which exhibited very good in vitro cytotoxic activities with the IC50 values of (0.017 5±0.0060) µg/mL, (0.089±0.005) µg/mL and (1.027±0.070) µg/mL respectively. Thus, they support the claims of traditional healers and suggest the possible correlation between the chemical composition of this plant and its wide use in Malagasy folk medicine to treat cancer. Conclusions:The ability of isolated compounds in this study to inhibit cell growth may represent a rational explanation for the use of Diospyros quercina root bark in treating cancer by Malagasy traditional healers. Further studies are, therefore, necessary to evaluate the in vivo anti-neoplastic activity of these cytotoxic compounds as effective anticancer drugs.

  3. Anti-oxidative and cholinesterase inhibitory effects of leaf extracts and their isolated compounds from two closely related Croton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Croton gratissimus and Croton zambesicus (subgratissimus) and compounds isolated from the extracts was carried out to determine their potential and suitability or otherwise as a substitute for each other in the management of oxidative and neurodegenerative conditions. Different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene-linoleic and the lipid peroxidation models) and the microplate assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were carried out separately to study the activities of the crude leaf extracts and four solvent fractions from each of the two Croton species. Bioassay guided fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the crude extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of 20% aqueous methanol extract of C. gratissimus on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns resulted in the isolation of kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2), apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3) and kampferol (4). The extract of C. zambesicus yielded quercetin-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether (helichrysoside- 3'-methyl ether, 1), kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3). Three of the isolated compounds and their different combinations were also included in the bioassays. In all the assays performed, the antioxidant capacity and AChE inhibitory effects of C. zambesicus extracts were weaker than those of C. gratissimus. This suggests that C. gratissimus may not be substituted by C. zambesicus, despite the similarity in some of their constituents. Generally, the combinations made from the isolated compounds showed better activities in most of the assays compared to the individual isolated compounds. This suggests mechanisms such as synergism and/or additive effects to be taking place. This study established low, moderate and high antioxidant

  4. Anti-oxidative and cholinesterase inhibitory effects of leaf extracts and their isolated compounds from two closely related Croton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Croton gratissimus and Croton zambesicus (subgratissimus) and compounds isolated from the extracts was carried out to determine their potential and suitability or otherwise as a substitute for each other in the management of oxidative and neurodegenerative conditions. Different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene-linoleic and the lipid peroxidation models) and the microplate assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were carried out separately to study the activities of the crude leaf extracts and four solvent fractions from each of the two Croton species. Bioassay guided fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the crude extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of 20% aqueous methanol extract of C. gratissimus on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns resulted in the isolation of kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2), apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3) and kampferol (4). The extract of C. zambesicus yielded quercetin-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether (helichrysoside- 3'-methyl ether, 1), kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3). Three of the isolated compounds and their different combinations were also included in the bioassays. In all the assays performed, the antioxidant capacity and AChE inhibitory effects of C. zambesicus extracts were weaker than those of C. gratissimus. This suggests that C. gratissimus may not be substituted by C. zambesicus, despite the similarity in some of their constituents. Generally, the combinations made from the isolated compounds showed better activities in most of the assays compared to the individual isolated compounds. This suggests mechanisms such as synergism and/or additive effects to be taking place. This study established low, moderate and high antioxidant

  5. Anti-Oxidative and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Leaf Extracts and Their Isolated Compounds from Two Closely Related Croton Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Van Staden

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Croton gratissimus and Croton zambesicus (subgratissimus and compounds isolated from the extracts was carried out to determine their potential and suitability or otherwise as a substitute for each other in the management of oxidative and neurodegenerative conditions. Different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene-linoleic and the lipid peroxidation models and the microplate assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition were carried out separately to study the activities of the crude leaf extracts and four solvent fractions from each of the two Croton species. Bioassay guided fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the crude extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of 20% aqueous methanol extract of C. gratissimus on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns resulted in the isolation of kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2, apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3 and kampferol (4. The extract of C. zambesicus yielded quercetin-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether (helichrysoside- 3'-methyl ether, 1, kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2 and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3. Three of the isolated compounds and their different combinations were also included in the bioassays. In all the assays performed, the antioxidant capacity and AChE inhibitory effects of C. zambesicus extracts were weaker than those of C. gratissimus. This suggests that C. gratissimus may not be substituted by C. zambesicus, despite the similarity in some of their constituents. Generally, the combinations made from the isolated compounds showed better activities in most of the assays compared to the individual isolated compounds. This suggests mechanisms such as synergism and/or additive effects to be taking place. This study established low, moderate and high

  6. Tritium isolation from lithium inorganic compounds applicable to thermonuclear reactor breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium separation from inorganic lithium compounds: Li2O, LiAlO2, Li2SiO3, Li4SiO4, LiF, LiBeF3, Li2BeF4 irradiated with a beam of a gamma facility and a nuclear reactor, has been studied. In the first case the gas phase is absent. In the latter one- the tritium amount in the gas does not exceed 1-2% of its total amount in the salt. Based on the EPR spectra of irradiated salts the concentrations of paramagnetic centres are calculated. It is shown that during thermal annealing the main portion of tritium in the gas phase is in the form of oxide (HTO, T2O). Tritium is separated from lithium fluoroberyllates in the form of hydrogen (HT, T2). The kinetics of tritium oxide isolation from irradiated lithium oxide aluminate, metha- and orthosilicates, lithium sulphate has been studied. The activation energies of tritium oxide separation process are presented. A supposition is made that chemical reaction of the HTO (T2O) or HT(T2) or HF(TF) formation is a limiting stage. Clarification of the process stage limiting the rate of tritium recovery will permit to evaluate conditions for the optimum work of lithium material in the blanket, lithium zone to select the lithium element structure and temperature regime of irradiation

  7. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds That Relate to the Anti-Platelet Activity of Cymbopogon ambiguus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Darren Grice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infusions and decoctions of Cymbopogon ambiguus have been used traditionally in Australia for the treatment of headache, chest infections and muscle cramps. The aim of the present study was to screen and identify bioactive compounds from C. ambiguus that could explain this plant’s anti-headache activity. A dichloromethane extract of C. ambiguus was identified as having activity in adenosine-diphosphate-induced human platelet aggregation and serotonin-release inhibition bioassays. Subsequent fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of four phenylpropenoids, eugenol, elemicin, eugenol methylether and trans-isoelemicin. While both eugenol and elemicin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet serotonin release, only eugenol displayed potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 46.6 μM, in comparison to aspirin, with an IC50 value of 46.1 μM. These findings provide evidence to support the therapeutic efficacy of C. ambiguus in the non-conventional treatment of headache and inflammatory conditions.

  8. Selectivity of compounds isolated from the leaves of Nerium indicum Mill. on various human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae, S H W; Sofia, M; Bolhuis, R L H; Nooter, K; Oostrum, R G; Subagus, W; Ibnu, G G

    2008-07-01

    The leaves of Nerium indicum Mill. have been utilized traditionally to cure cancer. By Bioassay (BST) guided isolation method, six compounds were isolated from the CHCl3 extract of the leaves. Selectivity of these compounds (in 0.6-12,500 ng/ml) was tested on various human cancer (MCF7, EVSA-T, T47D, H226, IGROV, A498, WIDR, M19, HeLa) and normal (Vero) cells in vitro. Doxorubicin and cysplatin were used as positive controls. The result indicated that NiO2D (5alpha-oleandrin) possessed the best cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells (IC50, 8.38 x10(-6) mM) and NiO2C (16, 17-dehidrodeasetil-5alpha-oleandrin) on A498 cells (IC50, 1.43 x 10(-6) mM). Those two compounds were not cytotoxic to normal cell. PMID:19024965

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Potential Bioactive Compounds from Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv Stringy Seed Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T JN Okonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv, a tropical climber, is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Among other uses, it is utilized in the management of malaria and inflammatory related diseases in ethno medicine. Thus its stringy seed pulp (LOSSP was subjected to isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds. A fresh portion of LOSSP was air-dried, pulverized, defatted with petroleum ether and subsequently extracted with acetone and distilled water successively. The acetone extract was fractionated serially into chloroform, ethylacetate and acetone to obtain the respective solvent fractions. LOSSP/CF-1 was obtained by re-crystallization of the chloroform fraction. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts and fractions was performed using standard methods. The chemical structure of LOSSP/CF-1 was elucidated by ultraviolet/visible light, infrared, H-NMR, C-NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. While the flavonoid concentrate (FC and LOSSP/CF-1 tested positive to 2, 2-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl radical and KMnO4 assays, indicating strong antioxidant properties. In addition, LOSSP/CF-1 expressed a 50% radical inhibition concentration (IC50 of 238.24 ± 3.12 µg/ml against gallic acid (37.63 ± 0.47 µg/ml. Ultraviolet/visible light, infrared, H-NMR, C-NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of LOSSP/CF-1 indicated it to be ascorbic acid. This is novel for the herb, and the first ever compound isolated and characterized from L. owariensis. Flavonoids and LOSSP/CF-1 (ascorbic acid are potent bioactive principles of L. owariensis, acting via antioxidant mechanism. Thus the herb is recommended for use as an adjuvant in the management of diseases involving pro-oxidative state.   Industrial relevance. Pro-oxidative state-induced disorders like hepatitis, cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, cancer, et c., have been identified as major course of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, especially in

  10. Characterization of an Antibacterial Compound, 2-Hydroxyl Indole-3-Propanamide, Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevaratnam, Kadirvelu; Vidhyasagar, Venkatasubramanian; Agaliya, Perumal Jayaprabha; Saraniya, Appukuttan; Umaiyaparvathy, Muthukandan

    2015-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are known to produce numerous antimicrobial compounds that are active against various pathogens. Here, we have purified and characterized a novel low-molecular-weight (LMW) antimicrobial compound produced by Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolated from fermented idly and uttapam batter. The LMW compound was extracted from cell-free supernatant using ice-cold acetone, purified by gel permeation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria sparing the probiotic strains like Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The molecular weight of the LMW compound was identified as 204 Da using LC-MS-ESI. In addition, the structure of the compound was predicted using spectroscopic methods like FTIR and NMR and identified as 2-hydroxyl indole-3-propanamide. The LMW compound was differentiated from its related compound, tryptophan, by Salkowski reaction and thin-layer chromatography. This novel LMW compound, 2-hydroxyl indole-3-propanamide, may have an effective application as an antibiotic which can spare prevailing probiotic organisms but target only the pathogenic strains.

  11. Isolation and identification of MDR-Mycobacterium tuberculosis and screening of partially characterised antimycobacterial compounds from chosen marine micro algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash S; Sasikala SL; Aldous V Huxley J

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To isolate the multiple drug resistance(MDR)Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and to screen for the bioactive compounds extracted from marine microalgae. Methods: Sixty seven collected samples that were confirmed by16S rDNA analysis as positive withM. tuberculosis infection were subjected to sensitivity test against commercially used front line and second line drugs by absolute concentration method using LJ slants. Seven bacterial isolates numberedI-78, I-101, I-127, I-173, I-202, I-262, I-327showed resistant for more than3 drugs were considered asMDRM. tuberculosis. Thus the percentage of10.4 were recordedMDR-TB. Fifteen marine micro algal extracts were screened for antimycobacterial activity and partial characterization of the active principles was done.Results:The percentage contribution of marine micro algal species on the extraction of antimycobacterials indicatedIsochrysis galbana (I. galbana)contain rich bioactive compounds and accounted for 60% inhibition of the total isolates. The percentage contribution of solvents on the extraction of antimicrobials fromI. galbana showed that the methanol, chloroform, n-Butanol showed maximum of extraction. The purified eluted compounds (Rf0.43) from TLC plate were chromatographed by gas chromatography. The eluted sterol compounds showed13 unsaturated sterols with 3 major sterols.Conclusions: The present study indicates the presence of unsaturated fatty acids may have the effect onMDRM. tuberculosis, indicating a potential natural alternative to antibiotics.

  12. Polarized Raman spectra and intensities of aliphatic amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmler, Hans J.; Eysel, Hans H.

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectra of aliphatic α- L-amino acids, glycine, alanine, and valine were re-investigated both in aqueous solution and deuterium oxide solution. The spectra were taken of the zwitterionic and of the completely deprotonated form of the amino acids. Spectra of leucine and isoleucine were studied in water at the isoelectric point. Spectra were recorded both with parallel and perpendicular polarization and the isotropic and anisotropic scattering components were isolated. The integrated intensities of CH stretch, CC stretch and carboxylate bend vibrations are discussed. Linear relations between the number of CC and CH bonds and the total scattered intensity in the appropriate spectral regions are observed. The sum over the carboxylate modes shows characteristic intensities for the first three members of the aliphatic amino acids. An increase of isotropic scattering of ϱ co 2 near 510 cm -1 with increasing chain length of the amino acid (or with increasing concentration) is interpreted as the result of micelle formation.

  13. A biocatalytic approach towards sustainable furanic-aliphatic polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi; Woortman, Albert J. J.; van Ekenstein, Gert O. R. Alberda; Loos, Katja

    2015-01-01

    An eco-friendly approach towards furanic-aliphatic polyesters as sustainable alternatives to aromatic-aliphatic polyesters is presented. In this approach, biobased dimethyl 2,5-furandicarboxylate (DMFDCA) is polymerized with various (potentially) renewable aliphatic diols via Candida antarctica Lipa

  14. polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum:biological activity and structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolina; Santiago; Lin; Sun; Murray; Herbert; Gibson; Munro; Jacinta; Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp.fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum.Methods:Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate.This was followed by hioaclivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography.The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi.Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial,antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis,mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database.Results:Three known compounds,namely 4—hydroxymellein,4,8—dihydroxy—6—melhoxy—3—methyl—3,4-dihydro—1H-isochromen-1—one and 1—(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone,were isolated from the fungus.The polyketide compound 4—hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells(94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus sublilis(97.3%).Meanwhile.4,8—dihydroxy-6—melhoxy—3—meth) 1—3,4-dihydro—1H—isochromen—1-one,a benzopyran compound,demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells(48.8%)and the fungus Aspergillus niger(56.1%).The second polyketide compound.1(2,6—dihydroxyphenyl)ethanone was inactive against the tested targets.Conclusions:These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers ol pharmacologically important compounds,including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi.

  15. Identification, isolation and characterization of active compounds from the Indian green mussels to develop drugs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Recent studies showed that green mussel is not only an inexpensive source of protein for human consumption but also possess some complex bioactive compounds that have tremendous potential in medicine. Two compounds identified, (NIO-1 and NIO-2...

  16. Structure Elucidation of A New Coumarin Type Compound, Alternamin, Isolated from the Plant (Murraya Alternans (Kurz) Swingle) Having The Antidote Activity on Snake Venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a new coumarin type compound isolated from the entitled species was elucidated by the full spectral analysis consisting of FTIR, 1H NMR, DQF COSY, 13C NMR, DEPT, EIMS (HR-EIMS), HMQC and HMBC. The antidote activities of the fresh juice and the ethanolic extract of the plant, and the isolated compound alternamin were also determined

  17. ISOLATION AND GENERAL DISCRIPTION OF WATER-SOLUBLE COMPOUNDS OF MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS L.

    OpenAIRE

    Людмила Михайловна Федосеева; Татьяна Анатольевна Харлампович

    2013-01-01

    The component composition of water-soluble compounds of melilotus officinalis L. was examined was examined with the help by physicochemical method. The quantitative compound of polysaccharides, amino acids, phenolic compounds in water extraction was determined. The quantitative and qualitative composition of monosaccharides of water-soluble carbohydrate complex and amino acids was determined by HPLC method. The characterization tannins of was given.

  18. Evaluation of Mixed Probiotic Starter Cultures Isolated from Kimchi on Physicochemical and Functional Properties, and Volatile Compounds of Fermented Hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Chul; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chin, Koo Bok

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed starter cultures isolated from kimchi on physicochemical properties, functionality and flavors of fermented ham. Physicochemical properties, microbial counts, shear force, cholesterol contents and volatile compounds of fermented ham were investigated during processing (curing and ripening time). Curing process for 7 d increased saltiness, however, decreased hunter color values (L, a, and b values). Ripening process for 21 d increased most parameters, such as saltiness, color values, weight loss, shear force and cholesterol content due to the drying process. The mixed starter culture had higher lactic acid bacteria than the commercial one. While eight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during curing process, total fiftyeight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during ripening process. The main volatile compounds were alcohols, esters and furans. However, no differences in volatile compounds were observed between two batches. Fermented hams (batch B) manufactured with probiotic starter culture (LPP) had higher sensory score in texture, color and overall acceptability than counterparts (batch A), while the opposite trend was observed in flavor. Therefore, mixed probiotic starter culture isolated from kimchi might be used as a starter culture to be able to replace with commercial starter culture (LK-30 plus) for the manufacture of fermented ham. PMID:27499673

  19. Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Hypericum polyanthemum extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnin, Simone Tasca; Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Cibulski, Samuel; Cassel, Eduardo; Vargas, Rubem Mário Figueiró; Montanha, Jarbas; Roehe, Paulo; Tasca, Tiana; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2013-04-01

    The anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Hypericum polyanthemum extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (50°C, 150bar) and the chemical compounds isolated and purified from this extract (benzopyrans HP1, HP2, HP3, and phloroglucinol derivative uliginosin B) were assessed. All samples had anti-T. vaginalis activity; however, HP1 demonstrated the best selectivity against this protozoan (metronidazole-resistant and susceptible isolates), with no cytotoxicity on mammalian cells (selectivity index of 73.97). Moreover, HP1 had activity against a metronidazole-resistant isolate (52% of viable trophozoites), and this effect was higher when tested with a low concentration of metronidazole (23% of viable trophozoites). Experiments demonstrated that all isolated compounds caused damage to the parasites' membrane (>90% of LDH release) and do not present a notable hemolytic effect, although HP2 and uliginosin B exhibited cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Therefore, the analyzed molecules are promising prototypes for new antiprotozoal drugs, especially HP1, which seems to improve metronidazole's effect on a resistant T. vaginalis isolate.

  20. Tanjungides A and B: New Antitumoral Bromoindole Derived Compounds from Diazona cf formosa. Isolation and Total Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Murcia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanjungides A (1 (Z isomer and B (2 (E isomer, two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey’s analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines.

  1. Tanjungides A and B: new antitumoral bromoindole derived compounds from Diazona cf formosa. isolation and total synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Carmen; Coello, Laura; Fernández, Rogelio; Martín, María Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Francesch, Andrés; Munt, Simon; Cuevas, Carmen

    2014-02-21

    Tanjungides A (1) (Z isomer) and B (2) (E isomer), two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey's analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using methyl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate as starting material and a linear sequence of 11 chemical steps. Tanjungides A and B exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines.

  2. Isolation and Identification of Active Compound Cause Light Emmitting of Bacterial Photobacterium phosphoreum Isolated from the Indonesia Jepara Marine Squid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idam Arif

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This research carried out to study the bioluminescence process of bacterial Photobacterium phosphoreum isolated from Indonesia marine squid. The method used in the present study involved isolation, purification, electrophoresis, and the absorbance and light intensity measurement. This result show that the luciferace enzyme of bacterial Photobacterium phosphoreum or called LBPP catalyzes the emission of visible light from the reaction of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2, molecular oxygen (O2, and an aldehyde (RCOH. The electrophoresis data show that LBPP comprised of two different subunits α and βwith 41kD and 38 kD molecular weights. The absorb pattern showed that the bioluminescence process centered around 516 nm and are consistent with the fluorescence data. This result concluded that the excitation state formed after LBPP bind subtracts and the ground state formed after LBPP releases product and visible light.

  3. Isolation of bioactive antioxidant compounds from the aerial parts ofAllium roseum var.grandiflorum subvar.typicum Regel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lamia Sakka Rouis-Soussi; Asma El Ayeb; Saoussen Ben Salem; Hichem Ben Jannet; Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antioxidant activity of aerial parts ofAllium roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. (A. roseumvar.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel.) for the first time, as well as to isolate the main bioactive compounds. Methods: The chloroformic extract ofAllium roseum(A. roseum) and their fractions obtained by subjection to a chromatographic study were tested for their antioxidant activities by using 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays. An activity-guided purification was conducted to isolate five compounds in pure form where their structures were identified by means of nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Results:The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of chloroformic extract and their fractions fromA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. showed interesting results. The active chloroformic extract afforded five isolated compounds where their structures were identified asβ-sitosterol (1), chrysoeriol (2), luteolin (3), apigenin (4), andβ-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucoside (5). All the compounds were isolated for the first time from theA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. The three flavonoids (2–4) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 62.28, 21.26 and 513.42μg/mL, respectively (2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay) and 218.00, 73.50 and 877.66μg/mL, respectively [2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay]. An important value of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (2.10 mmol/L) was reported for luteolin (3). Conclusions:These results may suggest that theA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. have great potential as a source of a natural preservative ingredient in beneficial for natural health products.

  4. Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Lignin of Empty Bunch Palm Fiber and Their Effects on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prayuwidayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of bioactive compounds isolated from purified lignin formacell (PLF of empty bunch palm fiber as natural antimicrobes and their effects on in vitro rumen fermentation. The first experiment was inhibition test of 11 bioactive compounds isolated from PLF, using disc diffusion method against the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the most potential bioactive compounds were then used in the second experiment, which was an in vitro test using fresh rumen liquid of Ongole grade beef cattle, to study their effects on rumen fermentation. Six treatments with 3 replications were applied in a completely randomized block (CRB design. The treatments were R0= 0.5 g basal diet; R1= R0 + 0.3 mg Rumensin®; R2= R0 + 0.3 mg syringaldehyde; R3= R0 + 0.3 mg p-hydroxybenzoic acid; R4= R0 + 0.3 mg m-hydroxybenzoic acid; and R5= R0 + 0.3 mg oxybenzene. Isolate fraction of CC-2 (syringaldehyde, CC-3 (m-hydroxybenzoic acid, VLC-5 (oxybenzene, and VLC-9 (p-hydroxybenzoic acid exhibited antimicrobes activity against all tested bacteria. Other isolated fractions exhibited antimicrobes activity only against 1 or 2 tested bacteria. The use of syringaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, and oxybenzene improved ammonia concentration, microbial protein synthesis, and nutrients digestibility. Bioactive compounds had no effect on rumen pH but reduced total VFA concentration as well as the estimate of methane production.

  5. Effects of benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine compounds on the GABA-induced response in frog isolated sensory neurones.

    OpenAIRE

    Yakushiji, T; Fukuda, T.; Oyama, Y.; Akaike, N.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine compounds on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced chloride current (ICl) were studied in frog isolated sensory neurones by use of a concentration-jump (termed 'concentration-clamp') technique, under single-electrode voltage-clamp conditions. The drugs used were classified into four categories as follows: full benzodiazepine receptor agonists (diazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, midazolam, clotiazepam and etizolam), partial agonists ...

  6. Anti-Oxidative and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Effects of Leaf Extracts and Their Isolated Compounds from Two Closely Related Croton Species

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes van Staden; Bhekumthetho Ncube; Mutalib A. Aderogba; Ndhlala, Ashwell R.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Croton gratissimus and Croton zambesicus (subgratissimus) and compounds isolated from the extracts was carried out to determine their potential and suitability or otherwise as a substitute for each other in the management of oxidative and neurodegenerative conditions. Different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene-linoleic and the lipid peroxidation models) and the microplate...

  7. Inhibitory activity of compounds isolated from Polymnia sonchifolia on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus

    OpenAIRE

    Pak Adriana; Gonçalez Edlayne; Felicio Joana D'arc; Pinto Marina Mori; Rossi Maria Helena; Simoni Isabela Cristina; Lopes Márcia Nasser

    2006-01-01

    Polymnia sonchifolia, commonly known as ";yacon";, was originally cultivated at Andes moutains in South America. Recently, the specie attracted worldwide attention because of its wide range of uses, for example in the control of diabetes melitus, besides the antifungal and pesticidal compounds were found in the leaves. This study describes the identification of two flavonoids: 3', 5, 7 trihydroxy-3, 4'-dimethoxyflavone (compound 1) and 3', 4', 5- trihydroxy-7-methoxy flavanone (compound 2) an...

  8. ISOLATION AND GENERAL DISCRIPTION OF WATER-SOLUBLE COMPOUNDS OF MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Михайловна Федосеева

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The component composition of water-soluble compounds of melilotus officinalis L. was examined was examined with the help by physicochemical method. The quantitative compound of polysaccharides, amino acids, phenolic compounds in water extraction was determined. The quantitative and qualitative composition of monosaccharides of water-soluble carbohydrate complex and amino acids was determined by HPLC method. The characterization tannins of was given.

  9. Antidermatophytic and Toxicological Evaluations of Dichloromethane-Methanol Extract, Fractions and Compounds Isolated from Coula edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean De Dieu Tamokou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae, is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25-38 m. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v. The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml. Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml. The median lethal doses (LD50 of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05 changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (≥ 200 mg/kg BW, the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities

  10. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Donlaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications. PMID:21339978

  11. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The objective of this work was to detoxify J. curcas seed cake and study the toxin, anti-nutritional factors and also functional properties of the protein isolated from the detoxified seed cake. The yield of protein isolate was approximately 70.9%. The protein isolate was obtained without a detectable level of phorbol esters. The solubility of the protein isolate was maximal at pH 12.0 and minimal at pH 4.0. The water and oil binding capacities of the protein isolate were 1.76 g water/g protein and 1.07 mL oil/g protein, respectively. The foam capacity and stability, including emulsion activity and stability of protein isolate, had higher values in a range of basic pHs, while foam and emulsion stabilities decreased with increasing time. The results suggest that the detoxified J. curcas seed cake has potential to be exploited as a novel source of functional protein for food applications.

  12. Optimal dosing regimen of nitric oxide donor compounds for the reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm and isolates from wastewater membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Robert J; Bandi, Ratnaharika R; Wong, Wee Seng; Barraud, Nicolas; McDougald, Diane; Fane, Anthony; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Membrane fouling by bacterial biofilms remains a key challenge for membrane-based water purification systems. Here, the optimal biofilm dispersal potential of three nitric oxide (NO) donor compounds, viz. sodium nitroprusside, 6-(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-nitrosohydrazino)-N-methyl-1-hexanamine (MAHMA NONOate) and 1-(hydroxy-NNO-azoxy)-L-proline, disodium salt, was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as a model organism. Dispersal was quantitatively assessed by confocal microscopy [bacterial cells and the components of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (polysaccharides and extracellular DNA)] and colony-forming unit counts. The three NO donor compounds had different optimal exposure times and concentrations, with MAHMA NONOate being the optimal NO donor compound. Biofilm dispersal correlated with a reduction in both bacterial cells and EPS. MAHMA NONOate also reduced single species biofilms formed by bacteria isolated from industrial membrane bioreactor and reverse osmosis membranes, as well as in isolates combined to generate mixed species biofilms. The data present strong evidence for the application of these NO donor compounds for prevention of biofouling in an industrial setting.

  13. Methanobactin: a copper binding compound having antibiotic and antioxidant activity isolated from methanotrophic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSpirito, Alan A.; Zahn, James A.; Graham, David W.; Kim, Hyung J.; Alterman, Michail; Larive, Cynthia

    2007-04-03

    A means and method for treating bacterial infection, providing antioxidant activity, and chelating copper using a copper binding compound produced by methanotrophic bacteria is described. The compound, known as methanobactin, is the first of a new class of antibiotics having gram-positive activity. Methanobactin has been sequenced, and its structural formula determined.

  14. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 have distinct functions in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sixue; Glawischnig, Erich; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Naur, Peter; Jørgensen, Bodil; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Hansen, Carsten H; Rasmussen, Hasse; Pickett, John A; Halkier, Barbara A

    2003-03-01

    Cytochromes P450 of the CYP79 family catalyze the conversion of amino acids to oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a group of natural plant products known to be involved in plant defense and as a source of flavor compounds, cancer-preventing agents and bioherbicides. We report a detailed biochemical analysis of the substrate specificity and kinetics of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, two cytochromes P450 involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using recombinant CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, we show that CYP79F1 metabolizes mono- to hexahomomethionine, resulting in both short- and long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates. In contrast, CYP79F2 exclusively metabolizes long-chain elongated penta- and hexahomomethionines. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 are spatially and developmentally regulated, with different gene expression patterns. CYP79F2 is highly expressed in hypocotyl and roots, whereas CYP79F1 is strongly expressed in cotyledons, rosette leaves, stems, and siliques. A transposon-tagged CYP79F1 knockout mutant completely lacks short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, but has an increased level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, especially in leaves and seeds. The level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates in a transposon-tagged CYP79F2 knockout mutant is substantially reduced, whereas the level of short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates is not affected. Biochemical characterization of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, and gene expression analysis, combined with glucosinolate profiling of knockout mutants demonstrate the functional role of these enzymes. This provides valuable insights into the metabolic network leading to the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates, and into metabolic engineering of altered aliphatic glucosinolate profiles to improve nutritional value and pest resistance. PMID:12609033

  15. Isolation, Purification, and Structural Identification of an Antifungal Compound from a Trichoderma Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong-Wei; Song, Rui-Qing; Yang, Li-Bin; Deng, Xun

    2015-08-01

    Trichoderma strain T-33 has been demonstrated to have inhibitory effect on the fungus species Cytospora chrysosperma. Here, an active antifungal compound was obtained from Trichoderma strain T-33 extract via combined separation technologies, including organic solvent extraction, liquid chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography. The purified compound was further characterized by advanced analytical technologies to elucidate its chemical structure. Results indicated that the active antifungal compound in Trichoderma strain T-33 extract is 2,5- cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione-2,6-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl).

  16. Antifungal activity of natural compounds against Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Oro

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Therefore, all natural compounds evaluated in this study, especially C. zeylanicum essential oil, may become promising agents for oral candidiasis therapy including in HIV-positive patients.

  17. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

    2010-01-13

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  18. Antibacterial activity of the alkaloid extract and isolated compounds from Croton bonplandianum Baill. (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, A.; J. BARUA; M.E. FLORES-GIUBI; D. BAZAN; Ferro, E.; N.L. ALVARENGA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antibacterial activity of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Croton bonplandianum Baill. and its main compounds, sparsiflorine and crotsparine, was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the resazurin microtitre-plate method. Pure compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. The alkaloid extract showed activity particularly against the S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Regarding t...

  19. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    OpenAIRE

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Edmar CLEMENTE

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorph...

  20. Recovery of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Oil Field Sludge using Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Bhutto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of aliphatic HC (Hydrocarbons in the oily sludge of Kunnar oil and gas field, Pakistan was attempted by means of previously isolated and developed Bacillus sp. Both autoclaved and non-autoclaved sludge samples were analyzed for a reaction time of 30 days with pH 7 and temperature of 380C in 50 ml MSM growth media for the sludge concentration of 5, 10 and 50% with 2, 4 and 6ml of Bacillus sp. relatively, in air atmosphere. Stabilization of the samples by microbial activity resulted in the decrease in TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon concentration by 60, 69 and 87% in autoclaved samples in contrast to the decrease of 70, 84 and 94% observed in non-autoclaved samples, relatively. Hydrocarbon degradation in oily sludge was investigated via GC which transpired that 97 and 99% concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons in autoclaved and non-autoclaved samples was removed at 5% of TPH concentration, relatively. However, with 10% TPH concentration aliphatic hydrocarbons reduction was 68% in autoclaved samples to that of 87% in non-autoclaved samples. Further increase in the hydrocarbons concentration by 50% yielded in the removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons by 65% in autoclaved samples as compared to 98% decrease in non-autoclaved samples.

  1. Mosquitocidal properties of natural product compounds isolated from Chinese herbs and synthetic analogs of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstrom, David M; Zhou, Xia; Kalk, Cody N; Song, Baoan; Lan, Que

    2012-03-01

    Because of resistance to current insecticides and to environmental, health, and regulatory concerns, naturally occurring compounds and their derivatives are of increasing interest for the development of new insecticidal compounds against vectors of disease-causing pathogens. Fifty-eight compounds, either extracted and purified from plants native to China or synthetic analogs of curcumin, were evaluated for both their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (L.) and their ability to inhibit binding of cholesterol to Ae. aegypti sterol carrier protein-2 in vitro. Of the compounds tested, curcumin analogs seem especially promising in that of 24 compounds tested five were inhibitors of Ae. aegypti sterol carrier protein-2 with EC50 values ranging from 0.65 to 62.87 microM, and three curcumin analogs exhibited larvicidal activity against fourth instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 values ranging from 17.29 to 27.90 microM. Adding to the attractiveness of synthetic curcumin analogs is the relative ease of synthesizing a large diversity of compounds; only a small fraction of such diversity has been sampled in this study.

  2. Production of aliphatic carboxylic acids during the alkali catalysed decomposition of cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Efhil, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of cellulosic materials under alkaline condition (sodium hydroxide) using High performance ion exclusion chromatography (HPIEC) Dionex ICS‐3000 to analyse the samples at different temperatures (at room, at 50 °C, at 90 °C), under atmosphere of N2 during 188 hours, by using acrylic acid as internal standard, resulted in complex mixture of compounds, including isosaccharinic acid. The retention time of aliphatic organic acids measured under the conditions outlined i...

  3. Synthesis and reactivity of aliphatic sulfur pentafluorides from substituted (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes

    OpenAIRE

    Vida, Norbert; Václavík, Jiří; Beier, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of 3- and 4-pentafluorosulfanyl-substituted anisoles and phenols with hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid provided a mixture of SF5-substituted muconolactone, maleic, and succinic acids. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the aliphatic SF5 compounds was presented and their chemical reactivity was investigated. SF5-substituted para-benzoquinone was synthesized; its oxidation led to an improved yield of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid. The reaction of SF5-substituted maleic...

  4. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    OpenAIRE

    Q. G. J. Malloy; Li Qi; B. Warren; Cocker III, D. R.; M. E. Erupe; Silva, P J

    2009-01-01

    Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of ...

  5. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Erupe; Cocker III, D. R.; B. Warren; Li Qi; Q. G. J. Malloy; Silva, P J

    2008-01-01

    Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds found to be emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with NO3 has been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by ext...

  6. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Primary Aliphatic Amines with Nitrate Radical

    OpenAIRE

    Q. G. J. Malloy; Qi, L; B. Warren; Cocker III, D. R.; M. E. Erupe; Silva, P J

    2009-01-01

    Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CECERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extensio...

  7. Isolation, identification, and antibacterial activity of chemical compounds from ethanolic extract of suji leaf (Pleomele angusifolia NE Brown)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridah; Natalia; Lina, Maria; W, Hendig

    2014-03-01

    Suji (Pleomele angustifolia NE Brown) is one of the medicinal plants of the tribe of Liliaceae, empirically useful to treat coughs and respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis (TB) and pneumonia. In this study, ethanolic extract of suji leaves was tested its activity against bacteria that attacks the respiratory organs, namely Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, using a paper disc diffusion and dilution agar method. These extracts have activity in inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis at a concentration of 8 mg and against S. pneumoniae at a concentration of 4 mg. The fractions were tested their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae using paper disc diffusion method. The most active fraction was chosen based on the inhibition diameter. The fractions contained flavonoids, steroids, and essential oils. The precipitate isolated from the extraction process shows needle-shaped, white, cold and tasteless crystals. Moreover, the HPLC analysis of isolate revealed a single peak with a retention time of 7.183 minutes. The exact compounds in the isolate could not be determined but it was known the compounds contained the functional groups of alkene, alkane, C=O, -OH. Test results obtained from UV-Vis spectrophotometer provides maximum absorption at a wavelength of 203.0 nm.

  8. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of aliphatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Mia T.; Richman, Aviva R.; Elrod, Matthew J.; Garland, Rebecca M.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    Field observations of atmospheric aerosols have established that organic compounds compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the physical/chemical pathway by which organic compounds are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols remains unclear. The potential role of acid-catalyzed reactions of organic compounds on acidic aerosols has been explored as a possible chemical pathway for the incorporation of organic material into aerosols. In the present study, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the kinetics of formation of the products of the acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reaction of a range of aliphatic aldehydes (C 2-C 8). The experiments were carried out at various sulfuric acid concentrations and a range of temperatures in order to estimate the rate constants of such reactions on sulfuric acid aerosols under tropospheric conditions. The rate constants were generally found to decrease as the chain length of the aliphatic aldehyde increased (except for acetaldehyde, which had an unusually small rate constant), increase as a function of sulfuric acid concentration as predicted by excess acidity theory, and showed normal Arrhenius behavior as a function of temperature. While the kinetic data are generally consistent with previous laboratory reports of aldehyde reactivity in various sulfuric acid media, the aldol condensation reactions involving aliphatic aldehydes do not appear fast enough to be responsible for significant transfer of organic material into atmospheric aerosols.

  9. Bioconversion of ginsenoside Rb1 into compound K by Leuconostoc citreum LH1 isolated from kimchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hu Quan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available About 40 different types of ginsenoside (ginseng saponin, a major pharmacological component of ginseng, have been identified along with their physiological activities. Among these, compound K has been reported to prevent the development of and the metastasis of cancer by blocking the formation of tumors and suppressing the invasion of cancerous cells. In this study, ginsenoside Rb1 was converted into compound K via interaction with the enzyme secreted by β-glucosidase active bacteria, Leuconostoc citreum LH1, extracted from kimchi. The optimum time for the conversion of Rb1 to compound K was about 72 hrs at a constant pH of 6.0 and an optimum temperature of about 30ºC. Under optimal conditions, ginsenoside Rb1 was decomposed and converted into compound K by 72 hrs post-reaction (99%. Both TLC and HPLC were used to analyze the enzymatic reaction. Ginsenoside Rb1 was consecutively converted to ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K via the hydrolyses of 20-C β-(1 → 6-glucoside, 3-C β-(1 → 2glucoside, and 3-C β-glucose of ginsenoside Rb1.

