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Sample records for alignment essential physical

  1. Physics Essentials For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    For students who just need to know the vital concepts of physics, whether as a refresher, for exam prep, or as a reference, Physics Essentials For Dummies is a must-have guide. Free of ramp-up and ancillary material, Physics Essentials For Dummies contains content focused on key topics only. It provides discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in an introductory physics course, from force and motion to momentum and kinetics. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical physics concepts as they help high school students with homework assignments, as we

  2. Physics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physics I includes vectors and scalars, one-dimensional motion, plane motion, dynamics of a particle, work and energy, conservation of energy, dynamics of systems of particles, rotation

  3. Physical chemistry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1992-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  4. Aligning Pedagogy with Physical Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; McKenney, Susan; Cullinan, Dominic; Heuer, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The quality of education suffers when pedagogies are not aligned with physical learning spaces. For example, the architecture of the triple-decker Victorian schools across England fits the information transmission model that was dominant in the industrial age, but makes it more difficult to implement student-centred pedagogies that better fit a…

  5. IMPACT OF BARYONIC PHYSICS ON INTRINSIC ALIGNMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenneti, Ananth; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Feng, Yu, E-mail: vat@andrew.cmu.edu [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of the “MassiveBlack-II” family. Using smaller-volume simulations, we explore the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and find remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  6. Early Childhood Physical Education. The Essential Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl

    1988-01-01

    Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)

  7. Essentials of nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Powsner, Rachel A; Powsner, Edward R

    2013-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basic concepts of nuclear medicine physics This Third Edition of Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation expands the finely developed illustrated review and introductory guide to nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. Along with simple, progressive, highly illustrated topics, the authors present nuclear medicine-related physics and engineering concepts clearly and concisely. Included in the text are introductory chapters on relevant atomic structure, methods of radionuclide production, and the interaction of radiation with matter. Fu

  8. Linear collider accelerator physics issues regarding alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The next generation of linear colliders will require more stringent alignment tolerances than those for the SLC with regard to the accelerating structures, quadrupoles, and beam position monitors. New techniques must be developed to achieve these tolerances. A combination of mechanical-electrical and beam-based methods will likely be needed

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor: Aligning Thalamic and Posterior Subthalamic Targets in 1 Surgical Trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Maarten; van Rootselaar, Fleur; Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Odekerken, Vincent; Dijk, Joke; de Bie, Rob; Schuurman, Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn

    2017-12-21

    Ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) deep brain stimulation (DBS) and posterior subthalamic area (PSA) DBS suppress tremor in essential tremor (ET) patients, but it is not clear which target is optimal. Aligning both targets in 1 surgical trajectory would facilitate exploring stimulation of either target in a single patient. To evaluate aligning VIM and PSA in 1 surgical trajectory for DBS in ET. Technical aspects of trajectories, intraoperative stimulation findings, final electrode placement, target used for chronic stimulation, and adverse and beneficial effects were evaluated. In 17 patients representing 33 trajectories, we successfully aligned VIM and PSA targets in 26 trajectories. Trajectory distance between targets averaged 7.2 (range 6-10) mm. In all but 4 aligned trajectories, optimal intraoperative tremor suppression was obtained in the PSA. During follow-up, active electrode contacts were located in PSA in the majority of cases. Overall, successful tremor control was achieved in 69% of patients. Stimulation-induced dysarthria or gait ataxia occurred in, respectively, 56% and 44% of patients. Neither difference in tremor suppression or side effects was noted between aligned and nonaligned leads nor between the different locations of chronic stimulation. Alignment of VIM and PSA for DBS in ET is feasible and enables intraoperative exploration of both targets in 1 trajectory. This facilitates positioning of electrode contacts in both areas, where multiple effective points of stimulation can be found. In the majority of aligned leads, optimal intraoperative and chronic stimulation were located in the PSA. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  10. Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor: Aligning Thalamic and Posterior Subthalamic Targets in 1 Surgical Trajectory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Maarten; van Rootselaar, Fleur; Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Odekerken, Vincent; Dijk, Joke; de Bie, Rob; Schuurman, Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn

    2017-01-01

    Ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) deep brain stimulation (DBS) and posterior subthalamic area (PSA) DBS suppress tremor in essential tremor (ET) patients, but it is not clear which target is optimal. Aligning both targets in 1 surgical trajectory would facilitate exploring stimulation of either

  11. Aligning physics and physiology: Engineering antibodies for radionuclide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ting K; Wu, Anna M

    2018-03-14

    The exquisite specificity of antibodies and antibody fragments renders them excellent agents for targeted delivery of radionuclides. Radiolabeled antibodies and fragments have been successfully used for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cell surface targets in oncology and immunology. Protein engineering has been used for antibody humanization essential for clinical applications, as well as optimization of important characteristics including pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and clearance. Although intact antibodies have high potential as imaging and therapeutic agents, challenges include long circulation time in blood, which leads to later imaging time points post-injection and higher blood absorbed dose that may be disadvantageous for RIT. Using engineered fragments may address these challenges, as size reduction and removal of Fc function decreases serum half-life. Radiolabeled fragments and pretargeting strategies can result in high contrast images within hours to days, and a reduction of RIT toxicity in normal tissues. Additionally, fragments can be engineered to direct hepatic or renal clearance, which may be chosen based on the application and disease setting. This review discusses aligning the physical properties of radionuclides (positron, gamma, beta, alpha, and Auger emitters) with antibodies and fragments and highlights recent advances of engineered antibodies and fragments in preclinical and clinical development for imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Aligned carbon nanotubes. Physics, concepts, fabrication and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lan, Yucheng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Wang, Yang [South China Normal Univ. Guangzhou (China). Inst. for Advanced Materials

    2013-07-01

    This book gives a survey of the physics and fabrication of carbon nanotubes and their applications in optics, electronics, chemistry and biotechnology. It focuses on the structural characterization of various carbon nanotubes, fabrication of vertically or parallel aligned carbon nanotubes on substrates or in composites, physical properties for their alignment, and applications of aligned carbon nanotubes in field emission, optical antennas, light transmission, solar cells, chemical devices, bio-devices, and many others. Major fabrication methods are illustrated in detail, particularly the most widely used PECVD growth technique on which various device integration schemes are based, followed by applications such as electrical interconnects, nanodiodes, optical antennas, and nanocoax solar cells, whereas current limitations and challenges are also be discussed to lay the foundation for future developments.

  13. The Physics of Solids Essentials and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Economou, Eleftherios N

    2010-01-01

    This textbook emphasizes a few fundamental principles and extracts from them a wealth of information. This approach also unifies an enormous and diverse subject which seems to consist of too many disjoint pieces. The book starts with the absolute minimum of formal tools, emphasizes the basic principles, and employs physical reasoning (" a little thinking and imagination" to quote R. Feynman) to obtain results. Continuous comparison with experimental data leads naturally to a gradual refinement of the concepts and to more sophisticated methods. After the initial overview with an emphasis on the physical concepts and the derivation of results by dimensional analysis, The Physics of Solids deals with the Jellium Model (JM) and the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) approaches to solids and introduces the basic concepts and information regarding metals and semiconductors. The remainder, constituting enrichment and elective material, re-examines the model under more realistic assumptions as well as new, ...

  14. Measuring covariation in RNA alignments: Physical realism improves information measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Stinus; Gardner, Paul Phillip; Krogh, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Motivation: The importance of non-coding RNAs is becoming increasingly evident, and often the function of these molecules depends on the structure. It is common to use alignments of related RNA sequences to deduce the consensus secondary structure by detecting patterns of co-evolution. A central...... part of such an analysis is to measure covariation between two positions in an alignment. Here, we rank various measures ranging from simple mutual information to more advanced covariation measures. Results: Mutual information is still used for secondary structure prediction, but the results...... of this study indicate which measures are useful. Incorporating more structural information by considering e.g. indels and stacking improves accuracy, suggesting that physically realistic measures yield improved predictions. This can be used to improve both current and future programs for secondary structure...

  15. Aligning physical learning spaces with the curriculum: AMEE Guide No. 107.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Jonas; Sundberg, Kristina; Laing, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    This Guide explores emerging issues on the alignment of learning spaces with the changing curriculum in medical education. As technology and new teaching methods have altered the nature of learning in medical education, it is necessary to re-think how physical learning spaces are aligned with the curriculum. The better alignment of learning spaces with the curriculum depends on more directly engaged leadership from faculty and the community of medical education for briefing the requirements for the design of all kinds of learning spaces. However, there is a lack of precedent and well-established processes as to how new kinds of learning spaces should be programmed. Such programmes are essential aspects of optimizing the intended experience of the curriculum. Faculty and the learning community need better tools and instruments to support their leadership role in briefing and programming. A Guide to critical concepts for exploring the alignment of curriculum and learning spaces is provided. The idea of a networked learning landscape is introduced as a way of assessing and evaluating the alignment of physical spaces to the emerging curriculum. The concept is used to explore how technology has widened the range of spaces and places in which learning happens as well as enabling new styles of learning. The networked learning landscaped is explored through four different scales within which learning is accommodated: the classroom, the building, the campus, and the city. High-level guidance on the process of briefing for the networked learning landscape is provided, to take into account the wider scale of learning spaces and the impact of technology. Key to a successful measurement process is argued to be the involvement of relevant academic stakeholders who can identify the strategic direction and purpose for the design of the learning environments in relation to the emerging demands of the curriculum.

  16. Flavour alignment in physics beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Carolin Barbara

    2012-11-21

    There are numerous reasons to think that the Standard Model of physics is not the ultimate theory of nature on very small scales. However, attempts to construct theories that go beyond the Standard Model generically lead to high rates of flavour changing neutral processes that are in conflict with experiment: Quarks are the fundamental constituents of protons and neutrons. Together with electrons they form the visible matter of the universe1. They come in three generations or ''flavours''. In interactions, quarks of different generations can mix, i.e. a quark of one flavour can transform into a quark of another flavour. In the Standard Model, at first order in perturbation theory, such processes occur only via the exchange of a charged particle. Flavour changing neutral processes can only arise in processes involving loops of charged particles. This is due to the fact that all couplings of two quarks to a neutral particle are diagonal in the basis of the mass eigenstates of the quarks. There is thus no mixing of quarks of different flavour at first order. Since the loop processes are suppressed by a loop factor, the Standard Model predicts very low rates for neutral processes that change the flavour of quarks. So far, this is in agreement with experiment. In extensions of the Standard Model, new couplings to the quarks are usually introduced. In general there is no reason why the new coupling matrices should be diagonal in the mass basis of the quarks. These models therefore predict high rates for processes that mix quarks of different flavour. Extensions of the Standard Model must therefore have a non-trivial flavour structure. A possibility to avoid flavour violation is to assume that the new couplings are aligned with the mass matrices of the quarks, i.e. diagonal in the same basis. This alignment could be due to a flavour symmetry. In this thesis, two extensions of the Standard Model with alignment are studied. The first is a simple

  17. Flavour alignment in physics beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuninger, Carolin Barbara

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous reasons to think that the Standard Model of physics is not the ultimate theory of nature on very small scales. However, attempts to construct theories that go beyond the Standard Model generically lead to high rates of flavour changing neutral processes that are in conflict with experiment: Quarks are the fundamental constituents of protons and neutrons. Together with electrons they form the visible matter of the universe1. They come in three generations or ''flavours''. In interactions, quarks of different generations can mix, i.e. a quark of one flavour can transform into a quark of another flavour. In the Standard Model, at first order in perturbation theory, such processes occur only via the exchange of a charged particle. Flavour changing neutral processes can only arise in processes involving loops of charged particles. This is due to the fact that all couplings of two quarks to a neutral particle are diagonal in the basis of the mass eigenstates of the quarks. There is thus no mixing of quarks of different flavour at first order. Since the loop processes are suppressed by a loop factor, the Standard Model predicts very low rates for neutral processes that change the flavour of quarks. So far, this is in agreement with experiment. In extensions of the Standard Model, new couplings to the quarks are usually introduced. In general there is no reason why the new coupling matrices should be diagonal in the mass basis of the quarks. These models therefore predict high rates for processes that mix quarks of different flavour. Extensions of the Standard Model must therefore have a non-trivial flavour structure. A possibility to avoid flavour violation is to assume that the new couplings are aligned with the mass matrices of the quarks, i.e. diagonal in the same basis. This alignment could be due to a flavour symmetry. In this thesis, two extensions of the Standard Model with alignment are studied. The first is a simple extension of the Standard

  18. Money Is Essential: Ownership Intuitions Are Linked to Physical Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Zhu, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Due to basic processes of psychological essentialism and contagion, one particular token of monetary currency is not always interchangeable with another piece of currency of equal economic value. When money loses its physical form it is perceived as "not quite the same" money (i.e., to have partly lost the original essence that distinguished it…

  19. Essentials of Mathematica With Applications to Mathematics and Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2007-01-01

    Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics, based on the lecture notes of a course taught at the University of Illinois at Chicago to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, teaches how to use Mathematica to solve a wide variety problems in mathematics and physics. The text assumes no previous exposure to Mathematica. It is illustrated with many detailed examples that require the student to construct meticulous, step-by-step, easy-to-read Mathematica programs. It includes many detailed graphics, with instructions to students on how to achieve similar results. The aim of Essentials of Mathematica is to provide the reader with Mathematica proficiency quickly and efficiently. The first part, in which the reader learns how to use a variety of Mathematica commands, avoids long discussions and overly sophisticated techniques. The second part covers a broad range of applications in physics and applied mathematics, including negative and complex bases, the double pendulum, fractals,...

  20. An analysis of the alignment of the Grade 12 Physical Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alignment indices of 0.8 and 0.6 for Physics and Chemistry, respectively, were computed and remained constant for Physics, but fluctuated initially for Chemistry before levelling off. Using the revised Bloom's taxonomy, discrepancies were found in terms of cognitive levels as well as content areas in both Physics and ...

  1. Aligning Digital Video Technology with Game Pedagogy in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekoek, Jeroen; van der Mars, Hans; van der Kamp, John; Walinga, Wytse; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    The rapid development of digital technology has expanded the prospects and promises for its application in physical education programs. Physical educators are becoming increasingly interested in technology but often remain inadequately equipped to effectively integrate these technological resources in their daily practice, and/or lack the…

  2. Learning to cooperate is essential for progress in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickau, Jonathan J.

    2012-06-01

    At the 10th Frontiers of Fundamental Physics symposium, Gerard't Hooft stated that, for some of the advances we hope to see in Physics during the future, there must be a great deal of cooperation between physicists from different disciplines, as well as mathematicians, programmers, technologists, and others. This requires us to evolve a new mindset; however, as so much of our past progress has come out of a fiercely competitive process - especially since a critical review of our ideas about reality remains essential to making clear progress and checking our progress. We must also address the fact that some frameworks appear incompatible, as with relativity and quantum mechanics, whose unification remains distant despite years of attempts to find a quantum gravity theory. I explore the idea that playful exploration, using both left-brained and right-brained approaches to learning, allows us to resolve conflicting ideas by taking advantage of innate human developmental and learning strategies and brain structure. It may thus foster the kind of interdisciplinary cooperation we are hoping to see.

  3. Track based alignment of the CMS silicon tracker and its implication on physics performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draeger, Jula

    2011-08-01

    In order to fully exploit the discovery potential of the CMS detector for new physics beyond the Standard Model at the high luminosity and centre-of-mass energy provided by the Large Hadron Collider, a careful calibration of the detector and profound understanding of its impact on physics performance are necessary to provide realistic uncertainties for the measurements of physics processes. This thesis describes the track-based alignment of the inner tracking system of CMS with the Millepede II algorithm. Using the combined information of tracks from cosmic rays and collisions taken in 2010, a remarkable local alignment precision has been reached that meets the design specification for most regions of the detector and takes into account instabilities of the detector geometry over time. In addition, the impact of the alignment of b tagging or the Z boson resonance are investigated. The latter is studied to investigate the impact of correlated detector distortions which hardly influence the overall solution of the minimisation problem but introduce biases in the track parameters and thus the derived physics quantities. The determination and constraint of these weak modes present the future challenge of the alignment task at CMS. (orig.)

  4. Track based alignment of the CMS silicon tracker and its implication on physics performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draeger, Jula

    2011-08-15

    In order to fully exploit the discovery potential of the CMS detector for new physics beyond the Standard Model at the high luminosity and centre-of-mass energy provided by the Large Hadron Collider, a careful calibration of the detector and profound understanding of its impact on physics performance are necessary to provide realistic uncertainties for the measurements of physics processes. This thesis describes the track-based alignment of the inner tracking system of CMS with the Millepede II algorithm. Using the combined information of tracks from cosmic rays and collisions taken in 2010, a remarkable local alignment precision has been reached that meets the design specification for most regions of the detector and takes into account instabilities of the detector geometry over time. In addition, the impact of the alignment of b tagging or the Z boson resonance are investigated. The latter is studied to investigate the impact of correlated detector distortions which hardly influence the overall solution of the minimisation problem but introduce biases in the track parameters and thus the derived physics quantities. The determination and constraint of these weak modes present the future challenge of the alignment task at CMS. (orig.)

  5. The essential harmony in the classical equations of mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nucci, M C

    2001-01-01

    The possibility to transform any system of linear ordinary differential equations into a system of constant coefficient equations is demonstrated using Lie theory. Some examples relate the classical equations of mathematical physics to the simple harmonic oscillator. The roles of the third order form of the Ermakov-Pinney equation and of Fleischen-von Weltunter systems are explained.

  6. Scattering and structures essentials and analogies in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Povh, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Quantum physics may appear complicated, especially if one forgets the "big picture" and gets lost in the details. However, it can become clearer and less tangled if one applies a few fundamental concepts so that simplified approaches can emerge and estimated orders of magnitude become clear. Povh and Rosina’s Scattering and Structures presents the properties of quantum systems (elementary particles, nucleons, atoms, molecules, quantum gases, quantum liquids, stars, and early universe) with the help of elementary concepts and analogies between these seemingly different systems. In this new edition, sections on quantum gases and an up to date overview of elementary particles have been added.

  7. Challenges and dreams: physics of weak interactions essential to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Peter; Gierasch, Lila M

    2014-11-05

    Biological systems display stunning capacities to self-organize. Moreover, their subcellular architectures are dynamic and responsive to changing needs and conditions. Key to these properties are manifold weak "quinary" interactions that have evolved to create specific spatial networks of macromolecules. These specific arrangements of molecules enable signals to be propagated over distances much greater than molecular dimensions, create phase separations that define functional regions in cells, and amplify cellular responses to changes in their environments. A major challenge is to develop biochemical tools and physical models to describe the panoply of weak interactions operating in cells. We also need better approaches to measure the biases in the spatial distributions of cellular macromolecules that result from the integrated action of multiple weak interactions. Partnerships between cell biologists, biochemists, and physicists are required to deploy these methods. Together these approaches will help us realize the dream of understanding the biological "glue" that sustains life at a molecular and cellular level. © 2014 Chien and Gierasch. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Physical and mechanical testing of essential oil-embedded cellulose ester films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymer films made from cellulose esters are useful for embedding plant essential oils, either for food packaging or air freshener applications. Studies and testing were done on the physical and mechanical properties of cellulose ester-based films incorporating essential oils (EO) from lemongrass (C...

  9. Physics and technology for future presidents an introduction to the essential physics every world leader needs to know

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Physics and Technology for Future Presidents contains the essential physics that students need in order to understand today's core science and technology issues, and to become the next generation of world leaders. From the physics of energy to climate change, and from spy technology to quantum computers, this is the only textbook to focus on the modern physics affecting the decisions of political leaders and CEOs and, consequently, the lives of every citizen. How practical are alternative energy sources? Can satellites really read license plates from space? What is the quantum physics behind i

  10. Essential physics

    CERN Document Server

    Matolyak, John

    2013-01-01

    Systems of Units, Significant Figures, Coordinate Systems, and VectorsSystems of UnitsConversion of UnitsSignificant FiguresScientific NotationTrigonometryCoordinate SystemsVectorsAddition and Subtraction of VectorsGuideline for Determining the Direction of the ResultantMotion in One DimensionDisplacementAverage VelocityAverage SpeedInstantaneous VelocityAccelerationEquations of MotionFree-Falling ObjectTwo-Dimensional Motion and Circular MotionDisplacement, Velocity, and AccelerationEquations of Motion in Two DimensionsProjectile MotionUniform Circular MotionLinear Velocity, Angular Velocity, Period, and FrequencyNonuniform Circular MotionNewton's Laws: Implications and ApplicationsStatement of Newton's LawsDiscussion of Newton's Laws of MotionFree Body DiagramRemarks on the Application of Newton's Second and Third LawsNewton's Gravitational LawMass, Weight, and Newton's Gravitational LawNewton's Third Law and Apparent WeightDynamics of a Uniform Circular MotionNewton's Laws: Friction in Linear and Circular ...

  11. Survey and alignment of high energy physics accelerators and transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    This talk summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are revisited and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step by step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations

  12. SF-FDTD analysis of a predictive physical model for parallel aligned liquid crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Andrés.; Francés, Jorge; Martínez, Francisco J.; Gallego, Sergi; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Calzado, Eva M.; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2017-08-01

    Recently we demonstrated a novel and simplified model enabling to calculate the voltage dependent retardance provided by parallel aligned liquid crystal devices (PA-LCoS) for a very wide range of incidence angles and any wavelength in the visible. To our knowledge it represents the most simplified approach still showing predictive capability. Deeper insight into the physics behind the simplified model is necessary to understand if the parameters in the model are physically meaningful. Since the PA-LCoS is a black-box where we do not have information about the physical parameters of the device, we cannot perform this kind of analysis using the experimental retardance measurements. In this work we develop realistic simulations for the non-linear tilt of the liquid crystal director across the thickness of the liquid crystal layer in the PA devices. We consider these profiles to have a sine-like shape, which is a good approximation for typical ranges of applied voltage in commercial PA-LCoS microdisplays. For these simulations we develop a rigorous method based on the split-field finite difference time domain (SF-FDTD) technique which provides realistic retardance values. These values are used as the experimental measurements to which the simplified model is fitted. From this analysis we learn that the simplified model is very robust, providing unambiguous solutions when fitting its parameters. We also learn that two of the parameters in the model are physically meaningful, proving a useful reverse-engineering approach, with predictive capability, to probe into internal characteristics of the PA-LCoS device.

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2012-01-01

      A new muon alignment has been produced for 2012 A+B data reconstruction. It uses the latest Tracker alignment and single-muon data samples to align both DTs and CSCs. Physics validation has been performed and shows a modest improvement in stand-alone muon momentum resolution in the barrel, where the alignment is essentially unchanged from the previous version. The reference-target track-based algorithm using only collision muons is employed for the first time to align the CSCs, and a substantial improvement in resolution is observed in the endcap and overlap regions for stand-alone muons. This new alignment is undergoing the approval process and is expected to be deployed as part of a new global tag in the beginning of December. The pT dependence of the φ-bias in curvature observed in Monte Carlo was traced to a relative vertical misalignment between the Tracker and barrel muon systems. Moving the barrel as a whole to match the Tracker cures this pT dependence, leaving only the &phi...

  14. EFFECT OF THYME ESSENTIAL OIL ADDITION ON PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Essentialoils areintensivefragrant, oilyliquidsubstances containedindifferent parts of theplant. Their function is based on organoleptic effect and stimulation of organism to the production of digestive juices. Result is ahigherdigestibilityandabsorption of nutirents. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral,antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with thyme essential oils on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied.Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks on diets with thyme essential oil supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with thyme essential oil addition in a dose 0.5 g/kg, in the second one some essential oil in a dose 1g/kg. The results suggest that all of qualitative parameters of egg internal content (yolk weight (g, yolk index, percentage portion egg yolk (%, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, percentage portion of albumen (%, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index were with thyme essential oil addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. The number of coliforms, enterococci, fungi and yeasts decreased with increasing dose of oil. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  15. Alignment technology and applications of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takatoh, Kohki; Hasegawa, Ray; Koden, Mitsushiro; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    Alignment phenomena are characteristic of liquid crystalline materials, and understanding them is critically important in understanding the essential features and behavior of liquid crystals and the performance of Liquid Crystal Devices (LCDs). Furthermore, in LCD production lines, the alignment process is of practical importance. Alignment Technologies and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices demonstrates both the fundamental and practical aspects of alignment phenomena in liquid crystals. The physical basis of alignment phenomena is first introduced in order to aid the understanding of the various physical phenomena observed in the interface between liquid crystalline materials and alignment layer surfaces. Methods for the characterization of surfaces, which induce the alignment phenomena, and of the alignment layer itself are introduced. These methods are useful for the research of liquid crystalline materials and devices in academic research as well as in industry. In the practical sections, the alignme...

  16. Commissioning the CMS alignment and calibration framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futyan, David

    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment has developed a powerful framework to ensure the precise and prompt alignment and calibration of its components, which is a major prerequisite to achieve the optimal performance for physics analysis. The prompt alignment and calibration strategy harnesses computing resources both at the Tier-0 site and the CERN Analysis Facility (CAF) to ensure fast turnaround for updating the corresponding database payloads. An essential element is the creation of dedicated data streams concentrating the specific event information required by the various alignment and calibration workflows. The resulting low latency is required for feeding the resulting constants into the prompt reconstruction process, which is essential for achieving swift physics analysis of the LHC data. This report discusses the implementation and the computational aspects of the alignment and calibration framework. Recent commissioning campaigns with cosmic muons, beam halo and simulated data have been used to gain detailed experience with this framework, and results of this validation are reported.

  17. Commissioning the CMS Alignment and Calibration Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Futyan, David

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment has developed a powerful framework to ensure the precise and prompt alignment and calibration of its components, which is a major prerequisite to achieve the optimal performance for physics analysis. The prompt alignment and calibration strategy harnesses computing resources both at the Tier-0 site and the CERN Analysis Facility (CAF) to ensure fast turnaround for updating the corresponding database payloads. An essential element is the creation of dedicated data streams concentrating the specific event information required by the various alignment and calibration workflows. The resulting low latency is required for feeding the resulting constants into the prompt reconstruction process, which is essential for achieving swift physics analysis of the LHC data. This report discusses the implementation and the computational aspects of the alignment and calibration framework. Recent commissioning campaigns with cosmic muons, beam halo and simulated data have been used to gain detailed experience...

  18. Laboratory investigation of physical mechanisms of auroral charged particle acceleration in the field-aligned currents layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, B.; Zetzer, J.; Sobyanin, D.; Podgorny, I.

