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Sample records for alimentado con mytilus

  1. ANALISIS SENSORIAL DE CARNE DE CUYES ALIMENTADOS CON DIETAS SUPLEMENTADAS CON HARINA DE PAJURO (Erithrynaedulis) - UNMSM

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, J.; Departamento Académico de Procesos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, UNMSM.; Suca, C.; Departamento Académico de Procesos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, UNMSM.; Suca, F.; Departamento Académico de Análisis y Diseño de Procesos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, UNMSM.; Barbachan, H.; Estudiante de la Escuela Académico Profesional de Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química. UNMSM.

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el análisis sensorial de la carne de cuyes alimentados con dietas suplementadas con diferentes porcentajes de harina de pajuro (Erythrinaedulis). Se llevó a cabo en las instalaciones del galpón de cuyes de la EAP de Ingeniería Agroindustrial de la UNMSM, ubicado en San Juan de Lurigancho.Se empleó un Diseño Completamente al Azar con 3 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones (pozas), considerando3 cuyes por repetición, los cuales fueron distribuidos en forma aleato...

  2. Evaluación del peso de conejos para carne alimentados con diferentes ensilajes

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    Rigoberto Villa-Ramírez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available En la Granja Experimental Bengala, de la Universidad del Quindío, ubicada en el municipio de Filandia, Quindío, se evaluó la ganancia de peso en conejos tipo carne cuando son alimentados con diferentes ensilajes: pasto imperial (Axonopus scoparius, pasto imperial mezclado con botón de oro (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl., pasto imperial con ramio (Boehmeria nivea y pasto imperial con morera (Morus alba. Se valoraron cuatro tratamientos en cuatro grupos de cinco conejos cada uno. Los conejos alimentados con ensilaje de pasto imperial y botón de oro fueron los que obtuvieron el mayor peso (2389 g, en promedio, mientras que los alimentados con solo forrajes frescos obtuvieron un peso promedio de 2021 g. Las fuentes nutricionales que mejor responden en la alimentación de conejos son, en su orden: ensilaje de botón de oro, ensilaje de morera y ensilaje de ramio.

  3. Evaluación del peso de conejos para carne alimentados con diferentes ensilajes

    OpenAIRE

    Rigoberto Villa-Ramírez; Jaime Hurtado-Villegas

    2016-01-01

    En la Granja Experimental Bengala, de la Universidad del Quindío, ubicada en el municipio de Filandia, Quindío, se evaluó la ganancia de peso en conejos tipo carne cuando son alimentados con diferentes ensilajes: pasto imperial (Axonopus scoparius), pasto imperial mezclado con botón de oro (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.), pasto imperial con ramio (Boehmeria nivea) y pasto imperial con morera (Morus alba). Se valoraron cuatro tratamientos en cuatro grupos de cinco conejos cada uno. Los conejos...

  4. Rendimiento de cerdos alimentados con raciones conteniendo subproductos de arroz, durante la fase de crecimiento

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    Victor Hurtado N; Rita Nobre S; Julien Chiquieri

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar el rendimiento de cerdos alimentados con raciones conteniendo subproductos de arroz durante la fase de crecimiento. Materiales y métodos. Fueron utilizados 40 lechones mestizos de 31.26 ± 4.62 kg, distribuidos en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con los siguientes tratamientos 1. Control, ración basal; 2. Ración con 100% de sustitución de maíz por arroz partido; 3. Ración con 50% de sustitución de maíz por arroz partido; 4. 100% de substitución de maíz por harina ...

  5. Cultivo de cianobacterias para la producción de bioplasticos en un fotobioreactor tubular cerrado alimentado con digestado

    OpenAIRE

    Torrado Rufete, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinarán las condiciones optimas de cultivo de cianobacterias para la producción de bioplasticos. Para el desarrollo del cultivo se utilizará un fotobioreactor tubular cerrado alimentado con digestado diluido con agua residual tratada

  6. Rendimiento de cerdos alimentados con raciones conteniendo subproductos de arroz, durante la fase de crecimiento

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    Victor Hurtado N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el rendimiento de cerdos alimentados con raciones conteniendo subproductos de arroz durante la fase de crecimiento. Materiales y métodos. Fueron utilizados 40 lechones mestizos de 31.26 ± 4.62 kg, distribuidos en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con los siguientes tratamientos 1. Control, ración basal; 2. Ración con 100% de sustitución de maíz por arroz partido; 3. Ración con 50% de sustitución de maíz por arroz partido; 4. 100% de substitución de maíz por harina de arroz integral y 5. Ración con 50% de substitución de maíz por harina de arroz integral. Resultados. En todas las fases evaluadas (I, II y fase total fue observado un pobre desempeño de los cerdos alimentados con las raciones conteniendo harina de arroz integral, con efectos negativos más evidentes cuando el maíz fue totalmente sustituido por este subproducto (1.467 kg de consumo diario de ración y 0.512 kg de ganancia diaria de peso. La sustitución total o parcial de maíz por arroz partido no afectó el desempeño de los cerdos en crecimiento (1.681 y 1.733 kg de consumo diario de ración y 0.703 y 0.708 kg de ganancia de peso respectivamente. La peor conversión alimenticia (2.87 fue obtenida con la sustitución total del maíz por harina de arroz integral. Conclusiones. El maíz puede ser substituido en 100% en raciones para cerdos en crecimiento por arroz partido y en 50% por harina de arroz integral sin perjudicar La ganancia de peso, el consumo de ración y La conversión alimenticia.

  7. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS GENOTIPOS DE CUYES (Cavia porcellus) ALIMENTADOS CON CONCENTRADO Y EXCLUSIÓN DE FORRAJE VERDE.

    OpenAIRE

    Camino M., Javier; Departamento de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima.; Hidalgo L., Víctor; Departamento de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima.

    2014-01-01

    El estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los parámetros productivos y el porcentaje de grasa en la carcasa de dos genotipos de cuyes (Cavia porcellus) alimentados por nueve semanas con dos tipos de dieta. Se utilizó el diseño estadístico completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2x2, teniendo como factores dos genotipos (Cieneguilla-UNALM y Perú-INIA) y dos tipos de dietas (dieta 1: alimento balanceado, forraje verde y agua; dieta 2: alimento balanceado más vitamina C y agua), y se evaluó el p...

  8. Bioenergética de juveniles de langosta de quelas rojas, Cherax quadricarinatus, alimentados con dos dietas artificiales

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio Díaz-Iglesias; Víctor Meza Castillo; Marysabel Báez-Hidalgo; Ana Denise Re-Araujo; Antonio Silva-Loera

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó la respuesta metabólica de juveniles de langosta australiana de quelas rojas, Cherax quadricarinatus, alimentados con dos dietas artificiales (Rangen con 35% de proteína y Cherax1 con 32% de proteína de sustrato vegetal), aclimatados a la temperatura preferida de 28 ºC en un respirómetro dinámico, midiendo el consumo de oxígeno y la excreción amoniacal durante el ayuno y la alimentación, y determinándose además la mortalidad y el crecimiento. La energía consumida por los juveniles e...

  9. Ganancia de peso de ovinos alimentados con pasto Taiwán (Pennisetum purpureum suplementados con diversas fuentes de proteína

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    R. González-Garduño

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue conocer la ganancia diaria de peso (gdp y estimar el consumo de pasto Taiwán en ovinos suplementados con diferentes fuentes de proteína. Se realizaron tres estudios, en el primero, se utilizó pasta de coco (pcoco (Cocus nucifera y pcoco + bloques multinutricionales (bmn que se proporcionaron a siete corderos, respectivamente, en el segundo, se proporcionó un alimento balanceado comercial a un grupo de ocho corderos y se suplementó con pcoco a otros ocho animales, y en el tercero, se suplementó con chícharo Gandul (cgandul (Cajanus cajan a cuatro hembras y cuatro machos y con pcoco a otros dos grupos similares. La investigación se realizó en Salto de Agua, Chiapas, México. Se registró el consumo diario por grupo y cada quince días se registró el peso vivo. El análisis estadístico de gdp se realizó con el procedimiento mixed del sas. Las gdp fueron mayores en el grupo con bmn (0.082± 0.06 kg respecto al sin el bmn (0.045 ± 0.09 kg. La gdp de los corderos alimentados con pcoco fue 0.09 ± 0.02 Kg y los alimentados con pasto Taiwán + pcoco tuvieron 0.06 ± 0.03 Kg. Los corderos machos suplementados con pcoco tuvieron mejor gdp (0.09 ± 0.03 Kg que machos y hembras suplementados con cgandul (0.03 ± 0.02 y 0.04 ± 0.02 Kg, respectivamente. El consumo se incrementó con la edad de los animales y mostró gran variación entre días. La suplementación con pcoco y bmn permiten incrementar las ganancias de peso de corderos estabulados.

  10. Productividad y eficiencia de uso de nitrógeno y energía en pollos de engorda alimentados con pasta de soya o pasta de canola

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    Sergio Gómez Rosales; María de Lourdes Angeles; Ericka Ramírez Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Se realizaron dos experimentos de sacrificio para evaluar el crecimiento, contenido y deposición de tejidos y retención de proteína y energía en la carne de la canal en pollos en crecimiento alimentados con pasta de canola (PCAN) en sustitución de pasta de soya (PSOY). En el Exp 1, seis pollos machos, de 43 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 36 pollos fueron asignados a tres dietas con cantidades crecientes de PCAN (0, 10 y 20 %) combinadas con dos niveles de lisina digestible (LD: 0.8...

  11. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial

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    Poblete Pérez Cecilia Eva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH deavena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desiertoen el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez díasdespués de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseñocompletamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH deavena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadasy sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, gananciade peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kgMS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, pesode la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P ≤ 0.05 el consumo de alimento,tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio, peso vivo final y rendimiento de la canal, haciendo posible su uso comorecurso forrajero alternativo en la alimentación de conejos en etapa de engorde en condiciones de desierto.

  12. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial

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    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P < 0.05 el consumo de alimento, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio, peso vivo final y rendimiento de la canal, haciendo posible su uso como recurso forrajero alternativo en la alimentación de conejos en etapa de engorde en condiciones de desierto.

  13. Comportamiento productivo de reproductoras porcinas alimentados con follaje fresco de Morus alba. IIndicadores reproductivos

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    Contino Yuván; Ojeda Félix ; Herrera Rafael ; Altunaga Nancy; Pérez Guadalupe.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar el consumo, larespuesta productiva y reproductiva de cerdas mestizas al emplear elfollaje de morera fresca (hojas y tallos tiernos como sustituto parcial del concentrado comercial y su repercusión en la salud de las crías. Las investigaciones se efectuaron en el Módulo de Investigación-Producción Porcina de la EEPF ”Indio Hatuey”. Se realizó una experiencia con 10 reproductoras en diferentes estados reproductivos alimentadas a voluntad con morera fresca, para determinar el consumo; y otra evaluación con reproductoras en el último tercio de la gestación que consumían morera, a voluntad para comparar sus indicadores productivos y de salud de las crías con respecto a un grupo control que no consumió el follaje fresco. Sedeterminaron los siguientes indicadores: Cantidad de cerdos nacidos, crías vivas y muertas a las 48 horas, peso al nacimiento y a los 10 días posparto,peso total de la camada al nacimiento y a los 10 días post-parto, peso al destete, porcentaje de viabilidad y de mortalidad a las 48 horas, número de crías con diarreas a las 48 horas. Para el procesamiento se empleó el paquete estadístico SPSS versión 10.1. No hubo diferencias en los índices de consumo entre las diferentes categorías reproductivas. Se obtuvo un incremento en la cantidad de crías nacidas, crías vivas a las 48 horas, en elpeso promedio de la camada, del peso al destete así como en el porcentaje de viabilidad con una disminución en las diarreas de las crías. Los resultados demuestran la factibilidad económica de esta alternativa alimentaria

  14. Crecimiento y desarrollo ruminal en terneros alimentados con iniciador sometido a diferentes procesos.

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Flores, Pamela; Elizondo-Salazar, Jorge Alberto

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del procesamiento del alimento balanceado utilizado en la crianza de terneras, sobre el crecimiento de los animales y el desarrollo ruminal durante el período predestete. Se utilizaron doce terneros Holstein con peso promedio de 38 kg, estos se asignaron aleatoriamente a uno de cuatro tratamientos: alimento en harina, alimento en harina+forraje, alimento peletizado y alimento extruzado. Mediciones de consumo, peso corporal, altura a la c...

  15. CRECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO RUMINAL EN TERNEROS ALIMENTADOS CON INICIADOR SOMETIDO A DIFERENTES PROCESOS

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    Pamela Castro-Flores; Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del procesamiento del alimento balanceado utilizado en la crianza de terneras, sobre el crecimiento de los animales y el desarrollo ruminal durante el período pre-destete. Se utilizaron doce terneros Holstein con peso promedio de 38 kg, estos se asignaron aleatoriamente a uno de cuatro tratamientos: alimento en harina, alimento en harina+forraje, alimento peletizado y alimento extruzado. Mediciones de consumo, peso corporal, altura a la c...

  16. Alimentación y defecación en triatominos del género Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) alimentados con sangre humana

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió el comportamiento alimenticio y de defecación de Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859, R. robustus Larrousse, 1927, R. neivai Lent, 1953 y R. pictipes Stal, 1872 alimentados artificialmente con sangre humana en condiciones de laboratorio. La ninfa I de todas las especies no defecó en la primera media hora después de haber iniciado la ingesta. R. pictipes no se acercó a picar en el alimentador artificial aunque sí lo hizo cuando el alimento se ofreció directamente sobre el cuerpo humano. La...

  17. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DEL CLADOCERO Moina sp ALIMENTADO CON Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae

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    Martha Prieto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cereviseae. Materiales y métodos. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepade cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condicionescontroladas de temperatura (22oC, pH (7.6, intensidad lumínica (2000 lux y aireación. Se emplearondos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyces cereviseaeen concentración de 40 x 105 cel.ml-1 cada uno, para determinar su efecto sobre el desempeño de lapoblación. Diariamente se registró la densidad poblacional y celular. Resultados. Se obtuvieron diferenciassignificativas para el efecto de las dietas sobre el crecimiento poblacional de los cladóceros, los individuosalimentados con Ankistrodesmus sp + Saccharomyces cereviseae alcanzaron una densidad de 12.3a±0.30 org/ml-1 presentando mayor tasa instantánea de crecimiento (K 0.36 ± 0.002, el menor tiempode duplicación (td 1.94 ± 0.012 y el mayor rendimiento (r 1,1 ± 0.07 clad.ml-1.día-1. Conclusión. Loscladóceros por sus características de crecimiento en cultivo, presentan adaptación favorable a lascondiciones de manejo para la producción de biomasas potencialmente útiles como partícula nutritivacon fines acuícolas.

  18. Lípidos sanguíneos en cerdos alimentados con pijiguao (Bactris gasipaes Kunth y lisina sintética

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    Janeth Colina R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la harina de pijiguao y lisina sintética sobre los lípidos sanguíneos de cerdos en crecimiento y engorde. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se realizó en dos etapas. En la primera etapa se utilizaron 72 cerdos castrados en crecimientode 30 ± 0.5 kg, en un arreglo factorial 2x3: dos niveles de lisina sintética (0 y 2.70 g/kgy tres niveles de harina de pijiguao (0, 160 y 320 g/kg. En la segunda etapa se utilizaron 16 cerdos en engorde de 67.25 ± 1.17 kg, en un arreglo factorial 2x2: dos niveles de lisinasintética (0 y 2.70 g/kg y dos niveles de pijiguao (0 y 175 g/kg. Se determinaron las concentraciones séricas de triacilgliceroles, colesterol total y ácidos grasos. Resultados. Los cerdos en crecimiento que consumieron pijiguao presentaron menores (p<0.001concentraciones de colesterol que el grupo control (2.27 y 2.23 mmol/l vs 2.56 mmol/l y triacilgliceroles (0.34 y 0.28 mmol/l vs 0.42 mmol/l. El ácido oleico incrementó (p<0.01con el mayor nivel de pijiguao (20.78% a 28.84%, y la lisina aumentó (p<0.05 el ácidolinoleico (27.83% a 31.29%. Los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao y lisina mostraron menor (p<0.001 ácido palmítico que el grupo con pijiguao sin lisina (0.23 y 0.19% vs 0.45 y 0.62%, respectivamente. En la etapa de engorde los triacilgliceroles disminuyeron (p<0.05 en los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao y lisina (0.46 a 0.36 mmol/l. Los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao mostraron menor ácido linoleico y mayor ácido oleico (p<0.001. Conclusiones. Las dietas con pijiguao y lisina sintética no causaron efectos negativos sobre los lípidos sanguíneos de cerdos.

  19. An integral term adaptive neural control of fed-batch fermentation biotechnological process; Control neuronal adaptable con termino integral para un proceso biotecnologico de fermentacion por lote alimentado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruch, Ieroham; Hernandez, Luis Alberto; Barrera Cortes, Josefina [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    A nonlinear mathematical model of aerobic biotechnological process of a fed-batch fermentation system is derived using ordinary differential equations. A neurocontrol is applied using Recurrent Trainable Neural Network (RTNN) plus integral term; the first network performs an approximation of the plant's output; the second network generates the control signal so that the biomass concentration could be regulated by the nutrient influent flow rate into the bioreactor. [Spanish] Un modelo matematico no lineal de un proceso biotecnologico aerobio de un sistema de fermentacion por lote alimentado es presentado mediante ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias. Es propuesto un control utilizando dos redes neuronales recurrentes entrenables (RNRE) con la adicion de un termino integral; la primera red representa un aproximador de la salida de la planta y la segunda genera la senal de control tal que la concentracion de la biomasa pueda ser regulada mediante la alimentacion de un flujo con nutrientes al biorreactor.

  20. Cultivos discontinuos alimentados con urea de la cianobacteria Phormidium sp. en función de la salinidad y edad del cultivo

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    Lorena del valle Jonte Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Urea fed-batch cultures of the cyanobacterium  Phormidium sp. as a function of the salinity and age of cultures Título corto: Cultivos discontinuos alimentados de Phormidium sp.Resumen: Se  Se comparó la eficiencia de sistemas de cultivos discontinuos alimentados versus cultivos discontinuos convencionales, en cuanto a concentración de nitrógeno, adicionando 0,2 mM de urea cada tres días al final de la fase exponencial, durante 21 días. Se realizaron cultivos con un volumen de 1500 mL a 15 y 35 UPS de salinidad, enriquecidos con medio ALGAL 8mM NaNO3, a 238 mmol q m-2 s-1, aireación constante, fotoperiodo 12:12 horas y temperatura de 29 ±3ºC. Phormidium sp. posee la capacidad de hidrolizar la urea; mostrando una asimilación de 65±7,07% de la misma, con la mayor producción (p´<´0,05 de clorofila a, ficocianina y proteínas de 20,26±1,24; 203,47±12,83 y 707,87±28,47 µg mL-1en los cultivos alimentados. La producción de pigmentos vario en el tiempo, independientemente a la salinidad y sistema de cultivo, mientras que la producción de proteínas y carbohidratos totales fue directamente proporcional a la edad del cultivo, con valores máximos de 612,74±5,41 µg mL-1 y 8,96±0,08 mg mL-1 respectivamente a los 31 días. La síntesis de lípidos y EPS fueron influenciadas (p´<´0,05 por la salinidad, presentando los máximos de lípidos a 15 UPS con 12,22±2,91mg mL-1, y los EPS se incrementaron a 35 UPS con 2,00±0,26 y 2,03±0,15 mg mL-1. Estos resultados determinan que los cultivos de Phormidium sp. alimentados con urea y a salinidades de 15 y 35 UPS, representan una alternativa económica para la producción de clorofila a, ficocianina y proteínas, incrementándose un 31,04; 40,72 y 31,94 % respectivamente en comparación con cultivos no alimentados.Palabras clave: clorofila, ficocianina, proteínas, cianobacteria, urea.Abstract: Fed-batch system efficiency versus batch cultures was compared in relation

  1. Productividad y eficiencia de uso de nitrógeno y energía en pollos de engorda alimentados con pasta de soya o pasta de canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gómez Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron dos experimentos de sacrificio para evaluar el crecimiento, contenido y deposición de tejidos y retención de proteína y energía en la carne de la canal en pollos en crecimiento alimentados con pasta de canola (PCAN en sustitución de pasta de soya (PSOY. En el Exp 1, seis pollos machos, de 43 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 36 pollos fueron asignados a tres dietas con cantidades crecientes de PCAN (0, 10 y 20 % combinadas con dos niveles de lisina digestible (LD: 0.85 y 0.95 %. En el Exp 2, seis hembras y seis machos, de 28 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 72 pollos fueron asignados, por sexo, a dos dietas (PSOY o PCAN como único ingrediente proteico combinadas con tres niveles de energía (3.0, 3.1 y 3.2 Mcal de EM/kg de alimento. Cada experimento duró dos semanas y al final todos los pollos fueron sacrificados. En el Exp 1, no hubo diferencias estadísticas en la productividad o retención de proteína y energía en la canal entre niveles de PCAN (P>0.05. En el Exp 2, el consumo de alimento, proteína y energía y la deposición de grasa fueron mayores (P<0.05 con PSOY, pero la ganancia de peso, eficiencia alimenticia y retención de proteína y energía en la canal fueron similares entre dietas. Los resultados indican que es factible sustituir parcial o totalmente la pasta de soya por pasta de canola en la dieta de pollos de engorda en crecimiento.

  2. Utilización de la proteína dietaría por alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas

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    Félix Walter Gutiérrez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento fue conducido para evaluar los efectos de cinco niveles de proteína (25,27, 29, 31 y 33% sobre el comportamiento productivo de alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier 1818, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas (2,7 kcal de ED/g. Los parámetros medidos fueron ganancia de peso (GP, conversión alimenticia (CA, proteína retenida (PR, razón de eficiencia proteica (REP y energía retenida (ER. En la preparación de las dietas experimentales se utilizaron como fuentes de proteína harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya y como fuentes de energía maíz amarillo duro, subproducto de trigo y aceite de pescado. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P<0,05 entre tratamientos para los parámetros GP, PR, REP y ER. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la CA. Los mejores rendimientos fueron obtenidos cuando las gamitanas fueron alimentadas con niveles dietarios de 25, 27 y 33% de proteína cruda. También se encontró que a medida que se elevó el nivel de proteína de la dieta, la REP decreció significativamente. Tomando en cuenta el costo de la proteína en la dieta, se concluye que la alimentación de la gamitana con niveles dietarios de 25 ó 27% de proteína cruda y 2,7 kcal de ED/g, garantizarán su exitoso crecimiento.

  3. COMPARACIÓN ENTRE EL SISTEMA DE ACABADO Y EL PESO AL SACRIFICIO SOBRE LA CALIDAD DE LA CARNE Y DE LA GRASA DE TERNEROS ALIMENTADOS CON RACIONES A BASE DE ENSILADOS

    OpenAIRE

    Zea Salgueiro, J.; Diaz Diaz, Mª D.; Carballo, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Se comparan los efectos de los acabados de 45 o 90 días, en terneros machos y hembras, alimentados a base de ensilados, con pienso limitado (5 o 4 kg según sea ensilado de pradera o maíz, respectivamente) o a voluntad, con los efectos producidos por el aumento del peso de sacrificio (375,410 y 450 kg), en determinadas características de la carne: color, pérdidas de agua, veteado, consistencia, terneza, pH, composición química e índices nutricionales. En los ensayos de acabado los machos se sa...

  4. Alimentación y defecación en triatominos del género Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae alimentados con sangre humana

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    E. Aldana

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento alimenticio y de defecación de Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859, R. robustus Larrousse, 1927, R. neivai Lent, 1953 y R. pictipes Stal, 1872 alimentados artificialmente con sangre humana en condiciones de laboratorio. La ninfa I de todas las especies no defecaron en la primera media hora después de haber iniciado la ingesta. R. pictipes no se acercó a picar en el alimentador artificial aunque si lo hizo cuando el alimento se ofreció directamente sobre el cuerpo humano. Las ninfas y adultos de R. prolixus mostraron índices de defecación (ID superiores a los correspondientes de las otras especies, y la ninfa III presentó el mayor ID=1.62. La mayoría de individuos de todos los estadíos de desarrollo aceptaron el alimento en un tiempo entre 0 y 3 min y se alimentaron en menos de 15 minutos.Feeding and defecaction behavior of Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859, R. robustus Larrousse, 1927, R. neivai Lent, 1953 and R. pictipes Stal, 1872, artificially fed on human blood, were studied under laboratory conditions. In all species, first instar nymphs did not defecate in the first 30 minutes after feeding. R. pictipes did not accept artificial feeding but fed directly on humans. Nymph and adult R. prolixus had a higher defecation index (DI than other species; third instar nymphs had the highest DI=1.62. In all instars, most individuals accepted the food in £ 3 minutes and finished feeding in less than 15 minutes.

  5. Comportamiento productivo de reproductoras porcinas alimentados con follaje fresco de Morus alba. IIndicadores hematológicos y estructurales

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    Contino Yuván; Ojeda Félix; Herrera Rafael; Altunaga Nancy; Pérez Guadalupe.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar el comportamiento hematológico, morfométrico e histológico de las reproductoras porcinas alimentadas con follaje fresco de Morus alba (hojas y tallos tiernos como sustituto parcial del concentrado comercial en diferentes estados reproductivos comparadas con un grupo control el que no consumió el follaje fresco como sustituto parcial del concentrado. Las investigaciones se efectuaron en el Módulo de Investigación-Producción Porcina de la EEPF “Indio Hatuey. Los indicadores hematológicos medidos fueron el hematocrito, la hemoglobina y el leucograma con diferencial, en el Laboratorio Provincial del IMV ubicado en el municipio de Jovellanos. Elanálisis morfométrico de los órganos del tracto gastrointestinal,hemolinfopoyéticos y accesorios, se realizó mediante la medición y elpesaje en las reproductoras posterior al sacrificio. El rocesamiento histológico se realizó mediante la tinción hematoxilina-eosina. En el estudio estadístico se empleó el paquete SPSS Versión 10.1. Se obtuvo un mejor comportamiento hematológico, morfométrico e histológico al incluir en la dieta de las reproductoras el follaje de morera fresca como sustituto parcial del concentrado. Los resultados demuestran la factibilidad económica del empleo de esta alternativa alimentaría.

  6. Comportamiento productivo de cerdos en ceba alimentados con follaje fresco de Morus alba como sustituto parcial del concentrado

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    Contino Yuván| Ojeda Félix | Herrera Rafael | Altunaga Nancy | Pérez Guadalupe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar la respuestaproductiva en la etapa de ceba en cerdos mestizos al emplear el follaje de morera fresca (hojas y tallos tiernos como sustituto parcial del concentrado comercial. La investigación se efectuó en el Módulo de Investigación-Producción Porcina de la EEPF ”Indio Hatuey” Se evaluaron las ganancias de peso vivo de cerdos en crecimiento desde los 30 kg hasta los 90 kg. El pesaje se realizó cada 14 días, con la determinación del peso vivo promedio, la ganancia media diaria, y la conversión alimentaría. Para el procesamiento se empleó el paquete estadístico SPSS versión 10.1. Se obtuvo un incremento de las ganancias medias diarias con el aumento del peso vivo y una mejor eficiencia en la dieta total por la utilización de lamorera. Los resultados demuestran la factibilidad económica de estaalternativa alimentaria

  7. Metabolitos sanguíneos en caprinos alimentados con mezclas integrales frescas con Moringa oleífera: Pennisetum purpureum Clon-OM22

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Norberto González González; Delfín Gutiérrez González; Roberto García López; Aníbal Fernández Mayer

    2015-01-01

    Se evaluó el comportamiento de metabolitos sanguíneos energéticos y proteicos con el uso de mezclas de Moringa oleífera : Pennisetum purpureum clon OM-22. Se utilizaron cuatro machos caprinos de raza Alpina, con 37.78 ±4.87 kg de peso vivo, dos años de edad y alojados en jaulas metabólicas individuales, or - ganizados en un diseño cuadrado latino (4x4). El tiempo experimental fue 60 días, con cuatro periodos de 15 días. Los tratamientos consistie - ron en la inclusión creciente de ...

  8. Diseño y simulación de un balastro electrónico con corrección de factor de potencia con topología buck-boost e inversor alimentado por corriente

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    Germán E. Melo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las lámparas fluorescentes compactas o CFL (compact fluorescent lamp se han convertido en uno de los tipos de iluminación más usados en la actualidad. Sin embargo, las CFL comerciales poseen en su mayoría balastros electrónicos de bajo factor de potencia. Esto genera un aumento en los niveles de distorsión del sistema de generación y distribución debido al uso masivo de estas lámparas. En el presente artículo se presenta el diseño y simulación de un balastro electrónico con corrección de factor de potencia para lámparas fluorescentes compactas. La propuesta busca evaluar la viabilidad de integrar el correcto funcionamiento, tamaño y costo de este dispositivo. La topología propuesta es una etapa buck-boost operando en modo de conducción discontinua integrada a un inversor alimentado por corriente. La alta factibilidad de implementación de esta topología es mostrada mediante simulaciones que logran un factor de potencia de 0.998 y una distorsión total armónica menor de 5 %.

  9. Diseño y simulación de un balastro electrónico con corrección de factor de potencia con topología buck-boost e inversor alimentado por corriente

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    Germán E. Melo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Las lámparas fluorescentes compactas o CFL (compact fluorescent lamp se han convertido en uno de los tipos de iluminación más usados en la actualidad. Sin embargo, las CFL comerciales poseen en su mayoría balastros electrónicos de bajo factor de potencia. Esto genera un aumento en los niveles de distorsión del sistema de generación y distribución debido al uso masivo de estas lámparas. En el presente artículo se presenta el diseño y simulación de un balastro electrónico con corrección de factor de potencia para lámparas fluorescentes compactas. La propuesta busca evaluar la viabilidad de integrar el correcto funcionamiento, tamaño y costo de este dispositivo. La topología propuesta es una etapa buck-boost operando en modo de conducción discontinua integrada a un inversor alimentado por corriente. La alta factibilidad de implementación de esta topología es mostrada mediante simulaciones que logran un factor de potencia de 0.998 y una distorsión total armónica menor de 5 %.

  10. Metabolitos sanguíneos en caprinos alimentados con mezclas integrales frescas con Moringa oleífera: Pennisetum purpureum Clon-OM22

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    Nelson Norberto González González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el comportamiento de metabolitos sanguíneos energéticos y proteicos con el uso de mezclas de Moringa oleífera : Pennisetum purpureum clon OM-22. Se utilizaron cuatro machos caprinos de raza Alpina, con 37.78 ±4.87 kg de peso vivo, dos años de edad y alojados en jaulas metabólicas individuales, or - ganizados en un diseño cuadrado latino (4x4. El tiempo experimental fue 60 días, con cuatro periodos de 15 días. Los tratamientos consistie - ron en la inclusión creciente de Moringa oleífera (MO20%, MO40%, MO80% en sustitución de Pennisetum purpureum clon OM-22 (20:80, 40:60; 80:20% en la mezcla integral y un testigo, al que se le ofertó concentrado comer - cial (6g kg PV -1 . La totalidad de los forrajes frescos fueron cosechados, molidos (3-5cm y mezclados, ofertados a razón del 3% del peso vivo base seca, en dos ocasiones (10:30-16:30 horas durante el día. El estado de los metaboli - tos sanguíneo fue evaluado 22 horas posteriores al consumo de alimento. Las concentraciones de Glucosa, Colesterol, Triglicéridos y Urea se mantuvieron dentro del rango fisiológico. Los valores de Urea y Colesterol mostraron una ten - dencia creciente con la moringa en la mezcla, a diferencia de los Triglicéridos, que disminu - yeron. Los niveles de Creatinina en MO40 y MO80% superaron el límite fisiológico para la especie (59.7-134.8 μmol/l, indicando un posible fallo renal. Estos resultados permiten concluir que la Moringa oleífera con un nivel de inclusión del 20% constituye una alternativa alimentaria para caprinos; pero requiere de es - tudios para dilucidar niveles de Creatinina con la inclusión de 40 y 80% moringa.

  11. Análisis de la resistencia inmune en un modelo murino experimental alimentado con dietas lipídicas e infectado con Listeria monocytogenes Analysis of the immune resistance in an experimental murine model fed dietary lipids and infected with Listeria monocytogenes

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    M.ª A. Puertollano

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Algunas dietas lipídicas están implicadas en la reducción de ciertas funciones inmunes. Sin embargo, la acción inmunosupresora de estas dietas puede tener efectos adversos sobre la resistencia inmune del individuo frente a enfermedades de naturaleza infecciosa. En el presente estudio tratamos de valorar el estado inmune de ratones alimentados con dietas lipídicas e infectados experimentalmente con una cepa virulenta de Listeria monocytogenes. Ratones de la raza Balb/c fueron divididos en cuatro grupos alimentados cada uno de ellos con su respectiva dieta: dieta baja en lípidos (control, 2,5%, dieta rica en aceite de oliva (AO, 20%, dieta rica en aceite de pescado (AP, 20% y dieta rica aceite de coco (AC, 20%. Los animales fueron alimentados durante un mes y posteriormente infectados con L. monocytogenes por vía endovenosa. Los resultados han mostrado una reducción de la supervivencia en animales alimentados con AP, así como un incremento significativo en el número de bacterias viables aisladas a partir de bazo. Además hemos podido observar un aumento de la capacidad bactericida de células peritoneales procedentes de ratones alimentados con AO, aunque la invasividad de L. monocytogenes en este grupo fue mayor que en el resto. Finalmente, una reducción significativa de la linfoproliferación fue observada en el grupo alimentado con AP, mientras que la actividad de células natural killer (NK no se ha visto modificada. Estos resultados indican que dietas lipídicas constituidas por ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de la serie n-3 reducen la resistencia inmune de los ratones, mientras que una dieta constituida por AO no produce un efecto inmusupresor tan relevante y por consiguiente no reduce drásticamente la resistencia inmune siendo más eficiente en la eliminación de L. monocytogenes.Several dietary lipids are capable of exerting an immunosupressor effect. This action may have undiserable effects on the host immune resistance to

  12. Evaluación del crecimiento del pulpo común Octopus mimus del norte de Chile alimentado con dietas formuladas Growth evaluation of octopus (Octopus mimus from northern Chile fed with formulated diets

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    Oscar Zúñiga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante 57 días se comparó el crecimiento y sobreviviencia de pulpos juveniles Octopus mimus del norte de Chile alimentados con tres diferentes dietas: dos dietas húmedas (A y B aglutinadas con solución de gelatina embutidas en tripa de cordero y una dieta control (C natural. La dieta (A fue elaborada en base a una mezcla de filete triturado del pescado Cheilodactylus variegatus con harina de pellet para salmón, la dieta (B con pasta de almeja (Protothaca thaca mezclada con filete de Ch. variegatus y la dieta control consistió en el suministro de almejas frescas congeladas (C. Basado en un diseño experimental de medidas repetidas, los pulpos se mantuvieron individualmente en estanques de 70 L con circulación de agua de mar y aireación permanente. Los pulpos que consumieron la dieta B no experimentaron mortalidad y la dieta control C presentó mortalidad del 16,7%, sus crecimiento fueron similares (P > 0,05 con tasas de crecimiento absoluta (AGR de 7,0 ± 0,91 (g d-1 y 6,6 ± 1,10 (g d-1 respectivamente. Los pulpos alimentados con la dieta A registraron mortalidad de 33,3% y tasa de crecimiento absoluta negativa, AGR= -1,70 ± 0,37 (g d-1. La dieta A que contenía como ingrediente pellet para salmón molido como harina no tuvo una adecuada aceptación y los ejemplares experimentaron disminución de su peso. La dieta B preparada con gelatina de origen animal como aglutinante, no implicó un efecto negativo en la palatabilidad y aceptabilidad en comparación al control basada en almeja fresca congelada, incluso los organismos lograron crecimientos similares. Los resultados permitirán a futuro mejorar la calidad nutricional de dietas artificiales para maximizar el crecimiento de O. mimus en cautiverio.The growth and survival of juvenile octopus, Octopus mimus, from northern Chile, fed three different diets were analyze during 57 days. Two of the diets (A and B were wet diets stuffed in lamb gut with a gelatin solution, and the third (C was

  13. Evaluación de la estructura espacial de Triatoma maculata del centro-occidente de Venezuela y su viabilidad alimentado con sangre humana en condiciones de laboratorio

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    Keila Torres

    2010-03-01

    Conclusiones. T. maculata de la localidad de Xaguas podría encontrarse en un estado de adaptación al domicilio con fuentes sanguíneas diferentes al humano y en un estado incipiente de adaptación al domicilio con la sangre humana como fuente de alimentación.

  14. Dinámica poblacional del rotífero Brachionus ibericus aislado de estanques para camarón, alimentado con diferentes dietas

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    José Cristóbal Román-Reyes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La producción de microalgas vivas para cultivar rotíferos constituye uno de los mayores costos de operación en la larvicultura de peces, por lo que se están desarrollando sustitutos comerciales de microalgas para la alimentación y producción de rotíferos. Se desconoce el efecto que tienen las formulaciones comerciales sobre la dinámica poblacional de rotíferos nativos del noroeste de México y en este estudio se evaluó el efecto de cuatro dietas comerciales (Espirulina, RotiMac®, Nanno 3600®, RotiGrow-Plus® y la microalga viva Nannochloropsis sp., sobre el crecimiento poblacional y fecundidad del rotífero Brachionus ibericus (GenBank KJ949043, aislado de una granja de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. Se realizaron cinco réplicas por tratamiento alimenticio utilizando recipientes con volumen de 12 L de agua, con temperatura de 29 ± 1°C y salinidad de 35 ± 1, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que durante los periodos experimentales, las dietas probadas resultaron adecuadas para alimentar a B. ibericus, con tasas de crecimiento, tiempos de duplicación, densidades máximas y fecundidades que fluctuaron entre 0.20 a 0.27 rotíferos día-1, 2.60 a 3.42 días, 215 a 344 rotíferos mL-1 y de 0.16 a 0.39 huevos hembra-1, respectivamente. Las diferencias entre tratamientos fueron significativas (P 0.05 a las obtenidas con Nanno 3600®.

  15. Crecimiento y composición corporal en prematuros extremos alimentados mediante fórmulas con diferente contenido proteico-calórico

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Orvay, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Determinar el efecto de una dieta enteral hipercalórica e hiperproteica sobre el crecimiento y la composición corporal en prematuros extremos. Valorar la aparición de efectos adversos secundarios. METODOS: Se plantea un estudio clínico longitudinal de asignación sistematizada tipo cohorte con cuatro grupos (LM, A, B y C) desde enero 2006 a enero 2008. Cada paciente es seguido durante 21 días. El estudio es aprobado por el Comité ético de investigación clínica del Hospital Clínic i ...

  16. Características de la canal, rendimiento en cortes primarios y composición tisular de corderos Katahdin x Pelibuey alimentados con garbanzo de desecho

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    Francisco Gerardo Ríos Rincón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar el efecto de la inclusión de 0, 15, 30, 45 ó 60 % de garbanzo de desecho (GD en las características de la canal, rendimiento en cortes primarios y composición tisular, se utilizaron 40 canales de corderos Katahdin x Pelibuey. Se registraron las características de la canal y los cortes primarios se diseccionaron en tejido magro (TM, adiposo (TA y óseo (TO. La inclusión de GD no modificó (P>0.05 la respuesta productiva ni las características de la canal, mientras que la grasa pélvico-renal incrementó en los tratamientos con 45 y 60 % (P0.05 en el rendimiento de cuello, hombro, brazuelo, pecho y lomo, a diferencia del costillar y la falda, donde éste fue inferior (P<0.05 en los corderos que recibieron GD. En respuesta a la inclusión de GD, aumentó (P<0.05 el TA de pierna (9.9 vs 13.1 %, pecho (16.1 vs 26.0 %, brazuelo (13.2 vs 18.2 % y falda (43.6 vs 51.2 %; y disminuyó (P<0.02 el TM en pecho (66.8 vs 57.7 % y falda (56.4 vs 48.8 %. El TM total disminuyó (62.6 vs 58.0 %; P<0.04; y el TA total incrementó con la inclusión de GD (17.1 vs 21.5 %; P<0.02. La relación músculo/grasa se modificó (P<0.02 por la inclusión de GD (3.7 vs 2.8. Se concluye que la inclusión de más de 45 % de garbanzo de desecho en la dieta reduce la proporción de tejido magro e incrementa el adiposo en las canales de corderos Katahdin x Pelibuey en finalización intensiva.

  17. Fatty Acid Composition of Longissimus dorsi Muscle of Suffolk Down Lambs Fed on Different Dryland Forages Composición de Ácidos Grasos del Músculo Longissimus dorsi de Corderos Suffolk Down Alimentados con Diferentes Forrajes

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    María Asunción Gallardo

    2011-12-01

    , poliinsaturados (PUFA, y razón omega 6/omega 3 (06/03. Hubo una tendencia (p > 0,06 hacia un mayor contenido de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA en la carne de corderos alimentados con trébol rosado, comparado con los otros tipos de praderas. Aunque no hubo diferencias significativas entre tratamientos, los resultados obtenidos con la pradera sucesional no pueden ser extrapolados a pasturas naturales en el secano, debido a sus altos contenidos de leguminosas. Se concluye que el uso de trébol subterráneo proveería una similar calidad de carne, al comparar con forrajes basados en trébol rosado.

  18. Microbial protein synthesis in young steers fed with grass silage and extruded corn Síntesis de proteína microbiana en novillos jóvenes alimentados con ensilaje de praderas y maíz extruido

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    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial protein synthesis is essential to meet protein requirements in ruminants. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of incorporating extruded corn (Zea mays L. into the ration of young steers fed with grass silage on microbial protein synthesis (MPS. Twenty young steers in metabolic cages were used for supplying food. The treatments consisted of combinations of extruded corn (EC and ground corn (GC EC-10 (10% EC-30% GC; EC-25 (25% EC-15% GC and EC-40 (40% EC-0% GC. These foods constituted 40% of the ration (DM-based and the remaining 60% was grass silage. The MPS was calculated through the excretion of purine derivatives (PD in the urine, using total collection of urine. The inclusion of a higher percentage of extruded corn (EC-40 increased the PD excretion (51.85 mmol d-1, P La síntesis de proteína microbiana es fundamental para satisfacer los requerimientos proteicos en rumiantes. El objetivo de esta investigation fue evaluar el efecto de incluir maíz (Zea mays L. extruido en la ración de novillos alimentados con ensilaje de pradera, sobre la sintesis de proteina microbiana (MPS. Se emplearon 20 novillos jóvenes ubicados en jaulas metabólicas para suministro de los alimentos. Los tratamientos consistieron en combinaciones de maiz extruido (EC y maiz molido (GC EC-10 (10% EC-30% GC; EC-25 (25% EC-15% GC y EC-40 (40% EC-0% GC. Estos alimentos constituyeron el 40% de la ración (base MS y el restante 60% fue ensilaje de pradera. Se estimó la MPS a través de la excreción de derivados de purinas (PD en la orina, empleando colección total de orina. La inclusión de un mayor porcentaje de EC (EC-40 incrementó la excreción de PD (51.85 mmol d-1, P < 0,05. Los valores de excreción de PD fluctuaron entre 663 y 1078 μmol BW-075 d-1. La absorción de proteína microbiana y el flujo de N duodenal también se incrementaron por una mayor inclusión de EC (EC-40, P < 0,05. Las diferencias entre los tratamientos pueden

  19. Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900, fed β-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and β-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus Incremento de la actividad superóxido dismutasa y catalasa en juveniles de camarón café Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900 alimentados con β-1,3 glucano vitamina E y β-caroteno e infectados con el virus de la mancha blanca

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    Rosario Pacheco

    2011-11-01

    contenedores de fibra de vidrio de 60 L y se alimentaron diariamente durante 23 días con β-1,3-glucano (0,1%, vitamina E (0,01%, y β-caroteno (0,01% y posteriormente se inocularon con WSSV. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante de la enzima superóxido dismutasa (SOD y catalasa (CAT en hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 0, 1, 6, 12, 24 y 48 h después de la infección. Los grupos de camarones alimentados con los tratamientos incrementaron la actividad SOD en el hepatopáncreas y músculo a las 12 y 24 h después de la infección, respectivamente. Los juveniles tratados con vitamina E y β-1,3-glucano mantuvieron un incremento en la actividad SOD desde las 12 a 48 h postinfección. Los camarones alimentados con β-caroteno incrementaron la actividad de SOD antes de la infección con WSSV y los que fueron alimentados con β-1,3-glucano y vitamina E incrementaron la actividad CAT también antes de la infección. La actividad CAT en músculo se incrementó respecto al grupo control, con todos los grupos de camarones tratados desde 1 hasta 6 h posteriores a la inoculación con WSSV. La actividad antioxidante más alta se registró en los camarones alimentados con vitamina E. Los juveniles alimentados con vitamina E y posteriormente inoculados con WSSV, registraron 100% de mortalidad a las 72 h, pero los que fueron alimentados con β-1,3-glucano y β-caroteno resistieron la infección hasta las 144 h. Los resultados de Antioxidant response in F. californiensis fed with dietary supplements and infected with WSSV este estudio mostraron la capacidad de juveniles de Farfantepenaeus californiensis alimentados con β-1,3-glucano, vitamina E o β-caroteno, de incrementar la respuesta antioxidante antes y durante una infección viral.

  20. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial Productive response of rabbits fed with green hydroponic oats forage as partial replacement of commercial concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P The productive response of Californian rabbits fed with hydroponic green oats forage (HGOF as a partial replacement of commercial concentrate (CC was evaluated under desert conditions in northern Chile. Five treatments were established as follow: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of daily diet with HGOF, which was harvested and used directly at 10 days after sowing. Forty-five rabbits weaned at 31 days were evaluated in a completely randomized design until slaughter weight of 2.0 kg. HGOF quality was considered as good, presenting similar nutritional value to CC. The variables assessed and range values were: average dry matter intake (59.17-104.73 g/d, average weight gain (16.35-29.10 g/ rabbit for day, feed conversion average (3.31-3.93 kg DM/ kg LW, time of

  1. Comparación de la ganancia de peso de neonatos prematuros alimentados con lactancia materna exclusiva con énfasis en la fracción emulsión, lactancia mixta y sucedáneos

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez Barahona, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar si los bebés prematuros que se alimentaban con lactancia materna exclusiva con énfasis en la fracción emulsión, ganaban peso adecuadamente, comparable a los que se alimentan con lactancia mixta o sucedáneos  y así obtener evidencia clínica que apoye el uso de lactancia materna exclusiva, utilizando esta técnica, en los neonatos prematuros. Método: El estudio fue de tipo experimental longitudinal por  2 meses y medio entre el 31 de agosto al 27 de septiembre del año 2007 e...

  2. - Valor nutritivo del ensilado de pastos tropicales III. Fermentación ruminal en carneros alimentados con ensilado sólo o suplementado con energía y/o proteína.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ayala

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se evaluó el efecto de la suplementación con proteína y/o energía en la fermentación ruminal de 3 carneros adultos mestizos de criollo con un peso vivo promedio de 29 kg fistulados en el rumen a través de un análisis de de varianza mediante un modelo lineal. Los tratamiento consistieron en: Ensilado a voluntad (E; ensilado más melaza (E+M; ensilado más harina de pescado (E+HP y ensilado más miel más harina de pescado (E+M+HP. La melaza y la harina de pescado se suministraron a razón de 8.2 y 7.2 g/kg¾ (base húmeda respectivamente. Las concentraciones de ácido láctico en el rumen fueron más elevadas (p<0.001 en los tratamientos de E+M (1.14 y E+M+HP(1.00 mmol/L que en las restantes dietas y los niveles de amoníaco más alto (P<0.001 en las raciones de E+HP (17.48 mg/ 100 ml comparado con E+M+HP (12.50. Hubo diferencia altamente significativa (p<0.001 en las concentraciones de nitrógeno total y nitrógeno no proteico entre todos los tratamientos siendo en el orden decreciente como sigue: E+M+HP: E+HP: E y E+M. Al parecer la suplementación con melaza sola a un ensilado de bajo contenido proteico (<7% no mejoró la eficiencia de utilización de nitrógeno amoniacal en el rumen.

  3. Utilización de piensos criollos con harina de Albizia lebbeck para la ceba de conejos alimentados con bejuco de boniato Use of home-made concentrate feed with Albizia lebbeck meal for fattening rabbits fed sweet potato vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L Montejo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento durante 40 días en el módulo de animales menores de la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de evaluar la inclusión de la harina de Albizia lebbeck en un pienso criollo con diferentes suplementos energético-proteicos, para la alimentación de conejos de ceba. Se utilizaron 26 animales mestizos sanos, de 60 días de edad y 0,94 (± 0,10 kg de peso, en un diseño completamente aleatorizado con dos tratamientos (13 animales por cada uno; estos fueron: A 100% bejuco de boniato (Ipomoea batata y B 70% bejuco de boniato más 30% de pienso criollo elaborado con harina de A. lebbeck y diferentes suplementos energético-proteicos. El alimento se ofreció en los horarios de la mañana (9:00-10:00 a.m. y la tarde (3:00-4:00 p.m.. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en el peso final de los animales (A-1,47 kg y B-1,62 kg. Las mejores ganancias de peso vivo se observaron en el tratamiento suplementado B (16,3 g/animal/día, que fueron superiores (PA trial was conducted for 40 days in the small animal facility of the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages "Indio Hatuey", with the objective of evaluating the inclusion of Albizia lebbeck meal in a home-made concentrate feed with different energy-protein supplements, to feed fattening rabbits. Twenty-six healthy crossbred animals, 60 days old and with 0,94 (±0,10 kg of weight, were used in a completely randomized design with two treatments (13 animals each; they were: A 100% sweet potato (Ipomoea batata vines and B 70% sweet potato vines + 30% home-made concentrate feed elaborated with A. lebbeck meal and different energy-protein supplements. The feed was supplied in the morning (9:00-10:00 a.m. and the afternoon (3:00-4:00 p.m.. Significant differences were found in the final weight of the animals (A-1,47 kg and B-1,62 kg. The best live weight gains were observed in the supplemented treatment B (16,3 g/animal/day, which were

  4. Evaluación del potencial reproductivo del chorito (Mytilus chilensis de dos poblaciones naturales sometidas a diferentes temperaturas de acondicionamiento Assessment of the reproductive potential of the mussel (Mytilus chilensis from two natural populations subjected to different conditioning temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Lagos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mytilus chilensis tiene ciclos reproductivos que varían latitudinalmente. Presenta reducida diferenciación genética y morfológica debido a un gran potencial de dispersión. Se acondicionaron reproductores de bahía Yaldad (Chiloé y bahía Zenteno (Punta Arenas a 9 ± 0,5°C y 15 ± 0,5°C, alimentados con dieta (1:1 de Isochrysis galbana y Chaetoceros neogracile. Se espera dilucidar si el acondicionamiento a diferentes temperaturas produce variaciones en el potencial reproductivo de las poblaciones. El menor desarrollo gonadal se produjo en los reproductores acondicionados a 9°C, mientras que el mayor se produjo en los reproductores acondicionados a 15°C provenientes de Chiloé. La fecundidad de los reproductores de Yaldad fue mayor que los de Zenteno. El diámetro de los ovocitos fue mayor en los reproductores de Zenteno y en ambas poblaciones fue mayor a 9°C. Ni el porcentaje de huevos fecundados ni el porcentaje de eclosión de larvas D mostraron diferencias significativas entre las poblaciones a ninguna de las temperaturas de acondicionamiento. De acuerdo con estos resultados, no se logra establecer diferencias en el potencial reproductivo en las poblaciones y bajo las condiciones de este estudio.The reproductive cycles of Mytilus chilensis vary latitudinally. This species has reduced genetic and morphological differentiation due to its high potential for dispersal. Broodstocks from Yaldad Bay (Chiloé and Zenteno Bay (Punta Arenas were conditioned at 9 ± 0.5°C and 15 ± 0.5°C, and were fed a diet (1:1 of Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros neogracile. We expected to determine whether conditioning at different temperatures produces changes in the reproductive potential of the populations. Gonadal development was lowest in the broodstocks conditioned at 9°C, and highest in those conditioned at 15°C, from Chiloé. Fertility was greater in broodstocks from Yaldad than in those from Zenteno. Oocyte diameter was greater in broodstocks

  5. Diseño y Construcción de un sistema de Ozonificación para purificación de agua alimentado con Energía Solar.

    OpenAIRE

    Sànchez Vega, Guadalupe Omar

    2016-01-01

    En el trabajo que a continuación se presenta se realizó el diseño y construcción de un sistema de purificación de agua por medio del proceso de ozonificación que opera totalmente con energía solar. Para su dimensionamiento se tomaron en cuenta gran cantidad de variables (como la presión del gas de alimentación, voltaje, frecuencia, por destacar algunas) para obtener una mayor cantidad de ozono con bajos consumos energéticos, los cuales son capaces de ser abastecidos con una pila de 12 V y 17 ...

  6. Mice fed with a high fat diet show a decrease in the expression of "toll like receptor" (TLR2 and TLR6 mRNAs in adipose and hepatic tissues El tejido adiposo y el tejido hepático de los ratones alimentados con una dieta alta en grasa tienen un decremento en la expresión del mRNA del "toll like receptor" (TLR2 y del TLR6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Betanzos-Cabrera

    2012-08-01

    inflamatorio que conduce a una resistencia a la insulina en el tejido graso. Objetivo: En este trabajo, nosotros investigamos si los otros miembros de la familia de los PRRs podrían también participar en el proceso inflamatorio del tejido adiposo de los ratones obesos. Métodos: La expresión del mRNA de los TLRs, del NLRP3-inflamasoma (constituido por las moléculas NLRP3, ASC, caspasa-1 e IL-lbeta, de las citocinas inflamatorias IL-6 y TNFα fue estudiado, por RT-PCR, en el tejido adiposo y en el tejido hepático de ratones alimentados con una dieta alta en grasa (HFD. Resultados: El tejido adiposo de los ratones alimentados con una HFD tuvieron un nivel bajo de expresión de TLR2, TLR6 y TLR7 en comparación a los ratones controles y este nivel fue también presente en el tejido hepático. La expresión de la IL-6 y el TNF-α se decremento en el tejido adiposo de los ratones alimentados con HFD. La expresión del NLRP3-inflamasoma no fue modificado. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren que el nivel bajo de expresión del TLR2 y del TLR6 en los ratones alimentados con HFD podrían estar regulando la inflamación inducida por la dieta empleada en este estudio.

  7. Composición química y calidad sensorial de jamones curados provenientes de cerdos alimentados con una dieta rica en ácido oleico y pasturas

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Echenique; Luis Repiso; Gustavo Capra

    2011-01-01

    La dieta animal es uno de los factores que más incide sobre la calidad de los productos porcinos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la utilización de semilla de girasol de alto oleico (SGAO) y pasturas sobre la calidad química y sensorial del jamón curado. Se analizaron jamones provenientes de 60 cerdos faenados a los 145 kg. Éstos fueron sometidos a cuatro tratamientos, consistentes en el suministro de dietas con diferente aporte lipídico en cantidad y composición química, con y sin acc...

  8. Variación temporal de la población de la almeja Darina solenoides y del mejillón Mytilus Edulis Platensis, y su relación con la alimentación del ostrero austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Javier Gallardo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El presente trabajo de investigación se ha planteado en el marco de una beca para alumnos avanzados de la UNPA, Unidad Académica Río Gallegos. Tiene como objetivo analizar las variaciones temporales de la población del mejillón Mytilus edulis platensis y de la almeja Darina solenoides y se inserta en un Proyecto de Investigación (29A/227 dirigido por Dra. Z. Lizarralde que tiene como objeto estudiar la ecología trófica del Ostrero Austral (Haematopus leucopodus en el estuario del río Gallegos (Santa Cruz. Durante el 2010 se efectuaron muestreos mensuales (abril a diciembre en un banco de mejillones y otro de almejas, con el objeto de analizar la variación temporal de la densidad y biomasa, y la estructura de tallas poblacional. Se analizó la granulometría y porcentaje de materia orgánica de los sedimentos. El sedimento del banco de mejillones se encuentra constituido en su mayoría por la fracción correspondiente a los gránulos; en el banco de almejas por arenas muy finas (43% y finas (39%. En ambos casos la materia orgánica no supera el 3 %. La densidad de mejillones alcanzó un valor máximo de 2255 individuos/m2 en abril y un mínimo de 497 en noviembre. La biomasa máxima se encontró en abril (110 g/m 2. La densidad de Darina solenoides alcanzó un valor máximo de 565 en junio y un mínimo de 282 individuos/m2 en el mes de octubre. La biomasa máxima ocurrió en diciembre (132 g/m2. No se detectó el período de reclutamiento de nuevos individuos en los bancos de las especies estudiadas.

  9. Composición química y calidad sensorial de jamones curados provenientes de cerdos alimentados con una dieta rica en ácido oleico y pasturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Echenique

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La dieta animal es uno de los factores que más incide sobre la calidad de los productos porcinos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la utilización de semilla de girasol de alto oleico (SGAO y pasturas sobre la calidad química y sensorial del jamón curado. Se analizaron jamones provenientes de 60 cerdos faenados a los 145 kg. Éstos fueron sometidos a cuatro tratamientos, consistentes en el suministro de dietas con diferente aporte lipídico en cantidad y composición química, con y sin acceso a pasturas: i ración estándar, sin pasturas; ii ración estándar, con pasturas; iii ración con SGAO, sin pasturas, y iv ración con SGAO, con pasturas.Se evaluaron parámetros físico-químicos y sensoriales de jamones obtenidos luego de un curado tradicional de nueve meses. La ración con SGAO dio lugar a jamones con una mayor proporción de C18:1(9 y menor de ácidos grasos saturados en relación a la estándar. Las pasturas incidieron sobre el color y determinaron una mayor proporción de C18:3(3 y C22:6(3. Se concluye que con una dieta compuesta por SGAO y pasturas se obtienen jamones con mayor proporción de ácidos grasos oleico y 3 yrelaciones 6/3 más favorables para la salud humana, sin que se vean afectados atributos sensoriales.Palabras clave: Porcinos, sistema de alimentación, ácidos grasos, calidad.AbstractOne of the most important factors that determine the quality of pork products is the pig´s diet. This study was performed to evaluate the use of sun ower seed with high oleic acid (HOSS and the use of pastures on the chemical and sensorial quality of dry-cured ham. Dry-cured hams from 60 pigs slaughtered at 145 kg were analyzed. These animals were fed with two diets with different lipid content and chemical composition, and with and without access to pastures: i standard diet without pastures;ii standard diet with pastures; iii diet with HOSS without pastures and iv diet with HOSS with pastures. Dry-cured hams obtained after

  10. EVALUACIÓN Y MODELACIÓN DE UN TREN DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUA RESIDUAL ACUÍCOLA CON RECIRCULACIÓN Y DEL CULTIVO DE TRUCHA ARCO IRIS ALIMENTADO POR COSECHA PLUVIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego-Alarcon, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    La acuicultura en el Estado de México se ha desarrollado en un marco de presiones ambientales y legales, la competencia por el recurso agua ha impactado negativamente las actividades como el cultivo de la trucha. Las presiones sociales y gubernamentales cada vez son mayores, a tal grado que las concesiones de uso de agua son más difíciles de obtener y el trámite es más estricto que en décadas pasadas. Para encontrar alternativas de solución bajo este esquema, existen dos propuestas con las...

  11. Análisis de indicadores de rendimiento biológico y económico en la producción de dos híbridos de pollos de engorde alimentados con tres alimentos comerciales (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    José Rodríguez Zelaya; Diego Aguirre Rosales; Olga Flora Hidalgo Villegas

    2016-01-01

    Un total de 180 pollos de engorde, 90 del híbrido H1 y 90 del híbrido H2, de un día de nacidos, sin sexar,  fueron distribuidos de acuerdo con un arreglo factorial 2 x 3 en un diseño irrestrictamente al azar, dividido en dos etapas (iniciación y finalización). En ambas etapas el agua y el alimento se suministraron ad libitum. Se utilizaron alimentos comerciales específicos para cada etapa (A1, A2, A3). El periodo experimental fue de 49 días y las aves se pesaron semanalmente, así como el ...

  12. Parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocricetus auratus L. alimentado con base en harina de lombriz roja (Eisenia spp. y fuentes convencionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 21 días el efecto de cuatro dietas proteicas con base en harina de Lombriz Roja (Hl (Eisenia spp. (nivel de inclusión de Hl: D1: 21; D2: 24; D3: 27 y D4: 30% y dos alimentos convencionales: Conejarina ® (D0 y Ratarina® (D5 en algunos parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocrisetus auratus L. mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado para un factor, en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela. El hematocrito (37.65-41.01%, la hemoglobina (10.83-12.25%, la bilirrubina total, directa e indirecta (0.20-0.40; 0.10-0.22; 0.10-0.20mg/ dL, respectivamente, las lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad (Vldl (15.12-41.27mg/dL; los triglicéridos (95.42-190.54mg/dL; así como los valores de Calcio (Ca (9.83-12.32 mg/dL y Potasio (4.24-5.43mg/dL no exhibieron diferencias significativas entre dietas (P>0,05. Los leucocitos (Lto, las plaquetas (Plq, el conteo diferencial (neutrófilos/linfocitos (Linf/eosinófilos, la glicemia (Glc, la amilasa, el colesterol total, las lipoproteínas de elevada (Hdl y baja densidad y el Fósforo mostraron variaciones sustanciales entre los tratamientos (P<0,05. Los niveles crecientes de proteína de las dietas no afectaron los parámetros evaluados. Sin embargo, se observó una relación negativa entre la inclusión de Hl y las cantidades de Lto (r=-0.76**, Plq (r=-0.76**, Linf (r=-0.71**, Glc (r=-0.58* y Hdl (r=-0.50*. La adición de hl en proporciones de 24, 27 y 30% para obtener alimentos formulados entre 13.5 y 19.6% de proteína, para M. auratus, afecta algunos de los parámetros hematológicos y la concentración sérica de metabolitos relacionados con la composición nutricional de la dieta.

  13. Assessment of Blood Chemistry, Weight Gain and Linear Body Measurements of Pre-Puberal Buck Rabbits Fed Different Levels of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Leaf Meals Evaluación de Química Sanguínea, Ganancia de Peso y Mediciones Corporales Lineales de Conejos Pre-Púberes Alimentados con Diferentes Niveles de Harina de Hojas de Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Ogbuewu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16 week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. leaf meal (NLM on body weight gain, linear body measurements and blood chemistry of pre-puberal buck rabbits. Four treatment diets were formulated to contain the NLM at inclusion levels of 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15%. Thirty six crossbred New Zealand white × Chinchilla pre-puberal buck rabbits aged 5 to 6 mo were divided into four groups of nine rabbits and each group was further replicated into three of three rabbits each. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments. Lymphocyte count of rabbits fed control diet (8.32 × 10(9 mm-3 was significantly higher than the group fed 15% NLM (4.60 × 10(9 mm-3. The mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell volume (MCV of the control bucks were significantly (p 0.05 among the treatment groups. The results suggest that buck rabbits could tolerate up to 15% dietary inclusion of NLM without deleterious effects on body weight gain, linear body measurements and some hematological parameters.Se realizó un ensayo de alimentación de 16 semanas para investigar el efecto de harina de hojas de neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (NML sobre ganancia de peso, mediciones corporales lineales y química sanguínea de conejos machos pre-púberes. Se formularon cuatro dietas con niveles de inclusión de NLM de 0 (control, 5, 10, y 15%. Treinta y seis conejos híbridos New Zealand white × Chinchilla, pre-púberes, de 5 a 6 meses, se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de nueve conejos, y cada grupo fue repetido en tres grupos de tres conejos cada uno. Los conejos se asignaron aleatoriamente a las cuatro dietas tratamiento. El recuento de linfocitos de los conejos alimentados con la dieta control (8,32 × 10(9 mm-3 fue significativamente mayor que el grupo alimentado con 15% NLM (4,60 × 10(9 mm-3. La hemoglobina celular media (MCH y el volumen celular medio (MCV de los conejos control fueron

  14. Comparación entre la ganancia de peso de neonatos prematuros alimentados con lactancia materna exclusiva (con énfasis en la fracción emulsión) y los de lactancia mixta o sucedáneos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gloria Velásquez-Barahona

    2014-01-01

    ... los bebés prematuros que se alimentaban con lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) con énfasis en la fracción emulsión -final de la toma-, ganaron peso adecuadamente, comparados con los que se alimentan con lactancia mixta...

  15. Comparación entre la ganancia de peso de neonatos prematuros alimentados con lactancia materna exclusiva (con énfasis en la fracción emulsión) y los de lactancia mixta o sucedáneos

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Velásquez-Barahona

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes. Las intervenciones relacionadas con la alimentación en los neonatos prematuros promueven tanto la salud inmediata como a lo largo de la vida y tienen un impacto significativo en los niveles de morbimortalidad neonatal e infantil (3). Objetivo. Determinar si los bebés prematuros que se alimentaban con lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) con énfasis en la fracción emulsión -final de la toma-, ganaron peso adecuadamente, comparados con los que se alimentan con lactancia mixta (LMM) o...

  16. Comparación entre la ganancia de peso de neonatos prematuros alimentados con lactancia materna exclusiva (con énfasis en la fracción emulsión y los de lactancia mixta o sucedáneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Velásquez-Barahona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Las intervenciones relacionadas con la alimentación en los neonatos prematuros promueven tanto la salud inmediata como a lo largo de la vida y tienen un impacto significativo en los niveles de morbimortalidad neonatal e infantil (3. Objetivo. Determinar si los bebés prematuros que se alimentaban con lactancia materna exclusiva (LME con énfasis en la fracción emulsión -final de la toma-, ganaron peso adecuadamente, comparados con los que se alimentan con lactancia mixta (LMM o de sucedáneos (LMS. Materiales y métodos. El estudio fue descriptivo, analítico, y observacional, tipo cohorte; se adelantó por dos meses y medio, entre el 31 de agosto y el 27 de septiembre del año 2007 en la consulta externa de niño sano del Hospital Roosevelt. Se enroló a 48 pacientes. Se les tomó las medidas antropométricas de peso y talla, y se siguieron por el período necesario para que alcanzaran un peso de 2,5kg. Resultados. La mayoría pesaron entre 1.000 y 1.500g al nacer. La media de ganancia diaria de peso de los que recibían LME fue de 32,4+9,2g, de LMM fue de 32+7g y de sucedáneos fue de 36,2+7,3g. Comparando la media de ganancia de peso de todos los grupos, se encontró que no existía diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p=0,32, al igual que la ganancia diaria de talla (p=0,44. Conclusiones. Cínicamente, se evidenció que se obtienen ganancias de peso y talla adecuadas en bebés prematuros utilizando LME comparables a las obtenidas utilizando lactancia mixta y sucedáneos.