  10. Sodium hypochlorite oxidation of petroleum aliphatic contaminants in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, François; Chaouki, Jamal

    2016-02-01

    This research project investigated the sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) oxidation of aliphatic petroleum contaminants (C10-C50) in a calcareous soil (average 5473 ppm C10-C50, 15 wt% Ca), which had been excavated from a contaminated industrial site. The decontamination objective was to lower the C10-C50 concentration to 700 ppm. CO2 acidity was used in the project to boost the NaClO oxidation yield and seems to have played a role in desorbing the natural organic matter. The experimental conditions were a 2- to 16-h reaction time, at room temperature, with a 1 to 12.5 wt% NaClO oxidative solution and a fixed 2:1 solution-to-soil ratio. With a 3 wt% NaClO solution and with a CO2 overhead, the NaClO dosage requirement was maintained below 60 g NaClO/g of oxidized C10-C50 over the entire decontamination range. The strong chlorine smell remaining after the reaction was completed suggests that part of the NaClO requirement can be recycled. Except traces of chloroform, there were no regulation-listed organochloride contaminants detected on either the treated soil samples or leachates and the total count of chlorinated compounds in treated soil samples was below the detection limit of 250 mg/kg. The NaClO oxidation mechanism on aliphatic substrates might be triggered by transition metals, such as manganese, but no attempt has been made to investigate the oxidation mechanism. Further investigations would include a constant-fed NaClO system and other techniques to lower the required NaClO dosage. PMID:26702553

  11. The Cer-cqu gene cluster determines three key players in a β-diketone synthase polyketide pathway synthesizing aliphatics in epicuticular waxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Lizette Marais; Adamski, Nikolai M.; Christensen, Caspar Elo;

    2016-01-01

    Aliphatic compounds on plant surfaces, called epicuticular waxes, are the first line of defense against pathogens and pests, contribute to reducing water loss and determine other important phenotypes. Aliphatics can form crystals affecting light refraction, resulting in a color change and allowing...... affect overall protein structure or specific active site residues. The rich diversity of identified mutations will facilitate future studies of three key enzymes involved in synthesis of plant apoplast waxes....

  12. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  13. Theobroma cacao: Review of the Extraction, Isolation, and Bioassay of Its Potential Anti-cancer Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Hin, Taufiq Yap Yun; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2016-02-01

    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. PMID:27019680

  14. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magbubah Essack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  15. Corrosion inhibition of brass by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliphatic amines hexylamine (HCA), octylamine (OCA) and decylamine (DCA) have been used as corrosion inhibitors for (70/30) brass in 0.I M HCIO4. The inhibitor efficiency (%P) calculated using weight loss, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization and impedance methods was found to be in the order DCA> OCA> HCA. These adsorb on brass surface following bockris-swinkels' isotherm. DCA, OCA and HCA displaced 4, 3 and 2 molecules of water from interface respectively. Displacement of water molecules brought a great reorganization of double layer at the interface. These amines during corrosion form complexes with dissolved zinc and copper ions.(Author)

  16. Anti-diabetic properties of flavonoid compounds isolated from Hyphaene thebaica epicarp on alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josline Y Salib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus, becoming the third killer of mankind after cancer and cardiovascular diseases, is one of the most challenging diseases facing health care professionals today. That is why; there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for diabetes, especially those derived from plants. Aim: To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity together with the accompanying biological effects of the fractions and the new natural compounds of Hyphaene thebaica (HT epicarp. Materials and Methods: 500 g of coarsely powdered of (HT fruits epicarp were extracted by acetone. The acetone crude extract was fractionated with methanol and ethyl acetate leaving a residual water-soluble fraction WF . The anti-diabetic effects of the WF and one of its compounds of the acetone extract of the (HT epicarp were investigated in this study using 40 adult male rats. Results: Phytochemical investigation of active WF revealed the presence of ten different flavonoids, among which two new natural compounds luteolin 7-O-[6″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside 3 and chrysoeriol 7-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1®2-α-L-arabinofuranoside 5 were isolated. Supplementation of the WF improved glucose and insulin tolerance and significantly lowered blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels. On the other hand, compound 5 significantly reduced AST and ALT levels of liver, respectively. Likewise, the kidney functions were improved for both WF and compound 5 , whereby both urea and creatinine levels in serum were highly significant. Conclusion: The results justify the use of WF and compound 5 of the (HT epicarp as anti-diabetic agent, taking into consideration that the contents of WF were mainly flavonoids.

  17. Occurrence of UV-absorbing, mycosporine-like compounds among cyanobacterial isolates and an estimate of their screening capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many cyanobacteria inhabit environments with intense solar radiation. Among the mechanisms to prevent UV photodamage are negative photomovements and the synthesis of UV sunscreen compounds. To assess how common and diverse UV sunscreen substances are among cyanobacteria living under intense solar radiation, the researchers analysed isolates of cyanobacteria for mycosporine amino acids (MAAs)-like, UV-absorbing, water-soluable substances. The cellular locations and the effect of UV radiation on their specific contents were also investigated. MAAs are common but diverse among terrestrial cyanobacteria, most often occuring in species with extracellular scytonemin. The spectral complementation suggests that the combined action of scytonemin and MAA may be responsible for sunscreen effects at shorter UV wavelengths, while the effect at longer wavelenths must be due solely to scytonemin. The authors conclude that these compounds have a significant effect in preventing UV radiation damage. 34 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Isolation and characterization of new phenolic compounds with estrogen biosynthesis-inhibiting and antioxidation activities from Broussonetia papyrifera leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yang

    Full Text Available Broussonetia papyrifera leaves (BPL as a traditional Chinese medicine are also used in livestock feed for stimulating reproduction, adipose tissue and muscle development; however, the mechanism of their action is still unknown. Through estrogen biosynthesis-guided fractionation in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells, five new phenolic glycosides, broussoside A-E(1-5, along with fifteen known dietary phenolic compounds, were isolated from the n-butanol extract of BPL, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectra analysis and chemical evidence. New compounds 3, 4, 5 and the known compounds 9 and 10 were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis in KGN cells. In addition, compounds 9, 17, 18, and 20 showed strong antioxidant activity against ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt and DPPH (1, 1'-diphenyl -2-picryl-hydrazyl radical assays. These findings suggest that BPL may improve meat quality through the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis. Furthermore, they may be useful for the discovery of potential aromatase modulators from natural products. Finally, they could be considered as a new source for natural antioxidants.

  19. Isolation and characterization of new phenolic compounds with estrogen biosynthesis-inhibiting and antioxidation activities from Broussonetia papyrifera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Fu; Du, Baowen; Chen, Bin; Wang, Fei; Wang, Mingkui

    2014-01-01

    Broussonetia papyrifera leaves (BPL) as a traditional Chinese medicine are also used in livestock feed for stimulating reproduction, adipose tissue and muscle development; however, the mechanism of their action is still unknown. Through estrogen biosynthesis-guided fractionation in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells, five new phenolic glycosides, broussoside A-E(1-5), along with fifteen known dietary phenolic compounds, were isolated from the n-butanol extract of BPL, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectra analysis and chemical evidence. New compounds 3, 4, 5 and the known compounds 9 and 10 were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis in KGN cells. In addition, compounds 9, 17, 18, and 20 showed strong antioxidant activity against ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) and DPPH (1, 1'-diphenyl -2-picryl-hydrazyl radical) assays. These findings suggest that BPL may improve meat quality through the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis. Furthermore, they may be useful for the discovery of potential aromatase modulators from natural products. Finally, they could be considered as a new source for natural antioxidants.

  20. Characterization of an antimicrobial and neuroactive compound from pseudomonas plecoglossicida isolated from the gills of teredo somersi (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine invertebrates have proven to be a prolific source of noteworthy marine natural products. Recent advances in the field have shown that the actual producers of the compounds were the bacteria associated with these organisms. Shipworms are soft-bodied marine bivalves known to thrive in wood which is their primary source of nutrition, their gills harbor a lot of associated bacteria and one of which may be Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, a known fish pathogen. This is the first report of the isolation of Pseudomonas plecoglossicida from the gill of a shipworm collected from Panglao, Bohol. In this study, secondary metabolites from seven day-old cultures of the bacteria were extracted using HP-20 Diaion resin and were found to have promising neuroactivity on primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and an antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 12600). Using bioactivity assays as a reference the crude extract was further fractionated using LH-20 Sephadex and C18 open-column chromatography. Dowstream purification of the compound was done using reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The neuroactive compound increasee the Ca2''+ influx in DRG neurons using a concentration of 20 μg/mL. Antimicrobial activity against S. aureus was observed using a concentration of 10 μg/mL. Spectroscopic analysis and structure elucidation using mass spectrometry and 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was utilized to generate a partial structure for the compounds. (author)

  1. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity of a compound isolated from young green barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian Xiao; Irino, Nobuto; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course to find compounds that inhibit melanin biosynthesis (i.e., whitening agents), we evaluated the effects of the methanol-soluble fraction (i.e., the water-soluble portion of methanol extracts-CHP20P-MeOH eluted fraction) from young green barley leaves on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to an isolate called tricin (compound 1) as an inhibitory compound of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tricin analogs such as tricetin, tricetin trimethyl ether, luteolin, and apigenin were used for analyzing the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones studies. Tricin demonstrated stronger inhibitory activity compared to three other compounds. The results suggest that a hydroxyl group at the C-4' position and methoxy groups at the C-3',5' positions of the tricin skeleton may have important roles in this inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Our results suggest that tricin inhibits melanin biosynthesis with higher efficacy than arbutin, and it could be used as a whitening agent. PMID:25827948

  2. Structural characterisation of aliphatic, non-hydrolyzable biopolymers in freshwater algae and a leaf cuticle by ruthenium tetroxide degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Moerkerken, P.; Gelin, F.; Baas, M.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1998-01-01

    Aliphatic, non-hydrolyzable biopolymers were subjected to RuO4-oxidation in order to examine the potential of this method in revealing details on their structures. The method was tested on model compounds first and found to cleave alkyl chains of aromatic moieties, double bonds and ether bonds. Oxid

  3. Preparation and characterization of protein loaded microspheres based on a hydroxylated aliphatic polyester, poly (lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassemi, A.H.; van Steenbergen, M.J.; Talsma, H.; van Nostrum, C.F.; Jiskoot, W.; Crommelin, D.J.A.; Hennink, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a novel hydroxylated aliphatic polyester, poly (lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (PLHMGA), as controlled release system for pharmaceutical proteins. Dextran Blue (as a macromolecular model compound) and lysozyme-loaded PLHMGA and

  4. The polyphasic description of a Desmodesmus spp. isolate with the potential of bioactive compounds production

    OpenAIRE

    El Semary, NA.

    2011-01-01

    A polyphasic approach was applied to describe a colony-forming Desmodesmus species collected from the Nile River, Maadi area, Helwan district, Egypt. The isolate grows best at moderate temperature and relatively high light intensity. The phenotypic features revealed the presence of both unicellular and colonial forms of the isolate and the latter form was either 2-4 celled. Cells were 4-6 mm ± 0.5 at their widest point and 11-15 mm ± 0.48 in their length with spiny projections that encircled ...

  5. Bioactivity guided isolation of antifungal compounds from the liverwort Bazzania trilobata (L.) S.F. Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Jochen M; Speakman, John-Bryan; Zapp, Josef; Becker, Hans

    2004-09-01

    A dichloromethane and a methanol extract of the liverwort Bazzania trilobata showed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Phythophthora infestans, Pyricularia oryzae and Septoria tritici. Bioautography on thin-layer chromatograms was used to isolate six antifungal sesquiterpenes: 5- and 7-hydroxycalamenene, drimenol, drimenal, viridiflorol, gymnomitrol and three bisbibenzyls: 6 ',8'-dichloroisoplagiochin C, isoplagiochin D and 6'-chloroisoplagiochin D. Furthermore we report the isolation of gymnomitr-8(12)-en-4-one and the new coumarin 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide. Their structures have been elucidated based on extensive NMR spectral evidence. PMID:15451321

  6. Antidiabetic Effect of Oral Borapetol B Compound, Isolated from the Plant Tinospora crispa, by Stimulating Insulin Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokman, Faradianna E; Gu, Harvest F; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Chia, Keh Leong; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the antidiabetic properties of borapetol B known as compound 1 (C1) isolated from Tinospora crispa in normoglycemic control Wistar (W) and spontaneously type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Methods. The effect of C1 on blood glucose and plasma insulin was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. The effect of C1 on insulin secretion was assessed by batch incubation and perifusion experiments using isolated pancreatic islets. Results. An acute oral administration of C1 improved blood glucose levels in treated versus placebo groups with areas under glucose curves 0-120 min being 72 ± 17 versus 344 ± 10 mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 492 ± 63 versus 862 ± 55 mmol/L (P < 0.01) in W and GK rats, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were increased by 2-fold in treated W and GK rats versus placebo group at 30 min (P < 0.05). C1 dose-dependently increased insulin secretion from W and GK isolated islets at 3.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose. The perifusions of isolated islets indicated that C1 did not cause leakage of insulin by damaging islet beta cells (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study provides evidence that borapetol B (C1) has antidiabetic properties mainly due to its stimulation of insulin release. PMID:24319481

  7. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Miyasaki

    Full Text Available The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.

  8. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M M; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y

    2013-01-01

    The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:23630600

  9. Antibacterial activity of the alkaloid extract and isolated compounds from Croton bonplandianum Baill. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. BURGOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The antibacterial activity of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Croton bonplandianum Baill. and its main compounds, sparsiflorine and crotsparine, was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the resazurin microtitre-plate method. Pure compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. The alkaloid extract showed activity particularly against the S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Regarding the pure compounds, the crotsparine was inactive against the microorganisms assayed, whereas the sparsiflorine indicated a moderate activity similar to the alkaloid extract. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most sensitive of the tested microorganisms with MIC of 0.141 mg/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the extract may be credited mainly to the presence of the sparsiflorine. Although the activity of the sparsiflorine does not get close to the antimicrobial drugs in clinical use, it still could be a lead compound for the development of new antibacterial substances.

  10. GENETIC STUDIES ON TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDII--AN ACTIVE COMPOUND ISOLATED FROM THE PLANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SillJia-Fang; WANGYi; LIUQi-Lan; PANLi; SUNJia-Qing; ZI-IANGZhu-Tao; HUYanZhong; XUYe; QIANShao-Zhen

    1989-01-01

    The multiglycosides ofTriptcrygium wilfordii Hook. f(GTW), a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of certain diseases, has been shown to cause reversible infertility both in male rats and in men. Very recently, we Found that an active compound (T4)

  11. Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic polycarbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artham, Trishul; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Polycarbonate is one of the most widely used engineering plastics because of its superior physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Understanding the biodegradation of this polymer is of great importance to answer the increasing problems in waste management of this polymer. Aliphatic polycarbonates are known to biodegrade either through the action of pure enzymes or by bacterial whole cells. Very little information is available that deals with the biodegradation of aromatic polycarbonates. Biodegradation is governed by different factors that include polymer characteristics, type of organism, and nature of pretreatment. The polymer characteristics such as its mobility, tacticity, crystallinity, molecular weight, the type of functional groups and substituents present in its structure, and plasticizers or additives added to the polymer all play an important role in its degradation. The carbonate bond in aliphatic polycarbonates is facile and hence this polymer is easily biodegradable. On the other hand, bisphenol A polycarbonate contains benzene rings and quaternary carbon atoms which form bulky and stiff chains that enhance rigidity. Even though this polycarbonate is amorphous in nature because of considerable free volume, it is non-biodegradable since the carbonate bond is inaccessible to enzymes because of the presence of bulky phenyl groups on either side. In order to facilitate the biodegradation of polymers few pretreatment techniques which include photo-oxidation, gamma-irradiation, or use of chemicals have been tested. Addition of biosurfactants to improve the interaction between the polymer and the microorganisms, and blending with natural or synthetic polymers that degrade easily, can also enhance the biodegradation.

  12. Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae); Substancias antifungicas de Xylaria sp., um fungo endofitico isolado de Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafeu, Mariana C.; Silva, Geraldo H.; Teles, Helder L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia

    2005-11-15

    Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1), cytochalasin D (2), 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3), cytochalasin B (4) and griseofulvin (5), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity. (author)

  13. Isolation and identification of Phenolic compounds by HPLC and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Svensonia Hyderobadensis ? A Rare Medicinal Plant Taxon

    OpenAIRE

    Linga Rao M; Savithramma N

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for developing analytical methods for phenolic compounds in natural products has proved to be multifaceted. Hence the present study intended to isolate phenolic compounds from leaves of Svensonia hyderobadensis by using 70% acetone and poly vinyl poly pyrrolidone (PVPP); and characterized by U.V. Visible spectrometry, High performance liquid chromatography/ electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Total 82 phenolic compounds were obtained at both positive and negative ion modes ...

  14. Bio-guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from Chrysophyllum perpulchrum, a Plant Used in the Ivory Coast Pharmacopeia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Hosttetmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysophyllum perpulchrum (Sapotaceae is used in the traditional Ivory Coast pharmacopeia to cure fevers. The extract of C. perpulchrum used for this study was the powdered form obtained from the maceration of the dried plant bark in 96% methanol, followed by evaporation to dryness. In the present study, the antioxidative and radical-scavenging activities of the methanolic extract were studied with three standard biological tests: DPPH reduction, ferric thiocyanate (FTC lipidic peroxidation inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS. Gallic acid and quercetin were used as references. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the extract was determined by ultraviolet (UV spectrometry and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Catechin and two dimeric procyanidins were found to be the compounds responsible for the activities. They were chemically dereplicated in the extract by LC-MS. For quantitation purposes, they were isolated by successive chromatographic methods and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectrometry. The quantities of these compounds in C. perpulchrum were 5.4% for catechin (P1, and 5.6 and 9.2% for dimers (compounds 2 (P2 and 3 (P3, respectively. They displayed antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.50 ± 0.15 µg/mL (P1, 2.10 ± 0.2 µg/mL (P2 and 2.10 ± 0.1 µg/mL (P3. The total extract, the active fractions and the pure compounds inhibited the lipid peroxidation by the FTC method and the TBARS method in the range of 60%. These values were comparable to those seen for quercetin.

  15. Bio-guided isolation of antioxidant compounds from Chrysophyllum perpulchrum, a plant used in the Ivory Coast pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Bidie Alain; Karine, Ndjoko; Barthélemy, Attioua Koffi; Noél, Zirihi Guédé; David, N'guessan Jean; Joseph, Djaman Allico; Hosttetmann, Kurt

    2010-09-13

    Chrysophyllum perpulchrum (Sapotaceae) is used in the traditional Ivory Coast pharmacopeia to cure fevers. The extract of C. perpulchrum used for this study was the powdered form obtained from the maceration of the dried plant bark in 96% methanol, followed by evaporation to dryness. In the present study, the antioxidative and radical-scavenging activities of the methanolic extract were studied with three standard biological tests: DPPH reduction, ferric thiocyanate (FTC) lipidic peroxidation inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Gallic acid and quercetin were used as references. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the extract was determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Catechin and two dimeric procyanidins were found to be the compounds responsible for the activities. They were chemically dereplicated in the extract by LC-MS. For quantitation purposes, they were isolated by successive chromatographic methods and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. The quantities of these compounds in C. perpulchrum were 5.4% for catechin (P1), and 5.6 and 9.2% for dimers (compounds 2 (P2) and 3 (P3)), respectively. They displayed antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 2.50 ± 0.15 µg/mL (P1), 2.10 ± 0.2 µg/mL (P2) and 2.10 ± 0.1 µg/mL (P3). The total extract, the active fractions and the pure compounds inhibited the lipid peroxidation by the FTC method and the TBARS method in the range of 60%. These values were comparable to those seen for quercetin.

  16. Morphological and molecular identification of filamentous Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from compound feeds in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheanacho, Henry E; Njobeh, Patrick B; Dutton, Francis M; Steenkamp, Paul A; Steenkamp, Lucia; Mthombeni, Julian Q; Daru, Barnabas H; Makun, Anthony H

    2014-12-01

    Isolation of filamentous species of two Aspergillum genera from compound feeds produced in South Africa, and subsequent extraction of their individual DNA in this study, presents a simple but rapid molecular procedure for high through-put analysis of the individual morphological forms. DNA was successfully isolated from the Aspergillus spp. from agar cultures by use of a commercial kit. Agarose gel electrophoresis fractionation of the fungi DNA, showed distinct bands. The DNA extracted by this procedure appears to be relatively pure with a ratio absorbance at 260 and 280 nm. However, the overall morphological and molecular data indicated that 67.5 and 51.1% of feed samples were found to be contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, respectively, with poultry feed having the highest contamination mean level of 5.7 × 105 CFU/g when compared to cattle (mean: 4.0 × 106 CFU/g), pig (mean: 2.7 × 104 CFU/g) and horse (1.0 × 102 CFU) feed. This technique presents a readily achievable, easy to use method in the extraction of filamentous fungal DNA and it's identification. Hence serves as an important tool towards molecular study of these organisms for routine analysis check in monitoring and improving compound feed quality against fungal contamination.

  17. Isolation and characterization of phytotoxic compounds produced by Streptomyces sp. AMC 23 from red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevelin, Eduardo José; Canova, Sarah Pigato; Melo, Itamar Soares; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; da Silva, Rafael Eduardo; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo

    2013-12-01

    Natural products produced by microorganisms have been utilized as sources of new drugs possessing a wide range of agrochemical and pharmacological activities. During our research on Actinomycetes from Brazilian mangroves, the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. AMC 23 isolated from the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) rhizosphere produced a highly active compound against the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, often used to assess the phytotoxic activity. As a result, the bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of the mixture of the known compounds bafilomycin B1 and bafilomycin B2. The chemical structures of bafilomycin B1 and bafilomycin B2 were established based on their spectroscopic data by infrared (IR), mass spectrometry (MS), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gradient-enhanced heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (gHMQC), and gradient-enhanced heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity (gHMBC) as well as comparison with reference data from the literature. Moreover, it was also possible to identify other bafilomycins using non-chromatographic-dependent techniques (Tandem mass spectrometry). Additionally, this is the first report on the phytotoxic activity of bafilomycin B1. PMID:23979946

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Compounds in Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Yoko Miyasaki; John D Rabenstein; Joshua Rhea; Marie-Laure Crouch; Mocek, Ulla M.; Patricia Emmett Kittell; Morgan, Margie A.; Wesley Stephen Nichols; M M Van Benschoten; William David Hardy; Liu, George Y

    2013-01-01

    The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrob...

  19. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from Andrographis stenophylla Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Neelaveni Thangavel; Jayanta Kumar Gupta

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant potency of various extracts of Andrographis stenophylla leaf was evaluated in vitro using ferric thiocyanate method. Reductive ability and free radical scavenging activity of the extracts were also investigated. Amounts of phenolic compounds in each of the extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and compared to observe the correlation between antioxidant activities and total phenolic content. Methanol extract exhibited maximum antioxidant activity and was found...

  20. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA FOR REMOVAL OF SULFUR IN ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    1. IntroductionThe presence of sulfur in fossil fuels contributesto corrosion of production and refining equipments,when burning these high-sulfur fuels, it will releasesulfur oxides into the atmosphere, which leading tothe formation of acid rain.Various processes have been developed for theremoval of sulfur compounds from fossil fuel.Inorganic sulfur can be reduced through physicalbeneficiation techniques, but organically boundsulfur is difficult to be removed by these ways 1142].Biological desulfurization...

  1. The diversity, extracellular enzymatic activities and photoprotective compounds of yeasts isolated in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline B. M Vaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts collected from different sites in Antarctica (Admiralty Bay, King George Island and Port Foster Bay and Deception Island and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes and mycosporines were studied. Samples were collected during the austral summer season, between November 2006 and January 2007, from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica, ornithogenic (penguin guano soil, soil, marine and lake sediments, marine water and freshwater from lakes. A total of 89 isolates belonging to the following genera were recovered: Bensingtonia, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Dioszegia, Exophiala, Filobasidium, Issatchenkia (Pichia, Kodamaea, Leucosporidium, Leucosporidiella, Metschnikowia, Nadsonia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, and Sporidiobolus, and the yeast-like fungi Aureobasidium, Leuconeurospora and Microglossum. Cryptococcus victoriae was the most frequently identified species. Several species isolated in our study have been previously reported to be Antarctic psychophilic yeasts, including Cr. antarcticus, Cr. victoriae, Dioszegia hungarica and Leucosporidium scottii. The cosmopolitan yeast species A. pullulans, C. zeylanoides, D. hansenii, I. orientalis, K. ohmeri, P. guilliermondii, Rh. mucilaginosa, and S. salmonicolor were also isolated. Five possible new species were identified. Sixty percent of the yeasts had at least one detectable extracellular enzymatic activity. Cryptococcus antarcticus, D. aurantiaca, D. crocea, D. hungarica, Dioszegia sp., E. xenobiotica, Rh. glaciales, Rh. laryngis, Microglossum sp. 1 and Microglossum sp. 2 produced mycosporines. Of the yeast isolates, 41.7% produced pigments and/or mycosporines and could be considered adapted to survive in Antarctica. Most of the yeasts had extracellular enzymatic activities at 4ºC and 20ºC, indicating that they could be metabolically active in the sampled substrates.

  2. A comparative study on the potential of epiphytic yeasts isolated from tropical fruits to produce flavoring compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Eric; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Caro, Yanis; Raherimandimby, Marson; Randrianierenana, Ando Lalaniaina; James, Steve; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; François, Jean Marie; Petit, Thomas

    2015-06-16

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in identifying and characterizing the yeast flora associated with diverse types of habitat because of the many potential desirable technological properties of these microorganisms, especially in food applications. In this study, a total of 101 yeast strains were isolated from the skins of tropical fruits collected in several locations in the South West Indian Ocean. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal RNA gene identified 26 different species. Among them, two species isolated from the skins of Cape gooseberry and cocoa beans appeared to represent putative new yeast species, as their LSU D1/D2 sequence was only 97.1% and 97.4% identical to that of the yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida pararugosa, respectively. A total of 52 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were detected by Head Space Solid Phase Micro Extraction coupled to Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (HS-SPME-GC/MS) from the 26 yeast species cultivated on a glucose rich medium. Among these VOCs, 6 uncommon compounds were identified, namely ethyl but-2-enoate, ethyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate (ethyl tiglate), ethyl 3-methylbut-2-enoate, 2-methylpropyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate, butyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate and 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate, making them possible yeast species-specific markers. In addition, statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis allowed to associate each yeast species with a specific flavor profile. Among them, Saprochaete suaveolens (syn: Geotrichum fragrans) turned to be the best producer of flavor compounds, with a total of 32 out of the 52 identified VOCs in its flavor profile.

  3. Protective effects of the compounds isolated from the seed of Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-A [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sang Hee [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hong Ryul [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shjung507@gmail.com [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-01

    The mechanism underlying glaucoma remains controversial, but apoptosis caused by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effects of compounds isolated from Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) were treated with L-buthione-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) and glutamate in the presence or with pre-treatment with compound 6, bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia. We observed reduced cell death in cells pre-treated with bakuchiol. Moreover, bakuchiol inhibited the oxidative stress-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm). Furthermore, while intracellular Ca{sup 2+} was high in RGC-5 cells after exposure to oxidative stress, bakuchiol reduced these levels. In an in vivo study, in which rat retinal damage was induced by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), bakuchiol markedly reduced translocation of AIF and release of cytochrome c, and inhibited up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved PARP. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) 7 days after optic nerve crush (ONC) in mice was significantly decreased; however, bakuchiol attenuated the loss of RGCs. Moreover, bakuchiol attenuated ONC-induced up-regulation of apoptotic proteins, including cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9. Bakuchiol also significantly inhibited translocation of mitochondrial AIF into the nuclear fraction and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol. These results demonstrate that bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced retinal damage, and may be considered as an agent for treating or preventing retinal degeneration. - Highlights: • Psoralea corylifolia have neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. • Bakuchiol attenuated the increase of apoptotic proteins induced by oxidative

  4. Solid state and sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures of cyclic aliphatic dicarboxylic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Booth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS has been used to measure for the first time the solid state vapour pressures of a series of aliphatic cyclic dicarboxylic acids with increasing ring size. Additionally the atmospherically important compounds; cis-pinonic acid and levoglucosan were also measured. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC was used to measure melting points, enthalpies and entropies of fusion, which were used to determine sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures for the compounds. The sub-cooled liquid vapour pressure of straight chain, branched and cyclic dicarboxylic acids was compared to a selection of estimation methods.

  5. Design, Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activities of Novel Aliphatic Amino-Substituted Flavonoids

    OpenAIRE

    Guannan Liu; Zhen Ge; Mengdan Zhao; Yifeng Zhou

    2013-01-01

    A series of flavonoids 9a–f, 13b, 13d, 13e and 14a–f bearing diverse aliphatic amino moieties were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the ECA-109, A-549, HL-60, and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Most of the compounds exhibited moderate to good activities. The structure-activity relationships were studied, revealing that the chalcone skeleton is the most preferable for cytotoxic activities. Chalcone 9d was the most promising compound due to its high potency ag...

  6. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The bioactive extract fraction was purified further and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectral and X-ray crystallography analysis. A polyketide compound, 5-hydroxyramulosin, was identified as the constituent of the bioactive fungal extract fraction. This compound inhibited the fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger (IC50 1.56 μg/mL and was cytotoxic against murine leukemia cells (IC50 2.10 μg/mL. 5-Hydroxyramulosin was the major compound produced by the endophytic fungus. This research suggests that fungal endophytes are a good source of bioactive metabolites which have potential applications in medicine.

  7. Effect-Directed Discovery of Bioactive Compounds Followed by Highly Targeted Characterization, Isolation and Identification, Exemplarily Shown for Solidago virgaurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móricz, Ágnes M; Ott, Péter G; Häbe, Tim T; Darcsi, András; Böszörményi, Andrea; Alberti, Ágnes; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Csontos, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2016-08-16

    A nontargeted, effect-directed screening (bioprofiling) and a subsequent highly targeted characterization of antibacterial compounds from plant matrices is demonstrated on the example of Solidago virgaurea root extracts. The procedure comprises high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with six bacterial bioassays including two plant pathogens, a radical scavenging assay, an acetylcholinesterase assay as well as in situ and ex situ mass spectrometric analyses. In situ mass spectra were directly recorded from the adsorbent using the Direct Analysis in Real Time interface (HPTLC-DART-MS), whereas ex situ mass spectra were recorded using an elution head-based interface (HPTLC-ESI-MS). For further bioassay-guided isolation of the main antimicrobial compounds, flash chromatographic fractionation and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatographic purification were used and nuclear magnetic resonance data allowed the identification of the unknown antimicrobial compounds as 2Z,8Z- and 2E,8Z-matricaria esters. The discovered antibacterial activity was confirmed and specified by a luminometric assay and as minimal inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase. PMID:27433973

  8. Isolation, identification and characterization of an algicidal bacterium from Lake Taihu and preliminary studies on its algicidal compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Tian; Xianglong Liu; Jing Tan; Shengqin Lin; Daotang Li; Hong Yang

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to identify a bio-agent capable of controlling cyanobacterial blooms,we isolated a bacterial strain,A27,which exhibited strong algicidal activity against the dominant bloom-forming species of Microcystis aeruginosa in Lake Taihu.Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis,this strain belongs to the genus Exiguobacterium.This is the first report of an algicidal bacterial strain belonging to the genus Exiguobacterium.Strain A27 exhibited algicidal activity against a broad range of cyanobacteria,but elicited little or no algicidal activity against the two green algal strains tested.The algicidal activity of strain A27 was shown to be dependent on the density of the bacteria and to have a threshold density of 1.5×106 CFU/mL.Our data also showed that the algicidal activity of strain A27 depended on different growth stages of Microcystis aeruginosa (exponential ≈ lag phase > early stationary) rather than that of the bacterium itself.Our results also suggested the algicidal activity of strain A27 occurred via the production of extracellular algicidal compounds.Investigation of the algicidal compounds revealed that there were at least two different algicidal compounds produced by strain A27.These results indicated that strain A27 has great potential for use in the control of outbreaks of cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu.

  9. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the Slovenian coastal area (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajt, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    The distribution and sources of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in sediments at seven sites around the Slovenian coastal area. The potential toxicological significance was also assessed using biological thresholds. The results of the analyses showed higher concentrations of hydrocarbons in the Port of Koper and in the Marina of Portoroz. The influence of pollution was also evident in rather higher concentrations of hydrocarbons in the surrounding area in the Bays of Koper and Piran. Concentrations of hydrocarbons decrease toward the central part of the Gulf of Trieste. The major component of the aliphatic fraction was the unresolved complex mixture. Concentrations of the total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons were in a range from 689 to 3,164 ng g(-1). Concentrations of the total PAHs were between 330 and 1,173 ng g(-1). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily of pyrolytic origin with some smaller contributions of the petrogenic, while the aliphatic are mostly of petrogenic origin with significant amounts of biogenic derived compounds of terrestrial and marine origin. Strong evidence of the diagenetic origin of perylene in the investigated area was also found. Quite a good linear relationship between PAH concentration and TOC and between aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations and TOC was observed. The principal component analysis showed differences between the nearshore and offshore sites. In general, the investigated area is moderately contaminated by hydrocarbons. Concentrations of PAHs, hydrocarbons of high concern, are below the levels (effects range low and the effects range median) associated with adverse biological effects. PMID:22270593

  10. Hydrodistillation-adsorption method for the isolation of water-soluble, non-soluble and high volatile compounds from plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastelić, J; Jerković, I; Blazević, I; Radonić, A; Krstulović, L

    2008-08-15

    Proposed method of hydrodistillation-adsorption (HDA) on activated carbon and hydrodistillation (HD) with solvent trap were compared for the isolation of water-soluble, non-soluble and high volatile compounds, such as acids, monoterpenes, isothiocyanates and others from carob (Certonia siliqua L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and rocket (Eruca sativa L.). Isolated volatiles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main advantages of HDA method over ubiquitous HD method were higher yields of volatile compounds and their simultaneous separation in three fractions that enabled more detail analyses. This method is particularly suitable for the isolation and analysis of the plant volatiles with high amounts of water-soluble compounds. In distinction from previously published adsorption of remaining volatile compounds from distillation water on activated carbon, this method offers simultaneous hydrodistillation and adsorption in the same apparatus.

  11. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of an antibacterial compound from Ferula persica var. persica roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad-Reza Shahverdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the chloroform and water extracts of Ferula persica var. persica (Apiaceaeroots were studied by the disk diffusion method. While the chloroform extract of F. persica roots showed antibacterial activity, the water extract of the roots at the concentrations that tested did not show any activity. By bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of the roots by preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC a compound was found which was active against some bacteria. By conventional spectroscopy methods the active fraction was identified as umbelliprenin. This coumarin was mostly active against B. subtillis, B. cereus, E. coli, K. ponumoniae, S. typhi, S. aureus, and S. epidermilis.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Salix matsudana

    OpenAIRE

    Guang-zhi Sun; Chang-chun Yuan; Yi-nan Zheng; Li-juan Wang; Xin-feng Zhang; Zhi Liu; Xiang Li

    2008-01-01

    A bioassay-guided in vitro screen has revealed that a 70% methanol extract of the leaves of Salix matsudana shows considerable inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2). A subsequent phytochemical study led to the isolation of a new flavonoid, matsudone A (1), together with five known flavonoids – luteolin (2), isoquercitrin (3), 7-methoxyflavone (4), luteolin 7-O-glucoside (5), 4',7-dihydroxyflavone (6) – and two phenolic glycosides, leonuriside A (7) and piceos...

  13. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from Rhizophora apiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora apiculata (R. apiculata contains an abundance of biologically active compounds due its special salt-tolerant living surroundings. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of various extract and fractions of stem of R. apiculata were investigated. Results indicated that butanol fraction possesses the highest total phenolic content (181.84 mg/g GAE/g dry extract with strongest antioxidant abilities. Following in vitro antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-arabinopyranoside (1, lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-rhamnoside (2, and afzelechin-3-O-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3 were separated from the butanol fraction. These compounds showed more noticeable antioxidant activity than a BHT standard in the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. HPLC analysis results showed that among different plant parts, the highest content of 13 was located in the bark (0.068%, 0.066% and 0.011%, respectively. The results imply that the R. apiculata might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 13 are antioxidant ingredients in R. apiculata.

  14. Isolation and structure elucidation of some compounds of Solidago gigantea var. serotina (O. Kuntze) Cronquist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on plants of the genus Solidago used in folk medicine as a remedy against diseases of the urinary-system induced the investigation of Solidago gigantea Aiton var. serotina (O. Kuntze) Cronquist = S. serotina. A methanolic extract of the aerial parts was examined for the biologically active saponin complex. The most effective constituents were found to be a mixture of closely related triterpene glycosides named saponin G, H, I and saponin K. Fractionation over a series of silicagel columns and droplet countercurrent chromatographies resulted in pure saponin G and saponin H. The screening of the hydrolized glycosides afforded the genins bayogenin as major compound, oleanolic acid and three additional aglycones in trace quantities. The identy of bayogenin, oleanolic acid and bayogeninglucosid was established by mass-, 1H-NMR- and 13C-NMR-measurements and by direct comparison with authentic samples. Gas chromatographic analysis of the sugar moiety yielded rhamnose, xylose, glucose and 6-desoxyglucose after KILIANI-degradation in a ratio 3:3:1:1. Beside the triterpene derivatives, mentioned above, we found a diterpene, sterol and sterolglycosed as well. The diterpene structure was confirmed by UV-, IR-, mass-, 1H-NMR- and 13C-NMR-spectroscopy. This diterpene was not previously known to be present in S. serotina. The sterol-compounds could be determined as α-spinasterol and the respective hexosid. (Author)

  15. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Geetha, Kannappan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta L., Psidium guajava L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum trilobatum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in the methanol extract of R. communis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of R. communis led to the separation and identification of epicatechin as a potential new compound (LC(50) = 31.2; LC(90) = 105.0 ppm) against P. cervi. The structures were established from infrared, ultraviolet, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data which confirmed the identification of the compound epicatechin from R. communis. Results of this study showed that the methanol extract of R. communis may be considered as a potent source and epicatechin as a new natural parasitic agent.