    One of the major topics of space weather research is to understand auroral structure and the processes that guide, accelerate, and otherwise control particle precipitation and produce auroral substorms. Navigation, communications and radars in the high latitude regions are severely affected through the effects on the ionosphere. It has long been recognized that the direct cause of the aurora is the precipitation of energetic electrons and ions into the atmosphere leading to excitation of the ambient atmospheric gases. Observations of the ionospheric ionization profiles and auroral precipitation characteristics have shown that field-aligned potential drops are formed to create this effect. The problem is that it is not clear the structure of the regions of magnetic field-aligned electric fields and how they are supported in the magnetospheric plasma. The objective of this research is to study the physical mechanisms of these phenomena in a laboratory experiment. It should be achieved by simulating the charged particle acceleration due to field-aligned electrical field generation in all totality of the interconnected events: generation of a plasma flow, its evolution in the magnetic field, polarization of plasma, generation of the field-aligned currents, development of instabilities in the plasma and current layers, double layers or anomalous resistance regions appearance, electrons acceleration. Parameters of the laboratory simulation and preliminary results of the experiment are discussed.

  19. Framework and implementation for improving physics essential skills via computer-based practice: Vector math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Brendon D.; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2017-06-01

    We propose a framework for improving accuracy, fluency, and retention of basic skills essential for solving problems relevant to STEM introductory courses, and implement the framework for the case of basic vector math skills over several semesters in an introductory physics course. Using an iterative development process, the framework begins with a careful identification of target skills and the study of specific student difficulties with these skills. It then employs computer-based instruction, immediate feedback, mastery grading, and well-researched principles from cognitive psychology such as interleaved training sequences and distributed practice. We implemented this with more than 1500 students over 2 semesters. Students completed the mastery practice for an average of about 13 min /week , for a total of about 2-3 h for the whole semester. Results reveal large (>1 SD ) pretest to post-test gains in accuracy in vector skills, even compared to a control group, and these gains were retained at least 2 months after practice. We also find evidence of improved fluency, student satisfaction, and that awarding regular course credit results in higher participation and higher learning gains than awarding extra credit. In all, we find that simple computer-based mastery practice is an effective and efficient way to improve a set of basic and essential skills for introductory physics.

  20. Integrative Public Health-Aligned Physical Education and Implications for the Professional Preparation of Future Teachers and Teacher Educators/Researchers in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin Andrew; Stodden, David F.; Carson, Russell L.; Egan, Catherine; Nesbitt, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    This article has two purposes: (a) to consider existing platforms and future possibilities in the United States for what the authors refer to as Integrative Public Health-Aligned Physical Education (IPHPE), which integrates standards-based K-12 physical education with a public health agenda focusing on promoting increased physical activity and…

  1. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Physical characteristics of GE Senographe Essential and DS digital mammography detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghetti, Caterina; Borrini, Adriano; Ortenzia, Ornella; Rossi, Raffaella; Ordonez, Pedro L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate physical characteristics of two full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems (GE Senographe Essential and DS). Both are indirect conversion (x ray to light) a-Si flat panels coupled with a CsI(Tl) scintillator. The examined systems have the same pixel size (100 μm) but a different field of view: a conventional size 23x19.2 cm 2 and a large field 24x30.7 cm 2 , specifically designed to image large breasts. In the GE Senographe Essential model relevant improvements in flat panel design were implemented and new deposition tools for metal, a-Si, and CsI(Tl) were introduced by GE. These changes in detector design are expected to be beneficial for advanced applications such as breast tomosynthesis. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured for a wide range of exposure (25-240 μGy) with a RQA-M2 technique (28 kVp with a Mo/Mo target/filter combination and 2 mm of additional aluminum filtration). At 1, 2, and at 4 lp/mm MTF is equal to 0.9, 0.76, and 0.46 for the conventional field detector and to 0.85, 0.59, and 0.24 for the large field detector. The latter detector exhibits an improved NNPS due to a lower electronic noise and a better DQE that reaches 60%. In addition a contrast-detail analysis was performed with CDMAM 3.4 phantom and CDCOM software: GE Senographe DS showed statistically significant poorer detection ability in comparison with the GE Senographe Essential. These results could have been expected, at least qualitatively, considering the relative DQE of the two systems

  3. Transitioning a Fundamental Research Program to Align with the NASA Exploration Initiative-Perspectives from Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    A new Vision for Space Exploration was announced earlier this year by U.S. President George W. Bush. NASA has evaluated on-going programs for strategic alignment with this vision. The evaluation proceeded at a rapid pace and is resulting in changes to the scope and focus of experimental research that will be conducted in support of the new vision. The existing network of researchers in the physical sciences - a highly capable, independent, and loosely knitted community - typically have shared conclusions derived from their work within appropriate discipline-specific peer reviewed journals and publications. The initial result of introducing this Vision for Space Exploration has been to shift research focus from a broad coverage of numerous, widely varying topics into a research program focused on a nearly-singular set of supporting research objectives to enable advances in space exploration. Two of these traditional physical science research disciplines, Combustion Science and Fluid Physics, are implementing a course adjustment from a portfolio dominated by "Fundamental Science Research" to one focused nearly exclusively on supporting the Exploration Vision. Underlying scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure of the Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics disciplines do provide essential research capabilities to support the contemporary thrusts of human life support, radiation countermeasures, human health, low gravity research for propulsion and materials and, ultimately, research conducted on the Moon and Mars. A perspective on how these two research disciplines responded to the course change will be presented. The relevance to the new NASA direction is provided, while demonstrating through two examples how the prior investment in fundamental research is being brought to bear on solving the issues confronting the successful implementation of the exploration goals.

  4. A Systematic Review of Public Health-Aligned Recommendations for Preparing Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Webster, Liana; Russ, Laura; Molina, Sergio; Lee, Heesu; Cribbs, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Since Sallis and McKenzie's seminal article in 1991 outlining physical education's role in public health, increased attention has been given to promoting youth physical activity in schools. The present study systematically reviewed the literature from 1991 to 2013 to identify recommendations for the preparation of physical…

  5. Enhancing Student Motivation in College and University Physical Activity Courses Using Instructional Alignment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MooSong; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Yun, Joonkoo

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is a key factor in promoting students' active engagement in regular physical activity. According to self-determination theory -- one of the prominent motivational theories -- for this to occur, students' basic psychological needs must be met (i.e., their need for autonomy, competence and relatedness). Students' self-determined…

  6. Beauty physics in the next 15 years - an itinerary for a long journey towards an essential goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.I.

    1994-01-01

    After re-stating why beauty physics is so special and sketching its present status I attempt to map out an itinerary for the next fifteen years. The basic elements are listed for a research program that allows one to define and probe the KM unitarity triangle in a manner where the numerical uncertainties are reduced to the few percent level. Dedicated experiments at the LHC will be essential in exploiting the discovery guarantee in beauty physics to the fullest. ((orig.))

  7. The influence of physical activity on hair toxic and essential trace element content in male and female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Irina P; Skalny, Andrey A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Berezkina, Elena S; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of the current study is to estimate the effect of different physical activity levels on hair trace element content in male and female students. A total of 113 students (59 women and 54 men) of P. G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University (Yaroslavl, Russia) took part in the current investigation. According to the level of the physical activity, all students were divided into three groups: high, medium, and low physical activity. Essential and toxic metal content (μg/g) in hair samples was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using NexION 300D + NWR213 (Perkin-Elmer, USA). The obtained data show that hair iodine, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and tin levels are not related to physical activity in male and female students. At the same time, increased physical activity is associated with decreased hair copper, vanadium, bismuth, and mercury content in comparison to the low physical activity groups. Students with higher physical activity are also characterized by significantly higher hair cobalt, iron, manganese, selenium, cadmium, lithium, and lead concentrations. Finally, statistical analysis has revealed maximal gender differences in hair trace element content in the high physical activity groups, whereas in the low activity groups, the hair metal concentrations were nearly similar in females and males.

  8. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-08-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the 'Needleman-Wunsch' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Physical characteristic and irritation index of Syzigium aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safriani, R.; Sugihartini, N.; Yuliani, S.

    2017-11-01

    Essential oil of Syzigium aromaticum has been formulated in O/W and W/O creams as anti-inflammatory dosage form. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams. The creams were made by fusion method. The creams then were evaluated the physical characteristic including pH, viscosity, spreadability and adhesivity. The irritation index was obtained by irritation skin test in male rabbit. The results showed that the W/O and O/W creams have the value of pH: 6.3 and 6.27; spreadability: 3,18 and 4.17 cm2; adhesivity: 5.59 and 0.07 minutes; viscosity: 4.43 and 2.88 Pa.S, respectively. The irritation test showed that the control enhancer caused mild irritation in both of W/O and O/W creams. These findings indicated that type of cream might influence the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil cream.

  11. CAB-Align: A Flexible Protein Structure Alignment Method Based on the Residue-Residue Contact Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genki Terashi

    Full Text Available Proteins are flexible, and this flexibility has an essential functional role. Flexibility can be observed in loop regions, rearrangements between secondary structure elements, and conformational changes between entire domains. However, most protein structure alignment methods treat protein structures as rigid bodies. Thus, these methods fail to identify the equivalences of residue pairs in regions with flexibility. In this study, we considered that the evolutionary relationship between proteins corresponds directly to the residue-residue physical contacts rather than the three-dimensional (3D coordinates of proteins. Thus, we developed a new protein structure alignment method, contact area-based alignment (CAB-align, which uses the residue-residue contact area to identify regions of similarity. The main purpose of CAB-align is to identify homologous relationships at the residue level between related protein structures. The CAB-align procedure comprises two main steps: First, a rigid-body alignment method based on local and global 3D structure superposition is employed to generate a sufficient number of initial alignments. Then, iterative dynamic programming is executed to find the optimal alignment. We evaluated the performance and advantages of CAB-align based on four main points: (1 agreement with the gold standard alignment, (2 alignment quality based on an evolutionary relationship without 3D coordinate superposition, (3 consistency of the multiple alignments, and (4 classification agreement with the gold standard classification. Comparisons of CAB-align with other state-of-the-art protein structure alignment methods (TM-align, FATCAT, and DaliLite using our benchmark dataset showed that CAB-align performed robustly in obtaining high-quality alignments and generating consistent multiple alignments with high coverage and accuracy rates, and it performed extremely well when discriminating between homologous and nonhomologous pairs of proteins

  12. CAB-Align: A Flexible Protein Structure Alignment Method Based on the Residue-Residue Contact Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashi, Genki; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are flexible, and this flexibility has an essential functional role. Flexibility can be observed in loop regions, rearrangements between secondary structure elements, and conformational changes between entire domains. However, most protein structure alignment methods treat protein structures as rigid bodies. Thus, these methods fail to identify the equivalences of residue pairs in regions with flexibility. In this study, we considered that the evolutionary relationship between proteins corresponds directly to the residue-residue physical contacts rather than the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of proteins. Thus, we developed a new protein structure alignment method, contact area-based alignment (CAB-align), which uses the residue-residue contact area to identify regions of similarity. The main purpose of CAB-align is to identify homologous relationships at the residue level between related protein structures. The CAB-align procedure comprises two main steps: First, a rigid-body alignment method based on local and global 3D structure superposition is employed to generate a sufficient number of initial alignments. Then, iterative dynamic programming is executed to find the optimal alignment. We evaluated the performance and advantages of CAB-align based on four main points: (1) agreement with the gold standard alignment, (2) alignment quality based on an evolutionary relationship without 3D coordinate superposition, (3) consistency of the multiple alignments, and (4) classification agreement with the gold standard classification. Comparisons of CAB-align with other state-of-the-art protein structure alignment methods (TM-align, FATCAT, and DaliLite) using our benchmark dataset showed that CAB-align performed robustly in obtaining high-quality alignments and generating consistent multiple alignments with high coverage and accuracy rates, and it performed extremely well when discriminating between homologous and nonhomologous pairs of proteins in both

  13. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  14. Guide to essential math a review for physics, chemistry and engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Blinder, Sy M

    2013-01-01

    This book reminds students in junior, senior and graduate level courses in physics, chemistry and engineering of the math they may have forgotten (or learned imperfectly), which is needed to succeed in science courses. The focus is on math actually used in physics, chemistry and engineering, and the approach to mathematics begins with 12 examples of increasing complexity, designed to hone the student's ability to think in mathematical terms and to apply quantitative methods to scientific problems. Detailed Illustrations and links to reference material online help further comprehension. The

  15. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  16. Mathematical, physical and numerical principles essential for models of turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, David Howland [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lim, Hyunkyung [STONY BROOK UNIV; Yu, Yan [STONY BROOK UNIV; Glimm, James G [STONY BROOK UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We propose mathematical, physical and numerical principles which are important for the modeling of turbulent mixing, especially the classical and well studied Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities which involve acceleration driven mixing of a fluid discontinuity layer, by a steady accerleration or an impulsive force.

  17. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

  18. Better assessment of physical function: item improvement is neglected but essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Bonnie; Fries, James F; Ambrosini, Debbie; Lingala, Bharathi; Gandek, Barbara; Rose, Matthias; Ware, John E

    2009-01-01

    Physical function is a key component of patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment in rheumatology. Modern psychometric methods, such as Item Response Theory (IRT) and Computerized Adaptive Testing, can materially improve measurement precision at the item level. We present the qualitative and quantitative item-evaluation process for developing the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function item bank. The process was stepwise: we searched extensively to identify extant Physical Function items and then classified and selectively reduced the item pool. We evaluated retained items for content, clarity, relevance and comprehension, reading level, and translation ease by experts and patient surveys, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. We then assessed items by using classic test theory and IRT, used confirmatory factor analyses to estimate item parameters, and graded response modeling for parameter estimation. We retained the 20 Legacy (original) Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and the 10 SF-36's PF-10 items for comparison. Subjects were from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and healthy aging cohorts (n = 1,100) and a national Internet sample of 21,133 subjects. We identified 1,860 items. After qualitative and quantitative evaluation, 124 newly developed PROMIS items composed the PROMIS item bank, which included revised Legacy items with good fit that met IRT model assumptions. Results showed that the clearest and best-understood items were simple, in the present tense, and straightforward. Basic tasks (like dressing) were more relevant and important versus complex ones (like dancing). Revised HAQ-DI and PF-10 items with five response options had higher item-information content than did comparable original Legacy items with fewer response options. IRT analyses showed that the Physical Function domain satisfied general criteria for unidimensionality with one-, two-, three-, and four-factor models

  19. Guide to essential math a review for physics, chemistry and engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Blinder, Sy M

    2008-01-01

    This book reminds students in junior, senior and graduate level courses in physics, chemistry and engineering of the math they may have forgotten (or learned imperfectly) which is needed to succeed in science courses. The focus is on math actually used in physics, chemistry and engineering, and the approach to mathematics begins with 12 examples of increasing complexity, designed to hone the student''s ability to think in mathematical terms and to apply quantitative methods to scientific problems. By the author''s design, no problems are included in the text, to allow the students to focus on their science course assignments.- Highly accessible presentation of fundamental mathematical techniques needed in science and engineering courses- Use of proven pedagogical techniques develolped during the author's 40 years of teaching experience- illustrations and links to reference material on World-Wide-Web- Coverage of fairly advanced topics, including vector and matrix algebra, partial differential equations, speci...

  20. Scattering and structures. Essentials and analogies in quantum physics. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povh, Bogdan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Rosina, Mitja [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Dept. of Physics

    2017-07-01

    Quantum physics may appear complicated, especially if one forgets the ''big picture'' and gets lost in the details. However, it can become clearer and less tangled if one applies a few fundamental concepts so that simplified approaches can emerge and estimated orders of magnitude become clear. Povh and Rosina's Scattering and Structures presents the properties of quantum systems (elementary particles, nucleons, atoms, molecules, quantum gases, quantum liquids, stars, and early universe) with the help of elementary concepts and analogies between these seemingly different systems. In this new edition, sections on quantum gases and an up to date overview of elementary particles have been added.

  1. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND IRRITATION INDEX OF LOTION CONTAINING SYZIGIUM AROMATICUM CLOVE ESSENTIAL OIL AT VARIOUS CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzil Latifah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the lotion contained essential oil of clove Syzigium a romaticum which contained eugenol as the active ingredient. Eugenol has been scientifically proven as anti-inflammatory. Because its activity, the study about development of dosage form is needed. Aims of this study was to know the physical properties of spreadibility, adhesivity, pH, viscosity and irritation index of lotion with variation concentration of essential oil.Thisstudywasstartedwithaformulationoflotionwith variationconcentrationofessentialoil5%(FI; 10% (FII; 15% (FIII. Lotion was evaluated physical properties with parameters spreadibility, adhesivity, viscosity and pH. The evaluation of iritation index was done using guinea pig test animals. Data were analyzed statistically with One Way Anova at confidence level of 95% to detect a significant difference between the treatment groups. The results of the study showed the variation consentration did not influence pH the increasing concentration caused a decreasing spredibility P<0.05 and increasing adhesivity P<0.05. The all of concentration did not irritated the skin of guinea pigs.

  3. Influence of spinal sagittal alignment, body balance, muscle strength, and physical ability on falling of middle-aged and elderly males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Wakao, Norimitsu; Seki, Taisuke; Hirano, Kenichi; Muramoto, Akio; Sakai, Yoshihito; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors for falling in elderly people remain uncertain, and the effects of spinal factors and physical ability on body balance and falling have not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate how factors such as spinal sagittal alignment, spinal range of motion, body balance, muscle strength, and gait speed influence falling in the prospective cohort study. The subjects were 100 males who underwent a basic health checkup. Balance, SpinalMouse(®) data, grip strength, back muscle strength, 10-m gait time, lumbar lateral standing radiographs, body mass index, and fall history over the previous year were examined. Platform measurements of balance included the distance of movement of the center of pressure (COP) per second (LNG/TIME), the envelopment area traced by movement of the COP (E AREA), and the LNG/E AREA ratio. The thoracic/lumbar angle ratio (T/L ratio) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) were used as an index of sagittal balance. LNG/TIME and E AREA showed significant positive correlations with age, T/L ratio, SVA, and 10-m gait time; and significant negative correlations with lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination angle, grip strength and back muscle strength. Multiple regression analysis showed significant differences for LNG/TIME and E AREA with T/L ratio, SVA, lumbar lordosis angle and sacral inclination angle (R (2) = 0.399). Twelve subjects (12 %) had experienced a fall over the past year. Age, T/L ratio, SVA, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination angle, grip strength, back muscle strength, 10-m gait time, height of the intervertebral disc, osteophyte formation in radiographs and LNG/E AREA differed significantly between fallers and non-fallers. The group with SVA > 40 mm (n = 18) had a significant higher number of subjects with a single fall (6 single fallers/18: p = 0.0075) and with multiple falls (4 multiple fallers/18: p = 0.0095). Good spinal sagittal alignment, muscle strength and 10-m gait speed improve body balance

  4. Microstructural and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO deposited onto vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkar, Tushar [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Research and Technology, University of North Texas, Denton 76203 (United States); Chang, Won Seok [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jun Yeon, E-mail: Junyeon.Hwang@kist.re.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Research and Technology, University of North Texas, Denton 76203 (United States); Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Jeonbuk 565-902 (Korea, Republic of); Shepherd, Nigel D.; Banerjee, Rajarshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Research and Technology, University of North Texas, Denton 76203 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO films with thicknesses of 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm, and 50 nm were deposited via magnetron sputtering onto the surface of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The ZnO/CNTs heterostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. No structural degradation of the CNTs was observed and photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the nanostructured ZnO layers show that the optical properties of these films are typical of ZnO deposited at low temperatures. The results indicate that magnetron sputtering is a viable technique for growing heterostructures and depositing functional layers onto CNTs.

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  6. Incorporation of citrus essential oils into bacterial cellulose-based edible films and assessment of their physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrarti, L.; Indriyati

    2017-03-01

    The use of edible films in food protection and preservation has recently gained more interest since they offer several advantages over synthetic packaging materials. Biocellulose (BC) offers great opportunity as edible film due to their unique physical and mechanical properties. In this study, biocellulose films were prepared by solution casting with addition of 30% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 30% glycerol as the homogenizer and plasticizer, respectively. Furthermore, various citrus essential oils (EOs) including lemon, lime, and sweet orange were added at 50% w/w of BC dried weight. The solutions were then cast on the tray and allowed to dry in the air convection oven at 40°C overnight. The films were characterized for water solubility, tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), water vapour transmission rate (WVTR), and color. Those characteristics may influence consumer acceptability of the packaged products. Results revealed that addition of lemon and sweet orange EOs into BC-based edible film decreased water solubility and TS, but improved EB, as these oils acted as plasticizers in the film. However, different trend was observed for BC-based film incorporated with lime oil, which had higher solubility and TS, but lower EB and WVTR compared with that of control film. Addition of citrus EOs into BC-based films did not have much effect on color properties as stated in L*, a*, and b* values.

  7. Beyond Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking to Architecting Enterprises is a comprehensive reader about how enterprises can apply systems thinking in their enterprise architecture practice, for business transformation and for strategic execution. The book's contributors find that systems thinking...

  8. The influence of atomic alignment on absorption and emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong; Richter, Philipp

    2018-06-01

    Spectroscopic observations play essential roles in astrophysics. They are crucial for determining physical parameters in the universe, providing information about the chemistry of various astronomical environments. The proper execution of the spectroscopic analysis requires accounting for all the physical effects that are compatible to the signal-to-noise ratio. We find in this paper the influence on spectroscopy from the atomic/ground state alignment owing to anisotropic radiation and modulated by interstellar magnetic field, has significant impact on the study of interstellar gas. In different observational scenarios, we comprehensively demonstrate how atomic alignment influences the spectral analysis and provide the expressions for correcting the effect. The variations are even more pronounced for multiplets and line ratios. We show the variation of the deduced physical parameters caused by the atomic alignment effect, including alpha-to-iron ratio ([X/Fe]) and ionisation fraction. Synthetic observations are performed to illustrate the visibility of such effect with current facilities. A study of PDRs in ρ Ophiuchi cloud is presented to demonstrate how to account for atomic alignment in practice. Our work has shown that due to its potential impact, atomic alignment has to be included in an accurate spectroscopic analysis of the interstellar gas with current observational capability.

  9. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    2012-01-01

      The new alignment for the DT chambers has been successfully used in physics analysis starting with the 52X Global Tag. The remaining main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based CSC alignment and producing realistic APEs (alignment position errors) and MC misalignment scenarios to match the latest muon alignment constants. Work on these items has been delayed from the intended timeline, mostly due to a large involvement of the muon alignment man-power in physics analyses over the first half of this year. As CMS keeps probing higher and higher energies, special attention must be paid to the reconstruction of very-high-energy muons. Recent muon POG reports from mid-June show a φ-dependence in curvature bias in Monte Carlo samples. This bias is observed already at the tracker level, where it is constant with muon pT, while it grows with pT as muon chamber information is added to the tracks. Similar studies show a much smaller effect in data, at le...

  10. Effects of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud essential oils in edible apple films on physical properties and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) derived from plants are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on contact and in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. EOs from cinnamon, allspice, and clove bud plants are compatible with the sensory characteristics of apple-based edible films. These films could extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. This study evaluated physical properties (water vapor permeability, color, tensile properties) and antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud oils in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: cinnamon oil > clove bud oil > allspice oil. The antimicrobial films were more effective against L. monocytogenes than against the S. enterica. The oils reduced the viscosity of the apple solutions and increased elongation and darkened the colors of the films. They did not affect water vapor permeability. The results show that apple-based films with allspice, cinnamon, or clove bud oils were active against 3 foodborne pathogens by both direct contact with the bacteria and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.

  11. Essential astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2013-01-01

    Essential Astrophysics is a book to learn or teach from, as well as a fundamental reference volume for anyone interested in astronomy and astrophysics. It presents astrophysics from basic principles without requiring any previous study of astronomy or astrophysics. It serves as a comprehensive introductory text, which takes the student through the field of astrophysics in lecture-sized chapters of basic physical principles applied to the cosmos. This one-semester overview will be enjoyed by undergraduate students with an interest in the physical sciences, such as astronomy, chemistry, engineering or physics, as well as by any curious student interested in learning about our celestial science. The mathematics required for understanding the text is on the level of simple algebra, for that is all that is needed to describe the fundamental principles. The text is of sufficient breadth and depth to prepare the interested student for more advanced specialized courses in the future. Astronomical examples are provide...

  12. Aligning Physical Activity Measures with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Framework for Childhood Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Samantha Mae; Case, Layne; Leung, Willie

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health has placed emphasis on framing health behavior as a multidimensional construct. In relation to childhood physical activity, this encompasses dimensions of functional performance, activity attendance, and subjective perceptions of involvement and enjoyment…

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2010-01-01

    For the last three months, the Muon Alignment group has focussed on providing a new, improved set of alignment constants for the end-of-year data reprocessing. These constants were delivered on time and approved by the CMS physics validation team on November 17. The new alignment incorporates several improvements over the previous one from March for nearly all sub-systems. Motivated by the loss of information from a hardware failure in May (an entire MAB was lost), the optical barrel alignment has moved from a modular, super-plane reconstruction, to a full, single loop calculation of the entire geometry for all DTs in stations 1, 2 and 3. This makes better use of the system redundancy, mitigating the effect of the information loss. Station 4 is factorised and added afterwards to make the system smaller (and therefore faster to run), and also because the MAB calibration at the MB4 zone is less precise. This new alignment procedure was tested at 0 T against photogrammetry resulting in precisions of the order...

  14. Physics performance and fast turn around: the challenge of calibration and alignment at the CMS experiment during the LHC Run-II

    CERN Document Server

    Di Guida, Salvatore; Franzoni, Giovanni; Govi, Giacomo; Musich, Marco; Pfeiffer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a very complex apparatus with more than 70 million acquisition channels. To exploit its full physics potential, a very careful calibra- tion of the various components, together with an optimal knowledge of their position in space, is essential. The CMS Collaboration has set up a powerful infrastructure to allow for the best knowledge of these conditions at any given moment. The quick turnaround of these workflows was proven crucial both for the algorithms performing the online event selection and for the ul- timate resolution of the offline reconstruction of the physics objects. The contribution will report about the design and performance of these workflows during the operations of the 13TeV LHC RunII.