  17. Concentraciones séricas de triyodotironina, tiroxina y perfil lipídico en bovinos lecheros alimentados con una ración con bajo contenido de selenio Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine and lipid profile in dairy cows fed with a low selenium diet

    OpenAIRE

    R. MATAMOROS; Ceballos, A; PA Contreras; Quiroga, C.; M Andaur; F. WITTWER

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de un bajo consumo de Se y su suplementación sobre la concentración sérica de T3 y T4 y sobre el perfil lipídico en vacas lactantes bajo estrés oxidativo inducido. Fueron seleccionadas 12 vacas Frisón Negro gestantes, asignadas auno de dos grupos homogéneos, control (n = 6, Se-D) y tratado (n = 6, Se-S) con selenato de bario (BaSe0(4)), ambos recibieron una ración Se-deficiente (el Se en base seca fue 0,03 ppm para la dieta preparto y 0,05 ppm...

  18. OPTIMIZACION DE LA SINTESIS DE GALACTO-OLIGOSACARIDOS EN MODALIDAD DE LOTE ALIMENTADO

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral tiene por hipótesis que la implementación de la síntesis de galacto-oligosacáridos (GOS) en modalidad de lote alimentado y su optimización por metodologías de control óptimo permitirá un aumento de la concentración de GOS en el producto de la reacción, lo cual provocará una mejora en la economía del proceso evaluada en términos de su valor actual neto, respecto de la síntesis por lotes. Con el fin de verificar la hipótesis de esta tesis doctoral, la investigación se lle...

  19. Concentraciones séricas de triyodotironina, tiroxina y perfil lipídico en bovinos lecheros alimentados con una ración con bajo contenido de selenio Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine and lipid profile in dairy cows fed with a low selenium diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Matamoros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de un bajo consumo de Se y su suplementación sobre la concentración sérica de T3 y T4 y sobre el perfil lipídico en vacas lactantes bajo estrés oxidativo inducido. Fueron seleccionadas 12 vacas Frisón Negro gestantes, asignadas auno de dos grupos homogéneos, control (n = 6, Se-D y tratado (n = 6, Se-S con selenato de bario (BaSe0(4, ambos recibieron una ración Se-deficiente (el Se en base seca fue 0,03 ppm para la dieta preparto y 0,05 ppm para la dieta posparto y sebo oxidado (0,5 kg/vaca/día. El grupo Se-S se suplemento con (1 mg Se/kg bajo la forma de BaSe0(4 (1 mL/50 kg, s.c. Previo a la suplementación y cada 15 días, se tomaron muestras de sangre heparinizada y sin anticoagulante mediante venopunción coccígea. Se evaluó la actividad de glutatión peroxidasa (GSH-Px, EC 1.15.1.9, además la concentración sérica de T3 y T4, colesterol total, lipoproteínas (HDL, LDL y VLDL y triacilgliceroles (TAG. La significancia se estableció empleando un PROC MIXED de S AS mediante la opción REPEATED, considerándose significativo P 0,05, y la actividad de GSH-Px aumentó significativamente en el grupo Se-S a partir de 45 días postsuplementación (P 0,05. La concentración de colesterol, LDL, VLDL y TAG fue similar entre los grupos (P > 0,05, siendo la concentración de HDL levemente mayor en el grupo Se-D (P = 0,047. Los resultados permiten señalar que una dieta baja en Se no indujo cambios en la función tiroidea o en el metabolismo de las lipoproteínas, excepto una mayor concentración de HDL, lo que en el bovino requiere la realización de estudios posterioresThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low Selenium diet and its supplementation on the serum levels of T3, T4 and on the lipid profile in dairy cows under an induced oxidative stress. Twelve pregnant dairy Chilean-Friesian cows were selected and assigned to one of two groups, control (n = 6, Se-D and treated (n

  20. Crecimiento y supervivencia de crías de pulpo (Octopus maya : alimentados con dietas inertes bajo condiciones de laboratorio en Yucatán, México Growth and survival of larvals of octopus (Octopus maya : fed with inert diets under conditions of laboratory in Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rodríguez-Serna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo un diseño experimental se probaron tres dietas con el objetivo de determinar el crecimiento y la supervivencia de las crías de Octopus maya (Voss y Solís 1966, utilizando dos tipos de alimento inerte (A2 = Balanceado, A3 = Surimi y comparándolo con un alimento vivo (A1 = Artemia, bajo condiciones controladas. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre el alimento vivo y el alimento inerte. Se encontró un mejor crecimiento en peso ganado en las crías de pulpo alimentadas con una dieta viva en comparación con las dietas inertes (A1 = 11.88 g, A2 = 8.9 g, A3 = 8.83 g; sin embargo, para las tres dietas se obtuvo una baja supervivencia. El análisis estadístico arrojó diferencias estadísticas (p > 0.05 entre todos los tratamientos, siendo el alimento vivo el que presentó la mayor supervivencia con un 61.3%, seguido del surimi con un 42.3% y finalmente el balanceado con un 27.6%. La alimentación de O. maya en cautiverio aún requiere de muchos esfuerzos para desarrollar un alimento balanceado adecuado desde el punto de vista nutrimental o de formulación, así como desde la parte de atracción y aceptación por los animales.Three experimental diets were probed for the growth and survival rates of young Octopus maya (Voss and Solis 1966, using two inert foods (A2 = shrimp pellets, A3 = Surimi and one alive food (A1 = Artemia, under controlled conditions. The results showed significant differences between the live food and the inert ones. Young octopus feed with artemia, reported better growth in weight gained compared with the inert diets (A1 = 11.88 g, A2 = 8.9 g, A3 = 8.83 g. All three diets obtained low survivorships, being the alive food the best one with a rate of 61.3%, followed by surimi with 42.3%, and finally the pellet food with 27.6%. Statistical analysis showed differences (p > 0.05 between all the treatments for both growth and survival results. Artificial feeding of O. maya in captivity still requires many

  1. Efecto de la alimentación con sangre humana sobre la fecundidad, fertilidad y ciclo biológico de Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Se observó el efecto de diferentes fracciones de sangre humana sobre la ovipostura (fecundidad), la eclosión (fertilidad) y el ciclo biológico de Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859 utilizando un alimentador artificial. En los ejemplares alimentados con sangre de hombre, la fecundidad fue mayor que en los alimentados con sangre de mujer. No hubo diferencia significativa en la fertilidad relacionada con la procedencia de las fracciones. En cada estadio se estimaron los tiempos de permanencia y el núme...

  2. Genetic diversity and connectivity within Mytilus spp. in the subarctic and Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Sofie Smedegaard; Thyrring, Jakob; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer

    2017-01-01

    engineers in the coastal zone globally. To improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp. individuals sampled at 13 sites to provide baseline data for distribution and genetic variation of Mytilus mussels...... in the European Arctic. Mytilus edulis was the most abundant species found with a clear genetic split between populations in Greenland and the Eastern Atlantic. Surprisingly, analyses revealed the presence of Mytilus trossulus in high Arctic NW Greenland (77°N) and Mytilus galloprovincialis or their hybrids in SW...

  3. Effect of copper on Mytilus californianus and Mytilus edulis. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-06

    Mytilus edulis and Mytilus californianus have come into widespread use as valuable test animals in estimating the effects and extent of copper pollution, both naturally as indicators and under simulated conditions as bioassays. These mussels are known bioaccumulators of heavy metals. They have a broad distribution, and mutually exclusive habitats. How the mussel reacts to copper is directly related to how copper affects the physiology of the mussel. The filtration rate and oxygen consumption of Mytilus are known to decline by more than 50% under exposure to as low as 200 ppB Cu in the water. Decline in heart rate (bradycardia) also occurs under exposure to copper. Byssus thread production suffers in copper concentrations of 500 ppB and higher. The ability of M. edulis to close its valves in the presence of copper has been documented by several researchers. Of all the physiological parameters, oxygen consumption, heart rate, and valve closure are basic physiological functions which are easily measured. Mortality of Mytilus edulis is known to occur at concentrations of copper 330 ppB and higher within four to five days. It would be advantageous to have a continuous monitoring of the heart, oxygen consumption, and valve gape during this period to determine the state of each and the contribution of each to the possible death of the mussel. This study involves monitoring the three above physiological functions under varying concentrations of copper. In both species, M. edulis and M. californianus, detailed toxicological response records were obtained for each function. These records were then used to compare the physiological responses of each species to different levels of ambient copper in order to explain the possibility of repeatable, species-specific, response patterns to copper. (ERB)

  4. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.

  5. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xing; Bao, Lin-fei; Fan, Mei-hua; Li, Xiao-min; Wu, Chang-wen; Xia, Shu-wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment. PMID:26218932

  6. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liao, Zhi; Wang, Xin-Xing; Bao, Lin-Fei; Fan, Mei-Hua; Li, Xiao-Min; Wu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.

  7. The exhalant jet of mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann; Lundgreen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    detailed 2-component velocity distributions near the exhalant siphon in 5 planes parallel to the axis of the jet and the major axis of the oval aperture, and hence estimates of momentum and kinetic energy flows in addition to mean velocity. Data obtained on particles inside the exhalant jet of filtered...... shell lengths. Here, we present results of a detailed study of fully open mussels Mytilus edulis in terms of filtration rate, exhalant siphon aperture area, jet velocity, gill area and body dry weight, all as a function of shell length (mean +/- SD) over the range 16.0 +/- 0.4 to 82.6 +/- 2.9 mm......, with the corresponding scaling laws also presented. The exhalant jet velocity was determined by 3 methods: (1) measured clearance rate divided by exhalant aperture area, (2) manual particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) using video-microscope recordings, and (3) particle image velocimetry (PIV). The latter provides...

  8. Mercury-binding proteins of Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, G.; Morris, J. E.; Calabrese, A.

    1981-11-01

    Mytilus edulis possesses low molecular weight, mercury-binding proteins. The predominant protein isolated from gill tissue is enriched in cysteinyl residues (8%) and possesses an amino acid composition similar to cadmium-binding proteins of mussels and oysters. Continuous exposure of mussels to 5 ..mu..g/l mercury results in spillover of mercury from these proteins to high molecular weight proteins. Antibodies to these proteins have been isolated, and development of immunoassays is presently underway. Preliminary studies to determine whether exposure of adult mussels to mercury will result in induction of mercury-binding proteins in offspring suggest that such proteins occur in larvae although additional studies are indicated for a conclusive demonstration.

  9. Genetic diversity and connectivity within Mytilus spp. in the subarctic and Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Sofie Smedegaard; Thyrring, Jakob; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer

    2017-01-01

    engineers in the coastal zone globally. To improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp. individuals sampled at 13 sites to provide baseline data for distribution and genetic variation of Mytilus mussels...

  10. Radares meteorológicos alimentados por vías alternativas; Weather Radars with Power Supply from Alternatives Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Diez Rodríguez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La red de radares meteorológicos de Cuba está compuesta por siete radares antiguos (cuatro rusos y tresjaponeses, los cuales son mantenidos y operados por el Instituto de Meteorología de Cuba. En 1997 elInstituto de Meteorología decidió modernizar todos sus radares, tarea que tomó diez años para su ejecución.Los sistemas de accionamiento eléctrico de las antenas también fueron sometidos a la modernización,pero junto a los requerimientos impuestos por el nuevo sistema de adquisición, los sistemas deaccionamiento dibieron cumplir con las exigencias energéticas para ser alimentados de baterías. Esteartículo describe las soluciones técnicas implementadas en el nuevo sistema de accionamiento eléctricode las antenas.  Weather radar network in Cuba is composed by seven old-fashioned radars (four Russian and three Japaneseand they are maintained and operated by Cuban Meteorological Institute. In 1997 Cuban MeteorologicalInstitute decided to modernize all those radars, and this task was accomplished along ten years.Antenna motor drives were also a matter of modernization, but along with restrictions imposed by dataacquisition, drives needed to complain energy restrictions in order to be used with a battery supply. Thispaper describes technical solutions implemented in newly designed antenna motor drives.

  11. Meta-análisis de dietas con baja proteína adicionadas con aminoácidos sintéticos para cerdos en engorda.

    OpenAIRE

    González Reyes, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    Se han reportado resultados inconsistentes utilizando dietas bajas en proteína cruda formuladas con sorgo-pasta de soya adicionadas con AA sintéticos que mantengan los resultados productivos y las características de la canal de cerdos alimentados con dieta estándar. Esto ha motivado a realizar un meta-análisis para combinar los resultados originales de estudios independientes. El conjunto de datos utilizados se basó en una línea de investigación sobre la alimentación de cerdos con dietas baja...

  12. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM HALIOTIS TUBERCULATA AND MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance (AR of Gram negative bacteria from Haliotis tuberculata (Ht and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mg was assessed. Essential differences between R profiles of Pseudomonas spp and of other strains was not observed. Strains AR from Ht and Mg was similar.

  13. Differences in sperm ultrastructure between Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Bivalvia, Mytilidae: could be used as a taxonomic trait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sperm ultrastructure has been used to solve several systematic and phylogenetic problems in marine invertebrates. The sperm ultrastructure of the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis corresponds to the ect-aquasperm type. Sperm from both taxa measured 55-60 μm between head (acrosome + nucleus, midpiece (only 5 mitochondria and the flagellum which in its end piece has a smaller diameter tail. The differences between both taxa are clearly shown, in the structure of the acrosome and nucleus. Therefore, according to our results and those reported in the literature, we indicate that Chilean native mussel sperm is different from other species of the Mytilus complex (M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis. These differences in sperm ultrastructure found in M. chilensis, are another trait that can be used to validate the taxonomic status of the species. Differences in sperm morphology are related with reproductive isolation, and probably will be useful to understand future data on speciation. Finally, we discussed the finding that Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm from Chile have an acrosome notoriously smaller than those reported for specimens from Europe and Africa, though they have a great similarity with specimens from Japan, as reported in the literature.

  14. Genetic composition of Mytilus species in mussel populations from southern Chile Composición genética de especies de Mytilus en poblaciones de mejillón del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Larraín

    2012-11-01

    , calidad e inocuidad de los alimentos. Usando el marcador Me 15-16, la mayoría de los mejillones fueron M. chilensis, no se encontraron individuos puros de otras especies. Sin embargo, se detectaron híbridos putativos M. chilensis x M. trossulus y M. chilensis x M. galloprovincialis. No se encontró evidencia de M. edulis. La presencia del alelo de M. trossulus, lejos de su área de distribución, requiere de análisis posteriores con diferentes marcadores genéticos para entender su origen. Además, conocer la correspondencia entre marcadores que distinguen M. galloprovincialis del hemisferio norte y sur con aquellos que discriminan entre M. chilensis y M. galloprovincialis contribuirá al estatus taxonómico del mítilido chileno. La composición genética de Mytilus en Chile no permite establecer su origen geográfico ni la trazabilidad, basándose solo en la identificación de la especie y se requiere el uso de otros marcadores.

  15. Efecto de la alimentación con sangre humana sobre la fecundidad, fertilidad y ciclo biológico de Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aldana

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se observó el efecto de diferentes fracciones de sangre humana sobre la ovipostura (fecundidad, la eclosión (fertilidad y el ciclo biológico de Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859 utilizando un alimentador artificial. En los ejemplares alimentados con sangre de hombre, la fecundidad fue mayor que en los alimentados con sangre de mujer. No hubo diferencia significativa en la fertilidad relacionada con la procedencia de las fracciones. En cada estadio se estimaron los tiempos de permanencia y el número de ingestas necesarias para mudar al siguiente estadio ninfal. Los animales alimentados sólo con plasma no completaron el desarrollo ninfal, mientras que los alimentados sólo con glóbulos rojos se desarrollaron hasta el tercer estadio. El ciclo de vida se completó en 129 días en los individuos alimentados con sangre sin fraccionar.The effect of several human blood fractions artificially fed to Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859 on oviposture (fecundity, egg-hatching (fertility and life cycle was observed. Specimens fed on man's blood were more fecund than those fed with woman's blood. There were no significant differences in fertility related to host sex. The nymphal development time and number of feedings to molt to the following instar were estimated. Animals fed only on blood plasm did not finish nymphal development, while those fed only blood red cells ended their life cycle in the third nymphal instar. Total life cycle lasts 129 days in individuals fed with whole blood.

  16. Calidad y rendimiento en canal de corderos en pastoreo suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Frías

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue medir el rendimiento de la canal y la calidad de la carne de corderos alimentados con pasto, suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada en forma aeróbica. Se llevó a cabo en dos sitios. Se trabajó con un grupo de 13 corderos de 11.5 kg de peso vivo inicial, estabulados y alimentados con pasto, suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada en Cunduacán, Tabasco, y 24 corderos con 20 kg de peso vivo inicial, semiestabulado en pastoreo con pasto Estrella Africana, suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada, en Huimanguillo, Tabasco. Se sacrificaron a un peso de 32 kg. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva. La ganancia diaria de peso fue de 109 y 85 g para el sistema Cunduacán y Huimanguillo, respectivamente. El peso y rendimiento de la canal en frío y caliente fue de 13.5 y de 14.14 kg, 42.04 y 43.09% y 40.28 y 41.45%, para el sistema Cunduacán y Huimanguillo, respectivamente. La relación entre el peso al sacrificio con el rendimiento de la canal tuvo correlación negativa de -0.41. Las piezas de mayor peso fueron, pierna, costilla/falda, lomo y paleta. La capacidad de retención de agua fue 12.78, 12.8, y elpH, 5.49 y 5.71, para el sistema Cunduacán y Huimanguillo, respectivamente. El color de la grasa fue blanco para las canales de ovinos, en ambos sitios. Se concluye que los corderos de pelo alimentados con pasto y caña fermentada producen canales con bajo rendimiento magro y con grasa de color blanca.

  17. Genetic diversity and connectivity within Mytilus spp. in the subarctic and Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Sofie Smedegaard; Thyrring, Jakob; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer;

    2016-01-01

    in the European Arctic. Mytilus edulis was the most abundant species found with a clear genetic split between populations in Greenland and the Eastern Atlantic. Surprisingly, analyses revealed the presence of M. trossulus in high Arctic NW Greenland (77°N) and M. galloprovincialis or their hybrids in SW Greenland......Climate changes in the Arctic are predicted to alter distributions of marine species. However, such changes are difficult to quantify because information on present species distribution and the genetic variation within species is lacking or poorly examined. Blue mussels, Mytilus spp. are ecosystem...... engineers in the coastal zone globally. In order to improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp. individuals sampled at 13 sites to provide baseline data for distribution and genetic variation of Mytilus mussels...

  18. ESTUDO BIOMÉTRICO DE RATOS ALIMENTADOS COM DOIS TIPOS DE DIETA

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Cristina Antonio dos Santos; Ana Carolina Tocilo Lopes; Gláucia de Cássia Xavier da Cruz; Bruna Corral Garcia; Fábio Yoshikazu Kodama; Regina Celi Trindade Camargo; José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho

    2010-01-01

    A dieta hipercalórica é tida como fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares, sendo preocupante para a saúde pública mundial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a biometria de ratos alimentados por dois tipos de dieta. Para tanto, foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar machos com 90 dias com oferta de ração e água à vontade; divididos em G1 recebendo dieta normocalórica e G2, dieta hipercalórica. A ingesta alimentar foi mensurada diariamente. Após 18 semanas foram eut...

  19. ESTUDO BIOMÉTRICO DE RATOS ALIMENTADOS COM DOIS TIPOS DE DIETA

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Cristina Antonio dos Santos; Ana Carolina Tocilo Lopes; Gláucia de Cássia Xavier da Cruz; Bruna Corral Garcia; Fábio Yoshikazu Kodama; Regina Celi Trindade Camargo; José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho

    2010-01-01

    A dieta hipercalórica é tida como fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares, sendo preocupante para a saúde pública mundial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a biometria de ratos alimentados por dois tipos de dieta. Para tanto, foram utilizados 24 ratos Wistar machos com 90 dias com oferta de ração e água à vontade; divididos em G1 recebendo dieta normocalórica e G2, dieta hipercalórica. A ingesta alimentar foi mensurada diariamente. Após 18 semanas foram eut...

  20. TASAS DE CONCEPCIÓN, FERTILIDAD Y PROLIFICIDAD EN OVEJAS DE PELO ALIMENTADAS CON DIETAS ENRIQUECIDAS CON ÁCIDOS GRASOS POLIINSATURADOS

    OpenAIRE

    G Cansino-Arroyo; J Herrera-Camacho; JR Aké-López

    2009-01-01

    Las tasas de concepción, de fertilidad y prolificidad fueron evaluadas en ovejas de pelo distribuidas al azar en: un grupo testigo que recibió 800 g MS de un concentrado comercial, un grupo melaza (n = 51) alimentado con 717.6 g MS del concentrado comercial + 80.25 g MS de melaza y un grupo aceite (n = 85) mantenido con 726.8 del concentrado comercial + 30.0 g de aceite de maíz como fuente de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. Las tasas de concepción y fertilidad fueron similares entre los tratam...

  1. Molecular and acute temperature stress response characterizations of caspase-8 gene in two mussels, Mytilus coruscus and Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Wang, Hong-Wei; Yao, Cui-Luan

    2014-01-01

    The caspase family represents aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that play key roles in initiation of apoptosis in various cells response to environmental stress. In this study, two caspase-8 cDNA sequences were cloned from two Mytilus mussels, Mytilus coruscus (Mccaspase-8) and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mgcaspase-8), respectively. The full-length cDNA of Mccaspase-8 was 1884bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 140bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 238bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1506bp encoding a polypeptide of 501 amino acids. The 1775bp full-length Mg caspase-8 cDNA sequence contained an ORF of 1488bp encoding a polypeptide of 495 amino acid residues, a 5'-UTR of 51bp and a 3'-UTR of 236bp. Both the Mccaspase-8 and Mgcaspase-8 amino acid sequences contained two highly conservative death effector domains (DEDs) at N-terminal, the caspase family domains P20 and P10 and the caspase family cysteine active site 'KPKLFFIQACQG'. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Mccaspase-8 and Mgcaspase-8 were clustered with the caspase-8 from other organisms, with the close relationship with caspase-8 from mollusk. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the predominant transcripts of Mccaspase-8 were in mantle and gonad tissue of M. coruscus and the high expression levels of Mgcaspase-8 were in digestive gland and gill tissue of M. galloprovincialis, respectively. The impacts of temperature stress on Mccaspase-8 and Mgcaspase-8 expressions were tested in gill tissue and hemocytes of both species. Our results showed that both Mccaspase-8 and Mgcaspase-8 transcripts and caspase-8 activity in gill tissue and hemocytes could be induced significantly after cold and heat stress (pgalloprovincialis.

  2. Desempenho de alevinos de jundiá alimentados com silagem de rejeito de peixe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariane Beatriz Schoffen Enke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho zootécnico de alevinos de jundiá, alimentados com silagem de rejeitos de pescado, em substituição ao farelo de soja e à levedura de cana. Durante 35 dias, 375 alevinos de jundiá com peso inicial de 1,73±0,17 g, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram avaliados em cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de inclusão de silagem de pescado a 0, 12,5, 25, 37,5 e 50%. Todos os parâmetros zootécnicos avaliados, exceto o fator de condição, mostraram que a substituição do farelo de soja e da levedura pela silagem de rejeito de pescado melhora o desempenho produtivo de alevinos de jundiá.

  3. Crecimiento en jaulas del pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869 con dos tipos de dieta en Bahía Málaga, municipio de Buenaventura, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Andrés Banguera Gil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para dar continuidad al “Programa de desarrollo de la maricultura en el Pacífico colombiano” adelantado por la Universidad del Pacífico, en un cerramiento natural ubicado en la vereda La Sierpe, Bahía Málaga, municipio de Buenaventura, se comparó la tasa de crecimiento de 204 ejemplares silvestres de pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus , alimentados con pescado fresco y concentrado comercial al 35% en proteína, con peso y longitud total promedio de 13,79 cm y 32,21 g, respectivamente. El trabajo se realizó por espacio de 40 días en cuatro jaulas flotantes, de 3 x 1,5 x 0,75 m, dos para cada tratamiento, a densidades de 15 individuos/m 3 , utilizando el 12% de la biomasa corporal para el suministro de los alimentos a evaluar; el crecimiento se analizó mediante los siguientes índices: IPD = Incremento en Peso Diario; TCE = Tasa de Crecimiento Específico. Los peces alcanzaron un peso promedio final de 64,9±5,9 y 58,49±5,9 g para el alimento natural y balanceado comercial respectivamente, lo cual es equivalente a un IPD de 0.8 y 0.7 g/d y una TCE de 1,58 y 1,67 g/d, valores considerados buenos teniendo en cuenta su etapa de desarrollo y comparaciones con otros estudios realizados en Colombia. Los peces aceptaron los dos tipos de alimento de manera satisfactoria, durante el período de cultivo y mostraron gran tolerancia a la manipulación, resistencia a las enfermedades y a las fluctuaciones de la calidad del agua, en especial la salinidad. Los resultados señalan que existen diferencias significativas (P>0.05 entre los dos tratamientos a favor del alimento natural. Los índices de sobrevivencia fueron de 90,2% para peces alimentados con pescado fresco y 85,3% para los alimentados con concentrado. Se concluye que el pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus presenta una importante ventaja para su cultivo como es la fácil aceptación de un concentrado comercial. pero el crecimiento de los peces alimentados con este producto fue

  4. Differences in copper bioaccumulation and biological responses in three Mytilus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven J; Farmen, Eivind; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Blanco-Rayón, Esther; Izagirre, Urtzi

    2015-03-01

    Mytilus species are important organisms in marine systems being highly abundant and widely distributed along the coast of Europe and worldwide. They are typically used in biological effects studies and have a suite of biological effects endpoints that are frequently measured and evaluated for stress effects in laboratory experiments and field monitoring programmes. Differences in bioaccumulation and biological responses of the three Mytilus species following exposure to copper (Cu) were investigated. A laboratory controlled exposure study was performed with three genetically confirmed Mytilus species; M. galloprovincialis, M. edulis and M. trossulus. Chemical bioaccumulation and biomarkers were assessed in all three Mytilus species following a 4 day and a 21 day exposure to waterborne copper concentrations (0, 10, 100 and 500μg/L). Differences in copper bioaccumulation were measured after both 4 and 21 days, which suggests some physiological differences between the species. Furthermore, differences in response for some of the biological effects endpoints were also found to occur following exposure. These differences were discussed in relation to either real physiological differences between the species or merely confounding factors relating to the species natural habitat and seasonal cycles. Overall the study demonstrated that differences in chemical bioaccumulation and biomarker responses between the Mytilus spp. occur with potential consequences for mussel exposure studies and biological effects monitoring programmes. Consequently, the study highlights the importance of identifying the correct species when using Mytilus in biological effects studies.

  5. Análisis y modelado del generador de inducción doblemente alimentado. Analysis and Modeling of Doubly Fed Induction Generators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesyani T. León Viltre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los generadores eólicos de velocidad variable más utilizados en la actualidad es el generador de inducción doblemente alimentado (DFIG. En el presente trabajo se presenta un esquema de control del DFIG. El convertidor de potencia del lado de la red es modelado y controlado usando el vector de tensión orientado a los ejes dq, lo que garantiza que con la componente del eje d de la corriente se pueda controlar la potencia activa y, por consiguiente, la tensión del bus DC. La componente del eje q es forzada a cero para mantener un factor de potencia unitario. En el convertidor del lado del rotor se utiliza un control orientado al flujo del estator. Para la sincronización con la red se utiliza un método novedoso basado en el método GDSC-PLL (Generalizad delayed signal cancellation. Además, se presenta un análisis del comportamiento del DFIG, ante huecos de tensión.  One of the variable speed wind turbines most commonly used today is the doubly feed induction generator(DFIG.A control scheme of DFIG is discussed in this paper. The power converter connected to the grid side (bus is modeled and controlled using voltage vectororiented dq reference frame, whichguarantees that the active power can be controlled by the daxiscurrent component and consequently the DC bus voltage. The qaxis component is forced to be zero in order to ensurethe unitary power factor. Astator flux oriented control in the rotor circuit converter is used.A novel GDSC-PLL method is used in order to achieve an efficient synchronization with the grid.Onthe order hand, this paper presents an analysis about the DFIG (Double Feed Induction Generator behavior during voltages sags.

  6. Análisis y modelado del generador de inducción doblemente alimentado; Analysis and Modeling of Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesyani T- León Viltre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los generadores eólicos de velocidad variable más utilizados en la actualidad es el generador de inducción doblemente alimentado (DFIG. En el presente trabajo se presenta un esquema de control del DFIG. El convertidor de potencia del lado de la red es modelado y controlado usando el vector de tensión orientado a los ejes dq, lo que garantiza que con la componente del eje d de la corriente se pueda controlar la potencia activa y, por consiguiente, la tensión del bus DC. La componente del eje q es forzada a cero para mantener un factor de potencia unitario. En el convertidor del lado del rotor se utiliza un control orientado al flujo del estator. Para la sincronización con la red se utiliza un método novedoso basado en el método GDSC-PLL (Generalizad delayed signal cancellation. Además, se presenta un análisis del comportamiento del DFIG, ante huecos de tensión. One of the variable speed wind turbines most commonly used today is the doubly feed induction generator(DFIG.A control scheme of DFIG is discussed in this paper. The power converter connected to the grid side (bus is modeled and controlled using voltage vectororiented dq reference frame, whichguarantees that the active power can be controlled by the daxiscurrent component and consequently the DC bus voltage. The qaxis component is forced to be zero in order to ensurethe unitary power factor. Astator flux oriented control in the rotor circuit converter is used.A novel GDSC-PLL method is used in order to achieve an efficient synchronization with the grid.Onthe order hand, this paper presents an analysis about the DFIG (Double Feed Induction Generator behavior during voltages sags

  7. THE AVAILABILITY OF Mytilus galloprovincialis FOR MONITORING ENTERIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nüket SĐVRĐ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the usage of Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 as monitoring organism on enteric bacteria concentrations in heavily polluted marine environments and its use possibilities as water quality improving tool were investigated. The ability of the Mediterranean Mussel to accumulate and purge fecal coliform bacteria investigated in laboratory experiments. First, increase on bacteria concentration was observed on 1,5th hour and sharp decrease rate lasted until 10th hours after that period slow but steady declining bacteria concentration rate was observed and beginning bacteria concentration rate was reached within next 30- 50 hours. Time dependent bacteria concentration reduction has found statistically significant at p<0.001 (r-sq = 0.81. The investigation has also revealed that mussel farming could be established in the over polluted area which is the case only in the different discharge points in the sea.

  8. Composition and ultrastructure of the byssus of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, C V; Waite, J H

    1986-09-01

    Three regions of the byssus of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis L. are distinct in structural organization at the macroscopic and microscopic level and in amino acid composition. The threads that emanate from the stem at the base of the foot are divided into two regions. The proximal, elastic region has a crimped, densely staining cortex enclosing an interior matrix of spiral fibers, and its amino acid composition reflects protein heterogeneity. The more distal, rigid region has a straight, tubular cortex surrounding an inner matrix of linearly arranged bundles of fibrils and has a composition approximating pure collagen. The plaque, or disc-shaped portion, which mediates attachment to various substrates, is distinguished by a surface matrix of collagen-like fibers similar to those of the thread region and anchored on an inner spongy matrix. Compositional evidence exists for a collagenous component, a catechol-rich protein, and at least one other accessory protein in the plaque.

  9. Dopamine receptor in anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, I; Murakami, H; Iwayama, Y; Yoshida, Y; Miki, S

    1981-04-01

    Effects of dopamine, N-methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-derivatives of dopamine, and alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor stimulants on catch contraction of anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis were tested. The test drugs except the beta-adrenoceptor stimulants relaxed catch contraction. Dopamine was most active and substitution of amino group in dopamine with ethyl and propyl decreased activity considerably. The concentration-curves of dopamine, its derivatives and norepinephrine shifted in parallel with application of haloperidol but were not influenced by the alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. These results suggest that relaxation of catch contraction by catecholamines is mediated through a dopamine receptor. This muscle is considered to be suitable for a study of the dopamine receptor.

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS Y PIGMENTACIÓN EN POLLOS ALIMENTADOS CON HARINA ZAPALLO (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA CARVAJAL TAPIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On the farms you can get different products from small farming system that can contribute to the economy of the poultyman farmer, for example, the squash (Cucurbita moschata. With the squash flour was evaluated pigmentation of skin and productive parameters in broilers. With the inclusion of 0, 7,5 and 15 percent in diets. A design completely at random (DCA was used with four repetitions and four animals per experimental unit. The analysis of variety did not show statistic differences (p≤0,05 for the feed intake in the two phases, either in weight gain and feed conversion in the ending phase; there were showed meaningful statistic differences for weight gain and feed conversion in the starter phase and the pigmentation in the final phase, the skin pigmentation of animals fed with squash flour was intense yellow according to the variety of colors DMS compared to those fed with the witness treatment. The inclusion of squash flour in diets for feeding broiler chicken bigger than 7,5% y less than 15%, is considered as a no conventional raw material that helps to the pigmentation of the skin, without affecting productive parameters in the ending phase and it becomes in an alternative for the productive systems of the small producers generating a value added in terms of skin pigmentation.

  11. Crescimento e metabolismo do nitrogênio em juvenis de Trachinotus marginatus alimentados com diferentes níveis proteicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e alterações no metabolismo do nitrogênio, além da composição do fígado e do músculo de juvenis de pampo Trachinotus marginatus alimentados com 43, 54 ou 64% de proteína bruta (PB43, PB54 e PB64, respectivamente. Grupos de 10 juvenis (1,47±0,14g foram estocados em nove tanques de 50L, em sistema de recirculação de água marinha, durante 55 dias, alimentados quatro vezes ao dia com as rações pré-definidas. O ganho em peso, a taxa de crescimento específico e a conversão alimentar não apresentaram diferença significativa (P>0,05. Contudo, o acréscimo de proteína consumida aumentou o índice hepatossomático e a taxa de excreção de amônia pós-prandial, bem como diminuiu a retenção proteica. Os peixes alimentados com a dieta PB43 apresentaram menor concentração da transaminase glutâmico oxalacética hepática, além de menor concentração de triglicerídeos no músculo e fígado (P0,05, excetuando o maior teor de lipídios da carcaça no tratamento PB43. Concluímos que a melhor utilização da proteína por juvenis de pampo é observada quando eles são alimentados com uma dieta contendo 43% de proteína.

  12. Nutrición en juveniles del langostino Macrobrachium carcinus (Cmstacea: Decapoda) con dietas de residuos vegetales y marinos

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Sánchez, Ruth; Vaillard-Nava, Yvette; Re-Araujo, Ana Denisse

    2015-01-01

    Juveniles del langostino Macrobrachium carcinus fueron alimentados con dos dietas: de desechos de restaurante (dieta 1) y de pescado y productos vegetales (dieta ll). Las dietas fueron evaluadas mediante análisis proximal, bioensayos de digestibilidad (Eficiencia de Asimilación), bioensayos de crecimiento y Factor de Conversión (FCR). A pesa:[" de que, los organismos asimilaron con mayor eficiencia la dieta 1, el crecimiento no fue diferente, siendo éste, en promedio para los tres meses del e...

  13. Estudo comparativo do ciclo evolutivo de Rhodnius neglectus alimentados em pombos ou camundongos

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    Liléia Diotaiuti

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseados no encontro de 77,2% de reação de precipitina positiva para soro antiave de R. neglectus capturados em palmeiras da periferia de Belo Horizonte, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo de uma colonia recém-estabelecida no laboratório alimentada com sangue de pombo ou camundongo, na expectativa de demonstrarmos maior adaptação deste triatomíneo ao sangue da ave. Para comparação, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo destes insetos numa colônia há muito mantida em insetário. Nossos resultados mostram um desenvolvimento mais rápido da colônia recém- estabelecida, assim como do lote de triatomíneos alimentado em camundongo. Esses achados sugerem menor potencial biológico para triatomíneos criados por longo tempo em insetário em comparação a novas colônias. Sendo as aves os principais habitantes das palmeiras, a aparente preferência alimentar por sangue de aves demonstrada pela reação de precipitina parece ser circunstancial e não seletiva na busca do sangue com o qual o triatomíneo obteria melhor desenvolvimento.

  14. Recombinant mitochondrial genome with standard transmission route from Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmietanka, Beata; Filipowicz, Monika; Burzyński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Several bivalve species, including marine mussels Mytilus are atypical in having two gender-specific and highly divergent mtDNA genomes. This peculiar genetic system allows not only the recombination to occur but also facilitates its detection. Previous reports associated the existence of mosaic recombinant haplotypes with the switch of their transmission route. Here we report nearly complete sequence of a mitochondrial genome isolated from a homoplasmic female individual of Mediterranean Mytilus galloprovincialis. The genome has clear phylogenetic affinity with and organization identical to the M. galloprovincialis female haplotypes, in the coding part. However, the genome is very large, approximately 20,600 bp long, exclusively due to a long and complex control region. It contains an array of repeats, some of which are degenerated. A large part of the control region is derived from the paternal genome. This finding shows that not all haplotypes with recombinant control regions must be paternally inherited in Mytilus.

  15. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-02-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.

  16. Oxidative stress and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, Sara [Environmental Research Institute of University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Doyle, Hugh [Tyndall National Institute, Cork (Ireland); Blasco, Julian [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Marine Science Institute of Andalusia, Cadiz (Spain); Redmond, Gareth [Tyndall National Institute, Cork (Ireland); Sheehan, David, E-mail: d.sheehan@ucc.ie [Environmental Research Institute of University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have potential applications in drug delivery, cancer diagnosis and therapy, food industry and environment remediation. However, little is known about their potential toxicity or fate in the environment. Mytilus edulis was exposed in tanks to750 ppb AuNP (average diameter 5.3 {+-} 1 nm) for 24 h to study in vivo biological effects of nanoparticles. Traditional biomarkers and an affinity procedure selective for thiol-containing proteins followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) separations were used to study toxicity and oxidative stress responses. Results were compared to those obtained for treatment with cadmium chloride, a well known pro-oxidant. M. edulis mainly accumulated AuNP in digestive gland which also showed higher lipid peroxidation. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE (1DE) and 2DE analysis of digestive gland samples revealed decreased thiol-containing proteins for AuNP. Lysosomal membrane stability measured in haemolymph gave lower values for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in both treatments but was greater in AuNP. Oxidative stress occurred within 24 h of AuNP exposure in M. edulis. Previously we showed that larger diameter AuNP caused modest effects, indicating that nanoparticle size is a key factor in biological responses to nanoparticles. This study suggests that M. edulis is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles.

  17. Mytilus galloprovincialis as a smart micro-pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazil E. Uslu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic performance of the marine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, is studied with time-resolved particle image velocimetry. We evaluated inhalant flow, exhalant jet flow, suction performance and flow control capabilities of the mussels quantitatively. Inhalant flow structures of mussels are measured at the coronal plane for the first time in literature. Nutrient fluid is convected into the mussel by three-dimensional sink flow. Inhalant velocity reaches its highest magnitude inside the mussel mantle while it is accelerating outward from the mussels. We calculated pressure gradient at the coronal plane. As inhalant flow approaches the mussel shell tip, suction force generated by the inhalant flow increases and becomes significant at the shell tip. Likewise, exhalant jet flow regimes were studied for 17 mussels. Mussels can control their exhalant jet flow structure from a single potential core region to double potential core region or vice versa. Peak exhalant jet velocity generated by the mussels changes between 2.77 cm s−1 and 11.1 cm s−1 as a function of mussel cavity volume. Measurements of hydrodynamic dissipation at the sagittal plane revealed no interaction between the inhalant and exhalant jet flow, indicating energy-efficient synchronized pumping mechanism. This efficient pumping mechanism is associated with the flow-turning angle between inhalant and exhalant jet flows, ∼90° (s.d. 12°.

  18. Genes of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Estévez-Calvar

    Full Text Available Bivalves play vital roles in marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. In recent years, these ecosystems have become affected through anthropogenic activities. The ecological success of marine bivalves is based on the ability to modify their physiological functions in response to environmental changes. One of the most important mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to environmental and biological stresses is apoptosis, which has been scarcely studied in mollusks, although the final consequence of this process, DNA fragmentation, has been frequently used for pollution monitoring. Environmental stressors induce apoptosis in molluscan cells via an intrinsic pathway. Many of the proteins involved in vertebrate apoptosis have been recognized in model invertebrates; however, this process might not be universally conserved. Mytilus galloprovincialis is presented here as a new model to study the linkage between molecular mechanisms that mediate apoptosis and marine bivalve ecological adaptations. Therefore, it is strictly necessary to identify the key elements involved in bivalve apoptosis. In the present study, six mitochondrial apoptotic-related genes were characterized, and their gene expression profiles following UV irradiation were evaluated. This is the first step for the development of potential biomarkers to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress. The results confirmed that apoptosis and, more specifically, the expression of the genes involved in this process can be used to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress.

  19. Sequence analysis of novel CYP4 transcripts from Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravlić, Sanda; Žučko, Jurica; Tanković, Mirta Smodlaka; Fafanđel, Maja; Bihari, Nevenka

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are essential components of cellular detoxification system. We identified and characterized seven new cytochrome P450 gene transcript clusters in the populations of bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis from three different locations. The phylogenetic analysis identified all transcripts as clusters within the CYP4 branch. Identified clusters, each comprising a number of transcript variants, were designated CYP4Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6 and Y7. Transcript clusters CYP4Y2 and Y7, and CYP4Y5 and Y6 showed site specificity, while the transcript clusters CYP4Y1, Y3 and Y4 were present at all investigated locations. The comparison of transcripts deduced amino acid sequences with CYP4s from vertebrate and invertebrate species showed high conservation of the residues and domains essential to the putative function of the enzyme, as terminal ω-hydroxylation and prostaglandin hydroxylation. Our results suggest the great expansion of the CYP4Y cDNAs indicative of CYP4 proteins in the mussel M. galloprovincialis presumably as a response to different environmental conditions.

  20. Effects of silver nanoparticles exposure in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina G; Cardoso, Cátia; Sousa, Vânia Serrão; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau; Pinheiro, José P; Bebianno, Maria João

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have emerged as one of the most commonly used NPs in a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. This has caused increasing concern about their fate in the environment as well as uptake and potential toxicity towards aquatic organisms. Accordingly, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to 10 μg L(-1) of Ag NPs and ionic silver (Ag+) for 15 days, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and metal accumulation were determined. Accumulation results show that both Ag NPs and Ag+ accumulated in both gills and digestive glands. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) were activated by Ag NPs and Ag+, showing different antioxidant patterns in both gills and digestive glands. Moreover, metallothionein was inducted in gills, directly related to Ag accumulation, while in the digestive glands only a small fraction of Ag seems to be associated with this protein. Lipid peroxidation was higher in gills exposed to Ag NPs, whereas in the digestive glands only Ag+ induced lipid peroxidation. Ag NPs and Ag+ cause oxidative stress with distinct modes of action and it's not clear if for Ag NPs the observed effects are attributed to free Ag+ ions associated with the nanoparticle effect.

  1. Biochemical and histological alterations of Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Auriemma

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretical and histological analysis were performed on Mytilus galloprovincialis digestivegland samples, in order to detect the presence of a previously identified protein ca 30 kDa MW,synthesized during Dinophysis spp. blooms, and assess a possible correlation between the occurrenceof this protein and okadaic acid (OA exposure by ingestion. Mussels were sampled monthly from July2000 to November 2001 in the Gulf of Trieste (upper Adriatic Sea and immediately processed. Parallelsamples were maintained in sea water plastic tanks and fed with marine invertebrate feed mixed withOA and derivatives at different concentration of toxins for each experimental group (25 mg, 50 mg, 100mg. In tank reared mussels fed with OA, degeneration of digestive cells and appearance of 24.6 kDaprotein were observed, while in wild mussels, neither histological alterations nor presence of a 24.6kDa protein, were detected. A correlation between the toxins concentration and time of appearancewas highlighted, to demonstrate this protein is synthesized in response to OA and derivativesexposure. About the identity of 24.6 kDa protein, it could be an enzyme involved in detoxificationreactions, probably Glyoxalase I.

  2. Hyperunstable matrix proteins in the byssus of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagert, Jason; Waite, J Herbert

    2009-07-01

    The marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is tethered to rocks in the intertidal zone by a holdfast known as the byssus. Functioning as a shock absorber, the byssus is composed of threads, the primary molecular components of which are collagen-containing proteins (preCOLs) that largely dictate the higher order self-assembly and mechanical properties of byssal threads. The threads contain additional matrix components that separate and perhaps lubricate the collagenous microfibrils during deformation in tension. In this study, the thread matrix proteins (TMPs), a glycine-, tyrosine- and asparagine-rich protein family, were shown to possess unique repeated sequence motifs, significant transcriptional heterogeneity and were distributed throughout the byssal thread. Deamidation was shown to occur at a significant rate in a recombinant TMP and in the byssal thread as a function of time. Furthermore, charge heterogeneity presumably due to deamidation was observed in TMPs extracted from threads. The TMPs were localized to the preCOL-containing secretory granules in the collagen gland of the foot and are assumed to provide a viscoelastic matrix around the collagenous fibers in byssal threads.

  3. Probing the adhesive footprints of Mytilus californianus byssus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Robertson, Nicholas B; Jewhurst, Scott A; Waite, J Herbert

    2006-04-21

    California mussels Mytilus californianus owe their tenacity to a holdfast known as the byssus, a fibrous extracellular structure that ends distally in flattened adhesive plaques. The "footprints" of freshly secreted plaques deposited onto glass coverslips were shown by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry to consist chiefly of proteins ranging in mass from 5200 to 6700 Da. These proteins, variants of a family known as mcfp3 (M. californianus foot protein 3), were purified from acetic acid/urea extracts of plaques and foot tissue. Mcfp3 appears to sort into fast and slow electrophoretic variants. Both are rich in Gly and Asn and exhibit post-translational hydroxylation of Tyr and Arg to Dopa and 4-hydroxyarginine, respectively, with the fast variant containing more than twice as much Lys + Arg. Both the slow and fast variants were partially sequenced from the N terminus, and the complete sequences of 12 variants were deduced from cDNA using degenerate oligonucleotides, PCR, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Mcfp3s are highly polar molecules and contain up to 28 mol % Dopa, which remains intact and may be crucial for adhesion to metal and mineral surfaces.

  4. Determination of radionuclides in Mytilus galloprovicialis by Alpha And Gamma-Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FLOROU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural radionuclides 238U ,234Th, 40K and the main man-made 137Cs, have been studied in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819 sampled in the Thermaikos gulf – North Aegean Sea, considered as a bioindicator for radiological assessment in the Mediterranean. The ratio 234U/238U has also been determined. In terms of 137Cs, the activity concentrations in seawater from the studied area have been measured as well, and the concentration factors of 137Cs in Mytilus galloprovincialis are given as a parameter of the organism response to radioactive pollution.

  5. Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators controlling the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneoka, Y; Fujisawa, Y; Matsuura, M; Ikeda, T

    1991-01-01

    1. The anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis is innervated by at least two kinds of nerves, excitatory and relaxing nerves. The principal neurotransmitters released from these nerves have been shown to be acetylcholine and serotonin, respectively. 2. Some other monoamines, such as dopamine and octopamine, and various peptides, such as FMRFamide-related peptides, Mytilus inhibitory peptides, SCP-related peptides and a catch-relaxing peptide, may also be involved in the regulation of the muscle as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. 3. The ABRM seems to be typical of invertebrate muscles controlled by multiple neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.

  6. The subfossil occurrence of Mytilus edulis L. in central East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Christian; Funder, Svend Visby

    1974-01-01

    The subfossil occurrence of Mytilus edulis in central East Greenland has been CH-dated to roughly between 8000 B.P. and 5500 B.P.; compared with other areas this is a short period. Its immigration coincides with the final deglaciation of the innermost fjords, and its disappearance is contemporane...... islandica can or could live, even if this was not possible along the surrounding and more hostile outer coasts. The reason for the absence of Mytilus edulis from the region today is probably not the local climate....

  7. Perfil sanguíneo de novilhos Nelore alimentados com diferentes fontes da energia da dieta em confinamento

    OpenAIRE

    Maia Filho, Geraldo Helber Batista; Souza,Rafahel Carvalho; Costa,Patrícia Monteiro; Silva, Sílvio Costa e; Andrade Júnior, José Mauro de Carvalho; Barbosa, Steffany Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Bovinos confinados estão mais susceptíveis ao desenvolvimento de desordens metabólicas o que pode resultar em decréscimo na produtivida­de. Foram avaliados os perfis sanguíneos em 32 bovinos Nelore alimentados com diferentes fontes de energia na dieta em confinamento, sendo MGI - die­ta composta por milho grão inteiro e suplemento comercial peletizado; SCMF - dieta composta por silagem de capim elefante e milho floculado como fonte energética; SCPC - dieta composta por silagem de capim elefan...

  8. Desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com diferentes níveis protéicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zundt Marilice

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar níveis crescentes de proteína bruta (PB na dieta de cordeiros em confinamento, por meio de seus efeitos sobre o desempenho animal. Trinta e dois cordeiros "tricross" (¹/2 Texel + fraction one-quarter Bergamácia + fraction one-quarter Corriedale, sendo 16 machos inteiros e 16 fêmeas, com idade média de 5 meses e peso vivo de 30 kg , foram alimentados durante 57 dias com dietas isoenergéticas (72% NDT, variando os níveis protéicos (12, 16, 20 e 24 % PB. Os animais foram identificados, pesados e distribuídos nos quatro tratamentos. Os cordeiros permaneceram em baias individuais, cobertas, com piso ripado e suspenso. Os parâmetros estudados foram ganho de peso, consumo de matéria seca, conversão alimentar e o custo de produção do quilograma de carcaça. A utilização de dietas, com diferentes níveis protéicos na terminação de cordeiros, mostrou efeito linear positivo para ganho de peso e negativo para conversão alimentar. Verificou-se que a utilização de dietas com níveis protéicos crescentes não influenciou o consumo de matéria seca dos cordeiros. Observou-se viabilidade econômica na terminação de cordeiros, utilizando-se dietas entre 12 e 24% de PB, entretanto, o maior retorno foi obtido com a ração contendo 12% PB. Não houve efeito de sexo para os parâmetros analisados.

  9. Desenvolvimento de alevinos de trairão alimentados com dietas artificiais em tanques de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Ronald Kennedy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado no Setor de Hidrobiologia e Piscicultura do Departamento de Biologia Animal da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Alevinos de trairão (Hoplias lacerdae previamente treinados a aceitar dietas artificiais foram selecionados por tamanho e estocados em três tanques com capacidade de 5000 litros cada, numa biomassa de 36,72 g cada. Após 30 dias de experimento, os peixes foram novamente separados por tamanho e redistribuídos nos mesmos tanques, numa densidade de 5 peixes/m², por mais 30 dias. Diariamente, às 8 e 14 h, os peixes foram alimentados com ração comercial extrusada (42%PB. Ao final de cada período experimental foram determinados: taxa de sobrevivência, ganho de biomassa, comprimento padrão e conversão alimentar. Observaram-se taxas médias de sobrevivência de 99,23 e 89,33%, conversão alimentar de 1,3:1,0 e 1,05:1,0, ganho de biomassa de 92,19 e 133,08 g nos dois períodos, respectivamente. Com relação ao comprimento padrão, foi comum a ocorrência de crescimento desigual dos alevinos nos dois períodos em todos os tanques, confirmando a necessidade de classificações periódicas, por tamanho, em criações de peixes carnívoros. Estes dados demonstram que o trairão apresenta potencial zootécnico para ser cultivado com a utilização de dietas artificiais, desde que treinados a aceitar ração comercial previamente.

  10. Desempenho de cordeiros confinados, alimentados com dietas à base de torta de girassol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivison Novaes Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da inclusão da torta de girassol na dieta de cordeiros em confinamento sobre o desempenho produtivo dos animais. Utilizaram-se 40 cordeiros sem raça definida, não castrados, com peso médio inicial de 20,17±2,66 kg, alimentados com 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28% de torta de girassol na dieta (base seca. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso. A inclusão de torta de girassol na dieta não alterou o consumo médio de matéria seca (883,58 g por dia, a conversão alimentar (4,40 e o consumo médio de água (2,59 L por dia. O aumento dos níveis de torta de girassol diminuiu linearmente o peso final, o ganho de peso total, o ganho de peso diário e a área de olho de lombo. O nível de inclusão de até 28% não afeta o consumo médio de matéria seca e de água, mas reduz o desempenho e a área de olho de lombo. Para obter o menor custo com a dieta, o nível de inclusão da torta de girassol pode atingir até 28% da matéria seca, quando o seu preço representar até 40% do preço da mistura entre milho e farelo de soja.

  11. Morfometria testicular de cabritos alimentados com óleo de licuri (Syagrus coronata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Barbosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o desenvolvimento testicular de caprinos pré-púberes alimentados com óleo de licuri (Syagrus coronata na dieta. Foram utilizados 19 cabritos ¾ Boer, recém-desmamados, com média de idade de três meses. Os animais, submetidos a um período de 75 dias de confinamento, receberam alimentação composta por: farelo de milho, farelo de soja, feno picado de tifton 85 e de óleo de licuri com base na matéria seca. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: sem lipídio adicional (n= 5; com 1,5% de óleo de licuri (n= 5; com 3,0% de óleo de licuri (n= 5; e com 4,5% de óleo de licuri (n= 4. As avaliações de peso corporal e de biometria testicular foram realizadas quinzenalmente. Após o período de confinamento, os animais foram abatidos para determinação do peso dos testículos, peso dos epidídimos e índice gonadossomático. A adição de óleo de licuri em até 4,5% na dieta de caprinos pré-púberes não alterou o desenvolvimento testicular com base nas características da biometria e morfometria testicular, indicando que a inclusão de até 4,5% de óleo de licuri na dieta pode ser utilizada.

  12. Consumo e desempenho produtivo de ovinos alimentados com dietas que continham coprodutos do desfibramento do sisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho produtivo e o consumo de nutrientes e frações fibrosas em ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo coprodutos do desfibramento do sisal, Agave sisalana. Foram utilizados 24 ovinos, machos, alojados em baias individuais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro dietas isoproteicas, em que: i dieta padrão, contendo 38% de volumoso (silagem de milheto e 62% de concentrado (milho, farelo de soja e ureia; ii inclusão de 20% da silagem de mucilagem do sisal em substituição à silagem de milheto; iii inclusão de 20% da silagem de mucilagem associada ao pó da batedeira como aditivo em substituição à silagem de milheto; iv inclusão de 20% do feno da mucilagem em substituição à silagem de milheto. O peso corporal final, os ganhos médio diário e total e a conversão alimentar dos ovinos não foram influenciados pelas dietas avaliadas (P>0,05. Os consumos dos nutrientes, em g/dia e em %PC e g/kg0,75, não sofreram influência das dietas. Os resultados indicam que as dietas à base de coprodutos do sisal podem ser utilizadas como alternativa volumosa, além de possibilitar o aumento da rentabilidade da atividade na região semiárida brasileira.

  13. PRODUCCION A ESCALA PILOTO DE HEMBRAS DE CHORO ZAPATO CON COLOR GONADAL MODIFICADO MEDIANTE TECNICAS BIOTECNOLOGICAS

    OpenAIRE

    TARIFEÑO S., EDUARDO

    2010-01-01

    El Choro zapato (Choromytilus chorus) es un mejillón autóctono en Chile con grandes condiciones para su cultivo masivo por su tamaño y rápido crecimiento, comparado con la especie principal de la mitilicultura chilena, el chorito chileno (Mytilus chilensis). Sin embargo, el color café oscuro de las gónadas de las hembra del choro zapato es un factor limitante que frena el interés de los mitilicultores por su cultivo. En base a los resultados del proyecto FONDEF D01-1110 “Biotecnología aplicad...

  14. Effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients mixtures in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rey, M; Mattos, J J; Piazza, C E; Bainy, A C D; Bebianno, M J

    2014-08-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are emergent environmental contaminants widely detected in surface waters as result of incomplete waste water treatment plant (WWTP) removal processes and improper disposal. The assessment of potential effects of APIs on non-target organisms is still scarce since besides presenting multiple chemical structures, properties and modes of action, these compounds occur as complex mixtures. This study comprises a 15-day exposure of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to mixtures (at environmentally relevant nominal concentrations) of non-steroidal inflammatory drugs ibuprofen (IBU) and diclofenac (DCF) (250 ng L(-1) each) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (FLX) (75 ng L(-1)) (MIX 1) along with the addition of classical pro-oxidant copper (Cu) (5 μg L(-1)) (MIX 2). The goals included the assessment of oxidative stress, neurotoxic and endocrine effects on this sentinel species applying both a multibiomarker and gene expression (here and later gene expression is taken as synonym to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that it is also affected by, e.g. translation, and mRNA and protein stability) analysis approaches. The results revealed a swifter antioxidant response in digestive glands than in gills induced by MIX 1, nevertheless the presence of Cu in MIX 2 promoted a higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) induction. Neither mixture altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, while both triggered the formation of vitellogenin-like proteins in females confirming the xenoestrogenic effect of mixtures. All these results varied with respect to those obtained in previous single exposure essays. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis revealed a catalase (CAT) and CYP4Y1 gene expression down- and upregulation, respectively, with no significant changes in mRNA levels of genes encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Finally, this study highlights variable tissue and time-specific biomarker

  15. Optimization of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) seed culture using recirculation aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Garcia, A.; Kamermans, P.

    2015-01-01

    By introducing recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) in the nursery phase of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) (17–18 mm), we aimed at a similar growth and survival and a similar water quality compared to the commonly used flow-through systems (FTS). To calculate water flow and size of the biofilte

  16. Seasonal variability in nutrient regeneration by mussel Mytilus edulis rope culture in oligotrophic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.M.; Strand, O.; Strohmeier, T.; Krogness, C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussel Mytilus edulis cultures contribute to nutrient cycling in coastal ecosystems. Mussel populations filter particulate nutrients from the water column and inorganic nutrients are regenerated by excretion of metabolic wastes and decomposition of (pseudo-)faeces. The objective of this study w

  17. Mytilus edulis haemocytes variability: technique, individual, and environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    . Eosinophils are found in large numbers in epithelial association in the gills, guts and in the mantle, where their numbers have been evaluated at 3x107 As a case study, Mytilus edulis challenged with barium sulphate smothering, used by the oil industry in drilling muds, shows gill damage and their subsequent...

  18. The respiratory capacity of marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in relation to the high temperature threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Hummel, H.; Bonga, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal tolerance limits of ectotherms may result from respiratory limitations. In response to declining oxygen availability, organisms have shown to exhibit oxyregulation by enhancing ventilation and heartbeat rates. In this study we examined how this regulatory response in mussels (Mytilus) change

  19. On the identity of broad-shelled mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilus) from the Dutch delta region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Rajagopal, S.; Jansen, J.M.; Bos, M.M.; Velde, van der G.; Gittenberger, E.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Raad, H.; Hummel, H.

    2011-01-01

    Late Quaternary (Eemian) deposits of the Netherlands contain shells that resemble those of living Mytilus galloprovincialis. Similar broad-shelled mytilids also occur in estuaries of the southwestern Netherlands together with slender individuals typical of M. edulis. We sampled living mussels along

  20. Distribution of Mytilus taxa in European coastal areas as inferred from molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijewski, T.; Zmietanka, B.; Zbawicka, M.; Gosling, E.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic constitution of mussels (Mytilus spp.) was studied by means of three nuclear (Me 15/16, EF-bis, ITS) and one mtDNA (ND2-COIII) marker on a large European scale. In addition to a sharp cline between Atlantic and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis, we observed a clear genetic distinction b

  1. Comparison of trace metal bioavailabilities in European coastal waters using mussels from Mytilus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przytarska, J.E.; Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mussels from Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors of the trace metals Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Cu at 17 sampling sites to assess the relative bioavailability of metals in coastal waters around the European continent. Because accumulated metal concentrations in a given area can differ temporall

  2. The interactions between bed structure of Mytilus edulis L. and the predator Asterias rubens L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    1998-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of asteroids is usually analyzed with optimal foraging models, which assume that asteroids maximize the ratio of energy uptake relative to energy used in the feeding process. The behaviour of Asterias rubens feeding at subtidal beds of Mytilus edulis was studied in order...

  3. [The byssus of Mytilus: electrophoresis of hydroxyproline-rich proteins from the "collagen gland"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, J P; Bocquet, J; Borel, J P

    1976-09-20

    An hydroxyproline rich fraction has been extracted from the byssus gland of Mytilus. This fraction could be the intracellular precursor of the "secreted collagen" found in the byssus threads. Its molecular weight, estimated through SDS gel electrophoresis, appears lower than that of a chains of mesenchymal collagen.

  4. Perturbation induced changes in substrate use by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in sedimentary systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kangeri, A.K.; Jansen, J.M.; Barkman, B.R.; Donker, J.J.A.; Joppe, D.J.; Dankers, N.M.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    For sessile benthic marine organisms adhesion to a stable substrate is important for survival. Sedimentary systems, however, generally lack stable surfaces. How sessile species like the mussel, Mytilus edulis, are able to achieve stability in unstable sediments is not fully understood. An intertidal

  5. Pertubation induced changes in substrate use by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in sedimentary systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    wa Kangeri, A.K.; Jansen, J.M.; Barkman, B.R.; Donker, J. J. A.; Joppe, D.J.; Dankers, N.M.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    For sessile benthic marine organisms adhesion to a stable substrate is important for survival. Sedimentary systems, however, generally lack stable surfaces. How sessile species like the mussel, Mytilus edulis, are able to achieve stability in unstable sediments is not fully understood. An intertidal

  6. The interactions between bed structure of Mytilus edulis L. and the predator Asterias rubens L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    1998-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of asteroids is usually analyzed with optimal foraging models, which assume that asteroids maximize the ratio of energy uptake relative to energy used in the feeding process. The behaviour of Asterias rubens feeding at subtidal beds of Mytilus edulis was studied in order...

  7. Desempenho de bezerros alimentados usando de sucedâneo até 56 dias de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Resende de Albuquerque França

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trinta bezerros machos da raça Holandesa foram alojados em piquetes a partir do quinto dia de vida, distribuídos em dois grupos. Todos os animais foram alimentados com concentrado comercial peletizado, tendo o primeiro grupo recebido leite integral (grupo-controle e o outro, sucedâneo formulado com proteínas de soja, de soro de leite e de leite desnatado em pó (grupo tratamento, num único horário de fornecimento, até 56 dias de vida. Os animais tinham acesso ad libitum à água e ao sal mineral. Suas medidas de peso vivo e altura de ísquio foram tomadas semanalmente. O desenvolvimento em estatura não diferiu entre os tratamentos, e o ganho em peso foi inferior para os animais alimentados com sucedâneo. O menor ganho em peso foi influenciado pelo menor consumo de concentrado e de matéria seca da dieta.

  8. IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE UN SISTEMA DE ALIMENTACIÓN ININTERRUMPIDA, CON VISUALIZACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS ELÉCTRICOS EN LCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Giovanni Parra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el diseño y la implementación de un sistema de alimentación ininterrumpida (UPS con visualización de parámetros eléctricos (tensión, corriente y potencia en una pantalla de cristal líquido (LCD, realizado mediante procesos lógico-matemáticos programados en un microcontrolador, con el fin de brindar alimentación constante a una carga crítica y a su vez conocer el comportamiento de las variables eléctricas del dispositivo que requiera ser alimentado.

  9. A molecular, morphometric and mechanical comparison of the structural elements of byssus from Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jared M; Vaccaro, Eleonora; Waite, J Herbert

    2002-06-01

    Marine mussels are renowned for their ability to produce an extra-organismic tendon-like structure that can withstand the wave forces associated with the intertidal habitat. Initial characterization of byssal properties has focused on Mytilus edulis, with few detailed comparisons with other mussels. M. galloprovincialis, a closely related species, provides an opportunity for a thorough comparison. Three full-length cDNA clones encoding the byssal collagens, precollagen D (preCol-D), preCol-NG and preCol-P, were isolated from M. galloprovincialis. Comparisons with M. edulis preCol-D, preCol-NG and preCol-P reveal a 91.3 %, 88.6 % and 90.1 % identity with the cDNA and an 89.0 %, 88.1 % and 89.0 % identity with the deduced protein sequences, respectively. Key elements are maintained between the species: in particular, modeled bends in the collagen helix due to breaks in the Gly-X-Y pattern and the location of cysteine and putative 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) residues. A potentially important difference between the two is that, in all cases, M. galloprovincialis byssal collagens contain additional histidine residues in their flanking domains. The significance of this may lie in the ability of M. galloprovincialis to utilize more metal chelate cross-links, which have been implicated in byssal thread stability. M. edulis threads are typically twice the length and diameter of M. galloprovincialis threads and appear to contain nearly 10 % more collagen. These differences are maintained even when the different thread portions are compared. Despite differences in a number of parameters, most notably that whole M. galloprovincialis threads are stiffer, threads whether whole or separated into proximal and distal portions, have similar mechanical behaviors. It is apparent from this comparison that M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis are seemingly interchangeable models for byssal research.

  10. Gametogenesis of an intertidal population of Mytilus trossulus in NW Greenland: not a limitation for potential Arctic range expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Jensen, Kurt Thomas; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The drivers determining species’ northern distribution limits remain elusive and, combined with inadequate knowledge of past and current distribution ranges, this prevents accurate determination of potential changes in the Arctic. The northernmost population of the bivalve Mytilus trossulus...