  16. In vitro immunocompetence of two compounds isolated from Polygala tenuifolia and development of resistance against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and Dactylogyrus intermedius in respective host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Guang-Lu; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to isolate some compounds from methanol extract of Polygala tenuifolia and evaluate their immunostimulatory properties and antiviral activity using grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells and GCRV. By applying insecticidal bioassay-guided, chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified compounds were obtained. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, MyD88 and IgM) in C. idella kidney cell lines were evaluated after exposure to these isolated compounds. The results showed that compound 1 and 2 up-regulated to varying degrees of Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, and MyD88 in C. idella kidney cells. WST-8 kit assay verified the two compounds has no toxic effects on CIK cell, and furthermore, have in vitro antivirus activity. Especially, that there is keeping 79% cell viability when exposure to compound 2 (100 mg L(-1)). According to in vivo insecticidal assays against Dactylogyrus intermedius, compound 2 exhibited higher efficacy than compound 1, which was found to be 87.2% effective at the concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and safe to goldfish (Carassius auratus). Besides, the purified compounds were identified by spectral data as: (1) 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol and (2) 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamic acid. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of these compounds modulates the immune related genes in C. idella kidney cells and to some extent, eliminate the virus and parasitic infections.

  17. Thermal stability of aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the molar mass (generation, number and type of end groups on the thermal stability of aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters are presented in this study. Different end groups were obtained by modification of the samples with chlorides of propionic acid and stearic acid. The thermal stability of the hyperbranched polyesters was determined by thermogravimetry using a NET-ZSCH TG 209 instrument in nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10°C/min. A comparison of the temperatures obtained for mass losses of 5 20 and 40 wt% for unmodified samples showed that the thermal stability increased up to the fourth generation and then remained practically constant. An increase in the thermal stability of modified samples of the second, third and fourth generation was observed.

  18. In-situ micro-FTIR Study of Thermal Changes of Organics in Tagish Lake Meteorite: Behavior of Aliphatic Oxygenated Functions and Effects of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Nakashima, Satoru; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Systematic in-situ FTIR heating experiments of Tagish Lake meteorite grains have been performed in order to study thermal stability of chondritic organics. Some aliphatic model organic substances have also been used to elucidate effects of hydrous phyllosilicate minerals on the thermal stability of organics. The experimental results indicated that organic matter in the Tagish Lake meteorite might contain oxygenated aliphatic hydrocarbons which are thermally stable carbonyls such as ester and/or C=O in ring compounds. The presence of hydrous phyllosilicate minerals has a pronounced effect on the increase of the thermal stability of aliphatic and oxygenated functions. These oxygenated aliphatic organics in Tagish Lake can be formed during the aqueous alteration in the parent body and the formation temperature condition might be less than 200 C, based especially on the thermal stability of C-O components. The hydrous phyllosilicates might provide sites for organic globule formation and protected some organic decomposition

  19. Development of aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Gautam, Santosh; Liu, Li; Dey, Jagannath; Chen, Wei; Mason, Ralph P.; Serrano, Carlos A.; Schug, Kevin A.; Tang, Liping

    2009-01-01

    None of the current biodegradable polymers can function as both implant materials and fluorescent imaging probes. The objective of this study was to develop aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers (BPLPs) and their associated cross-linked variants (CBPLPs) for biomedical applications. BPLPs are degradable oligomers synthesized from biocompatible monomers including citric acid, aliphatic diols, and various amino acids via a convenient and cost-effective polycondensation reaction. BPLPs can be further cross-linked into elastomeric cross-linked polymers, CBPLPs. We have shown representatively that BPLP-cysteine (BPLP-Cys) and BPLP-serine (BPLP-Ser) offer advantages over the traditional fluorescent organic dyes and quantum dots because of their preliminarily demonstrated cytocompatibility in vitro, minimal chronic inflammatory responses in vivo, controlled degradability and high quantum yields (up to 62.33%), tunable fluorescence emission (up to 725 nm), and photostability. The tensile strength of CBPLP-Cys film ranged from 3.25 ± 0.13 MPa to 6.5 ± 0.8 MPa and the initial Modulus was in a range of 3.34 ± 0.15 MPa to 7.02 ± 1.40 MPa. Elastic CBPLP-Cys could be elongated up to 240 ± 36%. The compressive modulus of BPLP-Cys (0.6) (1:1:0.6 OD:CA:Cys) porous scaffold was 39.60 ± 5.90 KPa confirming the soft nature of the scaffolds. BPLPs also possess great processability for micro/nano-fabrication. We demonstrate the feasibility of using BPLP-Ser nanoparticles (“biodegradable quantum dots”) for in vitro cellular labeling and noninvasive in vivo imaging of tissue engineering scaffolds. The development of BPLPs and CBPLPs represents a new direction in developing fluorescent biomaterials and could impact tissue engineering, drug delivery, bioimaging. PMID:19506254

  20. Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic polycarbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artham, Trishul; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Polycarbonate is one of the most widely used engineering plastics because of its superior physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Understanding the biodegradation of this polymer is of great importance to answer the increasing problems in waste management of this polymer. Aliphatic polycarbonates are known to biodegrade either through the action of pure enzymes or by bacterial whole cells. Very little information is available that deals with the biodegradation of aromatic polycarbonates. Biodegradation is governed by different factors that include polymer characteristics, type of organism, and nature of pretreatment. The polymer characteristics such as its mobility, tacticity, crystallinity, molecular weight, the type of functional groups and substituents present in its structure, and plasticizers or additives added to the polymer all play an important role in its degradation. The carbonate bond in aliphatic polycarbonates is facile and hence this polymer is easily biodegradable. On the other hand, bisphenol A polycarbonate contains benzene rings and quaternary carbon atoms which form bulky and stiff chains that enhance rigidity. Even though this polycarbonate is amorphous in nature because of considerable free volume, it is non-biodegradable since the carbonate bond is inaccessible to enzymes because of the presence of bulky phenyl groups on either side. In order to facilitate the biodegradation of polymers few pretreatment techniques which include photo-oxidation, gamma-irradiation, or use of chemicals have been tested. Addition of biosurfactants to improve the interaction between the polymer and the microorganisms, and blending with natural or synthetic polymers that degrade easily, can also enhance the biodegradation. PMID:17849431

  1. Herbicidal and Plant-growth Stimulating Effects of Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Lichens

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    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The depsides atranorin (7 and diffractaic acid (1, the depsidones hypostictic (2 protocetraric (3, salazinic (4 acids, the xanthone secalonic acid (5, and usnic acid (6 were evaluated for their phytotoxic potentials against the target species Allium cepa cv. Baia periforme (onion, Monocotyledoneae. The bioassays, carried out under laboratory conditions, revealed that diffractaic (1 and hypostictic (2 acids stimulated plant growth; secalonic acid (5 stimulated seed germination and radicle growth, while reducing coleoptile length. Usnic acid (6 promoted seed germination and stronger inhibition of radicle and coleoptile growth. Protocetraric (3 and salazinic (4 acids and atranorin (7 exhibited a herbicidal effect, inhibiting seed germination and reducing radicle and coleoptile growth—features that suggest their utility as natural herbicides. These results invite further investigation to elucidate the mode of action of these compounds and to synthesize them for field experiments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i3.756 

  2. Chemical Composition, Biological and Cytotoxic Activities of Plant Extracts and Compounds Isolated from Ferula lutea

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    Mansour Znati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the phytochemical study on Ferula lutea flowers. Total phenolics and flavonoids of the n-butanol and ethyl acetate extracts were quantified (phenolics [40.68–52.29 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight], flavonoids [12.38–14.72 mg quercitin/g dry weight]. Two diastereoisomers were isolated and identified using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR and GC-MS. The extracts and diastereoisomers were tested for antioxidant, antiacetylcholinesterase, antimicrobial, antidiabectic, cytotoxic (leukemia cell line activities and allelopathic potentialities. The strongest antioxidant activity was obtained for the ethyl acetate extract (IC50 = 12.8 ± 1.29 µg/mL. The two extracts exhibited high antidiabetic activity (54.1 and 52.1% at 40 µg/mL.

  3. Phytochemical isolation of compounds from Sceletium tortuosum and activity testing against Plasmodium falciparum

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    Itumeleng I. Setshedi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major health care problem in tropical regions due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against widely available antimalarial drugs. Traditional societies relied on medicinal plants to treat parasitic infections. As a result, drugs like quinine and artemisinin were isolated from herbs and barks (Varughese et al. 2010. Sceletium tortuosum has been used as medicine for social and spiritual purposes by San hunter gatherers and Khoi pastoralists. Sceletium tortuosum is rich in alkaloids, one of the important classes of natural product producing treatment for parasitic infections (Kayser et al. 2002. Laboratory preparation of extracts of fresh S. tortuosum plant material was conducted mimicking traditional methods of preparation using organic solvents. Mesembrine was isolated from a methanol extract using conventional column chromatography. Sixteen extracts and mesembrine were evaluated for antiplasmodium activity using a plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase culture sensitivity assay with chloroquine as reference drug.Of the sixteen extracts, four showed activity against P. falciparum with IC50 ranging between 1.47 µg/mL and 7.32 µg/mL. Extracts prepared from stored material at -20 °C showed no antiplasmodium activity. The four originally active extracts were re-screened six months later, but the antimalarial activity could not be reproduced. To determine discrepancy in biological results, chemical profiling of the extracts was done using high performance liquid chromatography technique. Differences were observed in the profiles of the active extracts when compared to those of stored plant material.The instability of plant constituents observed could be a result of plant storage suggesting that the plant is best used when fresh.

  4. Actinobacteria Isolated from an Underground Lake and Moonmilk Speleothem from the Biggest Conglomeratic Karstic Cave in Siberia as Sources of Novel Biologically Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovenko, Bogdan T.; Protasov, Eugeniy S.; Gamaiunov, Stanislav V.; Rebets, Yuriy V.; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacteria isolated from unstudied ecosystems are one of the most interesting and promising sources of novel biologically active compounds. Cave ecosystems are unusual and rarely studied. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of ten new actinobacteria strains isolated from an ancient underground lake and moonmilk speleothem from the biggest conglomeratic karstic cave in Siberia with a focus on the biological activity of the obtained strains and the metabolite dereplication of one active strain. Streptomyces genera isolates from moonmilk speleothem demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the strains were able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic Candida albicans. PMID:26901168

  5. Recently Confirmed Apoptosis-Inducing Lead Compounds Isolated from Marine Sponge of Potential Relevance in Cancer Treatment

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    John A.C. Archer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic pathways that characterize different cancer types and, for this reason, it is a more desirable type of therapy than chemotherapy or radiotherapy, as it is less harmful to normal cells. In this regard, marine sponge derived metabolites that induce apoptosis continue to be a promising source of new drug leads for cancer treatments. A PubMed query from 01/01/2005 to 31/01/2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 39 recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing anticancer lead compounds isolated from the marine sponge that are selectively discussed in this review.

  6. Isolation of Coralmycins A and B, Potent Anti-Gram Negative Compounds from the Myxobacteria Corallococcus coralloides M23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Geon-Woo; Cho, Kyungyun; Takahashi, Shunya; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Kim, Won-Gon

    2016-09-23

    Two new potent anti-Gram negative compounds, coralmycins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from cultures of the myxobacteria Corallococcus coralloides M23, together with another derivative (3) that was identified as the very recently reported cystobactamid 919-2. Their structures including the relative stereochemistry were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic, optical rotation, and CD data. The relative stereochemistry of 3 was revised to "S*R*" by NMR analysis. The antibacterial activity of 1 was most potent against Gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, with MICs of 0.1-4 μg/mL; these MICs were 4-10 and 40-100 times stronger than the antibacterial activities of 3 and 2, respectively. Thus, these data indicated that the β-methoxyasparagine unit and the hydroxy group of the benzoic acid unit were critical for antibacterial activity. PMID:27598688

  7. Recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing lead compounds isolated from marine sponge of potential relevance in cancer treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2011-09-20

    Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic pathways that characterize different cancer types and, for this reason, it is a more desirable type of therapy than chemotherapy or radiotherapy, as it is less harmful to normal cells. In this regard, marine sponge derived metabolites that induce apoptosis continue to be a promising source of new drug leads for cancer treatments. A PubMed query from 01/01/2005 to 31/01/2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 39 recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing anticancer lead compounds isolated from the marine sponge that are selectively discussed in this review. 2011 by the authors.

  8. Anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Compound Isolation from Halophilic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MHB1 and Determination of Its Mode of Action Using Electron Microscope and Flow Cytometry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanthi, Venkadapathi; Velusamy, Palaniyandi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to purify, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of bioactive compound against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The anti-MRSA compound was produced by a halophilic bacterial strain designated as MHB1. The MHB1 strain exhibited 99 % similarity to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. The culture conditions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MHB1 were optimized using nutritional and environmental parameters for enhanced anti-MRSA compound production. The pure bioactive compound was isolated using silica gel column chromatography and Semi-preparative High-performance liquid chromatography (Semi-preparative HPLC). The Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton NMR ((1)H NMR) analysis indicated the phenolic nature of the compound. The molecular mass of the purified compound was 507 Da as revealed by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The compound inhibited the growth of MRSA with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.5 µg mL(-1). MRSA bacteria exposed to 4× MIC of the compound and the cell viability was determined using flow cytometric analysis. Scanning electron microscope and Transmission electron microscope analysis was used to determine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria. This is the first report on isolation of anti-MRSA compound from halophilic B. amyloliquefaciens MHB1 and could act as a promising biocontrol agent. PMID:27570306

  9. Evaluation of antileishmanial activity of eupomatenoid-5, a compound isolated from leaves of Piper regnellii var. pallescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrametto, Michele Cristina; Santos, Adriana Oliveira dos; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2010-06-01

    Infection with Leishmania spp. causes a disease with multifaceted clinical manifestations in humans. The treatment for leishmaniasis is dependent on a limited range of drugs. Here we investigated the antileishmanial activity of eupomatenoid-5, a neolignan isolated from leaves of Piper regnellii var. pallescens. We showed that eupomatenoid-5 had a dose-dependent activity during 72h of treatment, exhibiting IC(50) of 9.0microg/mL and 13.0microg/mL for promastigote and axenic amastigote forms, respectively, and IC(50) of 5.0microg/mL for intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. When L. amazonensis was treated with eupomatenoid-5, it underwent considerable ultrastructural alterations, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. Among the alterations was the appearance of intense exocytic activity in the region of the flagellar pocket, myelin-like figures, and vacuoles in the cytoplasm of parasites treated with 9.0microg/mL. Cells treated with 25.0microg/mL showed a very large structure, apparently an extension of the endoplasmic reticulum. Also, mitochondrial swelling was detected at this concentration, indicating damage and significant change in this organelle. A cytotoxicity assay showed that the action of the isolated compound is more specific for protozoa and it is not toxic to macrophages. Our studies indicated that eupomatenoid-5 might be a potential new drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis, because this compound displays interesting antileishmanial activity in vitro against promastigote, axenic amastigote, and intracellular amastigote forms of L. amazonensis. PMID:20064628

  10. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; Gimenez, V.M.M.; Pauletti, P.M.; Groppo, M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  11. Production of biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket; Bharucha, Chirag; Desai, Anjana J

    2008-07-01

    A biosurfactant producing strain, Bacillus subtilis 20B, was isolated from fermented food in India. The strain also showed inhibition of various fungi in in-vitro experiments on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. It was capable of growth at temperature 55 degrees C and salts up to 7%. It utilized different sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbons and oil as a carbon source, with preference for sugars. In glucose based minimal medium it produced biosurfactant which reduced surface tension to 29.5 mN/m, interfacial tension to 4.5 mN/m and gave stable emulsion with crude oil and n-hexadecane. The biosurfactant activity was stable at high temperature, a wide range of pH and salt concentrations for five days. Oil displacement experiments using biosurfactant containing broth in sand pack columns with crude oil showed 30.22% recovery. The possible application of organism as biocontrol agent and use of biosurfactant in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is discussed. PMID:17855083

  12. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Neuroprotective Compounds from Uncaria rhynchophylla against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity

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    Yan-Fang Xian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria rhynchophylla is a component herb of many Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Previous study in our laboratory has demonstrated that an ethanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla ameliorated cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease induced by D-galactose. However, the active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla responsible for the anti-Alzheimer’s disease activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla by a bioassay-guided fractionation approach and explore the acting mechanism of these active ingredients by using a well-established cellular model of Alzheimer’s disease, beta-amyloid- (Aβ- induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The results showed that six alkaloids, namely, corynoxine, corynoxine B, corynoxeine, isorhynchophylline, isocorynoxeine, and rhynchophylline were isolated from the extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Among them, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline significantly decreased Aβ-induced cell death, intracellular calcium overloading, and tau protein hyperphosphorylation in PC12 cells. These results suggest that rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline are the major active ingredients responsible for the protective action of Uncaria rhynchophylla against Aβ-induced neuronal toxicity, and their neuroprotective effect may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting intracellular calcium overloading and tau protein hyperphosphorylation.

  13. Ultrastructure of Escherichia coli cells under the action of a novel derivative of aryl aliphatic aminoalcohols

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    Dronova M.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Novel derivatives of aryl aliphatic aminoalcohols were examined for antimicrobial activity. Compound KVM-114 (4-(1,1,3,3-tetrabutyl phenoxy-3-dimethylamino-2-propanol hydrochloride was found as a selective against gram-negative bacteria. Objective. Investigation of compound KVM-114 influence on E. coli ultrastructure. Methods. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by serial dilution method in Muller-Hinton broth. Bacteria (Escherichia coli for transmission electron microscopy samples preparation was grown to exponential phase and then was exposed to the subinhibitory concentration of KVM-114 for 1 h and 24 h. Results. Intact E. coli cells were rod-shaped with rounded ends. A light layer, allowing clear visualization of the cell wall, was observed between the сytoplasm and cytoplasmic membrane. Lipopolysaccharide layer was well distinguished as well. Cytoplasm was filled with ribosomes and polyribosomes. 1 hour exposition to KVM-114 at a subinhibitory concentration resulted in the absence of polyribosomes in the cytoplasm. Increase of electron density of lipopolysaccharide layer and cell wall indicate alteration of cell envelope. Prolongation of the incubation period to 24 hours led to cell recovery: no changes were observed, compared to control cells. The data obtained suggest compound’s ability to alter cell envelope and metabolic activity, however, subinhibitory concentration is apparently not sufficient for total inhibition of E. coli growth. Conclusion. The derivative of aryl aliphatic aminoalcohols, compound KVM-114, possesses inhibitory activity against gram-negative bacteria. E. coli treatment with this compound resulted in structural changes of the cell wall and alteration of intracellular processes. Citation: Dronova ML, Voychuk SI, Vrynchanu NO. [Ultrastructure of Escherichia coli cells under the action of a novel derivative of aryl aliphatic aminoalcohols]. Morphologia. 2014;8(4:26-9. Ukrainian.

  14. Curtisia dentata (Cornaceae) leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit motility of parasitic and free-living nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shai, L J; Bizimenyera, E S; Bagla, V; McGaw, L J; Eloff, J N

    2009-06-01

    Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis are among the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants. Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, is used as a model for evaluating anthelmintic activity of a variety of test substances. Extracts of several medicinal plants are useful in vitro and in vivo against nematode development. Extracts of Curtisia dentata, a South African medicinal plant, and compounds isolated from leaves of this plant were investigated for anthelmintic activity against T. colubriformis, H. contortus and C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were active against all nematodes at concentrations as low as 160 microg/ml. Betulinic acid and lupeol were active against the parasitic nematodes only at the high concentrations of 1000 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. All compounds were effective against C. elegans with active concentrations as low as 8 microg/ml. Betulinic acid was less active than lupeol and ursolic acid against C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were also active against C. elegans with a concentration of 0.31 mg/ml resulting in almost 80% inhibition of larval motility. The use of free-living nematodes may provide information on the activity of potential anthelmintics against parasitic nematodes. Extracts of various medicinal plant species may provide solutions to ill-health of small ruminants caused by parasitic nematodes in poor communities of southern Africa. PMID:20698444

  15. Curtisia dentata (Cornaceae leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit motility of parasitic and free-living nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Shai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis are among the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants. Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, is used as a model for evaluating anthelmintic activity of a variety of test substances. Extracts of several medicinal plants are useful in vitro and in vivo against nematode development. Extracts of Curtisia dentata, a South African medicinal plant, and compounds isolated from leaves of this plant were investigated for anthelmintic activity against T. colubriformis, H. contortus and C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were active against all nematodes at concentrations as low as 160 μg/mℓ. Betulinic acid and lupeol were active against the parasitic nematodes only at the high concentrations of 1 000 and 200 μg/mℓ, respectively. All compounds were effective against C. elegans with active concentrations as low as 8 μg/mℓ. Betulinic acid was less active than lupeol and ursolic acid against C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were also active against C. elegans with a concentration of 0.31 mg/mℓ resulting in almost 80 % inhibition of larval motility. The use of free-living nematodes may provide information on the activity of potential anthelmintics against parasitic nematodes. Extracts of various medicinal plant species may provide solutions to ill-health of small ruminants caused by parasitic nematodes in poor communities of southern Africa.

  16. Antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori strains and antioxidant properties of blackberry leaves (Rubus ulmifolius) and isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvia; D'Addario, Claudia; Colacevich, Andrea; Focardi, Silvia; Borghini, Francesca; Santucci, Annalisa; Figura, Natale; Rossi, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    Rubus spp. (Rosaceae) provide extracts used in traditional medicine as antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and radical scavenging agents. Resistance to antibiotics used to treat Helicobacter pylori infection as well as their poor availability in developing countries prompted us to test the antimicrobial activity of Rubus ulmifolius leaves and isolated polyphenols against two H. pylori strains with different virulence (CagA+ strain 10K and CagA(-) strain G21). The antioxidant activity (TEAC values) of the tested compounds ranged from 4.88 (gallic acid) to 1.60 (kaempferol), whilst the leaf extract gave a value of 0.12. All the isolated polyphenols as well as the leaf extract showed antibacterial activity against both of the H. pylori strains. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the extract for H. pylori strains G21 and 10K, respectively, were 1200 microg/mL and 1500 microg/mL after 24h of exposure and 134 microg/mL and 270 microg/mL after 48 h exposure. Ellagic acid showed very low MBC values towards both of the H. pylori strains after 48 h (2 microg/mL and 10 microg/mL for strains G21 and 10K, respectively) and kaempferol toward G21 strain (MBC=6 microg/mL). A relationship between antimicrobial activity and antioxidant capacity was found only for H. pylori strain G21 CagA(-) strain. PMID:19386474

  17. Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation

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    Tzung-Hsun Tsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser. leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1 and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2 by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections.

  18. Characterization of Ocular Iontophoretic Drug Transport of Ionic and Non-ionic Compounds in Isolated Rabbit Cornea and Conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekijima, Hidehisa; Ehara, Junya; Hanabata, Yusuke; Suzuki, Takumi; Kimura, Soichiro; Lee, Vincent H L; Morimoto, Yasunori; Ueda, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Ocular iontophoresis (IP) in isolated rabbit cornea and conjunctiva was examined in terms of transport enhancement, tissue viability and integrity using electrophysiological parameters by the Ussing-type chamber technique. Lidocaine hydrochloride (LC, a cationic compound), sodium benzoate (BA, anionic compound), and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran (molecular weight 4400 Da, FD-4, hydrophilic large compound) were used as model permeants. Direct electric current was applied at 0.5-5.0 mA/cm(2) for the cornea and 0.5-20 mA/cm(2) for the conjunctiva for 30 min. LC and BA fluxes across the cornea and conjunctiva were significantly increased by the application of electric current up to 2.3- and 2.5-fold and 4.0- and 3.4-fold, respectively, and returned to their baseline level on stopping the current. Furthermore, a much higher increase by IP application was obtained for the FD-4 transport. The increased FD-4 flux in the conjunctiva returned to baseline on stopping the current, whereas the flux in the cornea was sustained at a higher level after stopping the current. The transepithelial electric resistance of the cornea and conjunctiva was lowered by electric current application but fully recovered after stopping the current up to 2.0 mA/cm(2) for the cornea and 10 mA/cm(2) for the conjunctiva, suggesting that the corneal and conjunctival viability and integrity are maintained even after application of these current densities. These results indicate that ocular IP may be a useful non-invasive technique to achieve drug delivery of hydrophilic large molecules into the eyes. PMID:27040754

  19. Wild Bitter Melon Leaf Extract Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Inflammation: Identification of Active Compounds through Bioassay-Guided Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzung-Hsun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Ying, How-Ting; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Shen, Chien-Chang; Lin, Yin-Ku; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis. Among the test fractions, Fraction 5 effectively decreased heat-killed P. gingivalis-induced interleukin (IL)-8 and was subjected to separation and purification by using chromatographic techniques. Two cucurbitane triterpenoids were isolated from the active fraction and identified as 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol (1) and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (2) by comparing spectral data. Treatments of both compounds in vitro potently suppressed P. gingivalis-induced IL-8, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in THP-1 cells. Both compounds effectively inhibited the mRNA levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival tissue of mice. These findings imply that 5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19,25-triol and 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against P. gingivalis infections. PMID:27058519

  20. Modulatory Effect of Syzygium cumini Seeds and its Isolated Compound on biochemical parameters in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Farswan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different diseases. In the search of natural hypoglycemic agents as alternatives to synthetic ones and to justify the use of Syzygium cumini seeds in folklore system of medicine for diabetes, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidernic activity of Syzygium cumini seeds were investigated in normal and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in neonates. Administration of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and water extracts of Syzygium cumini seeds (100 mg/kg, p.o. for 21 days caused a decrease in fasting blood sugar in diabetic rats (FBS. Among all the extracts methanol extract was found to lower the FBS significantly in diabetic rats. Glibenclamide at a dose of 5 mg/kg p.o was used for comparision. Methanol extract was subjected to column chromatography which led to the isolation of an active principle, which was given trivial name Cuminoside. Cuminoside (50 mg/kg, p.o. caused significant reduction in fasting blood sugar in diabetic rats. Further it also caused a significant reduction in cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, hepatic enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level and improvement in the level of high density lipoproteins (HDL in diabetic rats. Reduction in the fasting blood sugar, normalization of liver enzymes level and improvement in the lipid profile by Cuminoside indicates that Cuminoside has cardio protective potential with antidiabetic activity and provides a scientific rationale for the use of Cuminoside as an antidiabetic agent.

  1. Effects of benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine compounds on the GABA-induced response in frog isolated sensory neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushiji, T; Fukuda, T; Oyama, Y; Akaike, N

    1989-11-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine compounds on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced chloride current (ICl) were studied in frog isolated sensory neurones by use of a concentration-jump (termed 'concentration-clamp') technique, under single-electrode voltage-clamp conditions. The drugs used were classified into four categories as follows: full benzodiazepine receptor agonists (diazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, midazolam, clotiazepam and etizolam), partial agonists (CL 218,872, Ro 16-6028, Ro 17-1812 and Ro 23-0364), inverse agonists (Ro 15-3505, FG 7142 and beta-CCE) and a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil). 2. All full agonists at concentrations of 3 x 10(-6) M or less increased dose-dependently the peak amplitude of ICl elicited by 3 x 10(-6) M GABA to twice to three times larger than the control. However, no further augmentation of the GABA response was observed at concentrations of 1 x 10(-5) M or higher. Partial agonists also showed a dose-dependent augmentation of the GABA response at concentrations ranging from 3 x 10(-8) M to 3 x 10(-5) M, but their efficacies of augmentation of the GABA response were only about half or less of those of full agonists. Of the inverse agonists, beta-CCE had a unique dose-dependent effect on the GABA response. Beta-CCE reduced dose-dependently the GABA response at concentrations of less than 3 x 10(-6) M, but augmented it at concentrations of 3 x 10(-5) M and 6 x 10(-5) M. The inverse agonists reduced dose-dependently the GABA response. The benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil, slightly augmented the GABA response at concentrations between 3 x 10 7M and 3 x 10 5 M. 3. These results show clear differences in the effects on the GABA response between these four categories of compounds known to affect the benzodiazepine recognition site of the GABA/ benzodiazepine receptor-chloride channel complex. Our experimental system of frog isolated sensory neurones and a 'concentration

  2. Aliphatic side chains of proteins as potential geomarkers of NOM liberated from the melting permafrost and discharged to the Arctic Ocean by the Kolyma River run off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinenkov, I. V.; Perminova, I.; Kononikhin, A.; Nikolaev, E.; Hertkorn, N.; Bulygina, E. B.; Holmes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic ecosystem is highly sensitive to climate change. Global warming might have considerable effects on regional carbon cycling due to permafrost melting. Permafrost in the Arctic region represents an extremely large organic carbon reservoir mostly stored in the permafrost. Mobilization of just a small portion of carbon stored in Arctic soils will have considerable impacts on the flux of organic carbon from land to the Arctic Ocean, which can affect the Arctic environment. The Kolyma River watershed is one of the Arctic Ocean's largest. It is dominated by continuous permafrost which is underlain with rich organic soils susceptible to increased fluvial transport. The goal of the work was to analyze the structure of isolated natural organic matter from different fresh water environments of the Kolyma river basin. NOM was isolated from the Kolyma River main stream, its tributaries, a thermokarst lake, a floodplain stream and the permafrost. Solid phase extraction technique was used with Bond Elute PPL cartridges. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectroscopy (FTICRMS) was used for structural studies because of unsurpassed molecular level structural information provided by these high resolution magnetic resonance techniques. The NOM samples from the Kolyma River showed high contents of non-substituted aliphatic structures with a low content of aromatics and carbohydrates. Aliphatic nature may indicate a microbial source of NOM in the form of degraded terpenoids and hopanols. It was shown that almost all NOM samples from the rivers had similar molecular composition enriched with aliphatic units. The samples from permafrost mud streams were significantly different and contained sharp peptide signatures. In general, permafrost NOM contained much less degraded peptide residuest as compared to riverine samples. Identification of these residues showed the presence of branched amino acids (valine, alanine

  3. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  4. A New Method for the Isolation of Ergosterol and Peroxyergosterol as Active Compounds of Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca and in Vitro Antiproliferative Activity of Isolated Ergosterol Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Renata; Drozd, Marta; Mendyk, Ewaryst; Lemieszek, Marta; Krakowiak, Olga; Kisiel, Wanda; Rzeski, Wojciech; Szewczyk, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, ergosterol peroxide and ergosterol were isolated for the first time from fresh fruit bodies of Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (False Chanterelle). The substances were characterized mainly by spectroscopic methods (¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, DEPT-45, DEPT-90, DEPT-135, 2D-NMR). In our study, a new specific thin layer chromatographic method was developed for determination of ergosterol and ergosterol peroxide in H. aurantiaca extract. The method is based on the separation of n-hexane extract on silica gel (Silica Gel G) TLC plates using the optimized solvent system toluene/ethyl acetate (3:1; v/v). The main advantages of the developed method are the simplicity of operation and the low cost. The in vitro study results revealed the antiproliferative properties of ergosterol peroxide against LS180 human colon cancer cells. The described effect was attributed both to altered mitochondrial activity and decreased DNA synthesis. Additionally, in the same concentration range the investigated compound was not toxic to CCD 841 CoTr human colon epithelial cells. The present study suggests that fruit bodies of H. aurantiaca have great potential for producing substances and extracts with potential applications in medicine. PMID:27455215

  5. A New Method for the Isolation of Ergosterol and Peroxyergosterol as Active Compounds of Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca and in Vitro Antiproliferative Activity of Isolated Ergosterol Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nowak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ergosterol peroxide and ergosterol were isolated for the first time from fresh fruit bodies of Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (False Chanterelle. The substances were characterized mainly by spectroscopic methods (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT-45, DEPT-90, DEPT-135, 2D-NMR. In our study, a new specific thin layer chromatographic method was developed for determination of ergosterol and ergosterol peroxide in H. aurantiaca extract. The method is based on the separation of n-hexane extract on silica gel (Silica Gel G TLC plates using the optimized solvent system toluene/ethyl acetate (3:1; v/v. The main advantages of the developed method are the simplicity of operation and the low cost. The in vitro study results revealed the antiproliferative properties of ergosterol peroxide against LS180 human colon cancer cells. The described effect was attributed both to altered mitochondrial activity and decreased DNA synthesis. Additionally, in the same concentration range the investigated compound was not toxic to CCD 841 CoTr human colon epithelial cells. The present study suggests that fruit bodies of H. aurantiaca have great potential for producing substances and extracts with potential applications in medicine.

  6. Aliphatic nitro alcohols. Synthesis, chemical transformations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvekhgeimer, Mai-Genrikh A [A.N. Kosygin Moscow State Textile Academy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-31

    The data on the synthesis, chemical transformations and practical use of aliphatic nitro alcohols published over the last 25 years are described systematically and analysed. The bibliography includes 316 references.

  7. Using the Griess colorimetric nitrite assay for measuring aliphatic β-nitroalcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Quan; Paik, David C

    2012-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that aliphatic β-nitroalcohols (BNAs) may represent a useful class of compounds for topical therapeutic corneoscleral cross-linking agents. Thus, this study was undertaken in order to standardize a simple method for nitroalcohol quantitation based on a denitration step followed by colorimetric Griess nitrite assay. Conditions necessary for denitration included a pH of 7-9 and heating for 1 hour at 100°C. Standard curves for two mono-nitroalcohols (2-nitroethanol and...

  8. Acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, stimulates osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, Tasuku [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ichikawa, Saki [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yonezawa, Takayuki; Lee, Ji-Won [Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Akihisa, Toshihiro [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Woo, Je Tae [Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Michi, Yasuyuki; Amagasa, Teruo [Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: akira.mpa@tmd.ac.jp [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Acerogenin A stimulated osteoblast differentiation in osteogenic cells. {yields} Acerogenin A-induced osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by noggin. {yields} Acerogenin A increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4 and Bmp-7 mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. {yields} Acerogenin A is a candidate agent for stimulating bone formation. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, on osteoblast differentiation by using osteoblastic cells. Acerogenin A stimulated the cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and RD-C6 osteoblastic cells (Runx2-deficient cell line). It also increased alkaline phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 and RD-C6 cells and calvarial osteoblastic cells isolated from the calvariae of newborn mice. Acerogenin A also increased the expression of mRNAs related to osteoblast differentiation, including Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts: it also stimulated Osteocalcin and Osterix mRNA expression in RD-C6 cells. The acerogenin A treatment for 3 days increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4, and Bmp-7 mRNA expression levels in MC3T3-E1 cells. Adding noggin, a BMP specific-antagonist, inhibited the acerogenin A-induced increase in the Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 mRNA expression levels. These results indicated that acerogenin A stimulates osteoblast differentiation through BMP action, which is mediated by Runx2-dependent and Runx2-independent pathways.

  9. Bioassay-Guided Chromatographic Isolation and Identification of Antibacterial Compounds from Artemisia annua L. That Inhibit Clostridium perfringens Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsen, Elise; Fretté, Xavier C; Christensen, Kathrine B; Christensen, Lars P; Engberg, Ricarda M; Grevsen, Kai; Kjaer, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is the causative agent of necrotic enteritis leading to significant losses in the poultry industry. Dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (Asteraceae) exhibited activity against C. perfringens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 185 and 270 μg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts gave several active fractions (MIC between 75 and 600 μg/mL). Investigations of the most active fractions resulted in the isolation and characterization of the polyacetylene ponticaepoxide (MIC between 100 and 200 μg/mL) and (+)-threo-(5E)-trideca-1,5-dien-7,9,11-triyne-3,4-diol (MIC between 400 and 800 μg/mL), the flavonols chrysosplenol D (MIC between 200 and 400 μg/mL) and casticin (slight inhibition at 800 μg/mL), and 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone (slight inhibition at 800 μg/mL). Also, the coumarin scopoletin and the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin were isolated from active fractions but showed no inhibition of C. perfringens growth at 800 and 2000 μg/mL, respectively. Fractions containing essential oil components with camphor constituting >60% did not show inhibition of C. perfringens up to 1600 μg/mL. Extracts and some active fractions showed higher antibacterial effect than individual bioactive compounds, suggesting that synergistic effects may underlie the observed antibacterial effect. The present study adds new valuable information on the antibacterial effect of A. annua against C. perfringens. PMID:25902977

  10. Modulatory effect of an isolated compound from Syzygium cumini seeds on biochemical parameters of diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farswana Mamta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search of natural hypoglycemic agents as alternatives to synthetic ones and to justify the use of Syzygium cumini seeds in folklore system of medicine for diabetes the present study was carried out. To evaluate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity of an isolated compound from S. cumini seeds in normal and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM rats. Study was carried out in Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in neonates. Oral administration of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and water extracts of S. cumini (100 mg/kg, p.o. for 21 days caused a decrease in fasting blood sugar (FBS in diabetic rats. Among all the extracts, methanol extract was found to lower the FBS significantly in diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard antidiabetic drug (5 mg/kg, p.o. Methanol extract was subjected to column chromatography that led to isolation of an active principle, which was given trivial name Cuminoside. Cuminoside (50 mg/kg, p.o. was studied for its hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential. The unpaired t -test and analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post hoc test were used for statistical analysis. Cuminoside caused a significant decrease in FBS level, lipidperoxidation level, and improvement in the levels of antioxidant enzymes (reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in diabetic rats. A considerable decrease in lipid peroxidation and improvement in the antioxidant enzymes level in NIDDM rats indicated that Cuminoside has antioxidant potential with antidiabetic activity and provides a scientific rationale for the use of Cuminoside as an antidiabetic agent.