  15. Automated and Adaptable Quantification of Cellular Alignment from Microscopic Images for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Beyazoglu, Turker; Hefner, Evan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan

    2011-01-01

    Cellular alignment plays a critical role in functional, physical, and biological characteristics of many tissue types, such as muscle, tendon, nerve, and cornea. Current efforts toward regeneration of these tissues include replicating the cellular microenvironment by developing biomaterials that facilitate cellular alignment. To assess the functional effectiveness of the engineered microenvironments, one essential criterion is quantification of cellular alignment. Therefore, there is a need for rapid, accurate, and adaptable methodologies to quantify cellular alignment for tissue engineering applications. To address this need, we developed an automated method, binarization-based extraction of alignment score (BEAS), to determine cell orientation distribution in a wide variety of microscopic images. This method combines a sequenced application of median and band-pass filters, locally adaptive thresholding approaches and image processing techniques. Cellular alignment score is obtained by applying a robust scoring algorithm to the orientation distribution. We validated the BEAS method by comparing the results with the existing approaches reported in literature (i.e., manual, radial fast Fourier transform-radial sum, and gradient based approaches). Validation results indicated that the BEAS method resulted in statistically comparable alignment scores with the manual method (coefficient of determination R2=0.92). Therefore, the BEAS method introduced in this study could enable accurate, convenient, and adaptable evaluation of engineered tissue constructs and biomaterials in terms of cellular alignment and organization. PMID:21370940

  16. Inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice by a combination of essential oils' constituents and physical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, Beatriz; Ramírez, Nayeli; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    A combination of different hurdles, such as mild heat (54 ℃ for 10 min) or pulsed electric field (25 pulses; 25 kV/cm; 3.35 kJ/cm per pulse) treatments and essential oils constituents (carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene), to reduce spoiling bacteria and yeasts in apple juice was evaluated. For this purpose, the heat and pulsed electric field resistances of five strains of Leuconostoc spp. and five Saccharomyces spp. strains were assayed, achieving different inactivation levels for each treatment and strain. For instance, Leuconostoc fallax 74, the most heat-resistant strain, was the second-most sensitive strain to pulsed electric field. The most resistant strains were exposed to combined processes of heat or pulsed electric field and 0.2 µl/ml essential oils constituents. The combination of heat and essential oils constituents proved to be synergistic against both microorganisms in apple juice. The most effective was the combination of mild heat and carvacrol, which caused the inactivation of 99% of L. fallax 74 and 99.99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CECT 1172 cells. Therefore, this study shows the great potential of carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene in combined treatments with mild heat to achieve a higher degree of inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice, and thus, to extend its shelf life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  18. Deterpenation of eucalyptus essential oil by liquid + liquid extraction: Phase equilibrium and physical properties for model systems at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Daniel; Koshima, Cristina Chiyoda; Nakamoto, Karina Thiemi; Umeda, Thayla Karla; Aracava, Keila Kazue; Gonçalves, Cintia Bernardo; Rodrigues, Christianne Elisabete da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fractionation of essential oil compounds. • Liquid + liquid equilibria of limonene, citronellal, ethanol and water were studied. • Distribution coefficients of limonene and citronellal were evaluated. • Densities and viscosities of the phases were experimentally determined. • Solvent selectivities and physical properties were dependent on citronellal and water mass fractions. -- Abstract: As the principal source in Brazil of eucalyptus essential oil extracts, Eucalyptus citriodora contains citronellal, an oxygenated compound responsible for the flavour characteristics. Deterpenation processes, consisting of the removal of terpenic hydrocarbons with the subsequent concentration of the oxygenated compounds, can be used to improve the aromatic characteristics of this essential oil. The purpose of this work was to perform a study of the technical feasibility of using a liquid + liquid extraction process to deterpenate eucalyptus essential oil. Model systems with various mixtures of limonene and citronellal (representing eucalyptus essential oil) as well as solvent (ethanol with various water mass fractions) were used to obtain liquid + liquid equilibrium data. The raffinate and extract phases were also analyzed to characterize the physical properties (density and viscosity). The equilibrium data were used to adjust the NRTL and UNIQUAC parameters. Two empirical models, the simple mixing rule and the Grunberg–Nissan model, were evaluated for use in the descriptions of the densities and viscosities, respectively, of the samples. Increasing the water content in the solvent resulted in decreases in the limonene and citronellal distribution coefficients, with consequential increases in the solvent selectivity values. Increasing values of the densities and viscosities, especially for the solvent-rich phases, were associated with systems using high amounts of hydrated ethanolic solvents

  19. Essential Mathematics for the Physical Sciences; Volume I: Homogeneous boundary value problems, Fourier methods, and special functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Brett; Luscombe, James

    2017-10-01

    Physics is expressed in the language of mathematics; it is deeply ingrained in how physics is taught and how it's practiced. A study of the mathematics used in science is thus a sound intellectual investment for training as scientists and engineers. This first volume of two is centered on methods of solving partial differential equations and the special functions introduced. This text is based on a course offered at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) and while produced for NPS needs, it will serve other universities well.

  20. [The effect of a single moderate physical exertion on serum leptin levels in patients with essential hypertension (preliminary results)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, D; Gajek, J; Jołda-Mydłowska, B

    2000-08-01

    Leptin is a product of the ob gene and is secreted by the adipose tissue. It takes part in regulation of nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine system and renal functions. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of short term moderate exercise on serum leptin levels in patients with arterial hypertension. The study group consisted of 34 patients with essential hypertension: 15 women (48.9 +/- 12.1 years old) and 19 men (43.5 +/- 14.6 years old). There were 7 patients with stage I of hypertension, 17 patients with stage II of hypertension and 10 patients with stage III of hypertension. The blood samples were taken before and after the exercise test. Serum leptin levels were assessed by radioimmunoassay. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in women then in men. The logarithm of serum leptin levels after the exercise was significantly lower than before (0.8 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.5 respectively). The moderate, short term exercise decreases serum leptin levels in the hypertensive patients.

  1. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes......AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. METHODS: In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  3. Are the Competencies of Science Teachers and the Scientific Literacy of Society Essential for Success of Physics Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlo, Jozefina

    2010-02-01

    It is well known that students' interest in physics and technical subjects decreased dramatically in the USA and Europe during the recent years. Why did this happen?? Does the problem lie in wider socio-cultural changes, and the ways in which young people in developed countries now live and wish to shape their lives? Or is it due to failings within science education itself? To answer these questions the Nuffield Foundation (UK) took a decision to examine the actual state of art in science education in Europe and as the result a special Committee in January 2008 published a Report to the Nuffield Foundation on: ``Science Education in Europe: Critical Reflections.'' The main messages of this report are: There are shortcomings in curriculum, pedagogy, assessment and especially in science teacher competencies, but the deeper problem is one of the fundamental purpose. School science education, has never provided a satisfactory education for the majority. Now the evidence is that it is failing in its original purpose, to provide a route into science for future scientists. In such a context, to do nothing is not an option! Thus, there will be some recommendations and conclusions elaborated by the experienced European team of science educators (19) under supervision of Prof. Osborne and Dr. Dillon described, discussed and commented. But as far as the enhancement of ``scientific literacy'' of students and society is concerned, I believe that teachers, in the first place, are the real ``driving force'' of educational change in schools and in the society. Though education of teachers in Europe is very diversified, some patterns can be observed, some trends and examples of good practice identified, and on these I am going to reflect. )

  4. Parameter selection for peak alignment in chromatographic sample profiling: Objective quality indicators and use of control samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; van Velzen, E.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2009-01-01

    In chromatographic profiling applications, peak alignment is often essential as most chromatographic systems exhibit small peak shifts over time. When using currently available alignment algorithms, there are several parameters that determine the outcome of the alignment process. Selecting the

  5. Physical and antibacterial properties of açaí edible films formulated with thyme essential oil and apple skin polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia, Paula J P; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Du, Wen-Xian; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Williams, Tina G; Wood, Delilah; McHugh, Tara H; Soares, Nilda F F

    2014-05-01

    Thyme essential oil (TEO) and apple skin polyphenols (ASP) are natural compounds considered as generally recognized as safe by FDA, with biological effects against bacteria and fungi. This work aimed to evaluate physical and antimicrobial properties of açaí edible films formulated with TEO and ASP at 3% and 6% (w/w) individually or combined at 3% (w/w) each. Physical properties studied include mechanical resistance, water vapor permeability (WVP), color, and thermal resistance. Antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes was determined using the overlay diffusion test. Addition of ASP resulted in improved mechanical properties. TEO at 6% (w/w) resulted in increased elongation. ASP films had significant higher WVP than control film. ASP films were lighter and had more red color than other films. Incorporation of ASP resulted in improved film thermal stability, whereas TEO caused rapid thermal decomposition. Presence of clusters was observed on the surface of films. Addition of ASP resulted in a smoother surface, whereas addition of TEO led to the formation of crater-like pits on the film surface. Açaí edible film incorporated with 6% (w/w) TEO presented the highest antimicrobial activity. However, both antimicrobials are necessary in the açaí films in order to obtain edible films with suitable physical-mechanical properties. The results of the present study showed that TEO and ASP can be used to prepare açaí edible films with adequate physical-mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity for food applications by direct contact. Developed açaí edible films presented antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes and good physical-mechanical properties, showing the potential use of açaí edible films in food preservation. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. DIDA: Distributed Indexing Dispatched Alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamadi

    Full Text Available One essential application in bioinformatics that is affected by the high-throughput sequencing data deluge is the sequence alignment problem, where nucleotide or amino acid sequences are queried against targets to find regions of close similarity. When queries are too many and/or targets are too large, the alignment process becomes computationally challenging. This is usually addressed by preprocessing techniques, where the queries and/or targets are indexed for easy access while searching for matches. When the target is static, such as in an established reference genome, the cost of indexing is amortized by reusing the generated index. However, when the targets are non-static, such as contigs in the intermediate steps of a de novo assembly process, a new index must be computed for each run. To address such scalability problems, we present DIDA, a novel framework that distributes the indexing and alignment tasks into smaller subtasks over a cluster of compute nodes. It provides a workflow beyond the common practice of embarrassingly parallel implementations. DIDA is a cost-effective, scalable and modular framework for the sequence alignment problem in terms of memory usage and runtime. It can be employed in large-scale alignments to draft genomes and intermediate stages of de novo assembly runs. The DIDA source code, sample files and user manual are available through http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/dida. The software is released under the British Columbia Cancer Agency License (BCCA, and is free for academic use.

  7. Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment There is no definitive cure for essential tremor. Symptomatic drug therapy may include propranolol or other beta blockers and primidone, an anticonvulsant drug. Eliminating tremor "triggers" ...

  8. Aligning the unalignable: bacteriophage whole genome alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Sèverine; Chateau, Annie; Pompidor, Nicolas; Guertin, Paul; Bergeron, Anne; Swenson, Krister M

    2016-01-13

    In recent years, many studies focused on the description and comparison of large sets of related bacteriophage genomes. Due to the peculiar mosaic structure of these genomes, few informative approaches for comparing whole genomes exist: dot plots diagrams give a mostly qualitative assessment of the similarity/dissimilarity between two or more genomes, and clustering techniques are used to classify genomes. Multiple alignments are conspicuously absent from this scene. Indeed, whole genome aligners interpret lack of similarity between sequences as an indication of rearrangements, insertions, or losses. This behavior makes them ill-prepared to align bacteriophage genomes, where even closely related strains can accomplish the same biological function with highly dissimilar sequences. In this paper, we propose a multiple alignment strategy that exploits functional collinearity shared by related strains of bacteriophages, and uses partial orders to capture mosaicism of sets of genomes. As classical alignments do, the computed alignments can be used to predict that genes have the same biological function, even in the absence of detectable similarity. The Alpha aligner implements these ideas in visual interactive displays, and is used to compute several examples of alignments of Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium bacteriophages, involving up to 29 genomes. Using these datasets, we prove that Alpha alignments are at least as good as those computed by standard aligners. Comparison with the progressive Mauve aligner - which implements a partial order strategy, but whose alignments are linearized - shows a greatly improved interactive graphic display, while avoiding misalignments. Multiple alignments of whole bacteriophage genomes work, and will become an important conceptual and visual tool in comparative genomics of sets of related strains. A python implementation of Alpha, along with installation instructions for Ubuntu and OSX, is available on bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/thekswenson/alpha).

  9. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, M; Mortensen, S P; Hellsten, Y

    2013-03-01

    Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study 2, young (23 ± 1 years, n = 8), older lifelong sedentary (66 ± 2 years, n = 8) and older lifelong endurance-trained (62 ± 2 years, n = 8) subjects were studied in a cross-sectional design. Skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels were increased with age and plasma endothelin-1 levels were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  10. KNIME essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Bakos, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    KNIME Essentials is a practical guide aimed at getting the results you want, as quickly as possible.""Knime Essentials"" is written for data analysts looking to quickly get up to speed using the market leader in data processing tools, KNIME. No knowledge of KNIME is required, but we will assume that you have some background in data processing.

  11. Astronomy essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Brass, Charles O

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Astronomy includes the historical perspective of astronomy, sky basics and the celestial coordinate systems, a model and the origin of the solar system, the sun, the planets, Kepler'

  12. A new prosthetic alignment device to read and record prosthesis alignment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzi, Gholamhossein; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Ali, Sadeeq; Davoodi Makinejad, Majid

    2017-12-01

    Prosthetic alignment is an essential process to rehabilitate patients with amputations. This study presents, for the first time, an invented device to read and record prosthesis alignment data. The digital device consists of seven main parts: the trigger, internal shaft, shell, sensor adjustment button, digital display, sliding shell, and tip. The alignment data were read and recorded by the user or a computer to replicate prosthesis adjustment for future use or examine the sequence of changes in alignment and its effect on the posture of the patient. Alignment data were recorded at the anterior/posterior and medial/lateral positions for five patients. Results show the high level of confidence to record alignment data and replicate adjustments. Therefore, the device helps patients readjust their prosthesis by themselves, or prosthetists to perform adjustment for patients and analyze the effects of malalignment.

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez.

    Since June of 2009, the muon alignment group has focused on providing new alignment constants and on finalizing the hardware alignment reconstruction. Alignment constants for DTs and CSCs were provided for CRAFT09 data reprocessing. For DT chambers, the track-based alignment was repeated using CRAFT09 cosmic ray muons and validated using segment extrapolation and split cosmic tools. One difference with respect to the previous alignment is that only five degrees of freedom were aligned, leaving the rotation around the local x-axis to be better determined by the hardware system. Similarly, DT chambers poorly aligned by tracks (due to limited statistics) were aligned by a combination of photogrammetry and hardware-based alignment. For the CSC chambers, the hardware system provided alignment in global z and rotations about local x. Entire muon endcap rings were further corrected in the transverse plane (global x and y) by the track-based alignment. Single chamber track-based alignment suffers from poor statistic...

  14. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and J. Pivarski

    2011-01-01

    Alignment efforts in the first few months of 2011 have shifted away from providing alignment constants (now a well established procedure) and focussed on some critical remaining issues. The single most important task left was to understand the systematic differences observed between the track-based (TB) and hardware-based (HW) barrel alignments: a systematic difference in r-φ and in z, which grew as a function of z, and which amounted to ~4-5 mm differences going from one end of the barrel to the other. This difference is now understood to be caused by the tracker alignment. The systematic differences disappear when the track-based barrel alignment is performed using the new “twist-free” tracker alignment. This removes the largest remaining source of systematic uncertainty. Since the barrel alignment is based on hardware, it does not suffer from the tracker twist. However, untwisting the tracker causes endcap disks (which are aligned ...

  15. Essential AOP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fraine, Bruno; Ernst, Erik; Südholt, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) has produced interesting language designs, but also ad hoc semantics that needs clarification. We contribute to this clarification with a calculus that models essential AOP, both simpler and more general than existing formalizations. In AOP, advice may intercept...

  16. Highcharts essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shahid, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web developer with a basic knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript and want to quickly get started with this web charting technology, this is the book for you. This book will also serve as an essential guide to those who have probably used a similar library and are now looking at migrating to Highcharts.

  17. Swift essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Whether you are a seasoned Objective-C developer or new to the Xcode platform, Swift Essentials will provide you with all you need to know to get started with the language. Prior experience with iOS development is not necessary, but will be helpful to get the most out of the book.

  18. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    The main developments in muon alignment since March 2010 have been the production, approval and deployment of alignment constants for the ICHEP data reprocessing. In the barrel, a new geometry, combining information from both hardware and track-based alignment systems, has been developed for the first time. The hardware alignment provides an initial DT geometry, which is then anchored as a rigid solid, using the link alignment system, to a reference frame common to the tracker. The “GlobalPositionRecords” for both the Tracker and Muon systems are being used for the first time, and the initial tracker-muon relative positioning, based on the link alignment, yields good results within the photogrammetry uncertainties of the Tracker and alignment ring positions. For the first time, the optical and track-based alignments show good agreement between them; the optical alignment being refined by the track-based alignment. The resulting geometry is the most complete to date, aligning all 250 DTs, ...

  19. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    fast alignment algorithm, called 'Alignment By Scanning' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the 'GAP' (which is heuristic) and the 'Needleman

  20. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

    2013-01-01

    When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

  1. Tracing magnetic fields with aligned grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a crucial role in various astrophysical processes, including star formation, accretion of matter, transport processes (e.g., transport of heat), and cosmic rays. One of the easiest ways to determine the magnetic field direction is via polarization of radiation resulting from extinction or/and emission by aligned dust grains. Reliability of interpretation of the polarization maps in terms of magnetic fields depends on how well we understand the grain-alignment theory. Explaining what makes grains aligned has been one of the big issues of the modern astronomy. Numerous exciting physical effects have been discovered in the course of research undertaken in this field. As both the theory and observations matured, it became clear that the grain-alignment phenomenon is inherent not only in diffuse interstellar medium or molecular clouds but also is a generic property of the dust in circumstellar regions, interplanetary space and cometary comae. Currently the grain-alignment theory is a predictive one, and its results nicely match observations. Among its predictions is a subtle phenomenon of radiative torques. This phenomenon, after having stayed in oblivion for many years after its discovery, is currently viewed as the most powerful means of alignment. In this article, I shall review the basic physical processes involved in grain alignment, and the currently known mechanisms of alignment. I shall also discuss possible niches for different alignment mechanisms. I shall dwell on the importance of the concept of grain helicity for understanding of many properties of grain alignment, and shall demonstrate that rather arbitrarily shaped grains exhibit helicity when they interact with gaseous and radiative flows

  2. Control rod housing alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a process for measuring the vertical alignment between a hole in a core plate and the top of a corresponding control rod drive housing within a boiling water reactor. It comprises: providing an alignment apparatus. The alignment apparatus including a lower end for fitting to the top of the control rod drive housing; an upper end for fitting to the aperture in the core plate, and a leveling means attached to the alignment apparatus to read out the difference in angularity with respect to gravity, and alignment pin registering means for registering to the alignment pin on the core plate; lowering the alignment device on a depending support through a lattice position in the top guide through the hole in the core plate down into registered contact with the top of the control rod drive housing; registering the upper end to the sides of the hole in the core plate; registering the alignment pin registering means to an alignment pin on the core plate to impart to the alignment device the required angularity; and reading out the angle of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate through the leveling devices whereby the angularity of the top of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate can be determined

  3. The GEM Detector projective alignment simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.; Belser, F.C.; Holdener, F.R.; Roeben, M.D.; Paradiso, J.A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pier-Amory, J.

    1993-01-01

    Precision position knowledge (< 25 microns RMS) of the GEM Detector muon system at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is an important physics requirement necessary to minimize sagitta error in detecting and tracking high energy muons that are deflected by the magnetic field within the GEM Detector. To validate the concept of the sagitta correction function determined by projective alignment of the muon detectors (Cathode Strip Chambers or CSCs), the basis of the proposed GEM alignment scheme, a facility, called the ''Alignment Test Stand'' (ATS), is being constructed. This system simulates the environment that the CSCs and chamber alignment systems are expected to experience in the GEM Detector, albeit without the 0.8 T magnetic field and radiation environment. The ATS experimental program will allow systematic study and characterization of the projective alignment approach, as well as general mechanical engineering of muon chamber mounting concepts, positioning systems and study of the mechanical behavior of the proposed 6 layer CSCs. The ATS will consist of a stable local coordinate system in which mock-ups of muon chambers (i.e., non-working mechanical analogs, representing the three superlayers of a selected barrel and endcap alignment tower) are implemented, together with a sufficient number of alignment monitors to overdetermine the sagitta correction function, providing a self-consistency check. This paper describes the approach to be used for the alignment of the GEM muon system, the design of the ATS, and the experiments to be conducted using the ATS

  4. Track-Based Alignment of the Inner Detector of ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovcharova Ana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment at the LHC. The tracking system of ATLAS, embedded in a 2 T solenoidal field, is composed of different technologies: silicon planar sensors (pixel and microstrips and drift-tubes. The procedure used to align the ATLAS tracker and the results of the alignment using data recorded during 2010 and 2011 using LHC proton-proton collision runs at 7 TeV are presented. Validation of the alignment is performed by measuring the alignment observables as well as many other physics observables, notably resonance invariant masses in a wide mass range (KS, J/Ψ and Z. The E/p distributions for electrons from Z → ee and W → ev are also extensively used. The results indicate that, after the alignment with real data, the attained precision of the alignment constants is approximately 5 μm. The systematic errors due to the alignment that may affect physics results are under study.

  5. Design of practical alignment device in KSTAR Thomson diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H., E-mail: jhlee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yamada, I. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    The precise alignment of the laser path and collection optics in Thomson scattering measurements is essential for accurately determining electron temperature and density in tokamak experiments. For the last five years, during the development stage, the KSTAR tokamak’s Thomson diagnostic system has had alignment fibers installed in its optical collection modules, but these lacked a proper alignment detection system. In order to address these difficulties, an alignment verifying detection device between lasers and an object field of collection optics is developed. The alignment detection device utilizes two types of filters: a narrow laser band wavelength for laser, and a broad wavelength filter for Thomson scattering signal. Four such alignment detection devices have been successfully developed for the KSTAR Thomson scattering system in this year, and these will be tested in KSTAR experiments in 2016. In this paper, we present the newly developed alignment detection device for KSTAR’s Thomson scattering diagnostics.

  6. Linux Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Roderick W

    2012-01-01

    A unique, full-color introduction to Linux fundamentals Serving as a low-cost, secure alternative to expensive operating systems, Linux is a UNIX-based, open source operating system. Full-color and concise, this beginner's guide takes a learning-by-doing approach to understanding the essentials of Linux. Each chapter begins by clearly identifying what you will learn in the chapter, followed by a straightforward discussion of concepts that leads you right into hands-on tutorials. Chapters conclude with additional exercises and review questions, allowing you to reinforce and measure your underst

  7. Essential SQLAlchemy

    CERN Document Server

    Copeland, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Essential SQLAlchemy introduces a high-level open-source code library that makes it easier for Python programmers to access relational databases such as Oracle, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, and SQLite. SQLAlchemy has become increasingly popular since its release, but it still lacks good offline documentation. This practical book fills the gap, and because a developer wrote it, you get an objective look at SQLAlchemy's tools rather than an advocate's description of all the "cool" features. SQLAlchemy includes both a database server-independent SQL expression language and an object-relational mappe

  8. Prezi essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Domi

    2014-01-01

    If you want to learn Prezi, and specifically design within Prezi, this is the book for you. Perhaps you already know a bit about Prezi but have never used it, or perhaps you have used Prezi before but want to learn how to incorporate your own custom design elements. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic design concepts and the use of Prezi, but prior experience is not essential.

  9. Aligners: the Invisible Corrector-A Boon or Bane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Lodd

    2018-03-01

    The trend of clinical orthodontics has shown a palpable shift from conventional braces to innovative technologies like invisible aligners. Aligners are sequences of clear trays worn by patients to straighten their teeth. They were envisaged for the main purpose of esthetics, mainly directed toward self-conscious teenagers who otherwise would shy away from essential correction of malocclusion.

  10. Aligning IT and Business Strategy: An Australian University Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Alignment with business objectives is considered to be an essential outcome of information technology (IT) strategic planning. This case study examines the process of creating an IT strategy for an Australian university using an industry standard methodology. The degree of alignment is determined by comparing the strategic priorities supported by…

  11. Aligned, isotropic and patterned carbon nanotube substrates that control the growth and alignment of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Che Azurahanim Che; Asanithi, Piyapong; Brunner, Eric W; Jurewicz, Izabela; Bo, Chiara; Sear, Richard P; Dalton, Alan B [Department of Physics and Surrey Materials Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Azad, Chihye Lewis; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Fang Shaoli; Lima, Marcio D; Lepro, Xavier; Collins, Steve; Baughman, Ray H, E-mail: r.sear@surrey.ac.uk [Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080-3021 (United States)

    2011-05-20

    Here we culture Chinese hamster ovary cells on isotropic, aligned and patterned substrates based on multiwall carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide the substrate with nanoscale topography. The cells adhere to and grow on all substrates, and on the aligned substrate, the cells align strongly with the axis of the bundles of the multiwall nanotubes. This control over cell alignment is required for tissue engineering; almost all tissues consist of oriented cells. The aligned substrates are made using straightforward physical chemistry techniques from forests of multiwall nanotubes; no lithography is required to make inexpensive large-scale substrates with highly aligned nanoscale grooves. Interestingly, although the cells strongly align with the nanoscale grooves, only a few also elongate along this axis: alignment of the cells does not require a pronounced change in morphology of the cell. We also pattern the nanotube bundles over length scales comparable to the cell size and show that the cells follow this pattern.

  12. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Most of the work in muon alignment since December 2009 has focused on the geometry reconstruction from the optical systems and improvements in the internal alignment of the DT chambers. The barrel optical alignment system has progressively evolved from reconstruction of single active planes to super-planes (December 09) to a new, full barrel reconstruction. Initial validation studies comparing this full barrel alignment at 0T with photogrammetry provide promising results. In addition, the method has been applied to CRAFT09 data, and the resulting alignment at 3.8T yields residuals from tracks (extrapolated from the tracker) which look smooth, suggesting a good internal barrel alignment with a small overall offset with respect to the tracker. This is a significant improvement, which should allow the optical system to provide a start-up alignment for 2010. The end-cap optical alignment has made considerable progress in the analysis of transfer line data. The next set of alignment constants for CSCs will there...

  13. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  14. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    Since December, the muon alignment community has focused on analyzing the data recorded so far in order to produce new DT and CSC Alignment Records for the second reprocessing of CRAFT data. Two independent algorithms were developed which align the DT chambers using global tracks, thus providing, for the first time, a relative alignment of the barrel with respect to the tracker. These results are an important ingredient for the second CRAFT reprocessing and allow, for example, a more detailed study of any possible mis-modelling of the magnetic field in the muon spectrometer. Both algorithms are constructed in such a way that the resulting alignment constants are not affected, to first order, by any such mis-modelling. The CSC chambers have not yet been included in this global track-based alignment due to a lack of statistics, since only a few cosmics go through the tracker and the CSCs. A strategy exists to align the CSCs using the barrel as a reference until collision tracks become available. Aligning the ...