  11. Estudo comparativo do ciclo evolutivo de Rhodnius neglectus alimentados em pombos ou camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liléia Diotaiuti

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseados no encontro de 77,2% de reação de precipitina positiva para soro antiave de R. neglectus capturados em palmeiras da periferia de Belo Horizonte, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo de uma colonia recém-estabelecida no laboratório alimentada com sangue de pombo ou camundongo, na expectativa de demonstrarmos maior adaptação deste triatomíneo ao sangue da ave. Para comparação, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo destes insetos numa colônia há muito mantida em insetário. Nossos resultados mostram um desenvolvimento mais rápido da colônia recém- estabelecida, assim como do lote de triatomíneos alimentado em camundongo. Esses achados sugerem menor potencial biológico para triatomíneos criados por longo tempo em insetário em comparação a novas colônias. Sendo as aves os principais habitantes das palmeiras, a aparente preferência alimentar por sangue de aves demonstrada pela reação de precipitina parece ser circunstancial e não seletiva na busca do sangue com o qual o triatomíneo obteria melhor desenvolvimento.Feeding pattems of R. neglectus collected in palm trees around Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil were investigated. Precipitin tests showed 77.2% of avian blood. In view of these results, a new colony of R. neglectus established in the laboratory was fed regularly on pigeons or mice, in order to verify a possible better adaptation of this insect to the avian blood. As a control group a colony of R neglectus which has been maintained for several years in the laboratory was also observed. The results show a better development of the “new" colony in comparison with the old one, and of those bugs nourished with mice blood. Such findings suggest a poorer biological potential for triatomines maintained for long time in artificial conditions, in comparison with those living in the natural environment. As birds are the main vertebrate inhabitants of palm trees (the natural ecotope of R neglectus, the apparent feeding preference of

  12. Genetic hitchhiking in a subdivided population of Mytilus edulis

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    David Patrice

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few models of genetic hitchhiking in subdivided populations have been developed and the rarity of empirical examples is even more striking. We here provide evidences of genetic hitchhiking in a subdivided population of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. In the Bay of Biscay (France, a patch of M. edulis populations happens to be separated from its North Sea conspecifics by a wide region occupied only by the sister species M. galloprovincialis. Although genetic differentiation between the two M. edulis regions is largely non-significant at ten marker loci (average FST~0.007, a strong genetic differentiation is observed at a single locus (FST = 0.25. We validated the outlier status of this locus, and analysed DNA sequence polymorphism in order to identify the nature of the selection responsible for the unusual differentiation. Results We first showed that introgression of M. galloprovincialis alleles was very weak in both populations and did not significantly affect their differentiation. Secondly, we observed the genetic signature of a selective sweep within both M. edulis populations in the form of a star-shaped clade of alleles. This clade was nearly fixed in the North Sea and was segregating at a moderate frequency in the Bay of Biscay, explaining their genetic differentiation. Incomplete fixation reveals that selection was not direct on the locus but that the studied sequence recombined with a positively selected allele at a linked locus while it was on its way to fixation. Finally, using a deterministic model we showed that the wave of advance of a favourable allele at a linked locus, when crossing a strong enough barrier to gene flow, generates a step in neutral allele frequencies comparable to the step observed between the two M. edulis populations at the outlier locus. In our case, the position of the barrier is now materialised by a large patch of heterospecific M. galloprovincialis populations. Conclusion High FST

  13. Seasonal variations of arsenic in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarić, Sanja; Pavičić-Hamer, Dijana; Lucu, Čedomil

    2004-10-01

    Total arsenic concentration in the edible part of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was evaluated seasonally in the coastal area of Rijeka Bay (North Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Sampling stations were located close to the City of Bakar with no industrial facilities (site 1), in the vicinity of the oil refinery and oil thermoelectric power plant (Urinj, site 2), and 4 miles away from the Plomin coal thermoelectric power plant (Brseč village, site 3). Additionally, the concentration of arsenic in the tail muscle of the lobster Nephrops norvegicus, collected in Rijeka Bay, was studied. During winter at sites 2 and 3, the total arsenic in the edible part of the mussels was 16.4 mg As/kg FW (FW=fresh weight) and 4.38 mg As/kg FW, respectively, and increased during springtime at site 2 (6.5 mg As/kg FW) compared to the rest of the year, when individual total arsenic concentration at all sites ranged from 1.7 to 3.7 mg As/kg FW. In the winter (sites 2 and 3) and springtime (site 2) there was no correlation between the length of the mussel shell and the arsenic concentration in the edible part of the mussels. In the other seasons, at sites 1, 2 and 3, there was a correlation between arsenic in the edible part of mussels and shell length in most cases (correlation coefficients r varied from 0.64 to 0.85; P <0.05 to P <0.01). Correlation between shell length (in the narrow range of shell lengths from 3.4 to 5.0 cm) and arsenic in the edible part of the mussels shows linearity with a high regression coefficient (r =0.914; P <0.001). The increase of arsenic in the mussels during winter and spring was suggested at least partially as a result of a low nutritional status, i.e. reduced weight of the mussels' edible part during winter. In addition, a linear relationship was found between body length and arsenic concentration in the tail muscle (mean 17.11±4.48 mg As/kg FW) of the Norway lobster.

  14. Papel inmunomodulador de las dietas lipídicas en un modelo murino inmunosuprimido e infectado con Listeria monocytogenes

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    José María Cerón Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Introducción: La capacidad inmunomoduladora de los ácidos grasos de la dieta en situaciones de inmunosupresión puede diferir de acuerdo con el tipo de ácido graso presente. Objetivo: Analizar el efecto de diferentes tipos de dietas lipídicas, en la resistencia de animales inmunosuprimidos o no, frente a una infección experimental con Listeria monocytogenes. Métodos: Ratones Balb/c fueron divididos en cuatro grupos experimentales, según su tratamiento inmunosupresor: control (PBS, Ciclofosfamida (CPA, GK 1.5 y RB6-8C5. Cada grupo fue subdividido en cuatro subgrupos según la dieta lipídica utilizada: control con aceite de maíz 5% (BG; aceite de oliva 20% (AO; aceite de pescado 20% (AP y aceite de girasol 20% (AG. Los animales se alimentaron durante un mes antes del tratamiento y posteriormente infectados con L. monocytogenes. Resultados: Mostramos incrementos en el número de bacterias viables en bazo e hígado, y bajos porcentajes de supervivencia en todos los grupos de ratones inmunosuprimidos y también en el grupo PBS alimentado con AP. Además, se observaron incrementos en la linfoproliferación, de bazos de ratones alimentados con AO y tratados con CPA. Discusión: La dieta AP, produce una disminución en la resistencia del hospedador en situaciones de inmunosupresión. Por el contrario, las dietas AO y AG muestran mayor eficacia en la eliminación de L. monocytogenes y mayores ventajas en animales inmunosuprimidos. El tratamiento con RB6-8C5, produce una reducción en la supervivencia de los ratones de los grupos estudiados, lo que induce a establecer que los granulocitos juegan un papel fundamental en el control de la infección.

  15. Short-term feeding response of the mussel Mytilus chilensis exposed to diets containing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Respuesta alimentaria inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis expuesto a dietas conteniendo el dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE M NAVARRO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The short-term feeding response of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis was measured using four diets containing different proportions of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. The diets containing the highest concentrations of the dinoflagellate showed the greatest effect on the feeding activity in the mussel, with clearance and ingestión rates significantly reduced during the first hours of exposure. After this period, M. chilensis demonstrated a capacity to acclimate to the toxic diets, with feeding parameters reaching values similar to those of untreated control organisms. It was not clear if the negative effect on the feeding behavior was caused by the presence of the paralytic toxin, or due to the larger size of the dinoflagellate cells in comparison with cells of Isochrysis galbana used in the control diet. However, parallel studies with diets containing the nontoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium affine of similar size and shape to that of A. catenella, suggested the cell size was the main cause for impairment of feeding behavior. The capacity for acclimation to either toxin or cell size by M. chilensis makes it a good indicator species for the early detection of harmful PSP events, since its relative insensitivity to the toxin allows it to quickly recover normal feeding behavior and permits it to accumulate PSP in its tissues in a short timeLa respuesta inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis fue medida bajo cuatro dietas que contenían diferentes proporciones del dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella. Las dietas que contenían las concentraciones más altas de este dinoflagelado mostraron el mayor efecto durante las primeras horas de exposición. Después de este periodo inicial, M. chilensis demostró la capacidad para aclimatarse a estas dietas tóxicas, con parámetros de alimentación que alcanzaron valores similares a aquellos de los organismos controles. No fue claro si el efecto negativo sobre la conducta de alimentación fue

  16. Histopathological and apoptotic changes on marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark, 1819) following exposure to environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavaşoğlu, Altuğ; Özkan, Dilara; Güner, Adem; Katalay, Selma; Oltulu, Fatih; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2016-08-15

    Marine bivalve mussels, especially Mytilus species are an earlywarning system used for determining of damage caused by the various aquatic pollutions. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis L. (black mussel) have been utilised as a biomonitoring organism to reveal environmental pollution in the Aliaga, Foca and Urla where located along the Izmir Coast of Turkey. Mussels were collected at these areas and gill and hepatopancreas (digestive gland) tissues were excised. mRNA expressions of initiator (caspase-2 and -8) and executioner (caspase -3/7-1, -3/7-2, -3/7-3 and -3/7-4) caspases of mussels tissues in areas exposed to pollution agent have been observed. TUNEL immunoreactivity in paralel to histopathological changes in both Aliaga and Foca areas were compared with Urla. This study is the first report to reveal the pollution with apoptotic expression on mussels in the coast of Turkey.

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MUSSELS (MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS FARMED AND COMMERCIALIZED IN CAMPANIA REGION

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    N. Costanzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mytilus galloprovincialis is one of the most commonly consumed bivalve molluscs. Several samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from different sea farms or bought in retail shops and from irregular peddlers. Total Mesophilic and Psicrophilic Aerobic Bacteria, Enterobatteriacee, E. coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp. and L. monocytogenes were researched following ISO methods and EU Regulations. In mussels taken from the farms the limits were higher than those established by EU Regulation 2073/2005 only in one sample for E.coli and one for Salmonella spp. The mussels bought in retail shops showed good results and no sample exceed the law limits. Only one sample collected from irregular peddlers showed high levels of E.coli.

  18. Seasonal changes in functional parameters of the hemolymph of Mytilus galloprovincialis

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    C Ciacci

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available n bivalves, many functional parameters show seasonal changes in relation to both abiotic (such as temperature and salinity and biotic factors (such as gonad maturation, food availability. Available data indicate that also immune parameters can show seasonal fluctuations in the marine mussel Mytilus spp.. In this work we report data on hemocyte lysosomal membrane stability (LMS and phagocytic activity, as well as on soluble lysozyme activity, in the hemolymph of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis collected over a 24 month period in the Adriatic Sea (2006-2007. The results indicate that all the parameters measured show seasonal fluctuations over the year, with lysozyme activity showing the largest changes. Lowest LMS values were observed in early winter and early autumn, whereas maximal values of phagocytic activity were observed in winter and increasing serum lysozyme activities were recorded in autumn. The observed seasonal fluctuations are discussed in relation to both abiotic (temperature and biotic (changes in endogenous modulators factors.

  19. Detection of Arcobacter spp. in Mytilus galloprovincialis samples collected from Apulia region

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    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in 20 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis purchased at fish markets in Apulia region. The detection of Arcobacter spp. was performed, after selective enrichment, on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCD agar supplemented with Cefoperazone, Amphotericin B and Teicoplanin (CAT. In 6 out of the 20 tested samples the presence of Arcobacter spp. was found and confirmed by genus-based polymerase chain reaction. All the isolates were identified as belonging to the species Arcobacter butzleri using 16S rDNA sequencing and BLAST online. The results represent the first report in Italy of A. butzleri detection in marketed Mytilus galloprovincialis. The survey underlines the epidemiological importance of A. butzleri as an emerging pathogen, and highlights that mussels should be considered as a potential cause of foodborne disease outbreak.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Gender-Associated Complete Mitochondrial Genomes in Marine Mussels (Mytilus spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, Sophie; Burger, Gertraud; Stewart, Donald T.; Blier, Pierre U.

    2006-01-01

    Marine mussels of the genus Mytilus have an unusual mode of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transmission termed doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI). Female mussels are homoplasmic for the F mitotype, which is inherited maternally, while males are usually heteroplasmic, carrying a mixture of the maternal F mitotype and the paternally inherited M genome. Two classes of M genomes have been observed: “standard” M genomes and “recently masculinized” M genomes. The latter are more similar to F genomes a...

  1. Intersex in Littorina littorea and DNA damage in Mytilus edulis as indicators of harbour polllution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Intersex in snails (Littorina littorea) and DNA damage in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were analysed to assess how these bio-indicators reflected the level of chemical contamination at two sites in a highly contaminated harbour in Denmark. The comet assay using mussel gill cells was an indicator...... effects were found to reflect the levels of the chemicals, and it was concluded that intersex in L. littorea and DNA damage in M. edulis can be used as bio-indicators of harbour pollution...

  2. THE PHENOTYPIC STRUCTURE OF A MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS LMK POPULATION FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA SHORE

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    Aliona Novac

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available : Among the specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. from the Black Sea, function of the color of the ostracum (brown, dark blue or brown with blue stripes, one can differentiate several forms. These colors are genetically determined (Stolbova, Pirkova, Ladyghina, 1996; Scherban, 2000; Shurova, 2001. The present paper analyzes the situation of these phenotypic groups, using specimens sampled at different depths in the area of Agigea dike.

  3. Mathematical modeling of the growth and development of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis on artificial substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasechkina, E. F.; Kazankova, I. I.

    2014-11-01

    A mathematical model simulating the growth and development of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. on artificial substrates has been constructed. The model is based on experimental data and contains mathematical descriptions of the filtration, respiration, excretion, spawning, and growth of an individual during its ontogenesis from the moment it attaches to a solid substrate to the attainment of a marketable size. The test computations have been compared to the available observation data for mussel farms.

  4. Massively parallel RNA sequencing identifies a complex immune gene repertoire in the lophotrochozoan Mytilus edulis.

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    Eva E R Philipp

    Full Text Available The marine mussel Mytilus edulis and its closely related sister species are distributed world-wide and play an important role in coastal ecology and economy. The diversification in different species and their hybrids, broad ecological distribution, as well as the filter feeding mode of life has made this genus an attractive model to investigate physiological and molecular adaptations and responses to various biotic and abiotic environmental factors. In the present study we investigated the immune system of Mytilus, which may contribute to the ecological plasticity of this species. We generated a large Mytilus transcriptome database from different tissues of immune challenged and stress treated individuals from the Baltic Sea using 454 pyrosequencing. Phylogenetic comparison of orthologous groups of 23 species demonstrated the basal position of lophotrochozoans within protostomes. The investigation of immune related transcripts revealed a complex repertoire of innate recognition receptors and downstream pathway members including transcripts for 27 toll-like receptors and 524 C1q domain containing transcripts. NOD-like receptors on the other hand were absent. We also found evidence for sophisticated TNF, autophagy and apoptosis systems as well as for cytokines. Gill tissue and hemocytes showed highest expression of putative immune related contigs and are promising tissues for further functional studies. Our results partly contrast with findings of a less complex immune repertoire in ecdysozoan and other lophotrochozoan protostomes. We show that bivalves are interesting candidates to investigate the evolution of the immune system from basal metazoans to deuterostomes and protostomes and provide a basis for future molecular work directed to immune system functioning in Mytilus.

  5. Immunocytotoxicity, cytogenotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium-based quantum dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Gomes, Tânia; Cardoso, Cátia; Letendre, Julie; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Sousa, Vânia Serrão; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau; Bebianno, Maria João

    2014-10-01

    There is an increased use of Quantum Dot (QDs) in biological and biomedical applications, but little is known about their marine ecotoxicology. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible immunocytotoxic, cytogenotoxic and genotoxic effects of cadmium telluride QDs (CdTe QDs) on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to 10 μg L(-1) of CdTe QDs or to soluble Cd [Cd(NO3)2] for 14 days and Cd accumulation, immunocytotoxicity [hemocyte density, cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), differential cell counts (DCC)], cytogenotoxicity (micronucleus test and nuclear abnormalities assay) and genotoxicity (comet assay) were analyzed. Results show that in vivo exposure to QDs, Cd is accumulated in mussel soft tissues and hemolymph and induce immunotoxic effects mediated by a decrease in LMS, changes in DCC, as well as genotoxicity (DNA damage). However, QDs do not induce significant changes in hemocytes density, cell viability and cytogenetic parameters in opposition to Cd(2+). Soluble Cd is the most cytotoxic and cytogenotoxic form on Mytilus hemocytes due to a higher accumulation of Cd in tissues. Results indicate that immunotoxicity and genotoxicity of CdTe QDs and Cd(2+) are mediated by different modes of action and show that Mytilus hemocytes are important targets for in vivo QDs toxicity.

  6. Adaptation to anaerobic metabolism in two mussel species, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, from the tidal zone at Arcachon Bay, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    Aspects of anaerobic metabolism were investigated in two sympatric mussel species, viz. Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, living in the tidal zone in Arcachon Bay, France. Specific activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate kinase (PEP-CK) were remarkably similar in the two sympatric species and generally corresponded more closely to those observed in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean than with M. edulis in the Dutch Wadden Sea. However, the values for the radio PK: PEP-CK for the two species in Arcachon Bay agreed with those of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. Succinate accumulation during the first 24 h of anaerobicsis was about the same as in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean, but decreased during the second 24 h, particularly in M. edulis, obviously due to propionate formation. Decrease in ATP concentrations in the tissues during anaerobiosis corresponded to that of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. With the exception of specific activities of PK and PEP-CK, all properties investigated in both species were as expected in intertidal mussels.

  7. Mitigación de la toxicidad anaerobia de lixiviados mediante mezclas con agua residual doméstica

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    Patricia Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los lixiviados contienen compuestos originalmente presentes en los residuos depositados en el relleno así como los formados en los procesos de degradación; cuando presentan altos contenidos de material orgánico y alta relación DBO5/DQO, el tratamiento biológico tiene gran potencial de aplicación; sin embargo, los altos niveles de nitrógeno y otros compuestos pueden ser inhibitorios o tóxicos para el proceso biológico. La evaluación de la toxicidad anaerobia permite determinar la magnitud y tipo de inhibición causada sobre los microorganismos encargados de la transformación final a metano y se determina comparando la Actividad Metanogénica Específica (AME del lodo control alimentado únicamente con sustrato, con la AME del lodo alimentado con el mismo sustrato más el compuesto tóxico. Dado el creciente interés en el cotratamiento de lixiviados con aguas residuales domésticas (ARD, se evaluó en escala de laboratorio la toxicidad anaerobia de lixiviados puros y mezclados con ARD para establecer el potencial efecto tóxico del lixiviado sobre la digestión anaerobia. En los ensayos usando lixiviado puro, se presentó una elevada reducción de la AME, identificándose dos tipos de inhibición: metabólica y fisiológica. En los ensayos usando mezclas de lixiviado y ARD (5 y 10%, el porcentaje de inhibición se redujo sustancialmente, alcanzándose condiciones de sustratos no tóxicos. Los resultados sugieren la potencialidad de aplicación del cotratamiento con ARD como una estrategia adecuada de manejo de lixiviados.

  8. A comparison of {sup 210}Po in Mytilus edulis and Fucus vesiculosus in French and Irish coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, T.P.; Dowdall, A.M.; Pollard, D. [Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Germain, P.; Leclerc, G. [CEA Centre de La Hague, 50 - Cherbourg-Octeville (France). Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-12-31

    The geographical variations of {sup 210}Po in Mytilus edulis and Fucus vesiculosus in French and Irish coastal waters have been measured. Possible sources of variation including environmental parameters, anthropogenic input and mussel condition have been considered. The effect of different sampling regimes on the comparability of measurements is discussed and the results of a joint sampling exercise are examined. The ranges of {sup 210}Po concentrations found in Mytilus edulis and Fucus vesiculosus were 80 - 700 Bq.kg{sup -1} (dry wt.) and 3 - 39 Bq.kg{sup -1} (dry wt.) respectively. Any enhancement due to anthropogenic input is masked by natural variation. While much of this natural variation remains unexplained, Mytilus edulis physiology and polonium physico-chemical form are clearly significant. Furthermore, different approaches to sample collection and processing can effect the comparability of measured concentrations. (author) 11 refs.

  9. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of Defects in γ-irradiated Marine Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and Scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoğlu, R.; Köksal, F.; Birey, M.

    2004-11-01

    EPR studies have been performed on some gamma-irradiated marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and scallops (Pecten jacobaeus) from the families of Mytilidae and Pectinidae, respectively. Before γ-irradiation, the EPR lines of Mytilus galloprovincialis indicated the existence of Mn2+ ions, which were not observed in the powders of scallop shells. γ -irradiation induced defects in powders of Mytilus galloprovincialis shells, were attributed to orthorhombic CO-3 , axial CO3-3 , orthorhombic CO-2 , freely rotating CO-2 , freely rotating SO-2 , axial SO-3 , isotropic PO2-4 and organic free radicals. γ -irradiation induced defects in powders of Pecten jacobaeus shells were attributed to orthorhombic CO-3 , axial CO3-3 , orthorhombic CO-2 , freely rotating CO-2 , freely rotating SO-2 , and axial SO-3 free radicals. The EPR parameters of the free radicals were compared with literature data on similar defects

  10. Ensayo de alimentación de cerdos con subproductos de la industria cervecera : II parte: Resultado de un mayor reemplazo de subproductos

    OpenAIRE

    Marotta, Eduardo Guillermo

    1980-01-01

    Se ensayaron reemplazos de cereales tradicionales utilizados corrientemente en la alimentación del cerdo por dos subproductos secos de la industria cervecera (Raicilla y medio grano). El lote LT. fue alimentado con una ración de maíz, sorgo y harina de carne, en el lote LE. el maíz y sorgo fueron reemplazados parcialmente por los subproductos de cervecería anteriormente mencionados en el orden de 36-48 y 60% respectivamente según los 3 períodos de requerimientos alimenticios del cerdo. Se dem...

  11. Resposta plasmática de glicose e insulina em eqüinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de amido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto de Oliveira Gobesso

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi medir a resposta plasmática de glicose e insulina em cavalos alimentados com dietas contendo concentrados energéticos formulados com diferentes fontes de amido, tais como milho, aveia, sorgo e uma mistura de milho e aveia em partes iguais por peso. Foram utilizados quatro eqüinos com 36 meses de idade em media, mestiços, machos, castrados, com peso aproximado de 350 kg. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi um quadrado latino 4X4 (quatro animais, quatro tratamentos, quatro períodos. Os resultados foram processados através de programa computacional, a normalidade dos resíduos verificada pelo Teste de Shapiro - Wilk, e as variâncias comparadas pelo teste F. Não foram observadas diferenças nos níveis de glicose plasmática entre tratamentos. No caso da glicose, todos os tratamentos atingiram seu máximo nível duas horas e meia pós-ingestão O nível de insulina plasmática foi significativamente inferior antes da refeição em aqueles cavalos tratados com a mistura de milho e aveia, e significativamente superior nos cavalos alimentados com milho como fonte de energia três horas e meia pós ingesta. Os valores de glicose e insulina plasmática observados neste estudo podem ter sido influenciados pelo processamento das dietas na forma peletizada, promovendo uma maior absorção de glicose no intestino delgado. As dietas contendo diferentes fontes de amido não influenciaram nem o tempo nem a quantidade de glicose absorvida no intestino delgado. As variações observadas nos níveis de insulina indicam que um manejo alimentar apropriado pode influenciar os níveis deste hormônio, moderando os seus efeitos indesejáveis.

  12. Consumo e desempenho de cordeiros e borregos alimentados com dietas de alto concentrado de milho ou sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Venturini

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se avaliar os consumos de matéria seca, nutrientes e desempenho na terminação de cordeiros e borregos submetidos a dietas de alto concentrado de grão de milho ou sorgo. Foram utilizados 32 animais, sendo 16 cordeiros (dente de leite e 16 borregos (dois dentes da raça Corriedale. As dietas eram constituídas de feno de aveia- branca (Avena sativa, grão de milho (Zea mays ou de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench, farelo de soja (Glycine Max, calcário calcítico, bicarbonato de sódio e monensina. Os cordeiros apresentaram superioridade (P≤0,05 quanto ao CMS (% do PV e g/kg PV0,75, ao CPB (kg/dia, % do PV e g/kg PV0,75, ao CEE (% do PV, ao CFDN e ao CFDA (% do PV e g/kg PV0,75, ao CNDT (% do PV, ao ganho de peso médio diário, à conformação in vivo e à conversão alimentar. Por outro lado, o CEE, o CCHT e o CCNE (kg/dia, o peso vivo inicial, o peso vivo final e o peso vivo ao abate foram superiores (P≤0,05 na categoria dos borregos. Em relação aos grãos avaliados, verificou-se maior (P≤0,05 CEE (kg/dia, % do PV e g/kg PV0,75 e menor (P≤0,05 CFDN (% do PV e CFDA (kg/dia, % do PV e g/kg PV0,75 para os animais alimentados com dieta de alto concentrado à base de grão de milho em relação àqueles alimentados com grão de sorgo. Os cordeiros apresentam consumos relativos superiores aos borregos, porém sua resposta zootécnica é maior. O uso de dietas de alto concentrado de sorgo ou de milho proporcionou resultados semelhantes.

  13. А new Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin from the mussel Mytilus trossulus: Structure, tissue specificity, antimicrobial and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikalovets, Irina V; Kovalchuk, Svetlana N; Litovchenko, Alina P; Molchanova, Valentina I; Pivkin, Mikhail V; Chernikov, Oleg V

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a new Gal/GalNAc specific lectin from the mussel Mytilus trossulus (designated as MTL) was identified, and its expression levels, both in tissues and toward pathogen stimulation, were then characterized. The MTL primary structure was determined via cDNA sequencing. Deduced sequence of 150 amino acid residues showed 89% similarity to lectins from the mussels Crenomytilus grayanus and Mytilus galloprovincialis that were the first members of a new family of zoolectins. The results indicated that the MTL might be involved in immune response toward pathogen infection, and it might perform different recognition specificity toward bacteria or fungi.

  14. Complete amino acid sequence of Mytilus anterior byssus retractor paramyosin and its putative phosphorylation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, S; Iwasaki, K; Funabara, D; Hirayama, Y; Nakaya, M; Kikuchi, K

    2000-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the full-length paramyosin molecule was cloned from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a species closely related to Mytilus edulis. It contained 3,497 nucleotides (nt), with 79 and 826 nt for the 5' and 3' non-coding regions, respectively. The coding region was composed of 2,592 nt for 864 amino acid residues, a size typical of paramyosin. While genomic DNA digests with either HindIII or PstI exhibited a single band when hybridized with a SacI fragment of paramyosin cDNA, the digests with either EcoRV or EcoRI showed two bands, suggesting that the mussel has at least two genes encoding paramyosin. The mRNAs encoding paramyosin were most abundant in muscle tissues from byssus retractor and adductor muscles. Only traces of paramyosin transcripts were found in the tissue of foot, gill, inner mantle, and outer mantle. The same phosphorylatable peptide previously reported for paramyosin from the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, Ser-Arg-Ser-Met-Ser(P)-Val-Ser-Arg (Watabe et al. 1989. Comp Biochem Physiol 94B:813-821) was found in the C-terminal non-helical part of this Mytilus paramyosin. We predict that this particular paramyosin has a coiled-coil structure composed of two alpha-helices that show the heptad repeats (a-b-c-d-e-f-g) with further 28-amino acid repeat zones, where a and d tend to be occupied by nonpolar residues.

  15. Desenvolvimento de bezerros leiteiros alimentados com silagem de leite de transição: I - Trato digestivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Azevedo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desenvolvimento do trato digestivo de bezerros Holandeses aleitados com silagem de leite de transição. Foram utilizados 18 animais, com peso corporal inicial médio de 36,50kg (±4,03, alimentados individualmente em baias com concentrado, feno de Cynodon sp., água e suplemento mineral oferecidos ad libitum. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em leite integral e silagem de leite de transição diluída em água ou misturada em leite, correspondendo a quatro litros diários divididos em duas refeições, durante 59 dias. Aos 60 dias, os bezerros foram abatidos e realizaram-se pesagens do trato digestivo e medidas histológicas das papilas ruminais. O sistema de aleitamento não interferiu nos consumos de concentrado e matéria seca total e no desenvolvimento de papilas ruminais (P>0,05. A silagem de leite de transição diluída em água resultou em menor peso corporal, menor peso corporal vazio e absoluto do abomaso e maior desenvolvimento intestinal. O aleitamento com silagem misturada em leite não comprometeu o desenvolvimento corporal e do trato digestivo até 60 dias de idade, representando alternativa ao aleitamento com leite.

  16. Field data and growth model for mussels Mytilus edulis in Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul S.

    2012-01-01

    bioenergetic growth model for mussels (μ = aWb, a = 0.871 x C - 0.986, b = -0.34), and observed power-law relations of growth data were in good agreement with the model, which takes into account the prevailing average chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration (C, μ g chl a l-1) at field sites. Thus, the b......Growth rates of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, in suspended net-bags were measured in field experiments conducted in Limfjorden and Great Belt, Denmark, for extended periods of time (22 69 days) with up to 8 intermediate data samplings during the period. The resulting time series of growth...

  17. Lysosomal membrane stability of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.), as a biomarker of tributyltin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Hussein K; Snyman, Reinette G; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Adekola, Folahan A; Ximba, Bhekumusa J; Slabber, Michelle Y

    2015-05-01

    The effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the stability of hemocytic lysosome membranes of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the use thereof as a biomarker of TBT-induced stress, was investigated. Mussels were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0 µg/L tributyltin respectively for 4 weeks. Lysosomal membrane stability of hemocytes was tested weekly by means of the neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, after which the mussel samples were analyzed for TBT content. The two exposed groups exhibited significantly increased (p galloprovincialis.

  18. Metabolomic analysis revealed that female mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was sensitive to bisphenol A exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenglong; Wei, Lei; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound used in numerous chemicals, such as polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, and it can be released into aquatic environment and poses risk on aquatic organisms. In this work, metabolomics was applied to characterize the metabolic responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to BPA. Our results indicated that the gonad of female mussel was sensitive to BPA exposures (1 and 10 μg/L) for one month. However, no significant metabolic responses were observed in male mussel gonads exposed to these two concentrations of BPA. Overall, this limited study suggested that the gender differences should be considered in marine ecotoxicology.

  19. Investigation of the loss of byssus in Mytilus galloprovincialis from mussel farms in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Antonella; Malagoli, Davide; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2005-10-01

    A fungal infection has been found in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Adriatic Sea mussel farms. The infection ultimately results in the loss of the byssus, with serious consequences for mussel farming yield. The pathogen provokes the progressive destruction of the foot muscles, also damaging related structures such as the intra-organism part of the byssus apparatus, resulting in loss of the thread component. The affected health status of the animal is also sustained by modifications in the digestive gland structure, ranging from hyperactivity to extreme cell death in the tubula. At present, the identity of the harmful fungus is unknown.

  20. Rentabilidad de la producción de carne de ovinos Katahdin x Pelibuey con tres tipos de alimentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. González-Garduño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la rentabilidad económica de la producción de carne de ovino Katahdin x Pelibuey comparando diferentes tipos de alimentación. Los indicadores se obtuvieron de una unidad de producción con un sistema semi-intensivo tecnificado de estrato socioeconómico medio. Se utilizaron los registros productivos de ovinos en tres experimentos diferentes: a pastoreo con suplementación, b estabulación con una dieta integral de sacchasorgo y c estabulación con alimento comercial. En cada tipo de alimentación se registró el consumo diario individual, y el peso de los corderos cada quince días. Para determinar la rentabilidad se utilizó la Matriz de Análisis de Política (map, donde los ingresos y los costos fueron evaluados a precios de mercado. En la producción de un kilogramo de carne, los insumos comerciables representaron mayor porcentaje en ovinos estabulados (90% respecto de los ovinos en pastoreo (48%. El mayor costo correspondió a la alimentación en todos los casos. En estabulación, los factores internos representaron de 7 a 9% y los costos fijos cerca del 1%; mientras que en ovinos en pastoreo estos indicadores representaron el 38% y 14%, respectivamente. La rentabilidad privada fue de 132% en corderos en pastoreo, 4% en corderos alimentados con sacchasorgo, -11.70% en hembras alimentadas con sacchasorgo y -12.30% en los machos que recibieron alimento comercial. Se concluye que la producción de carne es rentable en corderos en pastoreo y en los machos alimentados con una dieta integral de sacchasorgo, ya que todos los indicadores resultaron positivos.

  1. Urastoma cyprinae in natural and cultured mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis LmK) populations in México

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cáceres-Martínez, J.; Vásquez-Yeomans, R.; Sluys, R.

    1996-01-01

    The turbellarian Urastoma cyprinae (Urastomidae) was found parasitizing Mytilus galloprovincialis in natural beds and culture long-lines at Ensenada, Baja California, north-west Mexico. The parasite caused some damage to the gills of the host. Prevalence was monitored between January 1995 and Januar

  2. Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821 and other Pliocene mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Southern North Sea Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoenen, M.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Nieulande, van F.A.D.

    2000-01-01

    Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821, is recorded from the Coralline Crag Formation of East Anglia (UK) and the Lillo Formation (Oorderen, Kruisschans and Merksem members) of the Antwerp area (Belgium). The species is diagnosed on the basis of newly collected material and differentiated from modern E

  3. Depletion of plankton in a raft culture of Mytilus galloprovincialis in Ría de Vigo, NW Spain. I. Phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, J.K.; Nielsen, T.G.; Van Duren, L.A.; Maar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Food depletion in mussel cultivation has been rarely studied and seldom demonstrated. In this study, concentrations of phytoplankton in and around a blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis raft culture unit in the Ría de Vigo were measured during a 2 wk study period in July 2004. Flow direction and cu

  4. Depletion of plankton in a raft culture of Mytilus galloprovincialis in Ría de Vigo, NW Spain. I. Phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, J.K.; Nielsen, T.G.; Van Duren, L.A.; Maar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Food depletion in mussel cultivation has been rarely studied and seldom demonstrated. In this study, concentrations of phytoplankton in and around a blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis raft culture unit in the Ría de Vigo were measured during a 2 wk study period in July 2004. Flow direction and

  5. Heavy metals monitoring in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Apulian coasts (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SPADA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn and one semi-metal (As were determined in tissues of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected along the Apulian coasts (Mediterranean sea. This project, performed in 2009, was targeted toward the assessment of levels and spatial distribution of metals in the environment in order to evaluate the coastal water quality using mussels as bioindicators and health risk for mussel consumers.The concentrations (mg/kg d.w. of these metals ranged from 6.35 to 76.17 for arsenic (As, 0.38 to 2.54 for cadmium (Cd, 0.96 to 9.46 for chromium (Cr, 5.26 to 19.22 for copper (Cu, 0.10 to 0.81 for mercury (Hg, 25.00 to 110.51 for zinc (Zn and from 0.37 to 3.25 for lead (Pb. These levels were lower than the permissible limits set by European Commission and FAO with the exception for Cr in three sampling stations. Evaluation of the risk associated to molluscs consumption for human health suggested that there is no evident risk for a moderate Mytilus g. consumer, however heavy metals concentrations must be monitored periodically and carefully with respect to the consumers health.

  6. Evidence of Anti-Proliferative Activities in Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Elise Carbonneau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish waste components contain significant levels of high quality protein and are therefore a potential source for biofunctional high-value peptides. The feasibility of applying a pilot scale enzymatic hydrolysis process to whole Mytilus edulis and, by fractionation, recover hydrolysates presenting a biological activity of interest, was evaluated. Fractions were tested on four immortalized cancerous cell lines: A549, BT549, HCT15 and PC3. The 50 kDa fraction, enriched in peptides, presented anti-proliferative activity with all cell lines and results suggest a bioactive molecule synergy within the fraction. At a protein concentration of 44 µg/mL, the 50 kDa fraction induced a mortality of 90% for PC3, 89% for A549, 85% for HCT15 and of 81% for BT549 cell lines. At the low protein concentration of only 11 µg/mL the 50 kDa fraction still entails a cell mortality of 76% for A549 and 87% for PC3 cell lines. The 50 kDa fraction contains 56% of proteins, 3% of lipids and 6% of minerals on a dry weight basis and the lowest levels detected of taurine and methionine and highest levels of threonine, proline and glycine amino acids. The enzymatic hydrolysis process suggests that Mytilus edulis by-products should be viewed as high-valued products with strong potential as anti-proliferative agent and promising active ingredients in functional foods.

  7. Dynamic Energy Budget model parameter estimation for the bivalve Mytilus californianus: Application of the covariation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzelle, A.; Montalto, V.; Sarà, G.; Zippay, M.; Helmuth, B.

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models serve as a powerful tool for describing the flow of energy through organisms from assimilation of food to utilization for maintenance, growth and reproduction. The DEB theory has been successfully applied to several bivalve species to compare bioenergetic and physiological strategies for the utilization of energy. In particular, mussels within the Mytilus edulis complex (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and M. trossulus) have been the focus of many studies due to their economic and ecological importance, and their worldwide distribution. However, DEB parameter values have never been estimated for Mytilus californianus, a species that is an ecological dominant on rocky intertidal shores on the west coast of North America and which likely varies considerably from mussels in the M. edulis complex in its physiology. We estimated a set of DEB parameters for M. californianus using the covariation method estimation procedure and compared these to parameter values from other bivalve species. Model parameters were used to compare sensitivity to environmental variability among species, as a first examination of how strategies for physiologically contending with environmental change by M. californianus may differ from those of other bivalves. Results suggest that based on the parameter set obtained, M. californianus has favorable energetic strategies enabling it to contend with a range of environmental conditions. For instance, the allocation fraction of reserve to soma (κ) is among the highest of any bivalves, which is consistent with the observation that this species can survive over a wide range of environmental conditions, including prolonged periods of starvation.

  8. Heavy metals monitoring in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Apulian coasts (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SPADA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn and one semi-metal (As were determined in tissues of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected along the Apulian coasts (Mediterranean sea. This project, performed in 2009, was targeted toward the assessment of levels and spatial distribution of metals in the environment in order to evaluate the coastal water quality using mussels as bioindicators and health risk for mussel consumers.The concentrations (mg/kg d.w. of these metals ranged from 6.35 to 76.17 for arsenic (As, 0.38 to 2.54 for cadmium (Cd, 0.96 to 9.46 for chromium (Cr, 5.26 to 19.22 for copper (Cu, 0.10 to 0.81 for mercury (Hg, 25.00 to 110.51 for zinc (Zn and from 0.37 to 3.25 for lead (Pb. These levels were lower than the permissible limits set by European Commission and FAO with the exception for Cr in three sampling stations. Evaluation of the risk associated to molluscs consumption for human health suggested that there is no evident risk for a moderate Mytilus g. consumer, however heavy metals concentrations must be monitored periodically and carefully with respect to the consumers health.

  9. Sperm proteome of Mytilus galloprovincialis: Insights into the evolution of fertilization proteins in marine mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Mu, Huawei; Lau, Stanley C K; Zhang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Cataloging the sperm proteome of an animal can improve our understanding of its sperm-egg interaction and speciation, but such data are available for only a few free-spawning invertebrates. This study aimed to identify the sperm proteome of Mytilus galloprovincialis, a free-spawning marine mussel. We integrated public transcriptome datasets by de novo assembly, and applied SDS-PAGE coupled LC-MS/MS analysis to profile the sperm proteome, resulting in the identification of 550 proteins. Comparing the homologous sperm protein coding genes between M. galloprovincialis and its closely related species M. edulis revealed that fertilization proteins have the highest mean nonsynonymous substitution rate (Ka/Ks = 0.62) among 11 functional groups, consistent with previous reports of positive selection of several fertilization proteins in Mytilus. Moreover, 78 sperm proteins in different functional groups have Ka/Ks values > 0.5, indicating the presence of many candidate sperm proteins for further analysis of rapid interspecific divergence. The MS data are available in ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD001665.

  10. Genetic characterization of Mytilus coruscus and M. galloprovincialis using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J H; Lee, J M; Noh, E S; Park, J Y; An, C M

    2013-01-01

    Korean (hard-shelled) mussels (Mytilus coruscus) are an economically important endemic marine bivalve mollusk of Korea; yet, the population has rapidly declined because of overharvesting and habitat competition from the invasive Mytilus galloprovincialis species. The population structures of M. coruscus and M. galloprovincialis were analyzed by next-generation sequencing using 5 microsatellite markers specifically developed for M. coruscus. M. galloprovincialis had an average of 5.4 alleles per locus (range = 2-10), with an average allelic richness of 4.9 per locus (range = 2.0-9.3). M. coruscus had an average of 5.7 alleles per locus (range = 2-13), with an average allelic richness of 5.2 per locus (range = 2.0-11.9). Excessive homozygosity was observed at 3 loci, which was assumed to be due to the presence of null alleles at these loci. Pairwise multilocus FST estimates showed that the M. coruscus and M. galloprovincialis populations were clearly separated. Six populations of M. galloprovincialis from the western, eastern, and southern coast of Korea formed 2 separate clusters, indicating that more than 2 populations of M. galloprovincialis have been introduced to the Korean Peninsula. Hybrids between M. coruscus and M. galloprovincialis were not identified, probably because of genetic differences or different habitat preferences. Further genetic information is required to perform selective breeding, population management, and restoration of M. coruscus.

  11. Biomonitoring of mercury pollution in a wetland near Ravenna, Italy by translocated bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattani, O.; Fabbri, D.; Salvati, M.; Trombini, C.; Vassura, I.

    1999-08-01

    An active biomonitoring experiment using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was performed in Pialassa Baiona, a mercury-polluted coastal wetland near Ravenna, Italy. Three stations (A, B, and C) were selected along the south to north axis. Following a 52-d field exposure, organisms transplanted in the southernmost polluted area (station A) showed mean mercury concentration values of 660 ng/g (dry weight), 4.4 times the initial background level, and were still accumulating mercury. Mussels in both the central area (station B) and the northern area (station C) seemed to reach a steady state with mean mercury concentration values of 323 and 412 ng/g, respectively. This field experiment is the first study carried out in the Ravenna wetlands to evaluate mercury bioavailability in this environment. Finally, the efficiency of the population of Mytilus galloprovincialis selected for the field experiment as mercury bioaccumulators was tested in a laboratory experiment that revealed that up to 135 {micro}g/g (dry weight) could be reached after 77 d of exposure to mercury-polluted water.

  12. Immune modulation in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to North Sea produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, M.L., E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.u [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bamber, S.D.; Sundt, R.C. [IRIS - Biomiljo, Mekjarvik 12, 4070 Randaberg (Norway); Galloway, T.S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The discharge of oil well produced water (PW) provides a constant source of contaminants to the marine environment including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, metals and production chemicals. High concentrations of PW cause adverse effects to exposed biota, including reduced survival, growth and reproduction. Here we explore the effects of PW on immune function in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to sublethal PW concentrations (0.125-0.5%) and cellular parameters were measured. Cell viability, phagocytosis and cytotoxicity were inhibited after exposure to 0.25% and 0.5% PW, whilst the 0.125% PW treatment produced significant increases in these biomarker responses. This biphasic response was only observed after 7 days exposure; longer exposure periods led to a reduction in immune parameters. Results indicate that PW concentrations close to the discharge point cause modulation to cellular immunity. The implications for longer-term disease resistance are discussed. - Exposure to produced water alters immune function in the sentinel species Mytilus edulis.

  13. Hepatopatía crónica e insuficiencia hepática en un lactante con malformación de la placa ductal

    OpenAIRE

    Flora Zárate-Mondragón; Eduardo López-Corella

    2016-01-01

    Paciente masculino de 5 meses, producto de la segunda gesta de una madre de 33 años, sana, con control prenatal, ingesta de ácido fólico y multivitamínicos. Fue obtenido por cesárea por falta de progresión del trabajo de parto, a término, con peso de 3 800 g, talla 52 cm, Apgar 8-9, lloró y respiró al nacer. Egresó al segundo día como “binomio” sano. Onfalorrexis a los 20 días. Sin antecedentes herodofamiliares de importancia para el padecimiento actual. Alimentado con leche materna exclusiva...

  14. Histologia do fígado de tilápia do Nilo ( Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com dietas contendo silagem biológica de pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claucia A. Honorato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as possíveis alterações histopatológicas hepática de tilápias do Nilo alimentadas com dietas contendo silagem biológica de pescado com diferentes concentrações protéicas. Foram utilizados 180 juvenis alimentados com dietas contendo três níveis de proteína (20, 24 and 28% PB, e duas proporções de silagem biológica (¼ e ½ durante 75 dias. Os fragementos de fígado foram fixados em Bouin e inclusos em Histosec®. Posteriorente foram cortados em microtomo com espessura de 2 a 5μm. O método utilizado para coloração foi hematoxilina/eosina e PAS. Os cortes histológicos foram analisados em microscopio de luz. O desarranjo na morfologia do fígado dos peixes alimentados com silagem biológica foi influenciado pelos altos níveis protéicos, e pelo aumento ½ de proporções de proteínas de origem animal das dietas. Foi observado que a variação dos hepatócitos está diretamente ligada com o tipo da dieta fornecida para os peixes. Nos peixes alimentados com as dietas contendo 28% PB, o fígado apresentou desarranjo da estrutura cordonal dos hepatócitos, pontos de necrose e deslocamento do núcleo para periferia. Níveis elevados de silagem biológica de pescado provoca alterações deletérias no fígado. O nível de proteína adequado para manter o desenvolvimento associado à saúde do peixe é de 24%PB.

  15. EVALUACIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE JUVENILES DE PEZ BLANCO (Menidia estor) ALIMENTADOS CON DIETAS A BASE DE PROTEÍNA HIDROLIZADA DE BAGRE ARMADO (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus).

    OpenAIRE

    AVALOS SÁNCHEZ, ANA MAURICIA

    2012-01-01

    El pez blanco Menidia estor (Jordan 1879) del Lago de Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, es una especie nativa y endémica del altiplano mexicano, perteneciente a la familia Atherinopsidae. Por su valor económico, cultural y nutricional es la especie de mayor importancia en la región, que por muchos años ha sido la base de la subsistencia del pueblo Purépecha. Debido a la intensa explotación y deterioro de su hábitat se le considera como una especie amenazada (Marez y Morales 2003), razón po...

  16. Simulación de una microgrid de voltaje continuo/alterno alimentado con fuente solar, eólica, baterías y convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Mírez Tarrillo, Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    En las últimas décadas, la industria eléctrica está experimentando un cambio fundamental desde el tradicional patrón de operación centralizada hacia la introducción de una gran cantidad de fuentes generadoras conectadas a niveles de distribución de Media Tensión. En los últimos años la tendencia se mueve hacia mallas (Grids) de Baja Tensión entre 200V a 1000V, a través de la interconexiones de pequeñas fuentes modulares de generación eléctrica (microplantas). Esto forma un nuevo tipo de siste...

  17. Simulación de una microgrid de voltaje continuo/alterno alimentado con fuente solar, eólica, baterías y convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Mírez Tarrillo, Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    En las últimas décadas, la industria eléctrica está experimentando un cambio fundamental desde el tradicional patrón de operación centralizada hacia la introducción de una gran cantidad de fuentes generadoras conectadas a niveles de distribución de Media Tensión. En los últimos años la tendencia se mueve hacia mallas (Grids) de Baja Tensión entre 200V a 1000V, a través de la interconexiones de pequeñas fuentes modulares de generación eléctrica (microplantas). Esto forma un nuevo tipo de siste...

  18. Comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros em confinamento, alimentados com dieta exclusiva de concentrado com diferentes porcentagens de proteína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.A. Cirne

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros em confinamento, alimentados com dieta exclusiva de concentrado com diferentes porcentagens de proteína (14, 16, 18 e 20%. Foram utilizados 24 cordeiros mestiços da raça Santa Inês, não castrados, com aproximadamente 180 dias de idade, peso vivo médio de 25kg, confinados, num delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O tempo despendido na atividade de alimentação decresceu linearmente em 0,20 hora/dia para cada 1% de aumento na porcentagem de proteína na dieta; o de ócio aumentou linearmente em 0,25 hora/dia; e o de mastigação total reduziu linearmente em 0,25 hora/dia. A elevação da porcentagem de proteína na dieta elevou linearmente a eficiência de alimentação (kg MS e FDN/hora, em 0,038 e 0,005kg/hora, respectivamente, para as frações MS e FDN. Contudo, os consumos de matéria seca (MS e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, a eficiência de ruminação (kg MS e FDN/hora, assim como o período (nº/dia e o tempo (min gasto por período de alimentação, ruminação e ócio não foram influenciados pelas diferentes porcentagens de proteína na dieta.

  19. Larvicultura de Rhamdia quelen (Pisces, Pimelodidae con proteína vegetal y animal, suplementadas con plancton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Castañeda A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el efecto de dietas con diferentes proporciones de fuentes proteicas animales y vegetales suplementadas con plancton sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia en larvas de Rhamdia quelen. Materiales y métodos. Fueron formuladas dos dietas experimentales, dieta-1 con 70% de proteína de origen vegetal (torta de soya y dieta-2 con 70% de proteína proveniente de animales (corazón bovino yharina de pescado; se utilizaron cuatro protocolos de alimentación (cinco réplicas por tratamiento: dieta-1 + plancton filtrado en tamiz de 50-200 micras (T1, dieta-2 + plancton filtrado en tamiz de 50-200 micras (T2, dieta-1 (T3, dieta-2 (T4. Las larvas fueron manejadas a una densidad de 20 animales L-1 suministrando alimentohasta aparente saciedad diariamente a las 07:00, 11:00, 16:00 y 21:00 horas; la suplementación con plancton se realizó a las 11:00 y 21:00 horas. Resultados. Entre T1 y T2 no se observaron diferencias estadísticas (p>0.05 en peso final (21.89 ± 15.17mg vs 20.37 ± 10.37mg, longitud total (13.41±2.34mm vs 13.39±1.99 mm, factor de condición (K (0.80±0.13 vs 0.78±0.13 y sobrevivencia (46.6±2.68% vs36.0±7.41%; las diferencias entre T3 y T4 tampoco fueron significativas (3.35±1.40 mg vs 2.98±1.48 mg; 7.54±0.91mm vs 7.33±0.96mm; 0.75±0.13 vs 0.71±0.12; 33.6±9.07% vs 24.8±6.76%, respectivamente; hubo diferencias significativas (p<0.05 entre los grupos suplementados con plancton y los alimentados solo con ración. Conclusiones. La suplementación con plancton fue más efectiva que elofrecimiento solo de ración. La inclusión del 62.9% de torta de soya en la formulación (T1, aparentemente no afectó el crecimiento ni la sobrevivencia.

  20. Desempenho, características de carcaça e expressão de genes em tourinhos alimentados com lipídeos e monensina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Machado Ladeira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho, as características de carcaça e as suas correlações com as expressões gênicas em tourinhos. Quarenta animais Red Norte foram confinados e distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2x2, e alimentados com grãos de soja moídos ou gordura protegida, com ou sem inclusão de monensina. As dietas foram formuladas para serem isonitrogenadas, com teores de extrato etéreo semelhante (6,5%, e tiveram silagem de milho como volumoso (40%. O período experimental foi de 84 dias, precedido por 14 dias de adaptação. Foram avaliadas as expressões dos genes PPARA, SREBP1c e SCD1. Animais alimentados com gordura protegida tiveram maior ganho de peso nos primeiros 56 dias de confinamento. O uso da monensina não afetou o ganho de peso diário dos animais, mas proporcionou aumento do rendimento de carcaça. Houve correlação de -0,40 entre o ganho de peso dos animais e a expressão do SCD1. O uso de gordura protegida aumenta o desempenho dos animais no início do confinamento, e a monensina proporciona maior rendimento de carcaça.

  1. Trace metal concentrations in Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. From the Salento Coast; La diffusione degli elementi in tracce lungo le coste del Salento. Valutazioni preliminari mediante Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martella, Luigi; Nelli, Luca; Bargagli, Roberto [Siena, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Ambientale

    1997-03-01

    Mussels accumulate trace elements from the water and from ingested food and have been widely used as bio monitors in coastal environments. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in November 1994, April and August 1995 in 21 locations along a 350 km stretch of the Salento coast. The highest concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Ni were found in samples from harbours and the coast south of the Brindisi industrial area. The increased concentrations of Al, Fe and Cd in mussels from most stations in spring and of Cr and Pb in autumn, was attributed to local anthropogenic sources and run-off from cultivated fields and geochemical anomalies. Comparison with published mussel watch results showed that average element concentrations in Salento mussels were similar or lower than levels measured in similar species throughout the Mediterranean. The metal concentrations in these mussels do not seem to pose health risks for local consumers.

  2. Accumulation, elimination and chemical speciation of mercury in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Macoma balthica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.;

    1985-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) transferred in net bags from clean to chronically mercury polluted water readily accumulated mercury during an exposure period of three months. Growth of the transplanted mussels had a “diluting” effect on the mercury concentration, but the absolute weight of mercury uptake...... increased throughout the entire period, though there was a tendency for decreased efficiency of the removal of mercury per liter of water filtered by the mussels. Mussels were also translocated from polluted to clean (laboratory) water to depurate mercury. The biological half-lives of mercury was 293 d...... for M. edulis from the chronically polluted area in contrast to only 53 d for mussels from a temporary massive mercury polluted area near a chemical deposit. In both cases about 75% of the total mercury in the mussels was inorganic, and it is suggested that both inorganic and organic mercury species...

  3. Bioremediation of waste under ocean acidification: Reviewing the role of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broszeit, Stefanie; Hattam, Caroline; Beaumont, Nicola

    2016-02-15

    Waste bioremediation is a key regulating ecosystem service, removing wastes from ecosystems through storage, burial and recycling. The bivalve Mytilus edulis is an important contributor to this service, and is used in managing eutrophic waters. Studies show that they are affected by changes in pH due to ocean acidification, reducing their growth. This is forecasted to lead to reductions in M. edulis biomass of up to 50% by 2100. Growth reduction will negatively affect the filtering capacity of each individual, potentially leading to a decrease in bioremediation of waste. This paper critically reviews the current state of knowledge of bioremediation of waste carried out by M. edulis, and the current knowledge of the resultant effect of ocean acidification on this key service. We show that the effects of ocean acidification on waste bioremediation could be a major issue and pave the way for empirical studies of the topic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isotopic characteristics of shells Mytilus galloprovincialis from eastern coastal area of Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Kanduč

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from entire Eastern Adriatic coast to determine δ18O and δ13C performed on calcite and aragonite shell layers. The aim of this work was to check whether shells of M. galloprovincialis are good environmental indicators (water temperature, salinity. Based on measured isotopic composition of oxygen in shell layers and assumed isotopic composition in water temperatures of calcite and aragonite of shell layers were calculated. The calculated temperatures for M. galloprovincialis shell growth of calcite and aragonite shell layer are in good agreement with measured temperatures of sea water. According to our results of δ18O and δ13C in shell layers we canseparate the locations of the investigated area into three groups: those with more influence of fresh water, those with less influence of fresh water and those of marine environments.

  5. Metabolism of pectenotoxins in brown crabs Cancer pagurus fed with blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhaoxin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the metabolism of pectenotoxins in brown crabs (Cancer pagurus). The crabs were fed with blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) for 21 d then depurated for 42 d. We extracted the toxins from the digestive glands of contaminated crabs, uncontaminated crabs (control group), and the meat of blue mussels using methanol. Extracts of the crab digestive glands were fractionated by liquid-liquid partitioning and solid phase extraction. The fractions were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with ion-trap mass spectrometry (LC-MSn). We detected a new PTX-like compound, designated as metabolite-1. The MS2 mass spectrum of the metabolite-1 [M+Na]+ ion at m/z 897.5 revealed fragment ions at m/z 853.5 and 555.5, typical of those exhibited by other pectenotoxins.

  6. Mytilus edulis haemocytes variability: technique, individual, and environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    cells, haemocytes, could become complementary sub-lethal indicators of toxicology. These two parameters are respectively referred to as total haemocyte count (THC) and differential cell count (DCC). This study examines these commonly used methods, quantifies their limitations, and develops alternative...... techniques. The circulating immune cells are investigated to assess their fluctuations. Finally, impacts of environmental challenges on the circulating haemocytes are examined. Despite its importance in the field of Mytilus edulis immunology, THC evaluation is present in only 20% of publications...... in this field, and DCC in 10%. Ultimately, only 9% of papers consider both THC and DCC before further analyses. The remaining studies disregard THC and DDC, or regard these parameters as being constant and homogenous in M. edulis populations. This study initially quantifies the systematic error induced...

  7. Copper bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Casey; Rosen, Gunther; Colvin, Marienne; Earley, Patrick; Santore, Robert; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2014-08-15

    The bioavailability and toxicity of copper (Cu) in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), San Diego, CA, USA, was assessed with simultaneous toxicological, chemical, and modeling approaches. Toxicological measurements included laboratory toxicity testing with Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) embryos added to both site water (ambient) and site water spiked with multiple Cu concentrations. Chemical assessment of ambient samples included total and dissolved Cu concentrations, and Cu complexation capacity measurements. Modeling was based on chemical speciation and predictions of bioavailability and toxicity using a marine Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Cumulatively, these methods assessed the natural buffering capacity of Cu in SIYB during singular wet and dry season sampling events. Overall, the three approaches suggested negligible bioavailability, and isolated observed or predicted toxicity, despite an observed gradient of increasing Cu concentration, both horizontally and vertically within the water body, exceeding current water quality criteria for saltwater. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Occurrence of Vibrio and other pathogenic bacteria in Mytilus galloprovincialis (mussels) harvested from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripabelli, G; Sammarco, M L; Grasso, G M; Fanelli, I; Caprioli, A; Luzzi, I

    1999-08-01

    Sixty-two samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis (mussels) harvested from approved shellfish waters in the Adriatic Sea were examined for the presence of Vibrio, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli. Vibrio spp. were isolated from 48.4% of samples; the species most frequently found were V. alginolyticus (32.2%) and V. vulnificus (17.7%), followed by V. cincinnatiensis (3.2%), V. parahaemolyticus (1.6%), V. fluvialis (1.6%) and V. cholerae non-O1 (1.6%). V. parahaemolyticus resulted negative to Kanagawa-phenomenon and to PCR amplification of tdh gene. V. cholerae resulted negative to PCR amplification of sto gene. No Salmonella, Campylobacter, or E. coli verocytotoxin-producing strains were isolated. The results of this study suggest the potential risk of ingesting raw or undercooked mussels due to the frequent presence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species.

  9. Impact of environmental pollution on caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Mauceri, Angela; Corsaro, Carmelo; Maisano, Maria; Parrino, Vincenzo; Lo Paro, Giuseppe; Messina, Giuseppe; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2013-12-15

    Metabolic responses to environmental pollution, mainly related to Hg and PAHs, were investigated in mussels. Specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis, sedentary filter-feeders, were caged in anthropogenic-impacted and reference sites along the Augusta coastline (Sicily, Italy). The gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake, digestion and gas exchange, were selected as target organ being the first organ to be affected by pollutants. Severe alterations in gill tissue were observed in mussels from the industrial area compared with control, while gill metabolic profiles, obtained by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and analyzed by multivariate statistics, exhibited significant changes in amino acids, energy metabolites, osmolytes and neurotransmitters. Overall, the morphological changes and metabolic disturbance detected in gill tissues may suggest that the mussels transplanted to the contaminated field site were suffering from adverse environmental condition. The concurrent morphological and metabolomic investigations as applied here result effective in assessing the environmental influences on health status of aquatic organisms.

  10. Metabolomic investigation of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819) caged in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasulo, Salvatore; Iacono, Francesco; Cappello, Tiziana; Corsaro, Carmelo; Maisano, Maria; D'Agata, Alessia; Giannetto, Alessia; De Domenico, Elena; Parrino, Vincenzo; Lo Paro, Giuseppe; Mauceri, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Environmental metabolomics was applied to assess the metabolic responses in transplanted mussels to environmental pollution. Specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis, sedentary filter-feeders, were caged in anthropogenic-impacted and reference sites along the Augusta coastline (Sicily, Italy). Chemical analysis revealed increased levels of PAHs in the digestive gland of mussels from the industrial area compared with control, and marked morphological changes were also observed. Digestive gland metabolic profiles, obtained by 1H NMR spectroscopy and analyzed by multivariate statistics, showed changes in metabolites involved in energy metabolism. Specifically, changes in lactate and acetoacetate could indicate increased anaerobic fermentation and alteration in lipid metabolism, respectively, suggesting that the mussels transplanted to the contaminated field site were suffering from adverse environmental condition. The NMR-based environmental metabolomics applied in this study results thus in it being a useful and effective tool for assessing environmental influences on the health status of aquatic organisms.

  11. Metabolic profiling identification of metabolites formed in Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) after diclofenac exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefille, Bénilde; Arpin-Pont, Lauren; Gomez, Elena; Fenet, Hélène; Courant, Frédérique

    2017-04-01

    Despite the growing concern on the presence of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment, few studies have been conducted on their metabolism in marine organisms. In this study, a non-targeted strategy based on the generation of chemical profiles generated by liquid chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry was used to highlight metabolite production by the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) after diclofenac exposure. This method allowed revealing the production of 13 metabolites in mussel tissues. Three of them were phase I metabolites, including 4'-hydroxy-diclofenac and 5-hydroxy-diclofenac. The remaining 10 were phase II metabolites, including sulfate and amino acids conjugates. Among all of the metabolites highlighted, 5 were reported for the first time in an aquatic organism exposed to diclofenac.

  12. Characterization of the mantle transcriptome in bivalves: Pecten maximus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarra, Tejaswi; Gharbi, Karim; Blaxter, Mark; Peck, Lloyd S; Clark, Melody S

    2016-06-01

    The calcareous shells secreted by bivalve molluscs display diverse and species specific structural compositions, which indicates possible divergent biomineralization processes. Thus, studying multiple mollusc species will provide a more comprehensive understanding of shell formation. Here, the transcriptomes of the mantle tissues responsible for shell deposition were characterized in three commercially relevant bivalve species. Using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics tools, de novo transcriptome assemblies of mantle tissues were generated for the mussel Mytilus edulis, the oyster Crassostrea gigas and the scallop Pecten maximus. These transcriptomes were annotated, and contigs with similarity to proteins known to have shell formation roles in other species were identified. Comparison of the shell formation specific proteins in the three bivalves indicates the possibility of species specific shell proteins.

  13. Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis from Mali Ston Bay during DSP Toxicity Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Ujević

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian National Monitoring Program revealed the presence of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP toxicity in Mediterranean blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis from breeding farms in southern Adriatic Sea through January to June 2011. The mouse bioassay tests (MBA; at the time the official method for DSP toxins were accompanied by atypical symptomatology in the animals and this caused doubts about the assay results. Consequently, in parallel studies reported here, the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soft tissue of DSP positive and negative mussels samples was determined. Cd, Cr, Zn and Ni show higher values in approximately 75% of the DSP positive samples, whereas for Pb and Cr the values were 26% and 34%, respectively. This trend was unchanged during the whole observation period.

  14. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Mali Ston Bay during DSP toxicity episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujević, Ivana; Vuletić, Nenad; Lušić, Jelena; Nazlić, Nikša; Kušpilić, Grozdan

    2015-07-17

    The Croatian National Monitoring Program revealed the presence of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxicity in Mediterranean blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from breeding farms in southern Adriatic Sea through January to June 2011. The mouse bioassay tests (MBA; at the time the official method for DSP toxins) were accompanied by atypical symptomatology in the animals and this caused doubts about the assay results. Consequently, in parallel studies reported here, the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soft tissue of DSP positive and negative mussels samples was determined. Cd, Cr, Zn and Ni show higher values in approximately 75% of the DSP positive samples, whereas for Pb and Cr the values were 26% and 34%, respectively. This trend was unchanged during the whole observation period.

  15. Valve Movement response of the Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis to cypermethrin (pyrethroid-insecticide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Ayad, M.; Ait Fdill, M.; Mouabad, A.

    2009-07-01

    The Moroccan lagoons are economically important and ecologically very sensitive. They are affected by pollution from a range of sources, especially by agricultural pollution from the adjacent agricultural areas that use huge quantities of organic pesticides. These products can be harmful to non target organisms by drainage. A biological monitor for the water quality surveillance using mussels is described. It was deigned to characterize the toxicity of the Cypermethrin (pesticide-pyrethroid ) to the coastal environment by assessing its sublethal effect on valve movement of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In this method the valve behaviour of exposed mussels to Cypermethrin is compared with normal valve opening (control and the reduction in the time of normal opening is used as a rapid response to detect contaminants. (Author)

  16. Modulations in cell-mediated immunity of Mytilus edulis following the `Sea Empress` oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyrynda, E.A.; Dyrynda, P.E.J.; Ratcliffe, N.A. [University of Wales Swansea (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences; Law, R.J.; Kelly, C.A.; Graham, K.L. [MAFF Fisheries Lab., Burnham-on-Crouch (United Kingdom); Pipe, R.K. [Plymouth Marine Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    The `Sea Empress` oil tanker grounded outside Milford Haven (Wales, UK) in February 1996, spilling {approx} 70,000 tonnes of crude oil and contaminating over 100 km of coastline, causing mass mortalities and strandings of at least 11 mollusc species. Intensive field monitoring commenced after the spill, examining immunity and hydrocarbon levels in the mussel, Mytilus edulis (Mollusca: Bivalvia), a commercially-harvested species which can accumulate contaminants. Comparisons of mussels from oiled and reference sites revealed significant modulations in cell-mediated immunity. Elevations in blood cell (haemocyte) numbers and decreases in superoxide generation and phagocytosis were identified in contaminated animals. The immune response of contaminated mussels gradually improved and generally showed no significant differences compared with clean mussels after 11 weeks. By then, total hydrocarbon content in contaminated mussels had declined by 70-90%, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content had decreased by over 90%. (author)

  17. STUDIES ON THE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF SPECIES Mytilus galloprovincialis OF THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Sirbu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that, among the marine organisms, mollusks are highly appreciated in many European, Asian and North American countries. In the Romanian area of the Black Sea, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis can be found in deep areas which form a belt around the sea on the continental platform. There are significant variations of the main environmental factors which directly influence the physiological behavior of the organisms and the accumulation of the biochemical components with nutritional value. This paper correlates the study of the dynamics of the main biochemical compounds with the environmental factors and the annual ontogenetic phases of the organisms. There are also presented comparative studies concerning the rock mollusks and mollusks of deep from the Black Sea. It was found variations in quantitative results for biochemical composition. Cases are due to seasonal variations of physical-chemical conditions of seawater.

  18. Electrochemical methods for quantification and characterization of metallothioneins induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspor, B. [Center for Marine Research Zagreb, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, HR-10 000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pavicic, J. [Center for Marine Research Zagreb, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, HR-10 000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-03-01

    The quantification of the purified metallothionein (MT) component, isolated from the digestive gland of cadmium-exposed Mytilus galloprovincialis, is described based on the analysis of Cd(II) and SH-groups content, applying electrochemical methods. Advantages and disadvantages of the Brdicka procedure for the determination of the MT content is discussed. The saturation of binding positions of purified MT with Cd{sup 2+} ions can be directly followed voltammetrically. Irrespective of the MT concentration, the saturation with Cd{sup 2+} of in vivo induced mussel MT is achieved at a molar ratio of 5. Cd{sup 2+} ions are rapidly displaced from the Cd-Th complex after the addition of Pb{sup 2+} ions, which indicates the kinetically labile type of the complex. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. TRACE ELEMENTS AND RADIONUCLIDES IN MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS FROM CAMPANIA REGION (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marrone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several trace element (As, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sn, Zn and gamma radionuclide (Bi-214, Cs-134, Cs-137, K-40, Pb-212, Pb-214, Th-234, Tl-208 contents were detected in Mytilus galloprovincialis samples. Analytical checks were carried out to assess higienic status and marine pollution of sea areas in front of Naples and Salerno coasts. Trace elements values show that only two samples of mussels from legal breeding has exceeded the level of Pb (European Regulation 1661/99. Radionuclides values are low and similar according litterature. In this study is confirmed the attitude of Mytilius galloprovincialis to behave as a good marine pollution indicator. Furthermore, the present investigation is a starting point to enhance safety and quality of this particular foodstuff and it’s also a contribution in the risk assessment related to the consumption of this kind of products.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Central Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersanti, Arianna; Tavoloni, Tamara; Bastari, Eleonora; Lestingi, Carmela; Romanelli, Sara; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Galarini, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    One-hundred and thirty-four samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along Central Adriatic Sea in 2013 were examined to determine the levels of fifteen congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The purified samples were analysed by gas-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) applying the isotopic dilution. Only four congeners (PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 49 and PBDE 100) were present above the established limits of quantification with mean concentrations equal to 73, 30, 19 and 18 pg g(-1), respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs (sum) ranged from 27 to 386 pg g(-1), with the highest levels around the coastal area of Ancona town. The here found levels were comparable to those measured in mussels collected along Southern Adriatic Sea.