  11. IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE MULTIGLYCOSIDES OF TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDII (GTW) AND AN ACTIVE COMPOUND (TW15) ISOLATED FROM THE PLANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGHai-Qun; WUYu-Lin; HUYan-Zhong; QIAi-Ping; QIANShao-Zhen

    1989-01-01

    GTW have been shown to cause reversible infertility both in male rats and in men. Very recently, it was reported that a compound isolated from GTW, TW15 (provided by China Pharmae. Univ. and Brit. Columbia Univ. Canada), could also cause infertility in male

  12. Antimicrobial, Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Activities of Extract, Fractions and Isolated Compounds from the Stem of Erythroxylum caatingae Plowman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silene C. Nascimento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we have examined the antitumor and antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract, the fractions, a fraction of total alkaloids and two alkaloids isolated from the stem of Erythroxylum caatingae Plowman. All test fractions, except the hexane fractions, showed antimicrobial activity on gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The acetate: methanol (95:5, acetate, chloroform and hexane fractions show the highest cytotoxicity activity against the NCI-H292, HEp-2 and K562 cell lines using MTT. The absence of hemolysis in the erythrocytes of mice was observed in these fractions and 6β-Benzoyloxy-3α-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyloxy tropane (catuabine B. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 was used to verify the mechanism of action of the compounds of E. caatingae that showed cytotoxicity less than 30 μg/mL in leukemic cells. After 48 h of incubation, we observed that the acetate: methanol (95:5, acetate, and chloroform fractions, as well as the catuabine B, increased in the number of cells in early apoptosis, from 53.0 to 74.8%. An analysis of the potential of the mitochondrial membrane by incorporation of JC-1 showed that most cells during incubation of the acetate: methanol (95:5 and acetate fractions (63.85 and 59.2% were stained, suggesting the involvement of an intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.

  13. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Gymnosperma glutinosum Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane extracts of Gymnosperma glutinosum (Asteraceae leaves, collected in North Mexico, afforded the known compounds hentriacontane (1 and (+-13S,14R,15-trihydroxy-ent-labd-7-ene (2, as well as the new ent-labdane diterpene (−-13S,14R,15-trihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-labd-8(9-ene (3. In addition, D-glycero-D-galactoheptitol (4 was isolated from the methanolic extract of this plant. Their structures were established on the basis of high-field 1D- and 2D NMR methods supported by HR-MS data. The cytotoxic activity was determined by using the in vitro L5178Y-R lymphoma murine model. Hentriacontane (1 and the new ent-labdane 3 showed weak cytotoxicity, whereas the ent-labdane 2 showed significant (p < 0.05 and concentration dependent cytotoxicity (up to 78% against L5178Y-R cells at concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 250 µg/mL.

  14. Antinociceptive effects of an extract, fraction and an isolated compound of the stem bark of Maytenus rigida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antinociceptive activity of the Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae ethanol extract and its ethyl acetate fraction as well as of (--4'-methylepigallocatechin (1, a previously isolated compound, was demonstrated in vivo. ED50 for 1 in the writhing test was 14.14 mg/kg. The acetic acid-induced writhing was inhibited by 98.4, 84.4, and 58.3%, respectively, when mice were treated with the ethanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and 1. In the hot plate test, mice pretreated with 1 showed significantly increased reaction times (60-89%. Oral administration of 1 significantly inhibited first and second phases of the formalin-induced pain (50 and 26.5%, respectively, whereas indomethacin inhibited only the second phase of the test (41.2%. Ethanol extract and its fraction showed effects on inflammatory pain, while neurogenic and inflammatory pain suppression by 1 is a strong indication of the presence of both central and peripheral effects and suggests its analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential.

  15. The impact of the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates on water transport under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mcarmen eMartinez-Ballesta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolatesExposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered glucosinolates biosynthesis in a similar way in WT and the single mutant and differently in the double mutant. The results indicate that short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates may contribute to water saving under salt stress

  16. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca roots and its fractions and compounds isolated from the most active ethyl acetate fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dildar Ahmed; Ramsha Saeed; Nasir Shakeel; Khaizran Fatima; Aneela Arshad

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanolic extract of roots of Carissa opaca and its fractions in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, and the isolated compounds. Methods:The zones of inhibition of the samples against test microorganisms were determined by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the samples were determined by agar well dilution method. Test microorganisms included four standard bacteria [Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 (B. subtilis), Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (P. aeruginosa), and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538], two standard fungi [Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (C. albicans)] and Aspergillus niger, and six clinical isolates (B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterobacter cloacae). The most active fraction was investigated to isolate compounds. The chemical compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results:E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans were the most susceptible. Less polar fractions exhibited stronger efficacy than polar ones, and ethyl acetate fraction proved to be the most potent. Zones of inhibition of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, and amoxil against C. albicans were 19.96, 22.01, 23.10 and 19.20 mm, respectively. Ethyl acetate faction was the most toxic to all the test microorganisms, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 8.0, 7.8 and 7.78 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Isolated compounds, limonene, 2'-hydroxyacetophenone, vanillin, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-6-methylenecyclohexanone, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester,β-sitosterol, vitamin E, rutin, quercetin, lupeol, epigallocatechin, showed considerable

  17. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca roots and its fractions and compounds isolated from the most active ethyl acetate fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dildar; Ahmed; Ramsha; Saeed; Nasir; Shakeel; Khaizran; Fatima; Aneela; Arshad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanolic extract of roots of Carissa opaca and its fractions in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, and the isolated compounds.Methods: The zones of inhibition of the samples against test microorganisms were determined by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the samples were determined by agar well dilution method. Test microorganisms included four standard bacteria [Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633(B. subtilis), Escherichia coli ATCC 8739(E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027(P. aeruginosa), and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538], two standard fungi [Candida albicans ATCC 10231(C. albicans)] and Aspergillus niger, and six clinical isolates(B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterobacter cloacae). The most active fraction was investigated to isolate compounds. The chemical compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer.Results: E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans were the most susceptible. Less polar fractions exhibited stronger efficacy than polar ones, and ethyl acetate fraction proved to be the most potent. Zones of inhibition of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, and amoxil against C. albicans were 19.96, 22.01, 23.10 and 19.20 mm, respectively. Ethyl acetate faction was the most toxic to all the test microorganisms, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 8.0, 7.8 and 7.78 μg/m L against P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Isolated compounds, limonene, 2’-hydroxyacetophenone, vanillin, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-6-methylenecyclohexanone, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, β-sitosterol, vitamin E, rutin, quercetin, lupeol, epigallocatechin, showed considerable

  18. Efficient and selective α-bromination of carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide under microwave

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Xiao-Yu

    2014-02-07

    A highly efficient method for the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl compounds has been achieved via selective monobromination of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid under microwave irradiation within 30 min.

  19. Differential effects of indole and aliphatic glucosinolates on lepidopteran herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, René; de Vos, Martin; Sun, Joel Y; Sønderby, Ida E; Halkier, Barbara A; Wittstock, Ute; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Glucosinolates are a diverse group of defensive secondary metabolites that is characteristic of the Brassicales. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Brassicaceae) lines with mutations that greatly reduce abundance of indole glucosinolates (cyp79B2 cyp79B3), aliphatic glucosinolates (myb28 myb29), or both (cyp79B2 cyp79B3 myb28 myb29) make it possible to test the in vivo defensive function of these two major glucosinolate classes. In experiments with Lepidoptera that are not crucifer-feeding specialists, aliphatic and indole glucosinolates had an additive effect on Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval growth, whereas Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Manduca sexta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) were affected only by the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates. In the case of two crucifer-feeding specialists, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), there were no major changes in larval performance due to decreased aliphatic and/or indole glucosinolate content. Nevertheless, choice tests show that aliphatic and indole glucosinolates act in an additive manner to promote larval feeding of both species and P. rapae oviposition. Together, these results support the hypothesis that a diversity of glucosinolates is required to limit the growth of multiple insect herbivores. PMID:20617455

  20. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate fallout of Alexandria, Egypt: Sources and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboul-Kassim, T.A.T.; Simoneit, B.R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Particulate fallout samples (PFS) were collected in Alexandria, and their aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compositions were determined both quantitatively and qualitatively to characterize the homologous and biomarker compounds in terms of their original sources. The results show that all samples contain aliphatic hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, UCM, isoprenoids, tri- and tetracyclic terpanes, hopanes, and steranes/diasteranes. The main source of these compounds is from petrochemical contamination with trace input of terrestrial higher plant wax. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are considered to be combustion products from fossil fuels such as petroleum, are also widely distributed in all samples. Multivariate statistical analysis, including extended Q-mode factor analysis and linear programming technique, was performed in order to reduce the hydrocarbon data set into a meaningful number of end members (sources). This analysis indicates that there are two significant end members explaining 90% of the total variation among the samples and confirming petrochemical (79.6%), and thermogenic/pyrolytic (10.4%) sources in the PFS model. 65 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Aliphatic esters as targets of esterase activity in the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Liao, Ling-Hsiu; Jogesh, Tania; Berenbaum, May R

    2012-02-01

    As a specialist on the reproductive structures of Pastinaca sativa and species in the related genus Heracleum, the parsnip webworm (Depressaria pastinacella) routinely encounters a distinctive suite of phytochemicals in hostplant tissues. Little is known, however, about the detoxification mechanisms upon which this species relies to metabolize these compounds. In this study, larval guts containing hostplant tissues were homogenized, and metabolism was determined by incubating reactions with and without NADPH and analyzing for substrate disappearance and product appearance by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we found indications of carboxylesterase activity, in the form of appropriate alcohol metabolites for three aliphatic esters in hostplant tissues-octyl acetate, octyl butyrate, and hexyl butyrate. Involvement of webworm esterases in hostplant detoxification subsequently was confirmed with metabolism assays with pure compounds. This study is the first to implicate esterases in lepidopteran larval midgut metabolism of aliphatic esters, ubiquitous constituents of flowers and fruits. In addition, this method confirmed that webworms detoxify furanocoumarins and myristicin in their hostplants via cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism, and demonstrated that these enzymes also metabolize the coumarin osthol and the fatty acid derivative palmitolactone. PMID:22350520

  2. Isolation of phenolic compounds from hop extracts using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone: characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Paulo J; Vieira, Joana S; Gonçalves, Luís M; Pacheco, João G; Guido, Luís F; Barros, Aquiles A

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present work was the development of a suitable methodology for the separation and determination of phenolic compounds in the hop plant. The developed methodology was based on the sample purification by adsorption of phenolic compounds from the matrix to polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and subsequent desorption of the adsorbed polyphenols with acetone/water (70:30, v/v). At last, the extract was analyzed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The first phase of this work consisted of the study of the adsorption behavior of several classes of phenolic compounds (e.g. phenolic acids, flavonols, and flavanols) by PVPP in model solutions. It has been observed that the process of adsorption of the different phenolic compounds to PVPP (at low concentrations) is differentiated, depending on the structure of the compound (number of OH groups, aromatic rings, and stereochemistry hindrance). For example, within the phenolic acids class (benzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic and gallic acids) the PVPP adsorption increases with the number of OH groups of the phenolic compound. On the other hand, the derivatization of OH groups (methylation and glycosylation) resulted in a greatly diminished binding. The use of PVPP revealed to be very efficient for adsorption of several phenolic compounds such as catechin, epicatechin, xanthohumol and quercetin, since high adsorption and recovery values were obtained. The methodology was further applied for the extraction and isolation of phenolic compounds from hops. With this methodology, it was possible to obtain high adsorption values (>or=80%) and recovery yield values (>or=70%) for the most important phenolic compounds from hops such as xanthohumol, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, and in addition it allows the identification of about 30 phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. PMID:19913228

  3. Other compounds isolated from Simira glaziovii and the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift assignments of new 1-epi-castanopsol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcelo F. de; Vieira, Ivo J. Curcino [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas; Carvalho, Mario G. de, E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPPN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais

    2012-07-01

    A new triterpene, 1-epi-castanopsol, besides eleven known compounds: sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, lupeol, lupenone, simirane B, syringaresinol, scopoletin, isofraxidin, 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin and harman, were isolated from the wood of Simira glaziovii. The structures of the known compounds were defined by 1D, 2D {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectra data analyses and comparison with literature data. The detailed spectral data analyses allowed the definition of the structure of the new 1-epi isomer of castanopsol and performance of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift assignments. (author)

  4. Vasodilator profile of flavonoid and phenylbutanoid compounds isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht PERFIL VASODILATADOR DE COMPUESTOS FLAVONOIDES Y FENILBUTANOIDES AISLADOS DE CROTON SCHIEDEANUS SCHLECHT

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Ximena Correa-Hernández; Pilar Puebla Ibánez; Rosalía Carrón de la Calle; María Luisa Martín-Calvo; Luis San Román del Barrio; Mario Francisco Guerrero Pabón

    2008-01-01

    Background. Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae), specie is used in Colombian folk medicine in hypertension treatment. Objective. To assess the vasorelaxant effect of the flavonoid compounds: 3-O-methyl-quercetin, 3,7-di-O-methylquercetin, and 3,3',4',7-tetra-O-methylquercetin, and the phenylbutanoids compounds: (2S)-7,9-dimethoxyrhododendrol, (2S)-2-acetoxy-7,9-dimetho-xyrho-dodendrol, (2S)-2,8-diacetatoxy-7,9-dimethoxyrho-dodendrol in isolated aortic rings of Wistar rats. Materials a...

  5. Different aliphatic dicarboxylates affected assemble of new coordination polymers constructed from flexible-rigid mixed ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, seven coordination polymers: [Cd(C5H6O4)(C10H8N2)]n (1), [Zn(C5H6O4)(C10H8N2)]n (2), [Cd(C6H8O4)(C10H8N2)]n (3), {[Mn(C10H8N2)(H2O)4] (C4H4O4).4H2O}n (4), [Mn5(C4H4O4)4(O)]n (5), [Cd(C4H4O4)(C10H8N2)(H2O)]n (6) and [Zn(C6H6O4)(C12H8N2)(H2O)]n (7) were synthesized and characterized by single-crystallographic X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 are two-dimensional layers connected by glutarate anions and 4,4'-bpy. Unlike compounds 1 and 2, compound 3 is a two-fold interpenetration network. Compound 4 is a one-dimensional chain-like structure, which is further extended to two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure with hydrogen bond. During the synthesis of compound 4, to our surprise, we got compound 5; compound 5 is an interesting three-dimensional network composed of pentanuclear Mn(II) building units and succinate anions. Compound 6 is also a two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure composed of one-dimensional chain-like structure with hydrogen bonds and Π-Π interactions. Compound 7 is also a one-dimensional chain-like structure, which is further connected with the same kind of interaction to generate two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibit fluorescent property at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Seven complexes composed by 3D metal ions, aliphatic acid ligand and rigid bidentate nitrogen ligands: 4,4'-bpy, 2,2'-bpy and 1,10'-phen. With the change of the carbon number of the backbone of aliphatic dicarboxylate ligand, we can synthesize different complexes with various structures

  6. Iodine - catalyzed prins cyclization of aliphatic and aromatic ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, K.R.; Reddy, K.; Silva Junior, Luiz F., E-mail: luizfsjr@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2013-09-15

    Iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and ketones was investigated. Anhydrous conditions and inert atmosphere are not required in this metal-free protocol. The reaction of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalene-1-yl)propan-1-ol with six aliphatic symmetric ketones gave the desired products in 67-77% yield. Cyclization was performed with four aliphatic unsymmetric ketones, leading to corresponding pyrans in 66-76% yield. Prins cyclization was also accomplished with four aromatic ketones in 37-66% yield. Finally, Prins cyclization of the monoterpene isopulegol and acetone was successfully achieved. (author)

  7. Design, Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activities of Novel Aliphatic Amino-Substituted Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guannan Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of flavonoids 9a–f, 13b, 13d, 13e and 14a–f bearing diverse aliphatic amino moieties were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the ECA-109, A-549, HL-60, and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Most of the compounds exhibited moderate to good activities. The structure-activity relationships were studied, revealing that the chalcone skeleton is the most preferable for cytotoxic activities. Chalcone 9d was the most promising compound due to its high potency against the examined cancer cell lines (its IC50 values against ECA-109, A549, HL-60 and PC-3 cells were 1.0, 1.5, 0.96 and 3.9 μM, respectively.

  8. Isolation of nematicidal compounds from Tagetes patula L. yellow flowers: structure-activity relationship studies against cyst nematode Heterodera zeae infective stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizi, Shaheen; Fayyaz, Shahina; Bano, Samina; Iqbal, Erum Yawar; Lubna; Siddiqi, Humaira; Naz, Aneela

    2011-09-14

    Bioassay-guided isolation studies on the extracts of yellow flowers of Tagetes patula L. against the Heterodera zeae were carried out to identify phytochemicals lethal to this economically important cyst nematode. In vitro investigation of a polar extract and fractions showing activity led to the isolation of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids). In the nonpolar extract, a few fatty acids, their methyl esters, and thiophenes (including α-terthienyl) were detected. In studies of compounds obtained commercially, α-terthienyl and gallic and linoleic acids showed 100% mortality at concentrations of 0.125% after 24 h. Assessment of structure-activity relationships revealed that an increase in the number of hydroxyl groups in phenolic acids increased the activity; with fatty acids, activity depended on chain length and the number and position of double bonds. Crude extracts of the flowers of different colors also have promising activity. PMID:21780738

  9. Curtisia dentata (Cornaceae) leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit motility of parasitic and free-living nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    L.J. Shai; E.S. Bizimenyera; V. Bagla; L.J. McGaw; J.N. Eloff

    2009-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis are among the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants. Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, is used as a model for evaluating anthelmintic activity of a variety of test substances. Extracts of several medicinal plants are useful in vitro and in vivo against nematode development. Extracts of Curtisia dentata, a South African medicinal plant, and compounds isolated from leaves of this plant were investigated...

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of a new compound, pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol isolated from brown algae, Ecklonia cava

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sung-Myung; Lee, Seung-Hong; Heo, Soo-Jin; Kim, Kil-Nam; Jeon, You-Jin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of the natural antioxidative compound, pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6'-bieckol (PPB) isolated from brown algae, Ecklonia cava was assessed in vitro by measuring the radical scavenging activities (DPPH, alkyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide) using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, and DNA damage assay. According to the results of these experiments, the scavengin...

  11. Thailandins A and B, New Polyene Macrolactone Compounds Isolated from Actinokineospora bangkokensis Strain 44EHW(T), Possessing Antifungal Activity against Anthracnose Fungi and Pathogenic Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Greule, Anja; Bechthold, Andreas; Euanorasetr, Jirayut; Paululat, Thomas; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2016-06-29

    Two new polyene macrolactone antibiotics, thailandins A, 1, and B, 2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of rhizosphere soil-associated Actinokineospora bangkokensis strain 44EHW(T). The new compounds from this strain were purified using semipreparative HPLC and Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration while following an antifungal activity guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques including UV, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR. These compounds demonstrated broad spectrum antifungal activity against fungi causing anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides DoA d0762, Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes DoA c1060, and Colletotrichum capsici DoA c1511) as well as pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans MT 2013/1, Candida parasilopsis DKMU 434, and Cryptococcus neoformans MT 2013/2) with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 16 and 32 μg/mL. This is the first report of polyene antibiotics produced by Actinokineospora species as bioactive compounds against anthracnose fungi and pathogenic yeast strains. PMID:27267862

  12. Synthesis of a new group of aliphatic hydrazide derivatives and the correlations between their molecular structure and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    In view of the growing demand for new compounds showing biological activity against pathogenic microorganisms, such as pathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi, the objective of this study was to synthesize a new group of aliphatic and aromatic derivatives of hydrazide. In consequence of the reactions observed during synthesis, the resulting compounds retained their linear structure. Their structure and lipophilicity, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were analyzed. Correlations were determined between the compounds' molecular parameters and biological activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi. The investigated compounds were also examined for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus. The obtained results indicate that compounds with fluorine-containing substituents penetrate the cell structure more effectively and are characterized by higher antifungal potential than analogues with different substituents. PMID:22441334

  13. Introducing Aliphatic Substitution with a Discovery Experiment Using Competing Electrophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Timothy P.; Mostovoy, Amelia J.; Curran, Margaret E.; Berger, Clara

    2016-01-01

    A facile, discovery-based experiment is described that introduces aliphatic substitution in an introductory undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. Unlike other discovery-based experiments that examine substitution using two competing nucleophiles with a single electrophile, this experiment compares two isomeric, competing electrophiles…

  14. Cloud condensation nuclei activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The resulting particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate ...

  15. Two-dimensional inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductors composed of double-layered ZnS and monoamines with aromatic and heterocyclic aliphatic rings: Syntheses, structures, and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sujing; Li, Jing, E-mail: jingli@rutgers.edu

    2015-04-15

    As an addition to the II–VI based inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductor family, five new two-dimensional (2D) double-layered structures have been synthesized employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings. Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(bza) (1), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(mbza) (2), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(fbza) (3), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(pca) (4), and Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(thfa) (5) (bza=benzylamine, mbza=4-methoxybenzylamine, fbza=4-flurobenzylamine, pca=3-picolylamine, and thfa=tetrahydrofurfurylamine) are prepared by solvothermal reactions and characterized by different analytical methods, including powder X-ray diffraction, optical diffuse reflection, thermogravimetric analysis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that all five compounds adopt 2D double-layered structures. Optical diffuse reflectance spectra of these compounds suggest that they have notably lower band gaps than those of the similar compounds composed of aliphatic alkyl amines. Their photoluminescence properties and thermal stability are also analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Five new members of two-dimensional double-layered 2D-Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(L) (L=Ligand) structures employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. - Highlights: • A new sub-family of II-VI based hybrid semiconductors are designed, synthesized, and structurally characterized using amines with aromatic or aliphatic cyclic rings. • These compounds have notably lower band gaps than those made of aliphatic alkyl amines, greatly broadening the range of band gaps of this material family. • They emit strongly with systematically tunable emission intensity and energy.

  16. Decomposition of plant-sourced carbon compounds by heterotrophic betaproteobacteria isolated from a tropical Costa Rican bromeliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jane; McHenry, Alexandra; Montelongo, Carin; Goffredi, Shana K

    2016-06-01

    Betaproteobacteria were the most common isolates from the water-filled tank of a Costa Rican bromeliad. Isolates included eight species from the orders Neisseriales and Burkholderiales, with close relatives recovered previously from tropical soils, wetlands, freshwater, or in association with plants. Compared to close relatives, the isolates displayed high temperature and comparatively low pH optima, reflecting the tropical, acidic nature of the bromeliad tank. Bromeliad-associated bacteria most closely related to Chromobacterium, Herbaspirillum, and Aquitalea were all isolated exclusively at pH 6, while Ralstonia, Cupriavidus, and three species of Burkholderia were isolated mostly at pH 4. Activity profiles for the isolates suggest pervasive capabilities for the breakdown of plant-sourced organics, including d-galacturonic acid, mannitol, d-xylose, and l-phenylalanine, also reflecting a niche dominated by decomposition of leaves from the overlying canopy, which become entrained in the tanks. Metabolic activity profiles were overlapping between the Burkholderiales, isolated at pH 4, and the Neisseriales, isolated at pH 6, suggesting that plant material decomposition, which is presumably the underlying process sustaining the tank community and possibly the plant itself, occurs in the tanks at both pH extremes. These results suggest that bromeliad-associated betaproteobacteria may play an important role in the cycling of carbon in this unusual aquatic habitat. PMID:26918550

  17. Branched aliphatic alkanes of shell bar section in Qarhan Lake, Qaidam Basin and their paleoclimate significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuCai; CHANG FengQin; LI Bin; LEI GuoLiang; CHEN Yue; ZHANG WenXiang; NIU Jie; FAN HongFang; YANG MingSheng

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers of paleolake deposits from Qarhan Salt Lake in Qaidam Basin, northwest China were systematically analyzed and the A-C series compounds of branched aliphatic alkanes with quaternary substituted carbon atom (BAQCs) were identified. The homologous distinguished three series, A-C,were identified as 5,5-diethylalkanes, 6,6-diethylalkanes and 5-butyl, 5-ethylalkanes series, and their relative abundance was A > B > C. Series A and C were characterized by odd carbon numbers, whereas series B was characterized by even carbon numbers. The high values of series A corresponded with the high values of series B and C. Therefore, it can be concluded that series A, B and C possess a similar biological origin. The abundance of series A was relatively Iow in the lower part of the section compared with that in the upper part, implying that these series originated from bacteria and/or algae more prevalent in fresh-mesohaline water, and such kinds of bacteria and/or algae are most likely to be thermophilous species. The A25/nC25 ratio differences in the section show that such branched aliphatic alkanes can be treated as one kind of environmental change proxy for paleolake evolution and may provide important information for the climate reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene.

  18. Determination of aliphatic aldehydes by liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Contursi, Michela

    2005-01-21

    An electrochemical detection method for short-chain saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes separated by liquid chromatography in moderately acidic medium is described. A triple-step waveform of the potentials applied to the polycrystalline platinum electrode, is proposed for sensitive detection of aliphatic aldehydes in flowing streams avoiding tedious pre- or post-column derivatization and/or cleanup procedures. The influences of the perchloric acid concentration and dissolved oxygen in the mobile phase, on the amperometric and chromatographic performance were evaluated and considered in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. Under the optimised experimental conditions (i.e., deoxygenated 50mM HClO4) the proposed analytical method allowed detection limits between 0.2 microM for acrolein and 2.5 microM for valeraldehyde. Regression analysis of calibration data indicates that responses for all investigated compounds are linear over about 2 orders of magnitude above the LOD, with correlation coefficients >0.990. The method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acrolein in real matrices such as spiked water and red wines with good mean recoveries (81-97%). PMID:15700464

  19. ODD-EVEN EFFECT OF LYOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE PROPERTIES OF AROMATIC-ALIPHATIC COPOLYAMIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-zhong Lu; Yan-qing Lian; Xiao-gong Wang; Qi-xiang Zhou; Dc-shah Liu

    2001-01-01

    A series of aromatic-aliphatic copolyamides containing different aliphatic diamine units was synthesized by low temperature solution polycondensation. The liquid crystalline critical concentration (c*) and liquid crystalline critical temperature (7*) of these copolyamides exhibited an odd-even zigzag effect with the odd-even variation of carbon atom number in the aliphatic dimes used.

  20. Neutron Scattering of Aromatic and Aliphatic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowska, Marta; Bowron, Daniel T.; Manyar, Haresh G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Organic solvents, such as cyclohexane, cyclohexene, methylcyclohexane, benzene and toluene, are widely used as both reagents and solvents in industrial processes. Despite the ubiquity of these liquids, the local structures that govern the chemical properties have not been studied extensively. Herein, we report neutron diffraction measurements on liquid cyclohexane, cyclohexene, methylcyclohexane, benzene and toluene at 298 K to obtain a detailed description of the local structure in these compounds. The radial distribution functions of the centres of the molecules, as well as the partial distribution functions for the double bond for cyclohexene and methyl group for methylcyclohexane and toluene have been calculated. Additionally, probability density functions and angular radial distribution functions were extracted to provide a full description of the local structure within the chosen liquids. Structural motifs are discussed and compared for all liquids, referring specifically to the functional group and aromaticity present in the different liquids. PMID:26990367

  1. Neutron Scattering of Aromatic and Aliphatic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowska, Marta; Bowron, Daniel T; Manyar, Haresh G; Hardacre, Christopher; Youngs, Tristan G A

    2016-07-01

    Organic solvents, such as cyclohexane, cyclohexene, methylcyclohexane, benzene and toluene, are widely used as both reagents and solvents in industrial processes. Despite the ubiquity of these liquids, the local structures that govern the chemical properties have not been studied extensively. Herein, we report neutron diffraction measurements on liquid cyclohexane, cyclohexene, methylcyclohexane, benzene and toluene at 298 K to obtain a detailed description of the local structure in these compounds. The radial distribution functions of the centres of the molecules, as well as the partial distribution functions for the double bond for cyclohexene and methyl group for methylcyclohexane and toluene have been calculated. Additionally, probability density functions and angular radial distribution functions were extracted to provide a full description of the local structure within the chosen liquids. Structural motifs are discussed and compared for all liquids, referring specifically to the functional group and aromaticity present in the different liquids. PMID:26990367

  2. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the methanolic extracts of Piper alatabaccum branches and P. tuberculatum leaves and compounds isolated against Anopheles darlingi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances T. T. Trindade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Piper is a notable genus among Piperaceae due to their secondary metabolites such as lignans, amides, esters and long chain fatty acids used as anti-herbivore defenses with comparable effects of pyrethroids, that holds a promise in insect control, including malaria vectors such as Anopheles darlingi, the main vector in the North of Brazil. Methanolic extracts of Piper tuberculatum Jacq., Piperaceae, and P. alatabaccum Trel. & Yunck., Piperaceae, and some isolated compounds, i.e, 3,4,5-trimetoxy-dihydrocinamic acid, dihydropiplartine; piplartine, piplartine-dihydropiplartine and 5,5',7-trimetoxy-3',4'-metilenodioxiflavone were tested as larvicides against A. darlingi. The Lethal Concentrations (LC50 and LC90 of methanolic extracts were 194 and 333 ppm for P. tuberculatum and 235 and 401 ppm for P. alatabacum, respectively. Isolated compounds had lower LC values, e.g. the LC50 and LC90 of the piplartine-dihidropiplartine isolated from both plant species was 40 and 79 ppm, respectively.

  3. Synthesis of a New Group of Aliphatic Hydrazide Derivatives and the Correlations between Their Molecular Structure and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kostecka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the growing demand for new compounds showing biological activity against pathogenic microorganisms, such as pathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi, the objective of this study was to synthesize a new group of aliphatic and aromatic derivatives of hydrazide. In consequence of the reactions observed during synthesis, the resulting compounds retained their linear structure. Their structure and lipophilicity, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, were analyzed. Correlations were determined between the compounds’ molecular parameters and biological activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi. The investigated compounds were also examined for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus. The obtained results indicate that compounds with fluorine-containing substituents penetrate the cell structure more effectively and are characterized by higher antifungal potential than analogues with different substituents.

  4. Segregation and Alteration of Phenolic and Aliphatic Components of Root and Leaf Litter by Detritivores and Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, T. R.; Altmann, J.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Kalbitz, K.; Gamblin, D.; Nierop, K.

    2012-12-01

    The physical and microbial transformation of plant detritus in the litter layer and soil is accompanied by chemical separation of progressively soluble fractions and their movement into the rhizosphere driving subsequent soil processes. We investigated the combined action of specific detritivores, microbial decay, and leaching on the chemical separation of plant aromatic and aliphatic components from root, wood, and leaf tissue using 13C-TMAH thermochemolysis. This method enabled the simultaneous analysis of hydrolyzable tannin and lignin fragments, substituted fatty acids, and condensed tannin composition and revealed process-specific chemical transformations to plant secondary compounds. Long-term incubation and field sampling demonstrated how plant residues are progressively leached of the water soluble, oxidized fragments generated through decay. The residues appeared only slightly altered, in the case of brown rot wood, or enriched in aliphatic fragments, in the case of leaf and root tissue. Water extractable fractions were always selectively dominated by polyphenolics, either as demethylated lignin or tannins, and nearly devoid of aliphatic materials, despite high concentrations in the starting materials. Additionally, for plant materials with high tannin contents, such as pine needles, consumption and passage through some arthropod guts revealed what appeared to be microbially-mediated methylation of phenols, and a loss of tannins in leachates. These findings are indications for an in-situ phenol detoxification mechanism. This research provides important information regarding the links between biochemical decay and the chemical nature of organic matter removed and remaining in the soil profile.

  5. Synthesis and reactivity of aliphatic sulfur pentafluorides from substituted (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Norbert; Václavík, Jiří; Beier, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of 3- and 4-pentafluorosulfanyl-substituted anisoles and phenols with hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid provided a mixture of SF5-substituted muconolactone, maleic, and succinic acids. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the aliphatic SF5 compounds was presented and their chemical reactivity was investigated. SF5-substituted para-benzoquinone was synthesized; its oxidation led to an improved yield of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid. The reaction of SF5-substituted maleic anhydride and para-benzoquinone with cyclopentadiene afforded the Diels-Alder adducts. Decomposition of 3-(pentafluorosulfanyl)muconolactone in acidic, neutral and basic aqueous media was investigated and the decarboxylation of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid provided 3-(pentafluorosulfanyl)acrylic acid. PMID:26877813

  6. {Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons in gas and particle phases in two sites of Mexico: MILAGRO project}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Muñoz, O.; Villalobos-Pietrini, R.; Castro, T.; Gaspariano-Larino, R.

    2009-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are markers of anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources1; meanwhile PAHs are generated by incomplete combustion sources2. The last ones are important compounds due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties3,4. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs in gas and particles phases of the atmospheric aerosol and to determine the day and night time behavior during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local Global and Research Observations) campaign. The gas phase was collected on polyurethane foam, while particles less than 2.5 m (PM2.5) were collected on glass fiber filters covered with Teflon (TIGF, pallflex) of 8x10 in. Samplings were carried out with a high volume sampler (Tisch) with a flow of 1.13 m3 min-1 at two sites: Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0) and Tecamac (T1) located at North and Northeast of Mexico City, respectively during day (7:00 am-7:00 pm) and night time (7:00 pm-7:00 am) from 1 to 29 of March, 2006. Ninteen PAHs and 23 aliphatic hydrocarbons from n-C13H28 to n-C35H72 were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in impact mode. The samples were spiked with deuterads PAHs and aliphatics hydrocarbons before ultrasound extraction. Medians comparisons were made with Mann-Whitney U test. PAHs with molecular weight (MW) less than 228 g mol-1 were distributed in the gas phase, in both sites. Higher concentrations of PAHs ≥ 228 g mol-1 in PM2.5, were observed during night period (p

  7. Composition and sources of aliphatic lipids and sterols in sediments of a tropical island, southern South China Sea: preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Tahir, N; Pang, S Y; Abdullah, N A; Suratman, S

    2013-12-01

    Near-shore surface sediment was collected from five stations off Redang Island located on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Freeze-dried sediments were Soxhlet extracted and then fractionated using column chromatography into aliphatic and polar fractions. Determination of these fractions was carried out using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentration of total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments ranged from 157 to 308 ng/g. The distribution of aliphatic fraction showed the presence of n-alkanes ranging from nC15 to nC33 with a minor odd-to-even predominance exhibiting carbon maximum, depending on station, at nC17, nC26, nC29 or nC31. Calculation of Carbon Preference Index (CPI) for CPI(15-33) gave values ranging from 1.09 to 1.46. n-Alkanol in all sediment exhibits even-to-odd carbon predominance ranging from nC16 to nC28 and maximising at nC22. n-Fatty acids distribution ranged from nC14 to nC24 with a dominant maximum at nC16 and exhibiting high values of short chain fatty acids (≤nC20) to long chain fatty acids (>nC20) ratios. Unsaturated fatty acids, particularly nC16:1 and nC18:1 is also ubiquitous in all samples. Cholesterol is the most abundant compound amongst the sterol group ranging from 42.8 to 62.6% of the total sterols. β-Sitosterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol, are also present but of relatively lower amount. These observations suggest that the aliphatic lipids and sterols in the study area originate, mainly, from biogenic sources of marine microbial with minor contribution from epiticular waxes of terrestrial plants.

  8. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjie; Dong, Qi; Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-Dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-02-23

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection. PMID:26848777

  9. Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bedin Denardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506 and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%, followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%, against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%, itraconazole (73%, voriconazole (63% and fluconazole (60%. The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.

  10. Aliphatics hydrocarbon content in surface sediment from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAzis, M.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary aliphatic hydrocarbons content have been studied quantitatively and qualitatively using GC/MS method in eight coastal stations located in the Jakarta Bay, North of Jakarta, Indonesia. The total concentrations n-alkanes have ranged from 480 μg.kg-1to 1,935 μg.kg-1sediment dry weight. Several ratios (e.g. CPI24-32, NAR, TAR, Pr/Phy, n-C17/Pr, n- C18/Phyt,n-C29/n-C17, Ʃn-alkanes/n-C16LMW/HMW, Paq and TMD) were used to evaluate the possible sources of terrestrial-marine inputs of these hydrocarbons in the sediments. The various origins of aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally biogenic, including both terrigenous and marine, with an anthropogenic pyrolytic contribution (petrogenic and biogenic combustion). Two stations (G,H) were thehighest concentration and had potential risk to environment

  11. Inhibitory effects of compounds isolated from the dried branches and leaves of murta (Myrceugenia euosma) on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Naoki; Nobushi, Yasuhito; Wada, Taira; Sonoda, Kumiko; Okazaki, Yuzo; Tsutsumi, Shigetoshi; Park, Yong Kun; Kurokawa, Masahiko; Shimba, Shigeki; Yasukawa, Ken

    2016-07-01

    As obesity is a global health concern the demand for anti-obesity drugs is high. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of the dried branches and leaves of murta (Myrceugenia euosma Legrand, Myrtaceae). A methanol extract of the dried branches and leaves of murta inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Three known flavanones-cryptostrobin (1), pinocembrin (4), and 5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethylflavanone (6), and three chalcones-2',6'-dihydroxy-3'-methyl-4'-methoxychalcone (2), pinostrobin chalcone (3), and 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (5) were isolated from the active fraction. Structures of these compounds were identified using various spectral data. Each of these compounds also inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. In particular, compound 3 was a more potent inhibitor of triglyceride accumulation than the positive control berberine. Gene expression studies revealed that treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 3 lowers the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and peroxisome proliferator activator γ2 during adipogenesis without affecting cell viability. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 3 reduced the expression levels of mRNAs encoding sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and several lipogenic enzymes, including fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase-1. These results indicate that the methanol extract and compounds isolated from the dried branches and leaves of murta exert their anti-obesity effects through the inhibition of adipogenesis. PMID:26880616

  12. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

  13. Phytotoxic Potential of Secondary Metabolites and Semisynthetic Compounds from Endophytic Fungus Xylaria feejeensis Strain SM3e-1b Isolated from Sapium macrocarpum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Méndez, Marbella Claudia; Macías-Ruvalcaba, Norma A; Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia

    2016-06-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the combined culture medium and mycelium extract of the endophytic fungus Xylaria feejeensis strain SM3e-1b, isolated from Sapium macrocarpum, led to the isolation of three known natural products: (4S,5S,6S)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methyl-5,6-epoxycyclohex-2-enone or coriloxine, 1; 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, 2; and 2,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione or fumiquinone B, 3. This is the first report of compound 3 being isolated from this species. Additionally, four new derivatives of coriloxine were prepared: (4R,5S,6R)-6-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylcyclohex-2-enone, 4; 6-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(methylamino)cyclohexa-2,5- diene-1,4-dione, 5; (4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methyl-6-(phenylamino)cyclohex-2-enone, 6; and 2-((4-butylphenyl)amino)-5-methoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, 7. X-ray analysis allowed us to unambiguously determine the structures and absolute configuration of semisynthetic derivatives 4, 5, and 6. The phytotoxic activity of the three isolated natural products and the coriloxine derivatives is reported. Germination of the seed, root growth, and oxygen uptake of the seedlings of Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Panicum miliaceum, and Amaranthus hypochondriacus were significantly inhibited by all of the tested compounds. In general, they were more effective inhibiting root elongation than suppressing the germination and seedling oxygen uptake processes as shown by their IC50 values. PMID:27159617

  14. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-10-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed.