  15. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Alignment work now focuses on producing a new track-based alignment with higher track statistics, making systematic studies between the results of the hardware and track-based alignment methods and aligning the barrel using standalone muon tracks. Currently, the muon track reconstruction software uses a hardware-based alignment in the barrel (DT) and a track-based alignment in the endcaps (CSC). An important task is to assess the muon momentum resolution that can be achieved using the current muon alignment, especially for highly energetic muons. For this purpose, cosmic ray muons are used, since the rate of high-energy muons from collisions is very low and the event statistics are still limited. Cosmics have the advantage of higher statistics in the pT region above 100 GeV/c, but they have the disadvantage of having a mostly vertical topology, resulting in a very few global endcap muons. Only the barrel alignment has therefore been tested so far. Cosmic muons traversing CMS from top to bottom are s...

  16. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    The main progress of the muon alignment group since March has been in the refinement of both the track-based alignment for the DTs and the hardware-based alignment for the CSCs. For DT track-based alignment, there has been significant improvement in the internal alignment of the superlayers inside the DTs. In particular, the distance between superlayers is now corrected, eliminating the residual dependence on track impact angles, and good agreement is found between survey and track-based corrections. The new internal geometry has been approved to be included in the forthcoming reprocessing of CRAFT samples. The alignment of DTs with respect to the tracker using global tracks has also improved significantly, since the algorithms use the latest B-field mapping, better run selection criteria, optimized momentum cuts, and an alignment is now obtained for all six degrees of freedom (three spatial coordinates and three rotations) of the aligned DTs. This work is ongoing and at a stage where we are trying to unders...

  17. An Alignment of J-PARC Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Morishita, Takatoshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ikegami, Masanori; Ito, Takashi; Kubota, Chikashi; Naito, Fujio; Takasaki, Eiichi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Ueno, Akira; Yoshino, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    J-PARC linear accelerator components are now being installed in the accelerator tunnel, whose total length is more than 400 m including the beam transport line to RCS (Rapid Cycling Synchrotron). A precise alignment of accelerator components is essential for a high quality beam acceleration. In this paper, planned alignment schemes for the installation of linac components, the fine alignment before beam acceleration, and watching the long term motion of the building are described. Guide points are placed on the floor, which acts as a reference for the initial alignment at the installation and also as a relay point for the long surveying network linking at the fine alignment. For a straight line alignment, the wire position sensor is placed on the offset position with respect to the beam center by a target holder, then a single wire can cover the accelerator cavities and the focusing magnets at the DTL-SDTL section (120m). The hydrostatic levering system (HLS) is used for watching the floor elevation (changes)...

  18. The Alignment of the CMS Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Lampen, Pekka Tapio

    2013-01-01

    The CMS all-silicon tracker consists of 16588 modules, embedded in a solenoidal magnet providing a field of B = 3.8 T. The targeted performance requires that the alignment determines the module positions with a precision of a few micrometers. Ultimate local precision is reached by the determination of sensor curvatures, challenging the algorithms to determine about 200k parameters simultaneously, as is feasible with the Millepede II program. The main remaining challenge are global distortions that systematically bias the track parameters and thus physics measurements. They are controlled by adding further information into the alignment workflow, e.g. the mass of decaying resonances or track data taken with B = 0 T. To make use of the latter and also to integrate the determination of the Lorentz angle into the alignment procedure, the alignment framework has been extended to treat position sensitive calibration parameters. This is relevant since due to the increased LHC luminosity in 2012, the Lorentz angle ex...

  19. Asthma essentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Greene

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic, reversible obstructive disease that when in exacerbation can present to the emergency department in a spectrum of severity. Prompt recognition of the potentially severely ill asthmatic requires a careful history and physical exam while considering alternative diagnoses for the presenting symptoms. Early administration of salbutamol and corticosteroids is indicated in almost all patients with other medications such as ipratropium and magnesium and supportive modalities like BiPAP reserved for sicker patients. The global impact of asthma is increasing, especially amongst children. While the benign clinical presentation is most common and mortality has decreased in recent decades due to improved recognition and care, the ubiquity of the condition and frequent lack of regular outpatient management contribute to the disease claiming 250,000 lives worldwide annually. The emergency physician must be prepared to assess and appropriately manage both the young child with a mild wheeze and the adult in respiratory failure.

  20. Tests of Alignment among Assessment, Standards, and Instruction Using Generalized Linear Model Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2014-01-01

    An essential component in school accountability efforts is for assessments to be well-aligned with the standards or curriculum they are intended to measure. However, relatively little prior research has explored methods to determine statistical significance of alignment or misalignment. This study explores analyses of alignment as a special case…

  1. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  2. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  3. Precision alignment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  4. Alignment for CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shoujin; Man Kaidi; Guo Yizhen; Cai Guozhu; Guo Yuhui

    2002-01-01

    Cooled Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR) belongs to China great scientific project in China. The alignment for it is very difficult because of very large area and very high accuracy. For the special case in HIRFL-CSR, some new methods and new instruments are used, including the construction of survey control network, the usage of laser tracker, and CSR alignment database system with applications developed to store and analyze data. The author describes the whole procedure of CSR alignment

  5. Methods in ALFA Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    This note presents two model-independent methods for use in the alignment of the ALFA forward detectors. Using a Monte Carlo simulated LHC run at \\beta = 90m and \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, the Kinematic Peak alignment method is utilized to reconstruct the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t for single-diractive protons. The Hot Spot method uses fluctuations in the hitmap density to pinpoint particular regions in the detector that could signal a misalignment. Another method uses an error function fit to find the detector edge. With this information, the vertical alignment can be determined.

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  7. CSA: An efficient algorithm to improve circular DNA multiple alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Luísa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The comparison of homologous sequences from different species is an essential approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of species and of the genes they harbour in their genomes. Several complete mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are now available, increasing the importance of using multiple sequence alignment algorithms in comparative genomics. MtDNA has long been used in phylogenetic analysis and errors in the alignments can lead to errors in the interpretation of evolutionary information. Although a large number of multiple sequence alignment algorithms have been proposed to date, they all deal with linear DNA and cannot handle directly circular DNA. Researchers interested in aligning circular DNA sequences must first rotate them to the "right" place using an essentially manual process, before they can use multiple sequence alignment tools. Results In this paper we propose an efficient algorithm that identifies the most interesting region to cut circular genomes in order to improve phylogenetic analysis when using standard multiple sequence alignment algorithms. This algorithm identifies the largest chain of non-repeated longest subsequences common to a set of circular mitochondrial DNA sequences. All the sequences are then rotated and made linear for multiple alignment purposes. To evaluate the effectiveness of this new tool, three different sets of mitochondrial DNA sequences were considered. Other tests considering randomly rotated sequences were also performed. The software package Arlequin was used to evaluate the standard genetic measures of the alignments obtained with and without the use of the CSA algorithm with two well known multiple alignment algorithms, the CLUSTALW and the MAVID tools, and also the visualization tool SinicView. Conclusion The results show that a circularization and rotation pre-processing step significantly improves the efficiency of public available multiple sequence alignment

  8. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  9. Alignment of CEBAF cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Fischer, J.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, when completed, will house a 4 GeV recirculating accelerator. Each of the accelerator's two linacs contains 160 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) 1497 MHz niobium cavities in 20 cryomodules. Alignments of the cavities within the cryomodule with respect to beam axis is critical to achieving the optimum accelerator performance. This paper discusses the rationale for the current specification on cavity mechanical alignment: 2 mrad (rms) applied to the 0.5 m active length cavities. We describe the tooling that was developed to achieve the tolerance at the time of cavity pair assembly, to preserve and integrate alignment during cryomodule assembly, and to translate alignment to appropriate installation in the beam line

  10. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  11. Software alignment of the LHCb inner tracker sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciuc, Florin

    2009-01-01

    This work uses the Millepede linear alignment method, which is essentially a χ 2 minimization algorithm, to determine simultaneously between 76 and 476 alignment parameters and several million track parameters. For the case of non-linear alignment models, Millepede is embedded in a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure. If needed a more robust approach is provided by adding quasi-Newton steps which minimize the approximate χ 2 model function. The alignment apparatus is applied to locally align the LHCb's Inner Tracker sensors in an a priori fixed system of coordinate. An analytic measurement model was derived as function of track parameters and alignment parameters, for the two cases: null and nonnull magnetic field. The alignment problem is equivalent to solving a linear system of equations, and usually a matrix inversion is required. In general, as consequence of global degrees of freedom or poorly constrained modes, the alignment matrix is singular or near-singular. The global degrees of freedom are obtained: directly from χ 2 function invariant transformations, and in parallel by an alignment matrix diagonalization followed by an extraction of the least constrained modes. The procedure allows to properly de ne the local alignment of the Inner Tracker. Using Monte Carlo data, the outlined procedure reconstructs the position of the IT sensors within micrometer precision or better. For rotations equivalent precision was obtained. (orig.)

  12. Software alignment of the LHCb inner tracker sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciuc, Florin

    2009-04-20

    This work uses the Millepede linear alignment method, which is essentially a {chi}{sup 2} minimization algorithm, to determine simultaneously between 76 and 476 alignment parameters and several million track parameters. For the case of non-linear alignment models, Millepede is embedded in a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure. If needed a more robust approach is provided by adding quasi-Newton steps which minimize the approximate {chi}{sup 2} model function. The alignment apparatus is applied to locally align the LHCb's Inner Tracker sensors in an a priori fixed system of coordinate. An analytic measurement model was derived as function of track parameters and alignment parameters, for the two cases: null and nonnull magnetic field. The alignment problem is equivalent to solving a linear system of equations, and usually a matrix inversion is required. In general, as consequence of global degrees of freedom or poorly constrained modes, the alignment matrix is singular or near-singular. The global degrees of freedom are obtained: directly from {chi}{sup 2} function invariant transformations, and in parallel by an alignment matrix diagonalization followed by an extraction of the least constrained modes. The procedure allows to properly de ne the local alignment of the Inner Tracker. Using Monte Carlo data, the outlined procedure reconstructs the position of the IT sensors within micrometer precision or better. For rotations equivalent precision was obtained. (orig.)

  13. Software alignment of the LHCb inner tracker sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciuc, Florin

    2009-04-20

    This work uses the Millepede linear alignment method, which is essentially a {chi}{sup 2} minimization algorithm, to determine simultaneously between 76 and 476 alignment parameters and several million track parameters. For the case of non-linear alignment models, Millepede is embedded in a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure. If needed a more robust approach is provided by adding quasi-Newton steps which minimize the approximate {chi}{sup 2} model function. The alignment apparatus is applied to locally align the LHCb's Inner Tracker sensors in an a priori fixed system of coordinate. An analytic measurement model was derived as function of track parameters and alignment parameters, for the two cases: null and nonnull magnetic field. The alignment problem is equivalent to solving a linear system of equations, and usually a matrix inversion is required. In general, as consequence of global degrees of freedom or poorly constrained modes, the alignment matrix is singular or near-singular. The global degrees of freedom are obtained: directly from {chi}{sup 2} function invariant transformations, and in parallel by an alignment matrix diagonalization followed by an extraction of the least constrained modes. The procedure allows to properly de ne the local alignment of the Inner Tracker. Using Monte Carlo data, the outlined procedure reconstructs the position of the IT sensors within micrometer precision or better. For rotations equivalent precision was obtained. (orig.)

  14. SFESA: a web server for pairwise alignment refinement by secondary structure shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-09-03

    Protein sequence alignment is essential for a variety of tasks such as homology modeling and active site prediction. Alignment errors remain the main cause of low-quality structure models. A bioinformatics tool to refine alignments is needed to make protein alignments more accurate. We developed the SFESA web server to refine pairwise protein sequence alignments. Compared to the previous version of SFESA, which required a set of 3D coordinates for a protein, the new server will search a sequence database for the closest homolog with an available 3D structure to be used as a template. For each alignment block defined by secondary structure elements in the template, SFESA evaluates alignment variants generated by local shifts and selects the best-scoring alignment variant. A scoring function that combines the sequence score of profile-profile comparison and the structure score of template-derived contact energy is used for evaluation of alignments. PROMALS pairwise alignments refined by SFESA are more accurate than those produced by current advanced alignment methods such as HHpred and CNFpred. In addition, SFESA also improves alignments generated by other software. SFESA is a web-based tool for alignment refinement, designed for researchers to compute, refine, and evaluate pairwise alignments with a combined sequence and structure scoring of alignment blocks. To our knowledge, the SFESA web server is the only tool that refines alignments by evaluating local shifts of secondary structure elements. The SFESA web server is available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/sfesa.

  15. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  16. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Szillasi

    2013-01-01

    The CMS detector has been gradually opened and whenever a wheel became exposed the first operation was the removal of the MABs, the sensor structures of the Hardware Barrel Alignment System. By the last days of June all 36 MABs have arrived at the Alignment Lab at the ISR where, as part of the Alignment Upgrade Project, they are refurbished with new Survey target holders. Their electronic checkout is on the way and finally they will be recalibrated. During LS1 the alignment system will be upgraded in order to allow more precise reconstruction of the MB4 chambers in Sector 10 and Sector 4. This requires new sensor components, so called MiniMABs (pictured below), that have already been assembled and calibrated. Image 6: Calibrated MiniMABs are ready for installation For the track-based alignment, the systematic uncertainties of the algorithm are under scrutiny: this study will enable the production of an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and to update alignment position errors eventually, crucial...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  18. Nanoscratch technique for aligning multiwalled carbon nanotubes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MWCNTs) were synthesized in an open air, without the need for a controlled atmosphere, using a rotating cathode arc discharge method with the help of a metal scraper. The physical force exerted by the scraper results in in-situ alignment of MWCNTs ...

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  1. A UNIFIED MODEL OF GRAIN ALIGNMENT: RADIATIVE ALIGNMENT OF INTERSTELLAR GRAINS WITH MAGNETIC INCLUSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thiem [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The radiative torque (RAT) alignment of interstellar grains with ordinary paramagnetic susceptibilities has been supported by earlier studies. The alignment of such grains depends on the so-called RAT parameter q {sup max}, which is determined by the grain shape. In this paper, we elaborate on our model of RAT alignment for grains with enhanced magnetic susceptibility due to iron inclusions, such that RAT alignment is magnetically enhanced, which we term the MRAT mechanism. Such grains can be aligned with high angular momentum at the so-called high- J attractor points, achieving a high degree of alignment. Using our analytical model of RATs, we derive the critical value of the magnetic relaxation parameter δ {sub m} to produce high- J attractor points as functions of q {sup max} and the anisotropic radiation angle relative to the magnetic field ψ . We find that if about 10% of the total iron abundance present in silicate grains is forming iron clusters, this is sufficient to produce high- J attractor points for all reasonable values of q {sup max}. To calculate the degree of grain alignment, we carry out numerical simulations of MRAT alignment by including stochastic excitations from gas collisions and magnetic fluctuations. We show that large grains can achieve perfect alignment when the high- J attractor point is present, regardless of the values of q {sup max}. Our obtained results pave the way for the physical modeling of polarized thermal dust emission as well as magnetic dipole emission. We also find that millimeter-sized grains in accretion disks may be aligned with the magnetic field if they are incorporated with iron nanoparticles.

  2. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil; Kim, Seung Kook

    2006-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus

  3. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    A new Muon misalignment scenario for 2011 (7 TeV) Monte Carlo re-processing was re-leased. The scenario is based on running of standard track-based reference-target algorithm (exactly as in data) using single-muon simulated sample (with the transverse-momentum spectrum matching data). It used statistics similar to what was used for alignment with 2011 data, starting from an initially misaligned Muon geometry from uncertainties of hardware measurements and using the latest Tracker misalignment geometry. Validation of the scenario (with muons from Z decay and high-pT simulated muons) shows that it describes data well. The study of systematic uncertainties (dominant by now due to huge amount of data collected by CMS and used for muon alignment) is finalised. Realistic alignment position errors are being obtained from the estimated uncertainties and are expected to improve the muon reconstruction performance. Concerning the Hardware Alignment System, the upgrade of the Barrel Alignment is in progress. By now, d...

  4. Probabilistic biological network alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Andrei; Dobra, Alin; Kahveci, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between molecules are probabilistic events. An interaction may or may not happen with some probability, depending on a variety of factors such as the size, abundance, or proximity of the interacting molecules. In this paper, we consider the problem of aligning two biological networks. Unlike existing methods, we allow one of the two networks to contain probabilistic interactions. Allowing interaction probabilities makes the alignment more biologically relevant at the expense of explosive growth in the number of alternative topologies that may arise from different subsets of interactions that take place. We develop a novel method that efficiently and precisely characterizes this massive search space. We represent the topological similarity between pairs of aligned molecules (i.e., proteins) with the help of random variables and compute their expected values. We validate our method showing that, without sacrificing the running time performance, it can produce novel alignments. Our results also demonstrate that our method identifies biologically meaningful mappings under a comprehensive set of criteria used in the literature as well as the statistical coherence measure that we developed to analyze the statistical significance of the similarity of the functions of the aligned protein pairs.

  5. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana de Araújo Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI, C. zeylanicum (GII, and nystatin (GIII for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α=5%. For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P<0.0001, with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum.

  6. Aligning Responsible Business Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weller, Angeli E.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an in-depth case study of a global high tech manufacturer that aligned its ethics and compliance, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability practices. Few large companies organize their responsible business practices this way, despite conceptual relevance and calls t...... and managers interested in understanding how responsible business practices may be collectively organized.......This article offers an in-depth case study of a global high tech manufacturer that aligned its ethics and compliance, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability practices. Few large companies organize their responsible business practices this way, despite conceptual relevance and calls...... to manage them comprehensively. A communities of practice theoretical lens suggests that intentional effort would be needed to bridge meaning between the relevant managers and practices in order to achieve alignment. The findings call attention to the important role played by employees who broker...

  7. FMIT alignment cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance

  8. Alignment of whole genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcher, A L; Kasif, S; Fleischmann, R D; Peterson, J; White, O; Salzberg, S L

    1999-01-01

    A new system for aligning whole genome sequences is described. Using an efficient data structure called a suffix tree, the system is able to rapidly align sequences containing millions of nucleotides. Its use is demonstrated on two strains of Mycoplasma tuberculosis, on two less similar species of Mycoplasma bacteria and on two syntenic sequences from human chromosome 12 and mouse chromosome 6. In each case it found an alignment of the input sequences, using between 30 s and 2 min of computation time. From the system output, information on single nucleotide changes, translocations and homologous genes can easily be extracted. Use of the algorithm should facilitate analysis of syntenic chromosomal regions, strain-to-strain comparisons, evolutionary comparisons and genomic duplications. PMID:10325427

  9. Photoresist thin-film effects on alignment process capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gary E.; Flack, Warren W.

    1993-08-01

    Two photoresists were selected for alignment characterization based on their dissimilar coating properties and observed differences on alignment capability. The materials are Dynachem OFPR-800 and Shipley System 8. Both photoresists were examined on two challenging alignment levels in a submicron CMOS process, a nitride level and a planarized second level metal. An Ultratech Stepper model 1500 which features a darkfield alignment system with a broadband green light for alignment signal detection was used for this project. Initially, statistically designed linear screening experiments were performed to examine six process factors for each photoresist: viscosity, spin acceleration, spin speed, spin time, softbake time, and softbake temperature. Using the results derived from the screening experiments, a more thorough examination of the statistically significant process factors was performed. A full quadratic experimental design was conducted to examine viscosity, spin speed, and spin time coating properties on alignment. This included a characterization of both intra and inter wafer alignment control and alignment process capability. Insight to the different alignment behavior is analyzed in terms of photoresist material properties and the physical nature of the alignment detection system.

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  12. Simulation of beamline alignment operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annese, C; Miller, M G.

    1999-01-01

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control systems. The simulator project used a three-prong approach that studied object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) optical alignment system was modeled to study control system operations. The alignment of NIF's 192 beamlines is a large complex operation involving more than 100 computer systems and 8000 mechanized devices. The alignment process is defined by a detailed set of procedures; however, many of the steps are deterministic. The alignment steps for a poorly aligned component are similar to that of a nearly aligned component; however, additional operations/iterations are required to complete the process. Thus, the same alignment operations will require variable amounts of time to perform depending on the current alignment condition as well as other factors. Simulation of the alignment process is necessary to understand beamline alignment time requirements and how shared resources such as the Output Sensor and Target Alignment Sensor effect alignment efficiency. The simulation has provided alignment time estimates and other results based on documented alignment procedures and alignment experience gained in the laboratory. Computer communication time, mechanical hardware actuation times, image processing algorithm execution times, etc. have been experimentally determined and incorporated into the model. Previous analysis of alignment operations utilized average implementation times for all alignment operations. Resource sharing becomes rather simple to model when only average values are used. The time required to actually implement the many individual alignment operations will be quite dynamic. The simulation model estimates the time to complete an operation using

  13. Experimental image alignment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, A. L.; Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrument for image alignment with respect to a reference image is described which uses the DEFT sensor (Direct Electronic Fourier Transform) for image sensing and preprocessing. The instrument alignment algorithm which uses the two-dimensional Fourier transform as input is also described. It generates signals used to steer the stage carrying the test image into the correct orientation. This algorithm has computational advantages over algorithms which use image intensity data as input and is suitable for a microcomputer-based instrument since the two-dimensional Fourier transform is provided by the DEFT sensor.

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  16. AlignMe—a membrane protein sequence alignment web server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Marcus; Staritzbichler, René; Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a web server for pair-wise alignment of membrane protein sequences, using the program AlignMe. The server makes available two operational modes of AlignMe: (i) sequence to sequence alignment, taking two sequences in fasta format as input, combining information about each sequence from multiple sources and producing a pair-wise alignment (PW mode); and (ii) alignment of two multiple sequence alignments to create family-averaged hydropathy profile alignments (HP mode). For the PW sequence alignment mode, four different optimized parameter sets are provided, each suited to pairs of sequences with a specific similarity level. These settings utilize different types of inputs: (position-specific) substitution matrices, secondary structure predictions and transmembrane propensities from transmembrane predictions or hydrophobicity scales. In the second (HP) mode, each input multiple sequence alignment is converted into a hydrophobicity profile averaged over the provided set of sequence homologs; the two profiles are then aligned. The HP mode enables qualitative comparison of transmembrane topologies (and therefore potentially of 3D folds) of two membrane proteins, which can be useful if the proteins have low sequence similarity. In summary, the AlignMe web server provides user-friendly access to a set of tools for analysis and comparison of membrane protein sequences. Access is available at http://www.bioinfo.mpg.de/AlignMe PMID:24753425

  17. The alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Ripellino, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS reconstruction of charged particle trajectories relies on the Inner Detector tracking system. The accuracy of the reconstruction is limited by the finite resolution of the detector elements and the knowledge about their positions. A precise alignment of the detector is therefore essential. In this poster we present the strategy and the status of the Inner Detector alignment in ATLAS during the LHC Run 2.

  18. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  19. Aligning Mental Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a framework that implements asymmetric communication theory proposed by Sperber and Wilson [1]. The framework applies a generalization model known as the Bayesian model of generalization (BMG) [2] for aligning knowledge possessed by two communicating parties. The work focuses...

  20. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and Y. Pakhotin

    2012-01-01

      A new track-based alignment for the DT chambers is ready for deployment: an offline tag has already been produced which will become part of the 52X Global Tag. This alignment was validated within the muon alignment group both at low and high momentum using a W/Z skim sample. It shows an improved mass resolution for pairs of stand-alone muons, improved curvature resolution at high momentum, and improved DT segment extrapolation residuals. The validation workflow for high-momentum muons used to depend solely on the “split cosmics” method, looking at the curvature difference between muon tracks reconstructed in the upper or lower half of CMS. The validation has now been extended to include energetic muons decaying from heavily boosted Zs: the di-muon invariant mass for global and stand-alone muons is reconstructed, and the invariant mass resolution is compared for different alignments. The main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based C...

  1. Community Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Halbert, Martin; Bicarregui, Juan; Anglada, Lluis; Duranti, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  2. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    , not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  3. Resource Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Grindley, Neil; Cramer, Tom; Schrimpf, Sabine; Wilson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  4. Capacity Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Joy; Whitehead, Martha; Molloy, Laura; Molinaro, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  5. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-11-01

    Bioinformatics database is growing exponentially in size. Processing these large amount of data may take hours of time even if super computers are used. One of the most important processing tool in Bioinformatics is sequence alignment. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called \\'Alignment By Scanning\\' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the \\'GAP\\' (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 51% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the GAP Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  9. Formatt: Correcting protein multiple structural alignments by incorporating sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniels Noah M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of multiple protein structure alignments are usually computed and assessed based on geometric functions of the coordinates of the backbone atoms from the protein chains. These purely geometric methods do not utilize directly protein sequence similarity, and in fact, determining the proper way to incorporate sequence similarity measures into the construction and assessment of protein multiple structure alignments has proved surprisingly difficult. Results We present Formatt, a multiple structure alignment based on the Matt purely geometric multiple structure alignment program, that also takes into account sequence similarity when constructing alignments. We show that Formatt outperforms Matt and other popular structure alignment programs on the popular HOMSTRAD benchmark. For the SABMark twilight zone benchmark set that captures more remote homology, Formatt and Matt outperform other programs; depending on choice of embedded sequence aligner, Formatt produces either better sequence and structural alignments with a smaller core size than Matt, or similarly sized alignments with better sequence similarity, for a small cost in average RMSD. Conclusions Considering sequence information as well as purely geometric information seems to improve quality of multiple structure alignments, though defining what constitutes the best alignment when sequence and structural measures would suggest different alignments remains a difficult open question.

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  16. Physical association of pyrimidine dimer DNA glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA endonuclease essential for repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabeppu, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1981-01-01

    T4 endonuclease, which is involved in repair of uv-damaged DNA, has been purified to apparent physical homogeneity. Incubation of uv-irradiated poly(dA).poly(dT) with the purified enzyme preparations resulted in production of alkali-labile apyrimidinic sites, followed by formation of nicks in the polymer. By performing a limited reaction with T4 endonuclease V at pH 8.5, irradiated polymer was converted to an intermediate form that carried a large number of alkali-labile sites but only a few nicks. The intermediate was used as substrate for the assay of apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA endonuclease activity. The two activities, a pyrimidine dimer DNA glycosylase and an apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA endonuclease, were copurified and found in enzyme preparations that contained only a 16,000-dalton polypeptide. These results strongly suggested that a DNA glycosylase specific for pyrimidine dimers and an apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA endonuclease reside in a single polypeptide chain coded by the denV gene of bacteriophage T4

  17. Alignment of concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    E-health promises to enable and support active patient participation in chronic care. However, these fairly recent innovations are complicated matters and emphasize significant challenges, such as patients’ and clinicians’ different ways of conceptualizing disease and illness. Informed by insight...... from medical phenomenology and our own empirical work in telemonitoring and medical care of heart patients, we propose a design rationale for e-health systems conceptualized as the ‘alignment of concerns’....