  1. The influence of climatic and physiological performance on population dynamics of Mytilus edulis in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2014-01-01

    . Results show an overall decline in blue mussel abundance along the coast from south to north Greenland. Physiological adaptation and plasticity of blue mussels was found across latitudes spanning from the temperate to the High Arctic region. Combined our results indicate that low ocean temperature per se....... The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) has recently expanded its northern distribution in Greenland and is considered to be a sensitive indicator of climate changes. Blue mussels could be a species that would respond to a warmer climate by increased abundance and growth rates in the Arctic. However, adequate...... data on current distribution and physiological performance of blue mussels in the Arctic is lacking, and knowledge of how “climate” in a broad sense specifically influence population dynamics of this species is unknown. Here, we present data on abundance, age and mortality of blue mussels in West...

  2. The impact of the adult blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) population on settling of conspecific larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Stenalt, Ea

    2010-01-01

    -settling mortality may be due to a reduced benthic predation in habitats with high complexity. In a field experiment, the larval settling of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, was recorded on an artificial substrate 0.25, 1 and 2 m above the bottom during six periods in spring 1999. The experiment was conducted at four....... A size analysis of the settled mussels indicated that the reduction in settling intensity close to mussel beds was due to a pre-settling process: the larvae were predated by the filtering adult mussels. Settling was significantly affected by wind stress. During periods with a high mean wind velocity...... and a turbulent water column, the larvae showed a reduced settlement 1 m above a mussel bed relative to 2 m above, whereas the same patterns not could be observed outside a mussel bed. The importance of the filtration activity of the adult mussels and the behaviour of the larvae is discussed. The recruitment...

  3. Intersex in Littorina littorea and DNA damage in Mytilus edulis as indicators of harbour pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Jette

    2009-05-01

    Intersex in snails (Littorina littorea) and DNA damage in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were analysed to assess how these bio-indicators reflected the level of chemical contamination at two sites in a highly contaminated harbour in Denmark. The comet assay using mussel gill cells was an indicator of exposure to genotoxic chemicals, and the intersex index (ISI) observed in snails was an indicator of exposure to butyltin (BT) compounds. Biota and sediments were analysed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), butyltin compounds (TBT, DBT and MBT), nine PCB congeners and 19 PAH compounds. The biological effects were found to reflect the levels of the chemicals, and it was concluded that intersex in L. littorea and DNA damage in M. edulis can be used as bio-indicators of harbour pollution.

  4. Assessment of essential elements and heavy metals content on Mytilus galloprovincialis from river Tagus estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I; Diniz, M S; Carvalho, M L; Santos, J P

    2014-06-01

    Trace elemental content was analysed in edible tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in five different sampling areas near the mouth of river Tagus estuary in Lisbon. The concentrations of essential elements (S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Sr) were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry, while toxic elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Se and Pb) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the essential elements K and S are present at the highest concentrations in all the studied samples reaching 2,920 and 4,520 μg g(-1) (fresh weight), respectively. The highest levels of heavy metals found were in two areas close to the city for Pb and Cd, but below the maximum allowed values.

  5. Histochemical and ultrastructural study on the innervation of the byssus glands of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellaro-Zuccarello, L; De Biasi, S; Blum, I

    1983-01-01

    The aluminium-formaldehyde (ALFA) histofluorescence method reveals an extensive plexus of brilliant greenish monoaminergic elements in the glandular zones of the Mytilus foot, while only scanty nerve fibres are acetylcholinesterase-positive. By electron microscopy, bundles of nerve fibres can be seen i) in close connection with the intrinsic musculature located in the connective septa among the glands, and ii) near the cell bodies and necks of all the byssus glands. The nerve fibres show varicosities containing three types of vesicles: small clear (50-60 nm), small granular (80-90 nm), and large granular (160-200 nm). The regions of close apposition between nerve terminals and muscle or gland cells generally do not show typical pre- or postsynaptic specializations. Along the pedal groove, mainly in the proximal two thirds of the foot, peripheral bipolar neurons can be detected, both by fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  6. Paramyosin structures in the thick filaments of the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, H G

    1980-10-01

    Freeze-substituted cells of the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis contain paramyosin filaments which exhibit a characteristic fine structure. Longitudinally sectioned filaments show a variety of band patterns, those occurring most frequently being cross, oblique or double oblique striations. The periodic spacings within one pattern are precise as can be demonstrated by Markham analysis and optical diffractometry. The patterns arise from structures in the interior of the filament since they persist in serially sectioned filaments and a layered structure is visible in cross-sectioned filaments. The different patterns are found to be convertible by rotating the grid around the filament axis. The observations led to the conclusion that the paramyosin core has some kind of helical arrangement. A model is proposed which consists of concentric layers of parallel paramyosin molecules which are displaced along the molecular axis in such a way that the characteristic Bear-Selby net structure results.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VARIANT GII.b/HILVERSUM OF NOROVIRUS IN RETAIL MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Tantillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with consumption of raw shellfish. The majority of norovirus infections world-wide are due to genogroup II noroviruses. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis at the end of the commercial chain, the points of purchase, were sampled and screened by an hemi-nested RT-PCR specific for genogroup II noroviruses. Noroviral RNA was detected in 10% of the samples, with the lower frequency being observed in samples obtained from hypermarkets (8% rather than in samples from open-air markets and fish shops (16% and 12%, respectively, suggesting more efficient systems of purification and control being enacted by shellfish producers and suppliers of large retail chains. By sequence analysis, the strains were characterized as norovirus variant GII.b/Hilversum.

  8. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: Archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E.A.A.; Blicher, M.E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthabsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (delta O-18(w)) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records......Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We...

  9. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records......Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and kitchen middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate...

  10. Cruzamientos interpoblacionales en Mytilus chilensis, un bivalvo de importancia comercial y sus efectos sobre el crecimiento en longitud de la valva durante la etapa larval Inter-population breeding in Mytilus chilensis, an economically important bivalve, and its effects on the shell length during the larval stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Toro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos poblaciones naturales de Mytilus chilensis aisladas geográficamente fueron utilizadas para realizar los cruzamientos experimentales en el presente trabajo. En todos los cruzamientos, utilizando un diseño factorial con réplicas, ocurrió fertilización de las ovas, no detectándose diferencias significativas entre los cruzamientos intra e interpoblacionales en cuanto al porcentaje de ovas que desarrollaron larvas al día 4 (P > 0,05. Sin embargo, el porcentaje de larvas anormales al día 4 fue significativamente mayor en los cruzamientos interpoblacionales (P Two geographically separated natural populations of Mytilus chilensis were utilized to carry out the experimental crosses on the present study. In every crossing, using the factorial design with replication, fertilization of eggs occurred without detection of significant differences among inter and intra-population crosses in relation to percentage of eggs developed into larvae at day 4 (P > 0.05. However, the percentage of abnormal larvae at day 4, was significantly higher among inter-population crosses (P < 0.05. The larvae from each cross were placed into a 200 l fiber-glass tank containing 1 µm filtered and U.V. treated fresh sea water, at a density of 100 larvae per ml. A high cell concentration of the micro algae Isochrysis galbana was used as food. Samples for analyzing larval growth were taken from the larval cultures at 4, 10 and 20 days after fertilization. Larval samples were videotyped from a plankton decantation chamber in an inverted microscope fitted with a Pulnex video camera. Selected images were captured for subsequent processing and measurement of each larva using a Scion Image 3.0b PC Software. Significantly differences (P < 0.05 were found in the size of the larvae among the experimental crosses. The sibs from inter-population crosses showed significantly (P < 0.05 higher sizes than those produced by the intra-population crosses. These higher values in the shell

  11. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Als

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland, where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that δ18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (Mytilus edulis δ18Oc values are suitable in reconstructing past meltwater amounts in most cases, but care has to be taken that shells are collected not too close to a glacier, but rather in the mid-region or mouth of the fjord. The focus of future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south–north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.

  12. HISTOLOGIA DO INTESTINO DE TILÁPIA DO NILO ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS CONTENDO DIFERENTES FONTES DE PROTEÍNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei da Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out evaluate the action of the fermented fish silage and fish meal in the middle O. niloticus intestine histochimical. The great epithelium intestinal was in the fishes fed with fish silage independent the animal origin protein proportions in diets. It was observed that the variation of the goblet cells secretion glicoproteic intensity is linked directly to the diet supplied to animals. The middle intestine of O. niloticusshowed differences in the neutral mucus glicoproteic, acid glicoproteic and glicoconjugated secretion pattern, depending on the protein origin and the percentage used in the diet, demonstrating that this species can adapt its secretion system for the protection of the digesting apparatus during the absorption of different protein sources.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a histologia e a histoquímica do intestino anterior de tilápia do Nilo alimentadas com dietas contendo farinha de peixe ou silagem de peixe como fonte de proteína de origem animal. A espessura da vilosidade intestinal dos peixes alimentados com silagem fermentada de resíduo de tilápia foi influenciada pelos teores protéicos, independente das proporções de proteína de origem animal das dietas. Observouse que a variação da intensidade de secreção de glicoproteínas pelas células caliciformes está diretamente ligada com o tipo de dieta fornecida aos animais. O intestino médio de O. niloticus apresentou diferenças no padrão de secreção de muco glicoproteíco neutro, glicoproteínas ácidas e glicoconjugados, dependendo da origem da proteína e da porcentagem utilizada na dieta, demonstrando que esta espécie pode adaptar seu sistema de secreção para a proteção do aparelho digestório durante a absorção diferentes fontes protéicas.

  13. Perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de novilhos europeus e zebuínos alimentados com milheto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Medeiros da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de novilhos mestiços alimentados, em confinamento, com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de grão de milheto moído em substituição ao grão de milho moído. Foram utilizados 24 tourinhos mestiços europeus e 24 mestiços zebuínos, abatidos aos 24 meses de idade, após 96 dias de confinamento. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 4x2 (quatro dietas com 0, 33, 66 e 100% de milheto no concetrado e dois grupos genéticos com seis repetições. O aumento dos níveis de grão de milheto na dieta elevou linearmente a participação dos ácidos graxos, araquídico (C20:0, heneicosanoico (C21:0, α-linolênico (C18:3 n-3 e dihomo-γ-linolênico (C20:3 n-6. Tourinhos europeus apresentaram carne com menor teor dos ácidos graxos, mirístico (C14:0, heneicosanoico (C21:0 e γ-linolênico (C18:3 n-6 do que tourinhos zebuínos. A concentração total de ácidos graxos saturados (45,2%, monoinsaturados (41,2% e poli-insaturados (8,7%, e a relação monoinsaturados/saturados (1,09 e poli-insaturados/saturados (0,18 não foi alterada pelos grupos genéticos e pelas dietas. O aumento da percentagem de grão de milheto na dieta de tourinhos europeus ou zebuínos melhora a relação entre os ácidos graxos ω-6/ω-3.

  14. On the dynamics of the stocks of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Sten; Kristensen, Per Sand

    2001-01-01

    As biological basis for the monitoring programme for the commercially exploited stock(s) of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea, samples of mussels have been collected regularly since 1986, both from sub-tidal and inter- tidal mussel beds. These samples are the basis for the esti...... with figures from other investigations. These analyses have been the basis for annual assessments of the mussel stocks, which again are used in the current management of mussel fishery in the Danish Wadden Sea.......As biological basis for the monitoring programme for the commercially exploited stock(s) of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea, samples of mussels have been collected regularly since 1986, both from sub-tidal and inter- tidal mussel beds. These samples are the basis...

  15. Metabolic cold adaptation and aerobic performance of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) along a temperature gradient into the High Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Rysgaard, Søren; Blicher, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    and plasticity of blue mussels across latitudes spanning from 56 to 77ºN. This indicates that low ocean temperature per se does not constrain metabolic activity of Mytilus in the Arctic; rather, we speculate that maturation of reproductive tissues, larval supply and annual energy budgets are the most relevant......The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) has recently expanded its northern distribution in the Arctic and is therefore considered to be a sensitive indicator of climate changes in this region. In this study, we compared aerobic performance of blue mussels from High Arctic, Subarctic and temperate...... populations at different temperatures. Standard metabolic rates (SMR) and active metabolic rates (AMR) were measured for each population, and absolute (AMR − SMR) and factorial (AMR/SMR) scopes were calculated. Blue mussels from the temperate population had the lowest Q10 (= 1.8) and the largest thermal...

  16. Mass spectrometry data from a quantitative analysis of protein expression in gills of immuno-challenged blue mussels (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Mi, J; Hernroth, B; Bergquist, J; Lind, S Bergström

    2016-09-01

    Here, we provide the dataset associated with our research article on the potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, "Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)" [1]. Blue mussels were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides and samples were collected at different time points post injection. Protein extracts were prepared from the gills, digested using trypsin and a full in-depth proteome investigation was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein identification and quantification was performed using the MaxQuant 1.5.1.2 software, "MaxQuant enables high peptide identification rates, individualized p.p.b.-range mass accuracies and proteome-wide protein quantification" [2].

  17. Evaluation and comparison of four protein extraction protocols for mono- and two-dimensional electrophoresis in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ceruso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four protein extraction protocols from Mytilus galloprovincialis were evaluated with the aim to identify the most practical, efficient and reproducible method. Four extraction protocols frequently used for mussels and organic matrices were selected and compared. The methods were based on the use of: i TRIzol reagent; ii Lysis buffer; iii phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride; iv trichloroacetic acid-acetone. Protein concentration was measured by the Bradford method. Three specimens of mussels were studied and the analysis was conducted in triplicate for each of the four protocols. Results indicated that the four methods could extract significantly different protein profiles. The highest number of protein spots resolved in 2DE gels and the best reproducibility was obtained using trichloroacetic acid-acetone protocol. Results afforded the selection of a suitable extraction protocol to be used for ecotoxicoproteomics studies from mussels and for other proteomic studies conducted by particularly complex tissues such as Mytilus galloprovincialis.

  18. Biochemical characterization of the native α-carbonic anhydrase purified from the mantle of the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Rosa; Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; Sansone, Giovanni; Barone, Carmela; Rossi, Mosè; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2017-12-01

    A α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) has been purified and characterized biochemically from the mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis. As in most mollusks, this α-CA is involved in the biomineralization processes leading to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the mussel shell. The new enzyme had a molecular weight of 50 kDa, which is roughly two times higher than that of a monomeric α-class enzyme. Thus, Mytilus galloprovincialis α-CA is either a dimer, or similar to the Tridacna gigas CA described earlier, may have two different CA domains in its polypeptide chain. The Mytilus galloprovincialis α-CA sequence contained the three His residues acting as zinc ligands and the gate-keeper residues present in all α-CAs (Glu106-Thr199), but had a Lys in position 64 and not a His as proton shuttling residue, being thus similar to the human isoform hCA III. This probably explains the relatively low catalytic activity of Mytilus galloprovincialis α-CA, with the following kinetic parameters for the CO2 hydration reaction: kcat = 4.1 × 10(5) s(-1) and kcat/Km of 3.6 × 10(7) M(-1) × s(-1). The enzyme activity was poorly inhibited by the sulfonamide acetazolamide, with a KI of 380 nM. This study is one of the few describing in detail the biochemical characterization of a molluskan CA and may be useful for understanding in detail the phylogeny of these enzymes, their role in biocalcification processes and their potential use in the biomimetic capture of the CO2.

  19. The use of cholinergic biomarker, cholinesterase activity of blue mussel Mytilus edulis to detect the effects of organophosphorous pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqin, Khusnul

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of organophosphorous pesticide on the cholinesterase activity of different organs of Mytilus edulis. The mussels were exposed to serial dilutions of the pesticides (0, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 ??g/l) for 96 h. A significant inhibition of the cholinesterase activity from gill occurred at the lowest concentration, which indicated that gill was the most sensitive organ. The moderate sensitive organs were foot and mantle, which we...

  20. Evaluation and Comparison of Four Protein Extraction Protocols for Mono- and Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis in Mytilus Galloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Ceruso; Claudia Chirollo; Federica Boccia; Giorgio Smaldone; Raffaele Marrone; Tiziana Pepe

    2015-01-01

    In this study, four protein extraction protocols from Mytilus galloprovincialis were evaluated with the aim to identify the most practical, efficient and reproducible method. Four extraction protocols frequently used for mussels and organic matrices were selected and compared. The methods were based on the use of: i) TRIzol reagent; ii) Lysis buffer; iii) phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride; iv) trichloroacetic acid-acetone. Protein concentration was measured by the Bradford method. Three specimen...

  1. Metales traza en la franja costera del Algarve, II: bioacumulación en mejillones Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819)

    OpenAIRE

    MACHADO, L.M.; Bebianno, M.J.; Boski, T.; Moura, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    Cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in samples of soft tissues of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819), collected from 19 sampling points on the Algarve Coast (southern Portugal). Of all the sampling points, Portimão showed the highest metal concentrations in mussel tissues. Metal concentrations increased near urban centres and sources of industrial effluents. Consequently, the areas influenced...

  2. Arteterapia con personas con discapacidad intelectual

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Pipkau, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto pretende hacer una aproximaci??n al mundo del Arte Terapia y los beneficios que esta disciplina puede aportar a las personas con discapacidad intelectual. La idea surge de la experiencia previa de la autora en este ??mbito y con este colectivo. A trav??s de la documentaci??n bibliogr??fica se busca ampliar el conocimiento en cuanto al concepto de arteterapia y sus antecedentes, con la finalidad de elaborar una propuesta pr??ctica que se basar?? en el dise??o de un taller de arte...

  3. The health status of mussels, Mytilus spp., in Ireland and Wales with the molecular identification of a previously undescribed haplosporidian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, S A; Morgan, E; Carlsson, J; Mackenzie, C; Wooton, E C; Rowley, A F; Malham, S; Culloty, S C

    2014-05-01

    Both wild and cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis and hybrids), are found along most of the Irish coastline. M. edulis is widespread along all Irish coasts and is the only mussel species present on both the east coast of Ireland and the Welsh coast in the Irish Sea. M. galloprovincialis and hybrids are found along the Irish coastline except for the east coast. Samples of Mytilus spp. were collected from twenty-four sites, encompassing all coasts of Ireland and the Welsh coast, at different times of the year and over several years (2008-2011). In total, 841 mussels were examined histologically to assess their health status and the presence of any parasites or commensals. Mussels from 14 of the 24 sites were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine which mytilid species were present. A range of parasites were observed, generally at low levels. The most diverse community of parasites was observed at a sheltered site with poor water quality. Of significance, a previously undescribed haplosporidian was detected in a single mussel sample in the Menai Strait, Wales, by PCR and was confirmed by direct sequencing and is most closely related to Minchina chitonis and a haplosporidian of the Florida marsh clam Cyrenoida floridana. While M. edulis were infected by a variety of micro- and macro-parasites, only trematodes were observed in M. galloprovincialis and hybrids. Habitat description and the environmental factors influencing the study sites, including water quality and exposure, were recorded.

  4. Promoter complexity and tissue-specific expression of stress response components in Mytilus galloprovincialis, a sessile marine invertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysa Pantzartzi

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of stress tolerance in sessile animals, such as molluscs, can offer fundamental insights into the adaptation of organisms for a wide range of environmental challenges. One of the best studied processes at the molecular level relevant to stress tolerance is the heat shock response in the genus Mytilus. We focus on the upstream region of Mytilus galloprovincialis Hsp90 genes and their structural and functional associations, using comparative genomics and network inference. Sequence comparison of this region provides novel evidence that the transcription of Hsp90 is regulated via a dense region of transcription factor binding sites, also containing a region with similarity to the Gamera family of LINE-like repetitive sequences and a genus-specific element of unknown function. Furthermore, we infer a set of gene networks from tissue-specific expression data, and specifically extract an Hsp class-associated network, with 174 genes and 2,226 associations, exhibiting a complex pattern of expression across multiple tissue types. Our results (i suggest that the heat shock response in the genus Mytilus is regulated by an unexpectedly complex upstream region, and (ii provide new directions for the use of the heat shock process as a biosensor system for environmental monitoring.

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of defects in {gamma}-irradiated marine mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and Scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeseoglu, R. [Erciyes Univ., Halil Bayraktar Health Services Vocational Coll., Kayseri (Turkey); Koeksal, F. [Ondokuz Mayis Univ., Physics Dept., Samsun (Turkey); Birey, M. [Ankara Univ., Physics Dept., Ankara (Turkey)

    2004-11-01

    EPR studies have been performed on some gamma-irradiated marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and scallops (Pecten jacobaeus) from the families of Mytilidae and Pectinidae, respectively. Before {gamma}-irradiation, the EPR lines of Mytilus galloprovincialis indicated the existence of Mn{sup 2+} ions, which were not observed in the powders of scallop shells. {gamma}-irradiation induced defects in powders of Mytilus galloprovincialis shells, were attributed to orthorhombic CO{sub 3}{sup -}, axial CO{sub 3}{sup 3-}, orthorhombic CO{sub 2}{sup -}, freely rotating CO{sub 2}{sup -}, freely rotating SO{sub 2}{sup -}, axial SO{sub 3}{sup -}, isotropic PO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and organic free radicals. {gamma}-irradiation induced defects in powders of Pecten jacobaeus shells were attributed to orthorhombic CO{sub 3}{sup -}, axial CO{sub 3}{sup 3-}, orthorhombic CO{sub 2}{sup -}, freely rotating CO{sub 2}{sup -}, freely rotating SO{sub 2}{sup -}, and axial SO{sub 3}{sup -} free radicals. The EPR parameters of the free radicals were compared with literature data on similar defects. (orig.)

  6. Desempenho produtivo e econômica de surubins (Pseudoplatystoma sp. alimentados com níveis de proteína e estocados em tanque-rede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Honorato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp. é uma das espécie de peixe mais apreciadas para o consumo. Por ser uma espécie carnívora, exige atenção especial no que tange às suas exigências nutricionais. Até o momento, poucos estudos foram realizados para estabelecê-las na fase de engorda, em especial em sistema de cultivo intensivo. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os desempenhos zootécnico e econômico de surubins (Pseudoplatystoma sp. na fase final de crescimento, estocados em tanque-rede e alimentados com dietas com diferentes níveis de proteína. Os peixes, com peso de 356,6±40,3g, foram acondicionados em 12 tanques-rede de 18m3, nos quais permaneceram por cinco meses até adquirirem o peso comercial para abate. O tratamento experimental foi constituído por três dietas extrusadas comerciais, com os níveis de proteína bruta (36, 38, 40%PB sendo substituídos gradativamente por carboidratos. Foram avaliados os parâmetros de crescimento, rendimento de filé, enzimas metabólicas e desempenho econômico. O ganho de peso, o ganho de peso diário, o consumo de dieta, a taxa de eficiência proteica, a sobrevivência e o rendimento de filé não apresentaram diferença significativa. A conversão alimentar foi melhor para os peixes alimentados com a dieta com 38 e 40%PB. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para os parâmetros de índice hepatossomático e de enzimas hepáticas. Apesar dos maiores gastos com a ração contendo 38%PB em comparação à dieta com 36%PB, esta foi a que apresentou o melhor índice de custo por kg de peixe produzido. Os melhores índices de crescimento e o menor custo de arraçoamento foram obtidos pelos peixes alimentados com a dieta 38%PB, sendo esta, portanto recomendada para o arraçoamento na fase final de surubins em tanque-rede.

  7. Desempenho e exigências nutricionais de bovinos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de cálcio e fósforo

    OpenAIRE

    Prados,Laura Franco

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade e o desempenho de bovinos cruzados ¾ Zebu × ¼ Holandês, alimentados com três níveis de cálcio e fósforo na dieta; estimar as exigências nutricionais de energia e proteína de bovinos cruzados ¾ Zebu × ¼ Holandês, não castrados; e testar equações para predição da composição química corporal da carcaça, dos componentes não-carcaça e do corpo vazio obtidas por Hankins & Howe (1946) e pelo BR-CORTE (2006 e ...

  8. Função hepática e renal de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas com aflatoxinas e clinoptilolita natural

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel,Roberto Marinho; Lopes,Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos; Santurio,Janio Morais; Martins,Danieli Brolo; Rosa,Alexandre Pires; Emanuelli,Mauren Picada

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os minerais séricos e as funções hepática e renal de frangos de corte, alimentados com dietas com aflatoxinas e dietas com aflatoxinas e argila clinoptilolita natural. Foram utilizados 528 frangos de corte machos, da linhagem Ross, distribuídos em seis tratamentos com quatro repetições cada: T1 - testemunha: ração sem aflatoxina ou clinoptilolita; T2 - ração com 5 ppm de aflatoxinas; T3 - ração com 0,25% de clinoptilolita; T4 - ração com 5 ppm de aflatoxi...

  9. BOVINE CATTLE FED WITH BRACHIARIA AND ANDROPOGON GRASS: HEMATOLOGY AND CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY BOVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM CAPIM BRACHIARIA E ANDROPOGON: HEMATOLOGIA E BIOQUÍMICA CLÍNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Haragushi

    2009-04-01

    alimentados com capim Brachiaria brizantha e B. decumbens em uma mesma pastagem e Andropogon gayanus, correlacionando-as com o ganho em peso. Cinquenta bovinos foram divididos em dois grupos de 25 animais, alimentados com um dos dois gêneros de capim do desmame ao abate. Durante trinta meses foram realizadas colheitas das amostras de sangue, pesagem e exame clínico dos animais a cada sessenta dias aproximadamente. Do mesmo modo, colheram-se amostras das gramíneas nos mesmos períodos. A quantidade de esporos do fungo P. chartarum e a concentração de saponinas litogênicas das pastagens foram determinadas para comparação com a bioquímica clínica. Nenhum animal apresentou alterações clínicas, no entanto, o ganho de peso foi maior nos bovinos do grupo alimentado com A. gayanus. A concentração de hemoglobina, hematócrito, número de hemácias, bilirrubina total e indireta tiveram correlação com o ganho em peso dos animais. Os bovinos alimentados com Brachiaria spp. e A. gayanus apresentaram perfil hematológico e de função hepática semelhantes. Ao longo do período experimental, independente do tipo de capim ingerido pelos bovinos, ocorreu um aumento da AST, GGT e bilirrubinas, acompanhado de ausência de sinais clínicos, sugerindo presença de alteração hepática crônica subclínica.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Aspartato aminotransferase, esporidesmina, fotossensibilização, gama glutamiltransferase, saponina.

  10. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poynton, Helen C., E-mail: helen.poynton@umb.edu; Robinson, William E.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Hannigan, Robyn E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Gene expression and metal tissue concentrations were compared in Mytilus edulis. • Expression levels of several transcripts correlated with metal concentrations. • Transcripts involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced. • Integration of transcriptomics and tissue levels provides insight to toxicity. - Abstract: Marine biomonitoring programs in the U.S. and Europe have historically relied on monitoring tissue concentrations of bivalves to monitor contaminant levels and ecosystem health. By integrating ‘omic methods with these tissue residue approaches we can uncover mechanistic insight to link tissue concentrations to potential toxic effects. In an effort to identify novel biomarkers and better understand the molecular toxicology of metal bioaccumulation in bivalves, we exposed the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., to sub-lethal concentrations (0.54 μM) of cadmium, lead, and a Cd + Pb mixture. Metal concentrations were measured in gill tissues at 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and increased linearly over the 4 week duration. In addition, there was evidence that Pb interfered with Cd uptake in the mixture treatment. Using a 3025 sequence microarray for M. edulis, we performed transcriptomic analysis, identifying 57 differentially expressed sequences. Hierarchical clustering of these sequences successfully distinguished the different treatment groups demonstrating that the expression profiles were reproducible among the treatments. Enrichment analysis of gene ontology terms identified several biological processes that were perturbed by the treatments, including nucleoside phosphate biosynthetic processes, mRNA metabolic processes, and response to stress. To identify transcripts whose expression level correlated with metal bioaccumulation, we performed Pearson correlation analysis. Several transcripts correlated with gill metal concentrations including mt10, mt20, and contig 48, an unknown transcript containing a wsc domain. In addition

  12. Patella spp. as na alternative to Mytilus spp in marine pollution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pérez-Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most widely used species for marine pollution studies is mussel, Mytilus spp., as it is a filter feeder, sessile, easy to get and present in most worldwide coasts. However, sometimes it is necessary to have an alternative for areas where mussels are scarce or even absent. Patella spp. could be a useful substitute to Mytilus as these organisms have already been used in some pollution studies (Bartolomé, 2011 and both groups have similar characteristics except for the feeding strategy that in limpets is based on grazing on the small algae that grow on the rocks where they live. For this study, four sampling sites where selected: two in Galicia (Ría de Arousa and Ría de Ferrol and two in the Bay of Biscay (Suances and Fuenterrabía. In the four sampling sites both mussels and limpets were collected and 12 parent PAHs were analysed by means of HPLC and fluorescence detector with programmable wavelength (Viñas 2002. The method is subject to a strict quality control that guarantees the quality of the data. Mussels always present a higher PAH content than limpets sampled in the same area. When comparing the value for the sum of PAHs, it is shown that the maximum value measured in limpets (26.0 µg/kg d.w. in Arousa is less than the minimum value measured in mussels (63.7 µg/kg d.w. in Fuenterrabía. However, the sites pointed as more polluted using limpets coincide with the ones that are pointed out using mussels and the other way around. The individual PAH distribution pattern also presents some differences in both species mainly due to the phenathrene proportion that is higher in limpets than in mussels and this is clearer in the Bay of Biscay area. The main conclusion of the study is that there is no direct conversion factor between the PAH burden in both species but it could be possible to estimate the pollution status of an area using limpets. To compare levels between species it would be necessary to do some more work including more

  13. Insights into the innate immunity of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

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    Novoa Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sessile bivalves of the genus Mytilus are suspension feeders relatively tolerant to a wide range of environmental changes, used as sentinels in ecotoxicological investigations and marketed worldwide as seafood. Mortality events caused by infective agents and parasites apparently occur less in mussels than in other bivalves but the molecular basis of such evidence is unknown. The arrangement of Mytibase, interactive catalogue of 7,112 transcripts of M. galloprovincialis, offered us the opportunity to look for gene sequences relevant to the host defences, in particular the innate immunity related genes. Results We have explored and described the Mytibase sequence clusters and singletons having a putative role in recognition, intracellular signalling, and neutralization of potential pathogens in M. galloprovincialis. Automatically assisted searches of protein signatures and manually cured sequence analysis confirmed the molecular diversity of recognition/effector molecules such as the antimicrobial peptides and many carbohydrate binding proteins. Molecular motifs identifying complement C1q, C-type lectins and fibrinogen-like transcripts emerged as the most abundant in the Mytibase collection whereas, conversely, sequence motifs denoting the regulatory cytokine MIF and cytokine-related transcripts represent singular and unexpected findings. Using a cross-search strategy, 1,820 putatively immune-related sequences were selected to design oligonucleotide probes and define a species-specific Immunochip (DNA microarray. The Immunochip performance was tested with hemolymph RNAs from mussels injected with Vibrio splendidus at 3 and 48 hours post-treatment. A total of 143 and 262 differentially expressed genes exemplify the early and late hemocyte response of the Vibrio-challenged mussels, respectively, with AMP trends confirmed by qPCR and clear modulation of interrelated signalling pathways. Conclusions The Mytibase collection is rich

  14. Ciclo gonadal del chorito Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en dos localidades del sur de Chile Gonadal cycle of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae at two localities in southern of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó de forma cualitativa y cuantitativa el ciclo gonadal del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis en las localidades de Chaihuín y bahía Yal, sur de Chile, entre octubre 2007 y junio 2008. Por medio de análisis histológico gonadal se determinaron cuatro estadios gametogénicos y a su vez se estimó en forma cuantitativa, el Volumen de la Fracción Gamética (VFG, el porcentaje de tejido interfolicular y el índice gonadal. El análisis cuantitativo (VFG fue el mejor indicador para determinar los desoves. En los ejemplares de Chaihuín se observaron dos eventos de emisión gamética en forma simultánea en ambos sexos, que ocurrieron en octubre y marzo. Sin embargo, en los ejemplares de bahía Yal se registraron cuatro desoves, principalmente de marzo a junio (otoño, cuando la temperatura del agua disminuyó. Se determinó una escasa relación entre el Índice Gonadosomático (IG y los estadios gametogénicos, al igual que entre el IG y el porcentaje de ovocitos maduros, por ende el IG no sería un indicador apropiado para los desoves en esta especie. Se sugiere la revisión del periodo de veda de Mytilus chilensis (1 noviembre a 31 diciembre, ya que la mayor parte de los individuos de las poblaciones estudiadas, maduran principalmente en octubre. En ambas localidades, el porcentaje de tejido conjuntivo de los especímenes estudiados fluctúo entre 15 y 70% de cobertura gonadal. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron diferencias en los ciclos reproductivos de Mytilus chilensis entre las localidades analizadas, las que se podrían atribuir a diferencias ambientales (e.g. temperatura causadas por el gradiente latitudinal.A qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out of the gonadal cycle of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis from Chaihuín and Yal bay, southern Chile, between October 2007 and June 2008. Four gametogenic stages were determined using histological analysis of the gonads, and quantitative estimates were made of the Gametic Volume

  15. Common European harmful algal blooms affect the viability and innate immune responses of Mytilus edulis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Vandegehuchte, M B; Vanden Bussche, J; Nevejan, N; Vanhaecke, L; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Like marine diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally increasing in frequency, severity and geographical scale. As a result, bivalves will have to face the combined threat of toxic algae and marine pathogens more frequently in the (near) future. These stressors combined may further affect the recruitment of ecologically and economically important bivalve species as HABs can affect the growth, viability and development of their larvae. To date, little is known on the specific effects of HABs on the innate immune system of bivalve larvae. This study therefore investigates whether two common harmful algae can influence the larval viability, development and immunological resilience of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Embryos of this model organism were exposed (48 h) to five densities of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries or Prorocentrum lima cells. In addition, the effect of six concentrations of their respective toxins: domoic acid (DA) and okadaic acid (OA) were assessed. OA was found to significantly reduce larval protein phosphatase activity (p larval viability (p < 0.01) at concentrations as low as 37.8 μg l(-1). P. multiseries (1400 cells ml(-1)), P. lima (150 cells ml(-1)) and DA (dosed five times higher than typical environmental conditions i.e. 623.2 μg l(-1)) increased the phenoloxidase (PO) innate immune activity of the mussel larvae. These results suggest that the innate immune response of even the earliest life stages of bivalves is susceptible to the presence of HABs.

  16. California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for marine contamination with Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Lauren; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a terrestrial parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in the endangered Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). To date, neither risk factors associated with marine contamination nor the route of S. neurona infection to marine mammals has been described. This study evaluated coastal S. neurona contamination using California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for pathogen pollution. A field investigation was designed to test the hypotheses that (1) mussels can serve as sentinels for S. neurona contamination, and (2) S. neurona contamination in mussels would be highest during the rainy season and in mussels collected near freshwater. Initial validation of molecular assays through sporocyst spiking experiments revealed the ITS-1500 assay to be most sensitive for detection of S. neurona, consistently yielding parasite amplification at concentrations ⩾5 sporocysts/1 mL mussel haemolymph. Assays were then applied on 959 wild-caught mussels, with detection of S. neurona confirmed using sequence analysis in three mussels. Validated molecular assays for S. neurona detection in mussels provide a novel toolset for investigating marine contamination with this parasite, while confirmation of S. neurona in wild mussels suggests that uptake by invertebrates may serve as a route of transmission to susceptible marine animals.

  17. A First Insight into the Genome of the Filter-Feeder Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgarella, Maria; Puiu, Daniela; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Posada, David; Canchaya, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Mussels belong to the phylum Mollusca, one of the largest and most diverse taxa in the animal kingdom. Despite their importance in aquaculture and in biology in general, genomic resources from mussels are still scarce. To broaden and increase the genomic knowledge in this family, we carried out a whole-genome sequencing study of the cosmopolitan Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). We sequenced its genome (32X depth of coverage) on the Illumina platform using three pair-end libraries with different insert sizes. The large number of contigs obtained pointed out a highly complex genome of 1.6 Gb where repeated elements seem to be widespread (~30% of the genome), a feature that is also shared with other marine molluscs. Notwithstanding the limitations of our genome sequencing, we were able to reconstruct two mitochondrial genomes and predict 10,891 putative genes. A comparative analysis with other molluscs revealed a gene enrichment of gene ontology categories related to multixenobiotic resistance, glutamate biosynthetic process, and the maintenance of ciliary structures.

  18. Consequences of keeping Mytilus in the laboratory as assessed by different cellular condition indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajaraville, M. P.; Díez, G.; Marigómez, I. A.; Angulo, E.

    1991-12-01

    Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. were maintained in the laboratory for three months in a semicontinuous water flow system. Animals were fed a commercial filter-feeder food and sampled after 0, 21, 35, 49, 77, and 91 days. In order to establish whether laboratory conditions and the food used were deleterious to mussels, their health status was assessed by quantifying different histological parameters of the digestive gland tissue. It was concluded that mussels kept for more than 35 days under the described laboratory conditions showed signs of stress presumably caused by the reproductive state of the mussels investigated. The food used and the nutrition-related health status of the animals were adequate, as shown by transmission electron microscopical studies after the 91-day maintenance period. A stress response was also evoked by a 10-day starvation period, which was reflected by an increased proportion of type I and type IV digestive tubules, and a reduced “Mean Epithelial Thickness” (MET). Finally, the results demonstrate the sensitivity of quantitative histological diagnosis in comparison to subjective tubule grading procedures in the assessment of the degree of stress experienced by mussels.

  19. Effects of nanopolystyrene on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, A; Besseling, E; Foekema, E M; Kamermans, P; Koelmans, A A

    2012-11-01

    As the industrial production of nanoplastic and the degradation of microplastic into smaller particles at sea increase, the potential amount of nanoplastics in the marine environment rises. It has been reported that mussels uptake 100-nm polystyrene (PS) beads; to date, however, the effects of this uptake on the organism are unknown. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of 30-nm PS on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) by exposing the organism to different nano PS and different algae (Pavlova lutheri) concentrations. The state of nano PS aggregation in the exposure medium was assessed using dynamic light scattering. In all treatments that contained nano PS, M. edulis produced pseudofeces. The total weight of the feces and pseudofeces increased with increasing nano PS and increasing algae concentration. Furthermore, M. edulis reduced its filtering activity when nano PS was present but still caused a decrease in the apparent nano PS concentration in the water. The presence of nano PS around the foot of M. edulis after the bioassay confirmed that the organism removed nano PS from the water. Chronic effect studies are therefore needed to investigate the effects of nanoplastics in M. edulis and possible consequences for its predators, including humans.

  20. Differential depuration of poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, U.F.; Collins, J.K. (Univ. College, Cork (Ireland))

    1989-06-01

    The elimination of sewage effluent-associated poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a 22-nm icosahedral coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis, was studied. Both laboratory-and commercial-scale recirculating, UV depuration systems were used in this study. In the laboratory system, the logarithms of the poliovirus, E. coli, and coliphage levels were reduced by 1.86, 2.9, and 2.16, respectively, within 52 h of depuration. The relative patterns and rates of elimination of the three organisms suggest that they are eliminated from mussels by different mechanisms during depuration under suitable conditions. Poliovirus was not included in experiments undertaken in the commercial-scale depuration system. The differences in the relative rates and patterns of elimination were maintained for E. coli and coliphage in this system, with the logarithm of the E. coli levels being reduced by 3.18 and the logarithm of the coliphage levels being reduced by 0.87. The results from both depuration systems suggest that E. coli is an inappropriate indicator of the efficiency of virus elimination during depuration. The coliphage used appears to be a more representative indicator. Depuration under stressful conditions appeared to have a negligible affect on poliovirus and coliphage elimination rates from mussels. However, the rate and pattern of E. coli elimination were dramatically affected by these conditions. Therefore, monitoring E. coli counts might prove useful in ensuring that mussels are functioning well during depuration.

  1. A portable infrared photoplethysmograph: heartbeat of Mytilus galloprovincialis analyzed by MRI and application to Bathymodiolus septemdierum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrared photoplethysmogram (IR-PPG and magnetic resonance image (MRI of the Mytilus galloprovincialis heart were obtained simultaneously. Heart rate was varied by changing temperature, aerial exposure and hypoxia. Higher heart rates (35-20 beat min−1 were usually observed at 20°C under the aerobic condition, and typical IR-PPG represented a single peak (peak v. The upward and downward slopes of the peak v corresponded to the filling and contracting of the ventricle, respectively. A double-peak IR-PPG was observed in a wide range of heart rates (5 to 35 beats min−1 under various conditions. The initial peak v corresponded to the filling of the ventricle, and the origin of the second peak (v’ varied with the heart rate. A flat IR-PPG with a noise-level represented cardiac arrest. Although large movement of the shells and the foot caused slow waves or a baseline drift of the IR-PPG, the heart rate can be calculated from the v-v interval. Based on these results, we assembled a portable IR-PPG recording system, and measured the heartbeats of Bathymodiolus septemdierum (Mytilidae for 24 h on a research vessel just after sampling from the deep sea, showing that IR-PPG is a noninvasive, economical, robust method that can be used in field experiments.

  2. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, M. E.; Mortensen, J.; Rysgaard, S.; Als, T. D.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.

    2012-09-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and kitchen middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that δ18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south-north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and kitchen middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.

  3. Metabolic and histopathological alterations in the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis induced by chronic exposure to acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larguinho, Miguel; Cordeiro, Ana; Diniz, Mário S; Costa, Pedro M; Baptista, Pedro V

    2014-11-01

    Although the neurotoxic and genotoxic potential of acrylamide has been established in freshwater fish, the full breadth of the toxicological consequences induced by this xenobiotic has not yet been disclosed, particularly in aquatic invertebrates. To assess the effects of acrylamide on a bivalve model, the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), two different setups were accomplished: 1) acute exposure to several concentrations of waterborne acrylamide to determine lethality thresholds of the substance and 2) chronic exposure to more reduced acrylamide concentrations to survey phases I and II metabolic endpoints and to perform a whole-body screening for histopathological alterations. Acute toxicity was low (LC50≈400mg/L). However, mussels were responsive to prolonged exposure to chronic concentrations of waterborne acrylamide (1-10mg/L), yielding a significant increase in lipid peroxidation plus EROD and GST activities. Still, total anti-oxidant capacity was not exceeded. In addition, no neurotoxic effects could be determined through acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. The findings suggest aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr)-dependent responses in mussels exposed to acrylamide, although reduced comparatively to vertebrates. No significant histological damage was found in digestive gland or gills but female gonads endured severe necrosis and oocyte atresia. Altogether, the results indicate that acrylamide may induce gonadotoxicity in mussels, although the subject should benefit from further research. Altogether, the findings suggest that the risk of acrylamide to aquatic animals, especially molluscs, may be underestimated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic diversity of culturable Vibrio in an Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tzu Nin; Bolch, Christopher J S

    2015-09-17

    Bacillary necrosis associated with Vibrio species is the common cause of larval and spat mortality during commercial production of Australian blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A total of 87 randomly selected Vibrio isolates from various stages of rearing in a commercial mussel hatchery were characterised using partial sequences of the ATP synthase alpha subunit gene (atpA). The sequenced isolates represented 40 unique atpA genotypes, overwhelmingly dominated (98%) by V. splendidus group genotypes, with 1 V. harveyi group genotype also detected. The V. splendidus group sequences formed 5 moderately supported clusters allied with V. splendidus/V. lentus, V. atlanticus, V. tasmaniensis, V. cyclitrophicus and V. toranzoniae. All water sources showed considerable atpA gene diversity among Vibrio isolates, with 30 to 60% of unique isolates recovered from each source. Over half (53%) of Vibrio atpA genotypes were detected only once, and only 7 genotypes were recovered from multiple sources. Comparisons of phylogenetic diversity using UniFrac analysis showed that the culturable Vibrio community from intake, header, broodstock and larval tanks were phylogenetically similar, while spat tank communities were different. Culturable Vibrio associated with spat tank seawater differed in being dominated by V. toranzoniae-affiliated genotypes. The high diversity of V. splendidus group genotypes detected in this study reinforces the dynamic nature of microbial communities associated with hatchery culture and complicates our efforts to elucidate the role of V. splendidus group bacteria in vibriosis.

  5. Contaminant effects on growth, age-structure, and reproduction, of Mytilus edulis from Puget Sound, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casillas, E.; Kardong, K.; Kagley, A.; Snider, R.G.; Stein, J.E. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States). Environmental Conservation Division

    1994-12-31

    Age-length relationships, age structure, and reproductive status (fecundity, egg size) of Mytilus edulis from six sites in central Puget Sound and one site in the relatively pristine area of northern Puget Sound were measured. Mussels from urban-associated sites (areas with elevated sediment concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, and toxic and essential metals) exhibited high tissue burdens of these contaminants. Age length relationships, fitted to the von Bertalanffy equation, showed that the growth of mussels from urban-associated areas was similar, but was lower than in mussels from minimally-contaminated environments. Comparison of mussel population age-structure showed that at urban sites, mussels of comparable size were consistently older than mussels from minimally contaminated areas and the mean age of urban populations was higher than that of rural populations. In mussels from urban sites, gonad mass was lower while number of oocytes/g gonad was similar compared to mussels from minimally-contaminated areas of Puget Sound. Thus, in mussels from urban sites fecundity was reduced compared to mussels of comparable age from reference sites. The findings support the hypothesis that mussels from the urban areas exhibit impaired growth, altered population age-structure, and reproductive impairment as a result of accumulation of chemical contaminants.

  6. p63 in Mytilus galloprovincialis and p53 family members in the phylum Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifanić, Mauro; Micić, Milena; Ramsak, Andreja; Blasković, Sanja; Ruso, Ana; Zahn, Rudolf K; Batel, Renato

    2009-11-01

    Genes of the p53 family are known to be critical regulators of the cell cycle. They have already been established as possible biomarkers. Elaborate regulation mechanisms result in numerous cDNA and protein isoforms being expressed from each gene of the p53 family. Their similarity caused an often misleading nomenclature in non-vertebrate species. The aim of the present work is a clarification of the nomenclature of molluscan p53 family sequences, an essential prerequisite for reliable interpretation of gene expression and protein function studies. Here, we report five partial cDNA and one partial genomic p63 sequences, all originating from two Mytilus galloprovincialis individuals. DNA, deduced protein sequences, and the exon/intron architecture were analyzed and compared to p53, p63 and p73 sequences from other organisms. Along with our sequences, we analyzed all similar molluscan sequences found in the GenBank database. The analysis showed our cDNA sequences code for the TAp63gamma isoform of the p63 protein, and identified all other molluscan p53 family sequences as p63 genes or their expression isoforms. Our results also indicate p63 as the ancestral gene of the p53 family as well as the only gene of the family present in non-chordate metazoan species.

  7. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body...... rates were estimated from the density of active mussels times the estimated filtration rates (based on the gap size of the mussels and literature values for corresponding filtration rates). Actual population filtration rates ranged from 6.4 to 22.8 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) on days 1 and 3, respectively...

  8. Genotoxicity of copper oxide and silver nanoparticles in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tânia; Araújo, Olinda; Pereira, Rita; Almeida, Ana C; Cravo, Alexandra; Bebianno, Maria João

    2013-03-01

    Though there is some information on cytotoxicity of copper nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles on human cell lines, there is no information on their genotoxic and cytotoxic behaviour in bivalve molluscs. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic impact of copper oxide and silver nanoparticles using mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to 10 μg L⁻¹ of CuO nanoparticles and Cu²⁺ and Ag nanoparticles and Ag⁺ for 15 days to assess genotoxic effects in hemocytes using the comet assay. The results obtained indicated that copper and silver forms (nanoparticles and ionic) induced DNA damage in hemolymph cells and a time-response effect was evident when compared to unexposed mussels. Ionic forms presented higher genotoxicity than nanoparticles, suggesting different mechanisms of action that may be mediated through oxidative stress. DNA strand breaks proved to be a useful biomarker of exposure to genotoxic effects of CuO and Ag nanoparticles in marine molluscs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Some risk factors that affect contamination of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grković, N.; Velebit, B.; Teodorović, V.; Karabasil, N.; Vasilev, D.; Đorđević, V.; Dimitrijević, M.

    2017-09-01

    Pollution and contamination of the Bay of Kotor ecosystem arise from both anthropogenic sources and natural weathering. In recent decades, a need has arisen for regular control of marine organisms, which are used in human nutrition, because the entire bay is constantly and increasingly exposed to negative anthropogenic impact. Molluscs, including mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), can be involved in foodborne disease. They are filter feeding organisms, able to retain and concentrate in their bodies the bacteria, parasites, viruses and biotoxins of marine algae present in their external environment. A structured field study was undertaken in the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro, in order to investigate plausible influence of environmental factors, like rainfall and temperature, on the variability of Escherichia coli and norovirus (NoV). This study focuses on human-derived pathogens that are abundant in sewage-related sources. We proved the negative correlation between outside temperature and the number of E.coli and the presents of Norovirus in Bay of Kotor mussel. We used this data from the sampling site to discuss options to better manage the risk of contamination of shellfish. From the aspect of food safety, an upgrade of monitoring plans in the future could lead to obtaining safer products.

  10. Colloidal complexed silver and silver nanoparticles in extrapallial fluid of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuykov, Michael; Pelletier, Emilien; Demers, Serge

    2011-02-01

    Metal transport in mollusk extrapallial fluid (EPF) that acts as a "bridge" between soft tissues and shell has surprisingly received little attention until now. Using ultrafiltration and radiotracer techniques we determined silver concentrations and speciation in the EPF of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis after short-term uptake and depuration laboratory experiments. Radiolabelled silver ((¹¹⁰m)Ag) was used in dissolved or nanoparticulate phases (AgNPs silver nanoparticles were transported to the EPF of blue mussels at a level similar to the Ag ionic form. Bulk activity of radiolabelled silver in the EPF represented only up to 7% of the bulk activity measured in the whole mussels. The EPF extracted from mussels exposed to both treatments exhibited an Ag colloidal complexed form based on EPF ultrafiltration through a 3 kDa filter. This original study brings new insights to internal circulation of nanoparticles in living organisms and contributes to the international effort in studying the potential impacts of engineered nanomaterials on marine bivalves which play an essential role in coastal ecosystems, and are important contributors to human food supply from the sea.

  11. Gene expression rhythms in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam. across an annual cycle.

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    Mohamed Banni

    Full Text Available Seasonal environmental changes may affect the physiology of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam., an intertidal filter-feeder bivalve occurring commonly in Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal areas. We investigated seasonal variations in relative transcript abundance of the digestive gland and the mantle (gonads of males and females. To identify gene expression trends - in terms of relative mRNA abundance- we used a medium-density cDNA microarray (1.7 K probes in dual-color competitive hybridization analyses. Hierarchical clustering of digestive gland microarray data showed two main branches, distinguishing profiles associated with the "hot" months (May-August from the other months. Genes involved in chitin metabolism, associated with mussel nutrition and digestion showed higher mRNA levels during summer. Moreover, we found different gene transcriptomic patterns in the digestive glands of males when compared to females, during the four stages of mussel gonadal development. Microarray data from gonadal transcripts also displayed clear patterns during the different developmental phases respect to the resting period (stage I with peak relative mRNA abundance at the ripe phase (stage III for both sexes. These data showed a clear temporal pattern in transcriptomic profiles of mussels sampled over an annual cycle. Physiological response to thermal variation, food availability, and reproductive status across months may contribute to variation in relative mRNA abundance.

  12. Relationship between oxygen concentration, respiration and filtration rate in blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baojun; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2017-06-01

    The large water-pumping and particle-capturing gills of the filter-feeding blue mussel Mytilus edulis are oversized for respiratory purposes. Consequently, the oxygen uptake rate of the mussel has been suggested to be rather insensitive to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the ambient water, since the diffusion rate of oxygen from water flowing through the mussel determines oxygen uptake. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the oxygen uptake in mussels exposed to various oxygen concentrations. These concentrations were established via N2-bubbling of the water in a respiration chamber with mussels fed algal cells to stimulate fully opening of the valves. It was found that mussels exposed to oxygen concentrations decreasing from 9 to 2 mg O2 /L resulted in a slow but significant reduction in the respiration rate, while the filtration rate remained high and constant. Thus, a decrease of oxygen concentration by 78% only resulted in a 25% decrease in respiration rate. However, at oxygen concentrations below 2 mg O2 /L M. edulis responded by gradually closing its valves, resulting in a rapid decrease of filtration rate, concurrent with a rapid reduction of respiration rate. These observations indicated that M. edulis is no longer able to maintain its normal aerobic metabolism at oxygen concentration below 2 mg O2/L, and there seems to be an energy-saving mechanism in bivalve molluscs to strongly reduce their activity when exposed to low oxygen conditions.

  13. Tissue distribution of neutral deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activity in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Nevenka; Fafandel, Maja; Perić, Lorena

    2007-07-01

    The presence of neutral DNase activity in bivalves is reported for the first time. The enzyme activity in four tissues of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was analyzed by three different methods (i) specific denaturating SDS-PAGE zymogram, (ii) sensitive single radial enzyme diffusion (SRED) assay and (iii) rapid and sensitive fluorimetric determination of DNase activity with PicoGreen. The fluorimetric assay was rapid and sensitive enough for determination of hydrolytic activity of dsDNA in mussel hepatopancreas, adductor, gills and mantle. Maximal activity in all mussel tissue extracts was obtained in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) at pH 7.0 with dsDNA as substrate. The neutral DNase activity in mussel tissue decreases in order hepatopancreas, mantle>gills>adductor. The enzyme activity displays interindividual variability in particular tissue as well as variability among tissues within one specimen. In the hepatopancreas one to three distinct proteins expressing neutral, Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-dependent, DNase activity were detected by denaturating SDS-PAGE zymogram. This heterogeneity of neutral nucleases involved in DNA hydrolysis in hepatopancreas could reflect interindividual variability in mussel food utilization and nutrient requirement.

  14. Chlorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Apulia Region coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandomenico, Santina; Spada, Lucia; Annicchiarico, Cristina; Assennato, Giorgio; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Ungaro, Nicola; Di Leo, Antonella

    2013-08-15

    This project was carried out to assess the levels and spatial distribution of organochlorine compounds in the coastal marine environment, using mussels as bioindicators to evaluate the coastal water quality. Levels of polychlorobiphenils (PCB), chlorinated pesticides (DDT isomers, HCH isomers, Aldrin, Dieldrin, alfa-Endosulfan, Hexachlorobenzene, Pentachlorobenzene) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in tissues from mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along the Apulia Region coasts (Mediterranean Sea). Results indicate that contamination by organochlorine compounds is higher in mussels sampled in the Ionian Sea than in those from the Adriatic Sea, with PCB levels up to seven times higher in mussels from Ionian than from the Adriatic Sea. Although PCB levels were above the maximum values indicated by both European Community (EC) and National regulation in several sample sites, the PCB concentrations were particularly high in some stations, suggesting that these locations require a much specific attention. Conversely, results on the mussel contamination by PBDEs highlight their ubiquitous environmental distribution, and underline the need to establish the maximum level for these compounds in foodstuff, according to European Regulations.

  15. Monitoring the biological effects of pollution on the Algerian west coast using mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheïr M. Taleb

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian west coast is the prime recipient of several forms of pollution; hence, the necessity for an impact assessment ofthis coastal pollution using a suite of recommended marine biomarkers, including lysosomal membrane stability in living cells by the Neutral Red Retention Time (NRRT method, the evaluation of micronucleus (MN frequency, and the determination ofacetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled from the large, polluted Oran Harbour (OH and the Maârouf (Mrf marine mussel farm between July 2005 and April 2006. The difference in the variations of the annual physical parameters between OH and Mrf corresponds to the influence of the domestic and industrial sewage discharged by the city of Oran. The biological data of the mussels (condition index, protein content recorded at both sites were related to their natural reproductive cycle. This indicated that intrinsic variation between the sites due to different mussel development phases was minimal. The variation in the AChE activity of some organs of OH and Mrf mussels, with minimal inhibition in July and a higher NRRT recorded in the granular haemocytes in the Mrf than in the OH mussels during the autumn and spring, depends on the quality of the biotope and on generic stress factors. Moreover, the variation in MN frequency, in general reflecting a non-significant seasonal and spatial genotoxic effect of the contamination at the two sampling sites, requires further investigations regarding biotic and abiotic variations.

  16. Immunological responses in the mussel Mytilus trossulus transplanted at the coastline of the northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höher, N; Turja, R; Köhler, A; Lehtonen, K K; Broeg, K

    2015-12-01

    The applicability of immune responses in transplanted Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) as biomarkers of immunotoxic effects was studied at differently contaminated locations in the Gulf of Bothnia (northern Baltic Sea). Here, we present a detailed report on the immune responses measured as complementary part of transplantation study by Turja et al. (2014).Various immunological endpoints such as total and differential cell count, morphological alterations,phagocytic activity, and caspase 3/7 activity of mussel haemocytes as well as haemolytic activity of the haemolymph were used. Mussels collected at a reference site at a Finnish coastal site (Hanko, H) were transplanted at the Swedish coast near industrial and urban regions of the cities Sundsvall (S1, S2) and Gävle (G1, G2), respectively. Based on the measured immunological responses, multivariate statistical analysis (PCA biplot) showed a clear separation of the most polluted site S1, indicating immunotoxic impacts of the mixture of contaminants present at this location. Based on these observations and results from Turja et al. (2014), we suggest the implementation of immunotoxic biomarkers for the evaluation of ecosystem health. However, these should be accompanied by complementary endpoints of biological effects encompassing i.e., physiological, antioxidant and bioenergetic markers.

  17. The myostatin gene of Mytilus chilensis evidences a high level of polymorphism and ubiquitous transcript expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-02-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a protein of the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays a crucial role in muscular development for higher vertebrates. However, its biological function in marine invertebrates remains undiscovered. This study characterizes the full-length sequence of the Mytilus chilensis myostatin gene (Mc-MSTN). Furthermore, tissue transcription patterns and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. The Mc-MSTN cDNA sequence showed 3528 base pairs (bp), consisting of 161 bp of 5' UTR, 2,110 bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 1,257 bp encoding for 418 amino acids and with an RXXR proteolytic site and nine cysteine-conserved residues. Gene transcription analysis revealed that the Mc-MSTN has ubiquitous expression among several tissues, with higher expression in the gonads and mantle than in the digestive gland, gills, and hemolymph. Furthermore, high levels of polymorphisms were detected (28 SNPs in 3'-UTR and 9 SNPs in the coding region). Two SNPs were non-synonymous and involved amino acid changes between Glu/Asp and Thr/Ile. Until now, the MSTN gene has been mainly related to muscle growth in marine bivalves. However, the present study suggests a putative biological function not entirely associated to muscle tissue and contributes molecular evidence to the current debate about the function of the MSTN gene in marine invertebrates.

  18. Transcriptome response to copper heavy metal stress in hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meiying; Jiang, Lihua; Shen, Kang-Ning; Wu, Changwen; He, Guangyuan; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-03-01

    The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) has considerably one of the most economically important marine shellfish worldwide and considered as a good invertebrate model for ecotoxicity study for a long time. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000) to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the hard-shelled mussel which challenged with copper pollution. A total of 21,723,913 paired-end clean reads (NCBI SRA database SRX1411195) were generated from HiSeq2000 sequencer and 96,403 contigs (with N50 = 1118 bp) were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 1156 unigenes are upregulated and 1681 unigenes are downregulated when challenged with copper. By KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, we found that unigenes in four KEGG pathways (aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, apoptosis, DNA replication and mismatch repair) show significant differential expressed between control and copper treated groups. We hope that the gill transcriptome in copper treated hard-shelled mussel can give useful information to understand how mussel handles with heavy metal stress at molecular level.

  19. Transcriptome response to copper heavy metal stress in hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus has considerably one of the most economically important marine shellfish worldwide and considered as a good invertebrate model for ecotoxicity study for a long time. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the hard-shelled mussel which challenged with copper pollution. A total of 21,723,913 paired-end clean reads (NCBI SRA database SRX1411195 were generated from HiSeq2000 sequencer and 96,403 contigs (with N50 = 1118 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 1156 unigenes are upregulated and 1681 unigenes are downregulated when challenged with copper. By KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, we found that unigenes in four KEGG pathways (aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, apoptosis, DNA replication and mismatch repair show significant differential expressed between control and copper treated groups. We hope that the gill transcriptome in copper treated hard-shelled mussel can give useful information to understand how mussel handles with heavy metal stress at molecular level.

  20. Data on the uptake and metabolism of testosterone by the common mussel, Mytilus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar I. Schwarz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides data in support of the research article entitled “Rapid uptake, biotransformation, esterification and lack of depuration of testosterone and its metabolites by the common mussel, Mytilus spp.” (T.I. Schwarz, I. Katsiadaki, B.H. Maskrey, A.P. Scott, 2017 [1]. The uptake of tritiated testosterone (T from water by mussels is presented. The two main radioactive peaks formed from T and present in the fatty acid ester fraction of mussel tissues were shown to have the same elution positions on a thin layer chromatography plate as 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one (DHT and 5α-androstan-3β,17β-diol (3β,17β-A5α. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography of the non-esterified (80% ethanol fraction of the mussel tissue extracts also presented radioactive peaks at the elution positions of DHT and 3β,17β-A5α. There was no evidence for sulfated T in this fraction. It was shown that aeration led to significant losses of radiolabeled testosterone from the water column.

  1. Ocean acidification and host-pathogen interactions: blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, encountering Vibrio tubiashii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Maria E; Baden, Susanne P; Russ, Sarah; Ellis, Robert P; Gong, Ningping; Hernroth, Bodil E

    2014-04-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) can shift the ecological balance between interacting organisms. In this study, we have used a model system to illustrate the interaction between a calcifying host organism, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and a common bivalve bacterial pathogen, Vibrio tubiashii, with organisms being exposed to a level of acidification projected to occur by the end of the 21st century. OA exposures of the mussels were carried out in relative long-term (4 months) and short-term (4 days) experiments. We found no effect of OA on the culturability of V. tubiashii, in broth or in seawater. OA inhibited mussel shell growth and impaired crystalline shell structures but did not appear to affect mussel immune parameters (i.e haemocyte counts and phagocytotic capacity). Despite no evident impact on host immunity or growth and virulence of the pathogen, V. tubiashii was clearly more successful in infecting mussels exposed to long-term OA compared to those maintained under ambient conditions. Moreover, OA exposed V. tubiashii increased their viability when exposed to haemocytes of OA-treated mussel. Our findings suggest that even though host organisms may have the capacity to cope with periods of OA, these conditions may alter the outcome of host-pathogen interactions, favouring the success of the latter.

  2. Variability in biochemical components of the mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) cultured after Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteiro, Laura G; Labarta, Uxío; Fernández-Reiriz, María José

    2007-05-01

    The biochemical composition (proteins, carbohydrates, glycogen, total lipids and lipid classes) of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated during an experimental culture using mussel seed from areas with different degree of exposure to the Prestige oil spill. The aim of the study was to identify alterations in the biochemical composition of mussel seed from natural populations commonly used in Galicia for mussel raft culture that might be linked to previous oil exposure. We have selected three mussel seed populations from Pindo, Miranda and Redes, that were characterised in a previous study according to the oil exposure three months after the spill. These populations were transplanted to a raft culture system in the Ría de Ares-Betanzos where our experimental culture followed standard commercial techniques from March 2003 to February 2004. Mussels from Pindo (characterised as the most affected area by the oil spill) showed marked differences in lipid composition with regard to other populations in the content of triacylglycerols, (PRedes (designed as reference area) which may reflect that Miranda mussels were not affected or only hardly affected by the spill. With the exception of the onset of the culture, biochemical composition showed similar patterns in all mussel populations. Then, the fact of being cultured in a common environment seemed to be more responsible for the long-term variability in the energetic reserve than the origin of the populations or their previous biochemical status.

  3. Effect of nutritive status on Mytilus galloprovincialis pollution biomarkers: Implications for large-scale monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Albentosa, Marina; Campillo, Juan A; Viñas, Lucía; Romero, Diego; Franco, Angeles; Bellas, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Biomarkers have been extensively used in monitoring programs with the aim of assessing the biological effects of pollutants on marine organisms and determining environmental status. Data obtained from these programs are sometimes difficult to interpret due to the large amount of natural variables affecting biological processes, which could act as confounding factors on biomarker responses. The main aim of this work was to identify the effect of one of these variables, the food availability, and consequently, the mussel nutritive status, on biomarker responses. For that purpose, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were conditioned to three different food rations for 2 months in order to create three mussel nutritive statuses and afterwards, each status was exposed to three nominal concentrations of fluoranthene (FLU) for 3 weeks. A battery of biomarkers was considered in this study to cover a wide range of organism responses, both physiological (scope for growth - SFG) and biochemical (superoxide dismutase - SOD, catalase - CAT, glutathione reductase - GR, glutathione peroxidase - GPx, glutathione-S-transferase - GST and phenoloxidase - PO activities, and lipid membrane peroxidation - LPO). The results obtained, evidenced that most of the studied biomarkers (SFG, SOD, CAT, GPx, and PO) were strongly affected by mussel nutritive status, showing higher values at lower status, whereas the effect of toxicant was not always evident, masked by the nutritive status effect. This paper demonstrates that toxicants are not the only source of variability modulating pollution biomarkers, and confirms nutritive status as a major factor altering biochemical and physiological biomarkers.

  4. Early Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prego-Faraldo, María Verónica; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Laffon, Blanca; Mendez, Josefina; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs) are the main toxins responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) intoxications during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Although the genotoxic and cytotoxic responses to OA have been evaluated in vitro, the in vivo effects of these toxins have not yet been fully explored. The present work fills this gap by evaluating the in vivo effects of the exposure to the DSP-toxin-producing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima during the simulation of an early HAB episode in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The obtained results revealed that in vivo exposure to this toxic microalgae induced early genotoxicity in hemocytes, as a consequence of oxidative DNA damage. In addition, the DNA damage observed in gill cells seems to be mainly influenced by exposure time and P. lima concentration, similarly to the case of the oxidative damage found in hemocytes exposed in vitro to OA. In both cell types, the absence of DNA damage at low toxin concentrations is consistent with the notion suggesting that this level of toxicity does not disturb the antioxidant balance. Lastly, in vivo exposure to growing P. lima cell densities increased apoptosis but not necrosis, probably due to the presence of a high number of protein apoptosis inhibitors in molluscs. Overall, this work sheds light into the in vivo genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of P. lima. In doing so, it also demonstrates for the first time the potential of the modified (OGG1) comet assay for assessing oxidative DNA damage caused by marine toxins in marine invertebrates. PMID:27231936

  5. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Torre, Camilla; Balbi, Teresa; Grassi, Giacomo; Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita; Smerilli, Arianna; Guidi, Patrizia; Canesi, Laura; Nigro, Marco; Monaci, Fabrizio; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Rocco, Lucia; Focardi, Silvano; Monopoli, Marco; Corsi, Ilaria

    2015-10-30

    We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO2, CdCl2, alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO2 alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO2 reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO2 and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO2 in sea water media.