  15. Swift Heavy Ion Induced Modification of Aliphatic Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the high energy heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers is studied. Two polymer groups, namely polyvinyl polymers (PVF, PVAc, PVA and PMMA) and fluoropolymers (PVDF, ETFE, PFA and FEP) were used in this work. Polyvinyl polymers were investigated since they will be used as insulating materials in the superconducting magnets of the new ion accelerators of the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz-Centre of Heavy I...

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) have similar missions and therefore similar facilities and structures in similar environments. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of an applied coating system. The most common topcoats used in coating systems are polyurethanes that contain isocyanates. Isocyanates are classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes resulting in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) quantifies the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coatings. The estimates in this CBA are to be used for assessing the relative merits of the selected alternatives. The actual economic effects at any specific facility will depend on the alternative material or technology implemented, the number of actual applications converted, future workloads, and other factors . The participants initially considered eighteen (18) alternative coatings as described in the Potential Alternatives Report entitled Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB. Of those, 8 alternatives were selected for testing in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, and the Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives 10 Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both of which were prepared by ITB. A joint Test Report entitled Joint Test Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB, documents the results of the laboratory and field testing, as well as any

  17. A rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of aliphatic and polar molecules containing free carboxyl groups in plant extracts by LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aliphatic molecules containing free carboxyl groups are important intermediates in many metabolic and signalling reactions, however, they accumulate to low levels in tissues and are not efficiently ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI compared to more polar substances. Quantification of aliphatic molecules becomes therefore difficult when small amounts of tissue are available for analysis. Traditional methods for analysis of these molecules require purification or enrichment steps, which are onerous when multiple samples need to be analyzed. In contrast to aliphatic molecules, more polar substances containing free carboxyl groups such as some phytohormones are efficiently ionized by ESI and suitable for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Thus, the development of a method with which aliphatic and polar molecules -which their unmodified forms differ dramatically in their efficiencies of ionization by ESI- can be simultaneously detected with similar sensitivities would substantially simplify the analysis of complex biological matrices. Results A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of free aliphatic molecules (e.g., free fatty acids (FFA and small polar molecules (e.g., jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA containing free carboxyl groups by direct derivatization of leaf extracts with Picolinyl reagent followed by LC-MS/MS analysis is presented. The presence of the N atom in the esterified pyridine moiety allowed the efficient ionization of 25 compounds tested irrespective of their chemical structure. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained after analysis of Nicotiana attenuata leaf material with previously described analytical methods. Conclusion The method presented was used to detect 16 compounds in leaf extracts of N. attenuata plants. Importantly, the method can be adapted based on the specific analytes of interest with the only consideration that the

  18. A micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of leukemic U-937 cells treated with Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf and the isolated compound madurensine

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Karlien; Prinsloo, Linda C.; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Lall, Namrita

    In South Africa traditional medicine plays an important role in primary health care and therefore it is very important that the medicinal use of plants is scientifically tested for toxicity and effectiveness. It was established that the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Crotalaria agatiflora, as well as the isolated compound madurensine, is moderately toxic against leukemic U-937 cells. Light microscopic investigations indicated that symptoms of cell death are induced during treatments, but flow cytometry analysis of treated cells, using annexin-V and propidium iodide, showed that apoptosis and necrosis are insignificantly induced. The Raman results suggested that protein extraction and DNA melting occur in the cells during treatment with the ethanolic extracts (IC50 value 73.9 μg/mL), drastically changing the molecular content of the cells. In contrast, treatment with madurensine (IC50 value 136.5 μg/mL), an isolated pyrrolizidine alkaloid from the ethanolic extract of the leaves, did not have the same effect. The results are also compared to that of cells treated with actinomycin D, a compound known to induce apoptosis. The investigation showed that micro-Raman spectroscopy has great promise to be used for initial screening of samples to determine the effects of different treatments on cancerous cell lines together with conventional methods. The results highlight the fact that for many natural products used for medicinal purposes, the therapeutic effect of the crude plant extract tends to be significantly more effective than the particular action of its individual constituents.

  19. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and HPLC Determination of Bioactive Compound That Relate to the Antiplatelet Activity (Adhesion, Secretion, and Aggregation from Solanum lycopersicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In seeking the functionality of foodstuff applicable to medicine, ripe tomato fruits were found to show an antiplatelet activity. Therefore, the bioactive compound was isolated, structurally identified, and studied for an inhibitory effects on platelet adhesion, secretion, and aggregation. The concentration of adenosine in ripe tomato fruits (pulp and skin extracts and its processing by-products (paste and pomace was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. According to platelet aggregation inhibition induced by ADP, the total extract residual was fractionated by liquid-liquid separation, obtaining aqueous, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts. The aqueous extract was subjected to repeated permeation over sephadex LH-20 and semipreparative TLC. The isolate finally obtained was identified as adenosine on the basis of ESI-MS, 1H NMR, HPLC, and UV spectra. Adenosine concentration dependently (2.3–457 μM platelet aggregation inhibited induced by ADP. Also, adenosine present inhibition of platelet secretion and thrombus formation under flow conditions. The quantitative HPLC analysis revealed significant amounts of adenosine in ripe tomato fruits and its processing by-products. From these results, extracts/fractions of ripe tomato fruits and their processing by-products may be referred to as functional food and functional ingredients containing a compound that inhibits platelet function with a potent preventive effect on thrombus formation, as those that occur in stroke.

  20. Characterization of kinetic parameters and the formation of volatile compounds during the tequila fermentation by wild yeasts isolated from agave juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Melchor; Pelayo, Carlos; Ramírez, Jesús; Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2008-08-01

    The production of aroma compounds during tequila fermentation using four native yeast strains isolated from agave juice was quantified at controlled (35 degrees C) and uncontrolled temperatures (room temperature) by gas chromatography (FID). Three of the four strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTLI 1, MALI 1 and MGLI 1) and one as Kloeckera apiculata (MALI 2). Among the aroma compounds produced, acetaldehyde has the highest accumulation at the controlled temperature and before 50% of sugar was consumed. The S. cerevisiae strains produced ethyl acetate in almost the same quantity at a concentration of 5 mg/L and the K. apiculata produced six-times more (30 mg/L) than the S. cerevisiae strains, independent of the fermentation temperature. The rate and amount of 1-propanol, amyl alcohols and isobutanol production were affected by the type of yeast used. The K. apiculate strain produced 50% less of the higher alcohols than the Saccharomyces strains. The results obtained showed that indigenous isolated yeasts play an important role in the tequila flavor and suggest that mixtures of these yeasts may be used to produce tequila with a unique and desirable aroma.

  1. Polar compounds isolated from the leaves of Calea prunifolia H.B.K. and their anti-adrenergic related vasodilator activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puebla, Pilar; San Feliciano, Arturo [Laboratory of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, Salamanca University (Spain); Aranguren, Nataly; Rincon, Javier; Rojas, Maritza; Guerrero, Mario, E-mail: mfguerrerop@unal.edu.co [Pharmacy Department, School of Sciences, National University of Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    The leaves of Calea prunifolia H.B.K., medicinal specie used in Colombian folk medicine for hypertension have been analysed for their chemical constituents, resulting in the isolation of one flavonoid glycoside, one quinic acid derivative and one kaurane diterpenoid glycoside. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis, including HRMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR data. The vasodilator effect related to anti adrenergic activity of the three compounds was evaluated in isolated aortic rings from Wistar rats contracted cumulatively with phenylephrine (from 1 x 10{sup -9} to 5 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}). Although these compounds were devoid of significant vasodilator activity when they were tested alone (1 {mu}g mL-1), mixtures of them (1:1:1) and the own EtOH extract exerted preventive anti-adrenergic activity increasing the phenylephrine CE{sub 50} from 2.3 x 10{sup -8} to 1.3 x 10{sup -7} and 8.0 x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  2. Identification of compounds from high-fat and extra virgin olive oil-supplemented diets in whole mouse liver extracts and isolated mitochondria using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Gustavo Aparecido; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; de Oliveira, Vanessa; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Cintra, Dennys Esper Corrêa; Castilho, Roger Frigério; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a fatty liver disorder that could be improved with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) supplementation in diet. We propose the monitoring, in whole mouse liver extracts and in isolated mitochondria, of the absorption of compounds from three different diets: standard (CT), high-fat (HFD) and high-fat supplemented with EVOO (HFSO). Male mice were submitted to one of the following three diets: CT or HFD for 16 weeks or HFD for 8 weeks followed by additional 8 weeks with HFSO. Following this period, liver was extracted for histological evaluation, mitochondria isolation and mass spectrometry analyses. Diets, liver extracts and Percoll-purified mitochondria were analyzed using ESI-MS and the lipidomics approach. Morphological, histological and spectrometric results indicated a decrease in NASH severity with EVOO supplementation in comparison with animals maintained with HFD. Spectrometric data also demonstrated that some compounds presented on the diets are absorbed by the mitochondria. EVOO was shown to be a potential therapeutic alternative in food for NASH. Our results are in accordance with the proposition that the major factor that influences different responses to diets is their composition - and not only calories - especially when it comes to studies on obesity.

  3. Isolation and characterization of nanosheets containing few layers of the Aurivillius family of oxides and metal-organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosheets containing few-layers of ferroelectric Aurivillius family of oxides, Bi2An−1BnO3n+3 (where A=Bi3+, Ba2+ etc. and B=Ti4+, Fe3+ etc.) with n=3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 have been prepared by reaction with n-butyllithium, followed by exfoliation in water. The few-layer samples have been characterized by Tyndall cones, atomic force microscopy, optical spectroscopy and other techniques. The few-layer species have a thickness corresponding to a fraction of the c-parameter along which axis the perovskite layers are stacked. Magnetization measurements have been carried out on the few-layer samples containing iron. Few-layer species of a few layered metal-organic compounds have been obtained by ultrasonication and characterized by Tyndall cones, atomic force microscopy, optical spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Significant changes in the optical spectra and magnetic properties are found in the few-layer species compared to the bulk samples. Few-layer species of the Aurivillius family of oxides may find uses as thin layer dielectrics in photovoltaics and other applications. - Graphical abstract: Exfoliation of the layered Aurivillius oxides into few-layer nanosheets by chemical Li intercalation using n-BuLi followed by reaction in water. Exfoliation of the layered metal-organic compounds into few-layer nanosheets by ultrasonication. - Highlights: • Few-layer nanosheets of Aurivillius family of oxides with perovskite layers have been generated by lithium intercalation. • Few-layer nanosheets of few layered metal-organic compounds have been generated by ultrasonication. • Few-layer nanosheets of the Aurivillius oxides have been characterized by AFM, TEM and optical spectroscopy. • Aurivillius oxides containing Fe show layer dependent magnetic properties. • Exfoliated few-layer metal-organic compounds show changes in spectroscopic and magnetic properties compared with bulk materials

  4. Optimization of extraction parameters on the isolation of phenolic compounds from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Karaaslan, Mehmet; Vardin, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to bio-components obtained from fruit & vegetable wastes. Anthocyanin is one of the components regained from fruits especially from red ones. Sour cherry is considered as industrial fruit since most of the grown fruit is processed into juice and hence considerable amount of pomace is removed from process. The influences of process parameters on the extraction of phenolic compounds from sour cherry pomace were investigated. Fifty-one percent ethanol concentratio...

  5. Isolation and characterization of the acutely toxic compounds in oil sands process water from Syncrude and Suncor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot water process for the extraction of bitumen from oil sands leads to the production of large volumes of wastewater and the formation of a large inventory of fine clay tailings. This fine tailings material and its associated water are acutely toxic to various aquatic test organisms during bioassays. A study was carried out to assess the acute toxicity of wastewater from tailings ponds and to identify the acutely toxic fraction of the wastewater. The Microtox bacterial bioassay was used to assess the acute toxicity before and after various treatments. Where significant reductions in acute toxicity were found, further tests were carried out using Daphnia magna and rainbow trout. The Microtox effective concentration (EC50; analogous to the LC50, lethal concentration at which 50% mortality occurs) of all centrifuged tailings pond water samples varied between 265 and 460 ml of sample water per liter of test solution. Daphnia LC50 varied between 760-980 ml/l and rainbow trout LC50 was 125 ml/l. All, or part of the acute toxicity of the process water can be accounted for by the following classes of compounds. Organic compounds that have a non-polar component, removed by solid phase extraction with C18 sorbent account for 100% of acute toxicity of all samples. Organic acids, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5, also account for 100% of acute toxicity except from pond 1A at Suncor. In this pond organic acids account for 55-60% of acute toxicity and non-polar organic volatile compounds account for 20-35% with the balance being composed of non-polar organic compounds that are neither volatile nor organic acids that precipitate at pH 2.5. 22 refs., 17 figs

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. Fruits. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Junqueira-Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic. LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit’s characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  7. Antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori strains and antioxidant properties of blackberry leaves (Rubus ulmifolius) and isolated compounds

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Rubus spp. (Rosaceae) provide extracts used in traditional medicine as antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and radical scavenging agents. Resistance to antibiotics used to treat Helicobacter pylori infection as well as their poor availability in developing countries prompted us to test the antimicrobial activity of Rubus ulmifolius leaves and isolated polyphenols against two H. pylori strains with different virulence (CagA+ strain 10K and CagA? strain G21). The ...

  8. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Santiago; Chris Fitchett; Munro, Murray H. G.; Juriyati Jalil; Jacinta Santhanam

    2012-01-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The b...

  9. A Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR Study of Aliphatic Alcohols by the Method of Dividing the Molecular Structure into Substructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cheng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR analysis of aliphatic alcohols is presented. Four physicochemical properties were studied: boiling point (BP, n-octanol–water partition coefficient (lg POW, water solubility (lg W and the chromatographic retention indices (RI on different polar stationary phases. In order to investigate the quantitative structure–property relationship of aliphatic alcohols, the molecular structure ROH is divided into two parts, R and OH to generate structural parameter. It was proposed that the property is affected by three main factors for aliphatic alcohols, alkyl group R, substituted group OH, and interaction between R and OH. On the basis of the polarizability effect index (PEI, previously developed by Cao, the novel molecular polarizability effect index (MPEI combined with odd-even index (OEI, the sum eigenvalues of bond-connecting matrix (SX1CH previously developed in our team, were used to predict the property of aliphatic alcohols. The sets of molecular descriptors were derived directly from the structure of the compounds based on graph theory. QSPR models were generated using only calculated descriptors and multiple linear regression techniques. These QSPR models showed high values of multiple correlation coefficient (R > 0.99 and Fisher-ratio statistics. The leave-one-out cross-validation demonstrated the final models to be statistically significant and reliable.

  10. Inhibitory effect of glycoprotein isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MAKINO on activities of allergy-mediators in compound 48/80-stimulated mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kye-Taek

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the anti-allergy potentials of glycoprotein (90kDa) isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten MAKINO (OFI glycoprotein) in vivo (ICR mice) and in vitro (RBL-2H3 cells). At first, to know whether the OFI glycoprotein has an inhibitory ability for allergy in vivo, we evaluated the activities of allergy-related factors such as histamine and beta-hexosaminidase release, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in compound 48/80 (8 ml/kg BW)-treated ICR mice. After that, we studied to found the effect for anti-allergy in vitro such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, arachidonic acid, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in compound 48/80 (5 microg/ml)-treated RBL-2H3 cells. Our results showed that the OFI glycoprotein (5 mg/kg) inhibited histamine and beta-hexosaminidase release, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in mice serum. Also OFI glycoprotein (25 microg/ml) has suppressive effects on the expression of MAPK (ERK1/2), and on protein expression of anti-allergic proteins (iNOS and COX-2). Thus, we speculate that the OFI glycoprotein is an example of natural compound that blocks anti-allergic signal transduction pathways.

  11. Optimization of extraction parameters on the isolation of phenolic compounds from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Karaaslan, Mehmet; Vardin, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing interest to bio-components obtained from fruit & vegetable wastes. Anthocyanin is one of the components regained from fruits especially from red ones. Sour cherry is considered as industrial fruit since most of the grown fruit is processed into juice and hence considerable amount of pomace is removed from process. The influences of process parameters on the extraction of phenolic compounds from sour cherry pomace were investigated. Fifty-one percent ethanol concentration, 75 °C temperature and 12 mL/g solvent to solid ratio were selected as optimum process parameters. Time effect on the process efficiency was monitored at three different temperatures (25, 50 and 75 °C) and total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents were found to reach equilibrium concentrations between 80 and 100 min time intervals. Ethanol concentrations affected differently extraction yield of anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin phenolics. Various individual phenolic compounds present in sour cherry pomace were identified and quantified by HPLC equipped with UV/Vis PDA. Of the phenolic compounds, cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, neochlorogenic acid and catechin were the most abundant ones found in the pomace. 14.23 ± 0.38 mg/g total phenolic, 0.41 ± 0.02 mg/g total anthocyanin, 0.19 ± 0.02 mg/g cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/g neochlorogenic acid and 0.22 ± 0.02 mg/g catechin contents (dry weight) were determined in the pomace at optimum extraction conditions. PMID:25892783

  12. Insoluble, nonhydrolyzable highly aliphatic biopolymers from algal cell walls and vascular plant cuticles and barks as sources of N-alkanes in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegelaar, E.W.; De Leeuw, J.E.; Horsfield, B.

    1989-03-01

    Recently discovered insoluble, nonhydrolyzable highly aliphatic biopolymers occurring in cell walls of several extant algae and in cuticles and barks of vascular plants are selectively preserved during diagenesis and represent as such, or in a slightly altered form, a considerable part of kerogens. Thermal simulation experiments performed with these isolated biopolymers of extant organisms yield series of n-alkanes with carbon number distribution patterns very similar to those of n-alkanes in natural crude oils.

  13. Using cyclic liquid-liquid extraction method for isolation and identification of relative compounds during lignin biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄峰; 高培基; 陈嘉翔

    1999-01-01

    By using the cyclic liquid-liquid extraction method the lignin biodegradated derivatives can be effectively extracted from the effluent liquors in ligninolytic enzymes treated kraft pulps. More than forty compounds were identified from the extractives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The result showed that lignin is treated with different ligninolytic enzymes, and the composition and content of the extractives differ obviously. These results suggest that the cyclic liquid-liquid extraction method can be used effectively as one new technique for the study of lignin biodegrada-tion mechanisms.

  14. Isolation of bioactive compound from marine seaweeds against fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus (VA09) and characterisation by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu; Priyadharshini Pandiyan; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Kumaran Subaramaniyan; George Edward Gnana Jothi; Sakthivel Manikkam; Balamurugan Sadaiyappan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Gracillaria verrcosa, Acanthospora spicifera,Ulva facita, Ulva lacta (U. lacta), Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii), Padina tetramatica and Padina gymonospora were collected from Mandapam (Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu) of South East coast of India and were screened for antibacterial activity.Methods:All the collected seaweeds were extracted by using five different solvent (methanol, isopropanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether) to study their extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus (VA09) purchased from MTCC. And minimum inhibition carried out by using Resazurin micro-titre assay. Crude extract of S. wightii analysied by FTIR.Results:The methanolic extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone of inhibition (1.95±0.11) cm, isopropanol extract maximum inhibition was produced by S. wightii (1.93±0.78) cm, Acetone extract of Gracilaria verrcosa showed maximum zone of inhibition (1.36±0.05) cm, chloroform extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone (1.56±0.25) cm and diethyl ether extract of S.wightii produced maximum zone of inhibition(1.86±0.11) cm. Based on the antibacterial activity S. wightii, U. lacta and Padina tetramatica showed best antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. In this three seaweeds were taken for MIC study. The S. wightii methanolic extract, U. lacta diethyl ether extract and Padina tetramatica methanolic extract showed a higher MIC values, and despectively were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. FTIR result showed that mostly phenolic compounds were present in the S. wightii.Conclusions:Based on the FTIR result S. wightii have high amount of phenolic compound. Phenolic compound have the good antimicrobial activity. The results clearly show that seaweedS. wightii is an interesting source for biologically active compounds that may be applied for prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial fish diseases and it should be used for

  15. Isolation of bioactive compound from marine seaweeds against fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus (VA09 and characterisation by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Gracillaria verrcosa, Acanthospora spicifera, Ulva facita, Ulva lacta (U. lacta, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii, Padina tetramatica and Padina gymonospora were collected from Mandapam (Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu of South East coast of India and were screened for antibacterial activity. Methods: All the collected seaweeds were extracted by using five different solvent (methanol, isopropanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether to study their extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus (VA09 purchased from MTCC. And minimum inhibition carried out by using Resazurin micro-titre assay. Crude extract of S. wightii analysied by FTIR. Results: The methanolic extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone of inhibition (1.95±0.11 cm, isopropanol extract maximum inhibition was produced by S. wightii (1.93±0.78 cm, Acetone extract of Gracilaria verrcosa showed maximum zone of inhibition (1.36±0.05 cm, chloroform extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone (1.56±0.25 cm and diethyl ether extract of S. wightii produced maximum zone of inhibition(1.86±0.11 cm. Based on the antibacterial activity S. wightii, U. lacta and Padina tetramatica showed best antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. In this three seaweeds were taken for MIC study. The S. wightii methanolic extract, U. lacta diethyl ether extract and Padina tetramatica methanolic extract showed a higher MIC values, and despectively were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. FTIR result showed that mostly phenolic compounds were present in the S. wightii. Conclusions: Based on the FTIR result S. wightii have high amount of phenolic compound. Phenolic compound have the good antimicrobial activity. The results clearly show that seaweed S. wightii is an interesting source for biologically active compounds that may be applied for prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial fish diseases and it should

  16. Toxic Compound, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Protein Isolated from Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Worapot Suntornsuk; Donlaporn Saetae

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose tree, which has potential as an alternative source for biodiesel. All of its parts can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. J. curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product obtained from biodiesel production. The seed cake, however, has a high amount of protein, with the presence of a main toxic compound: phorbol esters as well as anti-nutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectin and saponin. The ob...

  17. Mortality of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (sternorrhyncha: aleyrodidae adults by aliphatic and aromatic synthetic sucrose esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The B-strain of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius is a key pest of several crops and chemical control is the main control method used by growers, although reduction in efficacy due to insecticide resistance has already been reported. The aim of this work was to investigate the insecticidal effect of an array of synthetic sucrose esters with the aliphatic and aromatic groups on whitefly adults. Sucrose butyrate, caprate, octanoate, palmitate, oleate, octaacetate, phthalate, benzoate, and sucrose diacetate hexaisobutyrate were tested. The solutions were prepared and applied on the adults caught on yellow sticky traps using the Potter spray tower. Long-chains sucrose aliphatic esters were more effective against the silverleaf whiteflies and the highest mortality was obtained with sucrose oleate and sucrose octanoate. Since these compounds were tensoactive, sodium dodecylsulphate was also tested for the comparison but no effect was observed. Sucrose butyrate and other aliphatic and aromatic sucrose polyesters showed negligible effect on the silverleaf whiteflies.O biótipo B de B. tabaci Gennadius tem se destacado como uma praga-chave de diversas culturas. O controle químico tem sido a principal tática de controle utilizada, embora já se tenha observado redução na eficiência dos produtos devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diversos ésteres de sacarose com grupos alifáticos ou aromáticos sobre adultos de mosca-branca. Butirato de sacarose, caprato, octanoato, palmitato, oleato, actaacetato, ftlato, benzoato e diacetato hexaisobutirato de sacarose foram testados. Soluções de éster de sacarose foram preparadas e aplicadas sobre adultos capturados em armadilhas adesivas utilizando Torre de Potter. Ésteres alifáticos de sacarose com longas cadeias foram mais efetivos contra mosca-branca e as maiores taxas de mortalidade foram obtidas com oleato e octanoato de sacarose. Uma vez que

  18. The Herbal Drug Melampyrum pratense L. (Koch: Isolation and Identification of Its Bioactive Compounds Targeting Mediators of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vogl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melampyrum pratense L. (Koch is used in traditional Austrian medicine for the treatment of different inflammation-related conditions. In this work, we show that the extracts of M. pratense stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- (PPARs-α and -γ that are well recognized for their anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and induction of its target genes interleukin-8 (IL-8 and E-selectin in vitro. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified several active flavonoids and iridoids including melampyroside and mussaenoside and the phenolic compound lunularin that were identified in this species for the first time. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were distinguished as the main components accountable for the anti-inflammatory properties. Apigenin and luteolin effectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α-induced NF-κB-mediated transactivation of a luciferase reporter gene. Furthermore, the two compounds dose-dependently reduced IL-8 and E-selectin protein expression after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS or TNF-α in endothelial cells (ECs. The iridoids melampyroside and mussaenoside prevented the elevation of E-selectin in LPS-stimulated ECs. Lunularin was found to reduce the protein levels of the proinflammatory mediators E-selectin and IL-8 in ECs in response to LPS. These data validate the ethnomedical use of M. pratense for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and point to the constituents accountable for its anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. Antifungal Compounds Isolated from Smyrnium olusatrum L. Essential Oil, Growing Wild in Cephalonia, Greece. Chemical Analysis and Structure Elucidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimia Tsasi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils (EOs from the leaves and the flowers of Smyrnium olusatrum L. , growing wild in the island of Cephalonia (Greece, were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Fifty nine constituents, which accounted for 90.3% (fl and 97.1% (lvs of the oils, were identified. Furanodiene, g ermacrone and furanoeremophil-1-one were the major constituents in both essential oils; they were also isolated from the flowers essential oil and identified using spectroscopic methods, ie. 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS . In addition b -myrcene ( 11.7% and b -phellandrene (5.2% were main constituents in the essential oil of the leaves. The essential oils and the pure isolates were evaluated for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus , A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, A. niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, P. verucosum var. cyclopium by using the microdilution method and proved to possess significant antifungal effect. Among them, (+ furanoeremophil-1-one was particularly active with MIC values in the range of 0.0008-0.125 mg/mL and MFC values of 0.025-0.050 mg/mL and proved more effective than the commercial mycotics ketoconazole and bifonazole used as positive controls.

  20. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Müller

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Monomethylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and diethylamine (DEA were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0 to 30 pg m−3 for MA, 130 to 360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5 to 110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2 to 520 pg m−3 for MA, 100 to 1400 pg m−3 for DMA, 90 to 760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm indicates that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC content ranged from 0.2 to 2.5%C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the organic nitrogen in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the total detected nitrogen content in submicron particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N to 1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines. This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  1. Analysis of aliphatic waxes associated with root periderm or exodermis from eleven plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Dylan K; Rice, Adam; Pollard, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Aliphatic waxes can be found in association with suberized tissues, including roots. Non-polar lipids were isolated by rapid solvent extraction of mature regions of intact roots from eleven angiosperms, including both monocots and dicots. The majority of roots analyzed were taproots or tuberous taproots that had undergone secondary growth and thus were covered by a suberized periderm. The exceptions therein were maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), which present a suberized exodermis. The analysis herein focused on aliphatic waxes, with particular emphasis on alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs). AHCs were widely distributed, absent from only one species, were found in both aerial and subterranean portions of tuberous taproots, and were associated with the fibrous roots of both maize and rice. Most species also contained monoacylglycerols, fatty alcohols and/or free fatty acids. Carrot (Daucus carrota L.) was the outlier, containing only free fatty acids, sterols, and polyacetylenes as identified components. Sterols were the only ubiquitous component across all roots analyzed. Monoacylglycerols of ω-hydroxy fatty acids were present in maize and rice root waxes. For species within the Brassiceae, wax compositions varied between subspecies or varieties and between aerial and subterranean portions of taproots. In addition, reduced forms of photo-oxidation products of ω-hydroxy oleate and its corresponding dicarboxylic acid (10,18-dihydroxy-octadec-8-enoate, 9,18-dihydroxy-octadec-10-enoate and 9-hydroxyoctadec-10-ene-1,18-dioate) were identified as naturally occurring suberin monomers in rutabaga (Brassica napus subsp. rapifera Metzg.) periderm tissues.

  2. Comparison of finishing application for aliphatic polyurethane dispersions and polyurethane/polyacrylate composite emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, S; Zhang, Zhongyi

    2010-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic cationic aqueous polyurethane (PU-1, PU-2), aliphatic anionic aqueous polyurethanes (PU-3, PU-4) were prepared with polyether glycol, polyether polyol, toluene diisocyanate and isophorone diisocyanate as raw materials. The core-shell polyurethane/polyacrylate composite emulsions (PUA-5, PUA-6) as well as interpenetrating PUA composite emulsions (PUA-7,PUA-8) were prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization, the aliphatic anionic aqueous PU dispersions were used as seed p...

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Aliphatic-Aromatic Hyperbranched Polyesters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐黎明; 张晓龙; 邱藤; 刘德山

    2002-01-01

    Hyperbranched polymers possess special architectures and have potential applications in various areas. In this study, two AB2 monomers, dipropyl 5-(hydroxyethoxy) isophthalate (I) and 5-hydroxyethoxyisophthaic acid (II), were prepared. By bulk polycondensation of each monomer, two aliphatic-aromatic hyperbranched polyesters were prepared and characterized by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared with all-aromatic hyperbranched polyesters, the prepared polymers showed lower glass transition temperatures in connection with the moderate decrease in their decomposition temperatures.

  4. Thermal Decomposition of Dicyclopentadienyltitanium(IV) Diaryl and Dibenzyl Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, C.P.; Teuben, J.H.; Liefde Meijer, H.J. de

    1974-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of compounds of the type Cp2TiR2 (Cp = cyclopentadienyl, R = aryl or benzyl) in the solid state and in various solvents has been studied. In the solid state and in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents the compounds decompose with quantitative formation of R-H and a T

  5. Comparison of the vasodilator responses of isolated human and rat middle meningeal arteries to migraine related compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grände, Gustaf; Labruijere, Sieneke; Haanes, Kristian Agmund;

    2014-01-01

    the effect of several vasodilators on meningeal arteries in order to find a connection between the effect of a substance on a meningeal vessel and its ability to artificially induce migraine. METHODS: A myograph setup was used to test the vasodilator properties of the substances acetylcholine (ACh), sodium......BACKGROUND: Migraine attacks occur spontaneously in those who suffer from the condition, but migraine-like attacks can also be induced artificially by a number of substances. Previously published evidence makes the meninges a likely source of migraine related pain. This article investigates...... concentration of each substance to the Emax(%) of NaCl buffer. RESULTS: In the human experiments, all substances except PACAP-38 had an Emax (%) higher than the NaCl buffer, but the difference was only significant for SNP and CGRP. For the human samples, clinically tested antimigraine compounds (sumatriptan...

  6. Violapyrones H and I, New Cytotoxic Compounds Isolated from Streptomyces sp. Associated with the Marine Starfish Acanthaster planci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jae Shin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new α-pyrone derivatives, violapyrones H (1 and I (2, along with known violapyrones B (3 and C (4 were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. The strain was derived from a crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, collected from Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. The structures of violapyrones were elucidated by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESIMS data. Violapyrones (1–4 exhibited cytotoxicity against 10 human cancer cell lines with GI50 values of 1.10–26.12 μg/mL when tested using sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. This is the first report on the cytotoxicity of violapyrones against cancer cell lines and the absolute configuration of violapyrone C.

  7. Synthesis of aliphatic amidediol and used as a novel mixed plasticizer for thermoplastic starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian She Zhang; Jiu Gao Yu; Ying Wu; Xiao Fei Ma

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,aliphatic amidediol was synthesized and mixed with glycerol used as a plasticizer for preparing thermoplastic starch (AGPTPS).The yield of aliphatic amidediol was 91%.FT-IR expressed that the mixture of aliphatic amidediol and glycerol formed stronger and stable hydrogen bond with starch molecules compared to the native cornstarch.By scanning electron microscope (SEM) native cornstarch granules were proved to transfer to a homogeneous continuous system.After being stored for a period time at room temperature,the mechanical properties of AGPTPS were also studied.As a mixed plasticizer,aliphatic amidediol and glycerol would be practical to extend TPS application scopes.

  8. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacetylenes (polyynes are compounds which contain two or more triple bonds in its structure. About 2 000 different polyacetylenes and biogenetically related substances were identified in 24 families of higher plants. However, most of these compounds were found in seven families of flowering plants: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae (Compositae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae. Polyacetylenes are relatively unstable, chemically and biologically active compounds, and present in fungi, microorganisms, marine invertebrates and other organisms except for plants. Acetylenes form distinct specialized group of chemically active natural compounds, which are biosynthesized in plants of unsaturated fatty acids. In addition to widespread aliphatic polyacetylenes thiophenes dithiacyclohexadienes (thiarubrines, thioethers, sulphoxides, sulphones, alkamides, chlorohydrins, lactones, spiroacetal enol ethers, furans, pyrans, tetrahydropyrans, isocoumarins, aromatic acetylenes were also found in plant species. Polyacetylenes are localized in different plant organs, and can be found both individually and as a compound with carbohydrates, terpene, phenolic and other compounds. Many polyacetylenes are found in the composition of the essential oils of plants and it confirms their strongly marked ecological functions. From biological point of view these compounds are often synthesized by plants as toxic or bitter antifeedants, allelopathic compounds, phytoalexins or broadly antibiotic components. Polyynes are strong photosensitizers. They exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-bacterial, antituberculosis, anti-fungal, anti-viral, neuroprotective and neurotoxic activity. Immunostimulatory influence associated with certain allergenicity of some of these substances was established. Therefore, without a doubt polyacetylenes are of interest for the modern pharmacy and medicine.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Peracetic acid/ Peroxide hydrogen and Alcohol based compound on Isolated Bacteria in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghotaslou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of chemical agents on the clinical isolates in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Methods: The minimum bactericide concentration (MBC of disinfectants including chlorhexidine (Fort, peracetic acid (Micro and an alcohol based compound (Deconex on selected bacteria at various dilutions were determined by the standard suspension technique. Results: MBC of Micro, Fort and Deconex were 2-128 mg/L, 2-64 mg/L and 4 - 32 mg/L, respectively. The Gram negative bacteria were more resistance to disinfectant relation to Gram positive bacteria. Conclusion: The results showed that these agents are able to eradicate the bacteria and they can be used lonely.

  10. THE FIRST ISOLATION OF AMERICIUM IN THE FORM OF PURE COMPOUNDS - THE SPECIFIC ALPHA-ACTIVITY AND HALF-LIFE OF Am241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, B.B.; Asprey, L.B.

    1950-07-20

    The microgram scale isolation and preparation of pure compounds of americium is described. Data are presented to show that the alpha-half-life of the isotope Am{sup 241} is 490 {+-} 14 years. The absorption spectrum of Am(III) in 1M nitric acid in the range 3500-8000 mu is given. The wave lengths of 10 of the most prominent lines in the copper spark emission spectrum of americium are given to the nearest 0.01 {angstrom}. Evidence is presented to show that the potential for the Am(III)-Am(IV) couple in acid solution is more negative than -2v and that the potential for the Am(II)-Am(III) couple is more positive than +0.9v.

  11. Study on the Synthesis and Biodegradation of Aliphatic Polyester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An aliphatic polyester, poly(hexalene adipate) (PHA) and an aliphatic copolyester, poly (hexalene adipate succinate) (PHAS) were synthesized by direct condensation of corresponding binary acid and binary alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, p-toluene sulfonic acid. The biodegradation of these polyesters were studied in the laboratory by enzyme attack and outdoor soil burial. The results show that these polyesters have good biodegradability and the copolyester PHAS, even displayed a better biodegradability than the polyester PHA. In the presence of Penicillium chrysogenum the weight loss reached 18.3% for the PHAS (film thickness 1.0 mm)and 9.1% for the PHA (film thickness 1.0 mm) after 28 days. Outdoor soil burial tests indicate that these polyesters also have good biodegradability in natural conditions. The weight loss reached 14.2% for PHAS (film thickness 0.1 mm) and 6.7% for PHA (film thickness 0.1mm) after burying in soil for 36 days.

  12. In Situ and Laboratory Studies on the Fate of Specific Organic Compounds in an Anerobic Landfill Leachate Plume, 1. Experimental Conditions and Fate of Phenolic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Heron, Gorm;

    1995-01-01

    microcosm experiments performed and the results on the fate of 7 phenolic compounds. Part 2 of this series of papers, also published in this issue, presents the results on the fate of 8 aromatic compounds and 4 chlorinated aliphatic compounds. The redox conditions in the plume were characterized as...