  18. Alignment at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Levet, N.; Gatta, G.

    1999-01-01

    The ESRF Survey and Alignment group is responsible for the installation, control and periodic realignment of the accelerators and experiments which produce high quality x-rays used by scientists from Europe and around the world. Alignment tolerances are typically less than one millimetre and often in the order of several micrometers. The group is composed of one engineer, five highly trained survey technicians, one electronic and one computer technician. This team is fortified during peak periods by technicians from an external survey company. First an overview and comparative study of the main large-scale survey instrumentation and methods used by the group is made. Secondly a discussion of long term deformation on the ESRF site is presented. This is followed by presentation of the methods used in the realignment of the various machines. Two important aspects of our work, beamline and front-end alignment, and the so-called machine exotic devices are briefly discussed. Finally, the ESRF calibration bench is presented. (authors)

  19. Seeking the perfect alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first full-scale tests of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are about to begin in Prévessin. The set-up includes several layers of Monitored Drift Tubes Chambers (MDTs) and will allow tests of the performance of the detectors and of their highly accurate alignment system.   Monitored Drift Chambers in Building 887 in Prévessin, where they are just about to be tested. Muon chambers are keeping the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer team quite busy this summer. Now that most people go on holiday, the beam and alignment tests for these chambers are just starting. These chambers will measure with high accuracy the momentum of high-energy muons, and this implies very demanding requirements for their alignment. The MDT chambers consist of drift tubes, which are gas-filled metal tubes, 3 cm in diameter, with wires running down their axes. With high voltage between the wire and the tube wall, the ionisation due to traversing muons is detected as electrical pulses. With careful timing of the pulses, the position of the muon t...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  3. LHCb's Time-Real Alignment in RunII

    CERN Multimedia

    Batozskaya, Varvara

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has introduced a novel real-time detector alignment and calibration strategy for LHC Run 2. Data collected at the start of the fill will be processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants will be evaluated for each run. This procedure will improve the quality of the online alignment. Critically, this new real-time alignment and calibration procedure allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. This offers the opportunity to optimise the event selection in the trigger by applying stronger constraints. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The motivation for a real-time alignment and calibration of the LHCb detector is discussed from both the operational and physics performance points of view. Specific challenges of this novel configur...

  4. The CMS Muon System Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Ruiz-Del-Arbol, P

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of the muon system of CMS is performed using different techniques: photogrammetry measurements, optical alignment and alignment with tracks. For track-based alignment, several methods are employed, ranging from a hit and impact point (HIP) algorithm and a procedure exploiting chamber overlaps to a global fit method based on the Millepede approach. For start-up alignment as long as available integrated luminosity is still significantly limiting the size of the muon sample from collisions, cosmic muon and beam halo signatures play a very strong role. During the last commissioning runs in 2008 the first aligned geometries have been produced and validated with data. The CMS offline computing infrastructure has been used in order to perform improved reconstructions. We present the computational aspects related to the calculation of alignment constants at the CERN Analysis Facility (CAF), the production and population of databases and the validation and performance in the official reconstruction. Also...

  5. Clear aligners in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, T

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of the Tooth Positioner (TP Orthodontics) in 1944, removable appliances analogous to clear aligners have been employed for mild to moderate orthodontic tooth movements. Clear aligner therapy has been a part of orthodontic practice for decades, but has, particularly since the introduction of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology) in 1998, become an increasingly common addition to the orthodontic armamentarium. An internet search reveals at least 27 different clear aligner products currently on offer for orthodontic treatment. The present paper will highlight the increasing popularity of clear aligner appliances, as well as the clinical scope and the limitations of aligner therapy in general. Further, the paper will outline the differences between the various types of clear aligner products currently available. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Independent alignment of RNA for dynamic studies using residual dipolar couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardaro, Michael F.; Varani, Gabriele, E-mail: varani@chem.washington.edu [University of Washington, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Molecular motion and dynamics play an essential role in the biological function of many RNAs. An important source of information on biomolecular motion can be found in residual dipolar couplings which contain dynamics information over the entire ms-ps timescale. However, these methods are not fully applicable to RNA because nucleic acid molecules tend to align in a highly collinear manner in different alignment media. As a consequence, information on dynamics that can be obtained with this method is limited. In order to overcome this limitation, we have generated a chimeric RNA containing both the wild type TAR RNA, the target of our investigation of dynamics, as well as the binding site for U1A protein. When U1A protein was bound to the portion of the chimeric RNA containing its binding site, we obtained independent alignment of TAR by exploiting the physical chemical characteristics of this protein. This technique can allow the extraction of new information on RNA dynamics, which is particularly important for time scales not covered by relaxation methods where important RNA motions occur.

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  8. Pareto optimal pairwise sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRonne, Kevin W; Karypis, George

    2013-01-01

    Sequence alignment using evolutionary profiles is a commonly employed tool when investigating a protein. Many profile-profile scoring functions have been developed for use in such alignments, but there has not yet been a comprehensive study of Pareto optimal pairwise alignments for combining multiple such functions. We show that the problem of generating Pareto optimal pairwise alignments has an optimal substructure property, and develop an efficient algorithm for generating Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments. All possible sets of two, three, and four profile scoring functions are used from a pool of 11 functions and applied to 588 pairs of proteins in the ce_ref data set. The performance of the best objective combinations on ce_ref is also evaluated on an independent set of 913 protein pairs extracted from the BAliBASE RV11 data set. Our dynamic-programming-based heuristic approach produces approximated Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments that contain comparable alignments to those on the exact frontier, but on average in less than 1/58th the time in the case of four objectives. Our results show that the Pareto frontiers contain alignments whose quality is better than the alignments obtained by single objectives. However, the task of identifying a single high-quality alignment among those in the Pareto frontier remains challenging.

  9. Magnetic Alignment of Pulsed Solenoids Using the Pulsed Wire Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbelaez, D.; Madur, A.; Lipton, T.M.; Waldron, W.L.; Kwan, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    A unique application of the pulsed-wire measurement method has been implemented for alignment of 2.5 T pulsed solenoid magnets. The magnetic axis measurement has been shown to have a resolution of better than 25 (micro)m. The accuracy of the technique allows for the identification of inherent field errors due to, for example, the winding layer transitions and the current leads. The alignment system is developed for the induction accelerator NDCX-II under construction at LBNL, an upgraded Neutralized Drift Compression experiment for research on warm dense matter and heavy ion fusion. Precise alignment is essential for NDCX-II, since the ion beam has a large energy spread associated with the rapid pulse compression such that misalignments lead to corkscrew deformation of the beam and reduced intensity at focus. The ability to align the magnetic axis of the pulsed solenoids to within 100 pm of the induction cell axis has been demonstrated.

  10. All about alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE absorbers, iron wall and superstructure have been installed with great precision. The ALICE front absorber, positioned in the centre of the detector, has been installed and aligned. Weighing more than 400 tonnes, the ALICE absorbers and the surrounding support structures have been installed and aligned with a precision of 1-2 mm, hardly an easy task but a very important one. The ALICE absorbers are made of three parts: the front absorber, a 35-tonne cone-shaped structure, and two small-angle absorbers, long straight cylinder sections weighing 18 and 40 tonnes. The three pieces lined up have a total length of about 17 m. In addition to these, ALICE technicians have installed a 300-tonne iron filter wall made of blocks that fit together like large Lego pieces and a surrounding metal support structure to hold the tracking and trigger chambers. The absorbers house the vacuum chamber and are also the reference surface for the positioning of the tracking and trigger chambers. For this reason, the ab...

  11. Factors influencing the alignment of accounting information systems of accepted manufacturing firms in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Tamoradi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to detect factors influencing the alignment of accounting information systems for firms in manufacturing sector listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The concept of alignment has been investigated for many years, and strategic alignment plays essential role in increasing company performance. This paper investigates different levels of alignment and studies the factors, which influence alignment. More specifically, the work concentrates on the alignment between the requirements for accounting information (AIS requirements and the capacity of accounting systems (AIS capacity to build the information, in the specific context of manufacturing in Iran. The research sample consists of 216 companies over the period 2011-2007. The fit between these two sets was explored based on the moderation method and evidences indicate that AIS alignment in some firms was high. In addition, the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables through multiple regressions yields a positive relationship between these variables.

  12. Pseudoscalar-photon mixing and the large scale alignment of QsO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 679-682. Pseudoscalar-photon mixing and the large scale alignment of QsO optical polarizations. PANKAJ JAIN, sUKANTA PANDA and s sARALA. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India. Abstract. We review the observation of large scale alignment of QSO optical polariza-.

  13. Nova laser alignment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system

  14. GraphAlignment: Bayesian pairwise alignment of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolář Michal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased experimental availability and accuracy of bio-molecular networks, tools for their comparative and evolutionary analysis are needed. A key component for such studies is the alignment of networks. Results We introduce the Bioconductor package GraphAlignment for pairwise alignment of bio-molecular networks. The alignment incorporates information both from network vertices and network edges and is based on an explicit evolutionary model, allowing inference of all scoring parameters directly from empirical data. We compare the performance of our algorithm to an alternative algorithm, Græmlin 2.0. On simulated data, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 in several benchmarks except for computational complexity. When there is little or no noise in the data, GraphAlignment is slower than Græmlin 2.0. It is faster than Græmlin 2.0 when processing noisy data containing spurious vertex associations. Its typical case complexity grows approximately as O(N2.6. On empirical bacterial protein-protein interaction networks (PIN and gene co-expression networks, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 with respect to coverage and specificity, albeit by a small margin. On large eukaryotic PIN, Græmlin 2.0 outperforms GraphAlignment. Conclusions The GraphAlignment algorithm is robust to spurious vertex associations, correctly resolves paralogs, and shows very good performance in identification of homologous vertices defined by high vertex and/or interaction similarity. The simplicity and generality of GraphAlignment edge scoring makes the algorithm an appropriate choice for global alignment of networks.

  15. Explaining compact groups as change alignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamon, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The physical nature of the apparently densest groups of galaxies, known as compact groups is a topic of some recent controversy, despite the detailed observations of a well-defined catalog of 100 isolated compact groups compiled by Hickson (1982). Whereas many authors have espoused the view that compact groups are bound systems, typically as dense as they appear in projection on the sky (e.g., Williams ampersand Rood 1987; Sulentic 1987; Hickson ampersand Rood 1988), others see them as the result of chance configurations within larger systems, either in 1D (chance alignments: Mamon 1986; Walke ampersand Mamon 1989), or in 3D (transient cores: Rose 1979). As outlined in the companion review to this contribution (Mamon, in these proceedings), the implication of Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) being dense bound systems is that they would then constitute the densest isolated systems of galaxies in the Universe and the privileged site for galaxy interactions. In a previous paper (Mamon 1986), the author reviewed the arguments given for the different theories of compact groups. Since then, a dozen papers have been published on the subject, including a thorough and perceptive review by White (1990), thus more than doubling the amount written on the subject. Here, the author first enumerates the arguments that he brought up in 1986 substantiating the chance alignment hypothesis, then he reviews the current status of the numerous recent arguments arguing against chance alignments and/or for the bound dense group hypothesis (both for the majority of HCGs but not all of them), and finally he reconsiders each one of these anti-chance alignment arguments and shows that, rather than being discredited, the chance alignment hypothesis remains a fully consistent explanation for the nature of compact groups

  16. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  17. MaxAlign: maximizing usable data in an alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Sackett, Peter Wad; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    Align. In this paper we also introduce a new simple measure of tree similarity, Normalized Symmetric Similarity (NSS) that we consider useful for comparing tree topologies. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate how MaxAlign is helpful in detecting misaligned or defective sequences without requiring manual inspection. We also...

  18. Alignment of the ATLAS central muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallier, F

    2008-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is one of the largest detectors ever built. At the LHC, new physics signs could appear through high momenta muons (1 TeV). Identification and precise momentum measurement of such muons are two of the main challenges of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. In order to get a good resolution for high energy muons (i.e. 10% at 1 TeV), the accuracy on the alignment of precision chambers must be of the order of 50 microns. Several procedures have been developed to reach such a precision. This document describes complementary techniques used to align the muon sub-detectors, and their results : the optical system, the muon cosmic rays and the straight tracks coming from collisions.

  19. The surveyors' quest for perfect alignment

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Photogrammetry of a CMS endcap and part of the hadronic calorimeter.The structure was covered with targets photographed by digital cameras. Perfect alignment.... Although CERN's surveyors do not claim to achieve it, they are constantly striving for it and deploy all necessary means to come as close as they can. In their highly specialised field of large-scale metrology, the solution lies in geodesy and photogrammetry, both of which are based on increasingly sophisticated instruments and systems. In civil engineering, these techniques are used for non-destructive inspection of bridges, dams and other structures, while industrial applications include dimensional verification and deformation measurement in large mechanical assemblies. The same techniques also come into play for the metrology of research tools such as large telescopes and of course, particle accelerators. Particle physics laboratories are especially demanding customers, and CERN has often asked for the impossible. As a result, the alignment metro...

  20. The CASPER Virtual Physics Circus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Harris, Brandon; Chen, Mudi; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2013-10-01

    CASPER's Virtual Physics Circus (VPC) is based on the long-running CASPER Physics Circus and is the most recent component in CASPER's ``Seamless Pathway'' educational outreach initiative. The VPC was developed by an interdisciplinary group of physicists, web-designers and educators and employs both web and video game environments to provide students and teachers with engaging, fast-paced educational activities. Access to an integrated curriculum and video library, aligned to both the TEKS (Texas Essentials Knowledge and Skill) and the National Science and Mathematics Standards, is also part of the VPC package. In this talk an initial beta-test of the VPC, conducted for a central Texas independent school district, will be discussed. Future plans for both expansion and translation into Spanish will also be discussed.

  1. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  2. Treatment of Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES TREATMENT OF ESSENTIAL TREMOR This fact sheet is provided to help you understand which therapies help treat essential tremor. Neurologists from the American Academy of Neurology are ...

  3. Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, David A.

    2000-11-01

    Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering introduces the key physical and engineering principles of electromagnetics. Throughout the book, David de Wolf describes the intermediate steps in mathematical derivations that many other textbooks leave out. He covers in depth the concepts of fields and potentials and then progresses to magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations, electrodynamics and wave propagation, waveguides, transmission lines, and antennas. At each stage, de Wolf stresses the physical principles underlying the mathematical results. He also includes homework exercises, a separate chapter on numerical methods in electromagnetics, and a broad range of worked examples to illustrate important concepts. Solutions manual available.

  4. A generalized global alignment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqiu; Chao, Kun-Mao

    2003-01-22

    Homologous sequences are sometimes similar over some regions but different over other regions. Homologous sequences have a much lower global similarity if the different regions are much longer than the similar regions. We present a generalized global alignment algorithm for comparing sequences with intermittent similarities, an ordered list of similar regions separated by different regions. A generalized global alignment model is defined to handle sequences with intermittent similarities. A dynamic programming algorithm is designed to compute an optimal general alignment in time proportional to the product of sequence lengths and in space proportional to the sum of sequence lengths. The algorithm is implemented as a computer program named GAP3 (Global Alignment Program Version 3). The generalized global alignment model is validated by experimental results produced with GAP3 on both DNA and protein sequences. The GAP3 program extends the ability of standard global alignment programs to recognize homologous sequences of lower similarity. The GAP3 program is freely available for academic use at http://bioinformatics.iastate.edu/aat/align/align.html.

  5. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with $N_f$ Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the $N_f=2,3$ and $4$ case. For $N_...

  6. Essentials of nuclear medicine imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mettler, Fred A. Jr

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging, by Drs. Fred A Mettler and Milton J Guiberteau, provides the practical and comprehensive guidance you need to master key nuclear imaging techniques. From physics, instrumentation, quality control, and legal requirements to hot topics such as sodium fluoride, radiopharmaceuticals, and recommended pediatric administered doses and guidelines, this sixth edition covers the fundamentals and recent developments in the practice of nuclear medicine.

  7. The CMS Silicon Tracker Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Castello, R

    2008-01-01

    The alignment of the Strip and Pixel Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, with its large number of independent silicon sensors and its excellent spatial resolution, is a complex and challenging task. Besides high precision mounting, survey measurements and the Laser Alignment System, track-based alignment is needed to reach the envisaged precision.\\\\ Three different algorithms for track-based alignment were successfully tested on a sample of cosmic-ray data collected at the Tracker Integration Facility, where 15\\% of the Tracker was tested. These results, together with those coming from the CMS global run, will provide the basis for the full-scale alignment of the Tracker, which will be carried out with the first \\emph{p-p} collisions.

  8. Alignment-Annotator web server: rendering and annotating sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Christoph; Fähling, Michael; Weyand, Birgit; Wieland, Thomas; Gille, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Alignment-Annotator is a novel web service designed to generate interactive views of annotated nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments (i) de novo and (ii) embedded in other software. All computations are performed at server side. Interactivity is implemented in HTML5, a language native to web browsers. The alignment is initially displayed using default settings and can be modified with the graphical user interfaces. For example, individual sequences can be reordered or deleted using drag and drop, amino acid color code schemes can be applied and annotations can be added. Annotations can be made manually or imported (BioDAS servers, the UniProt, the Catalytic Site Atlas and the PDB). Some edits take immediate effect while others require server interaction and may take a few seconds to execute. The final alignment document can be downloaded as a zip-archive containing the HTML files. Because of the use of HTML the resulting interactive alignment can be viewed on any platform including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android and iOS in any standard web browser. Importantly, no plugins nor Java are required and therefore Alignment-Anotator represents the first interactive browser-based alignment visualization. http://www.bioinformatics.org/strap/aa/ and http://strap.charite.de/aa/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Active manipulation of the selective alignment by two laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng-Qiang, Yang; Zhi-Rong, Guo; Gui-Xian, Ge

    2010-01-01

    This paper solves numerically the full time-dependent Schrödinger equation based on the rigid rotor model, and proposes a novel strategy to determine the optimal time delay of the two laser pulses to manipulate the molecular selective alignment. The results illustrate that the molecular alignment generated by the first pulse can be suppressed or enhanced selectively, the relative populations of even and odd rotational states in the final rotational wave packet can be manipulated selectively by precisely inserting the peak of the second laser pulse at the time when the slope for the alignment parameter by the first laser locates a local maximum for the even rotational states and a local minimum for the odds, and vice versa. The selective alignment can be further optimised by selecting the intensity ratio of the two laser pulses on the condition that the total laser intensity and pulse duration are kept constant. (atomic and molecular physics)

  10. A fast cross-validation method for alignment of electron tomography images based on Beer-Lambert law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Edwards, Thomas J.; Pankratz, Logan M.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Lanman, Jason K.; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    In electron tomography, accurate alignment of tilt series is an essential step in attaining high-resolution 3D reconstructions. Nevertheless, quantitative assessment of alignment quality has remained a challenging issue, even though many alignment methods have been reported. Here, we report a fast and accurate method, tomoAlignEval, based on the Beer-Lambert law, for the evaluation of alignment quality. Our method is able to globally estimate the alignment accuracy by measuring the goodness of log-linear relationship of the beam intensity attenuations at different tilt angles. Extensive tests with experimental data demonstrated its robust performance with stained and cryo samples. Our method is not only significantly faster but also more sensitive than measurements of tomogram resolution using Fourier shell correlation method (FSCe/o). From these tests, we also conclude that while current alignment methods are sufficiently accurate for stained samples, inaccurate alignments remain a major limitation for high resolution cryo-electron tomography. PMID:26455556

  11. Alignment of the upgraded CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schroder, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The all-silicon tracking system of the CMS experiment provides excellent resolution for charged tracks and an efficient tagging of heavy-flavour jets. After a new pixel detector has been installed during the LHC technical stop at the beginning of 2017, the positions, orientations, and surface curvatures of the sensors needed to be determined with a precision at the order of a few micrometres to ensure the required physics performance. This is far beyond the mechanical mounting precision but can be achieved using a track-based alignment procedure that minimises the track-hit residuals of reconstructed tracks. The results are carefully validated with data-driven methods. In this article, results of the CMS tracker alignment in 2017 from the early detector-commissioning phase and the later operation are presented, that were derived using several million reconstructed tracks in pp-collision and cosmic-ray data. Special emphasis is put on the alignment of the new pixel detector.

  12. High-throughput sequence alignment using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapnell Cole

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent availability of new, less expensive high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies has yielded a dramatic increase in the volume of sequence data that must be analyzed. These data are being generated for several purposes, including genotyping, genome resequencing, metagenomics, and de novo genome assembly projects. Sequence alignment programs such as MUMmer have proven essential for analysis of these data, but researchers will need ever faster, high-throughput alignment tools running on inexpensive hardware to keep up with new sequence technologies. Results This paper describes MUMmerGPU, an open-source high-throughput parallel pairwise local sequence alignment program that runs on commodity Graphics Processing Units (GPUs in common workstations. MUMmerGPU uses the new Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA from nVidia to align multiple query sequences against a single reference sequence stored as a suffix tree. By processing the queries in parallel on the highly parallel graphics card, MUMmerGPU achieves more than a 10-fold speedup over a serial CPU version of the sequence alignment kernel, and outperforms the exact alignment component of MUMmer on a high end CPU by 3.5-fold in total application time when aligning reads from recent sequencing projects using Solexa/Illumina, 454, and Sanger sequencing technologies. Conclusion MUMmerGPU is a low cost, ultra-fast sequence alignment program designed to handle the increasing volume of data produced by new, high-throughput sequencing technologies. MUMmerGPU demonstrates that even memory-intensive applications can run significantly faster on the relatively low-cost GPU than on the CPU.

  13. Galaxy Alignments: Theory, Modelling & Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Alina; Cacciato, Marcello; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kirk, Donnacha; Kitching, Thomas D.; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Brown, Michael L.; Rassat, Anais

    2015-11-01

    The shapes of galaxies are not randomly oriented on the sky. During the galaxy formation and evolution process, environment has a strong influence, as tidal gravitational fields in the large-scale structure tend to align nearby galaxies. Additionally, events such as galaxy mergers affect the relative alignments of both the shapes and angular momenta of galaxies throughout their history. These "intrinsic galaxy alignments" are known to exist, but are still poorly understood. This review will offer a pedagogical introduction to the current theories that describe intrinsic galaxy alignments, including the apparent difference in intrinsic alignment between early- and late-type galaxies and the latest efforts to model them analytically. It will then describe the ongoing efforts to simulate intrinsic alignments using both N-body and hydrodynamic simulations. Due to the relative youth of this field, there is still much to be done to understand intrinsic galaxy alignments and this review summarises the current state of the field, providing a solid basis for future work.

  14. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2003-11-18

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  15. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  16. Alignment control of GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Heinzel, G; Freise, A; Gossler, S; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Ward, H; Casey, M M; Strain, K A; Robertson, D I; Hough, J; Danzmannx, K

    2004-01-01

    We give an overview of the automatic mirror alignment system of the gravitational wave detector GEO 600. In order to achieve the required sensitivity of the Michelson interferometer, the axes of interfering beams have to be superimposed with a residual angle of the order 10 -8 rad. The beam spots have to be centred on the mirrors to minimize coupling of alignment noise into longitudinal signals. We present the actual control topology and results from the system in operation, which controls all alignment degrees of the power-recycled Michelson. With this system continuous lock stretches of more than 121 h duration were achieved

  17. Control rod housing alignment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses an alignment device for precisely locating the position of the top of a control rod drive housing from an overlying and corresponding hole and alignment pin in a core plate within a boiling water nuclear reactor. It includes a shaft, the shaft having a length sufficient to extend from the vicinity of the top of the control rod drive housing up to and through the hole in the core plate; means for registering the top of the shaft to the hole in the core plate, the registering means including means for registering with an alignment pin in the core plate adjacent the hole

  18. An Elaboration of a Strategic Alignment Model of University Information Systems based on SAM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahriz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Information system is a guarantee of the universities' ability to anticipate the essential functions to their development and durability. The alignment of information system, one of the pillars of IT governance, has become a necessity. In this paper, we consider the problem of strategic alignment model implementation in Moroccan universities. Literature revealed that few studies have examined strategic alignment in the public sector, particularly in higher education institutions. Hence we opted for an exploratory approach that aims to better understanding the strategic alignment and to evaluate the degree of its use within Moroccan universities. The data gained primarily through interviews with top managers and IT managers reveal that the alignment is not formalized and that it would be appropriate to implement an alignment model. It is found that the implementation of our proposed model can help managers to maximize returns of IT investment and to increase their efficiency.

  19. Prediction of molecular alignment of nucleic acids in aligned media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bin; Petersen, Michael; Girard, Frederic; Tessari, Marco; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate - using the data base of all deposited DNA and RNA structures aligned in Pf1-medium and RDC refined - that for nucleic acids in a Pf1-medium the electrostatic alignment tensor can be predicted reliably and accurately via a simple and fast calculation based on the gyration tensor spanned out by the phosphodiester atoms. The rhombicity is well predicted over its full range from 0 to 0.66, while the alignment tensor orientation is predicted correctly for rhombicities up to ca. 0.4, for larger rhombicities it appears to deviate somewhat more than expected based on structural noise and measurement error. This simple analytical approach is based on the Debye-Huckel approximation for the electrostatic interaction potential, valid at distances sufficiently far away from a poly-ionic charged surface, a condition naturally enforced when the charge of alignment medium and solute are of equal sign, as for nucleic acids in a Pf1-phage medium. For the usual salt strengths and nucleic acid sizes, the Debye-Huckel screening length is smaller than the nucleic acid size, but large enough for the collective of Debye-Huckel spheres to encompass the whole molecule. The molecular alignment is then purely electrostatic, but it's functional form is under these conditions similar to that for steric alignment. The proposed analytical expression allows for very fast calculation of the alignment tensor and hence RDCs from the conformation of the nucleic acid molecule. This information provides opportunities for improved structure determination of nucleic acids, including better assessment of dynamics in (multi-domain) nucleic acids and the possibility to incorporate alignment tensor prediction from shape directly into the structure calculation process. The procedures are incorporated into MATLAB scripts, which are available on request

  20. SPA: a probabilistic algorithm for spliced alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale cDNA sequencing efforts show that elaborate patterns of splice variation are responsible for much of the proteome diversity in higher eukaryotes. To obtain an accurate account of the repertoire of splice variants, and to gain insight into the mechanisms of alternative splicing, it is essential that cDNAs are very accurately mapped to their respective genomes. Currently available algorithms for cDNA-to-genome alignment do not reach the necessary level of accuracy because they use ad hoc scoring models that cannot correctly trade off the likelihoods of various sequencing errors against the probabilities of different gene structures. Here we develop a Bayesian probabilistic approach to cDNA-to-genome alignment. Gene structures are assigned prior probabilities based on the lengths of their introns and exons, and based on the sequences at their splice boundaries. A likelihood model for sequencing errors takes into account the rates at which misincorporation, as well as insertions and deletions of different lengths, occurs during sequencing. The parameters of both the prior and likelihood model can be automatically estimated from a set of cDNAs, thus enabling our method to adapt itself to different organisms and experimental procedures. We implemented our method in a fast cDNA-to-genome alignment program, SPA, and applied it to the FANTOM3 dataset of over 100,000 full-length mouse cDNAs and a dataset of over 20,000 full-length human cDNAs. Comparison with the results of four other mapping programs shows that SPA produces alignments of significantly higher quality. In particular, the quality of the SPA alignments near splice boundaries and SPA's mapping of the 5' and 3' ends of the cDNAs are highly improved, allowing for more accurate identification of transcript starts and ends, and accurate identification of subtle splice variations. Finally, our splice boundary analysis on the human dataset suggests the existence of a novel non

  1. Aligning the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how the Bridge program, a partnership between Fisk University and Vanderbilt University, can become the nation's leading producer of doctoral graduates in astronomy, physics and material sciences. A graduate at Fisk, Ebonee Walker gets free tuition to attend one of the world's leading universities, a book allowance, a…

  2. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  3. Calculus III essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.