  6. Impact of engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles on the energy budgets of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Erik B.; Hanna, Shannon K.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Miller, Robert J.; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2014-11-01

    This paper characterizes the sublethal impact of engineered ZnO nanoparticles on the individual performance of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis within the context of Dynamic Energy Budget theory, thereby allowing an integrated evaluation of the impact of multiple stressors on various endpoints. Data include measurements of the impact of ZnO nanoparticles on body burden, feeding, respiration, shell length, biomass, and mortality of mussels kept in laboratory tanks for over 100 days. ZnO nanoparticles in the environment impair the mussels' feeding rate (EC50 for the maximum feeding rate is 1.5 mg ZnO nanoparticles L- 1). Zn accumulated in tissue increases respiration (EC50 for the respiration rate is 0.9 mg environmental ZnO nanoparticles L- 1 with the body burden having reached its ultimate level), indicating that maintenance processes are more affected by ZnO nanoparticles than feeding. The feeding regime constrained growth and biomass production to the extent that the impact of ZnO nanoparticles on these processes was undetectable, yet the remaining measurements allowed the estimation of the toxicity parameters. The toxicity representation, combined with the DEB model, allowed the calculation of the effect of the nanoparticles on the expected lifetime production of reproductive matter. EC50 for the expected lifetime production of reproductive matter is less than 0.25 mg ZnO nanoparticles L- 1, indicating that that the ecological impact of ZnO nanoparticle exposure is stronger than its impact on individual physiological rates.

  7. Relationship between seawater pollution and qualitative changes in the extracted proteins from mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorinstein, Shela [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, POB 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)]. E-mail: gorin@cc.huji.ac.il; Moncheva, Snejana [Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS), POB 152, 9000 Varna (Bulgaria); Toledo, Fernando [Department of Basic Sciences, Universidad del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile); Arancibia-Avila, Patricia [Department of Basic Sciences, Universidad del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile); Trakhtenberg, Simon [Kaplan University Medical Center, Rehovot (Israel); Gorinstein, Arkadi [Arkadi Engineering Service Co., Jerusalem 97854 (Israel); Goshev, Ivan [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Center of Phytochemistry, BAS, 1040 Sofia (Bulgaria); Namiesnik, Jacek [Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, 80952 (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find a reliable biomarker of seawater pollution. For this purpose the contents of Zn and Cu, proteins and antioxidant activity in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from polluted and non-polluted sites of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast were compared. To determine the above-mentioned indices atomic spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and two antioxidant tests were used. It was found that the amounts of Zn and Cu were significantly higher in the mussel proteins from the polluted than from the non-polluted sites (P < 0.05). FT-IR spectroscopy and fluorescence revealed specific qualitative changes in secondary and tertiary structures in mussel proteins in the samples from polluted sites. The thermodynamic properties of proteins and the changes upon denaturation were correlated with the secondary structure of proteins and disappearance of {alpha}-helix. Purified protein scavenging activity against 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS{sup {center_dot}}{sup +}) was significantly higher in mussel samples from polluted than from non-polluted sites. Therefore, the changes in Zn and Cu concentration, in protein's secondary and tertiary structures and antioxidant activity in mussels M. galloprovincialis from polluted sites can be a reliable biomarker of the level of the seawater pollution.

  8. Uptake and retention of metallic nanoparticles in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Matthew S.; Vikesland, Peter J. [Virginia Tech Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS) (United States); Virginia Tech Center for Sustainable Nanotechnology (VT SuN) (United States); Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT) (United States); Schultz, Irvin R., E-mail: ir_schultz@pnl.gov [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, WA (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We measured uptake of two types of nanomaterials in a marine mussel. •Uptake from water was rapid and complete in less than 24 h. •Only particles suspended in the water appeared to be absorbed. •Most absorbed nanomaterial was concentrated in the digestive gland. -- Abstract: We measured the uptake, distribution and elimination of two types of metallic nanoparticles (MetNPs) by the aquatic mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in static seawater column exposures. Test MetNPs included polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (PEG-FeOxNP) and PEG-functionalized cadmium-selenide quantum dots (PEG-Qdot). Exposure water was sampled at various times to assess MetNP clearance, and mussels were serially euthanized to assess uptake of MetNPs into the hemolymph, digestive gland, and remaining carcass. Results indicated that >90% of both types of MetNPs were taken up by mussels within 8 h of initial exposure. Nearly the entire retained dose of FeOxNPs and PEG-Qdots was deposited in the digestive gland. Our results provide important insights on the uptake and elimination kinetics of MetNPs in filter-feeding marine bivalves, and will be useful for subsequent development of toxicokinetic models to predict the kinetics of these processes.

  9. Toxicokinetics and tissue distribution of cadmium-based Quantum Dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Gomes, Tânia; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Sousa, Vânia Serrão; Nunes, Luís Miguel; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau; Bebianno, Maria João

    2015-09-01

    Environmental health hazards of Quantum Dots (QDs) are of emergent concern, but limited data is available about their toxicokinetics (TK) and tissue distribution in marine bivalves. This study investigated the QDs behavior in seawater, their TK and tissue distribution in Mytilus galloprovincialis, in comparison with soluble Cd. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and soluble Cd for 21 days at 10 μgCd L(-1) followed by a 50 days depuration. TK of QDs in mussels is related to the homo-aggregate uptake, surface charge, aggregation and precipitation as key factors. There were tissue- and time-dependent differences in the TK of both Cd forms, and soluble Cd is the most bioavailable form. Digestive gland is a preferential site for QDs storage and both Cd forms are not eliminated by mussels (t1/2>50 days). Results indicate that the TK model of CdTe QDs in marine mussels is distinct from their soluble counterparts.

  10. Metabolic profiling of the tissue-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis towards Vibrio harveyi challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wang, Qing; Li, Fei; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-08-01

    Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish distributing widely along the coast in north China. In this work, we studied the differential metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in digestive gland and gill tissues from M. galloprovincialis using NMR-based metabolomics. The differential metabolic responses in the two tissue types were detected, except the similarly altered taurine and betaine. These metabolic responses suggested that V. harveyi mainly induced osmotic disruption and reduced energy demand via the metabolic pathways of glucose synthesis and ATP/AMP conversion in mussel digestive gland. In mussel gill tissues, V. harveyi basically caused osmotic stress and possible reduced energy demand as shown by the elevated phosphocholine that is involved in one of the metabolic pathways of ATP synthesis from ADP and phosphocholine. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (superoxide dismutase with copper and zinc, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme) suggested that V. harveyi induced clear oxidative and immune stresses in both digestive gland and gill tissues. However, the mRNA expression levels of both lysozyme and defensin in digestive gland were more significantly up-regulated than those in gill from V. harveyi-challenged mussel M. galloprovincialis, meaning that the immune organ, digestive gland, was more sensitive than gill. Overall, our results indicated that V. harveyi could induce tissue-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis.

  11. New insights into protamine-like component organization in Mytilus galloprovincialis' sperm chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassalli, Quirino Attilio; Caccavale, Filomena; Avagnano, Stefano; Murolo, Alessandra; Guerriero, Giulia; Fucci, Laura; Ausió, Juan; Piscopo, Marina

    2015-03-01

    We have analyzed Mytilus galloprovincialis' sperm chromatin, which consists of three protamine-like proteins, PL-II, PL-III, and PL-IV, in addition to a residual amount of the four core histones. We have probed the structure of this sperm chromatin through digestion with micrococcal nuclease (MNase) in combination with salt fractionation. Furthermore, we used the electrophoretic mobility shift assay to define DNA-binding mode of PL-II and PL-III and turbidimetric assays to determine their self-association ability in the presence of sodium phosphate. Although in literature it is reported that M. galloprovincialis' sperm chromatin lacks nucleosomal organization, our results obtained by MNase digestion suggest the existence of a likely unusual organization, in which there would be a more accessible location of PL-II/PL-IV when compared with PL-III and core histones. So, we hypothesize that in M. galloprovincialis' sperm chromatin organization DNA is wrapped around a PL-III protein core and core histones and PL-II and PL-IV are bound to the flanking DNA regions (similarly to somatic histone H1). Furthermore, we propose that PL's K/R ratio affects their DNA-binding mode and self-association ability as reported previously for somatic and sperm H1 histones.

  12. A First Insight into the Genome of the Filter-Feeder Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

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    Maria Murgarella

    Full Text Available Mussels belong to the phylum Mollusca, one of the largest and most diverse taxa in the animal kingdom. Despite their importance in aquaculture and in biology in general, genomic resources from mussels are still scarce. To broaden and increase the genomic knowledge in this family, we carried out a whole-genome sequencing study of the cosmopolitan Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis. We sequenced its genome (32X depth of coverage on the Illumina platform using three pair-end libraries with different insert sizes. The large number of contigs obtained pointed out a highly complex genome of 1.6 Gb where repeated elements seem to be widespread (~30% of the genome, a feature that is also shared with other marine molluscs. Notwithstanding the limitations of our genome sequencing, we were able to reconstruct two mitochondrial genomes and predict 10,891 putative genes. A comparative analysis with other molluscs revealed a gene enrichment of gene ontology categories related to multixenobiotic resistance, glutamate biosynthetic process, and the maintenance of ciliary structures.

  13. Early Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima in the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

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    María Verónica Prego-Faraldo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA and dinophysistoxins (DTXs are the main toxins responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP intoxications during harmful algal blooms (HABs. Although the genotoxic and cytotoxic responses to OA have been evaluated in vitro, the in vivo effects of these toxins have not yet been fully explored. The present work fills this gap by evaluating the in vivo effects of the exposure to the DSP-toxin-producing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima during the simulation of an early HAB episode in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The obtained results revealed that in vivo exposure to this toxic microalgae induced early genotoxicity in hemocytes, as a consequence of oxidative DNA damage. In addition, the DNA damage observed in gill cells seems to be mainly influenced by exposure time and P. lima concentration, similarly to the case of the oxidative damage found in hemocytes exposed in vitro to OA. In both cell types, the absence of DNA damage at low toxin concentrations is consistent with the notion suggesting that this level of toxicity does not disturb the antioxidant balance. Lastly, in vivo exposure to growing P. lima cell densities increased apoptosis but not necrosis, probably due to the presence of a high number of protein apoptosis inhibitors in molluscs. Overall, this work sheds light into the in vivo genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of P. lima. In doing so, it also demonstrates for the first time the potential of the modified (OGG1 comet assay for assessing oxidative DNA damage caused by marine toxins in marine invertebrates.

  14. Changes of polyamine pattern in digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis under exposure to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kournoutou, Georgia G; Pytharopoulou, Sofia; Leotsinidis, Michel; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2014-09-01

    Polyamines, in particular spermidine and spermine, have been identified as important antioxidants, highly induced by oxidative stress in a variety of organisms. However, little is known about changes in polyamine content of metal-stressed marine organisms. In the present study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were experimentally exposed to 25 μg/L Cd(2+) or 100 μg/L Cd(2+) for up to 15 days. Cd(2+) was progressively accumulated in mussel tissues, leading to a characteristic oxidative-stress status. Free putrescine (PUT) production was noticeably induced in response to Cd(2+) at day 5 and then declined. In contrast, free spermidine (SPD) content was gradually reduced, whereas the concentration of free spermine (SPM) increased. In combination, these changes led to a 69% or 88% reduction in the ratio of (SPD+SPM)/PUT at day 5, dependent on the Cd(2+) concentration used, which subsequently followed an upward trend in values, albeit not reaching those of controls. Conjugated polyamines constantly increased, in particular conjugated spermidine and spermine, tagging along with metallothionein production. Acetylated polyamines showed a diverse profile of changes, but their content was generally kept at low levels throughout the exposure period. Collectively, our results suggest that certain polyamine compounds could play a significant role in the tolerance of mussels against Cd(2+)-mediated stress, and that the ratio (SPD+SPM)/PUT could be a good indicator of the metal-stress status.

  15. Impact of engineered zinc oxide nanoparticles on the individual performance of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

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    Shannon K Hanna

    Full Text Available The increased use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs in consumer products raises the concern of environmental release and subsequent impacts in natural communities. We tested for physiological and demographic impacts of ZnO, a prevalent metal oxide ENP, on the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. We exposed mussels of two size classes, <4.5 and ≥ 4.5 cm shell length, to 0.1-2 mg l(-1 ZnO ENPs in seawater for 12 wk, and measured the effect on mussel respiration, accumulation of Zn, growth, and survival. After 12 wk of exposure to ZnO ENPs, respiration rates of mussels increased with ZnO concentration. Mussels had up to three fold more Zn in tissues than control groups after 12 wk of exposure, but patterns of Zn accumulation varied with mussel size and Zn concentrations. Small mussels accumulated Zn 10 times faster than large mussels at 0.5 mg l(-1, while large mussels accumulated Zn four times faster than small mussels at 2 mg l(-1. Mussels exposed to 2 mg l(-1 ZnO grew 40% less than mussels in our control group for both size classes. Survival significantly decreased only in groups exposed to the highest ZnO concentration (2 mg l(-1 and was lower for small mussels than large. Our results indicate that ZnO ENPs are toxic to mussels but at levels unlikely to be reached in natural marine waters.

  16. Ecotoxicological potential of antibiotic pollution-industrial wastewater: bioavailability, biomarkers, and occurrence in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouiten, Amina; Beltifa, Asma; Van Loco, Joris; Mansour, Hedi Ben; Reyns, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Environmental pollution by pharmaceutical residues has become a major problem in many countries worldwide. However, little is known about the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in water sources in Tunisia. Residues in the natural environment have been of increasing concern due to their impact on bacteria resistance development and toxicity to natural communities and ultimately to public health. In this work, we collected the wastewater sample from a pharmaceutical industry, which specializes in the antibiotics manufacture, during the years 2014-2015. Generally, this effluent is discharged into the marine environment and causes environmental problems. The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was commonly used as a model organism for its peculiar morphofunctional properties which also make it an excellent marine environmental biomonitoring species. The histological sections of mussel, which are exposed at different dilutions of pharmaceutical wastewater (PW), indicate a large pathological power revealed on the gills. On the other hand, genotoxicity of the studied effluent was evaluated using comet assay for quantification of DNA fragmentation in gill cells. Results show that PW exhibited a statistically significant (p galloprovincialis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) showed the presence of some antibiotic residues. These concentrations decrease to half in mussels treated with PW biodegraded by B. atrophaeus.

  17. Americium-241 and plutonium-237 turnover in mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) living in field enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guary, J. C.; Fowler, S. W.

    1981-02-01

    Loss of 241Am and 237Pu from contaminated mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) living in situ in the Mediterranean Sea is described as the sum of three exponential functions. In the case of 241Am, two short-lived compartments representing a total of 80% of the incorporated radionuclide turned over rapidly with biological half-lives of 2 and 3 weeks. The remaining fraction of 241Am, associated with a long-lived compartment, was lost at an extremely slow rate ( Tb1/2=1·3 years). Plutonium-237 turnover in the two short-lived compartments (containing 70% of the Pu) was more rapid ( Tb1/2=1-2 days and 2 weeks) than that of 241Am; however, there was some indication that subsequent loss rates of the two radionuclides in long-lived compartments may be similar if determined over comparable periods of time. Loss rates of 241Am differed for the various tissues, with the most rapid rates occurring in gill, viscera and shell. Abrupt changes in loss observed in muscle and mantle suggested a translocation of 241Am to muscle and mantle during depuration. Whole shell contained by far the largest fraction (˜90%) of both 241Am and 237Pu taken up; in addition, these radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to mussel shell but readily leach into the water. These observations suggest that mollusc shell may influence the biogeochemistry of transuranic elements in littoral zones.

  18. Distribution of Mytilus taxa in European coastal areas as inferred from molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijewski, T.; Śmietanka, B.; Zbawicka, M.; Gosling, E.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

    2011-02-01

    The genetic constitution of mussels ( Mytilus spp.) was studied by means of three nuclear (Me 15/16, EF-bis, ITS) and one mtDNA (ND2-COIII) marker on a large European scale. In addition to a sharp cline between Atlantic and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis, we observed a clear genetic distinction between the Black Sea and Mediterranean populations and a higher incidence of M. trossulus than reported so far in northern European populations. The frequency of M. galloprovincialis nuclear alleles was high along the Iberian Peninsula and decreased abruptly along the French coasts with a high frequency of M. edulis alleles in the Bay of Biscay, The Netherlands, Germany, Iceland, Barents and White Seas, and with little evidence of introgression between the two taxa. M. trossulus alleles were observed in the Baltic Sea and Danish Straits as expected. In addition, occurrence of M. trossulus alleles in cold waters of Iceland, Barents Sea and White Sea is reported for the first time.

  19. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Giantsis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable domain 1 (VD1 domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey. A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels.

  20. Monitoring of heavy metals in wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Spanish North-Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Manuel Andrade, José; Schultze, Fernando; José González, Juan

    2011-04-01

    Concentrations of five heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) were determined in tissues of wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at 41 stations located on the Spanish Atlantic and Northern coasts to assess the levels and spatial distribution of metals in the environment. This study, performed in 2005, constituted a contribution to the last international OSPAR pollution monitoring survey. A pool of mussel soft tissue was prepared using 50 or more individuals, representing the size range present at the sampling points. Quantification was carried out after a nitric acid digestion by atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS (Cd and Pb by electrothermal AAS; Cu and Zn by flame AAS; and total mercury by the cold vapour technique). The quality of the chemical analyses was assessed by interlaboratory exercises carried out on a regular basis. In general, the levels of the metals were higher for the Northern region than for the Atlantic one (except for a sampling site close to Vigo, one of the main Galician industrial areas). Some Galician sampling points (Atlantic coast, NW of Spain) located far from human inputs showed high Cd concentrations, which were attributed to the annual upwelling processes in this region. The levels of Cu increased from Northwest to East, whereas Zn concentrations were very homogeneous throughout the two studied geographical regions. These results were confirmed using multivariate studies (PCA and cluster analysis), as well as international 'background assessment concentrations' criteria.

  1. Toxicity assessment and comparison between two types of iron oxide nanoparticles in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taze, Chrysa; Panetas, Ioannis; Kalogiannis, Stavros; Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Gallios, George P; Kastrinaki, Georgia; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Václavíková, Miroslava; Ivanicova, Lucia; Kaloyianni, Martha

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their increased application and production, are being released into the environment with unpredictable impact on the physiology of marine organisms, as well as on entire ecosystems and upcoming effects on human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the oxidative responses of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after exposure to iron oxide NPs and to iron oxide NPs incorporated into zeolite for 1, 3 and 7 days. Our results showed that both effectors induced changes on animal physiology by causing oxidative stress in hemocytes of exposed mussels compared to control animals. This was shown by the significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and DNA damage. In addition an increase in prooxidant levels as measured by the prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay was observed in exposed mussels' hemolymph. The results show that ROS, DNA damage, protein and lipid oxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and PAB could constitute, after further investigation, reliable biomarkers for the evaluation of pollution or other environmental stressors. In addition, more studies are needed in order to ensure the safety of these NPs on various biomedical applications, since it is critical to design NPs that they meet the demands of application without causing cellular toxicity.

  2. Perturbation induced changes in substrate use by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in sedimentary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    wa Kangeri, Arno K.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Barkman, Barbara R.; Donker, Jasper J. A.; Joppe, Daniel J.; Dankers, Norbert M. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    For sessile benthic marine organisms adhesion to a stable substrate is important for survival. Sedimentary systems, however, generally lack stable surfaces. How sessile species like the mussel, Mytilus edulis, are able to achieve stability in unstable sediments is not fully understood. An intertidal mussel bed in the tidal flats in the Western portion of the Dutch Wadden Sea was selected to investigate adhesion behavior of M. edulis. Sampling was conducted along a hydrodynamic gradient along the Front-edge, Center and Back-edge of a mussel bed. Mussels along the bed edges were characterized by adhesion to fine shell debris and high numbers of byssus threads. Mussels in the center of the bed were characterized by adhesion to shells of living conspecifics and relatively low numbers of byssus threads. An experimental investigation to isolate the role of perturbation on adhesion strategies was carried out under laboratory conditions. Experimental results show that under perturbed conditions mussels developed increased numbers of byssus threads relative to mussels left unperturbed. Additionally, mussels subjected to perturbation preferentially adhered more frequently to fine shell debris while unperturbed mussels adhered more frequently to conspecifics. Results show that differentiation in adhesion strategy is driven by physical perturbation and mediated by bed density. The results also suggest that adhesion by mussels in a sedimentary environment is a selective process in which larger shell fragments and shells of conspecifics are the preferred substrate.

  3. Secretion of byssal threads in Mytilus galloprovincialis: quantitative and qualitative values after spawning stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarro, Jose M F; Reiriz, María José Fernández

    2010-01-01

    The effect of spawning events of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis on both quantitative and qualitative values of byssus secretion and its associated attachment force was investigated. Byssogenesis rates and absorption efficiency values were significantly reduced after spawning of individuals. However, the maintenance of individuals under sub-optimal conditions (lack of microalgae in the diet) for a week caused no effect on thread's number. Surprisingly, the attachment force varied within a narrow range of values (1.7-1.9 N) with the exception of a significant drop in the experimental group spawned and kept unfed (1.0 N; P byssus highlighted a higher presence of the basic residues histidine and lysine in threads secreted by spawned individuals. The presence of both histidine and lysine residues in the byssal collagen is associated to the formation of cross-links and specifically histidine has a functionality with a pronounced effect on metal chelation to stabilise the integrity of the byssus. Results reported here evidence the necessity to integrate all components that eventually determines the attachment strength of the mussels to get more insight to the plasticity of such secretion. Morphology of the byssus (thickness) secreted under different endogenous conditions of mussels was the major parameter to explain variability in the attachment force. Moreover, aminoacidic composition as quality term of the byssus secreted may also contribute to understand the plasticity of this secretion and needs to be extended in further surveys.

  4. The staying power of adhesion-associated antioxidant activity in Mytilus californianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dusty R; Spahn, Jamie E; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-10-06

    The California mussel, Mytilus californianus, adheres in the highly oxidizing intertidal zone with a fibrous holdfast called the byssus using 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (DOPA)-containing adhesive proteins. DOPA is susceptible to oxidation in seawater and, upon oxidation, loses adhesion. Successful mussel adhesion thus depends critically on controlling oxidation and reduction. To explore how mussels regulate redox during their functional adhesive lifetime, we tracked extractable protein concentration, DOPA content and antioxidant activity in byssal plaques over time. In seawater, DOPA content and antioxidant activity in the byssus persisted much longer than expected-50% of extractable DOPA and 30% of extractable antioxidant activity remained after 20 days. Antioxidant activity was located at the plaque-substrate interface, demonstrating that antioxidant activity keeps DOPA reduced for durable and dynamic adhesion. We also correlated antioxidant activity to cysteine and DOPA side chains of mussel foot proteins (mfps), suggesting that mussels use both cysteine and DOPA redox reservoirs for controlling interfacial chemistry. These data are discussed in the context of the biomaterial structure and properties of the marine mussel byssus.

  5. Mussel (Mytilus edulis) byssus deposition in response to variations in surface wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, N; Ista, L K; Callow, M E; Callow, J A; Lopez, G P; Clare, A S

    2006-02-22

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) are economically important in their role as an aquaculture species and also with regard to marine biofouling. They attach tenaciously to a wide variety of submerged surfaces by virtue of collagenous attachment threads termed 'byssi'. The aim of this study was to characterize the spreading of the byssal attachment plaque, which mediates attachment to the surface, on a range of surfaces in response to changes in wettability. To achieve this, well characterized self-assembled monolayers of omega-terminated alkanethiolates on gold were used, allowing correlation of byssal plaque spreading with a single surface characteristic--wettability. The present results were inconsistent with those from previous studies, in that there was a positive correlation between plaque size and surface wettability; a trend which is not explained by conventional wetting theory for a three-phase system. A recent extension to wetting theory with regard to hydrophilic proteins is discussed and the results of settlement assays are used to attempt reconciliation of these results with those of similar previous studies and, also, with recent data presented for the spreading of Ulva linza spore adhesive.

  6. Microplastics are taken up by mussels (Mytilus edulis) and lugworms (Arenicola marina) living in natural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Claessens, Michiel; Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Janssen, Colin R

    2015-04-01

    We studied the uptake of microplastics under field conditions. At six locations along the French-Belgian-Dutch coastline we collected two species of marine invertebrates representing different feeding strategies: the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (filter feeder) and the lugworm Arenicola marina (deposit feeder). Additional laboratory experiments were performed to assess possible (adverse) effects of ingestion and translocation of microplastics on the energy metabolism (cellular energy allocation) of these species. Microplastics were present in all organisms collected in the field: on average 0.2 ± 0.3 microplastics g(-1) (M. edulis) and 1.2 ± 2.8 particles g(-1) (A. marina). In a proof of principle laboratory experiment, mussels and lugworms exposed to high concentrations of polystyrene microspheres (110 particles mL(-1) seawater and 110 particles g(-1) sediment, respectively) showed no significant adverse effect on the organisms' overall energy budget. The results are discussed in the context of possible risks as a result of the possible transfer of adsorbed contaminants.

  7. Accumulation of bis(tributyltin) oxide by the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. [Hytilus edulis; Isochrysis galbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, R.B. Jr.; French, W.; Guard, H.E.

    1986-09-01

    Marine mussels, primarily Mytilus edulis, accumulated bis(tributyltin) oxide (TBT) when it was either dissolved in water (0.5 ..mu..g L/sup -1/) or associated (absorbed or adsorbed) with phytoplankton Isochrysis galbana. Uptake occurred rapidly under both protocols but was more rapid and caused higher TBT burdens when accumulation occurred by ingestion of phytoplankton. TBT accumulated differentially in tissues. Highest burdens in viscera or gills were approx.4.5 ..mu..g of TBT (g of tissue)/sup -1/ following water exposure lasting 47 days and approx.5 ..mu..g of TBT (g of gill)/sup -1/ or (g of viscera tissue)/sup -1/ following 30 days of exposure to contaminated Isochrysis. This corresponds to a bioconcentration factor of approx.5000 from water but <2 from food (on a ..mu..g g/sup -1/ basis). Mantle or muscle tissue had TBT burdens one-half to one-third the level of viscera or gill tissue. Steady state between water and tissue was not observed. When TBT exposed mussels were returned to the field, t/sub 1/2/ for depuration was approx.14 days. Depuration rate constants estimated from uptake and release phases did not agree. This observation suggests differences in laboratory and field depuration processes by bivalve molluscs. Therefore, bioconcentration factor (BCF) measurements made in the laboratory may not accurately predict those obtained from environmental exposures. Neither humic acids nor kaolin significantly reduced accumulation of TBT.

  8. Biomonitoring of heavy metals using Mytilus galloprovincialis in Safi coastal waters, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maanan, Mohamed

    2007-10-01

    Heavy metal concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, cooper, nickel, manganese, and chromium in Mytilus galloprovincialis were investigated to provide information on pollution of Safi coastal area, since these metals have the highest toxic potential. The concentration of Hg and Pb was determined by AFS and ICP-MS methods, respectively, whilst the remaining metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Ni) were quantified by AAS. High lead, cadmium, chromium, and mercury levels were registered in tissue samples collected from two stations near the Jorf Lihoudi and Safi city, while elevated concentration of manganese and zinc (14.70-25.30 mg kg(-1) and 570-650 mg kg(-1) dry wt, respectively) were found in mussel specimens from Cap Cantin. The high levels of nickel found respectively in the areas near the industrial area being of concern in terms of environmental health need frequent monitoring. The metal concentrations recorded at the clean stations may be considered as useful background levels to which to refer for comparison within the Atlantic coast. M. galloprovincialis are suitable biomonitors to investigate the contamination levels of heavy metals pollution face a different human activity in this coastal area of the Atlantic coast.

  9. Occurrence of Vibrio and Salmonella species in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannas, Hasna; Mimouni, Rachida; Chaouqy, Noureddine; Hamadi, Fatima; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of different Vibrio and Salmonella species in 52 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from four sites along the Atlantic coast between Agadir and Essaouira (Anza, Cap Ghir, Imssouane and Essaouira). The level of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was also determined to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution in the investigated areas. In this study three methods were used : AFNOR NF EN ISO 6579 V08-013 for Salmonella spp., the provisional method routinely used by several laboratories (Institut Pasteur, Paris,…) for Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the seafood, and the most probable number method (MPN) using Norm ISO/TS 16649-3 (2005) for E. coli. The most frequently isolated Vibrios were Vibrio alginolyticus (90.4% of samples), followed by V. cholerae non O1 non O139 (15.4%) and V. parahaemolyticus (7.7%). Salmonella spp. was found in 15% of the samples. The number of E. coli ranged between 0.2/100 g and 1.8 10(3) /100 g of mussel soft tissues. This study indicates the potential sanitary risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in cultivated mussels in the two populous regions of southern Morocco, where shellfish production and maritime tourism are important to the local economy.

  10. Circadian cycles are the dominant transcriptional rhythm in the intertidal mussel Mytilus californianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Kwasi M; Gracey, Andrew Y

    2011-09-20

    Residents in the marine intertidal, the zone where terrestrial and marine habitats converge, inhabit an environment that is subject to both the 24-h day and night daily rhythm of the terrestrial earth and also the 12.4-h ebb and flow of the tidal cycle. Here, we investigate the relative contribution of the daily and tidal cycle on the physiology of intertidal mussels, Mytilus californianus, by monitoring rhythms of gene expression in both simulated and natural tidal environments. We report that >40% of the transcriptome exhibits rhythmic gene expression, and that depending on the specific tidal conditions, between 80% and 90% of the rhythmic transcripts follow a circadian expression pattern with a period of 24 to 26 h. Consistent with the dominant effect of the circadian cycle we show that the expression of clock genes oscillates with a 24-h period. Our data indicate that the circadian 24-h cycle is the dominant driver of rhythmic gene expression in this intertidal inhabitant despite the profound environmental and physiological changes associated with aerial exposure during tidal emergence.

  11. The separation and characterisation of haemocytes from the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipe, R K; Farley, S R; Coles, J A

    1997-09-01

    The separation of haemocytes from the mussel Mytilus edulis was carried out on continuous Percoll gradients. The haemocytes separated into three distinct layers, the first comprised 97% basophilic cells, the third comprised 84% eosinophilic cells and the middle layer was a mixture of eosinophilic and basophilic cells. Enzyme cytochemistry demonstrated arylsulphatase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase associated with the haemocytes from the third layer. Lectin-binding studies showed differential binding of lectins to the separated cells. The ultrastructural morphology demonstrated that the first layer of cells was composed predominantly of small agranular cells with a high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio. The second layer comprised a mixture of cells with the majority being granular cells with small granules. The third layer was almost exclusively composed of granular cells with small and large granules. Assays to assess the function of the different cells demonstrated that respiratory burst activity, measured as the reduction of cytochrome-c, was carried out almost entirely by the eosinophilic haemocytes. Similarly, levels of phagocytosis, measured as uptake of Escherichia coli, were much higher in the eosinophilic haemocytes. Of the potential mitogenic factors investigated, concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen showed some evidence of inducing haemocyte proliferation.

  12. A novel biomarker for marine environmental pollution of HSP90 from Mytilus coruscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Wu, Jiong; Xu, Mengshan; He, Jianyu

    2016-10-15

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a conserved molecular chaperone contributing to cell cycle control, organism development and the proper regulation of cytosolic proteins. The full-length HSP90 cDNA of Mytilus coruscus (McHSP90, KT946644) was 2420bp, including an ORF of 2169bp encoding a polypeptide of 722 amino acids with predicted pI/MW 4.89/83.22kDa. BLASTp analysis and phylogenetic relationship strongly suggested McHSP90 was a member of HSP90 family, and it was highly conserved with other known HSP90, especially in the HSP90 family signatures, ATP/GTP-Binding sites and 'EEVD' motif. The mRNA of McHSP90 in haemolymph was upregulated in all treatments including Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi challenge, metals stresses (copper and cadmium) and 180 CST fuel exposure. All the results implied the expression of McHSP90 could be affected by Vibrio challenge and environmental stress, which might help us gain more insight into the molecular mechanism of HSP against adverse stresses in mollusca.

  13. Atividade proteolítica e crescimento de matrinxã em natação sustentada e alimentado com dois níveis de proteína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Alberto Arbeláez-Rojas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da natação sustentada sobre a atividade digestiva proteolítica e o crescimento de juvenis de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, alimentados com dois níveis de proteína. Foram utilizados 240 peixes, tratados com 28 ou 38% de proteína bruta (PB, durante 60 dias, em duas situações distintas: em natação sustentada à velocidade de uma vez e meia o comprimento corporal por segundo, e em sistema convencional de cultivo, sem movimento forçado. Os peixes em natação sustentada e alimentados com 28% de PB apresentaram melhor desempenho, expresso como maior crescimento, alta taxa de crescimento específico, maior ganho de peso e melhor eficiência alimentar. A natação sustentada proporcionou aumento significativo da atividade digestiva proteolítica alcalina, proporcional ao conteúdo de proteína na dieta. Juvenis de matrinxã alimentados com dietas com 28% de PB e em natação sustentada apresentam melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes como consequência de ação proteolítica digestiva mais efetiva.

  14. Microgeographic allozyme differentiation in the hybrid zone of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. and M. edulis L. on the continental European coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, A. S.; Sanjuan, A.

    1997-03-01

    The European Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. and M. edulis L. coexist and hybridize in different proportions in extended areas of the British and Atlantic French coasts. M. galloprovincialis typical allozymes seem to predominate in wave exposed areas, at high levels of attachment and in larger mussels in the British hybrid zone. Mussel samples from exposed and sheltered areas, 200 m apart, and from high and low levels of attachment were collected from a location of the French hybrid zone in 1988 92. Pure M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis populations were also taken as controls. Diagnostic enzyme loci for both Mytilus (EST-D *, LAP-1*, MPI*, ODH*) and AP-1 *, LAP-2* and PGM * loci were studied. The frequencies of the M. galloprovincialis typical alleles were significantly greater in exposed populations than in sheltered samples (e.g. 0.729 to 0.803 vs 0.192 to 0.581 for EST-D *90), and at high level of attachment than at low level for the sheltered area (e.g. 0.581 vs 0.192 for EST-D *90). Putative M. galloprovincialis was more abundant on the exposed coast (0.591 and 0.702) than on the sheltered shore, where it predominated at the high shore but not at the low shore location (0.371 vs 0.045). Significantly positive correlations between shell length and typical M. galloprovincialis compound allele frequencies were found only for populations from exposed areas. Relationships between the Mytilus genetic differentiation and ecological factors are discussed.

  15. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in novel organic protein feedstuffs for pigs: Mussel meal(Mytilus edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kortelainen, Tiina; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Tuori, Mikko; Partanen, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nu-trients and the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in organically produced mus-sel (Mytilus edulis) meal in growing piglets. The use of mussel meal in pig feeding is not allowed for the time being, but feed legislation in the EU concerning the use of mussel meal for pigs is in progress. The experiment was carried out with a total of 24 growing pigs, 13 gilts and ...

  16. Accumulation, transformation and breakdown of DSP toxins from the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Hansen, Per Juel; Krock, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    . This is the first study to construct a full mass balance of DSP toxins during both accumulation and depuration, and we demonstrate rapid toxin accumulation in mussels at realistic in situ levels of Dinophysis. Applying the observed accumulation and depuration kinetics, we model mussel toxicity, and demonstrate...... and depuration kinetics in mussels. We mass-cultured Dinophysis acuta containing OA, DTX-1b and PTX-2 and fed it to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis under controlled laboratory conditions for a week to study toxin accumulation and transformation. Contents of OA and DTX-1b in mussels increased linearly...

  17. Educar con significado o con sentido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín García García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy día, tres tendencias influyen directamente en la conformación de la escuela. En primer lugar, el afán de encontrar la esencia de todo encumbró a la razón e hizo de la racionalidad el único valor a defender en las aulas. En segundo lugar, el sistema capitalista hizo lo mismo con aquello que tiene valor de uso y valor de cambio, es decir, con la mercancía, validando solo lo que puede tener una utilidad económica conocida o posible. Esto convirtió a la educación en un proceso para certificar y ganar dinero, desdibujando así su intención de formar personas. Finalmente, la visión masculina y eurocéntrica con su locura por quererlo dominar todo, y de pensar que el hombre era el dueño del planeta e inclusive la vida y el destino de los otros hombres, mutiló culturas y eliminó a la naturaleza de los currículums en los centros educativos.

  18. con turbinas de disco con paletas planas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. García-Cortés

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las turbinas de disco con paletas planas son los impelentes de flujo radial más ampliamente utilizados en la industria por constituir el impelente que forma parte de la configuración geométrica estándar para obtener este patrón de flujo en los tanques agitados. El estudio detallado de la hidrodinámica en este sistema de agitación es fundamental para continuar obteniendo conocimientos básicos imprescindibles para la síntesis y la modelación matemática de diferentes procesos complejos que se llevan a cabo en los tanques agitados, por ejemplo, la cristalización esférica. El propósito de este artículo es hacer una revisión de la información publicada sobre la hidrodinámica y la modelación matemática de la dinámica de fluidos en los tanques agitados con turbinas de disco con paletas planas y señalar los avances logrados en cada uno de los aspectos abordados y aquellos en los cuales es necesario seguir investigando.

  19. Capacidade aeróbia de ratos alimentados com dieta rica em frutose Aerobic capacity of rats fed with fructose rich diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira de Moura

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências apontam que a ingestão exacerbada de frutose pode desencadear distúrbios característicos da síndrome metabólica. OBJETIVOS: Analisar os efeitos da ingestão de dieta rica em frutose sobre aspectos metabólicos de ratos da linhagem Wistar. Adicionalmente, verificar a capacidade aeróbia através da identificação da máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL. MÉTODOS: Dezesseis ratos foram separados em dois grupos de oito animais: a controle, alimentados com dieta balanceada, e b frutose, alimentados com dieta rica em frutose. Foram analisadas a tolerância à glicose (área sob a curva de glicose durante teste de tolerância à glicose, sensibilidade à insulina (taxa de remoção da glicose sérica após sobrecarga exógena de insulina, perfil lipídico sérico e concentração de lactato sanguíneo [lac]s durante exercício na intensidade da MFEL. RESULTADOS: Teste t não pareado (p INTRODUCTION: Evidence points that exacerbated ingestion of fructose may trigger disturbs characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of a fructose rich diet on metabolic aspects of Wistar lineage rats. Additionally, to verify the aerobic capacity, through the identification of the maximal lactate steady state (MSSL. PROCEDURES: Sixteen rats were separated in two groups of eight animals: a Control, fed a balanced diet, and b fructose, fed a fructose-rich diet. The glucose tolerance, (area under serum glucose during a glucose tolerance test, insulin sensibility (glucose disappearance rate after exogenous insulin administration, serum lipid profile and blood lactate concentration [lac]b during exercise at MSSL intensity, have been analyzed. RESULTS: Non-paired t test (p<0.05 revealed difference between groups in the area under the curve of glucose and serum triglycerides, no difference in insulin sensibility or in [lac]b was detected, though. One-way ANOVA with Newman Keuls post hoc revealed difference in

  20. Ocean acidification and pathogen exposure modulate the immune response of the edible mussel Mytilus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Nicole; Saavedra, Luisa M; Vargas, Cristian A; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Détrée, Camille

    2017-09-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is one of the main consequences of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), impacting key biological processes of marine organisms such as development, growth and immune response. However, there are scarce studies on the influence of OA on marine invertebrates' ability to cope with pathogens. This study evaluated the single and combined effects of OA and bacterial infection on the transcription expression of genes related to antioxidant system, antimicrobial peptides and pattern recognition receptors in the edible mussel Mytilus chilensis. Individuals of M. chilensis were exposed during 60 days at two concentrations of pCO2 (550 and 1200 μatm) representing respectively current and future scenario of OA and were then injected with the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. Results evidenced an immunomodulation following the OA exposure with an up-regulation of C-type Lectin and Mytilin B and a down-regulation of Myticin A and PGRP. This immunomodulation pattern is partially counteracted after challenge with V. anguillarum with a down-regulation of the C-type lectin and Mytilin B and the up-regulation of Myticin A. In turn, these results evidence that pCO2-driven OA scenarios might triggers specific immune-related genes at early stages of infection, promoting the transcription of antimicrobial peptides and patterns recognition receptors. This study provides new evidence of how the immune response of bivalves is modulated by higher CO2 conditions in the ocean, as well one factor for the resilience of marine population upon global change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profiles of thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 genes in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Ning, Xuanxuan; Pei, Dong; Zhao, Jianmin; You, Liping; Wang, Chunyan; Wu, Huifeng

    2013-05-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) proteins are involved in many biological processes especially the regulation of cellular redox homeostasis. In this study, two Trx cDNAs were cloned from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis using rapid amplifi cation of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The two cDNAs were named MgTrx1 and MgTrx2, respectively. The open reading frames of MgTrx1 and MgTrx2 were 318 and 507 base pairs (bp) and they encoded proteins of 105 and 168 amino acids with estimated molecular masses of 11.45 and 18.93 kDa, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that both proteins possessed the conserved active site dithiol motif Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys. In addition, MgTrx2 also possessed a putative mitochondrial targeting signal suggesting that it is located in the mitochondria. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that both MgTrx1 and MgTrx2 were constitutively expressed in all tissues examined. The MgTrx1 transcript was most abundant in hemocytes and gills, whereas the MgTrx2 transcript was most abundant in gonad, hepatopancreas, gill and hemocytes. Following Vibrio anguillarum challenge, the expression of MgTrx1 was up-regulated and reached its peak, at a value 10-fold the initial value, at 24 h. Subsequently, expression returned back to the original level. In contrast, the expression level of MgTrx2 was down-regulated following bacterial stimulation, with one fi fth of the control level evident at 12 h post challenge. These results suggest that MgTrx1 and MgTrx2 may play important roles in the response of M. galloprovincialis to bacterial challenge.

  2. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, B C; Lind, O C; Bradshaw, C; Salbu, B

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as (137)Cs and (90)Sr/(90)Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gyh(-1)) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the "no-effect dose" are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment, for example potential

  3. Immune responses during the larval stages of Mytilus galloprovincialis: metamorphosis alters immunocompetence, body shape and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro, Pablo; Moreira, Rebeca; Chamorro, Rubén; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the development of the immune system during the larval stages of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The ability of trochophore and veliger larvae to phagocytose foreign particles (Escherichia coli and zymosan) was measured. Phagocytosis was detected as early as 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. However, although there was a high basal production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and NRS), the phagocytosis of zymosan did not trigger an associated increase in radical production. In addition, a panel of immune-related mussel genes (Myticin B, Myticin C, Mytilin B, Mytimycin precursor 1, Macrophage migration inhibition factor, lysozyme, C1q, membrane attack complex protein and fibrinogen-related protein) was selected for expression profile analysis throughout the different developmental stages (trochophore, veliger, metamorphosis, post-settlement and spat). The expression of these genes increased during the transition from trochophore to spat, and the level of expression was higher in oocytes than in trochophores, suggesting that gene expression during the first larval stages might be maternal in origin. Metamorphosis was identified as a crucial stage when larvae increased the expression of immune-related genes and responded to environmental signals. Whole-mount in situ hybridization studies showed the mantle edge as an important area in the development of immunocompetence in bivalve larvae. Larvae responded to both live and heat-inactivated bacteria by modulating expression of immune-related genes. Altogether, our results support that during the early stages of M. galloprovincialis development, immune mechanisms emerge to aid larvae in managing infections.

  4. Fatty acid profiles of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk) mussel of subtidal and rocky shore origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freites, Luis; Fernández-Reiriz, M J; Labarta, U

    2002-06-01

    Fatty acid profiles of seeds of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis originating from two habitats (rocky shore and subtidal) were compared after transfer to the same habitat (subtidal). The objective was to study the initial levels of different fatty acids of metabolic importance and, furthermore, the variability of these fatty acids over the experimental period. The results show that of all fatty acids identified in both seed groups, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is the group with highest percentage. Within this group, the C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 fatty acids show the highest levels. Additionally, the mussels of subtidal origin presented higher initial levels than the rocky shore mussels with regard to fatty acids characterised by energetic-type functions, such as the C14:0, C16:0, and the C20:5n-3 fatty acids, among others. Fatty acids characterised by structural-type functions, e.g. C18:0, C22:6n-3 and non-methylene interrupted dienoic (NMID) with 20 and 22 carbons in rocky shore mussels presented higher levels than those of the subtidal mussels. However, it has not been ruled out that aside from influences relating to the functional aspects of the different fatty acids, the initial differences were also associated with the quantitative and qualitative differences of the available food in both habitats. Nevertheless, 22 days into the experiment (in the majority of cases) the initial differences disappear in the different fatty acids with metabolic importance. On the basis of these results, the influence that mussel origin could exercise on the variability of the fatty acid profiles of recognised metabolic importance is discussed.

  5. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Als

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland, where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and kitchen middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that δ18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (M. edulis δ18Oc values are suitable in reconstructing past meltwater amounts in most cases, but care has to be taken that shells are collected not too close to a glacier, but rather in the mid region or mouth of the fjord. The focus of future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south-north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and kitchen middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.

  6. Towards the determination of Mytilus edulis food preferences using the dynamic energy budget (DEB theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Picoche

    Full Text Available The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is a commercially important species, with production based on both fisheries and aquaculture. Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB models have been extensively applied to study its energetics but such applications require a deep understanding of its nutrition, from filtration to assimilation. Being filter feeders, mussels show multiple responses to temporal fluctuations in their food and environment, raising questions that can be investigated by modeling. To provide a better insight into mussel-environment interactions, an experiment was conducted in one of the main French growing zones (Utah Beach, Normandy. Mussel growth was monitored monthly for 18 months, with a large number of environmental descriptors measured in parallel. Food proxies such as chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and phytoplankton were also sampled, in addition to non-nutritious particles. High-frequency physical data recording (e.g., water temperature, immersion duration completed the habitat description. Measures revealed an increase in dry flesh mass during the first year, followed by a high mass loss, which could not be completely explained by the DEB model using raw external signals. We propose two methods that reconstruct food from shell length and dry flesh mass variations. The former depends on the inversion of the growth equation while the latter is based on iterative simulations. Assemblages of food proxies are then related to reconstructed food input, with a special focus on plankton species. A characteristic contribution is attributed to these sources to estimate nutritional values for mussels. M. edulis shows no preference between most plankton life history traits. Selection is based on the size of the ingested particles, which is modified by the volume and social behavior of plankton species. This finding reveals the importance of diet diversity and both passive and active selections, and confirms the need to adjust DEB models to

  7. Two goose-type lysozymes in Mytilus galloprovincialis: possible function diversification and adaptive evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available Two goose-type lysozymes (designated as MGgLYZ1 and MGgLYZ2 were identified from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. MGgLYZ1 mRNA was widely expressed in the examined tissues and responded sensitively to bacterial challenge in hemocytes, while MGgLYZ2 mRNA was predominately expressed and performed its functions in hepatopancreas. However, immunolocalization analysis showed that both these lysozymes were expressed in all examined tissues with the exception of adductor muscle. Recombinant MGgLYZ1 and MGgLYZ2 could inhibit the growth of several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and they both showed the highest activity against Pseudomonas putida with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 0.95-1.91 µM and 1.20-2.40 µM, respectively. Protein sequences analysis revealed that MGgLYZ2 had lower isoelectric point and less protease cutting sites than MGgLYZ1. Recombinant MGgLYZ2 exhibited relative high activity at acidic pH of 4-5, while MGgLYZ1 have an optimum pH of 6. These results indicated MGgLYZ2 adapted to acidic environment and perhaps play an important role in digestion. Genomic structure analysis suggested that both MGgLYZ1 and MGgLYZ2 genes are composed of six exons with same length and five introns, indicating these genes were conserved and might originate from gene duplication during the evolution. Selection pressure analysis showed that MGgLYZ1 was under nearly neutral selection while MGgLYZ2 evolved under positive selection pressure with three positively selected amino acid residues (Y(102, L(200 and S(202 detected in the mature peptide. All these findings suggested MGgLYZ2 perhaps served as a digestive lysozyme under positive selection pressure during the evolution while MGgLYZ1 was mainly involved in innate immune responses.

  8. Genotoxic potential of copper oxide nanoparticles in the bivalve mollusk Mytilus trossulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelomin, Victor P.; Slobodskova, Valentina V.; Zakhartsev, Maksim; Kukla, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are among the most widely used metal oxide nanoparticles, which increases the chance of their being released into the marine environment. As the applications of these particles have increased in recent years, their potential impact on the health of marine biota has also increased. However, the toxicological effects of these NPs in the marine environment are poorly known. In the present study, the DNA damaging potential of CuO-NPs in the marine eastern mussel Mytilus trossulus was evaluated and compared to that of dissolved copper exposures. Genotoxicity was assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay in mussel gill and digestive gland cells. The results showed that copper in both forms (CuO-NPs and dissolved copper) was accumulated to different extents in mussel tissues. The mussel exposed to the dissolved copper attained higher concentrations of copper in the gills than in the digestive gland. In contrast to these results, it was found that CuO-NPs could induce much higher copper accumulation in the digestive gland than in the gills. A clear and statistically significant increase in DNA damage was found in both tissues of the Cu-exposed group compared to the control mussels. Our results indicated that the CuO-NP exposure produced remarkable effects and increased DNA damage significantly in mussel gill cells only. It should be noted that the digestive gland cells were prone to accumulation following CuO-NPs when compared to the gill cells, while the gill cells were more sensitive to the genotoxic effects of CuO-NPs. These results also suggested the need for a complete risk assessment of engineered particles before its arrival in the consumer market.

  9. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profiles of thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 genes in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing; NING Xuanxuan; PEI Dong; ZHAO Jianmin; YOU Liping; WANG Chunyan; WU Huifeng

    2013-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) proteins are involved in many biological processes especially the regulation of cellular redox homeostasis.In this study,two Trx cDNAs were cloned from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis using rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR).The two cDNAs were named MgTrx1 and MgTrx2,respectively.The open reading frames of MgTrx1 and MgTrx2 were 318 and 507 base pairs (bp) and they encoded proteins of 105 and 168 amino acids with estimated molecular masses of 11.45 and 18.93 kDa,respectively.Sequence analysis revealed that both proteins possessed the conserved active site dithiol motif Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys.In addition,MgTrx2 also possessed a putative mitochondrial targeting signal suggesting that it is located in the mitochondria.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that both MgTrx1 and MgTrx2 were constitutively expressed in all tissues examined.The MgTrxl transcript was most abundant in hemocytes and gills,whereas the MgTrx2 transcript was most abundant in gonad,hepatopancreas,gill and hemocytes.Following Vibrio anguillarum challenge,the expression of MgTrxl was up-regulated and reached its peak,at a value 10-fold the initial value,at 24 h.Subsequently,expression returned back to the original level.In contrast,the expression level of MgTrx2 was down-regulated following bacterial stimulation,with one fifth of the control level evident at 12 h post challenge.These results suggest that MgTrxl and MgTrx2 may play important roles in the response of M.galloprovincialis to bacterial challenge.

  10. Total antioxidant capacity in the black mussel ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Black Sea coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncheva, S.; Trakhtenberg, S.; Katrich, E.; Zemser, M.; Goshev, I.; Toledo, F.; Arancibia-Avila, P.; Doncheva, V.; Gorinstein, S.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the total antioxidant radical scavenging capacity (TARSC) in tissue extracts for understanding biochemical adaptations involving the antioxidant defense system of a bivalve mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled in polluted (Pol) and non-polluted (Npol) sites from Black Sea coasts. Antioxidant-rich polyphenol fractions were extracted from whole dry mussel tissue with methanol and water in different proportions. The extracts were screened for polyphenol content and their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ), β-carotene-linoleate (β-carotene) and nitric oxide (NO rad ). The total polyphenol extract of the whole mussel tissue from polluted site (TPMEPol) showed the highest antioxidant capacity among all of the extracts with the tested methods and was comparable with the antioxidant capacity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antioxidant capacities of this extract determined by DPPH rad , β-carotene and NO rad methods and polyphenol content showed the highest correlation coefficients ( R2) such as 0.9985, 0.9915 and 0.9895, respectively. The free polyphenol extracts (FPMEPol and FPMENPol) had lower antioxidant capacity than the two others of total polyphenols (TPMEPol and TPMENPol) with three scavenging methods. Responses were linear in all tested methods and the antioxidant capacity values of soluble antioxidants showed the following relative order: Trolox>BHA>TPMEPol>TPMENPol>FPMEPol>FPMENPol. Nutritional antioxidants, such as polyphenols, were probably the main antioxidant contribution to mussel antioxidants. The mussel extracts from the polluted site exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than from the non-polluted one. The results presented in this report indicate that the antioxidant capacity of the whole tissue of the mussel extract could possibly be a useful biomarker for aquatic environments.

  11. The connectivity of Mytilus galloprovincialis in northern Morocco: A gene flow crossroads between continents

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    Ouagajjou, Yassine; Presa, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous population genetic studies on the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis have shown the existence of two well differentiated sets of populations around Southern European coasts, one Atlantic and another Mediterranean. Those two population pools are kept apart by the Almería - Oran Oceanographic Front (AOOF), an oceanographic discontinuity acting either as a cause of such differentiation or simply as a means of maintaining two historically differentiated gene pools. The role of the Gibraltar Strait at shaping mussel larval flow entering the Alboran Sea has been much less addressed, especially regarding mussel swarms inhabiting the northern coast of Morocco. The present study applies seven microsatellite markers to describing the genetic status of northern Moroccan populations of M. galloprovincialis and their relationship with the two well-characterized mussel gene pools from southern Europe. We show that the Atlantic Iberia gene pool extending continuously from the Cantabrian Sea (NE Iberia) to the Alboran Sea (SE Iberia) up to the AOOF is well differentiated from the Atlantic Moroccan mussel. Either an oceanographic barrier or a limited larval dispersal or both, are required to explain this unexpected intercontinental differentiation regarding previous studies on this species. Populations from Atlantic Morocco conformed to a single gene pool (FST ± SD = 0.012 ± 0.007) as opposed to the reported latitudinal barrier to gene flow at Cape Ghir in western Morocco. Additionally, a significant restriction to gene flow was observed between Atlantic Morocco and Alboran Morocco (FST ± SD = 0.038 ± 0.010) in contrast to the reported mussel genetic continuity along the Iberian coast up to AOOF. Three major mussel gene pools appear to meet at this crossroads between continents and between seas, namely, a Mediterranean European subpopulation, an Atlantic Iberia subpopulation including the Alboran Sea, and an Atlantic Morocco subpopulation. Knowledge on

  12. Assessment of metal concentrations in indigenous and caged mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) on entire Turkish coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belivermiş, Murat; Kılıç, Önder; Çotuk, Yavuz

    2016-02-01

    This survey was conducted to determine metal concentrations in the biomonitor organism Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from all coasts of Turkey. Naturally-occurring mussels were gathered along the coast of the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Bosphorus and Aegean Sea, while a 6-month transplantation session was implemented on the Levantine Sea coast where M. galloprovincialis does not adapt naturally. Mussels collected from the Izmir area were employed for transplantation to five locations along the Levantine Sea coast of Turkey. Concentrations of Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, and Zn were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry). Results showed that concentrations of some essential elements (Co, Fe, K, Mn, Zn) generally fell within the range of acceptable global values. However, at some sampling sites the metal concentrations were found at higher levels compared to the world average and recommended limits. For instance, very high Ag and Cu concentrations were observed in mussel caged at Yumurtalık. Elevated As, Ni, Pb, and V concentrations were observed at the Tirebolu, Ereğli, Eskihisar, and Tekirdağ locations, respectively. Taking into account all measured metals, it can be inferred that Yumurtalık is the most metal-contaminated locality. The results highlighted metal-specific pollution at coastal areas in each sea cover Turkey. In spite of the high metal levels estimated daily intakes (EDI) of the measured elements were well below through very low mussel consumption by Turkish public.

  13. Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis

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    C. H. R. Heip

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis larvae is significantly affected by a decrease of pH to a level expected for the end of the century. Even though there was no significant effect of a 0.25–0.34 pH unit decrease on hatching and mortality rates during the first 2 days of development nor during the following 13-day period prior to settlement, final shells were, respectively, 4.5±1.3 and 6.0±2.3% smaller at pHNBS~7.8 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Moreover, a decrease of 12.0±5.4% of shell thickness was observed. More severe impacts were found with a decrease of ~0.5 pHNBS unit during the first 2 days of development which could be attributed to a decrease of calcification due toslight undersaturation of seawater with respect to aragonite. Indeed, important effects on both hatching and D-veliger shell growth were found. Hatching rates were 24±4% lower while D-veliger shells were 12.7±0.9% smaller at pHNBS~7.6 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Although these results show that blue mussel larvae are still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite, decreases of hatching rates and shell growth suggest a negative impact of ocean acidification on the future survival of bivalve populations potentially leading to significant ecological and economical losses.

  14. Immunomodulating effects of environmentally realistic copper concentrations in Mytilus edulis adapted to naturally low salinities.

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    Höher, Nicole; Regoli, Francesco; Dissanayake, Awantha; Nagel, Matthias; Kriews, Michael; Köhler, Angela; Broeg, Katja

    2013-09-15

    The monitoring of organisms' health conditions by the assessment of their immunocompetence may serve as an important criterion for the achievement of the Good Environmental Status (GES) as defined in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU). In this context, the complex role of natural environmental stressors, e.g. salinity, and interfering or superimposing effects of anthropogenic chemicals, should be carefully considered, especially in scenarios of low to moderate contamination. Organisms from the Baltic Sea have adapted to the ambient salinity regime, however energetically costly osmoregulating processes may have an impact on the capability to respond to additional stress such as contamination. The assessment of multiple stressors, encompassing natural and anthropogenic factors, influencing an organisms' health was the main aim of the present study. Immune responses of Mytilus edulis, collected and kept at natural salinities of 12‰ (LS) and 20‰ (MS), respectively, were compared after short-term exposure (1, 7 and 13 days) to low copper concentrations (5, 9 and 16 μg/L Cu). A significant interaction of salinity and copper exposure was observed in copper accumulation. LS mussels accumulated markedly more copper than MS mussels. No combined effects were detected in cellular responses. Bacterial clearance was mostly achieved by phagocytosis, as revealed by a strong positive correlation between bacterial counts and phagocytic activity, which was particularly pronounced in LS mussels. MS mussels, on the other hand, seemingly accomplished bacterial clearance by employing additional humoral factors (16 μg/L Cu). The greatest separating factor in the PCA biplot between LS and MS mussels was the proportion of granulocytes and hyalinocytes while functional parameters (phagocytic activity and bacterial clearance) were hardly affected by salinity, but rather by copper exposure. In conclusion, immune responses of the blue mussel may be suitable and sensitive

  15. Anatomical distribution of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

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    Blanco, Juan; Mariño, Carmen; Martín, Helena; Acosta, Carmen P

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this work was to shed light on the anatomical distribution of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and to determine any possible changes undergone during the depuration process. To this end, the distribution of two DSP toxins--okadaic acid and DTX2--and some of their derivatives were studied by means of HPLC/MS at different stages of the depuration process. Mussels were collected from mussel farms located in the Galician Rías and they were collected under three types of circumstances: (a) while ingesting toxic phytoplankton cells; (b) 1 week after the toxic cells had disappeared from the water; and (c) after ca. 2 months of depuration. Additionally, in case (b), the distribution among tissues was checked every week over a depuration period of 35 days in the laboratory. DSP toxins were only detected in non-visceral tissues when the extracts were concentrated 20-fold and, even in these cases, the concentrations found were very low. When the maximum possible contribution of non-visceral tissues was computed, taking into account the technique's detection limits and tissue weight, no relevant contribution to the toxin burden of non-visceral tissues was found at any stage of depuration, with the maximum possible contributions usually below 7%. The concentrated samples analysed showed that the actual contribution in all the cases studied was, in fact, less than 1% of the total toxin burden. These findings suggest that (1) when analytical methods are used to monitor DSP toxic mussels, non-visceral tissues should be assumed to be free of toxins in order to precisely compute the toxin concentration of the whole mass of edible tissues and (2) when studying the accumulation kinetics of DSP toxins, transference from the digestive gland to other tissues should not be taken into account, as the other tissues do not contain relevant amounts of DSP toxins.

  16. Tralopyril bioconcentration and effects on the gill proteome of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Isabel B; Groh, Ksenia J; Stadnicka-Michalak, Julita; Schönenberger, René; Beiras, Ricardo; Barroso, Carlos M; Langford, Katherine H; Thomas, Kevin V; Suter, Marc J-F

    2016-08-01

    Antifouling (AF) systems are used worldwide as one of the most cost-effective ways of protecting submerged structures against heavy biofouling. The emergence of environmentally friendly AF biocides requires knowledge on their environmental fate and toxicity. In this study we measured the bioconcentration of the emerging AF biocide tralopyril (TP) in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and investigated the effects of TP on the mussel gill proteome following acute (2days) and chronic (30days) exposure, as well as after a 10-day depuration period. The experiments were carried out with 1μg/L TP; blank and solvent (5×10(-5)% DMSO) controls were also included. Proteomics analysis was performed by mass spectrometry-based multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Differentially expressed proteins were identified using a label-free approach based on spectral counts and G-test. Our results show that TP is rapidly accumulated by mussels at concentrations up to 362ng/g dw (whole tissues), reaching steady-state condition within 13days. Ten days of depuration resulted in 80% elimination of accumulated TP from the organism, suggesting that a complete elimination could be reached with longer depuration times. In total, 46 proteins were found to be regulated in the different exposure scenarios. Interestingly, not only TP but also DMSO alone significantly modulated the protein expression in mussel gills following acute and chronic exposure. Both compounds regulated proteins involved in bioenergetics, immune system, active efflux and oxidative stress, often in the opposite way. Alterations of several proteins, notably several cytoskeletal ones, were still observed after the depuration period. These may reflect either the continuing chemical effect due to incomplete elimination or an onset of recovery processes in the mussel gills. Our study shows that exposure of adult mussels to sublethal TP concentration results in the bioconcentration of this

  17. Molecular characterisation of noroviruses detected in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from harvesting areas in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henigman, Urška; Biasizzo, Majda; Vadnjal, Stanka; Toplak, Ivan; Gombač, Mitja; Steyer, Andrej; Poljšak Prijatelj, Mateja; Ambrožič, Mateja; Fonda, Irena; Kirbiš, Andrej; Barlič-Maganja, Darja

    2015-04-01

    Noroviruses are a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and are responsible for many outbreaks worldwide. Mussels are one of the most important foodstuffs connected with norovirus outbreaks, also resulting in multinational dimensions. Two hundred and thirty-eight (238) samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were collected in periods between the years 2006-2008 and 2010-2012 to study the prevalence of noroviruses (NoVs) from harvesting areas along the Adriatic coast of Slovenia. Between 2006 and 2008, 9.1% to 24.6% of mussel samples tested by specific GI and/or GII real-time RT-PCR methods were found to be positive for NoVs while between 2010 and 2012 the percentage of NoV positive samples varied from 12.5% to 22.2%. At the nucleotide level within the RdRp gene fragment the genetic diversity of NoVs detected in mussels ranged between 78.8-81.0% nucleotide identity among GII strains (92.1-99.6% within the GII.P4 genotype), 100% nucleotide identity among GI and 58.4-60.2% among GI and GII strains. Nine of the NoV strains detected from mussels were genotyped as GII.4, while two samples were within GI.P2 and one was a positive sample within genotype GII.P21. This study confirmed that mussels are a potential source of the NoV infection. The detected NoVs share the same topology on the phylogenetic tree within the NoV strains detected in water samples and human patients, not only from Slovenia but also from many different countries worldwide. We can assume that mussels in harvesting areas are not only contaminated from the surrounding area but also by contaminated water and sewage from large transport ships, which are regularly present in the area.

  18. Organic pollution and its effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Eastern Mediterranean coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Emmanouil, Christina; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadi-Psyllou, Asimina; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Okay, Oya; Machera, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    Persistent chemicals and emerging pollutants are continuously detected in marine waters and biota. Out of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are significant contaminants with decades of presence in the marine environment. The Mediterranean Sea is an ecosystem directly affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities including industry, municipal, touristic, commercial and agricultural. The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a filter feeder, which presents wide distribution. In this regard, the specific organism was used as a biological indicator for the monitoring and evaluation of pollution in the studied areas with focus on the mentioned chemical groups. Pristine Turkish sites with minimum effect from anthropogenic activities, in contrast with Greek sites which were subjected to heavy industrial and shipping activity, were selected. A gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method (GC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to monitor 34 compounds (16 EPA priority PAHs and 18 OCs). Analyses of mussel samples in 2011 from sites with the limited anthropogenic pollution shores have shown the occurrence of 11 pollutants (6 PAHs, 5 OCs), while in the samples from sites with intensive activity and expected pollution, 12 PAHs and 6 OCs were detected. Biochemical and biological responses studied only in mussels samples from the sites with the highest contamination showed a situation that was under strong seasonal influence. The intensity of the response was also influenced by deployment duration. Noteworthy correlations were detected among biochemical/biological effects and between mussel body burden and these effects. Continuous monitoring of priority pollutants of East Mediterranean Sea is vital both for ecological and human risk assessment purposes.

  19. Bioaccumulation and retention of lead in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis following uptake from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisson, Florence; Cotret, Olivier; Fowler, Scott W. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, BP 800, MC-98012 Monaco (France)

    1998-10-15

    Bioaccumulation of lead in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from {sup 210}Pb-labeled bulk seawater (dissolved and particulate pathways combined) was examined over 21 days. The lead bioaccumulation factor (BAF) at equilibrium was estimated to be 211{+-}10 ml g{sup -1}. This value was two orders of magnitude lower than BAFs reported in the literature for other trace metals in this bivalve indicating that lead is not efficiently accumulated by mussels from bulk seawater. The resultant lead distribution in mussels was 49{+-}10% in soft tissues and 46{+-}16% in the shell suggesting similar uptake rates (Bq day{sup -1}) in both compartments throughout the exposure. Total elimination for lead in mussels was adequately described by a short-term compartment with a biological half-life for loss of 1.4{+-}0.3 days and a long-term compartment which released lead only very slowly (T{sub b1/2}=2.5{+-}0.7 months). No difference was noted for lead elimination rates in shell and in soft parts. When experimentally exposed to lead under conditions representative of natural environmental lead levels in water, including both that in the dissolved phase and in the food, the shell compartment was shown to contain the major fraction of the total lead accumulated by mussels. Therefore mussels may be considered as good bioindicators of lead contamination accumulated from the dissolved rather than from the particulate source. Furthermore, the relatively slow uptake and the long depuration half-life of lead will limit the ability of mussels to accurately record short-term variations in lead concentrations in the surrounding waters, a fact that should be taken into consideration in order to define the appropriate sampling frequency for mussels used in biomonitoring programs involving lead

  20. Experimental study on copper uptake capacity in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, H; Dalgic, G; Bayrak, E Y; Sirin, M; Cevik, U; Apaydin, G

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effect of different sizes, sex, and exposure time on Cu uptake capacity, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis of different shell sizes were exposed to different Cu concentrations in different aquariums. In another experiment, mussels were exposed to stable dissolved Cu for 6 days in the laboratory. All mussels tissue concentrations were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. At the end of uptake, the rate of increase of Cu level in the soft tissues of mussels in different aquariums was 3.84-7.92 times higher than before exposure. While the results of Cu concentrations were negatively correlated with the shell sizes in the control and second groups (r control = -0.862, r second = -0.851 p  0.05). Also, results showed no significant difference between male and female (p > 0.05). On the other hand, Cu concentration values in soft tissue were monitored daily and observed to be increasing up to the third day but afterwards to be descending, thus indicating a significant effect of the exposure time-related Cu uptake by mussels. Therefore, the exposure time to Cu metal of the mussel should be taken into account in the marine pollution investigations. In addition, by using the obtained Cu heavy metal concentration results, the heavy metal intake by the human population was calculated by taking into account daily mussel consumption. The results were examined for potential human health risks and discussed. These results would be helpful to understand factors controlling Cu accumulation in mussels.