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of the Marine-Derived Compound Comaparvin Isolated from the Crinoid Comanthus bennetti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chai Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, no study has been conducted to explore the bioactivity of the crinoid Comanthus bennetti. Here we report the anti-inflammatory properties of comaparvin (5,8-dihydroxy-10-methoxy-2-propylbenzo[h]chromen-4-one based on in vivo experiments. Our preliminary screening for anti-inflammatory activity revealed that the crude extract of Comanthus bennetti significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Comaparvin isolated from crinoids significantly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein and mRNA in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Moreover, our results showed that post-treatment with comaparvin significantly inhibited mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and weight-bearing deficits in rats with carrageenan-induced inflammation. Comaparvin also attenuated leukocyte infiltration and iNOS protein expression in carrageenan-induced inflamed paws. These results suggest that comaparvin is a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent against inflammatory pain.

  14. Centrifugal partition extraction in the pH-zone-refining displacement mode: an efficient strategy for the screening and isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Reynaud, Romain; Hubert, Jane

    2013-10-15

    Centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) was developed for the first time in the pH-zone-refining mode to fractionate a crude bark extract of the African tree Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae). The fractionation process was performed at a flow rate of 20mL/min using a biphasic solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in the ascending mode. Sodium hydroxide (40mM) and trifluoroacetic acid (30mM) were used as retainer and displacer agents, respectively. In a single run of 67min, 3g of the initial crude extract were successfully separated into fractions selectively enriched in ionizable triterpenes, ellagic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The antioxidant potential of the initial crude extract, isolated compounds and fraction pools was also evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable free radical scavenging assay, providing an interesting view about the effect of the degree of substitution of ellagic acid derivatives on their radical scavenging activity. This study will demonstrate that centrifugal partition extraction used in the pH-zone-refining mode can be proposed as an efficient strategy for the rapid screening of natural phenolic compounds.

  15. Neuroprotective activity of parawixin 10, a compound isolated from Parawixia bistriata spider venom (Araneidae: Araneae in rats undergoing intrahippocampal NMDA microinjection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Aparecida Fachim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parawixia bistriata is a semi colonial spider found mainly in southeastern of Brazil. Parawixin 10 (Pwx 10 a compound isolated from this spider venom has been demonstrated to act as neuroprotective in models of injury regulating the glutamatergic neurotransmission through glutamate transporters. Objectives: The aim of this work was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of Pwx 10 in a rat model of excitotoxic brain injury by N methyl D aspartate (NMDA injection. Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats have been used, submitted to stereotaxic surgery for saline or NMDA microinjection into dorsal hippocampus. Two groups of animals were treated with Pwx 10. These treated groups received a daily injection of the Pwx 10 (2.5 mg/μL in the right lateral ventricle into rats pretreated with NMDA, always at the same time, each one starting the treatment 1 h or 24 h. Nissl staining was performed for evaluating the extension and efficacy of the NMDA injury and the neuroprotective effect of Pwx 10. Results: The treatment with Pwx 10 showed neuroprotective effect, being most pronounced when the compound was administrated from 1 h after NMDA in all hippocampal subfields analyzed (CA1, CA3 and hilus. Conclusion: These results indicated that Pwx 10 may be a good template to develop therapeutic drugs for treating neurodegenerative diseases, reinforcing the importance of continuing studies on its effects in the central nervous system.

  16. Muscle Relaxant and Sedative-Hypnotic Activities of Extract of Viola betonicifolia in Animal Models Supported by Its Isolated Compound, 4-Hydroxy Coumarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude methanolic extract of the whole plant of Viola betonicifolia (VBME was investigated for anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, sleep induction, antidepressant, and sedative activities to ascertain its scientific values. VBME showed a significant (P<0.05 dose dependent anxiolytic action in staircase test. In muscle relaxant paradigms, a dose dependent muscle relaxation was observed. For phenobarbitone sleep induction test, VBME notably (P<0.05 reduced the latency time and increased total sleeping duration. Our tested extract was found free of any antidepressant activity, while the movement was significantly (P<0.05 shortened in locomotor activity. The whole plant of V. betonicifolia led to the isolation of 4-hydroxyl coumarin (4HC which showed substantial safety profile in acute toxicity test. When challenged in Traction and Chimney tests, it showed significant (P<0.05 muscle relaxant effect in both muscle relaxant paradigms at 20 and 30 mg/kg during various assessment times. Nevertheless, 4HC was devoid of sedative and hypnotic potentials. In conclusion, VBME had strong muscle relaxant and sedative-hypnotic properties, while its isolated compound, 4HC, possessed a significant muscle relaxant action with substantial safety profile without sedative-hypnotic effects.

  17. Analysis of Plant Growth-Promoting Effects of Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains Isolated from Mentha piperita Rhizosphere and Effects of Their Volatile Organic Compounds on Essential Oil Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Maricel V.; Bogino, Pablo C.; Nocelli, Natalia; Cappellari, Lorena del Rosario; Giordano, Walter F.; Banchio, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Many species or strains of the genus Pseudomonas have been characterized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). We used a combination of phenotypic and genotypic techniques to analyze the community of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains in the rhizosphere of commercially grown Mentha piperita (peppermint). Biochemical techniques, Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA), and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the majority of the isolated native fluorescent strains were P. putida. Use of two Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) techniques, BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR, allowed us to evaluate diversity among the native strains and to more effectively distinguish among them. PGPR activity was tested for the native strains and reference strain P. fluorescens WCS417r. Micropropagated M. piperita plantlets were exposed to microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) emitted by the bacterial strains, and plant biomass parameters and production of essential oils (EOs) were measured. mVOCs from 11 of the native strains caused an increase in shoot fresh weight. mVOCs from three native strains (SJ04, SJ25, SJ48) induced changes in M. pierita EO composition. The mVOCs caused a reduction of metabolites in the monoterpene pathway, for example menthofuran, and an increase in menthol production. Menthol production is the primary indicator of EO quality. The mVOCs produced by native strains SJ04, SJ25, SJ48, and strain WCS417r were analyzed. The obtained mVOC chromatographic profiles were unique for each of the three native strains analyzed, containing varying hydrocarbon, aromatic, and alogenic compounds. The differential effects of the strains were most likely due to the specific mixtures of mVOCs emitted by each strain, suggesting a synergistic effect occurs among the compounds present. PMID:27486441

  18. Analysis of Plant Growth-Promoting Effects of Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains Isolated from Mentha piperita Rhizosphere and Effects of Their Volatile Organic Compounds on Essential Oil Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Maricel V; Bogino, Pablo C; Nocelli, Natalia; Cappellari, Lorena Del Rosario; Giordano, Walter F; Banchio, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Many species or strains of the genus Pseudomonas have been characterized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). We used a combination of phenotypic and genotypic techniques to analyze the community of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains in the rhizosphere of commercially grown Mentha piperita (peppermint). Biochemical techniques, Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA), and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the majority of the isolated native fluorescent strains were P. putida. Use of two Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) techniques, BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR, allowed us to evaluate diversity among the native strains and to more effectively distinguish among them. PGPR activity was tested for the native strains and reference strain P. fluorescens WCS417r. Micropropagated M. piperita plantlets were exposed to microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) emitted by the bacterial strains, and plant biomass parameters and production of essential oils (EOs) were measured. mVOCs from 11 of the native strains caused an increase in shoot fresh weight. mVOCs from three native strains (SJ04, SJ25, SJ48) induced changes in M. pierita EO composition. The mVOCs caused a reduction of metabolites in the monoterpene pathway, for example menthofuran, and an increase in menthol production. Menthol production is the primary indicator of EO quality. The mVOCs produced by native strains SJ04, SJ25, SJ48, and strain WCS417r were analyzed. The obtained mVOC chromatographic profiles were unique for each of the three native strains analyzed, containing varying hydrocarbon, aromatic, and alogenic compounds. The differential effects of the strains were most likely due to the specific mixtures of mVOCs emitted by each strain, suggesting a synergistic effect occurs among the compounds present. PMID:27486441

  19. Determination of the phenolic content and antioxidant potential of crude extracts and isolated compounds from leaves of Cordia multispicata and Tournefortia bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Da Silva, Thiago B; Souza, Vivian Karoline T; Da Silva, Ana Paula F; Lyra Lemos, Rosangela P; Conserva, Lucia M

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts and four flavonoids isolated from leaves of two Boraginaceae species (Cordia multispicata Cham. and Tournefortia bicolor Sw.) were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, DPPH free radical scavenging and inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid by FTC method. For comparison, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and BHT were used. In general, extracts from T. bicolor (68.8 +/- 0.001 to > 1000 mg/g) showed higher phenolic content than C. multispicata (66.1 +/- 0.009 to 231 +/- 0.07 mg/g), and also scavenged radicals (IC(50) 12.8 +/- 2.5 to 437 +/- 3.5 mg/L) and inhibited lipid peroxide formation (IC(50) 51.2 +/- 2.29 to 89 +/- 0.59 mg/L). For these extracts a good correlation between the phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed, suggesting that T. bicolor is richer in phenolic compounds and that it could serve as a new source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals with potential applications. Chromatographic procedures monitored by antioxidant assays afforded seven compounds, which were identified by spectral analyses (IR, MS and 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with reported data as being trans-phytol (1), taraxerol (2), 3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (4), quercetin (5), tiliroside (6), and rutin (7). Compounds (4-7) were also evaluated and were effective as DPPH quenching (IC(50) 7.7 +/- 3.6 to 79.3 +/- 3.4 mg/L) and as inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 80.1 +/- 0.98 to 88.7 +/- 3.62 mg/L). This is the first report on the total phenolic content, radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities of these species.

  20. Analysis of Plant Growth-Promoting Effects of Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains Isolated from Mentha piperita Rhizosphere and Effects of Their Volatile Organic Compounds on Essential Oil Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Maricel V; Bogino, Pablo C; Nocelli, Natalia; Cappellari, Lorena Del Rosario; Giordano, Walter F; Banchio, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Many species or strains of the genus Pseudomonas have been characterized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). We used a combination of phenotypic and genotypic techniques to analyze the community of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains in the rhizosphere of commercially grown Mentha piperita (peppermint). Biochemical techniques, Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA), and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the majority of the isolated native fluorescent strains were P. putida. Use of two Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) techniques, BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR, allowed us to evaluate diversity among the native strains and to more effectively distinguish among them. PGPR activity was tested for the native strains and reference strain P. fluorescens WCS417r. Micropropagated M. piperita plantlets were exposed to microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) emitted by the bacterial strains, and plant biomass parameters and production of essential oils (EOs) were measured. mVOCs from 11 of the native strains caused an increase in shoot fresh weight. mVOCs from three native strains (SJ04, SJ25, SJ48) induced changes in M. pierita EO composition. The mVOCs caused a reduction of metabolites in the monoterpene pathway, for example menthofuran, and an increase in menthol production. Menthol production is the primary indicator of EO quality. The mVOCs produced by native strains SJ04, SJ25, SJ48, and strain WCS417r were analyzed. The obtained mVOC chromatographic profiles were unique for each of the three native strains analyzed, containing varying hydrocarbon, aromatic, and alogenic compounds. The differential effects of the strains were most likely due to the specific mixtures of mVOCs emitted by each strain, suggesting a synergistic effect occurs among the compounds present.

  1. Analysis of plant growth-promoting effects of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains isolated from Mentha piperita rhizosphere and effects of their volatile organic compounds on essential oil composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Valeria Santoro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many species or strains of the genus Pseudomonas have been characterized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. We used a combination of phenotypic and genotypic techniques to analyze the community of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains in the rhizosphere of commercially grown Mentha piperita (peppermint. Biochemical techniques, Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the majority of the isolated native fluorescent strains were P. putida. Use of two Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR techniques, BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR, allowed us to evaluate diversity among the native strains and to more effectively distinguish among them. PGPR activity was tested for the native strains and reference strain P. fluorescens WCS417r. Micropropagated M. piperita plantlets were exposed to microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs emitted by the bacterial strains, and plant biomass parameters and production of essential oils (EOs were measured. mVOCs from 11 of the native strains caused an increase in shoot fresh weight. mVOCs from three native strains (SJ04, SJ25,SJ48 induced changes in M. pierita EO composition. The mVOCs caused a reduction of metabolites in the monoterpene pathway, for example menthofuran, and an increase in menthol production. Menthol production is the primary indicator of EO quality. The mVOCs produced by native strains SJ04, SJ25,SJ48 and strain WCS417r were analyzed. The obtained mVOC chromatographic profiles were unique for each of the three native strains analyzed, containing varying hydrocarbon, aromatic, and alogenic compounds. The differential effects of the strains were most likely due to the specific mixtures of mVOCs emitted by each strain, suggesting a synergistic effect occurs among the compounds present.

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS CAUSED BY ARYL ALIPHATIC AMINOALCOHOL DERIVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronova M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of antimicrobial resistance has created a critical need of the novel antimicrobial agents. One of the promising chemical classes for its development are aryl aliphatic aminoalcohols. New compounds of this class were synthesized at the Institute of organic chemistry (Kiev, Ukraine, by Y. Korotkiy. After the screening studies compound KVM-194 was selected as the potent antistaphylococcal agent. The aim of the study was to examine ultrastructural changes in the bacterial cells under the influence of the compound KVM-194. Materials and methods. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was used in all experiments. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by serial macrodilution method in Mueller-Hinton broth. Bacteria were exposed to the 0,5 MIC and 5 MICs of the KVM- 194 for 1 h and 24 h. Ultrastructure of intact and treated Staphylococcus aureus cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy after contrasting by osmium tetraoxide and lead citrate. Results and Discussion. The compound KVM-194 possesses a distinct antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, the minimum inhibitory concentration is 1.25 μg/ml. We found that exposure to KVM-194 at a subinhibitory concentration resulted in alterations of the cell morphology even after 1 h of treatment. The roughness of the cell surface and emerging of the intracellular particles of different electron density were observed. Increase of the incubation time to 24 h led to detachment of membrane from cytoplasm, multimembrane structures within cells emergence and formation of nonpolar septum. 1 h exposition to suprainhibitory concentration of KVM-194 resulted in nucleoid fragmentation, septum abnormalities and necrosis of some cells. We found that increasing of the incubation period to 24 h led to exacerbation of alterations: cell wall rupture, leakage of cytoplasm and a large number of lysed cells were registered. Conclusion. Observed alterations, suggest the possible

  3. Isolation, purification and characterization of novel antimicrobial compound 7-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-4-octa-4′,6′-dienyl-2H-napthalene-1-one from Penicillium sp. and its cytotoxicity studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Harpreet; Onsare, Jemimah Gesare; Sharma, Vishal; Arora, Daljit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Fungus isolated from soil has been evaluated for its antimicrobial activity which showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against all the pathogenic microorganisms used. Optimization was done by response surface methodology (RSM) to further optimize the medium which could further enhance the antimicrobial activity by 1.1–1.9 folds. Column chromatography was used to isolate the active compound which was characterized to be by various spectroscopic techniques such NMR, IR and LCMS and it w...

  4. Antimalarial drug interactions of compounds isolated from Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) and their synergism with artemether, against the multidrug-resistant W2mef Plasmodium falciparum strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofou, Denis; Tene, Mathieu; Tane, Pierre; Titanji, Vincent P K

    2012-02-01

    For decades, drug resistance has been the major obstacle in the fight against malaria, and the search for new drugs together with the combination therapy constitutes the major approach in responding to this situation. The present study aims at assessing the in vitro antimalarial activity of four compounds isolated from Kigelia africana stem bark (atranorin - KAE1, specicoside - KAE7, 2β,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-20-en-28-oic acid - KAE3, and p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid - KAE10) and their drug interactions among themselves and their combination effects with quinine and artemether. The antiplasmodial activity and drug interactions were evaluated against the multidrug-resistant W2mef strain of Plasmodium falciparum using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. Three of the four compounds tested were significantly active against W2mef: specicoside (IC(50) = 1.02 ± 0.17 μM), 2β,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (IC(50) = 1.86 ± 0.15 μM) and atranorin (IC(50) = 1.78 ± 0.18 μM), whereas p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid showed a weak activity (IC(50) = 12.89 ± 0.87 μM). A slight synergistic effect was observed between atranorin and 2β,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (Combination index, CI = 0.82) whereas the interaction between specicoside and p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid were instead antagonistic (CI = 2.67). All the three compounds showed synergistic effects with artemether, unlike the slight antagonistic interactions of atranorin and 2β,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid in combination with quinine. K. africana compounds are therefore likely to serve as leads in the development of new partner drugs in artemether-based combination therapy. PMID:21814840

  5. Isolation, purification, and characterization of antimicrobial compound 6-[1,2-dimethyl-6-(2-methyl-allyloxy)-hexyl]-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-chromen-4-one from Penicillium sp. HT-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Arora, Daljit Singh; Sharma, Vishal

    2014-08-01

    A fungal culture (Penicillium sp., HT-28), isolated from soil has been evaluated for its bioactivity, which showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and was effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) also. Statistical optimization of the medium by response surface methodology (RSM) enhanced the antimicrobial activity up to 1.8-fold. Column chromatography was used to isolate the active compound (A), which was characterized to be 6-[1,2-dimethyl-6-(2-methyl-allyloxy)-hexyl]-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-chromen-4-one by various spectroscopic techniques such as infrared (IR), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and mass spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the active compound (A) ranged from 0.5 to 15 μg/mL. Viable cell count studies of the active compound (A) showed S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella typhimurium 1 to be the most sensitive. The compound retained its bioactivity after treating it at 100 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the compound (A) when tested for its biosafety was found neither to be cytotoxic nor mutagenic. The study demonstrated that an apparently novel compound isolated from Penicillium sp. (HT-28) seems to be a stable and potent antimicrobial.

  6. Mass spectrometry study of the sublimation of aliphatic dipeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badelin, V. G.; Tyunina, E. Yu.; Krasnov, A. V.; Tyunina, V. V.; Giricheva, N. I.; Girichev, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    The sublimation of glycyl-L-α-alanine (Gly-Ala), L-α-alanyl-L-α-alanine (Ala-Ala), and DL-α-alanyl-DL-α-valine (Ala-Val) aliphatic dipeptides is studied by electron ionization mass spectrometry in combination with Knudsen effusion. The temperature range in which substances sublime as monomer molecular forms is determined. Enthalpies of sublimation Δs H°( T) are determined for Gly-Ala, Ala-Ala, and Ala-Val. It is shown that the enthalpy of sublimation of dipeptides increases with an increase in the side hydrocarbon radical. The unknown Δs H°(298) values for 17 amino acids and nine dipeptides are estimated using the proposed "structure-property" correlation model, in which the geometry and electron characteristics of molecules are used as structural descriptors.

  7. Hydrolytic And Enzymatic Degradation Characteristics Of Biodegradable Aliphatic Polysters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Suming

    2004-01-01

    Aliphatic polyesters, especially those derived from lactide (PLA), glycolide (PGA) and ε-caprolactone (PCL), are being investigated worldwide for applications in the field of surgery (suture material, devices for internal bone fracture fixation), pharmacology (sustained drug delivery systems), and tissue engineering (scaffold for tissue regeneration) [1,2]. This is mainly due to their good biocompatibility and variable degradability. These polymers present also a growing interest for environmental applications in agriculture (mulch films) and in our everyday life (packaging material)as the development of biodegradable materials is now considered as one of the potential solutions to the problem of plastic waste management.For both biomedical and environmental applications, it is of major importance to understand the degradation characteristics of the polymers. The hydrolytic degradation of aliphatic polyesters has been investigated by many research groups. Our group has shown that degradation of PLAGA large size devices is faster inside than at the surface. This heterogeneous degradation is due to the autocatalytic effect of carboxylic endgroups formed by ester bond cleavage. Moreover,degradation-induced morphological and compositional changes were also elucidated. In the case of PCL, the hydrolytic degradation is very slow due to its hydrophobicity and crystallinity.The enzymatic degradation of these polymers has been investigated by a number of authors. A specific enzyme, proteinase K, has been shown to have significant effects on PLA degradation. This enzyme preferentially degrade L-lactate units as opposed to D-lactate ones, amorphous zones as opposed to crystalline ones [3]. The enzymatic degradation of PCL polymers has also been investigated. A number of lipase-type enzymes were found to significantly accelerate the degradation of PCL despite its high crystallinity. In the case of PLA/PCL blends, the two components exhibited well separated crystalline domains

  8. Identification and biotransformation of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge-Date Palm waste using Pyrolysis-GC/MS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fels, Loubna; Lemee, Laurent; Ambles, André; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    The behavior of aliphatic hydrocarbons during co-composting of sewage sludge activated with palm tree waste was studied for 6 months using Py-GC/MS. The main aliphatic compounds represented as doublet alkenes/alkanes can be classified into three groups. The first group consists of 11 alkenes (undecene, tridecene, pentadecene, hexadecene, heptadecene, octadecene, nonadecene, eicosene, uncosene, docosene, tricosene) and 15 alkanes (heptane, octane, nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, heptadecane, octadecane, nonadecane, eicosane, uncosane, docosane, and tricosane), which remain stable during the co-composting process. The stability of these compounds is related to their recalcitrance behavior. The second group consists of five alkenes (heptene, octene, nonene, decene, dodecene) and tridecane as a single alkane that decreases during co-composting. The decrease in these compounds is the combined result of their metabolism and their conversion into other compounds. The third group is constituted with tetradecene and hexadecane that increase during composting, which could be explained by accumulation of these compounds, which are released by the partial breakdown of the substrate. As a result, these molecules are incorporated or adsorbed in the structure of humic substances. PMID:27197656

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Soil Fulvic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Munsif Ali Talpur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fulvic acid was isolated from the agriculture soil of District Naushahro Feroz, Sindh, Pakistan by International Humic Substances Society (IHSS method. The nutrient contents of the soil like N. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn were determined by using the Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. The Spectroscopic analysis was carried out by studying the UV-Vis, FT-IR and NIR spectra of isolated compounds. The data has been compared with the literature and correlated. Moisture as well as texture shows good water holding capacity and silt- loam type of soil. pH and EC are indicators of the fertility of soil to be beneficial for plantation. The spectral data (UV-Visible, FTIR and NIR supports the characteristic functional groups (-COOH, C=O, -OH, -NH2, C=C, CH2 and Polysaccharides present in Fulvic acid. E4/E6 values depict its hydrophilic nature, having less aromatic and more aliphatic groups. The presence of metal ions indicates its chelating ability.

  10. Bioactivity-guided isolation of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids as active compounds in the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Tilia americana var. mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Hernández, Eva; Rosas-Acevedo, Hortensia; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Martínez, Ana Laura; Moreno, Julia; González-Trujano, Ma Eva

    2007-09-01

    Tilia species have been used as anxiolytics for many years. In a previous study anxiolytic-like effects of a hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana inflorescences were observed in experimental models in mice. To get additional insights into the neuroactive actions of this particular Tilia species, in this study we report a bioactivity guided-fractionation of the extract and separation by column chromatographic methods to isolate three fatty acids and a triterpene identified as beta-sitosterol as major constituents. Our results revealed that the crude extract at 10 and 30 mg/kg I. P. and some pooled fractions at the same dosages potentiated sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and caused a significant increase in the time spent at the open-arm sides in the plus-maze test. A reduction in the exploratory behavioral pattern manifested as ambulatory activity, as well as head dipping and rearing tests was also observed. Further fractionation and purification yielded four major fractions containing fatty acids and beta-sitosterol as the active compounds. A dose-response curve of beta-sitosterol in the range 1 to 30 mg/kg doses indicated that this compound produced an anxiolytic-like action from 1 to 10 mg/kg and a sedative response when the dose was increased to 30 mg/kg, these effects resemble those produced by diazepam (0.1 mg/kg). Our results suggest that hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana produces depressant actions on the central nervous system, at least in part, because of the presence of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids that remain to be identified.

  11. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in human hepatoma cells by hedyotiscone A, a compound isolated from Hedyotis corymbosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Kin-Ming Lee, Julia; Cheng, Ling; Chung-Lap Chan, Ben; Jiang, Lei; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Bik-San Lau, Clara

    2012-06-01

    Multidrug resistance is a major problem in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hedyotiscone A, a compound isolated from Chinese herbal medicine Hedyotis corymbosa (HC, family Rubiaceae), was used as the chemical marker to distinguish between HC and an anticancer herb Hedyotis diffusa (HD) in our previous study. The present study aimed to investigate whether HA exhibited antiproliferative activities in multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells R-HepG2 and the parental cells HepG2 using MTT assay and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Our results showed that HA could significantly inhibit cell proliferation in R-HepG2 and HepG2 (IC(50) = 43.7 and 56.3 µg/mL, respectively), but not in normal human liver cells WRL-68 (IC(50) > 100 µg/mL) cells, suggesting its selective cytotoxic effects. Besides, HA induced apoptosis in R-HepG2 cells, as confirmed by annexin-V & propidium iodide staining, and DNA fragmentation assay. The caspase cascade was activated as shown by a significant increase of cleaved caspases-3, -7 and -9 in HA-treated R-HepG2 cells. The activities and protein expression of P-glycoprotein as well as mRNA expression of MDR1 were also decreased in HA-treated R-HepG2 cells. Our study demonstrated for the first time the antiproliferative activities of hedyotiscone A in multidrug-resistant R-HepG2 cells. The findings revealed the potential of this compound in treating multidrug-resistant tumor. PMID:22352391

  12. Moracin C, A Phenolic Compound Isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Inflammatory Responses in Murine Raw264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpus heterophyllus, a popular tropical fruit commonly known as the jackfruit tree, is normally planted in subtropical or tropical areas. Since a variety of phytochemicals isolated from A. heterophyllus have been found to possess potently anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antimalarial activities, researchers have devoted much interest to its potential pharmaceutical value. However, the exact mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity is not well characterized. In this study, seven natural products isolated from A. heterophyllus, including 25-Hydroxycycloart-23-en-3-one (HY, Artocarpin (AR, Dadahol A (DA, Morachalcone A (MA, Artoheterophyllin B (AB, Cycloheterophyllin (CY and Moracin C (MC were collected. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages were used in this study. Among these compounds, MC significantly inhibited LPS-activated reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO release without marked cytotoxicity. Furthermore, MC effectively reduced LPS stimulated up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and serval pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α. Mechanistic studies revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of MC was associated with the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs (including p38, ERK and JNK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathways, especially reducing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit as revealed by nuclear separation experiment and confocal microscopy.

  13. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) prediction of (eco)toxicity of short aliphatic protic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Brezana; Sierra, Jordi; Martí, Esther; Cruañas, Robert; Garau, Maria Antonia

    2015-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as a group of very promising compounds due to their excellent properties (practical non-volatility, high thermal stability and very good and diverse solving capacity). The ILs have a good prospect of replacing traditional organic solvents in vast variety of applications. However, the complete information on their environmental impact is still not available. There is also an enormous number of possible combinations of anions and cations which can form ILs, the fact that requires a method allowing the prediction of toxicity of existing and potential ILs. In this study, a group contribution QSAR model has been used in order to predict the (eco)toxicity of protic and aprotic ILs for five tests (Microtox®, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor growth inhibition test, and Acetylcholinestherase inhibition and Cell viability assay with IPC-81 cells). The predicted and experimental toxicity are well correlated. A prediction of EC50 for these (eco)toxicity tests has also been made for eight representatives of the new family of short aliphatic protic ILs, whose toxicity has not been determined experimentally to date. The QSAR model applied in this study can allow the selection of potentially less toxic ILs amongst the existing ones (e.g. in the case of aprotic ILs), but it can also be very helpful in directing the synthesis efforts toward developing new "greener" ILs respectful with the environment (e.g. short aliphatic protic ILs). PMID:25728357

  14. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). 721.3830 Section 721.3830 Protection of... products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant..., reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (PMN P-99-0531) is subject to...

  15. Vasodilator profile of flavonoid and phenylbutanoid compounds isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht PERFIL VASODILATADOR DE COMPUESTOS FLAVONOIDES Y FENILBUTANOIDES AISLADOS DE CROTON SCHIEDEANUS SCHLECHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Ximena Correa-Hernández

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae, specie is used in Colombian folk medicine in hypertension treatment. Objective. To assess the vasorelaxant effect of the flavonoid compounds: 3-O-methyl-quercetin, 3,7-di-O-methylquercetin, and 3,3',4',7-tetra-O-methylquercetin, and the phenylbutanoids compounds: (2S-7,9-dimethoxyrhododendrol, (2S-2-acetoxy-7,9-dimetho-xyrho-dodendrol, (2S-2,8-diacetatoxy-7,9-dimethoxyrho-dodendrol in isolated aortic rings of Wistar rats. Materials and methods. These compounds were evaluated in phenylephrine (PE, 1 µM and KCl (80 mM precontracted aortic rings. In order to examine possible interactions related with: endothelium, nitric oxide (NO, guanylyl ciclasa, prostanoid or ATP dependent potassium (K+ATP channels, the compounds with greater relaxant effect: 3-O-methylquercetin, and 3,7-di-O-methylquer-cetin, were assessed in phenylephrine precontracted rings in presence or absence of: endothelium, L-NAME (G -nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl Ester, 100 µM, ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, 1 µM, sodium meclofenamate (10 µM or glibenclamide (1 µM. Results. Whereas phenylbutanoid compounds did not shown significant relaxant properties, 3-O-methylquercetin and 3,7-di-O-methyl-quercetin displayed important vasodilator responses with IC50 of 2.5 and 4.9 µM against phenylephrine respectively. ODQ and L-NAME effectively displaced to the right the dose-response curves of these compounds, especially in the case of 3-O-methylquercetin (IC50 ratio: 7.4 and 3.8 whereas glibenclamide did not and meclofenamate only slightly. Conclusion. 3-O-methylquercetin and 3,7-di-O-methylquercetin, flavonoid compounds isolated from Croton schiedeanus play important vasorelaxant effects related to the NO/cyclic GMP pathway. These results support the etnobotanical use of Croton schiedeanus.Antecedentes. El Croton schiedeanus Schelecht (N.V: "almizclillo" Euporbiaceae, es una especie popularmente utilizada en Colombia

  16. Formation of brominated disinfection byproducts from natural organic matter isolates and model compounds in a sulfate radical-based oxidation process

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuru

    2014-12-16

    A sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process (SR-AOP) has received increasing application interest for the removal of water/wastewater contaminants. However, limited knowledge is available on its side effects. This study investigated the side effects in terms of the production of total organic bromine (TOBr) and brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) in the presence of bromide ion and organic matter in water. Sulfate radical was generated by heterogeneous catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate. Isolated natural organic matter (NOM) fractions as well as low molecular weight (LMW) compounds were used as model organic matter. Considerable amounts of TOBr were produced by SR-AOP, where bromoform (TBM) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were identified as dominant Br-DBPs. In general, SR-AOP favored the formation of DBAA, which is quite distinct from bromination with HOBr/OBr- (more TBM production). SR-AOP experimental results indicate that bromine incorporation is distributed among both hydrophobic and hydrophilic NOM fractions. Studies on model precursors reveal that LMW acids are reactive TBM precursors (citric acid > succinic acid > pyruvic acid > maleic acid). High DBAA formation from citric acid, aspartic acid, and asparagine was observed; meanwhile aspartic acid and asparagine were the major precursors of dibromoacetonitrile and dibromoacetamide, respectively.

  17. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Erupe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds found to be emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with NO3 has been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO3, large yields of aerosol mass loadings (~44% for butylamine are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO2 in the total signal (<17% for all amines tested as detected by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. We propose a reaction mechanism between carbonyl containing species and the parent amine leading to formation of particulate imine products. These findings can have significant impacts on rural communities and lead to elevated nighttime PM loadings, when significant levels on NO3 exist.

  18. Comparison of decomposition characteristics between aromatic and aliphatic VOCs using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal efficiency of n-decane (C10H22) by electron beam was the highest among aliphatic VOCs of concern, and that of n-hexane (C6H14), n-butane (C4H10), and methane (CH4) followed. On the other hand, in terms of aromatic VOC decomposition efficiencies, benzene (C6H6) decomposition was the lowest and that of toluene (C7H8), ethylbenzene (C8H10), and p-xylene (C8H10) were similar. It was also found that there was increase in by-product (untreated VOC, CO, CO2, O3, and other compounds) formation as well as all VOC removal efficiencies. It was demonstrated that the removal efficiency of VOC increased as its concentration decreased and the irradiation dose increased. In addition, low removal efficiency was observed because helium was relatively stable compared to the other gases, and nothing but electrons produced by electron accelerator reacted with VOC. It was also found that relative humidity had some effects on the decomposition rates of VOC. The removal efficiency at the 100% RH condition was slightly higher than that at 7.4% RH (dry condition) due to OH radical formation. (author)

  19. Secondary organic aerosol formation from primary aliphatic amines with NO3 radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary aliphatic amines are an important class of nitrogen containing compounds emitted from automobiles, waste treatment facilities and agricultural animal operations. A series of experiments conducted at the UC-Riverside/CE-CERT Environmental Chamber is presented in which oxidation of methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine with O3 and NO3 have been investigated. Very little aerosol formation is observed in the presence of O3 only. However, after addition of NO, and by extension NO3, large aerosol mass yields (~44% for butylamine are seen. Aerosol generated was determined to be organic in nature due to the small fraction of NO and NO2 in the total signal (<1% for all amines tested as detected by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. We propose a reaction mechanism between carbonyl containing species and the parent amine leading to formation of particulate imine products. These findings can have significant impacts on rural communities with elevated nighttime PM loadings, when significant levels of NO3 exist.

  20. Isolation and Structural Identification of Spirostanol Compounds from Tupistra Chinensis%开口箭根茎中甾体类化合物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬昊洋; 王倩; 刘呈雄; 邹坤

    2012-01-01

    To study the steroidal saponins from the fresh rhizomes of Tupistra chinensis and search for bioac-tive saponins with potential antitumor activity. The steroidal saponins were isolated by RP-C18 column chro-matography and preparative HPLC. The structures of the compounds were dertermined on the basis of the spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. Eight spirostanol compounds(1- 8) were obtained from the n-butanol fraction of EtOH extract from Tupistra chinensis rhizomes. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical methods and spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from this plant for the first time.%目的:研究开口箭根茎中甾体成分,寻找新的抗肿瘤活性物质.方法:运用反相常压柱色谱和制备高效液相对其甾体成分进行分离,通过理化性质和波谱分析方法鉴定其结构.结果:从开口箭根茎的乙醇提取物中分离得到6个甾体皂苷及2个甾体皂苷元,其结构分别为1β,2β,3β,4β,5β-五羟基-螺甾-△25(27) -烯-5-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(1),1β,3β-二羟基-5β-孕甾-△16(17) -烯-20-酮-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(2),1β,2β,3β,4β,5β,6β,7α-七羟基-5β-呋甾-△25(27)-烯(3),1β,2β,3β,4β,5β,7α-六羟基-6-氧化-螺甾-△25(27)-烯(4),3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基-(25S)-1β,3β,5β,26-四羟基-5β-呋甾-△20(22)-烯-26-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(5),3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基-(25S)-1β,3β,5β,22α,26-五羟基-5β-呋甾-26-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(6),3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基-(25S)-1β,3β,26-三羟基-5β-呋甾-26-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(7)和3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基-(25R)-1β,3α,26-三羟基-△5(6) -烯-5β-呋甾-26-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(8).结论:化合物1和2为首次从该属植物中获得.

  1. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herrmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Monomethylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and diethylamine (DEA were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0–30 pg m−3 for MA, 130–360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5–110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2–520 pg m−3 for MA, 100–1400 pg m−3 for DMA and 90–760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm indicate that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC content ranged from 0.2–2.5% C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the nitrogen content in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the detected nitrogen species in sub-micrometer particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N–1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines. This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  2. Development of a flow-injection fluorescence method for estimation of total polycyclic aromatic compounds in asphalt fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeister, Charles E; Olsen, Larry D; Dollberg, Donald D

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, measurements of specific polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) have been attempted as an estimate of asphalt fume exposure. However, asphalt fumes contain numerous alkyl substituted PACs, including PACs containing heteroatoms of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Many of these compounds coelute precluding the resolution of the individual compounds resulting in ambiguous data. Moreover, many researchers believe that some observed health hazards are associated with PACs overall and not just a few select PACs. Therefore, NIOSH method 5800 was developed to evaluate total PACs as a chemical class in asphalt fumes. Asphalt fume samples were collected on a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) filter backed by an XAD-2 sorbent tube. The samples were extracted with hexane; then, a cyano-solid-phase-extraction column was used to remove the polar compounds while the aliphatic and aromatic compounds were eluted with hexane. An equal volume of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added to the hexane extract, causing the aromatic compounds to partition into the DMSO, thus isolating the PACs. The PACs were then analyzed for fluorescence using a flow-injection method with two fluorescence detectors. Wavelength settings for the first detector (254-nm excitation, 370-nm emission) emphasized the 2- to 4-ring PACs that may cause eye and respiratory tract irritation. Wavelength settings of the second detector (254-nm excitation, 400-nm emission) emphasized the 4- and higher-ring PACs that are often mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic. PMID:14521431

  3. Liquid-crystalline aromatic-aliphatic copolyester bioresorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oca, Horacio Montes; Wilson, Joanne E; Penrose, Andrew; Langton, David M; Dagger, Anthony C; Anderson, Melissa; Farrar, David F; Lovell, Christopher S; Ries, Michael E; Ward, Ian M; Wilson, Andrew D; Cowling, Stephen J; Saez, Isabel M; Goodby, John W

    2010-10-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of a series of liquid-crystalline aromatic-aliphatic copolyesters are presented. Differential scanning calorimetry showed these polymers have a glass transition temperature in the range 72 degrees C-116 degrees C. Polarised optical microscopy showed each polymer exhibits a nematic mesophase on heating to the molten state at temperatures below 165 degrees C. Melt processing is demonstrated by the production of injection moulded and compression moulded specimens with Young's modulus of 5.7 +/- 0.3 GPa and 2.3 +/- 0.3 GPa, respectively. Wide-angle X-ray scattering data showed molecular orientation is responsible for the increase of mechanical properties along the injection direction. Degradation studies in the temperature range 37 degrees C-80 degrees C are presented for one polymer of this series and a kinetic constant of 0.002 days(-1) is obtained at 37 degrees C assuming a first order reaction. The activation energy (83.4 kJ mol(-1)) is obtained following the Arrhenius analysis of degradation, showing degradation of this material is less temperature sensitive compared with other commercially available biodegradable polyesters. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility data are presented and it is shown the unique combination of degradative, mechanical and biological properties of these polymers may represent in the future an alternative for medical device manufacturers.