  4. Statistics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics I covers include frequency distributions, numerical methods of describing data, measures of variability, parameters of distributions, probability theory, and distributions.

  5. Pre-calculus essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Pre-Calculus reviews sets, numbers, operations and properties, coordinate geometry, fundamental algebraic topics, solving equations and inequalities, functions, trigonometry, exponents

  6. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  7. Differential equations I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Differential Equations I covers first- and second-order equations, series solutions, higher-order linear equations, and the Laplace transform.

  8. Heat transfer II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1988-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  9. Numerical analysis II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association

    1989-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.

  10. Algebra & trigonometry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica

  11. Modern algebra essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lutfiyya, Lutfi A

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Modern Algebra includes set theory, operations, relations, basic properties of the integers, group theory, and ring theory.

  12. Business statistics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Louise

    2014-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Business Statistics I includes descriptive statistics, introduction to probability, probability distributions, sampling and sampling distributions, interval estimation, and hypothesis t

  13. Computer science I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Raus, Randall

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science I includes fundamental computer concepts, number representations, Boolean algebra, switching circuits, and computer architecture.

  14. Track based alignment of the Mu3e detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, Ulrich [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Mu3e experiment searches for the lepton flavor violating decay μ{sup +} → e{sup +}e{sup -}e{sup +} with a sensitivity goal for the branching fraction of better than 10{sup -16}. This process is heavily supressed in the standard model of particle physics (BR < 10{sup -50}) which makes an observation of this decay a clear indication of new physics. For track reconstruction, four barrel shaped layers consisting of about 3000 high-voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS) are used. The position, orientation and possible deformations of these sensors must be known to greater precision than the assembly tolerances. A track based alignment via the General Broken Lines fit and the Millepede-II algorithm will be used to achieve this precision in the final detector. The talk discusses a study of the required alignment precision and preparations for aligning the detector using a detailed simulation.

  15. Antares automatic beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Q.; Swann, T.; Sweatt, W.; Saxman, A.

    1980-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam-line CO 2 laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experiment shot. The alignment requirements, operational constraints, and a developed prototype system are discussed. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed that uses a telescope/TV system to view point light sources appropriately located down the beamline. Auto-alignment is accomplished by means of a video centroid tracker, which determines the off-axis error of the point sources. The error is nulled by computer-driven, movable mirrors in a closed-loop system. The light sources are fiber-optic terminations located at key points in the optics path, primarily at the center of large copper mirrors, and remotely illuminated to reduce heating effects

  16. Aligning with New Digital Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeow, Adrian; Soh, Christina; Hansen, Rina

    2018-01-01

    Prior IS research has not fully addressed the aligning process in the highly dynamic context of digital strategy. To address this gap, we conduct a longitudinal analysis of a B2B company's journey to enact its B2C digital strategy, using the dynamic capabilities approach. We found...... that as an organization shifts towards a digital strategy, misalignments between the emergent strategy and resources give rise to tension. Our study resulted in the development of an aligning process model that is comprised of three phases (exploratory, building, and extending) and generalizable organizational aligning...... actions that form the organization's sensing, seizing, and transforming capacities. These aligning actions iteratively reconfigured organizational resources and refined strategy in order to respond to both changes in the environment and internal tensions. We also recognized that there are challenges...

  17. RNA Structural Alignments, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Gorodkin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous alignment and secondary structure prediction of RNA sequences is often referred to as "RNA structural alignment." A class of the methods for structural alignment is based on the principles proposed by Sankoff more than 25 years ago. The Sankoff algorithm simultaneously folds and aligns...... is so high that it took more than a decade before the first implementation of a Sankoff style algorithm was published. However, with the faster computers available today and the improved heuristics used in the implementations the Sankoff-based methods have become practical. This chapter describes...... the methods based on the Sankoff algorithm. All the practical implementations of the algorithm use heuristics to make them run in reasonable time and memory. These heuristics are also described in this chapter....

  18. Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    connects to external tools to provide a flexible semiautomatic editing environment. A new method, Pcluster, is introduced for dividing the sequences of an RNA alignment into subgroups with secondary structure differences. Pcluster was used to evaluate 574 seed alignments obtained from the Rfam database...... and we identified 71 alignments with significant prediction of inconsistent base pairs and 102 alignments with significant prediction of novel base pairs. Four RNA families were used to illustrate how SARSE can be used to manually or automatically correct the inconsistent base pairs detected by Pcluster......: the mir-399 RNA, vertebrate telomase RNA (vert-TR), bacterial transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), and the signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA. The general use of the method is illustrated by the ability to accommodate pseudoknots and handle even large and divergent RNA families. The open architecture...

  19. XRD alignment, calibration and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The quality of any diffractometer system is very much dependent on the alignment, calibration and performance. The three subjects are very much related. Firstly, you must know how to carry out the full diffractometer alignment. XRD alignment is easy once you know how. The presentation will show you step by step to carry out the full alignment. Secondly, you need to know how to calibrate the diffractometer system. The presentation will show you how to calibrate the goniometer, detector etc. Thirdly, to prove the system is working within the manufacturer specification. The presentation will show you how to carry out the resolution, reproducibility and linearity test. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  20. Crowdsourcing RNA structural alignments with an online computer game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldispühl, Jérôme; Kam, Arthur; Gardner, Paul P

    2015-01-01

    The annotation and classification of ncRNAs is essential to decipher molecular mechanisms of gene regulation in normal and disease states. A database such as Rfam maintains alignments, consensus secondary structures, and corresponding annotations for RNA families. Its primary purpose is the automated, accurate annotation of non-coding RNAs in genomic sequences. However, the alignment of RNAs is computationally challenging, and the data stored in this database are often subject to improvements. Here, we design and evaluate Ribo, a human-computing game that aims to improve the accuracy of RNA alignments already stored in Rfam. We demonstrate the potential of our techniques and discuss the feasibility of large scale collaborative annotation and classification of RNA families.

  1. Sensing Characteristics of A Precision Aligner Using Moire Gratings for Precision Alignment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lizhong; Hideo Furuhashi; Yoshiyuki Uchida

    2001-01-01

    Sensing characteristics of a precision aligner using moire gratings for precision alignment sysem has been investigated. A differential moire alignment system and a modified alignment system were used. The influence of the setting accuracy of the gap length and inclination of gratings on the alignment accuracy has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Setting accuracy of the gap length less than 2.5μm is required in modified moire alignment. There is no influence of the gap length on the alignment accuracy in the differential alignment system. The inclination affects alignment accuracies in both differential and modified moire alignment systems.

  2. The Rigors of Aligning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    importance of the organization’s goals. To better align the commands goals with departmental goals, setting and continuously communicating goals and goal...which is vital to highlight the importance of the organization’s goals. To better align the commands goals with departmental goals, setting and...result of the 2004 organizational restructure, and as defined in the CONOPS, NAVFAC now operates as a matrix organization with integrated “vertical

  3. BinAligner: a heuristic method to align biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jialiang; Li, Jun; Grünewald, Stefan; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The advances in high throughput omics technologies have made it possible to characterize molecular interactions within and across various species. Alignments and comparison of molecular networks across species will help detect orthologs and conserved functional modules and provide insights on the evolutionary relationships of the compared species. However, such analyses are not trivial due to the complexity of network and high computational cost. Here we develop a mixture of global and local algorithm, BinAligner, for network alignments. Based on the hypotheses that the similarity between two vertices across networks would be context dependent and that the information from the edges and the structures of subnetworks can be more informative than vertices alone, two scoring schema, 1-neighborhood subnetwork and graphlet, were introduced to derive the scoring matrices between networks, besides the commonly used scoring scheme from vertices. Then the alignment problem is formulated as an assignment problem, which is solved by the combinatorial optimization algorithm, such as the Hungarian method. The proposed algorithm was applied and validated in aligning the protein-protein interaction network of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and that of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Interestingly, we identified several putative functional orthologous proteins with similar functions but very low sequence similarity between the two viruses. For example, KSHV open reading frame 56 (ORF56) and VZV ORF55 are helicase-primase subunits with sequence identity 14.6%, and KSHV ORF75 and VZV ORF44 are tegument proteins with sequence identity 15.3%. These functional pairs can not be identified if one restricts the alignment into orthologous protein pairs. In addition, BinAligner identified a conserved pathway between two viruses, which consists of 7 orthologous protein pairs and these proteins are connected by conserved links. This pathway might be crucial for virus packing and

  4. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related...... to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  5. Calibration and alignment of the CMS silicon tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoye, M.

    2007-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will dominate the high energy physics program in the coming decade. The discovery of the standard model Higgs boson and the discovery of super-symmetric particles are within the reach at the energy scale explored by the LHC. However, the high luminosity and the high energy of the colliding protons lead to challenging demands on the detectors. The hostile radiation environment requires irradiation hard detectors, where the innermost subdetectors, consisting of silicon modules, are most affected. This thesis is devoted to the calibration and alignment of the silicon tracking detector. Electron test beam data, taken at DESY, have been used to investigate the performance of detector modules which previously were irradiated with protons up to a dose expected after 10 years of operation. The irradiated sensors turned out to be still better than required. The performance of the inner tracking systems will be dominated by the degree to which the positions of the sensors can be determined. Only a track based alignment procedure can reach the required precision. Such an alignment procedure is a major challenge given that about 50000 geometry constants need to be measured. Making use of the novel χ 2 minimization program Millepede II an alignment strategy has been developed in which all detector components are aligned simultaneously, as many sources of information as possible are used, and all correlations between the position parameters of the detectors are taken into account. Utilizing simulated data, a proof of concept of the alignment strategy is shown. (orig.)

  6. Calibration and alignment of the CMS silicon tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoye, M.

    2007-07-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will dominate the high energy physics program in the coming decade. The discovery of the standard model Higgs boson and the discovery of super-symmetric particles are within the reach at the energy scale explored by the LHC. However, the high luminosity and the high energy of the colliding protons lead to challenging demands on the detectors. The hostile radiation environment requires irradiation hard detectors, where the innermost subdetectors, consisting of silicon modules, are most affected. This thesis is devoted to the calibration and alignment of the silicon tracking detector. Electron test beam data, taken at DESY, have been used to investigate the performance of detector modules which previously were irradiated with protons up to a dose expected after 10 years of operation. The irradiated sensors turned out to be still better than required. The performance of the inner tracking systems will be dominated by the degree to which the positions of the sensors can be determined. Only a track based alignment procedure can reach the required precision. Such an alignment procedure is a major challenge given that about 50000 geometry constants need to be measured. Making use of the novel {chi}{sup 2} minimization program Millepede II an alignment strategy has been developed in which all detector components are aligned simultaneously, as many sources of information as possible are used, and all correlations between the position parameters of the detectors are taken into account. Utilizing simulated data, a proof of concept of the alignment strategy is shown. (orig.)

  7. Geodetic alignment of laser power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtorm, V.V.; Gostev, A.M.; Drobikov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Main problems occuring in applied geodesy under initial alignment of laser power installation optical channel are considered. Attention is paid to alignment of lens beamguide telescopic pairs and alignment quality control. Methods and means of geodetic measurements under alignment are indicated. Conclusions are made about the degree of working through certain aspects of the problem

  8. Electronics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics II covers operational amplifiers, feedback and frequency compensation of OP amps, multivibrators, logic gates and families, Boolean algebra, registers, counters, arithmet

  9. Thermodynamics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics I includes review of properties and states of a pure substance, work and heat, energy and the first law of thermodynamics, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics

  10. C programming language essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Ernest C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. C Programming Language discusses fundamental notions, data types and objects, expressions, statements, declarations, function and program structure, the preprocessor, and the standar

  11. Electronics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics I covers fundamentals of semiconductor devices, junction diodes, bipolar junction transistors, power supplies, multitransistor circuits, small signals, low-frequency anal

  12. Thermodynamics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics II includes review of thermodynamic relations, power and refrigeration cycles, mixtures and solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, and flow through nozzl

  13. Group theory I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Group Theory I includes sets and mapping, groupoids and semi-groups, groups, isomorphisms and homomorphisms, cyclic groups, the Sylow theorems, and finite p-groups.

  14. Boolean algebra essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Boolean Algebra includes set theory, sentential calculus, fundamental ideas of Boolean algebras, lattices, rings and Boolean algebras, the structure of a Boolean algebra, and Boolean

  15. Laplace transforms essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shafii-Mousavi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Laplace Transforms includes the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transform, special functions and properties, applications to ordinary linear differential equations, Fourier tr

  16. Statistics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se

  17. Algebra & trigonometry I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry I includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, eq

  18. Geometry I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Geometry I includes methods of proof, points, lines, planes, angles, congruent angles and line segments, triangles, parallelism, quadrilaterals, geometric inequalities, and geometric

  19. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  20. Data structures II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smolarski, Dennis C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures II includes sets, trees, advanced sorting, elementary graph theory, hashing, memory management and garbage collection, and appendices on recursion vs. iteration, alge

  1. Computer science II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Raus, Randall

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Computer Science II includes organization of a computer, memory and input/output, coding, data structures, and program development. Also included is an overview of the most commonly

  2. Data structures I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Smolarski, Dennis C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Data Structures I includes scalar variables, arrays and records, elementary sorting, searching, linked lists, queues, and appendices of binary notation and subprogram parameter passi

  3. Set theory essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Set Theory includes elementary logic, sets, relations, functions, denumerable and non-denumerable sets, cardinal numbers, Cantor's theorem, axiom of choice, and order relations.

  4. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Richard B [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  5. Strategic Alignment and New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Kandemir, Destan; Boer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Strategic alignment is widely accepted as a prerequisite for a firm’s success, but insight into the role of alignment in, and its impact on, the new product evelopment (NPD) process and its performance is less well developed. Most publications on this topic either focus on one form of alignment...... of NPD performance indicators. Strategic planning and innovativeness appear to affect technological, market, and NPD-marketing alignment positively. Environmental munificence is negatively associated with NPD-marketing alignment, but has no effect on the two other forms of alignment. Technological change...... has a positive effect on technological alignment, a negative effect on NPD-marketing alignment, but no effect on market alignment. These findings suggest that internal capabilities are more likely to be associated with the development of strategic alignment than environmental factors are. Furthermore...

  6. Laser beam alignment and profilometry using diagnostic fluorescent safety mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-03-01

    There are a wide range of laser beam delivery systems in use for various purposes; including industrial and medical applications. Virtually all such beam delivery systems for practical purposes employ optical systems comprised of mirrors and lenses to shape, focus and guide the laser beam down to the material being processed. The goal of the laser beam delivery is to set the optimum parameters and to "fold" the beam path to reduce the mechanical length of the optical system, thereby allowing a physically compact system. In many cases, even a compact system can incorporate upwards of six mirrors and a comparable number of lenses all needing alignment so they are collinear. One of the major requirements for use of such systems in industry is a method of safe alignment. The alignment process requires that the aligner determine where the beam strikes each element. The aligner should also preferably be able to determine the shape or pattern of the laser beam at that point and its relative power. These alignments are further compounded in that the laser beams generated are not visible to the unaided human eye. Such beams are also often of relatively high power levels, and are thereby a significant hazard to the eyes of the aligner. Obvious an invisible beam makes it nearly impossible to align laser system without some form of optical assistance. The predominant method of visually aligning the laser beam delivery is the use of thermal paper, paper cards or fluorescing card material. The use of paper products which have limited power handling capability or coated plastics can produce significant debris and contaminants within the beam line that ultimately damage the optics. The use of the cards can also create significant laser light scatter jeopardizing the safety of the person aligning the system. This paper covers a new safety mirror design for use with at various UV and Near IR wavelengths (193 nm to 1064 nm) within laser beam delivery systems and how its use can

  7. Electrospun nanofiber reinforcement of dental composites with electromagnetic alignment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyar, Tansel; Çökeliler, Dilek; Doğan, Mustafa; Koçum, Ismail Cengiz; Karatay, Okan; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2016-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used as a base acrylic denture material with benefits of rapid and easy handling, however, when it is used in prosthetic dentistry, fracturing or cracking problems can be seen due to the relatively low strength issues. Besides, acrylic resin is the still prominent material for denture fabrication due to its handy and low cost features. Numerous proposed fillers that are used to produce PMMA composites, however electrospun polyvinylalcohol (PVA) nanofiber fillers for production of PMMA composite resins are not studied as much as the others. The other focus of the practice is to compare both mechanical properties and efficiency of aligned fibers versus non-aligned PVA nanofibers in PMMA based dental composites. Field-controlled electrospinning system is manufactured and provided good alignment in lab scale as one of contributions. Some novel auxiliary electrodes in controlled structure are augmented to obtain different patterns of alignment with a certain range of fiber diameters. Scanning electron microscopy is used for physical characterization to determine the range of fiber diameters. Non-woven fiber has no unique pattern due to chaotic nature of electrospinning process, but aligned fibers have round pattern or crossed lines. These produced fibers are structured as layer-by-layer form with different features, and these features are used in producing PMMA dental composites with different volume ratios. The maximum flexural strength figure shows that fiber load by weight of 0.25% w/w and above improves in the maximum level. As a result, mechanical properties of PMMA dental composites are improved by using PVA nanofibers as a filler, however the improvement was higher when aligned PVA nanofibers are used. The maximum values were 5.1 MPa (flexural strength), 0.8 GPa (elastic modulus), and 170 kJ/m 3 (toughness) in three-point bending test. In addition to the positive results of aligned and non-aligned nanofibers it was found

  8. Electrospun nanofiber reinforcement of dental composites with electromagnetic alignment approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyar, Tansel [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Başkent University Bağlıca Campus, 06530 Ankara (Turkey); Çökeliler, Dilek, E-mail: cokeliler@baskent.edu.tr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Başkent University Bağlıca Campus, 06530 Ankara (Turkey); Doğan, Mustafa [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Başkent University, Ankara 06180 (Turkey); Koçum, Ismail Cengiz [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Başkent University Bağlıca Campus, 06530 Ankara (Turkey); Karatay, Okan [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Başkent University, Ankara 06180 (Turkey); Denkbaş, Emir Baki [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-05-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used as a base acrylic denture material with benefits of rapid and easy handling, however, when it is used in prosthetic dentistry, fracturing or cracking problems can be seen due to the relatively low strength issues. Besides, acrylic resin is the still prominent material for denture fabrication due to its handy and low cost features. Numerous proposed fillers that are used to produce PMMA composites, however electrospun polyvinylalcohol (PVA) nanofiber fillers for production of PMMA composite resins are not studied as much as the others. The other focus of the practice is to compare both mechanical properties and efficiency of aligned fibers versus non-aligned PVA nanofibers in PMMA based dental composites. Field-controlled electrospinning system is manufactured and provided good alignment in lab scale as one of contributions. Some novel auxiliary electrodes in controlled structure are augmented to obtain different patterns of alignment with a certain range of fiber diameters. Scanning electron microscopy is used for physical characterization to determine the range of fiber diameters. Non-woven fiber has no unique pattern due to chaotic nature of electrospinning process, but aligned fibers have round pattern or crossed lines. These produced fibers are structured as layer-by-layer form with different features, and these features are used in producing PMMA dental composites with different volume ratios. The maximum flexural strength figure shows that fiber load by weight of 0.25% w/w and above improves in the maximum level. As a result, mechanical properties of PMMA dental composites are improved by using PVA nanofibers as a filler, however the improvement was higher when aligned PVA nanofibers are used. The maximum values were 5.1 MPa (flexural strength), 0.8 GPa (elastic modulus), and 170 kJ/m{sup 3} (toughness) in three-point bending test. In addition to the positive results of aligned and non-aligned nanofibers it was

  9. Proposal for an alignment method of the CLIC linear accelerator - From geodesic networks to the active pre-alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touze, T.

    2011-01-01

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is the particle accelerator project proposed by the european organization for nuclear research (CERN) for high energy physics after the large hadron collider (LHC). Because of the nano-metric scale of the CLIC leptons beams, the emittance growth budget is very tight. It induces alignment tolerances on the positions of the CLIC components that have never been achieved before. The last step of the CLIC alignment will be done according to the beam itself. It falls within the competence of the physicists. However, in order to implement the beam-based feedback, a challenging pre-alignment is required: 10 μm at 3σ along a 200 m sliding window. For such a precision, the proposed solution must be compatible with a feedback between the measurement and repositioning systems. The CLIC pre-alignment will have to be active. This thesis does not demonstrate the feasibility of the CLIC active pre-alignment but shows the way to the last developments that have to be done for that purpose. A method is proposed. Based on the management of the Helmert transformations between Euclidean coordinate systems, from the geodetic networks to the metrological measurements, this method is likely to solve the CLIC pre-alignment problem. Large scale facilities have been built and Monte-Carlo simulations have been made in order to validate the mathematical modeling of the measurement systems and of the alignment references. When this is done, it will be possible to extrapolate the modeling to the entire CLIC length. It will be the last step towards the demonstration of the CLIC pre-alignment feasibility. (author)

  10. Intrinsic alignments in redMaPPer clusters – I. Central galaxy alignments and angular segregation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hung-Jin; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Freeman, Peter E.; Chen, Yen-Chi

    2016-01-01

    The shapes of cluster central galaxies are not randomly oriented, but rather exhibit coherent alignments with the shapes of their parent clusters as well as with the surrounding large-scale structures. In this work, we aim to identify the galaxy and cluster quantities that most strongly predict the central galaxy alignment phenomenon among a large parameter space with a sample of 8237 clusters and 94 817 members within 0.1 < z < 0.35, based on the red-sequence Matched-filter Probabilistic Percolation cluster catalogue constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We first quantify the alignment between the projected central galaxy shapes and the distribution of member satellites, to understand what central galaxy and cluster properties most strongly correlate with these alignments. Next, we investigate the angular segregation of satellites with respect to their central galaxy major axis directions, to identify the satellite properties that most strongly predict their angular segregation. We find that central galaxies are more aligned with their member galaxy distributions in clusters that are more elongated and have higher richness, and for central galaxies with larger physical size, higher luminosity and centring probability, and redder colour. Satellites with redder colour, higher luminosity, located closer to the central galaxy, and with smaller ellipticity show a stronger angular segregation towards their central galaxy major axes. Lastly, we provide physical explanations for some of the identified correlations, and discuss the connection to theories of central galaxy alignments, the impact of primordial alignments with tidal fields, and the importance of anisotropic accretion.

  11. Roitt's essential immunology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delves, Peter J; Roitt, Ivan M

    2011-01-01

    ... of the immune system, the hallmark easy-reading style of Roitt's Essential Immunology clearly explains the key principles needed by medical and health sciences students, from the basis of immunity to clinical applications...

  12. Benign Essential Blepharospasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the same for many years; and, in rare cases, improve spontaneously. Clinical Trials Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Related ... Definition Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological ...

  13. Marketingmanagement : De essentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.

    2007-01-01

    'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze

  14. Marketing management : De essentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze

  15. Sales Territory Alignment: A Review and Model

    OpenAIRE

    Andris A. Zoltners; Prabhakant Sinha

    1983-01-01

    The sales territory alignment problem may be viewed as the problem of grouping small geographic sales coverage units into larger geographic clusters called sales territories in a way that the sales territories are acceptable according to managerially relevant alignment criteria. This paper first reviews sales territory alignment models which have appeared in the marketing literature. A framework for sales territory alignment and several properties of a good sales territory alignment are devel...

  16. Essential software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gorton, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Job titles like ""Technical Architect"" and ""Chief Architect"" nowadays abound in software industry, yet many people suspect that ""architecture"" is one of the most overused and least understood terms in professional software development. Gorton's book tries to resolve this dilemma. It concisely describes the essential elements of knowledge and key skills required to be a software architect. The explanations encompass the essentials of architecture thinking, practices, and supporting technologies. They range from a general understanding of structure and quality attributes through technical i

  17. Grain alignment in starless cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A V ∼48. We find that P K /τ K continues to decline with increasing A V with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A V ≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A V ∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  18. Laser shaft alignment measurement model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chang-tao; Chen, Changzheng; Hou, Xiang-lin; Zhang, Guoyu

    2007-12-01

    Laser beam's track which is on photosensitive surface of the a receiver will be closed curve, when driving shaft and the driven shaft rotate with same angular velocity and rotation direction. The coordinate of arbitrary point which is on the curve is decided by the relative position of two shafts. Basing on the viewpoint, a mathematic model of laser alignment is set up. By using a data acquisition system and a data processing model of laser alignment meter with single laser beam and a detector, and basing on the installation parameter of computer, the state parameter between two shafts can be obtained by more complicated calculation and correction. The correcting data of the four under chassis of the adjusted apparatus moving on the level and the vertical plane can be calculated. This will instruct us to move the apparatus to align the shafts.

  19. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Bonny, Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  20. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  1. Replacing fuel alignment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetz, F.; Kalthoff, W.

    1991-01-01

    Up to the end of 1989 varying numbers of broken fuel alignment pins were detected in several German PWRs (80 broken pins in all). The distribution of these broken pins over the core cross-section was more or less random. The problem was due to the stress corrosion cracking of the pin material and was restricted to individual pins. It was concluded that all fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X-750 should be replaced. The development of a new pin, more resistant to intergranular stress corrosion, and the replacement technique are outlined. (author)

  2. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs

  3. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  4. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  5. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO 2 molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  6. Progressive multiple sequence alignments from triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of progressive sequence alignments strongly depends on the accuracy of the individual pairwise alignment steps since gaps that are introduced at one step cannot be removed at later aggregation steps. Adjacent insertions and deletions necessarily appear in arbitrary order in pairwise alignments and hence form an unavoidable source of errors. Research Here we present a modified variant of progressive sequence alignments that addresses both issues. Instead of pairwise alignments we use exact dynamic programming to align sequence or profile triples. This avoids a large fractions of the ambiguities arising in pairwise alignments. In the subsequent aggregation steps we follow the logic of the Neighbor-Net algorithm, which constructs a phylogenetic network by step-wisely replacing triples by pairs instead of combining pairs to singletons. To this end the three-way alignments are subdivided into two partial alignments, at which stage all-gap columns are naturally removed. This alleviates the "once a gap, always a gap" problem of progressive alignment procedures. Conclusion The three-way Neighbor-Net based alignment program aln3nn is shown to compare favorably on both protein sequences and nucleic acids sequences to other progressive alignment tools. In the latter case one easily can include scoring terms that consider secondary structure features. Overall, the quality of resulting alignments in general exceeds that of clustalw or other multiple alignments tools even though our software does not included heuristics for context dependent (mismatch scores.