  1. New insights into the apoptotic process in mollusks: characterization of caspase genes in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is an essential biological process in the development and maintenance of immune system homeostasis. Caspase proteins constitute the core of the apoptotic machinery and can be categorized as either initiators or effectors of apoptosis. Although the genes encoding caspase proteins have been described in vertebrates and in almost all invertebrate phyla, there are few reports describing the initiator and executioner caspases or the modulation of their expression by different stimuli in different apoptotic pathways in bivalves. In the present work, we characterized two initiator and four executioner caspases in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Both initiators and executioners showed structural features that make them different from other caspase proteins already described. Evaluation of the genes' tissue expression patterns revealed extremely high expression levels within the gland and gills, where the apoptotic process is highly active due to the clearance of damaged cells. Hemocytes also showed high expression values, probably due to of the role of apoptosis in the defense against pathogens. To understand the mechanisms of caspase gene regulation, hemocytes were treated with UV-light, environmental pollutants and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and apoptosis was evaluated by microscopy, flow cytometry and qPCR techniques. Our results suggest that the apoptotic process could be tightly regulated in bivalve mollusks by overexpression/suppression of caspase genes; additionally, there is evidence of caspase-specific responses to pathogens and pollutants. The apoptotic process in mollusks has a similar complexity to that of vertebrates, but presents unique features that may be related to recurrent exposure to environmental changes, pollutants and pathogens imposed by their sedentary nature.

  2. Molecular and Cellular Effects Induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis Treated with Oxytetracycline at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Mohamed; Sforzini, Susanna; Franzellitti, Silvia; Oliveri, Caterina; Viarengo, Aldo; Fabbri, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the interactive effects of temperature (16°C and 24°C) and a 4-day treatment with the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) at 1 and 100 μg/L on cellular and molecular parameters in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), a sensitive biomarker of impaired health status in this organism, was assessed in the digestive glands. In addition, oxidative stress markers and the expression of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in antioxidant defense (catalase (cat) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst)) and the heat shock response (hsp90, hsp70, and hsp27) were evaluated in the gills, the target tissue of soluble chemicals. Finally, cAMP levels, which represent an important cell signaling pathway related to oxidative stress and the response to temperature challenges, were also determined in the gills. Exposure to heat stress as well as to OTC rendered a decrease in LMS and an increase in malonedialdehyde accumulation (MDA). CAT activity was not significantly modified, whereas GST activity decreased at 24°C. Cat and gst expression levels were reduced in animals kept at 24°C compared to 16°C in the presence or absence of OTC. At 16°C, treatment with OTC caused a significant increase in cat and gst transcript levels. Hsp27 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at all conditions compared to controls at 16°C. cAMP levels were increased at 24°C independent of the presence of OTC. PCA analysis showed that 37.21% and 25.89% of the total variance was explained by temperature and OTC treatment, respectively. Interestingly, a clear interaction was observed in animals exposed to both stressors increasing LMS and MDA accumulation and reducing hsp27 gene expression regulation. These interactions may suggest a risk for the organisms due to temperature increases in contaminated seawaters.

  3. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac exposure in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rey, Maria; Bebianno, Maria João

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, research studies have increasingly focused on assessing the occurrence of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in ecosystems. However, much remains unknown concerning the potential effects on APIs on non-target organisms due to the complexity of the mode of action, reactivity and bioconcentration potential for each specific drug. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most frequently detected APIs in surface waters worldwide and has recently been included in the list of priority substances under the European Commission. In this study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to an environmentally relevant nominal concentration of DCF (250 ng L(-1)) over 15 days. The responses of several biomarkers were assessed in the mussel tissues: condition index (CI); superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and phase II glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) associated with oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity related to neurotoxic effects and vitellogenin-like proteins linked to endocrine disruption. This study demonstrated significant induction of SOD and GR activities in the gills in addition to high CAT activity and LPO levels in the digestive gland. Phase II GST remained unaltered in both tissues, while the up-regulation of the AChE activity was directly related to the vitellogenin-like protein levels in exposed females, indicating an alteration in the estrogenic activity, rather than a breakdown in cholinergic neurotransmission function. This study confirmed that DCF at a concentration often observed in surface water induces tissue-specific biomarker responses. Finally, this study also revealed the importance of a multi-biomarker approach when assessing the potentially deleterious effects in a species that may be vulnerable to the continuously discharge of APIs into the ecosystems; this approach provides crucial new

  4. Gender-specific metabolic responses in hepatopancreas of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis challenged by Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Ma, Mengwen; Zhang, Yuemei

    2014-10-01

    Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish and frequently studied in shellfish immunology. In this work, the gender-specific metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from M. galloprovincialis were characterized using NMR-based metabolomics. In details, V. harveyi challenge increased the levels of amino acids including (valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, alanine, arginine and tyrosine) and ATP, and decreased the level of glucose in male mussel hepatopancreas. In V. harveyi-challenged female mussel hepatopancreas, both threonine and AMP were significantly elevated, and choline, phoshphocholine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, taurine, betaine and ATP were depleted. Obviously, only threonine was similarly altered to that in V. harveyi-challenged male mussel hepatopancreas. These findings confirmed the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussels challenged by V. harveyi. Overall, V. harveyi induced an enhanced energy demand through activated glycolysis and immune response indicated by increased BCAAs in male mussel hepatopancreas. In female mussel hepatopancreas, V. harveyi basically caused disturbances in both osmotic regulation and energy metabolism through the metabolic pathways of conversions of phosphocholine and ADP to choline and ATP, and sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and H2O into choline and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (Cu/Zn-SOD, HSP90, lysozyme and defensin) suggested that V. harveyi induced obvious oxidative and immune stresses in both male and female mussel hepatopancreas. This work demonstrated that V. harveyi could induce gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis hepatopancreas using NMR-based metabolomics.

  5. Transcriptional response of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam. following exposure to heat stress and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Negri

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major factor that may affect biological organization, especially in marine ecosystems and in coastal areas that are particularly subject to anthropogenic pollution. We evaluated the effects of simultaneous changes in temperature and copper concentrations on lysosomal membrane stability (N-acetyl-hexosaminidase activity and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA in the gill of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.. Temperature and copper exerted additive effects on lysosomal membrane stability, exacerbating the toxic effects of metal cations present in non-physiological concentrations. Mussel lysosomal membrane stability is known to be positively related to scope for growth, indicating possible effects of increasing temperature on mussel populations in metal-polluted areas. To clarify the molecular response to environmental stressors, we used a cDNA microarray with 1,673 sequences to measure the relative transcript abundances in the gills of mussels exposed to copper (40 µg/L and a temperature gradient (16°C, 20°C, and 24°C. In animals exposed only to heat stress, hierarchical clustering of the microarray data revealed three main clusters, which were largely dominated by down-regulation of translation-related differentially expressed genes, drastic up-regulation of protein folding related genes, and genes involved in chitin metabolism. The response of mussels exposed to copper at 24°C was characterized by an opposite pattern of the genes involved in translation, most of which were up-regulated, as well as the down-regulation of genes encoding heat shock proteins and "microtubule-based movement" proteins. Our data provide novel information on the transcriptomic modulations in mussels facing temperature increases and high copper concentrations; these data highlight the risk of marine life exposed to toxic chemicals in the presence of temperature increases due to climate change.

  6. Monitoring of the impact of Prestige oil spill on Mytilus galloprovincialis from Galician coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffon, B.; Rabade, T.; Pasaro, E. [University of A Coruna (Spain). Toxicology Unit; Mendez, J. [University of A Coruna (Spain). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology

    2006-04-15

    In November 2002, the Prestige oil tanker was wrecked in front of Galician coast (NW of Spain), spilling near 63,000 tons of heavy oil until February 2003. Contamination produced was very extensive (70% of Galician beaches were reached by the oil) but heterogeneous, alternating intensely affected zones with neighbour locations where the repercussion was minimal. The objective of this study was to monitor sea environment contamination caused by Prestige oil spill during an 11-month period (August 2003-June 2004, nine samplings) in two locations of Galician coast with different geographical properties (Lira and Ancoradoiro beaches), by means of chemical determination of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) in seawater, and using as exposure biomarker TPAH content in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) tissues, and as effect biomarker DNA damage in mussel gills, evaluated by the comet assay. In addition, recovery ability of the mussels was determined after a 7-day stay in the laboratory. TPAH contents in seawater were very high in the earliest samplings, but then they maintained below 200 ng L{sup -1}, similar to reference seawater. However, TPAH levels in mussel tissues were more variable: they increased again from January 2004, probably due to the adverse meteorological conditions that turned over the sea bottom and dispersed the oil accumulated in sediments. In most samplings, these levels decreased during the recovery stage. DNA damage in oil-exposed mussels was significantly higher than in reference mussels, both before and after the recovery phase, but they did not differ to one another. Comet tail length was slightly reduced during the recovery stage, indicative of a certain DNA repair in exposed mussels. This study showed up the importance of monitoring sea contamination events during an extended time, not only in evaluating the presence of the contaminants in the environment but also in determining their bioaccumulation and their effect on the exposed

  7. Tissue specific responses to cadmium-based quantum dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Gomes, Tânia; Mestre, Nélia C; Cardoso, Cátia; Bebianno, Maria João

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, Cd-based quantum dots (QDs) have generated interest from the life sciences community due to their potential applications in nanomedicine, biology and electronics. However, these engineered nanomaterials can be released into the marine environment, where their environmental health hazards remain unclear. This study investigated the tissue-specific responses related to alterations in the antioxidant defense system induced by CdTe QDs, in comparison with its dissolved counterpart, using the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and dissolved Cd for 14 days at 10 μgCd L(-1) and biomarkers of oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (total, Se-independent and Se-dependent GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities] were analyzed along with Cd accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of mussels. Results show that both Cd forms changed mussels' antioxidant responses with distinct modes of action (MoA). There were tissue- and time-dependent differences in the biochemical responses to each Cd form, wherein QDs are more pro-oxidant when compared to dissolved Cd. The gills are the main tissue affected by QDs, with effects related to the increase of SOD, GST and GPx activities, while those of dissolved Cd was associated to the increase of CAT activity, Cd accumulation and exposure time. Digestive gland is a main tissue for accumulation of both Cd forms, but changes in antioxidant enzyme activities are smaller than in gills. A multivariate analysis revealed that the antioxidant patterns are tissue dependent, indicating nano-specific effects possibly associated to oxidative stress and changes in redox homeostasis.

  8. Towards the determination of Mytilus edulis food preferences using the dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoche, Coralie; Le Gendre, Romain; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Françoise, Sylvaine; Maheux, Frank; Simon, Benjamin; Gangnery, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is a commercially important species, with production based on both fisheries and aquaculture. Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models have been extensively applied to study its energetics but such applications require a deep understanding of its nutrition, from filtration to assimilation. Being filter feeders, mussels show multiple responses to temporal fluctuations in their food and environment, raising questions that can be investigated by modeling. To provide a better insight into mussel-environment interactions, an experiment was conducted in one of the main French growing zones (Utah Beach, Normandy). Mussel growth was monitored monthly for 18 months, with a large number of environmental descriptors measured in parallel. Food proxies such as chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and phytoplankton were also sampled, in addition to non-nutritious particles. High-frequency physical data recording (e.g., water temperature, immersion duration) completed the habitat description. Measures revealed an increase in dry flesh mass during the first year, followed by a high mass loss, which could not be completely explained by the DEB model using raw external signals. We propose two methods that reconstruct food from shell length and dry flesh mass variations. The former depends on the inversion of the growth equation while the latter is based on iterative simulations. Assemblages of food proxies are then related to reconstructed food input, with a special focus on plankton species. A characteristic contribution is attributed to these sources to estimate nutritional values for mussels. M. edulis shows no preference between most plankton life history traits. Selection is based on the size of the ingested particles, which is modified by the volume and social behavior of plankton species. This finding reveals the importance of diet diversity and both passive and active selections, and confirms the need to adjust DEB models to different

  9. Depressant effect of active shortening in the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelund, M C

    1983-03-01

    The effect of shortening during activity, previously characterized in vertebrate striated muscle, was investigated in the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of the mollusc Mytilus edulis. This muscle is considered to have an essentially myosin-linked Ca2+-regulatory system. Release steps of different amplitude were performed during isometric phasic contraction, and force redevelopment was recorded at a muscle length L1, defined as 90% of the muscle length at which a slight resting tension, approximately 1 mN, appeared in the presence of 2.5 X 10(-5) M 5-HT. Active shortening caused a graded depression of the contractile force without affecting the total duration of the mechanical response. Peak redeveloped force after muscle shortening of 0.06 L1 and 0.18 L1 was reduced by approximately 1.5% and 7.0%, respectively, of the isometric tension value at L1. The shortening effect was fully reversible, and had a lifetime of approximately 8 to 9 s. The depressant effect of active shortening was augmented at a reduced degree of activation of the muscle. The presence of caffeine and dantrolene and altered tonicity of the extracellular medium (0.9 T-1.2 T) did not significantly affect the shortening induced depression obtained at maximum phasic activation of the preparation. The nature of the shortening effect is compared to that obtained in vertebrate striated muscle and is discussed on the basis of differences in Ca2+-regulation of the contractile system in these two muscles.

  10. Exotic collagen gradients in the byssus of the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X; Waite, J H

    1995-03-01

    Byssal threads of the common mussel Mytilus edulis contain collagenous molecules from which two pepsin-resistant fragments have been isolated and characterized. These show a complementary distribution along the length of the thread, such that one predominates distally (Col-D) and the other proximally (Col-P). Both fragments contain three identical alpha-like chains with molecular masses of 50 kDa (Col-P) and 60 kDa (Col-D) and have typically collagenous amino acid compositions; for example, 35% glycine and almost 20% proline plus 4-trans-hydroxyproline. Hydroxylysine and 3-hydroxyproline were absent. Col-P sequences are also typical of collagen in consisting of tandem repeats of the triplet Gly-X-Y in which X and Y generally represent any amino acid. When proline occurs, it is hydroxylated to 4-trans-hydroxyproline only in the Y position. Seven instances where X is glycine have been detected in Col-P. Specific polyclonal anti-Col antibodies were used to isolate the precursors of Col-P and Col-D from the mussel foot. PreCol-P has a molecular mass of 95 kDa and contains 36% glycine but a lower imino acid content (13%). It has a complementary distribution with another precursor (preCol-D, 97 kDa) along the length of the foot. The two precursor compositions suggest resilin-like and silk-fibroin-like structures, respectively, in the noncollagenous domains of preCol-P and preCol-D. Immunogold labelling studies indicate that Col-P is associated with the coiled fibers of the inner core in the proximal portion of the thread, whereas Col-D is localized to the straight fiber bundles of the distal thread as well as to the outer core of the proximal thread.

  11. Concentration and depuration of some radionuclides present in a chronically exposed population of mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, R.J.; Stevens, H.E.; Hamilton, E.I.

    1983-03-01

    Factors are described which affect the concentration (p Ci g/sup -1/ dry wt) and loss of /sup 241/ Am, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb in an exposed population of mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Ravenglass on the Esk estuary, Cumbria, UK which receives radioeffluents from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) plant at Sellafield, some 10 km to the north. Tidal position and mussel body size have a negligible influence on the concentration of /sup 241/Am, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 106/Ru in the total soft tissue, but variation in soft tissue weight throughout the year has a considerable influence on the apparent concentration and depuration times of these radionuclides. Apart from the clearance (tsub(1/2) biol, 1 to 3 h) of sediment-associated activity from the digestive tract, the depuration rate profiles follow a single component clearance curve with a biological half-life in excess of 200 d for /sup 241/ Am, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 144/Ce, and of 40 d for /sup 137/Cs. The clearance of /sup 106/Ru is more complex and consists of a 3 component depuration profile with biological half-lives of 6 h, 12 d and 260 d. The depuration profiles presented in this work are for chronically ingested isotopes under natural conditions; acute exposure will most likely result in different profiles, especially those derived from laboratory spiking experiments. Isotope ratio data support the hypothesis that the main route of entry into the mussel for the majority of the radionuclides studied is from the water.

  12. Mytilus galloprovincialis myticin C: a chemotactic molecule with antiviral activity and immunoregulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro, Pablo; Falcó, Alberto; Romero, Alejandro; Dios, Sonia; Martínez-López, Alicia; Figueras, Antonio; Estepa, Amparo; Novoa, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) of the myticin class C (Myt C) is the most abundantly expressed gene in cDNA and suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries after immune stimulation of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. However, to date, the expression pattern, the antimicrobial activities and the immunomodulatory properties of the Myt C peptide have not been determined. In contrast, it is known that Myt C mRNA presents an unusual and high level of polymorphism of unidentified biological significance. Therefore, to provide a better understanding of the features of this interesting molecule, we have investigated its function using four different cloned and expressed variants of Myt C cDNA and polyclonal anti-Myt C sera. The in vivo results suggest that this AMP, mainly present in hemocytes, could be acting as an immune system modulator molecule because its overexpression was able to alter the expression of mussel immune-related genes (as the antimicrobial peptides Myticin B and Mytilin B, the C1q domain-containing protein MgC1q, and lysozyme). Moreover, the in vitro results indicate that Myt C peptides have antimicrobial and chemotactic properties. Their recombinant expression in a fish cell line conferred protection against two different fish viruses (enveloped and non-enveloped). Cell extracts from Myt C expressing fish cells were also able to attract hemocytes. All together, these results suggest that Myt C should be considered not only as an AMP but also as the first chemokine/cytokine-like molecule identified in bivalves and one of the few examples in all of the invertebrates.

  13. Mytilus galloprovincialis myticin C: a chemotactic molecule with antiviral activity and immunoregulatory properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Balseiro

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that an antimicrobial peptide (AMP of the myticin class C (Myt C is the most abundantly expressed gene in cDNA and suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries after immune stimulation of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. However, to date, the expression pattern, the antimicrobial activities and the immunomodulatory properties of the Myt C peptide have not been determined. In contrast, it is known that Myt C mRNA presents an unusual and high level of polymorphism of unidentified biological significance. Therefore, to provide a better understanding of the features of this interesting molecule, we have investigated its function using four different cloned and expressed variants of Myt C cDNA and polyclonal anti-Myt C sera. The in vivo results suggest that this AMP, mainly present in hemocytes, could be acting as an immune system modulator molecule because its overexpression was able to alter the expression of mussel immune-related genes (as the antimicrobial peptides Myticin B and Mytilin B, the C1q domain-containing protein MgC1q, and lysozyme. Moreover, the in vitro results indicate that Myt C peptides have antimicrobial and chemotactic properties. Their recombinant expression in a fish cell line conferred protection against two different fish viruses (enveloped and non-enveloped. Cell extracts from Myt C expressing fish cells were also able to attract hemocytes. All together, these results suggest that Myt C should be considered not only as an AMP but also as the first chemokine/cytokine-like molecule identified in bivalves and one of the few examples in all of the invertebrates.

  14. Embryotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libralato, Giovanni; Minetto, Diego; Totaro, Sara; Mičetić, Ivan; Pigozzo, Andrea; Sabbioni, Enrico; Marcomini, Antonio; Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria

    2013-12-01

    Few data exist on the ecotoxicological effects of nanosized titanium dioxide (nTiO2) towards marine species with specific reference to bivalve molluscs and their relative life stages. Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck was selected to assess the potential adverse effects of nTiO2 (0-64 mg/L) on its early larval development stages (pre-D shell stage, malformed D-shell stage and normal D-shell stage larvae) considering two exposure scenarios characterised by total darkness (ASTM protocol) and natural photoperiod (light/dark). This approach was considered to check the presence of potential effects associated to the photocatalytic properties of nTiO2. Parallel experiments were carried on with the bulk reference TiCl4. The toxicity of nTiO2 showed to be mainly related to its "nano" condition and to be influenced by the exposure to light that supported the increase in the number of pre-D shell stage (retarded) larvae compared to the malformed ones especially at the maximum effect concentrations (4 and 8 mg nTiO2/L). The non-linear regression toxicity data analysis showed the presence of two EC50 values per exposure scenario: a) EC(50)1 = 1.23 mg/L (0.00-4.15 mg/L) and EC(50)2 = 38.56 mg/L (35.64-41.47 mg/L) for the dark exposure conditions; b) EC(50)1 = 1.65 mg/L (0.00-4.74 mg/L) and EC(50)2 = 16.39 mg/L (13.31-19.48 mg/L) for the light/dark exposure conditions. The potential implication of agglomeration and sedimentation phenomena on ecotoxicological data was discussed.

  15. Toxicity assessment and comparison between two types of iron oxide nanoparticles in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taze, Chrysa; Panetas, Ioannis [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalogiannis, Stavros [Alexander Technological Educational Institution of Thessaloniki, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Thessaloniki (Greece); Feidantsis, Konstantinos [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Gallios, George P. [Laboratory of General & Inorganic Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kastrinaki, Georgia [Aerosol & Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI, P.O. Box 60361, 57001 Thessaloniki (Greece); Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G. [Aerosol & Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI, P.O. Box 60361, 57001 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University, PO. Box 1517, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Václavíková, Miroslava; Ivanicova, Lucia [Institute of Geotechnics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 45, SK-04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Kaloyianni, Martha, E-mail: kaloyian@bio.auth.gr [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The impact of two types of iron oxide nanoparticles on the physiological status of mussels was studied. • Oxidative parameters significantly changed after 1, 3, 7 days of exposure. • The nanoparticles induced oxidative stress to the animals. • All the parameters measured could be applied in biomonitoring studies. - Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their increased application and production, are being released into the environment with unpredictable impact on the physiology of marine organisms, as well as on entire ecosystems and upcoming effects on human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the oxidative responses of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after exposure to iron oxide NPs and to iron oxide NPs incorporated into zeolite for 1, 3 and 7 days. Our results showed that both effectors induced changes on animal physiology by causing oxidative stress in hemocytes of exposed mussels compared to control animals. This was shown by the significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and DNA damage. In addition an increase in prooxidant levels as measured by the prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay was observed in exposed mussels’ hemolymph. The results show that ROS, DNA damage, protein and lipid oxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and PAB could constitute, after further investigation, reliable biomarkers for the evaluation of pollution or other environmental stressors. In addition, more studies are needed in order to ensure the safety of these NPs on various biomedical applications, since it is critical to design NPs that they meet the demands of application without causing cellular toxicity.

  16. Field clearance of an intertidal bivalve bed: relative significance of the co-occurring blue mussel Mytilus edulis and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vismann, Bent; Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Davids, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    At an approximately 12 000 m2 sheltered intertidal bivalve bed in the western part of the Limfjord, Denmark, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas co-occurs with the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. The relative significance of the impact of the 2 species on phytoplankton density during a tidal cycle...

  17. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per;

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...

  18. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic...

  19. [Innervation of the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) in Mytilus edulis L. III. Histochemical localisation of the terminal nerves through 5-hydroxytryptamine (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilloteaux, J

    1977-04-04

    Detection of nerve structures containing 5-HT were described in the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) in Mytilus edulis L. after using the fluorescence microscope technique of Flack. We are able to confirm our previous results and assumptions given by histology and electron microscope studies: the neuromuscular "en passage" junctions, largely distributed within the ABRM, contain 5-HT.

  20. Predation of shore crabs (Carcinus maenas (L.)) and starfish (Asterias rubens L.) on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) seed from wild sources and spat collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Blankendaal, M.; Perdon, J.

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands, several pilot projects are carried out on the use of spat collectors as an additional supply of seed for bottom culture of mussels (Mytilus edulis). The method proves to be successful in yielding substantial amounts of seed. One of the conditions for successful application of

  1. Interfaz humano-computadora basada en señales de electrooculografía para personas con discapacidad motriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pacheco Bautista

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un prototipo que asiste, a personas con cierta discapacidad motriz, en la interacción con la computadora de una forma simple y económica, mediante señales de electrooculografía. Esta técnica permite detectar los movimientos oculares basada en el registro de la diferencia de potencial existente entre la córnea y la retina, tal propiedad es aprovechada en este proyecto para controlar el desplazamiento del cursor del ratón de una forma precisa sobre la pantalla de la computadora. El prototipo es un diseño compacto alimentado de una fuente única de 5V proveniente del puerto USB y utiliza la circuitería ya implementada en cualquier ratón electromecánico convencional con mínimas modificaciones. El uso de tales dispositivos así como de electrodos convencionales hace el producto de un costo relativamente bajo en relación a las propuestas en otros trabajos.

  2. Physico-chemical characterisation of lipids from Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.) and Rapana venosa and their healing properties on skin burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiu, Diana L; Balu, Alina M; Barbes, Lucica; Luque, Rafael; Nita, Roxana; Radu, Marius; Tanase, Ecaterina; Rosoiu, Natalia

    2008-09-01

    Black Sea molluscs and gastropods are the most studied organisms from the Romanian littoral zone. In particular, those from the Mytilidae species are of great interest because biochemical investigations have shown that they can be sources of biological active substances which can have different applications (e.g. food additives). We report here the extraction of lipids from two different species of molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis L., Mediterranean mussel) and gastropods (Rapana venosa, hard-shell clam). The extracts were evaluated in terms of antioxidant and composition properties and their healing properties were tested on skin burns in Wistar rats. Our studies proved that the two lipid extracts contained a relatively complex distribution of compounds, in terms of characteristic indices, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamins E and D. The presence of such compounds rendered the extracts very efficient in healing induced skin burns in Wistar rats. The histological analysis showed a reduction in the time of healing (12-13 and 13-15 days for the Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.) Rapana venosa extracts, respectively) compared to 20-22 for untreated animals, based on results from tissues and blood samples. Our investigations have been proved to be promising in terms of future potential applications of the extracts as skin-care products, cosmetics and/or pharmaceutical preparations owing to their dermorestitutive properties.

  3. Tissue-specific incorporation and genotoxicity of different forms of tritium in the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C; Millward, Geoffrey E; Moody, A John; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2011-01-01

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to seawater spiked with tritiated water (HTO) at a dose rate of 122 and 79 μGy h(-1) for 7 and 14 days, respectively, and tritiated glycine (T-Gly) at a dose rate of 4.9 μGy h(-1) over 7 days. This was followed by depuration in clean seawater for 21 days. Tissues (foot, gills, digestive gland, mantle, adductor muscle and byssus) and DNA extracts from tissues were analysed for their tritium activity concentrations. All tissues demonstrated bio-accumulation of tritium from HTO and T-Gly. Tritium from T-Gly showed increased incorporation into DNA compared to HTO. About 90% of the initial activity from HTO was depurated within one day, whereas T-Gly was depurated relatively slowly, indicating that tritium may be bound with different affinities in tissues. Both forms of tritium caused a significant induction of micronuclei in the haemocytes of mussels. Our findings identify significant differential impacts on Mytilus edulis of the two chemical forms of tritium and emphasise the need for a separate classification and control of releases of tritiated compounds, to adequately protect the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitogenomics of southern hemisphere blue mussels (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia): Insights into the evolutionary characteristics of the Mytilus edulis complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F.; Mesas, Andres; D’Elía, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Marine blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) are widespread species that exhibit an antitropical distribution with five species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere (M. trossulus, M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus and M. coruscus) and three in the Southern Hemisphere (M. galloprovincialis, M. chilensis and M. platensis). Species limits in this group remain controversial, in particular for those forms that live in South America. Here we investigated structural characteristics of marine mussels mitogenomes, based on published F mtDNA sequences of Northern Hemisphere species and two newly sequenced South American genomes, one from the Atlantic M. platensis and another from the Pacific M. chilensis. These mitogenomes exhibited similar architecture to those of other genomes of Mytilus, including the presence of the Atp8 gene, which is missing in most of the other bivalves. Our evolutionary analysis of mitochondrial genes indicates that purifying selection is the predominant force shaping the evolution of the coding genes. Results of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Pteriomorphia and fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among its five orders. Finally, the low genetic divergence of specimens assigned to M. chilensis and M. platensis suggests that these South American marine mussels represent conspecific variants rather than distinct species. PMID:27241855

  5. Further identification of bioactive peptides in the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus: two contractile and three inhibitory peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Y; Takahashi, T; Ikeda, T; Muneoka, Y; Kubota, I; Minakata, H; Nomoto, K; Nose, T; Miki, W

    1993-09-01

    1. Two contractile and three inhibitory peptides were newly isolated from the anterior byssus retractor muscles (ABRMs) of the bivalve mollusc Mytilus edulis by using the muscle as the bioassay system. 2. The structures of the two contractile peptides were GPFGTHIKamide (GPFG-8) and GPFGLNKHGamide (GPFG-9). The contractile response of the ABRM to the first-time application of GPFG-8 or GPFG-9 was of considerable size. The threshold concentrations of the peptides were around 10(-9) M. However, the contractile response to the second-time application was far smaller than that to the first-time application in both cases. Namely, the muscle showed tachyphylaxis to the peptides. 3. Two of the three inhibitory peptides were members of the Mytilus-inhibitory-peptide (MIP) family. Their structures were RAPLFIamide (MIP6) and RSPMFVamide (MIP7). The peptides, as well as the other MIPs previously identified, showed a potent inhibitory effect on phasic contraction of the ABRM in response to repetitive electrical stimulation. The remaining one was an MIP-related peptide (MIP-RP) having the sequence of MRYFVamide. The MIP-RP was less potent than the two MIPs in inhibiting the contraction of the ABRM.

  6. Distribution and relationships of trace metals in soft tissue, byssus and shells of Mytilus edulis trossulus from the southern Baltic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szefer, P.; Frelek, K.; Szefer, K.; Lee, C.-B.; Kim, B.-S.; Warzocha, J.; Zdrojewska, I.; Ciesielski, T

    2002-12-01

    Soft tissues and byssus of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) were better metal bioindicators than shells. - Concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, Mn, and Fe in soft tissues, shells and byssus of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) from 23 sites along the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea were determined by AAS method. Byssus, as compared with the soft tissue, concentrated more effectively Pb, Cu, Cr, and especially Ag, Ni, Mn and Fe, moderately Hg and Zn and less effectively Cd. Significant inter-regional and inter-size differences in metal concentrations in both soft tissues and byssus were recorded. Highly significant correlations (P<0.01, P<0.05) were observed between tissue and byssal concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Ag. Factor analysis showed clear separation of both the tissue and byssi samples based on their geographic distribution, possibly reflecting a different rate of deposition of clay minerals at the head of the Pomeranian Bay and the Gulf of Gdansk. The Pomeranian Bay differs from the Gulf of Gdansk in respect to geological structure of bottom sediments as a substrata for the M. edulis trossulus as well as in relation to various sources of metallic pollutants. From the data obtained in the present study and those reported previously the soft tissue and especially byssus of M. edulis, in contrast to shells, appear to be a significantly better bioindicator for identification of coastal areas exposed to metallic contaminants.

  7. Tissue-specific incorporation and genotoxicity of different forms of tritium in the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C., E-mail: ben@ecology.su.s [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Millward, Geoffrey E. [Consolidated Radio-isotope Facility, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Moody, A. John; Jha, Awadhesh N. [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to seawater spiked with tritiated water (HTO) at a dose rate of 122 and 79 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} for 7 and 14 days, respectively, and tritiated glycine (T-Gly) at a dose rate of 4.9 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} over 7 days. This was followed by depuration in clean seawater for 21 days. Tissues (foot, gills, digestive gland, mantle, adductor muscle and byssus) and DNA extracts from tissues were analysed for their tritium activity concentrations. All tissues demonstrated bio-accumulation of tritium from HTO and T-Gly. Tritium from T-Gly showed increased incorporation into DNA compared to HTO. About 90% of the initial activity from HTO was depurated within one day, whereas T-Gly was depurated relatively slowly, indicating that tritium may be bound with different affinities in tissues. Both forms of tritium caused a significant induction of micronuclei in the haemocytes of mussels. Our findings identify significant differential impacts on Mytilus edulis of the two chemical forms of tritium and emphasise the need for a separate classification and control of releases of tritiated compounds, to adequately protect the marine ecosystem. - Tritium from tritiated glycine demonstrates greater accumulation and persistence in tissues and enhanced genotoxicity in haemocytes of marine mussels, compared to tritium from tritiated water.

  8. Adaptation of the bivalve embryotoxicity assay for the high throughput screening of emerging contaminants in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Rita; Montagna, Michele; Balbi, Teresa; Raffo, Enrico; Palumbo, Franca; Canesi, Laura

    2014-08-01

    Emerging contaminants (such as Endocrine disrupting chemicals-EDCs, brominated and perfluorinated compounds-BFRs and PFCs, pharmaceuticals) are chemicals currently not included in regulatory monitoring programs, and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood. Assessment of ecosystem health with respect to these chemicals is of particular concern also in the marine environment: in this respect, data on the effects on early life stages are important to establish the sensitivity of marine species. In this work, the acute (48 h) bivalve embryo toxicity test was applied for screening the developmental effects of different emerging contaminants in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The assay was adapted to 96-microwell plates, and standardized in order to obtain to normal D-shaped larvae with acceptability of test results based on negative control and positive control (copper) comparable with those reported in literature for Mytilus spp. The effects of different model compounds representative of EDCs (Nonylphenol-NP and Bisphenol A-BPA), BFRs (Tetrabromobisphenol A-TBBPA), PFCs (perfluorooctanoid acid-PFOA and perfluorooctane sulphonate-PFOAS) and pharmaceuticals (Ibuprofen-IBU, Diclofenac-DCF, Bezafibrate-BEZA) in a wide concentration range (0.01-0.1-1-10-100-1000 μg/L) were evaluated. The assay proved as a sensitive tool for high throughput screening of emerging contaminants in a marine species, leading to production of significant amounts of data that may be useful for regulatory purposes.

  9. Geographic and seasonal patterns and limits on the adaptive response to temperature of European Mytilus spp. and Macoma balthica populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jeroen M; Pronker, Annelies E; Kube, Sandra; Sokolowski, Adam; Sola, J Carlos; Marquiegui, Mikel A; Schiedek, Doris; Wendelaar Bonga, Sjoerd; Wolowicz, Maciej; Hummel, Herman

    2007-11-01

    Seasonal variations in seawater temperature require extensive metabolic acclimatization in cold-blooded organisms inhabiting the coastal waters of Europe. Given the energetic costs of acclimatization, differences in adaptive capacity to climatic conditions are to be expected among distinct populations of species that are distributed over a wide geographic range. We studied seasonal variations in the metabolic adjustments of two very common bivalve taxa at European scale. To this end we sampled 16 populations of Mytilus spp. and 10 Macoma balthica populations distributed from 39 degrees to 69 degrees N. The results from this large-scale comprehensive comparison demonstrated seasonal cycles in metabolic rates which were maximized during winter and springtime, and often reduced in the summer and autumn. Studying the sensitivity of metabolic rates to thermal variations, we found that a broad range of Q (10) values occurred under relatively cold conditions. As habitat temperatures increased the range of Q (10) narrowed, reaching a bottleneck in southern marginal populations during summer. For Mytilus spp., genetic-group-specific clines and limits on Q (10) values were observed at temperatures corresponding to the maximum climatic conditions these geographic populations presently experience. Such specific limitations indicate differential thermal adaptation among these divergent groups. They may explain currently observed migrations in mussel distributions and invasions. Our results provide a practical framework for the thermal ecophysiology of bivalves, the assessment of environmental changes due to climate change and its impact on (and consequences for) aquaculture.

  10. Immunomodulation of Mytilus hemocytes by individual estrogenic chemicals and environmentally relevant mixtures of estrogens: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura; Lorusso, Lucia Cecilia; Ciacci, Caterina; Betti, Michele; Rocchi, Marco; Pojana, Giulio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2007-02-15

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are almost ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. In the marine bivalve Mytilus the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) and different EDCs have been recently demonstrated to affect the function of the immune cells, the hemocytes. The effects were Tamoxifen-sensitive and were mediated by rapid modulation of kinase-mediated transduction pathways. In this work we compared the in vitro effects of individual estrogenic chemicals (E2, EE: 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol; MES: mestranol; NP: nonylphenol; NP1EC: nonylphenol monoethoxylate carboxylate; BPA: bisphenol A; BP: benzophenone) on hemocyte parameters: lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), phagocytosis, lysozyme release. LMS was the most sensitive effect parameter, showing a decreasing trend at increasing concentrations of estrogens. EC50 values obtained from LMS data were utilized to calculate the estradiol equivalency factor (EEF) for each compound; these EEFs allowed for an estimation of the estrogenic potential of a synthetic mixture with a composition very similar to that previously found in waters of the Venice lagoon. Concentrated mixtures significantly affected hemocyte parameters in vitro and the effects were prevented by Tamoxifen. Significant effects of the mixture were also observed in vivo, at longer exposure times and at concentrations comparable with environmental exposure levels. The results indicate that Mytilus immune parameters can be suitably utilized to evaluate the estrogenic potential of environmental samples.

  11. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Family of Cysteine-Rich Peptides (MgCRP-I) from Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdol, Marco; Puillandre, Nicolas; De Moro, Gianluca; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Lucafò, Marianna; Benincasa, Monica; Zlatev, Ventislav; Manfrin, Chiara; Torboli, Valentina; Giulianini, Piero Giulio; Sava, Gianni; Venier, Paola; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2015-07-21

    We report the identification of a novel gene family (named MgCRP-I) encoding short secreted cysteine-rich peptides in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. These peptides display a highly conserved pre-pro region and a hypervariable mature peptide comprising six invariant cysteine residues arranged in three intramolecular disulfide bridges. Although their cysteine pattern is similar to cysteines-rich neurotoxic peptides of distantly related protostomes such as cone snails and arachnids, the different organization of the disulfide bridges observed in synthetic peptides and phylogenetic analyses revealed MgCRP-I as a novel protein family. Genome- and transcriptome-wide searches for orthologous sequences in other bivalve species indicated the unique presence of this gene family in Mytilus spp. Like many antimicrobial peptides and neurotoxins, MgCRP-I peptides are produced as pre-propeptides, usually have a net positive charge and likely derive from similar evolutionary mechanisms, that is, gene duplication and positive selection within the mature peptide region; however, synthetic MgCRP-I peptides did not display significant toxicity in cultured mammalian cells, insecticidal, antimicrobial, or antifungal activities. The functional role of MgCRP-I peptides in mussel physiology still remains puzzling.

  12. Investigando con personas con dificultades de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González Luna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra los orígenes de lo que Walmsley (2008 denomina «investigación inclusiva». Para comprender qué se entiende por investigación inclusiva tenemos que remontarnos a los debates epistemológicos sobre las metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas, acontecidos en la década de los 90, en torno a la revista Disability & Society. A partir de una síntesis de dichos debates, focalizados en el ámbito de la «discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo», se exponen dos estrategias de colaboración con dicha población: a una aproximación etnográfica (de trabajo grupal, y b una aproximación biográfica (de trabajo individual. A continuación se esboza un posible diseño de trabajo de campo que intenta superar el paradigma cualitativo «clásico» con el objetivo de incluir a dicho colectivo más allá del rol de «sujetos de la investigación». Para finalizar se recoge el debate sobre la accesibilidad de los resultados de la investigación a los participantes en dichas investigaciones, y con ello la necesaria innovación en el ámbito de las «devoluciones» de los resultados, cuando se trata de incluir a personas que presentan limitaciones para la comprensión del lenguaje abstracto oral y/o escrito.

  13. CARACTERÍSTICAS HEMATOLÓGICAS DE JUVENIS DE TAMBAQUI (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÕES CONTENDO FARINHA DE FOLHA DE LEUCENA (Leucaena leucocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Pereira JUNIOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características hematológicas de juvenis de tambaqui alimentados com rações contendo farinha de folha de leucena. O estudo foi conduzido seguindo um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0%, 8%, 16% e24% de inclusão de farinha de folha de leucena e três repetições. Foram distribuídos 250 juvenis de tambaqui com peso inicial médio de 41,1 g, em 12caixas plásticas redondas. Após 60 dias de cultivo, seis peixes por tratamento foram capturados e anestesiados para a coleta de sangue da veia caudal e determinação dos parâmetros hematológicos. Os resultados mostraram que a inclusão de farinha de folha de leucena nas rações alterou significativamente (p<0,05os parâmetros hematológicos (hematócrito, eritrócito, hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio, concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e glicose plasmática dos peixes nos diferentes tratamentos. A conclusão desta pesquisa é que a inclusão de farinha de folha de leucena em rações para juvenis de tambaqui comprometeu as características hematológicas desta espécie.

  14. DESEMPENHO, RENDIMENTO DE CARCAÇA E pH CECAL DE COELHOS EM CRESCIMENTO ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS CONTENDO NÍVEIS DE PROBIÓTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Regina Caires

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar o desempenho, o rendimento de carcaça e o pH cecal de coelhos em crescimento alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de probiótico composto por Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus salivarium, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtillis, B. toyoi e Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Foram utilizados 48 coelhos Nova Zelândia Branco num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os coelhos foram desmamados aos 35 dias e abatidos aos 85 dias de idade. Os níveis de probiótico dietético avaliados foram 0,00%, 0,01%, 0,02% e 0,03%. Não houve efeito significativo (P>0,05 em decorrência da inclusão do probiótico na dieta dos animais sobre o desempenho, rendimento e pH cecal, com vistas a uma melhoria nos índices zootécnicos desses animais. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aditivos, bactérias, microrganismos.

  15. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, B.C., E-mail: Ben.Jaeschke@gmail.com [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Lind, O.C. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Bradshaw, C. [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Salbu, B. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gy h{sup −1}) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the “no-effect dose” are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment

  16. Purification and characterisation of ferritin from the Baltic blue mussel Mytilus trossulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potrykus Joanna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baltic blue mussels Mytilus trossulus were collected from the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea in order to isolate ferritin from its soft tissues, as well as to purify and characterise this protein.     Proteins were isolated from the inner organs of M. trossulus (hepatopancreas, gills and soft tissue residue by thermal denaturation(70°C and acidification (pH 4.5 of the homogenates, followed by ammonium sulphate ((NH42SO4 fractionation.The ferritin was then separated by ultracentrifugation (100 000 × g, 120 min.. The protein content in thepurified homogenates was determined by the Lowry method using bovine serum albumin(BSA and horse spleen ferritin (HSF as standards. PAGE-SDS and Western blotting analysis permitted identification of ferritinin the purified preparations. Additionally, the purified homogenates and mussel soft tissue were analysed for their heavy metal contents(especially cadmium and iron in a Video 11 E atomic absorption spectrophotometer, following wet digestion of the samples (HNO3/HClO4.     The electrophoregrams showed that the inner organs of M. trossulus contained ferritin, which, like plant ferritin, is characterised by thepresence of subunits in the electrophoregram in the 26.6-28.0 kDa range. The highest ferritin content was recorded in the hepatopancreas,followed by the gills and the soft tissue residue. With regard to the sampling stations, the highest content of ferritin wasnoted in the animals sampled off Sopot (station D3, and in those collected by a diver off Jastarnia (W1 and Gdynia (W4. Ferritinisolated from the inner organs of mussels collected from these stations also contained the largest quantities of heavy metals(Cd and Fe. Ferritin isolated from the inner organs of mussels collected by a diver from wrecks - sites where the concentrationsof iron and other trace metals in the sea water are high - contained higher quantities of heavy metals (Cd and Fe than the ferritinisolated from the inner organs

  17. Manganese in the shell of the bivalve Mytilus edulis: Seawater Mn or physiological control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Pedro S.; Clarke, Leon J.; Kennedy, Hilary; Richardson, Christopher A.

    2016-12-01

    Manganese in the shell calcite of marine bivalves has been suggested to reflect ambient seawater Mn concentrations, thus providing a high-resolution archive of past seawater Mn concentrations. However, a quantitative relationship between seawater Mn and shell Mn/Ca ratios, as well as clear understanding of which process(es) control(s) shell Mn/Ca, are still lacking. Blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were grown in a one-year duration field experiment in the Menai Strait, U.K., to study the relationship between seawater particulate and dissolved Mn2+ concentrations and shell calcite Mn/Ca ratios. Shell Mn/Ca showed a well-defined intra-annual double-peak, with maximum values during early spring and early summer and low values during autumn and winter. Seawater particulate Mn peaked during winter and autumn, with a series of smaller peaks during spring and summer, whereas dissolved Mn2+ exhibited a marked single maximum during late-spring to early-summer, being low during the remainder of the year. Consequently, neither seawater particulate Mn nor dissolved Mn2+ concentrations explain the intra-annual variation of shell Mn/Ca ratios. A physiological control on shell Mn/Ca ratios is evident from the strong similarity and timing of the double-peaked intra-annual variations of Mn/Ca and shell growth rate (SGR), the latter corresponding to periods of increased metabolic activity (as indicated by respiration rate). It is thus likely that in M. edulis SGR influences shell Mn/Ca by altering the concentration or activity of Mn2+ within the extra-pallial fluid (EPF), by changing the flux of Mn into or the proportion of protein bound Mn within the EPF. By linking shell Mn/Ca ratios to the endogenous and environmental factors that determine growth and metabolic activity, this study helps to explain the lack of a consistent relationship between shell Mn/Ca in marine bivalve shell calcite and seawater particulate and dissolved Mn2+ concentrations. The use of Mn content from M. edulis

  18. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Torre, Camilla [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Balbi, Teresa [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Grassi, Giacomo [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Smerilli, Arianna [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Guidi, Patrizia [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Canesi, Laura [Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences-DISTAV, University of Genoa (Italy); Nigro, Marco [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Monaci, Fabrizio [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Scarcelli, Vittoria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy); Rocco, Lucia [Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), Seconda Università di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Focardi, Silvano [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy); Monopoli, Marco [Centre for BioNanoInteractions, School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin (Ireland); Corsi, Ilaria, E-mail: ilaria.corsi@unisi.it [Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena (Italy)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2} modulate CdCl{sub 2} cellular responses in gills of marine mussel. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced CdCl{sub 2}-induced effects by lowering abcb1 m-RNA and GST activity. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced Cd accumulation in mussel’s gills but not in whole soft tissue. • Higher accumulation of Ti in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} was observed in gills. - Abstract: We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}, alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO{sub 2} alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO{sub 2} reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO{sub 2} and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO{sub 2} in sea water media.

  19. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Amiard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from the Kristel (K site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007 to Oran Harbour (OH and Mostaganem Harbour (MH, areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability: the neutral red retention time (NRRT method, a genotoxic effects biomarker (determination of micronuclei (MN frequency and a neurotoxic effects biomarker (determination of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE concentration.       Compared to the K reference specimens, OH and MH caged mussels presented a significant decrease of NRRT in lysosomal haemocytes (56.45 ± 26.48 min and 67.25 ± 22.77 min, respectively (78 ± 16.97 min for K mussels, an MN frequency respectively 7.3 and 9 times higher in the haemocytes and the gill cells of the OH caged mussels, and 7.2 and 6.4 times higher in the two tissues of the MH caged mussels. Significant inhibition of AChE activity was noted in the gills (16.93 ± 3.1 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 and the digestive gland (7.69 ± 1.79 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the OH mussels, but only in the gills (23.21 ± 5.94 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the MH mussels, compared to the organs of the K control specimens (35.9 ± 6.4 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the gills and 11.17 ± 0.49 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the digestive gland.       This study reflects the interest in such in situ biomonitoring assays and the utility of these biomarkers for assessing the effects of pollution in the Algerian coastal marine environment.

  20. Exposure of marine mussels Mytilus spp. to polystyrene microplastics: Toxicity and influence on fluoranthene bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Pont, Ika; Lacroix, Camille; González Fernández, Carmen; Hégaret, Hélène; Lambert, Christophe; Le Goïc, Nelly; Frère, Laura; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Sussarellu, Rossana; Fabioux, Caroline; Guyomarch, Julien; Albentosa, Marina; Huvet, Arnaud; Soudant, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The effects of polystyrene microbeads (micro-PS; mix of 2 and 6 μm; final concentration: 32 μg L(-1)) alone or in combination with fluoranthene (30 μg L(-1)) on marine mussels Mytilus spp. were investigated after 7 days of exposure and 7 days of depuration under controlled laboratory conditions. Overall, fluoranthene was mostly associated to algae Chaetoceros muelleri (partition coefficient Log Kp = 4.8) used as a food source for mussels during the experiment. When micro-PS were added in the system, a fraction of FLU transferred from the algae to the microbeads as suggested by the higher partition coefficient of micro-PS (Log Kp = 6.6), which confirmed a high affinity of fluoranthene for polystyrene microparticles. However, this did not lead to a modification of fluoranthene bioaccumulation in exposed individuals, suggesting that micro-PS had a minor role in transferring fluoranthene to mussels tissues in comparison with waterborne and foodborne exposures. After depuration, a higher fluoranthene concentration was detected in mussels exposed to micro-PS and fluoranthene, as compared to mussels exposed to fluoranthene alone. This may be related to direct effect of micro-PS on detoxification mechanisms, as suggested by a down regulation of a P-glycoprotein involved in pollutant excretion, but other factors such as an impairment of the filtration activity or presence of remaining beads in the gut cannot be excluded. Micro-PS alone led to an increase in hemocyte mortality and triggered substantial modulation of cellular oxidative balance: increase in reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes and enhancement of anti-oxidant and glutathione-related enzymes in mussel tissues. Highest histopathological damages and levels of anti-oxidant markers were observed in mussels exposed to micro-PS together with fluoranthene. Overall these results suggest that under the experimental conditions of our study micro-PS led to direct toxic effects at tissue, cellular and

  1. The respiration of the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis (ABRM) after a phasic contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguet, F; Gillis, J M

    1967-01-01

    1. The oxygen consumption of isolated anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis (ABRM) has been measured at rest and after phasic contractions induced by a.c. stimulation.2. The respiration was measured with a Clark oxygen electrode in successive periods of 5 or 15 min, at 20 degrees C.3. The resting respiration is 71.8 +/- 2.4 n-moles O(2)/g wet weight.min (mean +/- S.E., n = 70). It is increased by a release and decreased by a passive stretch.4. After phasic stimulation of up to 30 sec the respiration is increased and returns to a slightly higher level than the resting level in an exponential fashion with a time constant of about 10 min.5. The duration of stimulation does not change the time course of the excess respiration but it affects its magnitude. The amount of extra oxygen consumed, in n-moles O(2)/g, is made up of a constant amount, 449 +/- 102, and an amount that depends on the duration of stimulation (t, sec), which is given by t x 13.2 +/- 4.3. When due account is taken for the tension developed, these parameters become 83.1 +/- 20.7 and t x 1.24 +/- 0.66 n-moles O(2)/g muscle and kg/cm(2) of tension. This regression analysis is based on forty-eight data, with a residual error based on 5 degrees of freedom.6. Release of the tension after the last stimulus of a 30 sec tetanus reduces by half the extra oxygen consumed during the recovery whereas the same release applied 5 min later has a much smaller effect. This suggests that relaxation is an active process.7. From these measurements of the recovery metabolism the energy cost of the contraction was estimated and compared with this cost in vertebrate striated muscle. The constant item has about the same magnitude, but the item related to the duration of stimulation is about 250 times smaller.

  2. Tissue specific responses to cadmium-based quantum dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, Tânia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Mestre, Nélia C.; Cardoso, Cátia [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Mussel gills are the main target for oxidative stress induced by Cd-based QDs. • Antioxidants responses induced by Cd-based QDs and dissolved Cd are mediated by different mechanisms. • CdTe QDs are more pro-oxidant Cd form when compared to dissolved Cd. • Differential tissue response indicated nano-specific effects. - Abstract: In recent years, Cd-based quantum dots (QDs) have generated interest from the life sciences community due to their potential applications in nanomedicine, biology and electronics. However, these engineered nanomaterials can be released into the marine environment, where their environmental health hazards remain unclear. This study investigated the tissue-specific responses related to alterations in the antioxidant defense system induced by CdTe QDs, in comparison with its dissolved counterpart, using the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and dissolved Cd for 14 days at 10 μgCd L{sup −1} and biomarkers of oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (total, Se-independent and Se-dependent GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities] were analyzed along with Cd accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of mussels. Results show that both Cd forms changed mussels’ antioxidant responses with distinct modes of action (MoA). There were tissue- and time-dependent differences in the biochemical responses to each Cd form, wherein QDs are more pro-oxidant when compared to dissolved Cd. The gills are the main tissue affected by QDs, with effects related to the increase of SOD, GST and GPx activities, while those of dissolved Cd was associated to the increase of CAT activity, Cd accumulation and exposure time. Digestive gland is a main tissue for accumulation of both Cd forms, but changes in antioxidant enzyme activities are smaller than in gills. A multivariate analysis revealed that the antioxidant patterns are tissue dependent

  3. Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeau, F.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Dawber, C.; Pronker, A. E.; Peene, F.; Peene, J.; Heip, C. H. R.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2010-07-01

    Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels. There is a growing interest to focus on early life stages that are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data, acquired in a commercial hatchery, demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae is significantly affected by a decrease of pH to a level expected for the end of the century. Even though there was no significant effect of a 0.25-0.34 pH unit decrease on hatching and mortality rates during the first 2 days of development nor during the following 13-day period prior to settlement, final shells were respectively 4.5±1.3 and 6.0±2.3% smaller at pHNBS~7.8 (pCO2~1100-1200 μatm) than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1 (pCO2~460-640 μatm). Moreover, a decrease of 12.0±5.4% of shell thickness was observed after 15d of development. More severe impacts were found with a decrease of ~0.5 pHNBS unit during the first 2 days of development which could be attributed to a decrease of calcification due to a slight undersaturation of seawater with respect to aragonite. Indeed, important effects on both hatching and D-veliger shell growth were found. Hatching rates were 24±4% lower while D-veliger shells were 12.7±0.9% smaller at pHNBS~7.6 (pCO2~1900 μatm) than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1 (pCO2~540 μatm). Although these results show that blue mussel larvae are still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite, the observed decreases of hatching rates and shell growth could lead to a significant decrease of the settlement success. As the environmental conditions considered in this study do not necessarily reflect the natural conditions experienced by this species at the time of spawning, future studies will need to consider the whole larval cycle (from fertilization to settlement) under environmentally relevant conditions in order to

  4. Differential protein expression in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to nano and ionic Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina G.; Cardoso, Cátia; Bebianno, Maria João, E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Different protein expression profiles between tissues and Ag forms. •Ag NPs and Ag{sup +} presented different mechanisms of toxic action. •Ag NPs toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress-induced cell signalling cascades. •New biomarkers for Ag NPs were proposed, i.e. MVP, ras partial and precol-P. -- Abstract: Ag NPs are one of the most commonly used NPs in nanotechnology whose environmental impacts are to date unknown and the information about bioavailability, mechanisms of biological uptake and toxic implications in organisms is scarce. So, the main objective of this study was to investigate differences in protein expression profiles in gills and digestive gland of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Ag NPs and Ag{sup +} (10 μg L{sup −1}) for a period of 15 days. Protein expression profiles of exposed gills and digestive glands were compared to those of control mussels using two–dimensional electrophoresis to discriminate differentially expressed proteins. Different patterns of protein expression were obtained for exposed mussels, dependent not only on the different redox requirements of each tissue but also to the Ag form used. Unique sets of differentially expressed proteins were affected by each silver form in addition to proteins that were affected by both Ag NPs and Ag{sup +}. Fifteen of these proteins were subsequently identified by MALDI–TOF–TOF and database search. Ag NPs affected similar cellular pathways as Ag{sup +}, with common response mechanisms in cytoskeleton and cell structure (catchin, myosin heavy chain), stress response (heat shock protein 70), oxidative stress (glutathione s-transferase), transcriptional regulation (nuclear receptor subfamily 1G), adhesion and mobility (precollagen-P) and energy metabolism (ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2). Exposure to Ag NPs altered the expression of two proteins associated with stress response (major vault protein and ras partial) and one

  5. en pacientes con obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcia María Alvarado Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de una intervención psicológica en pacientes con obesidad. Se utilizó un diseño cuasiexperimental con un grupo de estudio y un grupo control. Después de la intervención, se encontró una diferencia significativa en la reducción de peso entre los grupos. Asimismo, hubo un incremento significativo en la autoestima del grupo estudiado.

  6. Soledad con espectador

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto se plantea como una investigación de las posibilidades del dibujo como una herramienta para relatar una historia propia que se empapa de realidad y de ficción con el deseo de confundir al espectador y suscitarle preguntas. Para ello me he servido de mi propia imagen como personaje central. Éste se presenta duplicado, multiplicado, repetido e interactúa consigo mismo en un espacio imaginario con intención de simular aquello que se revela en el interior de la psique. Mi trabajo se...

  7. Funcionando con la computadora

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Eduardo; Astiz, Mercedes; Medina, Perla; Montero, Y.; Oliver, María; Rocerau, M. Cristina; VALDEZ, Guillermo; Vecino, María; Vilanova, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la descripción y resultados de la segunda etapa de una experiencia planteada con el objetivo de indagar la manera en que los alumnos determinan e interpretan funciones que explican situaciones problemáticas valiéndose de una nueva forma de trabajo en el aula: la utilización de la computadora como herramienta y un programa asistente matemático. La primera etapa consistió en el desarrollo de un taller optativo con alumnos de entre 14 y 15 años de edad del Colegio Dr....

  8. Giochiamo con i robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonarini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "Giochiamo con i robot" e' un laboratorio interattivo per grandi e piccini realizzato per l'edizione 2007 del Festival della Scienza di Genova. Lungo un percorso che va dalla telerobotica alla robotica evolutiva, il laboratorio sviluppa il tema di dare intelligenza ai robot. Questo percorso, le cui tappe sono le varie installazioni, si conclude nella "bottega" dove e' possibile costruire e programmare i propri robot o smontare e modificare quelli esposti durante il percorso didattico. I visitatori sono coinvolti in attivita' ludiche grazie alle quali possonoentrare in contatto con alcune delle idee potenti della robotica,

  9. Impact of benzo(a)pyrene, Cu and their mixture on the proteomic response of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, V.L., E-mail: vmaria@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, T., E-mail: tcgomes@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Barreira, L., E-mail: lbarreir@ualg.pt [CCMAR, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Distinct protein expression profiles dependent of BaP and Cu accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. •Processes that involve adhesion and motility, cytoskeleton and cell structure, stress response, transcription regulation and energy metabolism are common mechanisms. •Traditional (ATP synthase, GST, HSP and actin) and novel biomarkers for BaP (ZFP), Cu (chitin synthase) and mixture (MVP) exposures identified in mussels. -- Abstract: In natural waters, chemical interactions between mixtures of contaminants can result in potential synergistic and/or antagonic effects in aquatic animals. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and copper (Cu) are two widespread environmental contaminants with known toxicity towards mussels Mytilus spp. The effects of the individual and the interaction of BaP and Cu exposures were assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using proteomic analysis. Mussels were exposed to BaP [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.396 μM)], and Cu [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.16 μM)], as well as to their binary mixture (mixture) for a period of 7 days. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles associated to each selected contaminant condition. A non-additive combined effect was observed in mixture in terms of new and suppressed proteins. Proteins more drastically altered (new, suppressed and 2-fold differentially expressed) were excised and analyzed by mass spectrometry, and eighteen putatively identified. Protein identification demonstrated the different accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions of BaP, Cu and their mixture, resulting in different modes of action. Proteins associated with adhesion and motility (catchin, twitchin and twitchin-like protein), cytoskeleton and cell structure (α-tubulin and actin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, heat shock protein 70, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing and nuclear

  10. Hepatopatía crónica e insuficiencia hepática en un lactante con malformación de la placa ductal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Zárate-Mondragón

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino de 5 meses, producto de la segunda gesta de una madre de 33 años, sana, con control prenatal, ingesta de ácido fólico y multivitamínicos. Fue obtenido por cesárea por falta de progresión del trabajo de parto, a término, con peso de 3 800 g, talla 52 cm, Apgar 8-9, lloró y respiró al nacer. Egresó al segundo día como “binomio” sano. Onfalorrexis a los 20 días. Sin antecedentes herodofamiliares de importancia para el padecimiento actual. Alimentado con leche materna exclusivamente hasta el tercer mes; posteriormente recibió alimentación mixta con fórmula de inicio, sin alimentación complementaria. El tamizado metabólico neonatal se reportó como normal, esquema de vacunación completo para la edad.

  11. Analysis of nuclear receptor family from Mytilus galloprovincialis based on public data%基于紫贻贝Mytilus galloprovincialis表达序列的核受体家族分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 李崇德

    2014-01-01

    通过对紫贻贝(Mytilus galloprovincialis)公共数据库表达序列的整合分析,共获得29条核受体序列。通过DNA结合结构域(DBD)和配体结合结构域(LBD)的多序列比对,并采用贝叶斯推断法进行系统进化分析,推测其中19个核受体属于NR1亚家族,5个属于NR2亚家族,2个属于NR3亚家族,1个属于NR5亚家族。结果表明紫贻贝中存在HR96、E75、ROR、HNF4、RXR、TLL、SVP、ESR、ERR同源的核受体,并且具有新型的2DBD核受体。%Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;3. North China Sea Marine Engineering Prospecting Research Institute, SOA, Qingdao 266033, China)Based on Mytilus galloprovincialis transcriptome data from public archives, we obtained 29 contigs encoding nuclear receptors. Mutiple alignment and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis indicate that 19 contigs encode NR1 subfamily members, 5 contigs encode NR2 subfamily members, 2 contigs encode NR3 subfamily members and 1 contig encodes a NR5 subfamily member. It suggests that M. galloprovincialis possesses genes homologous to HR96、 E75、 ROR、 HNF4、 RXR、TLL、 SVP、 ESR、 ERR and a new type 2DBD-NR.

  12. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros Suffolk alimentados com diferentes volumosos Performance and carcass traits of Suffolk lambs fed with different roughages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio da Cunha

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Cordeiros da raça Suffolk, desmamados aos 60 dias e confinados, foram alimentados com silagem de milho, silagem de sorgo granífero ou feno de Coast cross (Cynodon dactylon L. Pears e ração concentrada (3,5% do peso vivo, com o objetivo de avaliar seu desempenho, a proporção dos componentes-não-carcaça e o rendimento e características das suas carcaças. Foi utilizado um delineamento completamente casualizado em esquema fatorial (três alimentos volumosos e dois sexos. Os animais alimentados com silagem de milho ou de sorgo mostraram maior (P0,05 pelo tipo de alimento, contudo, os animais alimentados com silagem de milho apresentaram carcaças com maior (P0,05 na proporção de músculos (60,0 e 60,7%. A silagem de sorgo pode substituir a silagem de milho para cordeiros confinados, contudo o uso do feno de gramínea reduz o seu desempenho.Suffolk lambs, weaned at 60 days, were raised in slatted floor pens and fed corn silage, sorghum silage or Coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon L. Pears plus concentrate ration (3,5% of live weight to evaluate their performance, proportion of non-carcass components and carcass dressing and traits. A completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement (tree roughage feed X two sexes was used. Lambs fed corn silage or sorghum silage showed greater (P0.05 between feeds, although, lambs fed corn silage showed greater (P0.05 in proportion of muscle (60.0 and 60.7%. Sorghum silage can replace corn silage for feedlot lambs, but grass hay feeding worsens their performance.

  13. fertilizada con diferentes abonos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera (Morus alba fertilizada con diferentes abonos. Se llevó a cabo un experimento en la Estación Experimental “Alfredo Volio Mata” de la Universidad de Costa Rica con el fi n de evaluar la aplicación de 150 kg de N/ha/año proveniente de dos abonos orgánicos: lombriabono y compostaje; y de un fertilizante químico, sobre la producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera. El periodo experimental comprendió un ciclo de 12 meses, iniciando en julio del 2003 y fi nalizando en julio del 2004. Se utilizó una plantación de morera de 12 años de establecida con una densidad de siembra de 27.777 plantas/ ha. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos: dos abonos orgánicos, nitrato de amonio (33,5% N y un control. Las plantas se podaron a 0,6 m sobre el nivel del suelo al inicio del ensayo. Durante el periodo experimental, las plantas fueron podadas consecutivamente cada 90 días. Las hojas y los tallos fueron separados y analizados para determinar el contenido de materia seca y proteína cruda. La producción de materia seca fue 23% superior y el contenido de proteína cruda fue signifi cativamente mayor con el nitrógeno químico, mientras que el contenido de materia seca fue menor. No se encontraron diferencias signifi cativas entre el tratamiento control y los tratamientos orgánicos.

  14. Efeito da temperatura ambiente sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dieta controlada e dois níveis de energia metabolizável

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Neto Adhemar Rodrigues de; Oliveira Rita Flávia Miranda de; Donzele Juarez Lopes; Rostagno Horacio Santiago; Ferreira Rony Antonio; Maximiano Humberto do Carmo; Gasparino Eliane

    2000-01-01

    RESUMO - O efeito da temperatura ambiente sobre desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dieta controlada e dois níveis de energia metabolizável foi avaliado. Cento e sessenta frangos de corte machos Hubbard, de 21 dias de idade, com 791+4,12 g de peso médio inicial, foram alojados em ambiente com temperatura termoneutra (23,3±0,58ºC) ou quente (32,3±0,31ºC) até 42 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2...

  15. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp.) - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Louro Ribeiro; Mário de Andrade Lira; Adriana Guim; Ângela Maria Vieira Batista; Maria Caroline de Almeida Cavalcanti; Agenor Costa Ribeiro Neto

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill) e palma Orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp.). Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma). As observaçõe...

  16. Assessment of the fitness of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Moonkoo; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-12-15

    In December 2007, >150km of the West coast of Korea were heavily polluted by crude oil leaked from the oil tanker Hebei Spirit, leading to mass mortality of bivalve mollusks on the intertidal areas. Two years after, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from two impacted sites to investigate sub-lethal effects of the oil spill. Tissue content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hemocyte parameters, reproductive status and energetic reserves were analyzed. PAHs in tissues of mussels as well as hemocyte parameters were not different between impacted and control sites. Energetic reserves were altered in mussels from the impacted sites. Glycogen content remained low at polluted sites, whatever the season. Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, mussels then presented altered energetic metabolism. Further investigations are thus warranted to monitor the sustainability of mussel populations on the oil spilled West coast of Korea.

  17. Presence of vibrios in seawater and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.) from the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Rosa Anna; Stabili, Loredana

    2002-09-01

    During the spring-summer period, vibrios were detected in water and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in 30 sampling sites located in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy). In order to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution of the investigated area, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli densities were also determined. Vibrio alginolyticus constituted the predominant component of the total culturable vibrios. Some Vibrio species such as V. mediterranei, V. parahaemolyticus, V. diazotrophicus, V. nereis, and V. splendidus were present in water as well as in mussel samples; selective retention in mussels, however, was demonstrated for other vibrios (V. vulnificus, V. cincinnatiensis, V. orientalis, V. anguillarum, V. marinus, V. hollisae). The isolation of some potential pathogenic vibrio species shows the importance of Vibrio research to estimate water quality and to avoid transmission of infection to man and to other marine organisms.