  4. Shape memory polymers based on uniform aliphatic urethane networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T S; Bearinger, J P; Herberg, J L; Marion III, J E; Wright, W J; Evans, C L; Maitland, D J

    2007-01-19

    Aliphatic urethane polymers have been synthesized and characterized, using monomers with high molecular symmetry, in order to form amorphous networks with very uniform supermolecular structures which can be used as photo-thermally actuable shape memory polymers (SMPs). The monomers used include hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), trimethylhexamethylenediamine (TMHDI), N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine (HPED), triethanolamine (TEA), and 1,3-butanediol (BD). The new polymers were characterized by solvent extraction, NMR, XPS, UV/VIS, DSC, DMTA, and tensile testing. The resulting polymers were found to be single phase amorphous networks with very high gel fraction, excellent optical clarity, and extremely sharp single glass transitions in the range of 34 to 153 C. Thermomechanical testing of these materials confirms their excellent shape memory behavior, high recovery force, and low mechanical hysteresis (especially on multiple cycles), effectively behaving as ideal elastomers above T{sub g}. We believe these materials represent a new and potentially important class of SMPs, and should be especially useful in applications such as biomedical microdevices.

  5. Electrospun aliphatic polycarbonates as tailored tissue scaffold materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Alexander; Kröger, Mario; Döring, Manfred; Niederer, Kerstin; Pindel, Elvira; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2007-04-01

    Two different aliphatic polycarbonates were synthesised from CO(2) and the respective epoxides. Poly(propyl carbonate) (PPC) was prepared by heterogeneous catalysis with zinc glutarate. Poly(cyclohexyl carbonate) (PCHC) was prepared via living copolymerisation homogeneously catalysed by a 3-amino-2-cyanoimidoacrylate zinc acetate complex and subjected to electrospinning. The obtained nanofibres had a well-defined morphology free of beads along the fibres and with slightly porous structures on their surface. Subsequently, low-power deep UV irradiations, previously applied for photochemical surface modifications of two-dimensional and three-dimensional scaffolds from biostable polymers, were performed. Here, an effect on surface and bulk properties of PPC nanofibres was observed. Surface modifications of both polymers affected plasma protein adsorption. Photochemical bulk modifications observed for the first time on PPC nanofibres are indicating the possibility of spatial control of biodegradation rates, hence allow for control of the progression of host/implant interactions in vivo. In particular PPC was used for cell culture of L929 fibroblasts and primary rat hepatocytes. Even delicate primary cells showed good adhesion to the scaffolds and high viability.

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Chemical Compounds Isolated from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra on Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-li Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Smilax glabra has been used for a long time as both food and folk medicine in many countries. The present study focused on the active constituents from the rhizome of S. glabra, which possess potential anti-inflammatory activities. As a result, nine known compounds were isolated from the rhizome of S. glabra with the bioassay-guiding, and were identified as syringaresinol (1, lasiodiplodin (2, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3, syringic acid (4, 1,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl-1,4-butanediol (5, lyoniresinol (6, trans-resveratrol (7, trans-caffeic acid methyl ester (8, and dihydrokaempferol (9. Among these compounds, 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from S. glabra. In addition, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that 4 and 7 showed significant inhibitory effects on NO production of RAW264.7 cells, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 showed moderate suppression effects on induced NO production. 1, 7, and 5 exhibited high inhibitory effects on TNF-α production, with the IC50 values less than 2.3, 4.4, and 16.6 μM, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 were the potential anti-inflammatory active compositions of S. glabra.

  7. Fully Biobased Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters from Renewable Resources : Enzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi; Alberda van Ekenstein, Gerhard; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Fully biobased saturated and unsaturated aliphatic polyesters and oligoesters are successfully prepared by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)-catalyzed polycondensations of succinate, itaconate, and 1,4-butanediol. The effects of monomer substrates and polymerization methods on enzymatic polycondens

  8. Thermally reversible thermoset materials based on the chemical modification of alternating aliphatic polyketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya Hermosilla, Rodrigo Andrés

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focused on the synthesis and characterization of different kinds of reversible thermosets and thermoset nanocomposite materials by using alternating aliphatic polyketone (PK) as raw material. Fundamental knowledge was generated regarding the molecular design of new polymers via chemical

  9. Structural chemistry of A2MX4 compounds (X = O, F) with isolated tetrahedral anions: search for the densest structure types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandyan, Vladimir; Novikova, Anastasiya

    2012-06-01

    The packing density of various structures is important not only for understanding and the prediction of high-pressure phase transitions, but also because of its reported correlation with thermodynamic stability. Plotting the cube root of formula volume against the cation radii (R) for nine morphotropic series with isolated tetrahedral anions, A(2)MO(4) (M = Si, Ge, S, Se, Cr, Mn, Mo, W) and A(2)BeF(4), permits the comparison of packing densities for 13 structure types (about 80 individual compounds and several solid solutions) stable at (or near) ambient temperature. The spinel type is the densest. The next densest types are those of K(2)MoO(4), Tl(2)CrO(4), β-Ca(2)SiO(4), β-K(2)SO(4), Ag(2)CrO(4) and Sr(2)GeO(4). In three series (M = Ge, Mo, W) the densest type comes with somewhat intermediate values of R, and not the largest, in contrast to the classical homology rule. Another contradiction with traditional views is that some of the densest phases have abnormally low overall binding energies. The correlation between packing density and coordination number (CN) is better when CN of A counts entire MX(4) groups rather than individual X atoms; many, but not all, A(2)MX(4) structures have binary A(2)M analogues (of course, A and M are not necessarily the same in these structure types). The most frequent arrangement of A around M is of the Ni(2)In type: a (distorted) pentacapped trigonal prism. PMID:22610673

  10. On the Aliphatic versus Aromatic Content of the Carriers of the "Unidentified" Infrared Emission Features

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xuejuan; Li, Aigen; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the so-called "unidentified" infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 micrometer are characteristic of the stretching and bending vibrations of aromatic hydrocarbon materials, the exact nature of their carriers remains unknown: whether they are free-flying, predominantly aromatic gas-phase molecules, or amorphous solids with a mixed aromatic/aliphatic composition are being debated. Recently, the 3.3 and 3.4 micrometer features which are commonly respectively attributed to aromatic and aliphatic C-H stretches have been used to place an upper limit of ~2\\% on the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers (i.e. the number of C atoms in aliphatic chains to that in aromatic rings). Here we further explore the aliphatic versus aromatic content of the UIE carriers by examining the ratio of the observed intensity of the 6.2 micrometer aromatic C-C feature (I6.2) to that of the 6.85 micrometer aliphatic C-H deformation feature (I6.85). To derive the intrinsic...

  11. Synthesis of novel naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and esters and their anticancer evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkathip, Boonsong; Akkarasamiyo, Sunisa; Hasitapan, Komkrit; Sittikul, Pichamon; Boonyalai, Nonlawat; Kongkathip, Ngampong

    2013-02-01

    Fourteen new naphthoquinone aliphatic amides and seventeen naphthoquinone aliphatic esters were synthesized in nine to ten steps from 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid with 9-25% overall yield for the amides, and 16-21% overall yield for the esters. The key step of the amide synthesis is a coupling reaction between amine and various aliphatic acids using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM) as a coupling agent while for the ester synthesis, DCC/DMAP or CDI was used as the coupling reagent between aliphatic acids and naphthoquinone alcohol. Both naphthoquinone amides and esters were evaluated for their anticancer activity against KB cells. It was found that naphthoquinone aliphatic amides showed stronger anticancer activity than those of the esters when the chains are longer than 7-carbon atoms. The optimum chain of amides is expected to be 16-carbon atoms. In addition, naphthoquinone aliphatic esters with α-methyl on the ester moiety possessed much stronger anticancer activity than the straight chains. Decatenation assay revealed that naphthoquinone amide with 16-carbon atoms chain at 15 μM and 20 μM can completely inhibit hTopoIIα activity while at 10 μM the enzyme activity was moderately inhibited. Molecular docking result also showed the same trend as the cytotoxicity and decatenation assay. PMID:23313636

  12. Sources and distribution of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Neuquen River, Argentine Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monza, Liliana B; Loewy, Ruth M; Savini, Mónica C; Pechen de d'Angelo, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution and probable sources of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (AHs, PAHs) were investigated in surface sediments collected along the bank of the Neuquen River, Argentina. Total concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons ranged between 0.41 and 125 μg/g dw. Six stations presented low values of resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons and the n-alkane distribution indexes applied suggested a clear biogenic source. These values can be considered the baseline levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons for the river sediments. This constitutes important information for the assessment of future impacts since a strong impulse in the exploitation of shale gas and shale oil in these zones is nowadays undergoing. For the other 11 stations, a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons of petrogenic and biogenic origin was observed. The spatial distribution reflects local inputs of these pollutants with a significant increase in concentrations in the lower course, where two major cities are located. The highest values of total aliphatic hydrocarbons were found in this sector which, in turn, was the only one where individual PAHs were detected.

  13. A variety of volatile compounds as markers in unifloral honey from dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Mastelić, Josip; Marijanović, Zvonimir

    2006-12-01

    Volatile compounds of unifloral Salvia officinalis L. honey has been investigated for the first time. The botanical origin of ten unifloral Salvia honey samples has been ascertained by pollen analysis (the honey samples displayed 23-60% of Salvia pollen). Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified by GC and GC/MS in ten Salvia honey extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) with pentane/Et(2)O 1 : 2. The yield of isolated volatiles varied from 25.7 to 30.5 mg kg(-1). Salvia honey could be distinguished on the basis of the high percentage of benzoic acid (6.4-14.8%), and especially phenylacetic acid (5.7-18.4%). Minor, but floral-origin important volatiles were identified such as shikimate pathway derivatives, 'degraded-carotenoid-like' structures (3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives) and 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives. Compounds from other metabolic pathways such as aliphatic acids and higher linear hydrocarbons, as well as heterocycles (pyrans, furans, and pyrroles), were also present. Most of the identified compounds do not constitute specific Salvia honey markers, due to their presence in honeys of other botanical origins; however, their ratio in different honeys could be useful to distinguish floral origin. Salvia-honey volatile markers were: benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, p-anisaldehyde, alpha-isophorone, 4-ketoisophorone, dehydrovomifoliol, 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-ene-1-carbaldehyde, 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1,4-dione, and coumaran.

  14. Metabolism of volatile chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbergh, P A; Kunka, B S

    1988-01-01

    A Pseudomonas fluorescens strain designated PFL12 was isolated from soil and water that were contaminated with various chloroaliphatic hydrocarbons. The isolate was able to metabolize 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2,2-dichloropropane, and trichloroethylene.

  15. Aliphatic polyester block polymers: renewable, degradable, and sustainable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmyer, Marc A; Tolman, William B

    2014-08-19

    Nearly all polymers are derived from nonrenewable fossil resources, and their disposal at their end of use presents significant environmental problems. Nonetheless, polymers are ubiquitous, key components in myriad technologies and are simply indispensible for modern society. An important overarching goal in contemporary polymer research is to develop sustainable alternatives to "petro-polymers" that have competitive performance properties and price, are derived from renewable resources, and may be easily and safely recycled or degraded. Aliphatic polyesters are particularly attractive targets that may be prepared in highly controlled fashion by ring-opening polymerization of bioderived lactones. However, property profiles of polyesters derived from single monomers (homopolymers) can limit their applications, thus demanding alternative strategies. One such strategy is to link distinct polymeric segments in an A-B-A fashion, with A and B chosen to be thermodynamically incompatible so that they can self-organize on a nanometer-length scale and adopt morphologies that endow them with tunable properties. For example, such triblock copolymers can be useful as thermoplastic elastomers, in pressure sensitive adhesive formulations, and as toughening modifiers. Inspired by the tremendous utility of petroleum-derived styrenic triblock copolymers, we aimed to develop syntheses and understand the structure-property profiles of sustainable alternatives, focusing on all renewable and all readily degradable aliphatic polyester triblocks as targets. Building upon oxidation chemistry reported more than a century ago, a constituent of the peppermint plant, (-)-menthol, was converted to the ε-caprolactone derivative menthide. Using a diol initiator and controlled catalysis, menthide was polymerized to yield a low glass transition temperature telechelic polymer (PM) that was then further functionalized using the biomass-derived monomer lactide (LA) to yield fully renewable PLA

  16. Secondary aerosol formation from atmospheric reactions of aliphatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Murphy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although aliphatic amines have been detected in both urban and rural atmospheric aerosols, little is known about the chemistry leading to particle formation or the potential aerosol yields from reactions of gas-phase amines. We present here the first systematic study of aerosol formation from the atmospheric reactions of amines. Based on laboratory chamber experiments and theoretical calculations, we evaluate aerosol formation from reaction of OH, ozone, and nitric acid with trimethylamine, methylamine, triethylamine, diethylamine, ethylamine, and ethanolamine. Entropies of formation for alkylammonium nitrate salts are estimated by molecular dynamics calculations enabling us to estimate equilibrium constants for the reactions of amines with nitric acid. Though subject to significant uncertainty, the calculated dissociation equilibrium constant for diethylammonium nitrate is found to be sufficiently small to allow for its atmospheric formation, even in the presence of ammonia which competes for available nitric acid. Experimental chamber studies indicate that the dissociation equilibrium constant for triethylammonium nitrate is of the same order of magnitude as that for ammonium nitrate. All amines studied form aerosol when photooxidized in the presence of NOx with the majority of the aerosol mass present at the peak of aerosol growth consisting of aminium (R3NH+ nitrate salts, which repartition back to the gas phase as the parent amine is consumed. Only the two tertiary amines studied, trimethylamine and triethylamine, are found to form significant non-salt organic aerosol when oxidized by OH or ozone; calculated organic mass yields for the experiments conducted are similar for ozonolysis (15% and 5% respectively and photooxidation (23% and 8% respectively. The non-salt organic aerosol formed appears to be more stable than the nitrate salts and does not quickly repartition back to the gas phase.

  17. Isolation and structural characterization of antioxidant activity compounds from betel nut seed%槟榔籽中抗氧化活性物质的分离与结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩林; 王兆丹; 张海德; 罗仕数

    2012-01-01

    为了研究槟榔籽中的抗氧化活性物质,通过柱色谱法分离纯化槟榔籽乙醇提取物,结合抗氧化活性筛选,分离得到槟榔籽中主要的抗氧化活性物质Fr-4。利用高效液相色谱分析其纯度,经波谱分析确定该物质为表儿茶素。%In order to research the antioxidant activity compounds of the betel nut seed,the ethanol extract of betel nut seed was isolated and purified by column chromatography.Combined with antioxidant activity screening,Fr-4 was isolated as the main antioxidant activity compounds of betel nut seed.HPLC was used to analyze its purity and epicatechin was identified by spectrum analysis.

  18. Efficient and selective α-bromination of carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide under microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Guan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient method for the synthesis of α-halocarbonyl compounds has been achieved via selective monobromination of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds with N-bromosuccinimide catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid under microwave irradiation within 30 min.

  19. Reactions of B/sub 12r/ with aliphatic free radicals: a pulse-radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra of the intermediates formed in the reactions of B/sub 12r/ with the free radicals Br2-., CO2-., .CH2C(CH3)2OH, .C(CH3)2OH, . CH2CHO, and .CH(OH)CH2OH are reported. The results indicate that Br2-. oxidizes B/sub 12r/ to B/sub 12a/, via an inner-sphere mechanism, and CO2- . reduces B/sub 12r/ to B/sub 12s/. All the aliphatic free radicals studied, .R, react with B/sub 12r/, yielding as the first product a pseudocoenzyme denoted Co/sup III/-R. Co/sup III/-CH2C(CH3)2OH is stable for over a second in the pH range 3 to 10 as is Co/sup III/-CH2CHO. The latter compound hydrolyzes in acid solutions to yield B/sub 12a/ and CH3CHO. Co/sup III/-C(CH3)2OH and Co/sup III/-CH(OH)CH2OH decompose heterolytically to yield mainly B/sub 12s/; a side reaction that probably yields Co/sup III/-H via a β-hydride shift is also observed. The kinetics of decomposition of Co/sup III/-CH(OH)CH2OH in neutral solutions are reported. No water elimination from the latter intermediate occurs. The reasons for the latter observation are discussed. 6 figures

  20. Reactions of aliphatic free radicals with copper cations in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium-saturated solutions containing copper sulphate and an aliphatic alcohol (methanol, ethanol or propan-2-ol) were pulse irradiated. The kinetics of the reactions thus initiated were followed by the spectrophotometric and conductometric techniques. The results indicate that all three radicals, CR1R2OH, react with Cu2+sub(aq) to yield Cu+sub(aq) + CR1R2O+H3O+. CH2OH radicals react with Cu+sub(aq) according to Cu+sub(aq) + CH2OH yields reversibly Cusup(II) -CH2OH+, K approximately 5 x 103 dm3 mol-1. (Note: In writing Cusup(II) - R+ or Cusup(III) - R2+ the accepted nomenclature is followed for organometallic compounds. This notation does not imply that the nature of the chemical bond is ionic. Furthermore, the results indicate that the Cu - C bond has at least partially a covalent nature.) The corresponding equilibrium constants for Cusup(II) - CH(CH3)OH+ and Cusup(II) - C(CH3)2OH+ are too low to be measured and the corresponding intermediates are not observed. Cu+sub(aq) reacts with the β radicals, CH2CH2OH and CH2CH(CH3)OH, according to Cu+sub(aq) + CH2CR1R2OH → Cusup(II) - CH2CR1R2OH+. The latter intermediates decompose via acid catalysed reactions to yield Cu2+sub(aq) + H2C = CR1R2 + H2O. (author)

  1. Degradation kinetics of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by methane oxidizers naturally-associated with wetland plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C L; Goltz, M N; Agrawal, A

    2014-12-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) are common groundwater contaminants that can be removed from the environment by natural attenuation processes. CAH biodegradation can occur in wetland environments by reductive dechlorination as well as oxidation pathways. In particular, CAH oxidation may occur in vegetated wetlands, by microorganisms that are naturally associated with the roots of wetland plants. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cometabolic degradation kinetics of the CAHs, cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cisDCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1TCA), by methane-oxidizing bacteria associated with the roots of a typical wetland plant in soil-free system. Laboratory microcosms with washed live roots investigated aerobic, cometabolic degradation of CAHs by the root-associated methane-oxidizing bacteria at initial aqueous [CH4] ~1.9mgL(-1), and initial aqueous [CAH] ~150μgL(-1); cisDCE and TCE (in the presence of 1,1,1TCA) degraded significantly, with a removal efficiency of approximately 90% and 46%, respectively. 1,1,1TCA degradation was not observed in the presence of active methane oxidizers. The pseudo first-order degradation rate-constants of TCE and cisDCE were 0.12±0.01 and 0.59±0.07d(-1), respectively, which are comparable to published values. However, their biomass-normalized degradation rate constants obtained in this study were significantly smaller than pure-culture studies, yet they were comparable to values reported for biofilm systems. The study suggests that CAH removal in wetland plant roots may be comparable to processes within biofilms. This has led us to speculate that the active biomass may be on the root surface as a biofilm. The cisDCE and TCE mass losses due to methane oxidizers in this study offer insight into the role of shallow, vegetated wetlands as an environmental sink for such xenobiotic compounds.

  2. Proposed chemical mechanisms leading to secondary organic aerosol in the reactions of aliphatic amines with hydroxyl and nitrate radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Derek J.; Clark, Christopher H.; Tang, Xiaochen; Cocker, David R.; Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Silva, Philip J.

    2014-10-01

    The presence and importance of amines in the atmosphere, including aliphatic amines, continues to gain more attention. The atmospheric reaction mechanisms of these amines with key atmospheric radicals are important to predict both daytime and nighttime atmospheric chemistry. While previous studies have focused on the production of amine salts, this analysis looks at the importance of peroxy radical reactions to the formation of secondary organic aerosol. Atmospheric oxidation mechanisms are presented to explain the observed chemistry. A series of environmental chamber experiments were conducted in which aliphatic tertiary and secondary amines were reacted with either hydroxyl radical (OH) or nitrate radical (NO3). Chemical composition of the aerosol products was obtained with a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a Particle Into Liquid Sampler Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PILS-ToF-MS), while the chemical composition of the gas-phase products was obtained with a Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometer (SIFT-MS). A number of aerosol-phase mass spectra showed highly oxidized fragments at a much higher molecular weight (MW) than the amine precursor. It is proposed that these larger compounds are oligomers formed through peroxy radical reactions with hydrogen rearrangement. Another reaction pathway observed was the formation of amine salts. The relative importance of each pathway to the overall production of aerosol is found to be dependent on the type of amine and oxidant. For example, the oligomers were observed in the tertiary methyl amines, while the formation of amine salts was more prevalent in the secondary and tertiary ethyl amines.

  3. EFFECT OF ACTIVE COMPOUNDS ISOLATED FROM PTERIS SEMIPINNATA L ON DNA TOPOISOMERASES AND TYROSINE PROTEIN KINASE AND EXPRESSION OF C-MYC IN LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金华; 梁念慈; 莫丽儿; 张晓; 何承伟

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of active compound 6F and A from Pteris semipinnata L.(PsL) on the activities of DNA topoisomerase (TOPO) I and II, activities of cytosolic and membrane TPK, and expression of oncogene c-myc in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Methods: The effect of compound 6F and A on activities of cytosolic and membrane TPK was measured by scintillation counting; the effect of compound A on expression of oncogene c-myc was determined by flow cytometry indirect fluorimetry. Results: compound 6F and A could inhibit the activities of TOPO I, and they strongly inhibited the TOPO II in 0.01 mg/L and 10.0 mg/L respectively. Compound A slightly inhibited the activities of membrane TPK, but not the cytosolic one. Compound A could inhibit the expression of oncogene c-myc. Conclusion: Topoisomerases are target of compound 6F and A. Compound A could slightly inhibit the activities of TPK, and showed an inhibitory effect on the expression of oncogene c-myc.

  4. CZE study on adsorption processes of aliphatic and aromatic amines on PMMA chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masár, Marián; Kruk, Pavol; Luc, Milan; Bodor, Róbert; Danč, Ladislav; Troška, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Adsorption processes on a PMMA chip linked with CZE separations of a group of 13 aliphatic and aromatic mono- and di-amines were studied. Due to the lack of chromophores within aliphatic amines, contact conductivity detection implemented directly onto the chip was used for monitoring of cationic CZE separations. To prevent an adsorption of studied amines to the chip channels, the surface of PMMA chip was modified by dynamic coating. Different surface modifiers, such as aliphatic oligoamines (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine), were added to the BGE solutions filling the chip channels. The effect of various concentrations of surface modifiers on peak profiles and separation parameters of amines was monitored. Of these, mainly, aliphatic di-amines and aromatic mono-amines adversely affected the CZE resolution of a whole group of analytes by their strong adsorption to the chip channels. A propionate BGE with pH 3.2 containing 100 μM triethylenetetramine and 25 mM 18-crown-6-ether was found suitable for CZE resolution of 12 from a total of 13 amines studied. Simple dynamic modification of the surface of PMMA chip enabled fast (analysis time lasted 9 min), sensitive (sub-μM LODs reached) and reproducible (1-3% RSD of the peak areas) CZE analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic amines.

  5. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Boualem Boumaaza; Mohamed Benkhelifa; Moulay Belkhoudja

    2015-01-01

    Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea’s life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations....

  6. EFSA Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 1 (FGE.78Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 24 aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by the JECFA (65th meeting). In the previous version of FGE.78, the Panel concluded that for 13 substances no applicable...... NOAEL was available for the substance itself or on a structurally related compound and therefore further data were required. Additional data (long term study of toxicity, mutagenicity studies and new tonnage figure) have now become available for beta-myrcene [FL-no: 01.008] and the present revision...

  7. Aliphatic amines in Antarctic CR2, CM2, and CM1/2 carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, José C.; McLain, Hannah L.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2016-09-01

    Meteoritic water-soluble organic compounds provide a unique record of the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system and the chemistry preceding the origins of life on Earth. We have investigated the molecular distribution, compound-specific δ13C isotopic ratios and enantiomeric compositions of aliphatic monoamines present in the hot acid-water extracts of the carbonaceous chondrites LAP 02342 (CR2), GRA 95229 (CR2), LON 94101 (CM2), LEW 90500 (CM2), and ALH 83100 (CM1/2). Analyses of the concentration of monoamines in these meteorites revealed: (a) the CR2 chondrites studied here contain higher concentrations of monoamines relative to the analyzed CM2 chondrites; (b) the concentration of monoamines decreases with increasing carbon number; and (c) isopropylamine is the most abundant monoamine in these CR2 chondrites, while methylamine is the most abundant amine species in these CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. The δ13C values of monoamines in CR2 chondrite do not correlate with the number of carbon atoms; however, in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites, the 13C enrichment decreases with increasing monoamine carbon number. The δ13C values of methylamine in CR2 chondrites ranged from -1 to +10‰, while in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites the δ13C values of methylamine ranged from +41 to +59‰. We also observed racemic compositions of sec-butylamine, 3-methyl-2-butylamine, and sec-pentylamine in the studied carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we compared the abundance and δ13C isotopic composition of monoamines to those of their structurally related amino acids. We found that monoamines are less abundant than amino acids in CR2 chondrites, with the opposite being true in CM2 and CM1/2 chondrites. We used these collective data to evaluate different primordial synthetic pathways for monoamines in carbonaceous chondrites and to understand the potential common origins these molecules may share with meteoritic amino acids.

  8. Potent synergistic in vitro interaction between nonantimicrobial membrane-active compounds and itraconazole against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus resistant to itraconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afeltra, J.; Vitale, R.G.; Mouton, J.W.; Verweij, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    To develop new approaches for the treatment of invasive infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, the in vitro interactions between itraconazole (ITZ) and seven different nonantimicrobial membrane-active compounds--amiodarone (AMD), amiloride, lidocaine, lansoprazole (LAN), nifedipine (NIF), verap

  9. TRANSESTERIFICATION OF POLY(BISPHENOL A CARBONATE) WITH AROMATIC AND ALIPHATIC SEGMENTS IN BUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE-CAPROLACTONE COPOLYESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Wang; Yi-ping Huang; Xiao-lie Luo; De-zhu Ma

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the transesterification ofpoly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC) with butylene terephthalate-caprolactone copolyester at a weight ratio 50/50 (BCL(21)) was thoroughly investigated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), in conjunction with a model compound. The 1H-NMR results of the annealed blend PC/BCL(21)show that the formation of bisphenol A-terephthalate ester units is the same as in the annealed blend of PC with PBT, and the transesterification actually occurs between PC and butylene terephthalate (BT) segments in BCL(21). By comparison with the model compound bisphenol A dibutyrate, the new signal appearing at δ = 2.56 in the 1H-NMR spectrum confirms the existence of bisphenol A caprolactone ester units resulting from the exchange reaction of PC with caprolactone (CL)segments. 1H-NMR analysis of the transesterification rates reveals that the reaction of PC with aromatic and aliphatic segments in BCL(21) proceeds in a random manner. The miscibility of the blend PC/BCL(21) copolyester is favorable for the transesterification of PC with BT segments and CL segments.

  10. Preliminary chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. [Aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Coal-derived materials from experimental runs of Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated's (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. This process differs from two-stage coal liquefaction processes in that catalyst is used in both stages. Samples from both the first and second stages were class-fractionated by alumina adsorption chromatography. The fractions were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography; gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; direct probe, low voltage mass spectrometry; and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Mutagenicity assays were performed with the crude and class fractions in Salmonella typhimurium, TA98. Preliminary results of chemical analyses indicate that >80% CTSL materials from both process stages were aliphatic hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Furthermore, the gross and specific chemical composition of process materials from the first stage were very similar to those of the second stage. In general, the unfractionated materials were only slightly active in the TA98 mutagenicity assay. Like other coal liquefaction materials investigated in this laboratory, the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) class fractions were responsible for the bulk of the mutagenic activity of the crudes. Finally, it was shown that this activity correlated with the presence of amino-PAH. 20 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Hydrogen isotope ratios of aliphatic and diterpenoid hydrocarbons in coals and carbonaceous mudstones from the Liaohe Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuo, J.C.; Zhang, M.F.; Wang, X.B.; Zhang, C.L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Institute of Geology & Geophysics

    2006-02-15

    Hydrogen-isotope compositions of the aliphatic and diterpenoid hydrocarbons were determined for five coal and carbonaceous mudstone samples collected from drilling cores (1531-1767 m depths) in the Liaohe Basin, China. The bulk organic materials were mainly derived from terrestrial higher plants. {delta}D values for most of the n-alkanes varied from -150 parts per thousand to -220 parts per thousand, and were not significantly different among the samples. Pristane was 34-69 parts per thousand depleted in D relative to phytane; both pristane and phytane, however, had the same trend of variation in {delta}D from sample to sample.Diterpenoids were on average 49-81 parts per thousand depleted in D relative to the n-alkanes. Variations in {delta}D also occurred between different diterpenoids, indicating a different source for these compounds. An enrichment process for the heavy hydrogen isotope was observed as expected when a compound was progressively altered through diagenesis (especially the dehydrogenation process). Overall, {delta}D and {delta}-{sup 13}C showed distinct patterns between structurally different lipid classes, although possible hydrogen exchange cannot be completely excluded during maturation. Our results further support the notion that hydrogen isotopes of lipid biomarkers from ancient sediments can be used to assess the origin of the organic matter, to determine oil-source rock correlation, and perhaps to reconstruct the paleoenvironment under which the organic material was deposited.

  12. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Boumaaza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea’s life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300 ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50 ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300 ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300 ppm.

  13. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaaza, Boualem; Benkhelifa, Mohamed; Belkhoudja, Moulay

    2015-01-01

    Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea's life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300 ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50 ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300 ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300 ppm. PMID:25883657

  14. Cytotoxic Compounds from Zanthoxylum Americanum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Four pyranocoumarins: dipetaline, alloxanthoxyletin, xanthoxyletin, and xanthyletin, and two lignans: sesamin and asarinin were isolated from the northern prickly ash, Zanthoxylum americanum. To varying degrees, all six compounds inhibited the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into human leukemia (HL-60) cells and the inhibitory effect was dependent on the structures of the isolated compounds.

  15. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Catalytic asymmetric hydroamination of unactivated internal olefins to aliphatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Shi-Liang; Niu, Dawen; Liu, Peng; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2015-07-01

    Catalytic assembly of enantiopure aliphatic amines from abundant and readily available precursors has long been recognized as a paramount challenge in synthetic chemistry. Here, we describe a mild and general copper-catalyzed hydroamination that effectively converts unactivated internal olefins—an important yet unexploited class of abundant feedstock chemicals—into highly enantioenriched α-branched amines (≥96% enantiomeric excess) featuring two minimally differentiated aliphatic substituents. This method provides a powerful means to access a broad range of advanced, highly functionalized enantioenriched amines of interest in pharmaceutical research and other areas.

  16. On the aliphatic versus aromatic content of the carriers of the `unidentified' infrared emission features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. J.; Glaser, R.; Li, Aigen; Zhong, J. X.

    2016-10-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm are characteristic of the stretching and bending vibrations of aromatic hydrocarbon materials, the exact nature of their carriers remains unknown: whether they are free-flying, predominantly aromatic gas-phase molecules, or amorphous solids with a mixed aromatic/aliphatic composition are being debated. Recently, the 3.3 and 3.4 μm features which are commonly respectively attributed to aromatic and aliphatic C-H stretches have been used to place an upper limit of ˜2 per cent on the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers (i.e. the number of C atoms in aliphatic chains to that in aromatic rings). Here we further explore the aliphatic versus aromatic content of the UIE carriers by examining the ratio of the observed intensity of the 6.2 μm aromatic C-C feature (I6.2) to that of the 6.85 μm aliphatic C-H deformation feature (I6.85). To derive the intrinsic oscillator strengths of the 6.2 μm stretch (A6.2) and the 6.85 μm deformation (A6.85), we employ density functional theory to compute the vibrational spectra of seven methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and their cations. By comparing I6.85/I6.2 with A6.85/A6.2, we derive the fraction of C atoms in methyl(ene) aliphatic form to be at most ˜10 per cent, confirming the earlier finding that the UIE emitters are predominantly aromatic. We have also computed the intrinsic strength of the 7.25 μm feature (A7.25), another aliphatic C-H deformation band. We find that A6.85 appreciably exceeds A7.25. This explains why the 6.85 μm feature is more frequently detected in space than the 7.25 μm feature.

  17. Fungal succession in relation to volatile organic compounds emissions from Scots pine and Norway spruce leaf litter-decomposing fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidorov, Valery; Tyszkiewicz, Zofia; Pirożnikow, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    Leaf litter fungi are partly responsible for decomposition of dead material, nutrient mobilization and gas fluxes in forest ecosystems. It can be assumed that microbial destruction of dead plant materials is an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted into the atmosphere from terrestrial ecosystems. However, little information is available on both the composition of fungal VOCs and their producers whose community can be changed at different stages of litter decomposition. The fungal community succession was investigated in a litter bag experiment with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle litter. The succession process can be divided into a several stages controlled mostly by changes in litter quality. At the very first stages of decomposition the needle litter was colonized by ascomycetes which can use readily available carbohydrates. At the later stages, the predominance of Trichoderma sp., the known producers of cellulolytic enzymes, was documented. To investigate the fungi-derived VOCs, eight fungi species were isolated. As a result of gas chromatographic analyses, as many as 75C2sbnd C15 fungal volatile compounds were identified. Most components detected in emissions were very reactive substances: the principal groups of VOCs were formed by monoterpenes, carbonyl compounds and aliphatic alcohols. It was found that production of VOCs by fungi is species specific: only 10 metabolites were emitted into the gas phase by all eight species. The reported data confirm that the leave litter decomposition is important source of reactive organic compounds under the forest canopy.

  18. The Cer-cqu gene cluster determines three key players in a β-diketone synthase polyketide pathway synthesizing aliphatics in epicuticular waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lizette M; Adamski, Nikolai M; Christensen, Caspar Elo; Stuart, David B; Vautrin, Sonia; Hansson, Mats; Uauy, Cristobal; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Aliphatic compounds on plant surfaces, called epicuticular waxes, are the first line of defense against pathogens and pests, contribute to reducing water loss and determine other important phenotypes. Aliphatics can form crystals affecting light refraction, resulting in a color change and allowing identification of mutants in their synthesis or transport. The present study discloses three such Eceriferum (cer) genes in barley – Cer-c, Cer-q and Cer-u – known to be tightly linked and functioning in a biochemical pathway forming dominating amounts of β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones plus some esterified alkan-2-ols. These aliphatics are present in many Triticeae as well as dicotyledons such as Eucalyptus and Dianthus. Recently developed genomic resources and mapping populations in barley defined these genes to a small region on chromosome arm 2HS. Exploiting Cer-c and -u potential functions pinpointed five candidates, of which three were missing in apparent cer-cqu triple mutants. Sequencing more than 50 independent mutants for each gene confirmed their identification. Cer-c is a chalcone synthase-like polyketide synthase, designated diketone synthase (DKS), Cer-q is a lipase/carboxyl transferase and Cer-u is a P450 enzyme. All were highly expressed in pertinent leaf sheath tissue of wild type. A physical map revealed the order Cer-c, Cer-u, Cer-q with the flanking genes 101kb apart, confirming they are a gene cluster, Cer-cqu. Homology-based modeling suggests that many of the mutant alleles affect overall protein structure or specific active site residues. The rich diversity of identified mutations will facilitate future studies of three key enzymes involved in synthesis of plant apoplast waxes. PMID:26962211

  19. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic). 721.10190 Section 721.10190... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with...