  7. Trigger Algorithms for Alignment and Calibration at the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Perez Tomei, Thiago Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The data needs of the Alignment and Calibration group at the CMS experiment are reasonably different from those of the physics studies groups. Data are taken at CMS through the online event selection system, which is implemented in two steps. The Level-1 Trigger is implemented on custom-made electronics and dedicated to analyse the detector information at a coarse-grained scale, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is implemented as a series of software algorithms, running in a computing farm, that have access to the full detector information. In this paper we describe the set of trigger algorithms that is deployed to address the needs of the Alignment and Calibration group, how it fits in the general infrastructure of the HLT, and how it feeds the Prompt Calibration Loop (PCL), allowing for a fast turnaround for the alignment and calibration constants.

  8. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  9. Essential travel medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This 1st edition of Essential Travel Medicine provides an excellent concise introduction to the specialty of Travel Medicine. This core text will enable health care practitioners particularly those new to the clinical practice of Travel Medicine, to gain a fundamental understanding of the diverse and complex issues which can potentially affect the health of the many millions of people who undertake international travel. Jane N Zuckerman is joined by Gary W Brunette from CDC and Peter A Leggat from Australia as Editors. Leading international specialists in their fields have contributed authoritative chapters reflecting current knowledge to facilitate best clinical practice in the different aspects of travel medicine. The aim of Essential Travel Medicine is to provide a comprehensive guide to Travel Medicine as well as a fundamental knowledge base to support international undergraduate and postgraduate specialty training programmes in the discipline of Travel Medicine. The 1st edition of Essential Travel ...

  10. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Garcia, Salvador; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Run-2 of the LHC has presented new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. In addition, the Insertable B-layer (IBL) is a fourth pixel layer, which has been deployed at the centre of ATLAS during the longshutdown-1 of the LHC. The physics performance of the experiment requires a high resolution and unbiased measurement of all charged particle kinematic parameters. In its turn, the performance of the tracking depends, among many other issues, on the accurate determination of the alignment parameters of the tracking sensors. The offline track based alignment of the ATLAS tracking system has to deal with more than 700,000 degrees of freedom (DoF). This represents a considerable numerical challenge in terms of both CPU time and precision. During Run-2, a mechanical distortion of the IBL staves up to 20um has been observed during data-taking, plus other short time scale movements. The talk will also describe the procedures implemented to detect and remo...

  11. Design of a divergence and alignment indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenizer, J.S. Jr.; Raine, D.A.; Gao, J.; Chen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The divergence and alignment indicator (DAI) is an extension of the ASTM E803 L/D thermal neutron radiography L/D device that allows the user to determine both the beam centerline and the beam divergence. The DAI was made using aluminium plate and rods, and incorporated cadmium wire for contrast. Circular symmetry was utilized to simplify manufacture. The DAI was placed with the five posts against the film cassette or radioscopic imaging device in the physical center of the beam. The DAI was perpendicular to the selected beam radius when the front and back center Cd wire images overlap. The degree of misalignment was indicated by their image positions. After the DAI was aligned, analysis of the cadmium wire ''+'' image spacing yielded the beam divergence. The DAI was tested in a neutron beam which has an L/D of 30 but a small degree of divergence. The DAI was also imaged using an X-ray source. The point source predictions of Cd wire image locations showed good agreement with those measured from the X-ray radiograph. The neutron radiographic locations could be predicted using the point source equations, even though the neutron beam was a complex distributed source. (orig.)

  12. Alignment of diabetic feet images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Almar; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Slump, Cornelis H.; Uyl, M.J.; Philips, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of aligning the images of feet taken at different instances in time. We propose to use SIFT keypoints to find the geometric deformation between two photo’s. We then have a set of landmarks for each image. By finding the corresponding landmarks (i.e. matching the

  13. Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…

  14. Enhancing Teaching through Constructive Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John

    1996-01-01

    An approach to college-level instructional design that incorporates the principles of constructivism, termed "constructive alignment," is described. The process is then illustrated with reference to a professional development unit in educational psychology for teachers, but the model is viewed as generalizable to most units or programs in higher…

  15. Global alignment algorithms implementations | Fatumo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we implemented the two routes for sequence comparison, that is; the dotplot and Needleman-wunsch algorithm for global sequence alignment. Our algorithms were implemented in python programming language and were tested on Linux platform 1.60GHz, 512 MB of RAM SUSE 9.2 and 10.1 versions.

  16. Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics provides an in-depth introduction of the three main full-wave numerical methods in computational electromagnetics (CEM); namely, the method of moment (MoM), the finite element method (FEM), and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Numerous monographs can be found addressing one of the above three methods. However, few give a broad general overview of essentials embodied in these methods, or were published too early to include recent advances. Furthermore, many existing monographs only present the final numerical results without specifyin

  17. Aligned Layers of Silver Nano-Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii B. Golovin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new dichroic polarizers made by ordering silver nano-fibers to aligned layers. The aligned layers consist of nano-fibers and self-assembled molecular aggregates of lyotropic liquid crystals. Unidirectional alignment of the layers is achieved by means of mechanical shearing. Aligned layers of silver nano-fibers are partially transparent to a linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The unidirectional alignment and density of the silver nano-fibers determine degree of polarization of transmitted light. The aligned layers of silver nano-fibers might be used in optics, microwave applications, and organic electronics.

  18. Inverse Problem Approach for the Alignment of Electron Tomographic Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, V.D.; Moreaud, M.; Thiebaut, E.; Denis, L.; Becker, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the refining industry, morphological measurements of particles have become an essential part in the characterization catalyst supports. Through these parameters, one can infer the specific physico-chemical properties of the studied materials. One of the main acquisition techniques is electron tomography (or nano-tomography). 3D volumes are reconstructed from sets of projections from different angles made by a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). This technique provides a real three-dimensional information at the nano-metric scale. A major issue in this method is the misalignment of the projections that contributes to the reconstruction. The current alignment techniques usually employ fiducial markers such as gold particles for a correct alignment of the images. When the use of markers is not possible, the correlation between adjacent projections is used to align them. However, this method sometimes fails. In this paper, we propose a new method based on the inverse problem approach where a certain criterion is minimized using a variant of the Nelder and Mead simplex algorithm. The proposed approach is composed of two steps. The first step consists of an initial alignment process, which relies on the minimization of a cost function based on robust statistics measuring the similarity of a projection to its previous projections in the series. It reduces strong shifts resulting from the acquisition between successive projections. In the second step, the pre-registered projections are used to initialize an iterative alignment-refinement process which alternates between (i) volume reconstructions and (ii) registrations of measured projections onto simulated projections computed from the volume reconstructed in (i). At the end of this process, we have a correct reconstruction of the volume, the projections being correctly aligned. Our method is tested on simulated data and shown to estimate accurately the translation, rotation and scale of arbitrary transforms. We

  19. Physical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  20. ESSENTIAL DYNAMICS OF PROTEINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AMADEI, A; LINSSEN, ABM; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of extended molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of lysozyme in vacuo and in aqueous solution reveals that it is possible to separate the configurational space into two subspaces: (1) an ''essential'' subspace containing only a few degrees of freedom in which anharmonic motion occurs that

  1. Essential Palatal Myoclonus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuwan Raj Pandey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Palatal myoclonus is a rare condition presenting with clicking sound in ear or muscle tremor in pharynx. There are two varieties: essential and symptomatic. Various treatment options exists ranging from watchful observation to botulinum toxin injection. We have not found any reported case of palatal myoclonus from our country. Here we present a case of essential palatal myoclonus managed with clonazepam. Case report: A young female presented in Ear Nose and Throat clinic with complain of auditory click and spontaneous rhythmic movement of throat muscles for eight months. On examination, there was involuntary, rhythmic contraction of bilateral soft-palate, uvula, and base of tongue. Neurological, eye, and peripheral examination were normal. A diagnosis of essential palatal myoclonus was made. It was managed successfully with clonazepam; patient was still on low dose clonazepam at the time of making this report. Conclusion: Essential palatal myoclonus can be clinically diagnosed and managed even in settings where MRI is not available or affordable.

  2. The 2003 essential. AREVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This document presents the essential activities of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader. This group proposes technological solutions to produce the nuclear energy and to transport the electric power. It develops connection systems for the telecommunication, the computers and the automotive industry. Key data on the program management, the sustainable development activities and the different divisions are provided. (A.L.B.)

  3. Essentials of Risk Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeser, S.; Hillerbrand, R.; Sandin, P.; Peterson, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Risk has become one of the main topics in fields as diverse as engineering, medicine and economics, and it is also studied by social scientists, psychologists and legal scholars. This Springer Essentials version offers an overview of the in-depth handbook and highlights some of the main points

  4. Essential trichomegaly: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dutra Rossetto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports two cases of symptomatic essential trichomegaly. Trichomegaly may develop in various diseases, including anorexia nervosa, hypothyroidism, pregnancy, pretibial myxedema, systemic lupus erythematosus, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and uveitis. The exact incidence trichomegaly is unknown, and the condition remains sporadically reported. Two cases of symptomatic trichomegaly without any associated systemic disorder are presented in this paper.

  5. Modeling alignment enhancement for solid polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    A model of dynamic orientation using optimized radiofrequency (RF) irradiation produced perpendicular to the holding field is developed for the spin-1 system required for tensor-polarized fixed-target experiments. The derivation applies to RF produced close to the Larmor frequency of the nucleus and requires the electron spin-resonance linewidth to be much smaller than the nuclear magnetic resonance frequency. The rate equations are solved numerically to study a semi-saturated steady-state resulting from the two sources of irradiation: microwave from the DNP process and the additional RF used to manipulate the tensor polarization. The steady-state condition and continuous-wave NMR lineshape are found that optimize the spin-1 alignment in the polycrystalline materials used as solid polarized targets in charged-beam nuclear and particle physics experiments. (orig.)

  6. Advanced Alignment of the ATLAS Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Pedraza Lopez, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. ATLAS physics goals require high resolution, unbiased measurement of all charged particle kinematic parameters in order to assure accurate invariant mass reconstruction and interaction and decay vertex finding. These critically depend on the systematic effects related to the alignment of the tracking system. In order to eliminate malicious systematic deformations, various advanced tools and techniques have been put in place. These include information from known mass resonances, energy of electrons and positrons measured by the electromagnetic calorimeters, etc. Despite being stable under normal running conditions, ATLAS tracking system responses to sudden environ-mental changes (temperature, magnetic field) by small collective deformations. These have to be identified and corrected in order to assure uniform, highest quality tracking...

  7. Ancestral sequence alignment under optimal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Daniel G

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple genome alignment is an important problem in bioinformatics. An important subproblem used by many multiple alignment approaches is that of aligning two multiple alignments. Many popular alignment algorithms for DNA use the sum-of-pairs heuristic, where the score of a multiple alignment is the sum of its induced pairwise alignment scores. However, the biological meaning of the sum-of-pairs of pairs heuristic is not obvious. Additionally, many algorithms based on the sum-of-pairs heuristic are complicated and slow, compared to pairwise alignment algorithms. An alternative approach to aligning alignments is to first infer ancestral sequences for each alignment, and then align the two ancestral sequences. In addition to being fast, this method has a clear biological basis that takes into account the evolution implied by an underlying phylogenetic tree. In this study we explore the accuracy of aligning alignments by ancestral sequence alignment. We examine the use of both maximum likelihood and parsimony to infer ancestral sequences. Additionally, we investigate the effect on accuracy of allowing ambiguity in our ancestral sequences. Results We use synthetic sequence data that we generate by simulating evolution on a phylogenetic tree. We use two different types of phylogenetic trees: trees with a period of rapid growth followed by a period of slow growth, and trees with a period of slow growth followed by a period of rapid growth. We examine the alignment accuracy of four ancestral sequence reconstruction and alignment methods: parsimony, maximum likelihood, ambiguous parsimony, and ambiguous maximum likelihood. Additionally, we compare against the alignment accuracy of two sum-of-pairs algorithms: ClustalW and the heuristic of Ma, Zhang, and Wang. Conclusion We find that allowing ambiguity in ancestral sequences does not lead to better multiple alignments. Regardless of whether we use parsimony or maximum likelihood, the

  8. Using Variable-Length Aligned Fragment Pairs and an Improved Transition Function for Flexible Protein Structure Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hu; Lu, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid growth of known protein 3D structures in number, how to efficiently compare protein structures becomes an essential and challenging problem in computational structural biology. At present, many protein structure alignment methods have been developed. Among all these methods, flexible structure alignment methods are shown to be superior to rigid structure alignment methods in identifying structure similarities between proteins, which have gone through conformational changes. It is also found that the methods based on aligned fragment pairs (AFPs) have a special advantage over other approaches in balancing global structure similarities and local structure similarities. Accordingly, we propose a new flexible protein structure alignment method based on variable-length AFPs. Compared with other methods, the proposed method possesses three main advantages. First, it is based on variable-length AFPs. The length of each AFP is separately determined to maximally represent a local similar structure fragment, which reduces the number of AFPs. Second, it uses local coordinate systems, which simplify the computation at each step of the expansion of AFPs during the AFP identification. Third, it decreases the number of twists by rewarding the situation where nonconsecutive AFPs share the same transformation in the alignment, which is realized by dynamic programming with an improved transition function. The experimental data show that compared with FlexProt, FATCAT, and FlexSnap, the proposed method can achieve comparable results by introducing fewer twists. Meanwhile, it can generate results similar to those of the FATCAT method in much less running time due to the reduced number of AFPs.

  9. GraphAlignment: Bayesian pairwise alignment of biological networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Michal; Meier, J.; Mustonen, V.; Lässig, M.; Berg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, November 21 (2012) ISSN 1752-0509 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB 680; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB-TR12; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) BE 2478/2-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Graph alignment * Biological networks * Parameter estimation * Bioconductor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.982, year: 2012

  10. Keeping speed and distance for aligned motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Illés J; Kun, Jeromos; Jin, Yi; He, Gaoqi; Xu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    The cohesive collective motion (flocking, swarming) of autonomous agents is ubiquitously observed and exploited in both natural and man-made settings, thus, minimal models for its description are essential. In a model with continuous space and time we find that if two particles arrive symmetrically in a plane at a large angle, then (i) radial repulsion and (ii) linear self-propelling toward a fixed preferred speed are sufficient for them to depart at a smaller angle. For this local gain of momentum explicit velocity alignment is not necessary, nor are adhesion or attraction, inelasticity or anisotropy of the particles, or nonlinear drag. With many particles obeying these microscopic rules of motion we find that their spatial confinement to a square with periodic boundaries (which is an indirect form of attraction) leads to stable macroscopic ordering. As a function of the strength of added noise we see--at finite system sizes--a critical slowing down close to the order-disorder boundary and a discontinuous transition. After varying the density of particles at constant system size and varying the size of the system with constant particle density we predict that in the infinite system size (or density) limit the hysteresis loop disappears and the transition becomes continuous. We note that animals, humans, drones, etc., tend to move asynchronously and are often more responsive to motion than positions. Thus, for them velocity-based continuous models can provide higher precision than coordinate-based models. An additional characteristic and realistic feature of the model is that convergence to the ordered state is fastest at a finite density, which is in contrast to models applying (discontinuous) explicit velocity alignments and discretized time. To summarize, we find that the investigated model can provide a minimal description of flocking.

  11. Nanoscratch technique for aligning multiwalled carbon nanotubes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanotube; arc discharge; characterization; alignment; nanoscratch. 1. Introduction ... During arc discharge, when the gap between the electrodes is ∼ 1 mm, ..... increase in the D band intensity in the aligned region may not be possibly ...

  12. Effect of crystal alignment on the remanence of sintered NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.; Ma, B.M.; Sankar, S.G.; Wallace, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    Nd 15.4 Fe 77.8 B 6.8 magnets of various degrees of crystal alignment have been prepared by the conventional powder metallurgy technique. The alignment of these magnets have been determined by x-ray diffraction and fitting the standard deviation of a Gaussian distribution for the relative intensity versus the angle between the normals of (hkl) and the tetragonal c axis. The standard deviation is a good indicator for crystal alignment. An aligning field of 8 kOe is found to be essential to obtain a well-aligned NdFeB magnet. The remanence of sintered magnets is directly affected by the crystal alignment. Furthermore, the effect of crystal alignment on the remanence follows the theoretical prediction of the Stoner--Wohlfarth model. Below the spin reorientation temperature, the effect of crystal alignment on the shape of hysteresis loop becomes more significant. The remanences extrapolated from first and second quadrant of the hysteresis loops have been found to be consistent with the prediction of Stoner--Wohlfarth model

  13. A comprehensive evaluation of alignment algorithms in the context of RNA-seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindner

    Full Text Available Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq overcomes limitations of previously used RNA quantification methods and provides one experimental framework for both high-throughput characterization and quantification of transcripts at the nucleotide level. The first step and a major challenge in the analysis of such experiments is the mapping of sequencing reads to a transcriptomic origin including the identification of splicing events. In recent years, a large number of such mapping algorithms have been developed, all of which have in common that they require algorithms for aligning a vast number of reads to genomic or transcriptomic sequences. Although the FM-index based aligner Bowtie has become a de facto standard within mapping pipelines, a much larger number of possible alignment algorithms have been developed also including other variants of FM-index based aligners. Accordingly, developers and users of RNA-seq mapping pipelines have the choice among a large number of available alignment algorithms. To provide guidance in the choice of alignment algorithms for these purposes, we evaluated the performance of 14 widely used alignment programs from three different algorithmic classes: algorithms using either hashing of the reference transcriptome, hashing of reads, or a compressed FM-index representation of the genome. Here, special emphasis was placed on both precision and recall and the performance for different read lengths and numbers of mismatches and indels in a read. Our results clearly showed the significant reduction in memory footprint and runtime provided by FM-index based aligners at a precision and recall comparable to the best hash table based aligners. Furthermore, the recently developed Bowtie 2 alignment algorithm shows a remarkable tolerance to both sequencing errors and indels, thus, essentially making hash-based aligners obsolete.

  14. Design and prototyping of self-centering optical single-mode fiber alignment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraert, Evert; Gao, Fei; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission’s goal of providing each European household with at least a 30 Mb s −1 Internet connection by 2020 would be facilitated by a widespread deployment of fibre-to-the-home, which would in turn be sped up by the development of connector essential components, such as high-precision alignment features. Currently, the performance of state-of-the-art physical contact optical fiber connectors is limited by the tolerance on the cladding of standard telecom-grade single-mode fiber (SMF), which is typically smaller than  ±1 μ m. We propose to overcome this limit by developing micro-spring-based self-centering alignment structures (SCAS) for SMF-connectors. We design these alignment structures with robustness and low-cost replication in mind, allowing for large-scale deployment. Both theoretical and finite element analysis (FEA) models are used to determine the optimal dimensions of the beams of which the micro-springs of the SCAS are comprised. Two topologies of the SCAS, consisting of three and four micro-springs respectively, are investigated for two materials: polysulfone (PSU) and polyetherimide (PEI). These materials hold great potential for high-performance fiber connectors while being compatible with low-cost production and with the harsh environmental operation conditions of those connectors. The theory and FEA agree well (<3% difference) for a simple micro-spring. When including a pedestal on the micro-spring (to bring it further away from the fiber) and for shorter spring lengths the agreement worsens. This is due to spring compression effects not being taken into account in our theoretical model. Prototypes are successfully fabricated using deep proton writing and subsequently characterized. The controlled insertion of an SMF in the SCAS is investigated and we determine that a force of 0.11 N is required. The fiber insertion also causes an out-of-plane deformation of the micro-springs in the SCAS of about 7 μ m, which is no

  15. Conception and design of a control and monitoring system for the mirror alignment of the CBM RICH detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Akishin, P.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Bendarouach, J.; Boldyreva, N.; Deveaux, C.; Dobyrn, V.; Dürr, M.; Eschke, J.; Förtsch, J.; Heep, J.; Höhne, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kochenda, L.; Kopfer, J.; Kravtsov, P.; Kres, I.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Leonova, E.; Linev, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Niebur, W.; Ovcharenko, E.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Pfeifer, D.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Reinecke, S.; Riabov, Y.; Roshchin, E.; Samsonov, V.; Schetinin, V.; Tarasenkova, O.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Vznuzdaev, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high net-baryon density and moderate temperature in A+A collisions. One of the key detectors of CBM to explore this physics program is a Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector for electron identification. For a high performance of the RICH detector precise mirror alignment is essential. A three-step correction cycle has been developed, which will be discussed: First a qualitative, fast check of the mirror positions, second a quantitative determination of possible misalignments and third a software correction routine, allowing a proper functioning of the RICH under misalignment conditions.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: essential tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Essential tremor Essential tremor Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Essential tremor is a movement disorder that causes involuntary, rhythmic ...

  17. Assessing strategic alignment to improve IT effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.T.; Fairchild, A.M.; Ribbers, P.M.A.; Milis, K.; van Geel, E.; Markus, M.L.; Hampe, J.F.; Gricar, J.; Pucihar, A.; Lenart, G.

    2009-01-01

    A long running challenge in both large and small organizations has been aligning information systems services with business needs. Good alignment is assumed to lead to good business results, but there is a need for good instruments to assess strategic alignment and business success in practice.

  18. Physician-Hospital Alignment in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-09-01

    The concept of "alignment" between physicians and hospitals is a popular buzzword in the age of health care reform. Despite their often tumultuous histories, physicians and hospitals find themselves under increasing pressures to work together toward common goals. However, effective alignment is more than just simple cooperation between parties. The process of achieving alignment does not have simple, universal steps. Alignment will differ based on individual situational factors and the type of specialty involved. Ultimately, however, there are principles that underlie the concept of alignment and should be a part of any physician-hospital alignment efforts. In orthopedic surgery, alignment involves the clinical, administrative, financial, and even personal aspects of a surgeon's practice. It must be based on the principles of financial interest, clinical authority, administrative participation, transparency, focus on the patient, and mutual necessity. Alignment can take on various forms as well, with popular models consisting of shared governance and comanagement, gainsharing, bundled payments, accountable care organizations, and other methods. As regulatory and financial pressures continue to motivate physicians and hospitals to develop alignment relationships, new and innovative methods of alignment will also appear. Existing models will mature and evolve, with individual variability based on local factors. However, certain trends seem to be appearing as time progresses and alignment relationships deepen, including regional and national collaboration, population management, and changes in the legal system. This article explores the history, principles, and specific methods of physician-hospital alignment and its critical importance for the future of health care delivery. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Curricular Alignment: A Re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines key differences among content coverage, opportunity to learn, and curriculum alignment, suggesting that the revised Taxonomy provides a framework for analyzing curriculum alignment and illustrating how the Taxonomy Table can be used to estimate curriculum alignment. The paper notes that the revised Taxonomy enables educators to probe…

  20. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  1. Moodle administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Henrick, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    If you are an experienced system administrator and know how to manage servers and set up web environments but now want to explore Moodle, this book is perfect for you. You'll get to grips with the basics and learn to manage Moodle quickly, focusing on essential tasks. Having prior knowledge of virtual learning environments would be beneficial, but is not mandatory to make the most of this book.

  2. Essentials of Endodontic Microsurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Holtzman DJ, et al. Quality of root-end preparations using ultrasonic and rotary instrumentation in cadavers. J Endod 2000;26:281. 39. Peters CI...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Essentials of Endodontic Microsurgery 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... Endodontic Program,Harvard School of Dental Medicine,Boston,MA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  3. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  4. IPv6 Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    IPv6 Essentials, Second Edition provides a succinct, in-depth tour of all the new features and functions in IPv6. It guides you through everything you need to know to get started, including how to configure IPv6 on hosts and routers and which applications currently support IPv6. Aimed at system and network administrators, engineers, network designers, and IT managers, this book will help you understand, plan for, design, and integrate IPv6 into your current IPv4 infrastructure

  5. Android application security essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, Pragati

    2013-01-01

    Android Application Security Essentials is packed with examples, screenshots, illustrations, and real world use cases to secure your apps the right way.If you are looking for guidance and detailed instructions on how to secure app data, then this book is for you. Developers, architects, managers, and technologists who wish to enhance their knowledge of Android security will find this book interesting. Some prior knowledge of development on the Android stack is desirable but not required.

  6. Rake task management essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Koleshko, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    A step-by-step and interactive approach explaining the Rake essentials along with code examples and advanced features. If you are a developer who is acquainted with the Ruby language and want to speed up writing the code concerned with files, then this book is for you. To start reading this book, basic Ruby knowledge is required; however, a huge amount of experience with the language is not necessary.

  7. Alignment of the VISA Undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the R and D program towards a fourth generation light source, a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) demonstration is being prepared. The Visible-Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) undulator is being installed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The VISA undulator is an in-vacuum, 4-meter long, 1.8 cm period, pure-permanent magnet device, with a novel, strong focusing, permanent magnet FODO array included within the fixed, 6 mm undulator gap. The undulator is constructed of 99 cm long segments. To attain maximum SASE gain requires establishing overlap of electron and photon beams to within 50 pm rms. This imposes challenging tolerances on mechanical fabrication and magnetic field quality, and necessitates use of laser straightness interferometry for calibration and alignment of the magnetic axes of the undulator segments. This paper describes the magnetic centerline determination, and the fiducialization and alignment processes, which were performed to meet the tolerance goal

  8. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Compressed bitmap indexes are increasingly used for efficiently querying very large and complex databases. The Word Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression scheme is commonly recognized as the most efficient compression scheme in terms of CPU efficiency. However, WAH compressed bitmaps use a lot...... of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH...... bitmaps and, at the same time, offer an even better CPU efficiency. The results are verified by theoretical estimates and extensive experiments on large amounts of both synthetic and real-world data....

  9. The rigors of aligning performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Andrew; Lucas, James

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This Joint Applied Project addresses what can be done within the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Northwest community to better align its goals among competing interests from various stakeholders, while balancing the operational and regulatory constraints that often conflict with stakeholder goals and objectives. As a cross-functional organization, competing interests among the various business lines, support lines, and other stake...