  18. Interdisciplinary study for the evaluation of biochemical alterations on mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to a tributyltin-polluted area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magi, Emanuele [University of Genoa, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Liscio, Camilla; Pistarino, Erika; Santamaria, Barbara; Di Carro, Marina; Tiso, Micaela; Cosulich, M.E. [University of Genoa, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Scaloni, Andrea; Renzone, Giovanni [National Research Council, Proteomic and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, ISPAAM, Naples (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    An interdisciplinary approach was employed to monitor the concentration and the effects of butyltin compounds in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Tissues from animals exposed to a marine area (Vado Ligure harbour) with a high concentration of tributyltin (TBT) were analysed and compared with control samples. TBT concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the protein pattern in gill tissues was studied by proteomic analysis. Several proteomic signatures associated with contaminant exposure were observed; spots that were significantly increased in all contaminated samples were identified by mass spectrometry as fragments of {beta}-tubulin. The degradation of {beta}-tubulin was then confirmed by western blot analysis with specific anti-{beta}-tubulin antibody. The effects observed on mussel gills after exposure in the TBT-polluted area are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Interdisciplinary study for the evaluation of biochemical alterations on mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to a tributyltin-polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Emanuele; Liscio, Camilla; Pistarino, Erika; Santamaria, Barbara; Di Carro, Marina; Tiso, Micaela; Scaloni, Andrea; Renzone, Giovanni; Cosulich, M Elisabetta

    2008-05-01

    An interdisciplinary approach was employed to monitor the concentration and the effects of butyltin compounds in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Tissues from animals exposed to a marine area (Vado Ligure harbour) with a high concentration of tributyltin (TBT) were analysed and compared with control samples. TBT concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the protein pattern in gill tissues was studied by proteomic analysis. Several proteomic signatures associated with contaminant exposure were observed; spots that were significantly increased in all contaminated samples were identified by mass spectrometry as fragments of β-tubulin. The degradation of β-tubulin was then confirmed by western blot analysis with specific anti-β-tubulin antibody. The effects observed on mussel gills after exposure in the TBT-polluted area are discussed.

  20. Effects of chemical contaminants on growth, age-structure, and reproduction of Mytilus edulis complex from Puget sound, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagley, Anna N; Kardong, Kyle E; Snider, Robert G; Casillas, Edmundo

    2014-07-01

    Bivalves are used as sentinel species to detect chemical contaminants in the marine environment, but biological effects on indigenous populations that result from chemical exposure are largely unknown. We assessed age-weight, length-weight relationships, age structure, and reproductive status (i.e. fecundity, egg size) of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis complex from six sites in central Puget Sound, Washington, and one site in the relatively pristine area of northern Puget Sound. Results of this study suggest that mussels from urban areas of Puget Sound exhibit a lower growth rate, altered population age-structure, and potential reproductive impairment as a result of exposure to chemical contaminants. These findings support the use of mussels as sentinel species to assess the biological effects of contaminants on invertebrate populations.

  1. Effects of substrate type on growth and mortality of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) exposed to the predator Carcinus maenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Dolmer, Per

    2002-01-01

    Structure and complexity of the substrate are important habitat characteristics for benthic epifauna. The specific growth and mortality rates and inducible defence characters on medium- sized blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) exposed to shore crabs (Carcinus maenas L.) were examined on three...... different substrate types in combined field and laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that complexity of the substrate increased blue mussel survival significantly, through a decrease in predation pressure. However, increased intraspecific competition for food on the complex substrate resulted...... in significantly lower growth rates of the mussels. Inducible defence characters were also influenced by substrate type. Blue mussels were more affected by predators on the structurally simple substrate, where they developed thicker shells and a larger posterior adductor muscle....

  2. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  3. Assessment of the non-protein amino acid BMAA in Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after feeding with estuarine cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Mafalda S; Vasconcelos, Rita G W; Ferreira, Paula C; Almeida, C Marisa R; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether 2-amino-3-methylaminopropanoic acid (BMAA) could be taken up by marine organisms from seawater or their diet mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the North Atlantic Portuguese shore, were exposed to seawater doped with BMAA standard (for up to 48 h) or fed with cyanobacteria (for up to 15 days). Mussels were able to uptake BMAA when exposed to seawater. Mussels fed with cyanobacteria Synechocystis salina showed a rise in BMAA concentration during feeding and a decline in concentration during the subsequent depuration period. Cells from the gills and hepatopancreas of mussels fed with S. salina showed lessened metabolic activity in mussels fed for longer periods of time. A hot acidic digestion (considered to account for total BMAA) was compared with a proteolytic digestion, using pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. The latter was able to extract from mussels approximately 30% of total BMAA. Implications for BMAA trophic transfers in marine ecosystems are discussed.

  4. Active biomonitoring of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis with integrated use of micronucleus assay and physiological indices to assess harbor pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherras Touahri, Hamida; Boutiba, Zitouni; Benguedda, Wacila; Shaposhnikov, Sergey

    2016-09-15

    The mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from a noncontaminated site (Chaib Rasso) were transplanted during one, three and six months at Ghazaouet harbor (GH), areas with a strong gradient of pollution. The micronucleus test (MN) was selected to monitor the impact of contamination, along with physiological indexes (condition index CI and organo-somatic indexes RI and GSI). The results show a negative correlation of MN variation in gill cells with CI but a positive correlation with transplantation duration. However, a significant correlation was found between the indexes. Moreover, the findings indicate that MN in the hemolymph and gills of transplanted mussels for one, three and six months at GH are significantly higher than those of the reference site. However, no significant differences were noted between the three transplants at the two organs. Monitoring the physiological status of mussels, in parallel with the biomarker measurements, is useful in assessing the impact of contaminants.

  5. Metabolic Effects in the Bivalve Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis: Impact on the Environment due to Contamination by Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Brahim Errahmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the study of the effects of acute exposure to various concentrations of copper from 0.03 to 0.59 μmol·L−1 on the metabolic activities (nitrogen and phosphorus, protein levels, catalase (CAT enzyme activities, and the biological response malondialdehyde (MDA in the mollusks Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis. The concentrations above 0.88 μmol·L−1 have proven to be lethal to P. perna. The results show slight disturbances of metabolism as a result of pollutant and a significant correlation between metal contamination and ammonia nitrogen levels, resulting in an increase in the latter after 48 h of M. galloprovincialis exposure to 0.59 μmol·L−1 of copper concentrations. CAT was rapidly induced even by low concentrations of copper; MDA was increased only with low concentrations of copper in P. perna.

  6. Assessment of pollution level using Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: The case of the Gulf of Trieste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristan, Urška; Kanduč, Tjaša; Osterc, Andrej; Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Ramšak, Andreja; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2014-12-15

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to estimate the pollution level of the marine environment in the North Eastern Adriatic by measurement of the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen (δ(13)C, δ(15)N), metal/metalloids analyses (Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, including As speciation) in the Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well by using metallothioneins (MT) concentrations, micronuclei (MN) in gill cells and biological parameters (condition index and gonadosomatic index). Concentrations of MT were in the range from 44 to 175 μg g(-1) wet matter tissue and were higher at the end of the winter season. The frequency of MN did not indicate an elevated level. Sewage sludge pollution was not confirmed. Elevated As concentrations in mussel are related to salinity and low nutrients concentrations and not to pollution. Elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb were found in the Bay of Koper in comparison with the Bays of Strunjan and Piran.

  7. Trace metals and {sup 210}Po ({sup 210}Pb) concentrations in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) consumed at western Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugur, Aysun E-mail: aysun@bornova.ege.edu.tr; Yener, G.Guengoer; Bassari, Asiye

    2002-10-01

    The mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) have been evaluated for their bioavailability as biomonitors of trace and toxic elements in coastal water of western Anatolia. The levels of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br and Sr in the edible part of mussels were determined using X-ray fluorescence method during the period of September 1999-July 2000. Distribution of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activities were measured by radiometric methods and their ratios were calculated. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were found to vary between 52{+-}6-1344{+-}108 and 6{+-}2-167{+-}10 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt, respectively. The highest values for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were measured in Foca mussels and also observed the highest Fe, Zn and Br concentrations in the same species. {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity ratio were derived as between 3.1 and 25.0.

  8. Concentration factors of radionuclides and trace metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis in an estuarine ecosystem - North Aegean Sea - Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florou, H.; Catsiki, A.B.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Chaloulou, Ch. [NCSR Demokritos, INT-RP, Environmental Radioactivity Lab., Athens (Greece)

    2004-07-01

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bio-indicator organisms (Mussel watch program of CIESM) because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in terms of biological availability in the marine environment. In the present study, the levels of {sup 137}Cs, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn were measured in Mytilus galloprovincialis caught from Thermaikos gulf in North Aegean Sea Greece. The samples were collected seasonally from two aqua-cultures during the period 2000 2003. Measured and published concentrations of the above elements in seawater were used for the evaluation of concentration factors by applying a linear and a non-linear regression analysis. The variation in between the two stations and the seasonal evolution of bioaccumulation of the examined elements was also investigated. Some data on the concentrations of the measured elements in sediments from the area considered were evaluated as for determining the pollution conditions of the organism habitat. (author)

  9. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species in radioactivity monitoring of Eastern Adriatic coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmpotić, Matea; Rožmarić, Martina; Barišić, Delko

    2015-06-01

    Croatian Adriatic coastal waters are systematically monitored within the Mediterranean Mussel Watch Project using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species. The study includes determination of naturally occurring ((7)Be, (40)K, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U), as well as anthropogenic (137)Cs radionuclides. Activity concentrations in dry weight of mussels' soft tissue along the Croatian Adriatic coast are presented, with spatial and seasonal variations given and discussed. Samples were collected in spring and autumn for the period between 2009 and 2013. Radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity concentrations of (7)Be were the highest in spring periods, especially in the areas with significant fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of (40)K did not vary significantly with season or location. (137)Cs activities were low, while (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U activities were mostly below the detection limit of performed gamma-spectrometric measurement.

  10. Degeneration of monoamine nerves in anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus induced by 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathananthan, A H

    1976-09-20

    Preliminary ultrastructural studies on the effects of 5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine (5,6-DHT) on the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus show degeneration of 2 types of monoaminergic nerves after 10 days of drug treatment. One type contained large granular vesicles (560-1,680 A) possibly represent serotonergic and dopaminergic nerves, thought to innervate this muscle. Two other types of profiles seemed to be unaffected by the drug. One conforms to cholinergic nerves while the other has a predominance of large opaque vesicles (1,200-2,500 A). The significance of these findings is discussed in the light of recent observations on the neurotoxic effects of 5,6-DHT on vertebrate and molluscan nerves.

  11. The effect of lanthanum on the nexus of the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, P R; Kensler, R W; Dewey, M M

    1979-01-01

    The nexus of the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus has been observed with freeze-fracture techniques. Pits appear in the EF face and particles in the PF face, designating it as an A-type nexus. Under control conditions (lanthanum-free) the center-to-center spacing of pits and particles ranged from 14.0 nm to 15.5 nm. When lanthanum chloride (5 mM) was used in incubation media before fixation and glycerination, marked changes in the nexal membrane were observed. These changes involved close packing and long-range ordering of pits in the EF face, as shown by optical diffraction. In the presence of lanthanum the center-to-center spacing of the pits was 11.7 nm, while the particles remained at a spacing of 15.0 nm. From this we conclude that specific agents can alter the array of pits and particles in a nexus (gap junction).

  12. Distribution and relationships of trace metals in soft tissue, byssus and shells of Mytilus edulis trossulus from the southern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefe, P; Frelek, K; Szefer, K; Lee, Ch B; Kim, B S; Warzocha, J; Zdrojewska, I; Ciesielski, T

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Co, Mn, and Fe in soft tissues, shells and byssus of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) from 23 sites along the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea were determined by AAS method. Byssus, as compared with the soft tissue, concentrated more effectively Pb, Cu, Cr, and especially Ag, Ni, Mn and Fe, moderately Hg and Zn and less effectively Cd. Significant inter-regional and inter-size differences in metal concentrations in both soft tissues and byssus were recorded. Highly significant correlations (Pbyssus of M. edulis, in contrast to shells, appear to be a significantly better bioindicator for identification of coastal areas exposed to metallic contaminants.

  13. Specific 3H-haloperidol binding to dopamine receptors in the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Y; Takayanagi, I

    1982-12-01

    The anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis has specific dopamine receptors. We carried out a radioligand binding assay for dopamine receptors in ABRM using (3H)-haloperidol as the radioligand. High affinity binding of (3H)-haloperidol has been shown. Scatchard analysis showed a single component of binding with an apparent equilibrium constant (KD) of 1.6 nM and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 219 fmoles/mg protein. Some dopamine antagonists displaced 3 nM (3H)-haloperidol binding, and the IC50 and Ki-value of these drugs were calculated. Considering these results, this muscle is thought to be suitable for a study of the dopamine receptors.

  14. [Arginine, octopine and alanine during the tonic and phasic contraction of the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroede, J; Baguet, F

    1982-01-01

    In this work, we compare the energetic cost of tonic and phasic contractions of the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis. The muscle is stimulated by six different stimulation methods and frozen when it reaches its maximal isometric response. Tonic and phasic tension developments are of similar amplitude and cause a hydrolysis of the same amount of phosphoarginine corresponding to 0.64 mumole per g of muscle and per kg/cm2 of tension (Fig. 1). As compared with the results reported in the literature the values are in good agreement with the biochemical and respiratory measurements, but they are 10 times higher than those measured by the heat production. The total arginine, octopine and alanine contents of those muscles frozen at the peak of contraction are not significantly different from those measured on the resting muscle. On the other hand, these metabolites may show seasonal variations.

  15. Somatic growth of mussels Mytilus edulis in field studies compared to predictions using BEG, DEB, and SFG models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Filgueira, Ramón; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    model has been expanded to include the temperature dependence of filtration rate and respiration and an ad hoc modification to ensure a smooth transition to zero ingestion as chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration approaches zero, both guided by published data. The first 21-day field study was conducted......Prediction of somatic growth of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, based on the data from 2 field-growth studies of mussels in suspended net-bags in Danish waters was made by 3 models: the bioenergetic growth (BEG), the dynamic energy budget (DEB), and the scope for growth (SFG). Here, the standard BEG...... at nearly constant environmental conditions with a mean chl a concentration of C=2.7μgL−1, and the observed monotonous growth in the dry weight of soft parts was best predicted by DEB while BEG and SFG models produced lower growth. The second 165-day field study was affected by large variations in chl...

  16. Componentes não integrantes da carcaça de cabritos alimentados em pastejo na Caatinga Noncarcass components of Caatinga grazing-fed goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharleny Braz Lobato Bezerra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de buchada, os pesos e rendimentos de órgãos, vísceras e subprodutos da carcaça de cabritos, sem padrão racial definido, alimentados em pastejo na Caatinga, com ou sem suplementação. Dezoito cabritos machos castrados, com peso vivo inicial de 15±0,55 kg, foram mantidos em área de pastejo na Caatinga durante 105 dias. Os animais foram submetidos a três tratamentos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso: pastejo à vontade, sem suplementação; pastejo restrito; e pastejo à vontade, com suplementação de farelo de soja e palma forrageira. Animais do tratamento com suplementação apresentaram maior peso vivo ao abate (PVA, maior peso do corpo vazio (PCVZ e maior peso de língua, pulmões + traqueia, coração, baço, diafragma, pâncreas e rins. Os pesos do fígado, vesícula biliar e do aparelho reprodutor não apresentaram diferença entre os tratamentos. O valor absoluto de peso de buchada foi influenciado pelos tratamentos, e os animais alimentados com suplementação tiveram os maiores pesos. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto aos rendimentos de buchada em termos de PVA e PCVZ. A suplementação para cabritos criados em pastejo na Caatinga produz animais com maior peso vivo ao abate, maior peso do corpo vazio e maior peso de buchada, mas não influencia os rendimentos da buchada, em termos de PVA e PCVZ.The objective of this work was to evaluate the "buchada" - composed of heart, lungs, liver, spleen, intestines, stomach and blood - yields, the weights and yields of organs, visceras, and carcass of undefined breed Caatinga grazing-fed goats, with or without supplementation. Eighteen castrated male goats with initial live weight of 15±0,55 kg, were kept in a grazing area in the Caatinga vegetation, Pernambuco state, Brazil, during 105 days. Animals were subjected to three treatments in a completely randomized design: grazing at will, without supplementation

  17. Botulismo em bovinos de corte e leite alimentados com cama de frango Botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveraldo S. Dutra

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Surtos de botulismo causados pelos tipos C e D da toxina botulínica são freqüentes no país, estando originalmente associados à osteofagia e à ingestão de alimentos e água contaminados. No presente trabalho são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais de sete surtos da intoxicação em bovinos de corte e leite alimentados com cama de frango, ocorridos nos estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais entre 1989 e 2000. Cinco surtos ocorreram em rebanhos de corte confinados ou criados extensivamente e suplementados com o subproduto, e dois em propriedades leiteiras. De um total de 1.535 animais alimentados regularmente com a cama de frango, 455 (29,64% morreram em um período que variou de 2 a 4 semanas. A morbidade nos sete surtos estudados variou de 3,47 a 100%, da mesma forma que a mortalidade. Em uma das propriedades a letalidade foi de 60,52%, e em todos os outros surtos ela foi acima de 88,43%; em três propriedades o coeficiente foi de 100%. Os sinais clínicos de paralisia progressiva, dificuldade na locomoção, decúbito e estado mental aparentemente normal, diminuição do tônus da musculatura da língua e cauda, sialorréia e dificuldade respiratória caracterizaram o quadro clínico. À necropsia de 30 animais não foi observada qualquer alteração macroscópica digna de nota. A presença de esporos de Clostridium botulinum foi detectada em amostras de cama de frango colhidas nas sete propriedades. Nas amostras de fígado, líquido ruminal e intestinal, provenientes dos 30 animais necropsiados, foi possível detectar toxinas botulínicas tipos C (5 ou D (9, ou classificada como pertencente ao complexo CD (1, em pelos menos um dos materiais provenientes de 15 animais, confirmando assim o diagnóstico clínico-patológico e epidemiológico de botulismo.Outbreaks of botulism caused by type C and D of the botulinum toxin are frequent in Brazil, and are associated with bone chewing and ingestion of

  18. Qualidade protéica da carne de novilho precoce alimentado com lipídios protegidos Protein quality of calves fed with protected lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Scorzi Cazelli Pires

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade protéica da carne de novilho precoce proveniente de quatro grupos genéticos de bovinos (GG alimentados com rações constituídas por lipídios protegidos ou não. Para a avaliação da qualidade protéica foram elaboradas oito dietas experimentais provenientes dos diferentes grupos genéticos e rações, as quais foram analisadas pelo PER (Coeficiente de Eficácia Protéica, NPR (Razão Protéica Líquida e digestibilidade in vivo. O experimento foi conduzido segundo um esquema fatorial (4 x 2 + 1 e as dietas experimentais e a padrão foram comparadas pelo teste de Dunnet, a 5% de probabilidade. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 entre as dietas experimentais e a dieta padrão (caseína para PER, NPR e digestibilidade, sendo que os valores médios variaram entre 3,89 e 4,74 (98,06 e 119,34%, em relação à caseína; 4,80 e 5,65 (101,07 e 118,94%, em relação à caseína e de 92,49 a 95,48 (97,24 a 100,39%, em relação à caseína, respectivamente. Verificou-se que a carne de todos os grupos experimentais apresentou alta qualidade protéica, equiparando-se à da caseína, exceto o grupo genético Aberdeen Angus X Nelore, alimentado com a dieta protegida, que apresentou valor de NPR estatisticamente superior a esta.The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein quality of calves in four genetic groups (GG fed on a basal diet (D1 or a diet with protected lipids (D2. PER (Coefficient of Protein Efficacy, NPR (Liquid Protein Ratio and in vivo digestibility were analyzed for protein quality. The experiment was carried out according to a factorial scheme (four genetic groups X two diets in a completely randomized design. The PER, NPR and digestibility and values did not differ (P > 0.05 and the average values ranged from 3.89 to 4.74 (98.06 a 119.34% in relation to casein; 4.80 to 5.65 (101.07 to 118.94% in relation to casein and from 92.49 to 95.48 (97.24 a 100

  19. Evidence for immunomodulation and apoptotic processes induced by cationic polystyrene nanoparticles in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, L; Ciacci, C; Bergami, E; Monopoli, M P; Dawson, K A; Papa, S; Canonico, B; Corsi, I

    2015-10-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles can reach the marine environment from different sources as weathering of plastic debris and nanowaste. Nevertheless, few data are available on their fate and impact on marine biota. Polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) can be considered as a model for studying the effects of nanoplastics in marine organisms: recent data on amino-modified PS NPs (PS-NH2) toxicity in sea urchin embryos underlined that marine invertebrates can be biological targets of nanoplastics. Cationic PS NPs have been shown to be toxic to mammalian cells, where they can induce apoptotic processes; however, no information is available on their effects and mechanisms of action in the cells of marine organisms. In this work, the effects of 50 nm PS-NH2 were investigated in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Hemocytes were exposed to different concentrations (1, 5, 50 μg/ml) of PS-NH2 suspension in ASW. Clear signs of cytoxicity were evident only at the highest concentrations (50 μg/ml). On the other hand, a dose dependent decrease in phagocytic activity and increase in lysozyme activity were observed. PS-NH2 NPs also stimulated increase in extracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NO (nitric oxide) production, with maximal effects at lower concentrations. Moreover, at the highest concentration tested, PS-NH2 NPs induced apoptotic process, as evaluated by Flow cytometry (Annexin V binding and mitochondrial parameters). The results demonstrate that in marine invertebrates the immune function can represent a significant target for PS-NPs. Moreover, in Mytilus hemocytes, PS-NH2 NPs can act through mechanisms similar to those observed in mammalian cells. Further research is necessary on specific mechanisms of toxicity and cellular uptake of nanoplastics in order to assess their impact on marine biota.

  20. Immunomodulation by different types of N-oxides in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Ciacci

    Full Text Available The potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs for humans and the environment represents an emerging issue. Since the aquatic environment represents the ultimate sink for NP deposition, the development of suitable assays is needed to evaluate the potential impact of NPs on aquatic biota. The immune system is a sensitive target for NPs, and conservation of innate immunity represents an useful basis for studying common biological responses to NPs. Suspension-feeding invertebrates, such as bivalves, are particularly at risk to NP exposure, since they have extremely developed systems for uptake of nano and microscale particles integral to intracellular digestion and cellular immunity. Evaluation of the effects of NPs on functional parameters of bivalve immunocytes, the hemocytes, may help understanding the major toxic mechanisms and modes of actions that could be relevant for different NP types in aquatic organisms.In this work, a battery of assays was applied to the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to compare the in vitro effects of different n-oxides (n-TiO(2, n-SiO(2, n-ZnO, n-CeO(2 chosen on the basis of their commercial and environmental relevance. Physico-chemical characterization of both primary particles and NP suspensions in artificial sea water-ASW was performed. Hemocyte lysosomal and mitochondrial parameters, oxyradical and nitric oxide production, phagocytic activity, as well as NP uptake, were evaluated. The results show that different n-oxides rapidly elicited differential responses hemocytes in relation to their chemical properties, concentration, behavior in sea water, and interactions with subcellular compartments. These represent the most extensive data so far available on the effects of NPs in the cells of aquatic organisms. The results indicate that Mytilus hemocytes can be utilized as a suitable model for screening the potential effects of NPs in the cells of aquatic invertebrates, and may

  1. Multiple forms of metallothionein from the digestive gland of naturally occurring and cadmium-exposed mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanković, Dušica; Pavičić, Jasenka; Kozar, Sonja; Raspor, Biserka

    2002-06-01

    Polymorphism of metallothioneins in the digestive gland of naturally occurring (control) and experimentally Cd-exposed mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (200 µg Cd l-1; 14 days) was studied by applying the conventional methods of Sephadex column liquid chromatography (G-75 and DEAE A-25), and by an electrochemical method (DPASV) for determination of Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations in chromatographic fractions. In both control and Cd-exposed mussels, two distinct molecular mass components of the metallothioneins, monomeric (MT-10) and dimeric (MT-20), were resolved by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. In control mussels, the MT-10 component was predominantly expressed as containing markedly higher constitutive levels of Zn (100×) and Cu (10×) than of Cd. Each of these two molecular mass components was further resolved into seven metal-rich peaks by anion-exchange chromatography. In Cd-exposed mussels the larger proportion of Cd was bound to the MT-20 than to the MT-10 component, suggesting that the dimeric component may be considered as a primarily inducible metallothionein. The elution positions of metal-binding maxima of Cd-exposed and control mussels on the respective DEAE chromatographic profiles were comparable. A great similarity in elution positions of Cd maxima between the composite and single-specimen samples was also observed. Our study confirms a high multiplicity of MT forms in mussels from the Mytilus genus not only under the laboratory high-level metal exposure conditions, but also at a natural seawater metal exposure level. The ecotoxicological significance of dimeric and monomeric MT forms, as well as their possible application in the biomonitoring of seawater for trace metals, has been considered.

  2. Impact of cationic polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NH2) on early embryo development of Mytilus galloprovincialis: Effects on shell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Teresa; Camisassi, Giulia; Montagna, Michele; Fabbri, Rita; Franzellitti, Silvia; Carbone, Cristina; Dawson, Kenneth; Canesi, Laura

    2017-11-01

    The potential release of nanoparticles (NPs) into aquatic environments represents a growing concern for their possible impact on aquatic organisms. In this light, exposure studies during early life stages, which can be highly sensitive to environmental perturbations, would greatly help identifying potential adverse effects of NPs. Although in the marine bivalve Mytilus spp. the effects of different types of NPs have been widely investigated, little is known on the effects of NPs on the developing embryo. In M. galloprovincialis, emerging contaminants were shown to affect gene expression profiles during early embryo development (from trocophorae-24 hpf to D-veligers-48 hpf). In this work, the effects of amino-modified polystyrene NPs (PS-NH2) on mussel embryos were investigated. PS-NH2 affected the development of normal D-shaped larvae at 48 hpf (EC50 = 0.142 mg/L). Higher concentrations (5-20 mg/L) resulted in high embryotoxicity/developmental arrest. At concentrations ≅ EC50, PS-NH2 affected shell formation, as shown by optical and polarized light microscopy. In these conditions, transcription of 12 genes involved in different biological processes were evaluated. PS-NH2 induced dysregulation of transcription of genes involved in early shell formation (Chitin synthase, Carbonic anhydrase, Extrapallial Protein) at both 24 and 48 hpf. Decreased mRNA levels for ABC transporter p-glycoprotein-ABCB and Lysozyme were also observed at 48 hpf. SEM observations confirmed developmental toxicity at higher concentrations (5 mg/L). These data underline the sensitivity of Mytilus early embryos to PS-NH2 and support the hypothesis that calcifying larvae of marine species are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stressors, including exposure to selected types of NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumo e Absorção Aparente de Macroelementos Minerais, em Bezerros Alimentados com Dietas Contendo Diferentes Níveis de Volumoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Gherman Garcia Leal de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de volumoso nas dietas sobre o consumo e a absorção aparente (AP de cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, magnésio (Mg, sódio (Na e potássio (K. Utilizaram-se 40 bezerros, com peso vivo médio inicial de 60 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados à vontade com rações na base da MS, com níveis crescentes de 10, 25, 40, 55 e 90% de feno de capim-coastcross (Cynodon dactylon picado. Os coeficientes de absorção aparente foram obtidos por intermédio de ensaios de digestibilidade, realizados aos 120 e 180 dias de idade dos animais, sendo usado como indicador o óxido crômico para estimar a excreção fecal. Os consumos de Ca, P, Mg, Na e K, expressos em g/dia, sofreram efeito quadrático, estimando-se os respectivos consumos máximos com os níveis de 47,0; 30,0; 45,3; 41,0; e 51,8% de volumoso na dieta. As absorções aparentes do Ca, P e K foram afetadas pelos níveis de volumoso nas dietas, que apresentaram comportamento quadrático e máximas absorções de 58,7; 56,1; e 78,3% para os níveis de 20,3; 23,1; e 45,2% de volumoso nas dietas, respectivamente.

  4. PARÂMETROS HEMATOLÓGICOS DE JUVENIS DE TAMBAQUI ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÕES CONTENDO FARINHA DE CRUEIRA DE MANDIOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo PEREIRA JUNIOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de dietas com níveis crescentes de substituição do milho pela farinha de crueira de mandioca nos parâmetros hematológicos de juvenis de tambaqui. O estudo foi conduzido seguindo um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de crueira e quatro repetições. Foram distribuídos 480 juvenis de tambaqui com peso inicial médio de 6,6 g, em 24 caixas plásticas redondas. Após 75 dias de cultivo, dezesseis peixes por tratamento foram capturados e anestesiados para a coleta de sangue da veia caudal e determinação dos parâmetros hematológicos. Os resultados mostraram que os diferentes níveis de crueira de mandioca mantiveram os mesmos parâmetros hematológicos (hematócrito, eritrócito, hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio, concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média, glicose plasmática e proteína plasmática obtidos para os peixes alimentados com dieta sem esse ingrediente (controle, os quais não demonstraram diferenças significativas relacionadas aos diferentes tratamentos. Esse resultado demonstra que é possível substituir totalmente o milho pela farinha de crueira de mandioca em rações para juvenis de tambaqui, sem que haja comprometimentos dos parâmetros hematológicos desta espécie.

  5. Consumo e digestões totais e parciais em novilhos F1 Limousin x Nelore alimentados com dietas contendo cinco níveis de concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Helder Luis Chaves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Um ensaio foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de cinco níveis de concentrado nas rações sobre o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes totais e parciais de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CHO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e carboidratos não-estruturais (CNE. Cinco novilhos F1 Limousin x Nelore fistulados no rúmen, abomaso e íleo foram alimentados à vontade com dietas que continham 25,0; 37,5; 50,0; 62,5; e 75,0% de concentrado e distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino 5 x 5. O óxido crômico foi usado como indicador externo, para as determinações das digestibilidades aparentes totais e parciais. A adição de quantidades crescentes de concentrado à dieta produziu aumentos lineares nos consumos de MS, MO, CNE, PB, EE e NDT e redução no consumo de FDN. As digestibilidades aparentes totais de MS, MO, PB, EE, CHO e CNE elevaram-se linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de concentrado da dieta. A digestibilidade aparente da PB no intestino delgado aumentou linearmente com a adição de concentrados nas rações. As digestibilidades aparentes da FDN no rúmen e pós-rúmen não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de concentrado. Redução nos níveis de FDN das rações resultou em aumentos lineares do NDT e da digestibilidade aparente total da MS.

  6. DESEMPENHO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DE OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM FARELO DE CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. EM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE SUBSTITUIÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mattos Veloso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e digestibilidade aparente de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau em substituição ao concentrado (milho e farelo de soja. Utilizaram-se dezesseis ovinos Santa Inês, fêmeas, não prenhes, não lactantes, com peso médio inicial de 25 kg e aproximadamente doze meses de idade, mantidos em baias individuais. O experimento teve a duração de 78 dias, sendo 15 de período pré-experimental e 63 dias de período experimental. Forneceram-se as dietas em mistura completa, na proporção 50:50% (volumoso:concentrado,sendo utilizado como volumoso o feno da parte aérea da mandioca, com níveis de inclusão de farelo de cacau no concentrado de 0%, 10%, 20% e 30%. Forneciam-se dietas pela manhã, sendo ajustadas de forma a sobrar 10%. Semanalmente, coletaram-se as sobras e amostras de alimentos para análises laboratoriais. Avaliaram-se o consumo, o ganho médio diário de peso, a conversão alimentar e a digestibilidade aparente. A inclusão do farelo de cacau não promoveu diferença nos consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro, no ganho de peso médio diário,na conversão alimentar e digestibilidade dos nutrientes. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido aumentou linearmente com a inclusão do farelo de cacau na dieta. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alimentação, concentrado, confinamento, ruminante, subproduto.

  7. sistema Web con JSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Viloria Núñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de información que permite la adquisición y la administración de información relacionada con los signos vitales como la presión arterial, la frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria, y la saturación de oxígeno en la sangre de un paciente. La implementación del sistema se basa en una solución Web, permitiendo así que médicos especialistas puedan monitorear a sus pacientes desde cualquier punto conectado a la red en tiempo real y, al mismo tiempo, dar indicaciones críticas al personal médico que se encuentra en el lugar con el paciente.

  8. Evaluacion de las alteraciones conductuales y dopaminergicas en ratones con bajas concentraciones de plomo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Martínez Riera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación de los efectos del plomo en animales de experimentación y sus consecuencias en el desarrollo neurológico conductual es compleja y controvertida. Conociendo que la maduración neurológica de los ratones ha culminado en edades que oscilan entre los 25-35 días, nuestro objetivo ha sido investigar si la administración de soluciones de diferentes concentraciones de plomo, durante tiempos establecidos de acuerdo a las dosis-ingesta, producía alteraciones en los juegos solitarios en animales de experimentación adultos. Se trabajó con ratones adultos de ambos sexos de la cepa C3H, alimentados con dieta estándar y agua ad libitum. Se utilizaron seis lotes: tres experimentales que fueron tratados con acetato de plomo en el agua de bebida en diferentes concentraciones: 1, 1000 y 2000 ppm y en los tres grupos controles, la ingesta fue de agua potable. En este trabajo se estudiaron los juegos solitarios de los animales: 1 Actividad locomotora, 2 Aseo total, 3 Exploración subterránea (en tiempo y frecuencia y 4 Exploración aérea total. Se determinó el nivel de dopamina presente en el cerebro de los mismos por espectrofluorometría. Los resultados obtenidos de las alteraciones conductuales en los animales de experimentación analizados con tests no paramétricos fueron: disminución significativa de la actividad locomotora (número de cuadros, de la exploración subterránea (en tiempo, de la exploración aérea (en tiempo y del aseo total, no observándose variaciones significativas en la exploración subterránea (en frecuencia. Las variables investigadas estarían mediadas por distintos sistemas de neurotrasmisión. En la dopamina determinada en cerebro de ratones con ingesta de plomo de 1 - 1000 - 2000 ppm se encontró disminución significativa de la misma en los ratones tratados con respecto a los grupos controles.

  9. Trabajando fractales con Winlogo

    OpenAIRE

    Sabogal, Sonia; Arenas, Gilberto

    2007-01-01

    Después de una breve introducción en la cual se establecerán algunos conceptos teóricos básicos de la geometría fractal, se realizarán talleres en los cuales, con ayuda de las herramientas que trabaja el software WinLogo, se construirán diversos fractales, analizando sus principales características (autosimilitud, dimensión, etc.)

  10. Transporte forestal con cables

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya L. Héctor J.

    2012-01-01

    La explotación forestal es un problema fundamentalmente de transporte. El apeo y la preparación de las trozas, aunque a veces presentan algunas dificultades, son operaciones fáciles de resolver comparadas con la operación de transporte la cual absorbe del 60% al 70% o más del costo total del aprovechamiento del bosque. El 30% o 40% restante es absorbido por las faenas previas de apeo y troceo.

  11. Encuentros con Elena Poniatowska

    OpenAIRE

    Uzquiza González, José Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    El autor analiza, desde su encuentro con Elena Poniatowska, la vertiente de la literatura testimonial como literatura de mujeres. Un análisis interior de la relación entre realidad y ficción, entre Elena, Jesusa o Tinísima. The author analyzes testimonial literature from the perspective of female literature through his meeting with Elena Poniatowska. An analysis of reality vs. Fiction in Elena, Jesusa and Tinisima.

  12. pacientes con falla cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Achury Saldaña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la adherencia al tratamiento de pacientes con falla cardiaca hospitalizados, al aplicar un plan educativo quefomenta el autocuidado.Método: estudio cuasiexperimental (entrevistas enfermera-paciente realizado entre diciembre de 2004 y mayo de 2006, con unamuestra de 50 pacientes seleccionados por conveniencia. Se diseñó un instrumento para evaluar los comportamientos de los pacientes,con base en algunos resultados de la adherencia y sus respectivos indicadores de la taxonomía NOC (Nursing out comes classification. Laadherencia al tratamiento fue medida en dos momentos: el primero durante la hospitalización, seguido de la aplicación del plan educativoantes del alta, que proporcionaba información en el manejo de su enfermedad desde una dimensión física, psicológica y social quepromueve el autocuidado; y el segundo un mes después del alta en su domicilio.Resultados: diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P=0,0001 que demuestran cómo mediante la capacitación al paciente enel manejo de su tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico, el establecimiento de una sana relación entre el profesional de enfermeríay el paciente, y la participación de la familia, se logra una total adherencia al tratamiento.Conclusiones: para lograr una adherencia total del paciente con falla cardiaca al tratamiento es necesario un proceso educativo y unseguimiento continuo y personalizado que motive permanentemente al paciente y se le reconozca el papel protagónico en su cuidado y manejo de la enfermedad.

  13. Seasonal and spatial variability in growth of Mytilus edulis L in a brackish sound: comparisons of individual mussel growth and growth of size classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    1998-01-01

    Growth of Mytilus edulis L. in a brackish Danish sound was estimated from individually measured mussels and measurements of discrete size classes. In winter, individual mussels grew faster than size classes of mussels, and in summer, the inverse situation occurred. The effect of size-specific mor......Growth of Mytilus edulis L. in a brackish Danish sound was estimated from individually measured mussels and measurements of discrete size classes. In winter, individual mussels grew faster than size classes of mussels, and in summer, the inverse situation occurred. The effect of size......-specific mortality of larger mussels in winter, and smaller mussels in summer on the population dynamics is discussed. Spatial variability in growth was analysed by comparing von Bertalanffy growth rates estimated for discrete size classes of mussels at different locations in the sound. Faster growth rates were...

  14. Molecular and genotoxic effects in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to tritiated water at an elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas, L.; Jha, A. [School of Biological Sciences, Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Bean, T.; Lyons, B. [Cefas Weymouth Laboratory (United Kingdom); Turner, A. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    h. These stress-induced genes are known to have protective roles as molecular chaperones, as radical scavengers, in control of cell cycle checkpoints and in DNA repair. As such, the temporal shift in HTO-induced genotoxicity may be as a result of compromised defence mechanisms. The {sup 3}H concentration in tissues was highest in byssus for all time points at both temperatures. The order in which other tissues accumulated {sup 3}H varied with time and temperature, but in general digestive gland, gill and foot showed higher concentrations than other tissues. Corresponding whole organism dose rates, as calculated using the ERICA tool, ranged from 10.94 ± 0.08 to 18.72 ± 0.10 μGy h{sup -1} (with total doses of 0.13 ± 0.01 to 2.75 ± 0.03 mGy) and were temperature- and time-dependent. This study is the first to investigate temperature effects on radiation-induced genotoxicity in the ecologically representative marine invertebrate, Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is especially pertinent in the context of rising sea temperatures and thermal pollution from nuclear institutions. From an ecological perspective, this research suggests that mussels (or similar marine species) exposed to increased temperature and HTO may have a compromised ability to defend against genotoxic insult. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Lectura con adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Méndez Anchía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la premisa de que la lectura de textos literarios tiene una función formadora y que esta se acentúa en la adolescencia, me propongo demostrar que el cuento “Rapunzel” puede utilizarse como estrategia para explorar algunas situaciones que los sujetos adolescentes perciben como particulares en relación con su vida, pero que se inscriben dentro de grandes problemáticas estudiadas por varias disciplinas. Para ello, he identificado, desde dos marcos de referencia (sociológico y psicoanalítico, diversas problemáticas y discursos que se desprenden de la lectura del cuento realizada por dos mujeres adolescentes, quienes respondieron una guía de lectura y participaron en una entrevista a profundidad. Concluyo que la lectura y comentario del cuento hacen posible que una serie de experiencias que los sujetos adolescentes viven como únicas (como el embarazo de una amiga, las críticas de las personas adultas y las exigencias de padres y madres, ingresen en el circuito de los conocimientos generales al relacionarlas con los discursos y problemáticas en que se inscriben (por ejemplo, el discurso de la “crisis” de la adolescencia, el enfoque de derechos humanos, el mundo fantasmático materno. Por ello, recomiendo la lectura y comentario de textos literarios como estrategia didáctica para contribuir a la elaboración de la subjetividad de personas adolescentes.

  16. Contenido energetico de algunos invertebrados bentonicos de la costa de Chile y fluctuación anual em Mytilus chilensis Hupe 1854

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Duarte

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Caloric values, ash and hydric percentages were obtained from the most abundant benthic invertebrates of Corral Bay, from which this information was not previously available. The range of these values is not different to those of related taxonomic groups of other oceans. Annual fluctuations of these paramenters were studied in Mytilus chilensis so as to obtain a quantitative estimation of the variation of these values.

  17. Byssus secrection of Mytilus galloprovincialis: Effect of site at macro and micro-geographical scales within Ría of Vigo (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Babarro, José M. F.; Carrington, Emily

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the abiotic environment on byssus tenacity and associated features was investigated for Mytilus galloprovincialis in the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain). The effect of site was examined at macro-geographical (outer exposed Cabo Estay vs. inner sheltered San Simón Ensenada sites) and micro-geographical (intertidal vs. subtidal locations) scales. Site significantly influenced byssus tenacity, shape and byssus thread diameter, whereas location did not. Qualitative analysis of the byssus cor...

  18. Toll signal transduction pathway in bivalves: complete cds of intermediate elements and related gene transcription levels in hemocytes of immune stimulated Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Mylène; Rosani, Umberto; Giambelluca, Sonia; Cammarata, Matteo; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Venier, Paola; Roch, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Based on protein domain structure and organization deduced from mRNA contigs, 15 transcripts of the Toll signaling pathway have been identified in the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Identical searches performed on publicly available Mytilus edulis ESTs revealed 11 transcripts, whereas searches performed in genomic and new transcriptome sequences of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, identified 21 Toll-related transcripts. The remarkable molecular diversity of TRAF and IKK coding sequences of C. gigas, suggests that the sequence data inferred from Mytilus cDNAs may not be exhaustive. Most of the Toll pathway genes were constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in M. galloprovincialis, although at different levels, and clearly induced after in vivo injection with bacteria. Such over-transcription was more rapid and intense with Gram-negative than with Gram-positive bacteria. Injection of a fungus modulated the transcription of few Toll pathway genes, with the induction levels of TLR/MyD88 complex being always less intense. Purified LPS and β-glucans had marginal effect whereas peptidoglycans were ineffective. At the moment, we found no evidence of an IMD transcript in bivalves. In conclusion, mussels possess a complete Toll pathway which can be triggered either by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria.

  19. Cementos con cenizas volantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa M., Mauricio

    1984-03-01

    additions of 20 and 30% .

    Casi la generalidad de los estudios realizados sobre cementos con adición de cenizas volantes se refieren a sus características y comportamiento en pastas, morteros y hormigones, siempre en relación con aquéllos del cemento portland. Esta vez, se desarrolló un trabajo experimental orientado a relacionar entre sí los cementos con adiciones de cenizas volantes y de puzolana natural. Para ello se fabricaron a escala de laboratorio cementos de ambos tipos, empleando como materias primas comunes clinker y yeso y, como variables, diferentes porcentajes de las dos adiciones, que cumplieron previamente los requisitos normalizados en cuanto a sus actividades puzolánicas. La calidad de los cementos fabricados resultó adecuada y concordante con la del cemento portland-puzolánico obtenido a escala industrial con los mismos clinker, yeso y puzolana natural de este estudio. Posteriormente, se determinaron las características de los cementos experimentales y se confeccionaron morteros normales para la realización de ensayos físicos y mecánicos. Los resultados de ensayos indicaron que los cementos con adición de cenizas volantes (CCV requieren menos agua para consistencia normal, presentan tiempos de fraguado mayores y expansiones en autoclave menores que los cementos con adición de puzolana (CP. Los calores de hidratación a 7 y 28 días de edad fueron aproximadamente similares para ambos tipos de cemento. En morteros normales, los cementos CCV mostraron menor retracción de secado, mayor retentividad y mayor fluidez (para igual cantidad de agua que los cementos CP. En los ensayos de exudación se observó que ésta depende más de la finura que el tipo de adición. Finalmente, los ensayos mecánicos señalaron que las resistencias a compresión y flexotracción de los morteros con cementos CCV son menores a edades inferiores que 14 días (del orden de 5 a 10% a un día de edad, pero que a partir de entonces pasan a ser mayores que las de

  20. Intestinal histomorphology in Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum fed bovine colostrum as source of protein and bioactive peptides Histomorfologia intestinal de Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum alimentado com colostro bovino como fonte de proteína e peptídeos bioativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oeda Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Histological responses of the intestine are key for evaluating nutritional value of feed ingredients, since the organ is not only the chief site of feed digestion and nutrient absorption but also plays an important immunological function. Histomorphological alterations were evaluated in the intestine of juvenile striped catfish, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, fed diets containing 0 (control, 10 or 20% inclusion of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC, as source of protein or bioactive peptides, for either 30 or 60 days. Fish fed 20LBC presented at 60d a distinct pattern of macrophages and, some of them, higher number of vacuoles in rectum mucosa. The thickness of the muscle layer (TML in fish fed diets with LBC was higher in the first portion of medium intestine than fish fed 0LBC. All fish presented significant increase of TML in the second portion of medium intestine along feeding period, but fish fed 20LBC had smaller values of TML than those of fish fed 0 and 10LBC which might be related to the higher intestinal coefficient found for this group. The TML of rectum was higher just for fish fed 10LBC. Dietary LBC altered morphometrical features of juvenile striped catfish intestine and possibly induced inflammatory reaction in the rectal mucosa, as a function of level of inclusion, feeding period and segment of intestine analyzed.Respostas histológicas do intestino são fundamentais para avaliar o valor nutritivo de ingredientes alimentares, uma vez que o órgão não é só o principal local de digestão e absorção dos nutrientes, mas também exerce uma importante função imunológica. Alterações histomorfológicas foram avaliadas no intestino de juvenis de cachara, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, alimentado com dietas contendo 0 (controle, 10 e 20% de inclusão de colostro bovino liofilizado (CBL como fonte de proteína e peptídeos bioativos, aos 30 e 60 dias. Aos 60 dias, peixes alimentados com 20CBL apresentaram macrófagos de aspecto distinto

  1. La atención en niños de 5 años con adecuada e inadecuada nutrición de una institución educativa inicial - Callao

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado Guarnizo, Yanina

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene la intención de comparar los niveles de atención en los niños de cinco años de edad con una nutrición adecuada e inadecuada. Para la investigación se tomó una muestra de 40 niños de ambos sexos, formando un grupo (A) alimentado adecuado y un grupo (B) inadecuadamente nutridos. Una batería de prueba que se utilizó medir la atención selectiva y mantenida fue la elaborada por Pérez (2008) siendo adaptado y confiable. Los resultados revelaron que no hay diferencias signi...

  2. Atender con ansiedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Acosta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tener una personalidad ansiosa o estar ansioso en una determinada situación hace que atendamos de modo diferente a lo que acontece. Investigaciones recientes están descubriendo las relaciones específicas de la ansiedad-rasgo y de la ansiedad-estado con diferentes procesos atencionales. La intervención terapéutica para aliviar los trastornos de ansiedad, tan frecuentes en nuestra época, se va a beneficiar de este conocimiento.

  3. Arquitectura con discurso

    OpenAIRE

    Schaposnik, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    En particular a la Carrera Arquitectura le compete un doble rol social: uno general, "educar" desde la Universidad y otro, específico, el que le es propio: dar respuesta a las necesidades planteadas por la sociedad haciéndole su lugar: construyéndolo junto con ella. Aparece la figura del "alumno de arquitectura"' nuestro destinatario específico. El alumno de arquitectura, también deberá tomar conciencia, entender, que el "espacio" que él deberá dominar a través d...

  4. Creo con mis dedos

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez Aniceto, Monta??a

    2015-01-01

    Las artes pl??sticas son muy importantes para los ni??os/as sobre todo para Educaci??n Infantil ya que promueven la creatividad mediante diferentes recursos y t??cnicas lo que favorece su motivaci??n en las competencias desde la edad temprana hasta la adolescencia. Es la primera forma que tiene el ni??o/a de expresarse en el mundo (a trav??s de los garabatos), de comunicarse, compartir sus emociones con los dem??s, creando su propio lenguaje que evolucionar?? hacia el lenguaje oral y escri...

  5. Eugenistas, pero con prudencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogliano, Claudio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking that one could not describe eugenics like a unique movement, since numerous bound varians took place related to the geographical and cultural context, this article tries to demostrate the peculiarity of the Italian case. If already in 1889 Giuseppe Sergi wanted that the artificial selection take it to end what should make the natural, avoiding the risk of the so called «degeneration», only in the face of the First World War seems to grow the alarm for the decadent quality of the population, finding a more and more wide echo. In 1919 the Siges was born (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica shocked under the impression of the difusse fear about the butcher the war had caused. From there from now on fastens a «nazional» direction closely related to the traditional thought and also with the new political temper. A «moderate» direction, Fascist, Catholic, that was built in consonance with the pronatalism of the regime and in rough polemic with the presumed Anglo-Saxon eugenics aberration.

    Partiendo de la base de que no se puede describir la eugénica como un movimiento unitario, ya que se produjeron numerosas variantes ligadas al contexto geográfico y cultural, este artículo intenta demostrar la peculiaridad del caso italiano. Si ya en 1889 Giuseppe Sergi deseaba que la selección artificial llevase a cabo lo que debía de hacer la natural, evitando así el riesgo de la «degeneración », sólo ante la Primera Guerra Mundial parece crecer la alarma por la decadente calidad de la población, encontrando un eco cada vez más amplio. En 1919 nació la Sige (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica bajo la impresión del difuso temor que la carnicería bélica había provocado. De ahí en adelante prende rápidamente una dirección «nazional» que se imbrica tanto con una tradición del pensamiento como con el nuevo temple político. Una dirección «moderada» fascista, católica, que se construyó en consonancia con el

  6. con problemas de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Jaquelina González Trujillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo de niños con diversos problemas de aprendizaje fue atendido bajo un programa de intervención de integración y adaptación social. Mejoras importantes se obtienen en competencias académicas bajo el presente programa de intervención y delimitan áreas de oportunidad para la mejora en aspectos cognitivos como el del proceso de atención e integración social. Las implicaciones de los resultados se discuten bajo un programa de apoyo psicopedagógico para la educación especial.

  7. Mayonesa con quitosano

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffrey, María Celeste

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El quitosano es un polímero natural que se obtiene a partir de la quitina, la cual forma parte de la estructura de soporte de numerosos organismos vivos, tales como artrópodos (crustáceos e insectos), moluscos y hongos. Presenta propiedades aplicables en los alimentos, como estabilizante, emulsificante, y quelante. No puede ser digerido por los seres humanos por lo cual está considerado como una fibra dietética con un contenido calórico cero. Objetivos: Evaluar...

  8. 紫贻贝和厚壳贻贝杂交及F1代杂交优势初探%A primary study on hybridization of Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus coruscus, heterosis of F1 generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常抗美; 刘慧慧; 李家乐; 沈玉帮

    2008-01-01

    2005-2007年对紫贻贝(Mytilus gallo provincialis)和厚壳贻贝(Mytilus coruscus)种间进行了杂交生产性试验,通过亲贝强化培育、确认雌雄亲贝、改革育苗水体交换方法、投喂混合单细胞藻类、流水培养附着稚贝等技术,获得F1代.结果表明,正交F1代幼虫的成活率明显高于反交F1代和厚壳贻贝,在幼虫培育前期与紫贻贝的成活率相当,但随着幼虫的发育有高于紫贻贝的趋势.正交F1代幼虫的壳长和壳高在培育阶段的前期生长与紫贻贝相当,低于厚壳贻贝,高于反交F1代;但后期的生长明显增快,并高于反交F1代和其他两种贻贝.各试验组贻贝海区养殖的成活率在90%以上,正交F1代最高,显著高于反交F1代.各试验组生长特性,正交F1代紫贻贝厚壳贻贝反交F1代.其中正交F1代获附着稚贝3.77×109 ind.正交F1除在孵化率上低于紫贻贝、厚壳贻贝外,在壳长、壳高、成活率等方面指标具有一定杂交优势,而反交F1代的杂交优势不明显.

  9. con la cosecha mecanizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Martínez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones dirigidas a incrementar los indicadores de eficiencia y calidad durante la cosecha mecanizada del café, constituyen un tema de gran actualidad a nivel internacional. La determinación de las propiedades físico-mecánicas de los frutos y del sistema frutopedúnculo, es una etapa indispensable durante las investigaciones relacionadas con la cosecha mecanizada de este producto. En este trabajo se brindan los resultados sobre la determinación de un grupo de propiedades dimensionales, inerciales y elásticas del sistema fruto-pedúnculo de coffea arabica variedad Catuai en diferentes estadios de maduración, relacionadas con la cosecha mecanizada de este cultivo.Así mismo se determina el momento flector requerido para la ruptura de la unión fruto pedúnculo. Durante la investigación se emplearon técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes digitales, así como de extensometría eléctrica. Como resultado de la medición de las diferentes propiedades se apreciaron diferencias sustanciales en las características dimensionales, inerciales y elásticas de los frutos maduros y verdes, así como en el momento requerido para el desprendimiento de los frutos y en las formas en que se produce el desprendimiento.

  10. Entrevista con Giovanni Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta entrevista, Giovanni Levi - como un conocedor del tema de Familia - realiza una importante evaluación sobre el actual estado de las investigaciones realizadas en el Brasil y em el exterior. Con estilo franco, agudo y lucido critica las visiones tradicionales y sus ilusiones ypropone nuevos conceptos y métodos. La historia de la familia debería ceder espacio para el estudio de las redes relacionales o de los mundos relacionales. De la misma forma, la historia cuantitativa debería abrir espacio para el estudio de las cualidades. Ya con relación a la historia de las elites, tan estudiada y reproducida en una diversidad de trabajos, que deberíase mirar en otra perspectiva. Es decir, no mirar a las reglas sociales predeterminadas, sino a los desvíos y a las variaciones. Levi defiende que los historiadores deben trascender a los documentos que se encuentran fácilmente y que pueden fortalecer perspectivas deformadas y esequilibradas de la sociedad. Para él, los historiadores deben esforzarse por estudiar a aquellos grupos que dejaron pocos rastros documentales. En ese esfuerzo existiría una nueva mirada sobre la historia de la familia.

  11. Entrevista con Patricia Ariza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Londoño La Rotta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensamiento, Palabra y Obra entrevista a una artista, feminista y activista política, quien como mujer y artista ha permitido pensar el arte más allá de un simple espectáculo. Toda una vida dedicada al teatro y a darle voz, a través de sus obras, a víctimas del conflicto colombiano, defensora de derechos humanos; además de hacer evidente en su vida y a través de la plataforma “Artistas por la paz”, las múltiples relaciones que se pueden establecer entre el arte, la construcción de paz y la resolución de conflictos. Hablamos en su casa, en medio del calor de la bienvenida con Patricia Ariza, directora del festival alternativo de teatro, de Mujeres en Escena y de la Corporación Colombiana de Teatro, entre otras muchas actividades que voluntariamente su espíritu libertario ha asumido. Esta entrevista se realizó antes del 2 de octubre, pero con la revisión de los acuerdos que propició el plebiscito ganado por una ínfima minoría por el no, sigue siendo vigente este planteamiento.

  12. Entrevista con Geoffrey Lloyd.

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    Fernando Colina Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Helenista y también sinólogo de relieve internacional, Geoffrey E. R. Lloyd nació en Londres (1933, de padres galeses. Es un gran historiador de la ciencia y del pensamiento griegos. En 1940 fue evacuado de Londres con su madre. Sus estudios significativos comenzaron, tras algún rodeo, en el King’s College donde estudiaba su hermano. Éste sería, como su padre, médico, y él mismo dudó en estudiar esa profesión, que late en sus libros. Pero un profesor de clásicas como John Raven –que redactó, con Geoffrey Kirk, Los filósofos presocráticos–, le indujo a ocuparse de la filosofía antigua; y otro maestro, William Guthrie –a quien debemos la gran Historia de la filosofía griega–, le inició, además, en la medicina griega.

  13. Características da Carcaça e Qualidade da Carne de Tourinhos Alimentados com Dietas de Alta Energia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Fábio Garcia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram alimentados 36 tourinhos ¾ Europeu ¼ Zebu com dietas contendo 9, 15 e 21% de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura (BIN na matéria seca. Os animais, com peso inicial de 257 kg, foram abatidos após 138 dias, com 435 kg de peso. Foram realizadas mensurações na carcaça e da composição física do corte das 9-10-11ª costelas. Amostras dos músculos Longissimus dorsi e Supraspinatus, maturadas durante 0, 7 e 14 dias, foramanalisadas quanto à textura e cor. A quantidade de gordura renal e pélvica foi maior para os tratamentos 9 e 15% de BIN. Houve tendência para maior espessura de gordura subcutânea nos tratamentos 9 e 15% de BIN. Os diferentes níveis de fibra na dieta não alteraram a composição física e as características de carcaça, porém maior acúmulo de gordura nas regiões inguinal e pélvica foi observado em tratamentos com maior teor de concentrado. A textura objetiva (WB apresentou diferença entre os três grupos de bifes maturados, nos dois músculos testados; o grupo com 14 dias de maturação foi mais macio que o tempo 7, e este, mais macio que o tempo 0. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os tratamentos nutricionais para a característica de cor, entretanto, houve efeito significativo para o período de maturação. A carne maturada (tempos 7 e 14 foi mais macia e brilhante, e suas cores, mais realçadas. A maturação teve grande impacto sobre a maciez em touros jovens produzindo carcaças de 230 kg e com 4 mm de espessura de gordura.

  14. Desempenho de animais alimentados com lâminas foliares, em pastagem de capim-marandu Performance of animals fed with green leaf in marandu grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Armando Zago Machado

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de animais, alimentados com lâminas de folhas verdes (LFV a 4, 8, 12 e 16% do peso vivo por dia, em pastagens de capim-marandu. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições. A avaliação do desempenho dos novilhos F1 Nelore e Charolês foi realizada de outubro de 2002 a junho de 2005, nas estações das águas, em Dourados, MS. Cada unidade experimental foi pastejada em regime de pastejo contínuo e carga animal variável, com quatro animais traçadores que permaneceram no experimento dos 15 aos 23 meses de idade, quando foram abatidos. Foi obtido efeito linear entre as ofertas pretendidas e as observadas. A consistência da ingestão de folhas verdes, independentemente das ofertas, foi evidenciada em novilhos fistulados no esôfago. O ganho médio diário apresentou resposta quadrática às ofertas de LFV, com máximo resultado com a oferta de 11,7% do peso vivo. A carga animal e o ganho por hectare apresentaram resposta quadrática negativa ao aumento das ofertas. As ofertas de 8 a 12% do peso vivo permitem que os animais consumam as folhas verdes, com boa qualidade da dieta.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of animals, fed with green leaves at 4, 8, 12 and 16% of live weight per day, in marandu grass pastures. The experimental design was in complete randomized blocks, with two replications. Animal performance evaluations were made from October 2002 to June 2005, with steers F1 Nelore and Charolais, along the rainy seasons, in Dourados County, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Four tester animals - 15 to 23 months old - grazed each experimental unit, under continuous grazing and put-and-take technique; the animals were, afterwards, slaughtered. Linear effect was obtained for the intended and observed forage allowances. The consistency of green leaf ingestions by the animals (independently of the offers was evidenced in esophagus

  15. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com rações contendo quatro níveis de inclusão do farelo de mamona

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    Marieta Maria Martins Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de observar a influência de quatro níveis de substituição (0; 50; 75 ou 100% do farelo de soja pelo farelo de mamona destoxificado em rações para ovinos mestiços 1/2 Morada Nova x 1/2 SPRD (sem padrão racial definido sobre o seu comportamento ingestivo. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os ovinos eram machos, inteiros, com peso corporal 18,01 ± 1,41 kg e idade média de 7 meses. Foram avaliadas atividades contínuas (tempo de alimentação, ruminação, outras atividades e ócio e pontuais (consumo de sal, ingestão de água, micção e defecação, como também a eficiência de alimentação (EAL, eficiência de ruminação (ERU, tempo de alimentação (TAL, tempo de ruminação (TRU, tempo de mastigação total (TMT, número de bolos ruminais (BOL, tempo de mastigações merícicas por bolo ruminal (MMtb e número de mastigações merícicas por bolo ruminal (MMnb. As variáveis tempo de alimentação, ruminação, outras atividades, ócio, consumo de sal e ingestão de água foram afetadas (P<0,05, especialmente o MMnb, que foi inferior para os animais alimentados com as rações com 100% de substituição, possivelmente pelo seu menor teor de fibra (oriundo da forragem, sendo possível a substituição total do farelo de soja pelo farelo de mamona destoxificado.

  16. Meta-análise da digestibilidade ileal de aminoácidos e minerais em suínos alimentados com dietas contendo enzimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheila Roberta Lehnen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio da meta-análise, o efeito da fitase e da xilanase sobre a digestibilidade ileal aparente (DIa de aminoácidos, cálcio e fósforo, em suínos em fase de crescimento. A base de dados consistiu de 21 artigos publicados entre 1998 e 2009, no total de 82 tratamentos e 644 suínos. A meta-análise foi realizada por análise gráfica, de correlação, de variância-covariância. As concentrações de fósforo fítico e as frações fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e lignina em detergente ácido, nas dietas, apresentaram correlações baixas e negativas com a DIa do cálcio, fósforo e aminoácidos. A adição de fitase às dietas aumentou em 2% a DIa da arginina, em 14% a do cálcio e em 34% a do fósforo. A DIa da arginina, fenilalanina, isoleucina e lisina foi 3,3% superior em suínos alimentados com dietas com xilanase, em relação às dietas sem a enzima. O fósforo fítico e as fibras, nas dietas, reduzem a DIa do cálcio, do fósforo e dos aminoácidos essenciais. O uso de fitase e xilanase, nas dietas, melhora o aproveitamento de cálcio, fósforo e alguns aminoácidos. No entanto, o excesso de cálcio e fósforo nas dietas reduz a ação da fitase sobre a digestibilidade ileal dos nutrientes.

  17. Níveis de energia no desempenho e características da carcaça de cordeiros alimentados em creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Cledson Augusto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Ovinocultura da Universidade de Marília, objetivando estudar os efeitos de três níveis de energia (2,6; 2,8 e 3,0 Mcal EM/kg MS na ração de cordeiros inteiros Suffolk criados em creep feeding, sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça. Na parição numerava-se e registravam-se o peso ao nascer dos cordeiros que, posteriormente, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente, compondo doze repetições por tratamento. As rações foram isoprotéicas (18,46% PB fornecidas ad libitum duas vezes ao dia, pesando-se as respectivas sobras. Os cordeiros foram pesados a cada 14 dias, permanecendo com as ovelhas até atingirem o peso vivo final, preestabelecido em 31 kg. Em seguida, os cordeiros permaneceram em jejum alimentar por 16 horas, até o momento do abate, obtendo-se o peso vivo ao abate. Após o abate, registraram-se os pesos da carcaça quente e do conteúdo digestivo, para o cálculo do peso de corpo vazio. As carcaças permanecerem por 24 horas na câmara de refrigeração em temperatura de 5ºC, obtendo-se o peso da carcaça fria. Para o ganho médio diário ocorreu diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, utilizando-se como covariável a idade de abate, com melhor desempenho para os cordeiros que receberam a ração com 3,0 Mcal EM. Para as características da carcaça não houve efeito dos tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o nível 3,0 Mcal EM foi o mais indicado para a ração de cordeiros Suffolk alimentados e terminados em creep feeding.

  18. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente em bezerros da raça holandesa alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de volumoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Signoretti

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de volumoso nas dietas sobre os consumos e as digestibilidades aparentes de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos totais (CHOT e energia bruta (EB e sobre os consumos de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Trinta e cinco bezerros da raça Holandesa puros por cruzamento, não-castrados, com idade média de 60 dias e peso vivo inicial de 78 kg, foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com nove repetições por dieta, exceto para a dieta com 10% de volumoso, com oito repetições. Os animais foram alimentados à vontade com dietas contendo níveis de 10, 25, 40 e 55% de volumoso, na base da MS, usando-se feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, fubá de milho e farelo de soja, os quais constituíram dietas com aproximadamente 16% de PB. O óxido crômico foi usado para obtenção das estimativas dos fluxos de MS fecal. Os carboidratos totais foram obtidos por 100 - (%PB + %EE + %Cinzas. O consumo de NDT foi obtido por (cPB - PBf + 2,25 (cEE - EEf + (cCHOT - CHOTf, em que c significa consumo e f, excreção fecal. Não houve efeito dos níveis de volumoso nas dietas sobre os consumos de MS e MO (kg/dia, % PV e g/kg0,75 e de PB e CHOT (kg/dia e % PV. O consumo de FDN (kg/dia, %PV e g/kg0,75 aumentou, enquanto o consumo de EE e NDT (em kg/dia e %PV reduziu linearmente em função dos níveis de volumoso na dieta. Houve efeito linear decrescente sobre as digestibilidades aparentes de MS, MO, PB, EE, CHOT e EB, em função do aumento dos níveis de volumoso nas dietas, enquanto a digestibilidade aparente da FDN não foi influenciada. Os consumos de EE, FDN e NDT e as digestibilidades aparentes de MS, MO, EE, PB, CHOT e EB foram influenciados pelos níveis de volumoso nas dietas.

  19. Desempenho produtivo e respostas fisiopatológicas de tambaquis alimentados com ração suplementada com β-glucano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsandra Campos Chagas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do imunoestimulante β-glucano na dieta do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum sobre o desempenho produtivo, as respostas fisiológicas e imunológicas, e a resistência ao desafio com Aeromonas hydrophila. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 5x2, com cinco níveis de β-glucano na dieta (0, 0,1, 0,2, 0,4 e 0,8% e dois tempos de amostragem (antes e após o desafio com A. hydrophila, com três repetições. Os peixes (28,65±0,49 g; 12,14±0,07 cm foram alimentados, por 60 dias, com dieta (28% de proteína bruta suplementada com preparação comercial de β-glucano. Após o período de alimentação, avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo, e os peixes foram desafiados com A. hydrophila. Os parâmetros hematológicos e imunológicos (concentração e atividade de lisozima foram avaliados antes e após o desafio bacteriano. Após o desafio bacteriano, observouse a ocorrência de anemia normocítica-normocrômica. A suplementação com β-glucano não alterou a concentração nem a atividade da lisozima; porém, a menor concentração de β-glucano (0,1% favoreceu maior sobrevivência para a espécie quando desafiada com Aeromonas hydrophila. A suplementação de β-glucano não exerce influência sobre o desempenho produtivo e nem sobre os parâmetros hematológicos do tambaqui.