  20. Swift heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-15

    In this thesis, the high energy heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers is studied. Two polymer groups, namely polyvinyl polymers (PVF, PVAc, PVA and PMMA) and fluoropolymers (PVDF, ETFE, PFA and FEP) were used in this work. Polyvinyl polymers were investigated since they will be used as insulating materials in the superconducting magnets of the new ion accelerators of the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz-Centre of Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. In order to study ion-beam induced degradation, all polymer foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (U, Au, Sm, Xe) and experimentation sites (beam lines X0 and M3) over a large fluence regime (1 x 10{sup 10} - 5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}). Five independent techniques, namely infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, residual gas analysis (RGA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass loss analysis (ML), were used to analyze the irradiated samples. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that ion irradiation led to the decrease of characteristic band intensities showing the general degradation of the polymers, with scission of side groups and the main backbone. As a consequence of the structural modification, new bands appeared. UV-Vis transmission analysis showed an absorption edge shift from the ultraviolet region towards the visible region indicating double bond and conjugated double bond formation. On-line massspectrometric residual gas analysis showed the release of small gaseous fragment molecules. TGA analysis gave evidence of a changed thermal stability. With ML analysis, the considerable mass loss was quantified. The results of the five complementary analytical methods show how heavy ion irradiation changes the molecular structure of the polymers. Molecular degradation mechanisms are postulated. The amount of radiation damage is found to be sensitive to the used type of ionic

  1. EFFECT OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ISOLATED FROM CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS AND CALENDULA OFFICINALIS L., ON FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF IMMUNE CELLS UNDER CONDITIONS OF CYTOSTATIC IMMUNOSUPPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Masnaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study – to study the effect of polyphenolic compounds extracted from the flowers of safflower oil and calendula, the functional activity of immune cells in cytotoxic immune suppression.Conventional methods determined the total number of splenocytes, relative (% and absolute (106, the number of antibody-forming cells (AFC in the spleen of mice by local hemolysis by Cunningham.Evaluated the effect of compounds of natural origin on the cellular immune response in the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH. Phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages was determined by the method based on the intensity of their capture ink particles. We studied the functional activity of peritoneal macrophages by NBT test (spontaneous and stimulated. Studies were conducted on male mice Category 1 (conventional linear mouse line CBA/CaLac aged 2–2.5 months, weighing 20–22 g. After the introduction mice line CBA/CaLac of polyphenolic compounds derived from flowers of Carthamus tinctorius and flowers of Calendula officinalis L. during the 5-day course in dose 50 mg/kg was observed stimulation of the humoral immune response (total number of splenocytes, the number of antibodies in the spleen cells and the functional activity of macrophages and Immunomodulating effect on the humoral immunity and the functional activity of macrophages after a single injection of cyclophosphamide in dose 250 mg/kg. Immunotropic activity of polyphenolic compounds is higher than that those of the reference product of tincture of Echinacea purpurea.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with gastroprotective effect of semi-purified fractions and isolation of pure compounds from Mediterranean gorgonianEunicella singularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monia Deghrigue; Carmen Festa; Lotfi Ghribi; Maria Valeria DAuria; Simona De Marino; Hichem Ben Jannet; Abderrahman Bouraoui

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore anti-inflammatory activities of organic extract and its semi-purified fractions (ethanol, acetone, methanol/dichloromethane) from the Mediterranean gorgonian Eunicella singularis.Methods:The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were evaluated, using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model and the acetic acid writhing test in mice. The gastroprotective activity was determined using HCl/EtOH induced gastric ulcers in rats. The purification and structure elucidation of compound(s) from the more effective fraction were determined by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods and in comparison with data reported in the literature.Results: The fraction F-EtOH showed an important anti-inflammatory activity associated with significant analgesic and gastroprotective properties. The purification and structure elucidation of compound(s) from this fraction lead to the identification of one diterpenoid and four sterols.Conclusions: These results suggested that components from the active fraction can be used to treat various anti-inflammatory diseases.

  3. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of oligoesters of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid with aliphatic diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Broek, van den Lambertus A.M.; Serra, Juan L.; Llama, María J.; Boeriu, Carmen G.

    2015-01-01

    2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid is a platform chemical for the production of biobased polymers and materials. This study reports the synthesis of furan oligoesters via polytransesterification of dimethyl furan-2,5-dicarboxylate and linear α, ω-aliphatic diols with chain length ranging from C2 to C12,

  4. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  5. Selection of ionic liquids for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from aromatic/aliphatic mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G. Wytze; Podt, Anita (J.G.); Haan, de André B.

    2005-01-01

    The separation of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes) from C4 to C10 aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures is challenging since these hydrocarbons have boiling points in a close range and several combinations form azeotropes. In this work, we investigated the separation of t

  6. PATTERN RECOGNITION ANALYSIS OF A SET OF MUTAGENIC ALIPHATIC N-NITROSAMINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of 21 mutagenic aliphatic N-nitrosamines were subjected to a pattern recognition analysis using ADAPT software. Four descriptors based on molecular connectivity, geometry and sigma charge on nitrogen were capable of achieving a 100% classification using the linear learning ...

  7. STUDY ON THE PHASE TRANSITION KINETICS OF THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE AROMATIC-ALIPHATIC COPOLYESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Minhui; WANG Xiaogong; LIU Deshan; ZHOU Qixiang

    1991-01-01

    The phase transition kinetics of thermotropic liquid crystalline aromatic-aliphatic regular copolyester:(X) were studied by DSC. By means of Kissinger's method the kinetic equation and parameters including activation energy, rate order and preexponential factor for phase transition from nematic to isotropic were obtained. The activation energy from crystal to nematic was also presented.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable aliphatic polyesters using dibutylmagnesium as initiator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Liu; Zhi Yong Wei; Min Qi

    2007-01-01

    Aliphatic polyesters were synthesized via the ring opening polymerization of the corresponding lactones initiated with dibutylmagnesium both in bulk and in solution.The resulting polymers were characterized by 1H, 13C NMR, GPC and XRD.The results indicated that dibutylmagnesium is an effective initiator for the ring opening polymerization of lactones.

  9. Delivery of complex organic compounds from evolved stars to the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sun

    2011-12-01

    Stars in the late stages of evolution are able to synthesize complex organic compounds with aromatic and aliphatic structures over very short time scales. These compounds are ejected into the interstellar medium and distributed throughout the Galaxy. The structures of these compounds are similar to the insoluble organic matter found in meteorites. In this paper, we discuss to what extent stellar organics has enriched the primordial Solar System and possibly the early Earth.

  10. Enthalpy of cooperative hydrogen bonding in complexes of tertiary amines with aliphatic alcohols: Calorimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Solution enthalpies of aliphatic alcohols in tertiary amines and vice versa were measured. → The enthalpies of specific interaction of amines in aliphatic alcohols are lower than the enthalpies of hydrogen bonding in 1:1 complexes amine-alcohol determined in base media. → Hydrogen bond cooperativity factors in multi-particle complexes of alcohols with aromatic amines are approximately equal for all alcohols. → Hydrogen bond cooperativity factors in multi-particle complexes of alcohols with trialkylamines decrease with increasing of alkyl radical length in alcohol and amine molecules. - Abstract: The work is devoted to the investigation of thermodynamics of specific interaction of the tertiary aliphatic and aromatic amines with associated solvents as which aliphatic alcohols were taken. Solution enthalpies of aliphatic alcohols in amines (tri-n-propylamine, 2-methylpyridine, 3-methylpyridine, N-methylimidazole) as well as amines in alcohols were measured at infinite dilution. The enthalpies of specific interaction (H-bonding) in systems studied were determined based on experimental data. The enthalpies of specific interaction of amines in aliphatic alcohols significantly lower than the enthalpies of hydrogen bonding in complexes amine-alcohol of 1:1 composition determined in base media due to the reorganization of aliphatic alcohols as solvents. The determination of solvent reorganization contribution makes possible to define the hydrogen bonding enthalpies of amines with clusters of alcohols. Obtained enthalpies of hydrogen bonding in multi-particle complexes are sensitive to the influence of cooperative effect. It was shown, that hydrogen bond cooperativity factors in multi-particle complexes of alcohols with amines are approximately equal for all alcohols when pyridines and N-methylimidazole as solutes are used. At the same time, H-bonding cooperativity factors in complexes of trialkylamines with associative species of alcohols

  11. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas

  12. Emulsification of crude oil by an alkane-oxidizing Rhodococcus species isolated from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredholt, H.; Bruheim, P.; Eimhjellen, K. [Norwegian Univ. of Scince and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Josefsen, K.; Vatland, A. [SINTEF SI, Oslo (Norway). Industrial Chemistry Div.

    1998-04-01

    A Rhodococcus species, which has proven to be the best of 99 oil-emulsifying bacteria isolated from seawater, was characterized. This bacterium produced very stable oil-in-water emulsions from different crude oils with various content of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, by utilizing C{sub 1}1 and C{sub 3}3 n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. Bacteria that produce stable emulsions are often able to adhere strongly to hydrocarbons or hydrophobic surfaces. It was at these surfaces that extensive emulsification of the residual oil and accumulation of acidic oxidation products occurred. The acidic products were consumed in a second step. This step was characterized by linear growth and an increasing number of cells growing in the water phase. The most extensive emulsification occurred at the end of the exponential phase. There was no evidence of surfactants at the end of the exponential phase, however, a polymeric compound with emulsifying activity, tightly bound to the oil droplets, was isolated, suggesting that the emulsification resulted from the release of the hydrophobic cell surface discarded during growth limitations. 38 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Inhibitory activity of compounds isolated from Polymnia sonchifolia on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus Produção de aflatoxina por Aspergillus flavus é inibida por compostos isolados de Polymnia sonchifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pak

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymnia sonchifolia, commonly known as ";yacon";, was originally cultivated at Andes moutains in South America. Recently, the specie attracted worldwide attention because of its wide range of uses, for example in the control of diabetes melitus, besides the antifungal and pesticidal compounds were found in the leaves. This study describes the identification of two flavonoids: 3', 5, 7 trihydroxy-3, 4'-dimethoxyflavone (compound 1 and 3', 4', 5- trihydroxy-7-methoxy flavanone (compound 2 and two sesquiterpenes lactones: enhydrin (compound 3 and a mixture of enhydrin and uvedalin (compound 4 isolated from Polymnia sonchifolia leaves and their effects on the aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus. The identification of the compounds were achieved by ¹H and 13C NMR. All compounds were tested in different concentration, to evaluate the growth of Aspergillus flavus culture and the production of aflatoxin. The compound 1, at the concentration 15 mug/mL, inhibited 25% of the aflatoxin B1 production (pPolymnia sonchifolia, conhecida como "Yacon", e originária da cordilheira dos Andes, sendo muito conhecida devido ao uso de seu tubérculo no controle da Diabetes melitus. Suas folhas podem conter compostos com atividade antifúngica e pesticida, pois não é necessário o uso destes produtos no seu cultivo. Neste trabalho descrevemos a identificação da estrutura química de dois flavonóides isolados das folhas de Polymnia sonchifolia: 3', 5, 7 trihydroxy-3, 4'-dimethoxyflavone (composto 1 e 3',4',5-trihidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona (composto 2 e de duas lactonas sesquiterpenicas: enidrina (composto 3 e uma mistura de enidrina e uvedalina (composto 4, bem como seus efeitos na produção de aflatoxinas por Aspergillus flavus. A identificação dos compostos foi realizada por RMN 13C e ¹H. Todos os compostos foram testados em diversas concentrações em cultura de Aspergillus flavus para avaliar o crescimento e a produção de aflatoxina. O composto 1

  14. New pyranoflavones and trypanocidal activity of compounds isolated from Conchocarpus heterophyllus; Piranoflavonas ineditas e atividades tripanocidas das substancias isoladas de Conchocarpus heterophyllus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrozin, Alessandra Regina Pepe; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.br; Albuquerque, Sergio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of trypanocidal extracts from leaves and stems of Conchocarpus heterophyllus (A. St.-Hil.) Kallunki and Pirani (Rutaceae) afforded new pyranoflavones along with the known compounds flavone, 7-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone, haplotusine, 1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone alkaloid, {beta}sitosterol, stigmasterol, and {beta}-sitosteryl benzoate. Their structures were established based on their spectral data. NMR data for the alkaloid haplotusine and the new pyranoflavones are described for the first time herein. These compounds were assayed on the tripomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among them, haplotusine and 1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone showed moderate values of IC{sub 50} 136.9 and 144.9 {mu}M, respectively. (author)

  15. Piranoflavonas inéditas e atividades tripanocidas das substâncias isoladas de conchocarpus heterophyllus New pyranoflavones and trypanocidal activity of compounds isolated from Conchocarpus heterophyllus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Regina Pepe Ambrozin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of trypanocidal extracts from leaves and stems of Conchocarpus heterophyllus (A. St.-Hil. Kallunki & Pirani (Rutaceae afforded new pyranoflavones along with the known compounds flavone, 7-methoxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone, haplotusine, 1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone alkaloid, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosteryl benzoate. Their structures were established based on their spectral data. NMR data for the alkaloid haplotusine and the new pyranoflavones are described for the first time herein. These compounds were assayed on the tripomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among them, haplotusine and 1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone showed moderate values of IC50 136.9 and 144.9 mM, respectively.

  16. Study of Cgrp-Receptors in Human Isolated Middle Meningeal Arteries Using Bibn4096Bs, Compound 1, and HαCgrp(8-37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Razzaque

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcitonin, CGRP, adrenomedullin, and amylin require both CRLR (calcitonin-gene receptor like receptor and receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3 in different combinations for expression of selective, functional receptors[1]. We investigated whether the antagonists BIBN4096BS[2], Compound 1 (WO98/11128, [3], and CGRP(8-37 are functionally selective for CGRP receptors in human middle meningeal arteries (HMMA.

  17. Pycnogenol, a compound isolated from the bark of pinus maritime mill, attenuates ventilator-induced lung injury through inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, YF; Zhang, JH; Xu, ZF; Deng, XM

    2015-01-01

    Background: During mechanical ventilation, high end-inspiratory lung volume results in a permeability type pulmonary oedema, called ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The pathophysiology of ventilator-induced lung injury involves multiple mechanisms, such as excessive inflammation. And pycnogenol is a mixture of flavonoid compounds extracted from pine tree bark that have anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: We investigated the effects of pyncogenol on ventilator-induced lung injury in r...

  18. Polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles for isolation and enrichment of estrogenic compounds from surface water samples followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; La Barbera, Giorgia; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-06-01

    Estrogens, phytoestrogens, and mycoestrogens may enter into the surface waters from different sources, such as effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants, industrial plants, and animal farms and runoff from agricultural areas. In this work, a multiresidue analytical method for the determination of 17 natural estrogenic compounds, including four steroid estrogens, six mycoestrogens, and seven phytoestrogens, in river water samples has been developed. (Fe3O4)-based magnetic nanoparticles coated by polydopamine (Fe3O4@pDA) were used for dispersive solid-phase extraction, and the final extract was analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by a co-precipitation procedure, coated by pDA, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The sample preparation method was optimized in terms of extraction recovery, matrix effect, selectivity, trueness, precision, method limits of detection, and method limits of quantification (MLOQs). For all the 17 analytes, recoveries were >70 % and matrix effects were below 30 % when 25 mL of river water sample was treated with 90 mg of Fe3O4@pDA nanoparticles. Selectivity was tested by spiking river water samples with 50 other compounds (mycotoxins, antibacterials, conjugated hormones, UV filters, alkylphenols, etc.), and only aflatoxins and some benzophenones showed recoveries >60 %. This method proved to be simple and robust and allowed the determination of natural estrogenic compounds belonging to different classes in surface waters with MLOQs ranging between 0.003 and 0.1 μg L(-1). Graphical Abstract Determination of natural estrogenic compounds in water by magnetic solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:27032407

  19. Inhibition of toxic actions of phospholipase A2 isolated & characterized from the Indian Banded Krait (Bungarus fasciatus) venom by synthetic herbal compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Antony; Bhattacharya, Shamik; Mukherjee, Sanghamitra; Inn-ho-Tsai,; Gomes, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is one of the major constituents of krait venom associated with several pathophysiological actions like myotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, etc. As there was no specific antiserum available against Bungarus fasciatus venom, this study was done with synthetic herbal compounds, anti PLA2 rabbit antiserum and commercial polyvalent snake venom antiserum to neutralize the PLA2 induced toxicities in experimental models. Methods: B. fasciatus ...

  20. Flavonolignoids and other compounds isolated from Mimosa artemisiana Heringer and Paula; Flavonoides e outros compostos isolados de Mimosa artemisiana Heringer e Paula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ildomar Alves do [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Mathias, Leda [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPPN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais; Fonseca, Fabio de Alcantara [Instituto Estadual de Florestas (IEF), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This the first phytochemical investigation of Mimosa artemisiana (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) describing the isolation and identification of quercitrin, myricitrin, 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone (6,7-dimethylkaempferol), flavolignans, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, lupeol, sitostenone, stigmastenone, campestenone, sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, methyl indole-3-carboxylate and indole-3-carboxaldehyde in the extracts from the leaves and wood of this plant. This is the first registry of 6,7-dimethoxy,4'-hydroxy-flavone and the flavonolignans in this genera. The isolation of all metabolites was made by chromatographic methods and the structures were established on the basis of IR, MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra analysis, comparison with literature data and GC-MS of mixtures analysis. (author)

  1. Preparative isolation and purification of seven compounds from Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves by two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Zhuoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven compounds from Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves were first successfully achieved by two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography with two-phase solvent system composed of n-butanol-ethyl acetate-water (1:6:9, v/v/v and n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:5:3:5, v/v/v/v/. The critical experimental parameters of first-step separation were optimized with response surface methodology as follows: flow rate was 1.1 mL/min, revolution speed was 800 rpm and temperature was 30°C. Under the optimal conditions, around 5.0 mg of salicylic acid, 13.6 mg of rutin, 5.5 mg of genistein were obtained in 100 mg crude sample. Then, 9.2 mg of potengriffioside A, 4.7 mg of kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, 3.0 mg of steppogenin and 2.5 mg of emodin were obtained by second-step separation. The purities of the seven compounds determined by UPLC were 96.2%, 93.8%, 95.4%, 94.3%, 98.0%, 94.1% and 90.8%, respectively. Their chemical structures were identified by electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS and 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Furthermore, compound steppogenin and genistein were first reported from Hibiscus mutabilis L. The purification method was simple, efficient and evaded tedious separation process.

  2. Fenton process for degradation of selected chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons exemplified by trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene and chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimin QIANG; Weiwei BEN; ChinPao HUANG

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of selected chlorinated ali-phatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) exemplified by trichloroethy-lene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE), and chloroform (CF) was investigated with Fenton oxidation process. The results indicate that the degradation rate was primarily affected by the chemical structures of organic contami-nants. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) preferred to attack the organic contaminants with an electron-rich structure such as chlorinated alkenes (i.e., TCE and DCE). The dosing mode of Fenton's reagent, particularly of Fe2+, significantly affected the degradation efficiency of studied organic compound. A new "time-squared" kinetic model, C = Coexp(-kobst2), was developed to express the degrada-tion kinetics of selected CAHs. This model was applicable to TCE and DCE, but inapplicable to CF due to their varied reaction rate constants towards ·OH. Chloride release was monitored to examine the degree of dechlorina- tion during the oxidation of selected CAHs. TCE was more easily dechlorinated than DCE and CF. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) was identified as the major reaction intermediate in the oxidation of TCE, which could be completely removed as the reaction proceeded. No reaction intermedi- ates or byproducts were identified in the oxidation of DCE and CF. Based on the identified intermediate, the reaction mechanism of TCE with Fenton's reagent was proposed.

  3. Close correlation between heat shock response and cytotoxicity in Neurospora crassa treated with aliphatic alcohols and phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, U.; Schweim, P.; Fracella, F.; Rensing, L. [Univ. of Bremen (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    In Neurospora crassa the aliphatic alcohols methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, and allyl alcohol and the phenolic compounds phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, sodium salicylate, and acetylsalicylic acid were analyzed with respect to their capacities to induce heat shock proteins (HSP) and to inhibit protein synthesis. Both the alcohols and phenols showed the greatest levels of HSP induction at concentrations which inhibited the overall protein synthesis by about 50%. The abilities of the different alcohols to induce the heat shock response are proportional to their lipophilicities: the lipophilic alcohol isobutanol is maximally inductive at about 0.6 M, whereas the least lipophilic alcohol, methanol, causes maximal induction at 5.7 M. The phenols, in general, show a higher capability to induce the heat shock response. The concentrations for maximal induction range between 25 mM (sodium salicylate) and 100 mM (resorcinol). Glycerol (4.1 M) shifted the concentration necessary for maximal HSP induction by hydroquinone from 50 to 200 mM. The results reveal that the induction of HSP occurs under conditions which considerably constrain cell metabolism. The heat shock response, therefore, does not represent a sensitive marker for toxicity tests but provides a good estimate for the extent of cell damage.

  4. STRUCTURAL PHASE TRANSITION OF ALIPHATIC NYLONS VIEWED FROM THE WAXD/SAXS AND VIBRATIONAL SPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS AND MOLECULAR DYNAMICS CALCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kohji Tashiro

    2007-01-01

    The crystalline phase transition of aliphatic nylon 10/10 has been investigated on the basis of the simultaneous measurement of wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scatterings, the infrared spectral measurement and the molecular dynamics calculation. An interpretation of infrared spectra taken for a series of nylon samples and the corresponding model compounds was successfully made, allowing us to assign the infrared bands of the planar-zigzag methylene segments reasonably. As a result the methylene segmental parts of molecular chains were found to experience an order-to-disorder transition in the Brill transition region, where the intermolecular hydrogen bonds are kept alive although the bond strength becomes weaker at higher temperature. The small-angle X-ray scattering data revealed a slight change in lamellar stacking mode in the transition region. The crystal structure has been found to change more remarkably in the temperature region immediately below the melting point, where the conformationally disordered chains experienced drastic rotational and translational motions without any constraints by hydrogen bonds, and the lamellar thickness increased largely along the chain axis. These experimental results were reasonably reproduced by the molecular dynamics calculation performed at the various temperatures.

  5. Tuning different kinds of entangled metal-organic frameworks by modifying the spacer group of aliphatic dicarboxylate ligands and the reactant ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Xia; Zhai, Ji-Quan; Zhang, Xin; Qin, Ye-Yan; Yao, Yuan-Gen

    2016-01-14

    Taking advantage of the conformational flexibility of the bpp ligand and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, six interesting entangled coordination polymers, {[Cd(fum)(bpp)(H2O)]·(H2O)}n (), {[Cd(fum)(bpp)2]·(H2O)5}n (), {[Cd2(suc)1.5(bpp)2(NO3)(H2O)2]·6H2O}n (), {[Cd(suc)(bpp)2]·(H2O)1.5}n (), {[Cd2(glu)2(bpp)3]·10H2O}n (), and {Cd(adp)(bpp)(H2O)}n () have been prepared and structurally characterized (bpp = 1,3-bi(4-pyridyl)propane, fum = fumaric, suc = succinate, glu = glutaric, adp = adipic). Compounds and are comprised of undulated 2D 4(4)-sql networks. In the structure of compound , two identical undulated layers are parallelly interpenetrated with each other to give a 2D → 2D interpenetrating framework. For , the dangling arms projected from 2D layers are intercalated into the neighboring sheets, producing a 2D → 3D polythreading framework. Compound shows a rare example of a 2D self-penetrating framework with a (3,4)-connected (4(2)·6(3)·8)(4(2)·6) topology. Compound presents an unusual 2D self-threading network with a novel 4-connected {4(2)·6(3)·8} topology. Compound displays a 3D self-penetrating system based on a 2D → 3D parallel polycatenation array. Compound exhibits an unprecedented 3D self-penetrating structure having both 1D + 1D → 1D polycatenation and 3D + 3D → 3D interpenetration characteristics. A comparison of these six compounds demonstrates that both the different spacer lengths of the aliphatic dicarboxylates and reactant ratios appear to play a significant role in the assembly of entangled frameworks. In addition, thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties of have been examined in the solid state at room temperature. PMID:26621568

  6. Effect of fractionated extracts and isolated pure compounds of Spondias mombin (L. Anacardiaceae) leaves on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoka, Abiodun O; Owolabi, Rotimi A; Bamitale, Samuel K; Akomolafe, Rufus O; Aladesanmi, Joseph A; Ukponmwan, Eghe O

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to elucidate the neurotransmitter systems involved in the neurophysiological properties of ethanolic extract, fractions and pure isolates of Spondias mombin leaves in mice (n = 6) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) route of administration.The crude ethanolic extract of Spondian mombin leaves was fractionated using the partitioning method to obtain the ethylacetate, butanolic and aqueous fractions. Open column chromatographic fractionation of the ethylacetate fraction yielded seven sub-fractions, out of which the pure coumaroyl, quercetin and gallic acid derivatives were obtained after purification on Sephadex LH 20. The ethanolic extract, butanolic fraction, ethylacetate subfractions and pure isolates of the Spondian mombin leaves were tested on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice with standard pharmacological tools using the open field method. The extract and its fractions decreased novelty-induced rearing in a dose-dependent manner. While the Coumaroyl derivative had no effect on novelty-induced rearing, it significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of yohimbine, propranolol and haloperidol on novelty-induced rearing. Quercetin significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone significantly potentiated the quercetin-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing. Gallic acid derivative significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone, atropine and haloperidol pretreatments significantly potentiated gallic acid derivative-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing.The extract and its fractions had biphasic effect on novelty-induced grooming in mice. Coumaroyl derivative significantly increased novelty-induced grooming, while quercetin and gallic acid derivative decreased novelty-induced grooming significantly. The three pure isolates significantly reversed the effects of yohimbine and atropine on the novelty-induced grooming in

  7. Dependence of negative muon depolarization on molecular weight and temperature in organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atomic capture of negative muons in the aliphatic spirit series, the dependence of muon rest polarization on the molecular weight of spirit have been studied. The temperature dependence of depolarization in benzole and styrene has been obtained. The results on depolarization are being interpreted basing on notions about chemical interactions of mesic atoms in organic compounds. (author)

  8. Electrospun Polyurethane Fibers for Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.; Bromberg, L.; Rutledge, G.C.; Hatton, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Electrospun polyurethane fibers for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air with rapid VOC absorption and desorption have been developed. Polyurethanes based on 4,4-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and aliphatic isophorone diisocyanate as the hard segments and butanediol and tetrame

  9. 添加大豆分离蛋白对羊乳干酪风味物质的影响%Influence of soy protein isolate addition to volatile compounds of goat milk cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝敏; 杜金华; 吴晓英

    2013-01-01

    In this study,with the addition of different proportion (0,4% and 10% m/m) of fresh goat milk and Soy protein isolate (SPI),high concentration direct-set lactic bacterial including Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc,and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp.Shermanii were used as the raw material,main culture and secondary culture,respectively,to make goat milk and SPI mixed cheese.Volatile compounds of the cheese were enriched by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and determined by GC/MS after the cheese maturation.The influence of SPI to volatile compounds of cheese was studied and the appropriate ratio of SPI addition was determined.The result indicated that the major volatile compounds of cheese were acid compounds,following the ketone,alcohol,aldehyde,and ester compounds.SPI addition reduced the contents of acid and ketone compounds of cheese significantly and increased the contents of alcohol compounds.The complexity of the cheese flavor was enhanced when SPI addition was 4%,with a rich cream,butter aroma and less special flavor of goat milk,phenol and pyrrole compounds appeared as well.%以新鲜羊乳为原料,直投式乳酸菌混合菌种为主发酵剂,费氏丙酸杆菌为次级发酵剂,添加不同比例(0、4%、10% m/m)大豆分离蛋白(soy protein isolate,SPI)制作混合型干酪.完全成熟之后利用固相微萃取(SPME)萃取富集干酪挥发性物质、气相色谱-质谱联用(GC/MS)检测干酪风味物质.以研究添加大豆分离蛋白对干酪风味物质的影响,确定适宜添加比例.实验结果表明:干酪中主要风味物质是酸类,其次是酮,醇,醛,酯类化合物;添加大豆分离蛋白使干酪中酸类、酮类化合物种类及含量明显减少;醇类化合物增加.大豆分离蛋白添加比为4%时,干酪有浓郁的奶香及黄油香气,羊乳膻味减少,并检出苯酚、吡咯等化合物,提高了干酪风味物质种类的丰富性.

  10. Genetic Characterization of Fungi Isolated from the Environmental Swabs collected from a Compounding Center Known to Cause Multistate Meningitis Outbreak in United States Using ITS Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad M. Sulaiman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A multistate fungal meningitis outbreak started in September of 2012 which spread in 20 states of the United States. The outbreak has been fatal so far, and has affected 751 individuals with 64 deaths among those who received contaminated spinal injections manufactured by a Compounding Center located in Massachusetts. In a preliminary study, Food and Drug Administration (FDA investigated the outbreak in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, state and local health departments, and identified four fungal and several bacterial contaminations in the recalled unopened injection vials. This follow-up study was carried out to assess DNA sequencing of the ITS1 region of rRNA gene for rapid identification of fungal pathogens during public health outbreak investigations. A total of 26 environmental swabs were collected from several locations at the manufacturing premises of the Compounding Center known to have caused the outbreak. The swab samples were initially examined by conventional microbiologic protocols and a wide range of fungal species were recovered. Species-identification of these microorganisms was accomplished by nucleotide sequencing of ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed 14 additional fungal species in the swabs analyzed.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Two Novel Attractant Compounds from Chinese Cockroach (Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker by Combination of HSCCC, NMR and CD Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hextane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:1:1.5:1, v/v/v/v was applied to the isolation and purification of attractants from Chinese cockroach, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. Two new attractants with attractant activity towards the male insects were obtained from the extract sample in a one-step separation. Their purities were determined by HPLC. Subsequent MS, NMR and CD analyses have led to the characterization of (R-3-ethyl-6,8-dihydroxy-7-methyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (1 and (R-6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (2, two novel isocumarin type attractants. Based on these results, it is concluded that HSCCC is a viable separation method option for purifying insect attractants, while effectively maintaining the attracting activity of the isolates. This is the first attempt to apply counter-current chromatography technique to separate attractants from Chinese cockroach.

  12. Bacterias marinas productoras de compuestos antibacterianos aisladas a partir de invertebrados intermareales Marine bacteria producing antibacterial compounds Isolated from inter-tidal invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó actividades prospectivas de muestreo de invertebrados intermareales en la Bahía de Ancón (Lima - Perú con el objetivo de seleccionar bacterias marinas productoras de sustancias antimicrobianas. El estudio comprendió el aislamiento de bacterias en agar marino, pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro y observaciones de microscopía electrónica. Se reporta el aislamiento, caracterización fenotípica y propiedades antimicrobianas de diez cepas de bacterias marinas que incluyen a los géneros Vibrio, Pseudomonas y Flavobacterium y del orden Actinomycetal que inhiben a patógenos de humanos. Los resultados indicarían que los invertebrados marinos serían fuentes de bacterias productoras de sustancias antibióticas.Prospective sampling activities of intertidal invertebrates in the Ancon Bay (Lima, Peru were done in order to select marine bacteria producing antimicrobial substances. The study included the isolation of bacteria in marine agar, in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing and electronic microscopic observations. We report the isolation, phenotypical characterization and antimicrobial properties of 10 strains of marine bacteria including the genus Vibrio, Pseudomonas, and Flavobacterium, and the order Actinomycetae that inhibit human pathogens. The results indicate that the marine invertebrates would be sources of bacteria producing antibiotic substances.

  13. Biodegradation of Aliphatic-aromatic Coplyester under Thermophilic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradation of poly (tetramethylene adipate-co-tetramethylene terephthalate (BTA-copolyester as synthetic polyester was investigated under thermophilic conditions. Two efficient BTA degrading actinomycetes were isolated from compost at thermophilic phase. These strains were identified as Thermobifida fusca and Thermobispora bispora. The degradation rate for BTA films within 7 days was 17.12 and 16.96 mg/week.cm2 by T. fusca and T. bispora, respectively. The optimum BTA40:60 degradation conditions are obtained as pH7 and 55°C. The both strains exhibited a wider substrate spectrum as they are able to degrade synthetic polyesters (BTA40:60, PCL-S MaterBi ZF03U/A and natural polymers (poly-&beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB and carboxymethyl cellulose. It was shown that the extracellular hydrolyases activity from the both strains was induced in the presence of BTA-copolyester, while the presence of additional carbon sources such as glucose or a complex medium suppressed enzyme formation. Tributyrin as triglycerides was degraded by the both crude concentrated BTA-hydrolases. In contrast the enzyme was not capable to depolymerize the natural polymers PHB and carboxymethyl cellulose, although the organism itself degraded both types of polymers. The obtained results showed that the degradation rate with T. fusca BTA40:60-hydrolase was 3.67 mg/day.cm2 and was 3.5 mg/day.cm2 with T. bispora BTA40:60-hydrolase. The pH optimum for BTA-hydrolases was 7 with 20 and 100 mM phosphate buffer and it was 6 with 150 mM citrate buffer. Finally, it could be concluded that actinomycetes and their hydrolases play an outstanding role in recycling of biodegradable plastics under thermophilic phase during composting process.

  14. Self-assembly of short peptides composed of only aliphatic amino acids and a combination of aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbalakshmi, Chilukuri; Manorama, Sunkara V; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2012-05-01

    The morphology of structures formed by the self-assembly of short N-terminal t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) and C-terminal methyl ester (OMe) protected and Boc-deprotected hydrophobic peptide esters was investigated. We have observed that Boc-protected peptide esters composed of either only aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids or aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids in combination with aromatic amino acids, formed highly organized structures, when dried from methanol solutions. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic images of the peptides Boc-Ile-Ile-OMe, Boc-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ile-Ile-OMe and Boc-Trp-Ile-Ile-OMe showed nanotubular structures. Removal of the Boc group resulted in disruption of the ability to form tubular structures though spherical aggregates were formed. Both Boc-Leu-Ile-Ile-OMe and H-Leu-Ile-Ile-OMe formed only spherical nanostructures. Dynamic light scattering studies showed that aggregates of varying dimensions were present in solution suggesting that self-assembly into ordered structures is facilitated by aggregation in solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy data show that although all four of the protected peptides adopt well-defined tertiary structures, upon removal of the Boc group, only H-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ile-Ile-OMe had the ability to adopt β-structure. Our results indicate that hydrophobic interaction is a very important determinant for self-assembly and presence of charged and aromatic amino acids in a peptide is not necessary for self-assembly. PMID:22431418

  15. A study of aliphatic amino acids using simulated vibrational circular dichroism and Raman optical activity spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Aravindhan; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Vibrational optical activity (VOA) spectra, such as vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra, of aliphatic amino acids are simulated using density functional theory (DFT) methods in both gas phase (neutral form) and solution (zwitterionic form), together with their respective infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of the amino acids. The DFT models, which are validated by excellent agreements with the available experimental Raman and ROA spectra of alanine in solution, are employed to study other aliphatic amino acids. The inferred (IR) intensive region (below 2000 cm-1) reveals the signature of alkyl side chains, whereas the Raman intensive region (above 3000 cm-1) contains the information of the functional groups in the amino acids. Furthermore, the chiral carbons of the amino acids (except for glycine) dominate the VCD and ROA spectra in the gas phase, but the methyl group vibrations produce stronger VCD and ROA signals in solution. The C-H related asymmetric vibrations domina...

  16. Aliphatic C-H---Anion Hydrogen Bonds: Weak Contacts or Strong Interactions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Pedzisa, Lee [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations, MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ, are used to determine C H---Cl hydrogen bond energies for a series of XCH3 donor groups in which the electron-withdrawing ability of X is varied over a wide range of values. When attached to polarizing substituents, aliphatic CH groups are moderate to strong hydrogen bond donors, exhibiting interaction energies comparable to those obtained with O H and N H groups. The results explain why aliphatic C H donors are observed to function as competitive binding sites in solution and suggest that such C H---anion contacts should be considered as possible contributors when evaluating the denticity of an anion receptor.

  17. Determination of aliphatic organic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Gatta, Maria

    2002-01-01

    A new ion exclusion HPLC procedure accomplished with a pulsed electrochemical detection for the determination of several common aliphatic acids is described. A triple-step waveform of the applied potentials, based on the formation/inhibition of PtOH species on the electrode surface, is successfully used for sensitive detection of several aliphatic acids in flowing systems avoiding pre- or postcolumn derivatization and/or cleanup procedures. Under optimal chromatographic conditions (i.e., 50 mM HClO(4)) the proposed method allowed detection limits between 0.5 and 7 microM for all investigated acids, and the dynamic linear range spanned generally over 1 or 2 orders of magnitude. Determination of citric, malic, tartaric, lactic, formic, and acetic acids in several foods and beverages was performed, in approximately 15 min, without the necessity of any sample pretreatment. PMID:11754537

  18. Study on Aromatization of C6 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons on ZRP Zeolite Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongjun; Xie Chaogang

    2004-01-01

    The performance of ZRP zeolite catalysts for aromatization of C6 aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a pulsed microreactor. The influence of metal modified ZRP zeolites on aromatization reaction was also studied, coupled with comparison of aromatization tendencies of olefins, paraffins and paraffins with different degrees of chain branching. Test results had shown that the lower the silicon/aluminum ratio in the ZRP zeolite, the higher the aromatization reactivity of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Modification of ZRP zeolite by zinc and its zinc content had apparent impact on the yield and distribution of aromatics. The aromatization tendency of olefins was apparently better than paraffins, while the aromatization tendency of monomethyl paraffins was better than that of straight-chain paraffins with the exception of dimethyl paraffins, which had worse aromatization tendency because of their steric hindrance.

  19. High-pH anion-exchange chromatographic analysis of phosphorylated compounds: application to isolation and characterization of nonpeptide mycobacterial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquet, Y; Constant, P; Peyrat, M A; Poupot, R; Halary, F; Bonneville, M; Fournié, J J

    1996-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive high-pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) method for the separation and quantification of phosphorylated antigens in mycobacterial extracts has been developed. This method provides the separation of mono-, di-, or triphosphonucleotides and of various other phosphorylated molecules. Dual detection by conductimetry and UV absorption downstream of a chemical suppressor constitute nondegradative and highly sensitive tools for the physical detection and the quantification of phosphorylated compounds in biological samples. The lower limit of accurate quantification is around 1 nmol per sample. This method was used for the separation of several phosphorylated antigens activating human gamma delta T lymphocytes from semipurified mycobacterial fractions. Their quantification revealed that the minimal concentration activating a gamma delta T cell clone is between 1 and 5 nM. This approach can be used for more general preparative purposes with samples where minute amounts of biologically active phosphoanions are analyzed.

  20. Development and Characterization of Novel Interpenetrating Network (IPN) Foams from Epoxy Ester and Aliphatic Epoxy Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Kanuprasad; Desai, Dhirubhai; Bhuva, Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) was reacted with acrylate monomer at variable molar ratios. The reaction between glycerine and epichlorohydrine form glycidyl ether of polyol aliphatic epoxy resin. The resultant resins were characterized duly. Both the resins were mixed at different ratios with constant high shear stirring. The obtained mixture and suitable additives were heated at 150oC for one and half hour. The so called Interpenetrating Network (IPN) transformed into foams. The per...