  20. Entrevista con Juan Marichal.

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    - Consejo de Redacción

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Juan Marichal nació en Santa Cruz de Tenerife, en 1922, en el seno de una familia ligada al partido republicano insular. Muy joven, en 1935, se trasladó a Madrid, ciudad en la que vive el estallido de la guerra civil. En 1937, pasa a Valencia y luego a Barcelona; tras su exilio en 1938, prosigue sus estudios secundarios en un liceo de París, concluyéndolos en Casablanca. En 1941 emigra a México, formándose en la UNAM: fue alumno de los exiliados José Gaos y Joaquín Xirau así como del mexicano Edmundo O 'Gorman. Luego, becado en Princeton desde 1946, lo fue de América Castro, donde preparó una tesis sobre Feijoo. Apoyado en las vastas perspectivas de sus maestros, fue orientándose hada nuestra historia intelectual, desde el siglo XV hasta hoy. Su carrera profesional se ha desarrollado en los Estados Unidos (coincidiendo con Amado Alonso y con Ferrater Mora: ha sido profesor de estudios hispánicos en la Universidad de Harvard, desde 1948 hasta 1988, año en que se jubiló voluntariamente como numerario (aunque había permanecido en el Bryn Mawr College, entre 1953 y 1957. A este trabajo se suman, con todo, sus conferencias en América Latina y en España. Ha colaborado en las revistas más importantes, en este campo, de México, Nueva York, Puerto Rico, La Habana, Buenos Aires o París así como de las españolas, desde los sesenta. Juan Marichal -hoy, miembro de la Junta Directiva de los Amigos de la Residencia de Estudiantes, director del Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza y asociado al Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset-, reside en España desde otoño de 1989: se considera a sí mismo «voluntario en Madrid», como había dicho Alfonso Reyes en su estancia madrileña (1914-1924.

  1. Interactions between Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes and the bivalve pathogens Vibrio aestuarianus 01/032 and Vibrio splendidus LGP32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, T; Fabbri, R; Cortese, K; Smerilli, A; Ciacci, C; Grande, C; Vezzulli, L; Pruzzo, C; Canesi, L

    2013-12-01

    Marine bivalves can accumulate large numbers of bacteria, in particular Vibrio species, whose persistence in bivalve tissues largely depends on their sensitivity to the bactericidal activity of circulating hemocytes and hemolymph soluble factors. The interactions between vibrios and hemolymph have been investigated, in particular in bivalve species susceptible to infection by certain Vibrio spp. and strains. In this work, the effects of two bivalve pathogens, Vibrio splendidus LGP32 (V.s.) and Vibrio aestuarianus 01/032 (V.a.), isolated from oyster mortality outbreaks, on the hemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis were investigated. In vitro, V.s., but not V.a., induced a dramatic decrease in lysosomal membrane stability-LMS in the hemocytes; both vibrios induced a moderate lysozyme release, with V.s. > V.a.. The V.s.-induced decrease in LMS was mediated by activation of PI-3Kinase, as shown by use of different kinase inhibitors. TEM analysis showed rapid internalization of both vibrios; however, V.s. lead to cellular and lysosomal damage and was able to survive within the hemocytes, whereas significant killing of V.a. was observed. In vivo, in mussels challenged with either vibrio and sampled at 6, 24 and 96 h post-injection, transient decreases in hemocyte LMS and progressive increases in serum lysozyme activity were observed, with V.s. > V.a.. Moreover, whereas V.a. was efficiently cleared from hemolymph, V.s. showed significant growth, that was maximal at 24 h p.i. when lowest LMS values were recorded in the hemocytes. Both vibrios also induced significant decreases in LMS in the digestive gland, again with V.s. > V.a.. The results indicate distinct interactions between mussel hemocytes and the two vibrio strains tested. The effects of V.s. may be due to the capacity of this strain to interfere with the signaling pathways involved in hemocyte function, thus escaping the bactericidal activity of the host cell, as observed for certain mammalian pathogens

  2. Mirando con la cabeza

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales, Capi

    2006-01-01

    Las matemáticas y la pintura trabajan con ideas. La palabra idea viene del griego ειδω, que significa ver, mirar u observar, y de ειδοζ, que significa figura, forma, aspecto o visión. Detrás de una montaña concreta está la idea de montaña, un dibujo abstracto, unas líneas que permiten reconocer la montaña detrás de las rocas, los pinos o la nieve. La diferencia entre este árbol y árbol, entre un círculo que dibujamos en la pizarra y círculo: la diferencia entre la cosa y la idea de la cosa. E...

  3. Musicalizarte con las Tics

    OpenAIRE

    Gamarra, Patricia Mabel; Velázquez, Helvecia Mercedes del Rocío; Verón, José María

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo hace referencia a un relato de experiencia didáctica desarrollada en el Instituto Superior de Música “Prof. Carmelo H. de Biasi” de Corrientes- Argentina, donde el área de interés de Tecnología en Educación se dirige hacia “Aplicación de las TIC en Educación/ Experiencias concretas de utilización de TIC en Educación”. En el diagnóstico realizado en la institución, se pudo observar la escasa transversalidad e interrelación con las distintas áreas curriculares como ser: l...

  4. Entrevista con Georges Duby.

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    - Consejo de Redacción

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Duby, heredero de dos grandes historiadores como Marc Bloch y Lucien Febvre, es uno de los más importantes medievalistas europeos. Fue, y sigue siendo, un motor de la importante reforma en la historia producida desde los sesenta. En sus primeros trabajos se acusa la recepción de las ideas económicas y geográficas de la mejor historiografía. Su riguroso estudio sobre la base material de la Edad Media, le permitirá luego irrumpir en la historia de las mentalidades, analizando, como decía Febvre, el utillaje mental (vocabulario, sintaxis, lugares comunes, cuadros lógicos, etc. del Medioevo. Así, el ejemplo de Mauss y LéviStrauss le anima a trabajar sobre el matrimonio, la sexualidad y ciertos sistemas del pensamiento: el primero, con su defensa de los hechos sociales totales, y el segundo, que buscaba las dimensiones simbólicas de lo social, le impulsan a trabajar sobre la ideología entendida no como mero reflejo de la situación material sino como «proyecto de acción sobre lo vivido». A su obra individual, atenta a los impulsos culturales más vivos, se suma su empuje decisivo en la realización de proyectos colectivos como la Historia de la vida privada o la Historia de las mujeres. Prácticamente, han sido traducidos todos sus libros al castellano, y han podido verse en España asimismo varios de sus programas televisivos (ha sido presidente de la SEPT, cadena de televisión cultural fundada en 1985. La amplitud de sus intereses intelectuales, transmitidos en su obra con un lenguaje a la vez muy claro y bellamente elaborado, se hace palpable también en este diálogo.

  5. Feeding Dry Olive Cake Modifies Subcutaneous Fat Composition in Lambs, Noting Cake Resistance to Degradation and Peroxidation Alimentación con Alperujo Modifica la Composición de Grasa Subcutánea en Corderos, con una Nota en la Resistencia del Alperujo a Degradación y Peroxidación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Vera

    2009-12-01

    mediterráneo (GRAZE; (b corderos destetados alimentados con una ración control (CONC, y (c corderos destetados alimentados con una ración basada en alperujo (CAKE. Al final del período experimental de 28 d los corderos fueron sacrificados, se evaluaron parámetros de calidad de la carcasa y se tomaron muestras de grasa subcutánea para determinación del perfil de ácidos grasos. No hubo diferencias significativas en ganancia de peso, peso de la carcasa y en la mayoría de los parámetros de calidad de la canal. Por el contrario, se encontraron diferencias significativas y considerables en el contenido de varios ácidos grasos. Las reses de CAKE tuvieron menor contenido de ácido palmítico y mayor de ácidos esteárico y oleico. Los índices aterogénicos y trombogénicos mejoraron con el suministro de alperujo. El análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante diferenciaron con efectividad a los tratamientos de alimentación y se sugiere que podrían ser aplicables para propósitos de trazabilidad. Un experimento de laboratorio demostró que con o sin la adición de vitamina E, el alperujo seco no sufrió cambios considerables en la calidad de sus lípidos con el aumento en el tiempo de almacenamiento.

  6. Using enzymatic biomarkers in mussel, "Mytilus galloprovincialis", for the assessment of coastal marine pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Liñan, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Los organismos acuáticos, especialmente los bivalvos marinos, exhiben una variedad de cambios en la actividad de enzimas relacionadas con las defensas antioxidantes, biotransformación y otros procesos fisiológicos afectados por los productos químicos que se pueden utilizar como biomarcadores de exposición y efectos de los contaminantes. Sin embargo, el uso de estos biomarcadores en la vigilancia rutinaria de la contaminación exige el conocimiento previo de la variabilidad natural de esas resp...

  7. Desenvolvimento de núcleos de Apis mellifera alimentados com suplemento aminoácido vitamínico, Promotor L® Development of nuclei Apis mellifera fed with the vitaminic amino acid supplement Promotor L®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Laércio Castagnino

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento na área de cria de 14 núcleos com quatro favos a partir da divisão de nove colméias de abelhas Apis mellifera africanizada, distribuídos em dois tratamentos: TPL - núcleos alimentados com açúcar invertido + 3,5ml do suplemento de aminoácido vitamínico (Promotor L®, composto por seis núcleos e o TAI - núcleos alimentados com açúcar invertido, composto por oito núcleos. Os núcleos foram alimentados semanalmente em alimentadores individuais tipo bandeja, e as avaliações realizadas em quatro períodos, totalizando 74 dias Os tratamentos não apresentaram diferença significativa, sendo que, numericamente, o TPL apresentou área de cria inferior ao TAI (233,63 vs. 273,02cm², respectivamente. Quanto aos períodos o quarto período foi superior (PThe development in the area of creates was studied of 14 nuclei with four mass off cells from the division of nine beehives of africanized Apis mellifera honeybees, distributed in two treatments: TPL - nuclei fed with inverted sugar + 3.5ml of the vitaminic amino acid supplement (Promotor L®, composition for six nuclei and TAI - nuclei fed with composed inverted sugar for eight nuclei. The nuclei had been fed weekly in individual feeder's type tray, and the evaluations carried through in four periods, totalizing 74 days. The treatments had not presented significant difference, being that, number the TPL presented area of creates inferior to TAI (233.63 versus. 273.02cm², respectively. How much to the periods the four was superior (P<0.05 to the first and as second, being that the third did not present significant difference (P<0.05 in relation to the others. The use of the TAI was economically more favorable in relation to the TPL in R$0.21 in relation to the cost for production of 1kg of food.

  8. preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  9. Minería de datos con información de contexto para la clasificación de imágenes satelitales / Data mining with context information for satellite image classifi cation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. González

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un esquema de clasifi cación multi-modelos para imágenes satelitales apoyado con información de contexto conel que se mejora la precisión de una pre-clasifi cación obtenida conalgoritmos paramétricos. El nuevo esquema utiliza una red semántica como representación de conocimiento que almacena patrones creados con un ensamble de árboles de decisión (alimentado con características espectrales, de textura y geométricas para describir a las regiones de interés y por otro lado patrones espaciales creados a partir de unarepresentación basada en grafos (con información de contexto a partir de relaciones espaciales entre las regiones de interés. Los resultados experimentales muestran que el esquema de clasifi cación propuesto mejora la precisión de la pre-clasifi cación de los algoritmos paramétricosal utilizar información de contexto.

  10. Combined effects of seawater acidification and high temperature on hemocyte parameters in the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fangli; Lu, Weiqun; Shang, Yueyong; Kong, Hui; Li, Lisha; Sui, Yanming; Hu, Menghong; Wang, Youji

    2016-09-01

    In this work, flow cytometry was used to examine the immune responses of hemocytes in the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to six combinations of pH (7.3, 7.7, and 8.1) and temperature (25 °C and 30 °C) for 14 days. Temperature showed significant effects on all immune parameters throughout the experiment. Generally, the total hemocyte count (THC), phagocytosis (Pha), esterase (Est), and lysosomal content (Lyso) significantly decreased at high temperature. By contrast, the hemocyte mortality (Hm) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased at high temperature. Moreover, pH significantly influenced all the immune parameters, but its effects are not as strong as those of temperature; only Hm, Est, and THC were negatively affected by pH throughout the experiment. After 7 days, low pH resulted in decreased Lyso and increased Hm and ROS levels. Significant interactions between temperature and pH in most measured parameters from 7 days suggested that long-term combined stress, i.e., low pH and high temperature, would cause more severe effects on mussel health than an individual stressor in the field.

  11. Length- and weight-dependent clearance rates of juvenile mussels ( Mytilus edulis) on various planktonic prey items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P.; Troost, K.; Riegman, R.; van der Meer, J.

    2015-03-01

    Filtration capacity and feeding behaviour has been intensely studied for adult mussels ( Mytilus edulis), but less information is available for juvenile mussels (1.5-25 mm, mussel seed collectors in the Netherlands prompted the need for more detailed information on juvenile mussel behaviour. To estimate the impact of juvenile populations on ecosystem carrying capacity, information on clearance rate as well as usage of different prey items is essential. Clearance rates were measured in an experimental study, incubating juvenile mussels in natural sea water. Rates were related to isometrics as well as specified for the prey items bacteria, picophytoplankton (mussels depends on shell length2, while the relationship between clearance rate and weight was more variable. Length is thus a better parameter for estimating clearance rate than weight. Ciliates and nanophytoplankton were cleared at comparable, but variable rates, while picoalgae were cleared from the water at the rate of 11-64 % compared to nanophytoplankton. For bacteria, the clearance rate was on average 9 %. This study showed different retention of particles of similar size (picoalgae and bacteria) as well as variability in particle retention for the different prey items. This variable retention efficiency could not be related to seston concentration nor to dominance in cell size. The results from this study can be used to estimate the effect of mussel seed collectors on the carrying capacity of the Dutch Wadden Sea.

  12. A protein binding site in the M mitochondrial genome of Mytilus galloprovincialis may be responsible for its paternal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Eleni; Kravariti, Lara; Vasilopoulos, Themistoklis; Zouros, Eleftherios; Rodakis, George C

    2015-05-10

    Sea mussels (genus Mytilus) have two mitochondrial genomes in obligatory co-existence, one that is transmitted through the egg and the other through the sperm. The phenomenon, known as Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), is presently known to occur in more than 40 molluscan bivalve species. Females and the somatic tissues of males contain mainly the maternal (F) genome. In contrast, the sperm contains only the paternal (M) genome. Through electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) experiments we have identified a sequence element in the control region (CR) of the M genome that acts as a binding site for the formation of a complex with a protein factor that occurs in the male gonad. An adenine tract upstream to the element is also essential for the formation of the complex. The reaction is highly specific. It does not occur with protein extracts from the female gonad or from a male or female somatic tissue. Further experiments showed that the interaction takes place in mitochondria surrounding the nucleus of the cells of male gonads, suggesting a distinct role of perinuclear mitochondria. We propose that at a certain point during spermatogenesis mitochondria are subject to degradation and that perinuclear mitochondria with the M mtDNA-protein complex are protected from this degradation with the result that mature spermatozoa contain only the paternal mitochondrial genome.

  13. Integrated biomarker response index used in laboratory exposure of the mussel Mytilus edulis to water accommodated fractions of crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhang, Xinxin; Hu, Shunxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-03-01

    Oil pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and to set up a quantitative evaluation method in monitoring the environmental pollution is of great importance. Individuals of Mytilus edulis, collected from the coastal area of Qingdao, were thus exposed to the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil under controlled lab conditions. Mussels were exposed to different concentrations of WAFs for 96h acute toxicity experiment and 15d chronic toxicity experiment, a 7d restoration experiment was conducted after toxicity experiment as well. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GST, GPx and GR) were measured in gills of mussels. The purpose of the study was to screen out a series of sensitive biomarkers and set up an Integrated Biomarker Response index (IBR) for marine oil pollution monitoring. Results showed: (1) WAFs exposure induced the increased activities of CAT, GST, GPx and GR in gills, revealing a stimulation effect on the antioxidant system. Activities of enzymes were more significantly altered in response to higher concentrations of WAFs (2.3 and 5.0 mg.L-1) than lower concentrations (0.5 and 1.1 mg.L-1). After restoration experiment, the activities decreased to the initial levels. (2) IBR was set up base on the laboratory experiment, which showed a positive relationship with WAFs exposure concentrations. Therefore, IBR was suggested to be a potentially useful tool in assessing the oil pollution.

  14. Integrated biomarker assessment of the effects of tailing discharges from an iron ore mine using blue mussels (Mytilus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven J; Harman, Christopher; Hultman, Maria T; Berge, John Arthur

    2015-08-15

    The blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) has been used to assess the potential biological effects of the discharge effluent from the Sydvaranger mine, which releases its tailings into Bøk fjord at Kirkenes in the north of Norway. Metal bioaccumulation and a suite of biomarkers were measured in mussels positioned for 6 weeks at varying distances from the discharge outlet. The biomarkers used included: stress on stress (SS); condition index (CI); cellular energy allocation (CEA); micronuclei formation (MN); lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), basophilic cell volume (VvBAS); and neutral lipid (NL) accumulation. The individual biomarkers were integrated using the integrated biological response (IBR/n) index. The accumulation of Fe was significantly higher in mussels located closer to the discharge outlet, indicating that these mussels had been exposed to the suspended mine effluent. The IBR/n results were in good agreement with the location of the mussels in relation to the distance from the discharge outlet and expected exposure to the mine effluent. Several biomarkers showed responses resulting in higher IBR/n values of analysed mussels within a 3 km distance from the tailing discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages.

  16. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., impact in coastal areas are concerns and interest in developing deep water (> 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  17. Complete sequences of the highly rearranged molluscan mitochondrial genomes of the scaphopod graptacme eborea and the bivalve mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Medina, Monica; Rosenberg, Lewis A.

    2004-01-31

    We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scaphopod mollusk Graptacme eborea (Conrad, 1846) (14,492 nts) and completed the sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (16,740 nts). (The name Graptacme eborea is a revision of the species formerly known as Dentalium eboreum.) G. eborea mtDNA contains the 37 genes that are typically found and has the genes divided about evenly between the two strands, but M. edulis contains an extra trnM and is missing atp8, and has all genes on the same strand. Each has a highly rearranged gene order relative to each other and to all other studied mtDNAs. G. eborea mtDNA has almost no strand skew, but the coding strand of M. edulis mtDNA is very rich in G and T. This is reflected in differential codon usage patterns and even in amino acid compositions. G. eborea mtDNA has fewer non-coding nucleotides than any other mtDNA studied to date, with the largest non-coding region being only 24 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis using 2,420 aligned amino acid positions of concatenated proteins weakly supports an association of the scaphopod with gastropods to the exclusion of Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, and Polyplacophora, but is generally unable to convincingly resolve the relationships among major groups of the Lophotrochozoa, in contrast to the good resolution seen for several other major metazoan groups.

  18. A possible source for dissolved-phase PAH signals observed in Mytilus samples throughout Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.R. [Payne Environmental Consultants Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States); Driskell, W.B. [William B. Driskell Consultant, Seattle, WA (United States); Janka, D. [Auklet Charter Services Inc., Cordova, AK (United States)

    2009-07-01

    As part of the long term environmental monitoring program of Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), the Regional Citizens' Advisory Council has monitored the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and saturated hydrocarbon (SHC) contaminants in mussel samples (Mytilus trossulus). The source of the dissolved-phase signal remains unknown, although possibilities include atmospheric dust and soot, forest fires, some upwelling/climate-driven events, residues leaching from buried EVOS oil in PWS, and harbor operations such as wastewater discharge and small oil and diesel spills. In order to evaluate whether the lower-molecular-weight PAH may be leaching from water-borne sedimentary materials, a modest scoping experiment was conducted in July 2007 using intertidal sediments. When clean seawater was partitioned for 4 days against Constantine Harbor intertidal sediments and then filtered to remove SPM, increases of dissolved naphthalene, C1-naphthalene, and biphenyl were linearly correlated with sediment loadings. These results suggest that the sediments may be a source of these 3 more water-soluble PAHs in the filtered seawater extracts. The study supports the hypothesis that sedimentary materials may contribute to the pervasive, low level, dissolved-phase signal of the lower-molecular-weight PAH. Although the hydrocarbon source for the dissolved signal is unknown, it is evident that the higher-molecular-weight PAH remains bound within a solid matrix. 30 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs.

  19. Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Directed against Mytilus spp Larvae Reveals an Antigen Involved in Shell Biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Iglesias, Juan; Pérez-Estévez, Daniel; Lorenzo-Abalde, Silvia; Sánchez-Correa, Beatriz; Quiroga, María Isabel; Fuentes, José M; González-Fernández, África

    2016-01-01

    The M22.8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) developed against an antigen expressed at the mussel larval and postlarval stages of Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied on adult samples. Antigenic characterization by Western blot showed that the antigen MSP22.8 has a restricted distribution that includes mantle edge tissue, extrapallial fluid, extrapallial fluid hemocytes, and the shell organic matrix of adult samples. Other tissues such as central mantle, gonadal tissue, digestive gland, labial palps, foot, and byssal retractor muscle did not express the antigen. Immunohistochemistry assays identified MSP22.8 in cells located in the outer fold epithelium of the mantle edge up to the pallial line. Flow cytometry analysis showed that hemocytes from the extrapallial fluid also contain the antigen intracellularly. Furthermore, hemocytes from hemolymph have the ability to internalize the antigen when exposed to a cell-free extrapallial fluid solution. Our findings indicate that hemocytes could play an important role in the biomineralization process and, as a consequence, they have been included in a model of shell formation. This is the first report concerning a protein secreted by the mantle edge into the extrapallial space and how it becomes part of the shell matrix framework in M. galloprovincialis mussels.

  20. Interactive effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature on biomineralization and amino acid metabolism in the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-11-01

    Seawater acidification and warming resulting from anthropogenic production of carbon dioxide are increasing threats to marine ecosystems. Previous studies have documented the effects of either seawater acidification or warming on marine calcifiers; however, the combined effects of these stressors are poorly understood. In our study, we examined the interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(CO2)) and temperature on biomineralization and amino acid content in an ecologically and economically important mussel, Mytilus edulis. Adult M. edulis were reared at different combinations of P(CO2) (pH 8.1 and 7.8) and temperature (19, 22 and 25°C) for 2 months. The results indicated that elevated P(CO2) significantly decreased the net calcification rate, the calcium content and the Ca/Mg ratio of the shells, induced the differential expression of biomineralization-related genes, modified shell ultrastructure and altered amino acid content, implying significant effects of seawater acidification on biomineralization and amino acid metabolism. Notably, elevated temperature enhanced the effects of seawater acidification on these parameters. The shell breaking force significantly decreased under elevated P(CO2), but the effect was not exacerbated by elevated temperature. The results suggest that the interactive effects of seawater acidification and elevated temperature on mussels are likely to have ecological and functional implications. This study is therefore helpful for better understanding the underlying effects of changing marine environments on mussels and other marine calcifiers. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Early and efficient induction of antioxidant defense system in Mytilus galloprovincialis embryos exposed to metals and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadida, Khouloud; Cachot, Jérôme; Clérandeaux, Christelle; Gourves, Pierre-Yves; Banni, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the stress response of early life stages of Mytilus galloprovincialis to the combine effects of selected metals and elevated temperature. For this purpose, we investigated the response of a large panel of oxidative stress markers such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates (TBARS) concentration) and metallothionein accumulation (MT) as well as selected gene transcription level and metal accumulation in mussels larvae exposed to a sub-lethal concentration of Cu (9.54µg/L), Ag (2.55µg/L) and mixture of the two metals (Cu (6.67µg/L)+Ag (1.47µg/L)) along with a temperature gradient (18, 20 and 22°C) for 48h. Cu and Ag applied as single or mixture were differentially accumulated in mussel larvae according to the exposure temperature. Sod, cat, gst and mt-10 gene transcription levels showed an important increase in larvae exposed to Cu, Ag or to the mix compared to the control condition at 18°C. The same pattern but with higher induction levels was recorded in larvae co-exposed to metals at 20°C. At 22°C, a significant decrease in mRNA abundance of cat, gst and sod and a significant up-regulation of mts targets (mt10 and mt20) were observed.

  2. Resource subsidies from multi-trophic aquaculture affect isotopic niche width in wild blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldrick, C. K.; Jelinski, D. E.

    2016-05-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are boreo-temperate, filter-feeding bivalves common to intertidal areas. As filter-feeders they have been employed in open-water, multi-tropic aquaculture systems to reduce organic benthic loading though the exploitation of suspended particulate organic materials. We compared δ13C and δ15N signatures and the isotopic niches of mussels growing in, and adjacent to, an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) farm in British Columbia, Canada, and using this information evaluated the contribution of aquaculture-derived effluent to their diet. Farm-sampled mussels had the least intraspecific isotopic variation compared to mussels sampled at the reference site. The interaction between time (i.e. sampling dates) and site did not significantly affect the isotopic composition of mussels; however significant variation was detected in δ15N values as a function of sampling date and particulate organic matter. A two-source isotopic mixing model indicated that marine particulate organic matter and IMTA farm effluent were approximately equal in importance (~ 46 % and ~ 54 %, respectively) to the diet of IMTA-retrieved mussels. Uptake of IMTA farm waste by M. edulis supports their use as economic extractives while also mitigating farmed sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) nutrient loading to the aquatic environment.

  3. Proteomic profiling of cytosolic glutathione transferases from three bivalve species: Corbicula fluminea, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anodonta cygnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, José Carlos; Campos, Alexandre; Osório, Hugo; da Fonseca, Rute; Vasconcelos, Vítor

    2014-01-27

    Suspension-feeding bivalves are considered efficient toxin vectors with a relative insensitivity to toxicants compared to other aquatic organisms. This fact highlights the potential role of detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione transferases (GSTs), in this bivalve resistance. Nevertheless, the GST system has not been extensively described in these organisms. In the present study, cytosolic GSTs isoforms (cGST) were surveyed in three bivalves with different habitats and life strategies: Corbicula fluminea, Anodonta cygnea and Mytilus galloprovincialis. GSTs were purified by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography, and the collection of expressed cGST classes of each bivalve were identified using a proteomic approach. All the purified extracts were also characterized kinetically. Results reveal variations in cGST subunits collection (diversity and properties) between the three tested bivalves. Using proteomics, four pi-class and two sigma-class GST subunits were identified in M. galloprovincialis. C. fluminea also yielded four pi-class and one sigma-class GST subunits. For A. cygnea, two mu-class and one pi-class GST subunits were identified, these being the first record of GSTs from these freshwater mussels. The affinity purified extracts also show differences regarding enzymatic behavior among species. The variations found in cGST collection and kinetics might justify diverse selective advantages for each bivalve organism.

  4. Proteomic Profiling of Cytosolic Glutathione Transferases from Three Bivalve Species: Corbicula fluminea, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anodonta cygnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspension-feeding bivalves are considered efficient toxin vectors with a relative insensitivity to toxicants compared to other aquatic organisms. This fact highlights the potential role of detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione transferases (GSTs, in this bivalve resistance. Nevertheless, the GST system has not been extensively described in these organisms. In the present study, cytosolic GSTs isoforms (cGST were surveyed in three bivalves with different habitats and life strategies: Corbicula fluminea, Anodonta cygnea and Mytilus galloprovincialis. GSTs were purified by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography, and the collection of expressed cGST classes of each bivalve were identified using a proteomic approach. All the purified extracts were also characterized kinetically. Results reveal variations in cGST subunits collection (diversity and properties between the three tested bivalves. Using proteomics, four pi-class and two sigma-class GST subunits were identified in M. galloprovincialis. C. fluminea also yielded four pi-class and one sigma-class GST subunits. For A. cygnea, two mu-class and one pi-class GST subunits were identified, these being the first record of GSTs from these freshwater mussels. The affinity purified extracts also show differences regarding enzymatic behavior among species. The variations found in cGST collection and kinetics might justify diverse selective advantages for each bivalve organism.

  5. Growth-Prediction Model for Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) on Future Optimally Thinned Farm-Ropes in Great Belt (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, Hans

    2016-01-01

    A recently developed BioEnergetic Growth (BEG) model for blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), valid for juvenile mussels, has been further developed to an ‘extended model’ and an alternative ‘ad hoc BEG model’ valid for post-metamorphic mussels, where the latter accounts for changing ambient chl...... a concentration. It was used to predict the growth of M. edulis on optimally thinned farm-ropes in Great Belt (Denmark), from newly settled post-metamorphic mussels of an initial shell size of 0.8 mm to marketable juvenile 30–35 mm ‘mini-mussels’. Such mussels will presumably in the near future be introduced...... as a new Danish, smaller-sized consumer product. Field data for actual growth (from Day 0 = 14 June 2011) showed that size of ‘mini-mussel’ was reached on Day 109 (Oct 1) and length 38 mm on Day 178 (Dec 9) while the corresponding predictions using the extended model were Day 121 (Oct 13) and Day 159 (Nov...

  6. The role of temperature in determining species' vulnerability to ocean acidification: a case study using Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy J Kroeker

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is occurring across a backdrop of concurrent environmental changes that may in turn influence species' responses to OA. Temperature affects many fundamental biological processes and governs key reactions in the seawater carbonate system. It therefore has the potential to offset or exacerbate the effects of OA. While initial studies have examined the combined impacts of warming and OA for a narrow range of climate change scenarios, our mechanistic understanding of the interactive effects of temperature and OA remains limited. Here, we use the blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, as a model species to test how OA affects the growth of a calcifying invertebrate across a wide range of temperatures encompassing their thermal optimum. Mussels were exposed in the laboratory to a factorial combination of low and high pCO2 (400 and 1200 µatm CO2 and temperatures (12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 24°C for one month. Results indicate that the effects of OA on shell growth are highly dependent on temperature. Although high CO2 significantly reduced mussel growth at 14°C, this effect gradually lessened with successive warming to 20°C, illustrating how moderate warming can mediate the effects of OA through temperature's effects on both physiology and seawater geochemistry. Furthermore, the mussels grew thicker shells in warmer conditions independent of CO2 treatment. Together, these results highlight the importance of considering the physiological and geochemical interactions between temperature and carbonate chemistry when interpreting species' vulnerability to OA.

  7. Differential patterns of male and female mtDNA exchange across the Atlantic Ocean in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riginos, Cynthia; Hickerson, Michael J; Henzler, Christine M; Cunningham, Clifford W

    2004-11-01

    Comparisons among loci with differing modes of inheritance can reveal unexpected aspects of population history. We employ a multilocus approach to ask whether two types of independently assorting mitochondrial DNAs (maternally and paternally inherited: F- and M-mtDNA) and a nuclear locus (ITS) yield concordant estimates of gene flow and population divergence. The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is distributed on both North American and European coastlines and these populations are separated by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Gene flow across the Atlantic Ocean differs among loci, with F-mtDNA and ITS showing an imprint of some genetic interchange and M-mtDNA showing no evidence for gene flow. Gene flow of F-mtDNA and ITS causes trans-Atlantic population divergence times to be greatly underestimated for these loci, although a single trans-Atlantic population divergence time (1.2 MYA) can be accommodated by considering all three loci in combination in a coalescent framework. The apparent lack of gene flow for M-mtDNA is not readily explained by different dispersal capacities of male and female mussels. A genetic barrier to M-mtDNA exchange between North American and European mussel populations is likely to explain the observed pattern, perhaps associated with the double uniparental system of mitochondrial DNA inheritance.

  8. Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara L Mackenzie

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments.

  9. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-10-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O{2/-}•), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S -transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  10. An integrated biomarker response index for the mussel Mytilus edulis based on laboratory exposure to anthracene and field transplantation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhou, Bin; Jian, Xiaoyang; Dong, Wenlong; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-01

    Organic pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and it is important to establish quantitative methods for monitoring this pollution. This study screened a series of sensitive biomarkers to construct an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index using Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene under controlled laboratory conditions and the activities of components of the glutathione antioxidant system, and the concentrations of oxidative-damage markers, were measured in the gills and digestive glands. Anthracene exposure resulted in increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide radicals (O 2 • ), indicating that oxidative damage had occurred. Correspondingly, anthracene exposure induced increased activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in digestive glands, and GPx and glutathione reductase (GR) in gills, consistent with stimulation of the antioxidant system. A field experiment was set up, in which mussels from a relatively clean area were transplanted to a contaminated site. One month later, the activities of GST, GPx and GR had increased in several tissues, particularly in the digestive glands. Based on the laboratory experiment, an IBR, which showed a positive relationship with anthracene exposure, was constructed. The IBR is suggested to be a potentially useful tool for assessing anthracene pollution.

  11. Distribution and growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in southern Chilean clams (Venus antiqua) and blue mussels (Mytilus chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Carlos P; Yévenes, Marco; Rodriguez-Benito, Cristina; Godoy, Félix A; Ruiz, Magdalena; Cachicas, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution and growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the inland sea of southern Chile, where the world's largest foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak by the pandemic strain O3:K6 occurred in 2005. Intertidal samples of Mytilus chilensis and Venus antiqua were collected around port towns between 41°28'S and 43°07'S, during April to May 2011 and January to March 2012. We used most probable number real-time polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) for enumeration of the tlh, tdh, and trh genes in freshly harvested bivalves and after a controlled postharvest temperature abuse. Pathogenic markers (tdh+ or trh+) were not detected. Total V. parahaemolyticus (tlh+) in freshly harvested samples reached up to 0.38 and 3.66 log MPN/g in 2011 and 2012, respectively, with values close to or above 3 log MPN/g only near Puerto Montt (41°28'S, 72°55'W). Enrichments by temperature abuse (>2 log MPN/g) occurred mainly in the same zone, regardless of the year, suggesting that both natural or anthropogenic exposure to high temperatures were more critical. Lower salinity and higher sea surface temperature in Reloncaví Sound and Reloncaví Estuary were consistent with our observations and allowed confirmation of the existence of a high-risk zone near Puerto Montt. Based on the results, a strategy focused on risk management inside this defined hazard zone is recommended.

  12. Cryptosporidium parvum genotype IIa and Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in Mytilus galloprovincialis on sale at local food markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Annunziata; Papini, Roberto; Marangi, Marianna; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B

    2014-02-03

    To date, there has been no study to establish the genotypic or subgenotypic identities of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in edible shellfish. Here, we explored the genetic composition of these protists in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) purchased from three markets in the city of Foggia, Italy, from May to December 2012. Samples from the digestive glands, gills and haemolymph were tested by nested PCR, targeting DNA regions within the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene of Cryptosporidium, and the triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) and β-giardin genes of Giardia. In total, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 66.7% of mussels (M. galloprovincialis) tested. Cryptosporidium was detected mostly between May and September 2012. Sequencing of amplicons showed that 60% of mussels contained Cryptosporidium parvum genotype IIa (including subgenotypes A15G2R1, IIaA15G2 and IIaA14G3R1), 23.3% Giardia duodenalis assemblage A, and 6.6% had both genetic types. This is the first report of these types in fresh, edible shellfish, particularly the very commonly consumed M. galloprovincialis from highly frequented fish markets. These genetic types of Cryptosporidium and Giardia are known to infect humans and thus likely to represent a significant public health risk. The poor observance of hygiene rules by vendors, coupled to the large numbers of M. galloprovincialis sold and the eating habits of consumers in Italy, call for more effective sanitary measures pertaining to the selling of fresh shellfish in street markets.

  13. Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida (Psammobiidae from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Cremonte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae, and 56 specimens of clams, Gari solida (Psammobiidae, were collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens (3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive gland epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex (Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills. In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. solida, prokariotic inclusions were found in the digestive gland epithelium and bacteria-like organisms in the gills, often encapsulated by haemocytes; oocysts containing up to 8 sporozoites similar to Nematopsis (Apicomplexa in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high; ciliates belonging to two different species (one of them similar to Trichodina inhabiting the gills; and a turbellarian similar to Paravortex in the lumen of digestive system without apparent host reaction. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens.

  14. Is the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis a tissue of choice for estimating cadmium exposure by means of metallothioneins?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspor, Biserka; Dragun, Zrinka; Erk, Marijana; Ivankovic, Dusica; Pavicic, Jasenka

    2004-10-15

    A study performed over 12 months with caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis in the coastal marine zone, which is under urban pressure, reveals a temporal variation of digestive gland mass, which causes 'biological dilution' of cytosolic metallothionein (MT) and trace metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn) concentrations. The dilution effect was corrected by expressing the cytosolic MT and metal concentrations as the tissue content. Consequently, the changes of the average digestive gland mass coincide with the changes of MT and trace metal contents. From February to June, MT contents are nearly twice and trace metal contents nearly three times higher than those of the other months. The period of increased average digestive gland mass, of MT and trace metal contents probably overlaps with the sexual maturation of mussels (gametogenesis) and enhanced food availability. Since natural factors contribute more to the MT content than the sublethal levels of Cd, the digestive gland of M. galloprovincialis is not considered as a tissue of choice for estimating Cd exposure by means of MTs.

  15. Polonium-210 and selenium in tissues and tissue extracts of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Gulf of Trieste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristan, Urška; Planinšek, Petra; Benedik, Ljudmila; Falnoga, Ingrid; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms such as mussels and fish take up polonium (Po) and selenium (Se), and distribute them into different cellular components and compartments. Due to its high radiotoxicity and possible biomagnification across the marine food chain Po-210 is potentially hazardous, while selenium is an essential trace element for humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the presence and extractability of the elements in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in the Gulf of Trieste. The levels of Po-210 in the samples ranged from 220 to 400 Bq kg(-1) and of Se from 2.6 to 8.2 mg kg(-1), both on a dry matter basis. Using various extraction types and conditions in water, buffer or enzymatic media, the best extractability was obtained with enzymatic extraction (Protease XIV, 1h shaking at 40 °C) and the worst by water extraction (24 h shaking at 37 °C). 90% of Po-210 and 70% of Se was extractable in the first case versus less than 10% of Po-210 and less than 40% of Se in the second. Such evident differences in extractability between the investigated elements point to different metabolic pathways of the two elements. In enzymatic extracts Se speciation revealed three Se compounds (SeCys2, SeMet, one undefined), while Po-210 levels were too low to allow any conclusions about speciation.

  16. Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Directed against Mytilus spp Larvae Reveals an Antigen Involved in Shell Biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Iglesias, Juan; Pérez-Estévez, Daniel; Lorenzo-Abalde, Silvia; Sánchez-Correa, Beatriz; Quiroga, María Isabel; Fuentes, José M.; González-Fernández, África

    2016-01-01

    The M22.8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) developed against an antigen expressed at the mussel larval and postlarval stages of Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied on adult samples. Antigenic characterization by Western blot showed that the antigen MSP22.8 has a restricted distribution that includes mantle edge tissue, extrapallial fluid, extrapallial fluid hemocytes, and the shell organic matrix of adult samples. Other tissues such as central mantle, gonadal tissue, digestive gland, labial palps, foot, and byssal retractor muscle did not express the antigen. Immunohistochemistry assays identified MSP22.8 in cells located in the outer fold epithelium of the mantle edge up to the pallial line. Flow cytometry analysis showed that hemocytes from the extrapallial fluid also contain the antigen intracellularly. Furthermore, hemocytes from hemolymph have the ability to internalize the antigen when exposed to a cell-free extrapallial fluid solution. Our findings indicate that hemocytes could play an important role in the biomineralization process and, as a consequence, they have been included in a model of shell formation. This is the first report concerning a protein secreted by the mantle edge into the extrapallial space and how it becomes part of the shell matrix framework in M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:27008638

  17. Lysosomal membrane stability and metallothionein content in Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.), as biomarkers Combination with trace metal concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domouhtsidou, G.P.; Dailianis, S.; Kaloyianni, M.; Dimitriadis, V.K

    2004-03-01

    The simultaneous study of two biomarkers, the lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) of the digestive gland and the metallothionein (MT) content of the digestive gland, the gills and the mantle/gonad complex of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was examined in an enclosed estuarine system in June and October 2001. Mussels were collected along the Gulf of Thermaikos (northern Greece) from stations displaying a pollution gradient, while Olympiada in the Gulf of Strymonikos was used as a reference station. In addition, the heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) content, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), were evaluated in the digestive gland, the gills and the mantle/gonad complex of mussels collected from the same sites and seasons. LMS values were significantly greater, and the MT content of the studied tissues were significantly less in mussels collected from the reference station compared to mussels from more polluted stations located in the Gulf of Thermaikos. Significant correlation was observed between the MT content of the gills and the mantle/gonad complex with the LMS values.

  18. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis on the toxicological effects of As (III) and As (V) in juvenile mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As) is a known pollutant including two chemical forms (arsenite (As III) and arsenate (As V)), in marine and coastal environment. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is an important environmental monitoring species around the world. In this study, we focused on valence-specific responses of As in juvenile mussel M. galloprovincialis using a combined proteomic and metabolomic approach. Metabolic responses indicated that As (III) mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation in juvenile mussels. As (V) caused disturbances in both osmotic regulation and energy metabolism marked by different metabolic responses, including betaine, taurine, glucose and glycogen. Proteomic responses exhibited that As (III) had a significant negative effect on cytoskeleton and cell structure (actin and collagen alpha-6(VI) chain). As (V) affected some key enzymes involved in energy metabolism (cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, cMDH) and cell development (ornithine aminotransferase and astacin). Overall, all these results confirmed the valence-specific responses in juvenile mussels to As exposures. These findings demonstrate that a combined metabolomic and proteomic approach could provide an important insight into the toxicological effects of environmental pollutants in organisms.

  19. Effects of some environmental parameters on catalase activity measured in the mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to lindane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khessiba, Asma [Laboratoire de Bio-surveillance de l' Environnement, Unite d' Ecologie Cotiere, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021, Zarzouna (Tunisia); Romeo, Michele [UMR INRA-UNSA 1112, ROSE - Reponse des Organismes aux Stress Environnementaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 71, 06108, Nice Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: romeo@unice.fr; Aissa, Patricia [Laboratoire de Bio-surveillance de l' Environnement, Unite d' Ecologie Cotiere, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021, Zarzouna (Tunisia)

    2005-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), collected from the Bizerta lagoon, were acclimated for four days to various conditions of temperature, salinity, photoperiod and food supply and then exposed to lindane at a concentration of 40 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Catalase activity, which is a biomarker of exposure to an oxidative stress, was measured in the whole soft tissues of control and assay groups. In control mussels, high temperature, high salinity and light duration significantly increased catalase activity whereas this activity decreased when food, composed of freeze-dried, algae was available. When mussels were treated with lindane, catalase activities were higher than in controls. This increase was significant with temperature, salinity and light duration. The food supply did not change catalase activity, which was always higher compared to controls. Oxidative stress was shown in mussels exposed to lindane. The results highlight the need of considering abiotic parameters in biomonitoring studies, and especially when using catalase as a biomarker. - Oxidative stress in mussels exposed to lindane was also influenced by a number of abiotic parameters.

  20. Structural and Antimicrobial Features of Peptides Related to Myticin C, a Special Defense Molecule from the Mediterranean Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeneghetti, Stefania; Franzoi, Marco; Damiano, Nunzio; Norante, Rosa; El Halfawy, Nancy M; Mammi, Stefano; Marin, Oriano; Bellanda, Massimo; Venier, Paola

    2015-10-28

    Mussels (Mytilus spp.) have a large repertoire of cysteine-stabilized α,β peptides, and myticin C (MytC) was identified in some hundreds of transcript variants after in vivo immunostimulation. Using a sequence expressed in Italian mussels, we computed the MytC structure and synthesized the mature MytC and related peptide fragments (some of them also prepared in oxidized form) to accurately assess their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Only when tested at pH 5 was the reduced MytC as well as reduced and oxidized fragments including structural β-elements able to inhibit Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (MIC ranges of 4-32 and 8-32 μM, respectively). Such fragments caused selective Escherichia coli killing (MBC of 8-32 μM) but scarcely inhibited two fungal strains. In detail, the antimicrobial β-hairpin MytC[19-40]SOX caused membrane-disrupting effects in E. coli despite its partially ordered conformation in membrane-mimetic environments. In perspective, MytC-derived peptides could be employed to protect acidic mucosal tissues, in cosmetic and food products, and, possibly, as adjuvants in aquaculture.

  1. Gender-specific metabolic responses in gonad of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as a class of brominated flame-retardants. As a congener of PBDEs, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (BDE 47) is the most toxic congener to animals. In this study, we applied metabolomics to characterize the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to BDE 47 for 30 days. Results indicated the apparent gender-specific responses in M. galloprovincialis with BDE 47 exposures (1 and 10 μg/L) at metabolite level. Basically, BDE 47 induced disruption in osmotic regulation and altered energy metabolism in mussels, via differential metabolic pathways. In addition, the hormesis phenomenon was observed in both male and female mussel samples exposed the two concentrations of BDE 47, indicated by the contrarily altered metabolites from two BDE 47 treatments (1 and 10 μg/L), respectively. Overall, this study confirmed the gender-specific responses to BDE 47 exposures in mussels and suggested the gender differences should be considered in marine ecotoxicology.

  2. Modelling trace metal (Hg and Pb) bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis , applied to environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Stellio; Bacher, Cédric

    2006-08-01

    Bioaccumulation of metal within an organism results from interactions between physiological factors (growth, weight loss, absorption and accumulation), chemical factors (metal concentration, speciation and bioavailability) and environmental factors (temperature and food concentration). To account for such interactions in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, we combined bioaccumulation and Dynamic Energy Budget models. Field experiments were conducted to measure uptake and elimination kinetics for two metals (Hg and Pb) in three Mediterranean sites with differences in contamination levels, and to calibrate the models. Metal uptake from water and from food was considered separately. Metal elimination resulted from reproduction and/or from direct excretion. Contributions of physiological variables, such as body size and tissue composition, were quantified. By combining environmental and biological data, the model provided an efficient bio-monitoring tool which can be applied to various coastal environments. An application to the French bio-integrator network (RINBIO) was carried out through inverse analysis and enabled us to assess the real level of contamination in water on the basis of contamination measured in mussels.

  3. Evaluation of Functionality and Biological Responses of Mytilus galloprovincialis after Exposure to Quaternium-15 (Methenamine 3-Chloroallylochloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Maria; Capillo, Gioele; Sanfilippo, Marilena; Palato, Simon; Trischitta, Francesca; Manganaro, Antonio; Faggio, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although the irritant effects of quaternium-15 have been established, little is known about the toxicological consequences induced by this xenobiotic on aquatic invertebrates. The present article reports toxicological, histological and physiological effects of quaternium-15 following the exposure of Mytilus galloprovincialis for 18 days at three different concentrations (0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L). The results demonstrate that at higher concentrations histological damages to M. galloprovincialis gills occur, like melanosis, light exfoliations, increase of mucus production and infiltrative inflammation. In addition digestive gland cells of M. galloprovincialis, were not able to perform the regulation volume decrease (RVD) owing to osmotic stress following the exposure to the preservative. Overall, this first study on quaternium-15 highlights that it can jeopardize both the morphology and vital physiological processes in marine invertebrates, depending on the duration of exposure and the concentration of the preservative, indicating that further studies are necessary to increase our knowledge about the effects of this substance, commonly added to our products of daily use.

  4. Biomonitoring of heavy metals and arsenic on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic Sea using Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Višnja; Lovrencic, Ivanka; Mikelic, Luka; Barisic, Delko; Matasin, Zeljka; Lulic, Stipe; Pezelj, Durdica

    2006-04-01

    Results of two years monitoring of heavy metals and arsenic concentrations in soft tissue of Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are presented. Samples were taken at six localities (five exposed to various pollution sources and one control site) on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic in October 2003 and 2004 and in April 2004 and 2005. All measurements were carried out with source excited Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Method (EDXRF). Measured concentrations were in the following ranges: Pb (2-7 mg/kg); As (4-30 mg/kg); Cr (1-2.9 mg/kg); Mn (2-13 mg/kg); Fe (53.4-719 mg/kg); Ni (0.8-5 mg/kg); Cu (3.7-11.1 mg/kg) and Zn (59.1-273 mg/kg). Maximum values of the most elements were measured in samples from the most polluted Vranjic region. Statistically significant difference among six localities ( p = 0.05) was found for As, Fe and Zn while Mn, Fe and Cu showed significantly higher concentrations in spring period. None of the selected elements showed significant difference between the control and exposed regions.

  5. Seasonal variations of gene expression biomarkers in Mytilus galloprovincialis cultured populations: temperature, oxidative stress and reproductive cycle as major modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarque, Sergio; Prats, Eva; Olivares, Alba; Casado, Marta; Ramón, Montserrat; Piña, Benjamin

    2014-11-15

    The blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis has been used as monitoring organism in many biomonitoring programs because of its broad distribution in South European sea waters and its physiological characteristics. Different pollution-stress biomarkers, including gene expression biomarkers, have been developed to determine its physiological response to the presence of different pollutants. However, the existing information about basal expression profiles is very limited, as very few biomarker-based studies were designed to reflect the natural seasonal variations. In the present study, we analyzed the natural expression patterns of several genes commonly used in biomonitoring, namely ferritin, metallothionein, cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, heat shock protein and the kinase responsive to stress KRS, during an annual life cycle. Analysis of mantle-gonad samples of cultured populations of M. galloprovincialis from the Delta del Ebro (North East Spain) showed natural seasonal variability of these biomarkers, pointing to temperature and oxidative stress as major abiotic modulators. In turn, the reproductive cycle, a process that can be tracked by VCLM7 expression, and known to be influenced by temperature, seems to be the major biotic factor involved in seasonality. Our results illustrate the influence of environmental factors in the physiology of mussels through their annual cycle, a crucial information for the correct interpretation of responses under stress conditions.

  6. Biomonitoring of heavy metals and arsenic on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic Sea using Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orescanin, Visnja [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Laboratory for Radioecology, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10 002 Zagreb (Croatia)]. E-mail: vobescan@irb.hr; Lovrencic, Ivanka [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Laboratory for Radioecology, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10 002 Zagreb (Croatia); Mikelic, Luka [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Laboratory for Radioecology, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10 002 Zagreb (Croatia); Barisic, Delko [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Laboratory for Radioecology, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10 002 Zagreb (Croatia); Matasin, Zeljka [The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia); Lulic, Stipe [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Laboratory for Radioecology, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10 002 Zagreb (Croatia); Pezelj, Durdica [Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zvonimirova 8, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-04-15

    Results of two years monitoring of heavy metals and arsenic concentrations in soft tissue of Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are presented. Samples were taken at six localities (five exposed to various pollution sources and one control site) on the east coast of the Middle Adriatic in October 2003 and 2004 and in April 2004 and 2005. All measurements were carried out with source excited Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Method (EDXRF). Measured concentrations were in the following ranges: Pb (2-7 mg/kg); As (4-30 mg/kg); Cr (1-2.9 mg/kg); Mn (2-13 mg/kg); Fe (53.4-719 mg/kg); Ni (0.8-5 mg/kg); Cu (3.7-11.1 mg/kg) and Zn (59.1-273 mg/kg). Maximum values of the most elements were measured in samples from the most polluted Vranjic region. Statistically significant difference among six localities (p = 0.05) was found for As, Fe and Zn while Mn, Fe and Cu showed significantly higher concentrations in spring period. None of the selected elements showed significant difference between the control and exposed regions.

  7. An integrated proteomic and metabolomic study on the gender-specific responses of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenglong; Li, Fei; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; Sun, Zuodeng; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-02-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), accounting for the largest production of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) along the Laizhou Bay in China, is of great concern due to its diverse toxicities. In this study, we focused on the gender-specific responses of TBBPA in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis using an integrated proteomic and metabolomic approach. After exposure of TBBPA (10 µg L(-1)) for one month, a total of 9 metabolites and 67 proteins were altered in mussel gills from exposed group. The significant changes of metabolites in female mussel gills from exposed group exhibited the disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation, while in male samples only be found the variation of metabolites related to osmotic regulation. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis showed biological differences between male and female mussel gills from solvent control group. The higher levels of proteins related to primary and energy metabolism and defense mechanisms in male mussel gills meant a greater anti-stress capability of male mussels. Further analysis revealed that TBBPA exposure affected multiple biological processes consisting of production and development, material and energy metabolism, signal transduction, gene expression, defense mechanisms and apoptosis in both male and female mussels with different mechanisms. Specially, the responsive proteins of TBBPA in male mussels signified higher tolerance limits than those in female individuals, which was consistent with the biological differences between male and female mussel gills from solvent control group. This work suggested that the gender differences should be considered in ecotoxicology.

  8. Lysosomal membrane stability and metallothioneins in digestive gland of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.) as biomarkers in a field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, S.; Ozretic, B.; Krajnovic-Ozretic, M. [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Center for Marine Research, Rovinj (Croatia); Bobinac, D. [Rijeka Univ., Dept. of Anatomy, Rijeka (Croatia)

    2001-07-01

    The lysosomal membrane destabilisation and the metallothionein content in the digestive gland cells of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.), collected along the east coast of the North Adriatic (Istrian and Kvarnerine coast, Croatia), were examined over a period of four years (1996-1999). The lysosomal membrane stability, as a biomarker of general stress, showed that the membrane labilisation period in mussels from polluted, urban- and industrial-related areas was significantly decreased (p<0.05) when compared to mussels from control, clean sea water sites. In the harbour of Rijeka, the most contaminated site, the lysosomal membrane stability was reduced by more than 70% compared to the control. This method also proved to be a useful biomarker for detection of additional stress caused by short-term hypoxia that occurred once during this study inside the polluted and periodically quite eutrophic Pula Harbour. The concentration of metallothioneins in the mussel digestive gland, as a specific biomarker of exposure to heavy metals, did not reveal significant differences (p<0.05) between sites covered by this study. (Author)

  9. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses on the gender-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to tetrabromobisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Wei, Lei; Zhao, Jianmin

    2014-12-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) accounts for the largest production of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) along the Laizhou Bay in China and is the most widely used BFR in industrial products. It can induce diverse toxicities including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and endocrine disrupting effects in mammalian and fish models. In this work, we applied iTRAQ-based proteomics to investigate the gender-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to TBBPA. Thirty-one proteins were differentially expressed in hepatopancreas between male and female mussels, which clearly indicated the biological differences between male and female mussels at the protein level. After exposure of TBBPA (18.4 nmol/L) for one month, a total of 60 proteins were differentially expressed in response to the TBBPA treatment in mussel hepatopancreas, among which 33 and 29 proteins were significantly altered in TBBPA-treated male and female mussel samples, respectively. Only two of the 60 proteins were commonly altered in both male and female mussel samples exposed to TBBPA. Based on KEGG analysis, these differentially expressed proteins of TBBPA-induced effects were assigned to several groups, including cytoskeleton, reproduction and development, metabolism, signal transduction, gene expression, stress response and apoptosis. Overall, results indicated that TBBPA exposure could induce apoptosis, oxidative and immune stresses and disruption in energy, protein and lipid metabolisms in both male and female mussels with different mechanisms. This work suggested that the gender differences should be considered in ecotoxicoproteomics.

  10. Genotoxic potential and heart rate disorders in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Superdispersant-25 and dispersed diesel oil.

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    Martinović, Rajko; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Kostić, Jovana; Marković, Sandra; Gačić, Zoran; Kljajić, Zoran; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2015-07-01

    The effects of ex situ exposure of Mytilus galloprovincialis to Superdispersant-25 (S-25), diesel oil and dispersed diesel oil mixtures were studied by the impact on level of DNA damage in haemocytes (comet assay) and the cardiac activity patterns of mussels. Specimens were exposed for 72 h in a static system to diesel oil (100 μL/L and 1 mL/L), S-25 (5 and 50 μL/L), and dispersed diesel oil mixtures M1 (diesel oil 100 μL/L + S-25 5 μL/L) and M2 (diesel oil 1 mL/L + S-25 50 μL/L). For positive control 40 μM CdCl2 was used. The comet assay results indicated genotoxic potential of S-25 while the effects of diesel oil alone were not observed. The highest response was detected for M1 while the effects of M2 were not detected. The heart rate disorders were recorded for the diesel oil (1 mL/L), S-25 (50 μL/L) and both dispersed diesel oil mixtures.

  11. Phylogenetic and morphological characterisation of the green algae infesting blue mussel Mytilus edulis in the North and South Atlantic oceans.

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    Rodríguez, Francisco; Feist, Stephen W; Guillou, Laure; Harkestad, Lisbeth S; Bateman, Kelly; Renault, Tristan; Mortensen, Stein

    2008-09-24

    Blue mussels Mytilus edulis with shell deformations and green pustules containing parasitic algae were collected at 3 coastal sites (Burøy, Norway; Bockholm, Denmark; Goose Green, Falkland Islands). A comparative study, including mussel histopathology, algal morphology, ultrastructure and phylogenetic position was performed. Green pustules were mainly located in the posterior portion of the mantle and gonad tissues and the posterior adductor muscle. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of algal cells with similar morphology to Coccomyxa parasitica. Algae were oval shaped with a single nucleus and chloroplast, 1 or 2 mitochondria and a dense granular cytoplasm with a lipid inclusion body, Golgi apparatus and small vesicles. Partial small subunit (SSU) rRNA phylogeny confirmed the inclusion of parasitic algae into the Coccomyxa clade. However, the sequence identity between almost full SSU rRNA sequences of parasitic algae and others in this clade yielded an unexpected result. Green algae from mussels were distant from C. parasitica Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP) strain 216/18 (94% identity), but very similar (99% identity) to C. glaronensis (a lichen endosymbiont) and green endophytes from the tree Ginkgo biloba. The CCAP strain 216/18 was a sister sequence to Nannochloris algae, far from the Coccomyxa clade. These results suggest a misidentification or outgrowth of the original CCAP strain 216/18 by a different 'Nannochloris-like' trebouxiophycean organism. In contrast, our sequences directly obtained from infested mussels could represent the true C. parasitica responsible for the green pustules in blue mussels.

  12. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

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    Mikko Vihtakari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA. Projected atmospheric CO2 levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH and 7.6 (2100 level by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm. Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16–17 °C using individual males as replicates. We also assessed the effects of temperature (ambient and ≈20 °C and pH on larval size, survival, respiration and calcification of late trochophore/early D-veliger stages using a cross-factorial design. Increased pCO2 had a negative effect on the percentage of motile sperm (mean response ratio R= 71% and sperm swimming speed (R= 74%, possibly indicating reduced fertilization capacity of sperm in low concentrations. Increased temperature had a more prominent effect on larval stages than pCO2, reducing performance (RSize = 90% and RSurvival = 70% and increasing energy demand (RRespiration = 429%. We observed no significant interactions between pCO2 and temperature. Our results suggest that increasing temperature might have a larger impact on very early larval stages of M. galloprovincialis than OA at levels predicted for the end of the century.

  13. The Use of Selected Biomarkers, Phagocytic and Cholinesterase Activity to Detect the Effects of Dimethoate on Marine Mussel (Mytilus edulis

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    KHUSNUL YAQIN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of organophosphorous pesticide, dimethoate on blue mussels, Mytilus edulis using selected biomarkers have been studied. Mussels were exposed to serial dilutions of dimethoate, 7.88, 15.75, 31.35, and 63.00 µg/l including positive and negative controls for 14 days. The suppression effects of dimethoate on phagocytic activity significantly occurred at two lowest concentrations of dimethoate (7.88 and 15.75 µg/l, but stimulation effects significantly emerged at the following highest concentrations (31.35 and 63.00 µg/l. The declining tendency of the cholinesterase (ChE activity (23% lower than the control appeared when mussels exposed to 7.88 and 15.75 µg/l dimethoate. Moreover, the significant inhibition of the ChE activity occurred at 31.35 µg/l dimethoate exposure. This study suggested that the phagocytic and the ChE activity are useful biomarkers for assessing the affects of organophosporous pesticide, dimethoate on neuro-immune system of blue mussels, M. edulis.

  14. Mg-ATPase activity and motility of native thick filaments isolated from the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, A; Ishii, N; Shimmen, T; Takahashi, K

    1989-04-01

    A method for isolating native thick filaments from the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis is described. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the isolated thick filament preparation contained mainly paramyosin and myosin but almost no actin. Electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations showed that the isolated thick filaments were tapered at both ends and of various sizes, in the range 5-31 microns in length and 51-94nm in width in the central region. Central bare zones were observed in the smaller filaments, but were not clearly seen in the larger filaments. Mg-ATPase activity of the isolated thick filaments was activated by skeletal muscle F-actin in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The maximal activity was about 20 nmol min-1 mg-1 thick filaments (20 degrees C, pH7.0). Motility of the thick filaments attached to latex beads (diameter, 2 microns) was also studied using the native actin cables of the freshwater alga, Chara. In the presence of Mg-ATP and Ca2+, the beads moved along the actin cables at a maximal velocity of about 1 micron s-1. In the absence of Ca2+, almost no movement was observed. These results show that the isolated thick filaments are structurally intact and retain the essential mechanochemical characteristics of the ABRM myosin.

  15. Tension and heat production during isometric contractions and shortening in the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, S H

    1978-09-01

    1. Tension and heat production were measured during phasic isometric contractions and isovelocity shortening in the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis at 20 degrees C. 2. Isometric tension at lo was 550 +/- 40 mN/mm2 (S.D. for 173 observations in nine muscles), while the isometric maintenance heat rate was 1.0 +/- 0.2 mW/g wet wt. (S.D. for seventy-eight observations in eight muscles). 3. Isometric tension and heat production were measured as functions of muscle length over a range of 0.79--1.14 lo and were found to bear a linear relation to each other. 4. The force-velocity relation was determined in isovelocity releases imposed during tetanic stimulation and was found to fit the Hill equation with parameters alpha/Po = 0.07 +/- 0.01 and b/lo = 0.016 +/- 0.0007 sec-1 (S.E. from non-linear least-squares regression of the pooled data from seven experiments). 5. Heat production measured in the same experiments showed that shortening heat is produced with a shortening heat coefficient alpha/Po of 0.15. Shortening heat does not appear to be force-dependent, and separate experiments confirmed that it is a linear function of the amount of shortening.

  16. Measurements of biochemical markers of pollution in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal areas of the Saronikos Gulf (Greece

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    C. TSANGARIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in a number of biochemical parameters in marine organisms represent specific markers of exposure to particular classes of contaminants. They are used as tools for the detection and monitoring of pollution. In this study, two biochemical markers of pollution, metallothionein (MT content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity were measured in indigenous and transplanted mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal areas within the Saronikos Gulf subject to high anthropogenic activities. Biannual measurements of the two biomarkers in indigenous mussel populations for two years revealed no significant differences among stations representing a pollution gradient. Limited differences in MT levels were only found between mussel populations transplanted at lesser and more impacted stations. Both biomarkers showed a variation with respect to the season of sampling, whilst during the second year of measurements a concomitant increase in metallothionein content with a decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was noted. Our results indicate that the applied biochemical markers in indigenous mussel populations do not reflect the type of pollution in the Saronikos Gulf to a degree that can be used for pollution monitoring in the area.

  17. Biochemical and lysosomal biomarkers in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschino, Vanessa; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Biomarkers are internationally recognized as useful tools in marine coastal biomonitoring, in particular, as early-warning signals at the level of individual organisms to assess biological effects of pollutants and other stressors. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis has been employed as a sentinel organism to assess biological pollution effects in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Southern Italy), a coastal lagoon divided into two small inlets, connected to the open sea through one natural and one artificial narrow openings. Mussels were collected in June 2013 at three sites located within each of the two inlets of the Mar Piccolo. Biological effects were investigated through a suite of biomarkers suitable to reflect effects and/or exposure to contaminants at biochemical and cellular levels. Biochemical biomarkers included glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activities; as histochemical biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability, lipofuscin and neutral lipid accumulation, and lysosomal structural changes were considered. As a whole, results highlighted differences among the three study sites, particularly for GST, AChE, and lipofuscins, which are consistent with the variations of the chemical pollutants in sediments. The applied biomarkers showed that a stress syndrome likely to be ascribed to environmental pollutants is occurring in mussels living in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, in particular, the ones inhabiting the first inlet.

  18. Negative effects of blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) presence in eelgrass ( Zostera marina) beds in Flensborg fjord, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Hanne Fogh; Laursen, Jens Sund; Holmer, Marianne

    2008-03-01

    The effect of blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) presence in eelgrass ( Zostera marina) beds was studied from June 2004 to July 2005 in Flensborg fjord, Denmark. The field experiments were conducted at two stations, one with only Z. marina (Eelgrass station) present and one where M. edulis were present in the Z. marina beds (Mixed station). Zostera marina parameters were measured (growth of leaves, shoot density, leaf length, and nutrient content) in combination with epiphyte cover and sediment parameters (sulphate reduction rates, sediment nutrient fluxes, organic content, C, N and P content) to examine possible positive and negative effects of the mussels on eelgrass performance. The fluxes of ammonium from the sediments were stimulated at all sampling dates at the Mixed station, and possibly stimulated epiphyte growth at this station. Further 15N signals in epiphytes from the Mixed station suggested that excretion products from the mussels were important nitrogen sources at this station. Sulphate reduction rates were enhanced at the Mixed station and also sediment sulphide concentrations increased under mussel influence, which may have resulted in sulphide toxicity and decreased growth of Z. marina at this station. The study indicates that for Z. marina beds in Flensborg Fjord the effects of M. edulis in seagrass beds are primarily negative, and raises the question whether this leads to negative effects on the stability and expansion of Z. marina beds.

  19. Alteration of shell nacre micromorphology in blue mussel Mytilus edulis after exposure to free-ionic silver and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuykov, Michael; Pelletier, Emilien; Belzile, Claude; Demers, Serge

    2011-07-01

    This study describes the morphology of inner shell surface (ISS) of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis Linnaeus after short-term exposures to radiolabeled silver in free-ionic ((110m)Ag(+)) and engineered nanoparticulate ((110m)AgNPs, <40 nm) phases. Radiolabeled silver in starting solutions was used in a similar low concentration (∼15 Bq mL(-1)) for both treatments. After exposure experiments radiolabeled silver was leached from the ISS using HCl. It concentration for shells from both treatments was ∼0.5 Bq mL(-1). Whole ISS of young individuals and prismatic layer of adults showed no evidence of any major alteration process after silver uptake. However, the nacre portion of adult mussels exposed to both treatments revealed distinct doughnut shape structures (DSS) formed by calcium carbonate micrograins that covered the surface of aragonite tablets. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging revealed the existence of only minor differences in DSS morphology between mussels exposed to Ag(+) and AgNPs. From literature survey, DSS were also found in bivalves exposed to Cd(2+). The DSS occurring in a specimen of a field-collected bivalve is also shown. Formation of distinctive DSS can be explained by a disturbance of the shell calcification mechanism. Although the occurrence of DSS is not exclusively associated with metal bioavailability to the mussels, the morphology of DSS seems to be linked to the speciation of the metal used in the uptake experiments.

  20. Where to settle--settlement preferences of Mytilus galloprovincialis and choice of habitat at a micro spatial scale.

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    Christina Carl

    Full Text Available The global mussel aquaculture industry uses specialised spat catching and nursery culture ropes made of multi-filament synthetic and natural fibres to optimise settlement and retention of mussels for on-growing. However, the settlement ecology and preferences of mussels are poorly understood and only sparse information exists in a commercial context. This study quantified the settlement preferences of pediveligers and plantigrades of Mytilus galloprovincialis on increasingly complex surfaces and settlement locations at a micro spatial scale on and within ropes under commercial hatchery operating conditions using optical microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT. M. galloprovincialis has clear settlement preferences for more complex materials and high selectivity for settlement sites from the pediveliger through to the plantigrade stage. Pediveligers of M. galloprovincialis initially settle inside specialised culture ropes. Larger pediveligers were located close to the exterior of ropes as they increased in size over time. In contrast, smaller individuals were located deeper inside of the ropes over time. This study demonstrates that X-ray µCT is an excellent non-destructive technique for mapping settlement and attachment sites of individuals as early as one day post settlement, and quantifies the number and location of settled individuals on and within ropes as a tool to understand and optimise settlement in complex multi-dimensional materials and environments.