  10. Alignment in double capture processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.

    1993-01-01

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N 7+ +He and Ne 8+ +He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3 ell 3 ell ' lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned

  11. Alignment in double capture processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A. (IRSAMC, URA CNRS 770, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France))

    1993-06-05

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N[sup 7+]+He and Ne[sup 8+]+He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3[ell]3[ell] [prime] lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned.

  12. Interest alignment and competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalg, Oliver; Zollo, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    This paper articulates a theory of the conditions under which the alignment between individual and collective interests generates sustainable competitive advantage. The theory is based on the influence of tacitness, context-specificity and casual ambiguity in the determinants of different types of motivation (extrinsic, normative intrinsic and hedonic intrinsic), under varying conditions of environmental dynamism. The analysis indicates the need to consider mitivational processes as a complem...

  13. International Business And Aligning CSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Miret

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The labor relationship between the employer and the workers is evaluated and directed by the labor rights which is a group of legal rights that are derived from human rights. Labor rights are more precisely relative to CSR as CSR are based on perspective and point of view of a given corporation. In this perspective implementing the workers and labor rights becomes more difficult compared to the implementation of the CSR. If an international corporation can be able to align CSR with the labor laws the friction between the employees and the corporation and the employee is likely to reduce. There is need to explore whether multinational corporations can be able to align CSR with the labor rights and employee initiatives global market. In this case the analysis focuses on China Brazil and India as the reference countries with cross-sectional secondary data obtained from a survey of the existing sources on the internet. The pertinent question is whether multinational corporations be successful while aligning CSR Corporate Social Responsibility with labor rights and employee initiatives in a competitive global market based on that cross-sectional data. The findings reveal that the uphold of labor rights largely determines morale of the employees and the will to participate in the growth and development of a given business both locally and international. Notably the continued change of CSR has resulted in the replacement of management and government dominated trade unions with more democratic unions of workers that pay attention to the initiatives of the workers. The combination of the internal code of conduct with the workers association labor associations and movements is one of the credible routes that show CSR can be aligned with labor rights.

  14. Alignment of Escherichia coli K12 DNA sequences to a genomic restriction map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, K E; Miller, W; Ostell, J; Benson, D A

    1990-01-25

    We use the extensive published information describing the genome of Escherichia coli and new restriction map alignment software to align DNA sequence, genetic, and physical maps. Restriction map alignment software is used which considers restriction maps as strings analogous to DNA or protein sequences except that two values, enzyme name and DNA base address, are associated with each position on the string. The resulting alignments reveal a nearly linear relationship between the physical and genetic maps of the E. coli chromosome. Physical map comparisons with the 1976, 1980, and 1983 genetic maps demonstrate a better fit with the more recent maps. The results of these alignments are genomic kilobase coordinates, orientation and rank of the alignment that best fits the genetic data. A statistical measure based on extreme value distribution is applied to the alignments. Additional computer analyses allow us to estimate the accuracy of the published E. coli genomic restriction map, simulate rearrangements of the bacterial chromosome, and search for repetitive DNA. The procedures we used are general enough to be applicable to other genome mapping projects.

  15. Axially alignable nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.B.; Klahn, D.H.; Marlowe, M.O.

    1978-01-01

    An axially alignable nuclear fuel pellet of the type stacked in end-to-end relationship within a tubular cladding is described. Fuel cladding failures can occur at pellet interface locations due to mechanical interaction between misaligned fuel pellets and the cladding. Mechanical interaction between the cladding and the fuel pellets loads the cladding and causes increased cladding stresses. Nuclear fuel pellets are provided with an end structure that increases plastic deformation of the pellets at the interface between pellets so that lower alignment forces are required to straighten axially misaligned pellets. Plastic deformation of the pellet ends results in less interactions beween the cladding and the fuel pellets and significantly lowers cladding stresses. The geometry of pellets constructed according to the invention also reduces alignment forces required to straighten fuel pellets that are tilted within the cladding. Plastic deformation of the pellets at the pellet interfaces is increased by providing pellets with at least one end face having a centrally-disposed raised area of convex shape so that the mean temperature and shear stress of the contact area is higher than that of prior art pellets

  16. Alignment for new Subaru ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ch.; Matsui, S.; Hashimoto, S.

    1999-01-01

    The New SUBARU is a synchrotron light source being constructed at the SPring-8 site. The main facility is a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring that provides light beam in the region from VUV to soft X-ray using SPring-8's 1 GeV linac as an injector. The ring, with a circumference of about 119 meters, is composed of six bending cells. Each bending cell has two normal dipoles of 34 degree and one inverse dipole of -8 degree. The ring has six straight sections: two very long straight sections for a 11-m long undulator and an optical klystron, four short straight sections for a 2.3-m undulator, a super-conducting wiggler, rf cavity and injection, etc. The magnets of the storage ring are composed of 12 dipoles (BMs), 6 invert dipoles (BIs), 56 quadrupoles and 44 sextupoles, etc. For the magnet alignment, positions of the dipoles (the BMs and BIs) are determined by network survey method. The multipoles, which are mounted on girders between the dipoles, are aligned with a laser-CCD camera system. This article presents the methodology used to position the different components and particularly to assure the precise alignment of the multipoles. (authors)

  17. Grain alignment in starless cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krejny, M. [Cree Inc., 4600 Silicon Dr., Durham, NC (United States); Andersson, B.-G. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Bastien, P., E-mail: tjj@astro.umn.edu [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  18. Aligning Objectives and Assessment in Responsible Conduct of Research Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antes, Alison L.; DuBois, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to advance research integrity in light of concerns about misbehavior in research rely heavily on education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). However, there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of RCR instruction as a remedy. Assessment is essential in RCR education if the research community wishes to expend the effort of instructors, students, and trainees wisely. This article presents key considerations that instructors and course directors must consider in aligning learning objectives with instructional methods and assessment measures, and it provides illustrative examples. Above all, in order for RCR educators to assess outcomes more effectively, they must align assessment to their learning objectives and attend to the validity of the measures used. PMID:25574258

  19. Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Safvan, C.P.; Sakai, H.

    1999-01-01

    Molecules in a seeded supersonic beam are aligned by the interaction between an intense nonresonant linearly polarized laser field and the molecular polarizability. We demonstrate the general applicability of the scheme by aligning I2, ICl, CS2, CH3I, and C6H5I molecules. The alignment is probed...... by mass selective two dimensional imaging of the photofragment ions produced by femtosecond laser pulses. Calculations on the degree of alignment of I2 are in good agreement with the experiments. We discuss some future applications of laser aligned molecules....

  20. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  1. Separating intrinsic alignment and galaxy-galaxy lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Nakajima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The coherent physical alignment of galaxies is an important systematic for gravitational lensing studies as well as a probe of the physical mechanisms involved in galaxy formation and evolution. We develop a formalism for treating this intrinsic alignment (IA) in the context of galaxy-galaxy lensing and present an improved method for measuring IA contamination, which can arise when sources physically associated with the lens are placed behind the lens due to photometric redshift scatter. We apply the technique to recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) measurements of Luminous Red Galaxy lenses and typical ( ∼ L * ) source galaxies with photometric redshifts selected from the SDSS imaging data. Compared to previous measurements, this method has the advantage of being fully self-consistent in its treatment of the IA and lensing signals, solving for the two simultaneously. We find an IA signal consistent with zero, placing tight constraints on both the magnitude of the IA effect and its potential contamination to the lensing signal. While these constraints depend on source selection and redshift quality, the method can be applied to any measurement that uses photometric redshifts. We obtain a model-independent upper-limit of roughly 10% IA contamination for projected separations of r p ≈ 0.1–10 h −1 Mpc. With more stringent photo-z cuts and reasonable assumptions about the physics of intrinsic alignments, this upper limit is reduced to 1–2%. These limits are well below the statistical error of the current lensing measurements. Our results suggest that IA will not present intractable challenges to the next generation of galaxy-galaxy lensing experiments, and the methods presented here should continue to aid in our understanding of alignment processes and in the removal of IA from the lensing signal

  2. Essentials of econophysics modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Slanina, Frantisek

    2014-01-01

    This book is a course in methods and models rooted in physics and used in modelling economic and social phenomena. It covers the discipline of econophysics, which creates an interface between physics and economics. Besides the main theme, it touches on the theory of complex networks and simulations of social phenomena in general. After a brief historical introduction, the book starts with a list of basic empirical data and proceeds to thorough investigation of mathematical and computer models. Many of the models are based on hypotheses of the behaviour of simplified agents. These comprise strategic thinking, imitation, herding, and the gem of econophysics, the so-called minority game. At the same time, many other models view the economic processes as interactions of inanimate particles. Here, the methods of physics are especially useful. Examples of systems modelled in such a way include books of stock-market orders, and redistribution of wealth among individuals. Network effects are investigated in the inter...

  3. TMRG studies on spin alignment in molecule-based ferrimagnetics [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q. M.; Yao, K. L.; Liu, Z. L.

    2005-05-01

    A physical picture of spin alignment in organic molecule-based ferrimagnets is presented from studying the thermal effective magnetic moment of the sublattice by use of the transfer matrix renormalization group. We conclude that the classical antiparallel spin alignment is not the most stable state. The three-spin system tends to parallel alignment when the exchange interaction between the biradical and the monoradical molecules is much weaker than that within the biradical, which can result in the decrease of the effective magnetic moment upon lowering the temperature. More importantly, we give the theoretical evidence that even the antiparallel spin alignment in the biradical monoradical alternating chain does not necessarily lead to ferrimagnetic spin ordering due to the formation of the spin singlet pairs, which suppresses the ferrimagnetic spin alignment.

  4. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO 2 fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO 2 alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence

  5. Chromatic bifocus alignment system for SR stepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Tsutomu

    1991-01-01

    A new alignment system developed for synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray stepper is described. The alignment system has three key elements as follows. The first is a chromatic bifocus optics which observe high contrast bright images of alignment marks printed on a mask and a wafer. The second is broad band light illumination to observe the wafer alignment mark images which is unaffected by resist film coated on a wafer. The third is a new correlation function which is used in measuring of displacement between a mask and a wafer. The alignment system has achieved alignment accuracy on the order of 0.01 μm. The experimental results of this alignment system are discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Samii's essentials in neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramina, Ricardo; Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Parana, Curitiba; Pires Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Sao Paulo Univ.; Hospital Santa Paula, Sao Paulo; Tatagiba, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    'Samii's Essentials in Neurosurgery' contains selected papers written by internationally recognized contributors who were trained by Professor Madjid Samii in Hannover, Germany. The main topics deal with cutting-edge technology in neurosurgery, skull-base surgery, and specific peripheral nerve, spine, and vascular surgeries. The texts and a wealth of illustrations review and reinforce guidelines on the diagnosis and management of situations that readers are likely to encounter in everyday practice. This book will be of great interest to neurosurgeons, neurologists, ENT surgeons, neuroradiologists, and neurophysiotherapists. (orig.)

  7. Geometry essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics - get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conque

  8. Essentials of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, K

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceComputing ParadigmsLearning ObjectivesPreambleHigh-Performance ComputingParallel ComputingDistributed ComputingCluster ComputingGrid ComputingCloud ComputingBiocomputingMobile ComputingQuantum ComputingOptical ComputingNanocomputingNetwork ComputingSummaryReview PointsReview QuestionsFurther ReadingCloud Computing FundamentalsLearning ObjectivesPreambleMotivation for Cloud ComputingThe Need for Cloud ComputingDefining Cloud ComputingNIST Definition of Cloud ComputingCloud Computing Is a ServiceCloud Computing Is a Platform5-4-3 Principles of Cloud computingFive Essential Charact

  9. Autodesk Maya 2014 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Naas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The premiere book on getting started with Maya 2014 Whether you're just beginning, or migrating from another 3D application, this step-by-step guide is what you need to get a good working knowledge of Autodesk Maya 2014. Beautifully illustrated with full-color examples and screenshots, Autodesk Maya 2014 Essentials explains the basics of Maya as well as modeling, texturing, animating, setting a scene, and creating visual effects. You'll absorb important concepts and techniques, and learn how to confidently use Maya tools the way professionals do. Each chapter includes fun and cha

  10. Essential dynamics and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donnell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Essential Dynamics & Relativity provides students with an introduction to the core aspects of dynamics and special relativity. The author reiterates important ideas and terms throughout and covers concepts that are often missing from other textbooks at this level. He also places each topic within the wider constructs of the theory, without jumping from topic to topic to illustrate a point.The first section of the book focuses on dynamics, discussing the basic aspects of single particle motion and analyzing the motion of multi-particle systems. The book also explains the dynamical behavior of b

  11. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  12. Twisted network programming essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fettig, Abe

    2005-01-01

    Twisted Network Programming Essentials from O'Reilly is a task-oriented look at this new open source, Python-based technology. The book begins with recommendations for various plug-ins and add-ons to enhance the basic package as installed. It then details Twisted's collection simple network protocols, and helper utilities. The book also includes projects that let you try out the Twisted framework for yourself. For example, you'll find examples of using Twisted to build web services applications using the REST architecture, using XML-RPC, and using SOAP. Written for developers who want to s

  13. The essential David Bohm

    CERN Document Server

    Nichol, Lee

    2002-01-01

    There are few scientists of the twentieth century whose life's work has created more excitement and controversy than that of physicist David Bohm (1917-1992). For the first time in a single volume, The Essential David Bohm offers a comprehensive overview of Bohm's original works from a non-technical perspective. Including three chapters of previously unpublished material, and a forward by the Dalai Lama, each reading has been selected to highlight some aspect of the implicate order process, and to provide an introduction to one of the most provocative thinkers of our time.

  14. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  15. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  16. Cisco Networking Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2011-01-01

    An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour

  17. French essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura K

    2011-01-01

    Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y

  18. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  19. Cisco networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Start a career in networking Cisco Networking Essentials, 2nd Edition provides the latest for those beginning a career in networking. This book provides the fundamentals of networking and leads you through the concepts, processes, and skills you need to master fundamental networking concepts. Thinking of taking the CCENT Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician ICND1 Exam 100-101? This book has you covered! With coverage of important topics and objectives, each chapter outlines main points and provides clear, engaging discussion that will give you a sound understanding of core topics and c

  20. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  1. Calcium, essential for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Victoria, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral element in our body. It accounts for about 2% of body weight. The functions of calcium are: a) functions skeletal and b) regulatory functions. Bone consists of a protein matrix that mineralizes mainly with calcium (the most abundant), phosphate and magnesium, for it is essential an adequate dietary intake of Ca, phosphorus and vitamin D. The ionic Ca (Ca2+) is essential to maintain and / or perform different specialized functions of, virtually, all body cells cellular. Because of its important functions Ca2+ must be closely regulated, keeping plasma concentrations within narrow ranges. For this reason there is an accurate response against hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia in which the parathormone, calcitriol, calcitonin and vitamin K are involved. Ca intakes in the Spanish population are low in a significant percentage of the older adult’s population, especially in women. The main source of Ca in the diet is milk and milk derivatives. Green leafy vegetables, fruits and legumes can be important sources of Ca in a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The bioavailability of dietary Ca depends on physiological and dietary factors. Physiological include age, physiological status (gestation and lactation) Ca and vitamin D status and disease. Several studies relate Ca intake in the diet and various diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.

  2. Effect of alignment of easy axes on dynamic magnetization of immobilized magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Takashi, E-mail: t_yoshi@ees.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsugi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Naotaka; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Enpuku, Keiji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Viereck, Thilo; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank [Institut für Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig 38106 (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    In some biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), the particles are physically immobilized. In this study, we explore the effect of the alignment of the magnetic easy axes on the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs under an AC excitation field. We prepared three immobilized MNP samples: (1) a sample in which easy axes are randomly oriented, (2) a parallel-aligned sample in which easy axes are parallel to the AC field, and (3) an orthogonally aligned sample in which easy axes are perpendicular to the AC field. First, we show that the parallel-aligned sample has the largest hysteresis in the magnetization curve and the largest harmonic magnetization spectra, followed by the randomly oriented and orthogonally aligned samples. For example, 1.6-fold increase was observed in the area of the hysteresis loop of the parallel-aligned sample compared to that of the randomly oriented sample. To quantitatively discuss the experimental results, we perform a numerical simulation based on a Fokker-Planck equation, in which probability distributions for the directions of the easy axes are taken into account in simulating the prepared MNP samples. We obtained quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation. These results indicate that the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs is significantly affected by the alignment of the easy axes. - Highlights: • We clarify how the alignment of easy axis of MNP affects the AC magnetization. • Parallel-aligned immobilized MNPs exhibit the largest AC hysteresis loop. • Parallel-aligned immobilized MNPs exhibit the largest harmonic magnetization spectra. • The AC magnetization is strongly affected by the alignment of the easy axes.

  3. Pattern analysis of aligned nanowires in a microchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Young Jin; Kang, Hyun Wook; Ko, Seung Hwan; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    An image processing method for evaluating the quality of nanowire alignment in a microchannel is described. A solution containing nanowires flowing into a microchannel will tend to deposit the nanowires on the bottom surface of the channel via near-wall shear flows. The deposited nanowires generally form complex directional structures along the direction of flow, and the physical properties of these structures depend on the structural morphology, including the alignment quality. A quantitative analysis approach to characterizing the nanowire alignment is needed to estimate the useful features of the nanowire structures. This analysis consists of several image processing methods, including ridge detection, texton analysis and autocorrelation function (ACF) calculation. The ridge detection method improved the ACF by extracting nanowire frames 1–2 pixels in width. Dilation filters were introduced to permit a comparison of the ACF results calculated from different images, regardless of the nanowire orientation. An ACF based on the FFT was then calculated over a square interrogation window. The alignment angle probability distribution was obtained using texton analysis. Monte Carlo simulations of artificially generated images were carried out, and the new algorithm was applied to images collected using two types of microscopy. (paper)

  4. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Moles-Valls, R

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system for c harged particles built on two technologies: silicon and drift tube base detectors. These kind of detectors compose the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). The Alignment of the ATLAS ID tracking s ystem requires the determination of almost 36000 degrees of freedom. From the tracking point o f view, the alignment parameters should be know to a few microns precision. This permits to att ain optimal measurements of the parameters of the charged particles trajectories, thus ena bling ATLAS to achieve its physics goals. The implementation of the alignment software, its framewor k and the data flow will be discussed. Special attention will be paid to the recent challenges wher e large scale computing simulation of the ATLAS detector has been performed, mimicking the ATLAS o peration, which is going to be very important for the LHC startup scenario. The alignment r esult for several challenges (real cosmic ray data taking and computing system commissioning) will be...

  5. Development of an alignment system for the CBM rich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, Claudia; Mahmoud, Tariq; Bendarouach, Jordan [Justus Liebig University, Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 4-35 AGeV. One of the key detector components required for the CBM physics program is the RICH detector, which is developed for efficient and clean electron identification and pion suppression. Main detector components are a CO{sub 2} gaseous radiator, MAPMT or MCP photo-detectors and spherical glass mirror tiles, used as focusing elements, with spectral reflectivity down to the UV range. An important aspect to guarantee a stable operation of the RICH detector is the alignment and continuous monitor of the mirrors. CLAM (Continuous Line Alignment Monitoring), an alignment procedure developed by the COMPASS experiment, is planned to be used also for the RICH mirror system. A smaller-scale version has been implemented in the CBM RICH prototype detector and tested at the Cern PS/T9 beamline in November 2014. Using a grid and target dots made of retro-reflective material, it is possible to align the mirrors and monitor their displacements over time by analyzing and applying mathematical calculations on photographic images of the grid and targets reflected on the mirrors. The concept, first data and results of image processing are presented and discussed.

  6. MEANS FOR DETERMINING CENTRIFUGE ALIGNMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.Q.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for remotely determining the alignment of a centrifuge. The centrifage shaft is provided with a shoulder, upon which two followers ride, one for detecting radial movements, and one upon the shoulder face for determining the axial motion. The followers are attached to separate liquid filled bellows, and a tube connects each bellows to its respective indicating gage at a remote location. Vibrations produced by misalignment of the centrifuge shaft are transmitted to the bellows, and tbence through the tubing to the indicator gage. This apparatus is particularly useful for operation in a hot cell where the materials handled are dangerous to the operating personnel.

  7. NON-ALIGNEMENT IN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    G. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    The first indications to the Western world that African non-alignment had achieved conscious political form became apparent only in the late 1940's. This strand of thought within the tapestry of Africanism reached its zenith with the declarations of Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta and Julius Nyerere in the years after the Pan-African Congress in Manchester in 1945. The causes of the movement go back far beyond the first official expressions of an African solidarity in the 1940's. As a mature exp...

  8. Expected measurement of the Z production rate with the CMS detector and simulation of the Tracker Laser Alignment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Maarten

    2009-06-16

    The Large Hadron Collider is a two-ring, superconducting accelerator and collider which can provide both proton and heavy-ion beams. First collisions are foreseen for 2009. The Compact Muon System (CMS) detector will measure the particles created in the hadron collisions and can confirm the Standard Model by establishing the existence of the Higgs boson, but also search for new phenomena. In order to provide a robust and precise track reconstruction, which can already be used in the High-Level Trigger systems, the positions of the silicon sensors in the CMS tracker have to been known with an accuracy of O(100 {mu}m). Therefore the CMS tracker has been equipped with a dedicated alignment system. The Laser Alignment System (LAS) aligns the tracker subdetectors with respect to each other and can also monitor the stability of the sensor positions during data taking. This study describes the implementation of a realistic simulation of the LAS in the CMS software framework (CMSSW) as well as the analysis of the first data collected during the integration of one of the tracker endcaps. In the present study it has been found that the alignment of the endcaps is possible with an accuracy of approximately 76 {mu}m. These results are in agreement with independent measurements of the TEC geometry using cosmic muons or photogrammetry measurements. The accuracy of approximately 100 {mu}m needed for track pattern recognition and reconstruction can be assured by the Laser Alignment System as shown in this study. Accurate knowledge of the luminosity delivered by the LHC to the experiments is an essential ingredient for many physics studies. The present work uses the production of lepton pairs via the Drell-Yan mechanism to determine the integrated luminosity with the CMS detector. A Monte Carlo generator (MC rate at NLO) including next-to-leading order QCD diagrams has been used to generate Drell-Yan events decaying into two muons. After a full CMS detector simulation, the events

  9. Expected measurement of the Z production rate with the CMS detector and simulation of the Tracker Laser Alignment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is a two-ring, superconducting accelerator and collider which can provide both proton and heavy-ion beams. First collisions are foreseen for 2009. The Compact Muon System (CMS) detector will measure the particles created in the hadron collisions and can confirm the Standard Model by establishing the existence of the Higgs boson, but also search for new phenomena. In order to provide a robust and precise track reconstruction, which can already be used in the High-Level Trigger systems, the positions of the silicon sensors in the CMS tracker have to been known with an accuracy of O(100 μm). Therefore the CMS tracker has been equipped with a dedicated alignment system. The Laser Alignment System (LAS) aligns the tracker subdetectors with respect to each other and can also monitor the stability of the sensor positions during data taking. This study describes the implementation of a realistic simulation of the LAS in the CMS software framework (CMSSW) as well as the analysis of the first data collected during the integration of one of the tracker endcaps. In the present study it has been found that the alignment of the endcaps is possible with an accuracy of approximately 76 μm. These results are in agreement with independent measurements of the TEC geometry using cosmic muons or photogrammetry measurements. The accuracy of approximately 100 μm needed for track pattern recognition and reconstruction can be assured by the Laser Alignment System as shown in this study. Accurate knowledge of the luminosity delivered by the LHC to the experiments is an essential ingredient for many physics studies. The present work uses the production of lepton pairs via the Drell-Yan mechanism to determine the integrated luminosity with the CMS detector. A Monte Carlo generator (MC rate at NLO) including next-to-leading order QCD diagrams has been used to generate Drell-Yan events decaying into two muons. After a full CMS detector simulation, the events have

  10. Essentials of modern optical fiber communication

    CERN Document Server

    Noé, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    This is a concise introduction into optical fiber communication. It covers important aspects from the physics of optical wave propagation and amplification to the essentials of modulation formats and receivers. The combination of a solid coverage of necessary fundamental theory with an in-depth discussion of recent relevant research results enables the reader to design modern optical fiber communication systems. The book serves both graduate students and professionals. It includes many worked examples with solutions for lecturers. For the second edition, Reinhold Noé made many changes and additions throughout the text so that this concise book presents the essentials of optical fiber communication in an easy readable and understandable way.

  11. Multiple sequence alignment accuracy and phylogenetic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, T Heath; Rosenberg, Michael S

    2006-04-01

    Phylogenies are often thought to be more dependent upon the specifics of the sequence alignment rather than on the method of reconstruction. Simulation of sequences containing insertion and deletion events was performed in order to determine the role that alignment accuracy plays during phylogenetic inference. Data sets were simulated for pectinate, balanced, and random tree shapes under different conditions (ultrametric equal branch length, ultrametric random branch length, nonultrametric random branch length). Comparisons between hypothesized alignments and true alignments enabled determination of two measures of alignment accuracy, that of the total data set and that of individual branches. In general, our results indicate that as alignment error increases, topological accuracy decreases. This trend was much more pronounced for data sets derived from more pectinate topologies. In contrast, for balanced, ultrametric, equal branch length tree shapes, alignment inaccuracy had little average effect on tree reconstruction. These conclusions are based on average trends of many analyses under different conditions, and any one specific analysis, independent of the alignment accuracy, may recover very accurate or inaccurate topologies. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian, in general, outperformed neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in terms of tree reconstruction accuracy. Results also indicated that as the length of the branch and of the neighboring branches increase, alignment accuracy decreases, and the length of the neighboring branches is the major factor in topological accuracy. Thus, multiple-sequence alignment can be an important factor in downstream effects on topological reconstruction.

  12. Program for PET image alignment: Effects on calculated differences in cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.L.; London, E.D.; Links, J.M.; Cascella, N.G.

    1990-01-01

    A program was developed to align positron emission tomography images from multiple studies on the same subject. The program allowed alignment of two images with a fineness of one-tenth the width of a pixel. The indications and effects of misalignment were assessed in eight subjects from a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study on the effects of cocaine on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Visual examination of a difference image provided a sensitive and accurate tool for assessing image alignment. Image alignment within 2.8 mm was essential to reduce variability of measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Misalignment by this amount introduced errors on the order of 20% in the computed metabolic rate for glucose. These errors propagate to the difference between metabolic rates for a subject measured in basal versus perturbed states

  13. Initial Alignment for SINS Based on Pseudo-Earth Frame in Polar Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Meng; Li, Guangchun; Guang, Xingxing

    2017-06-16

    An accurate initial alignment must be required for inertial navigation system (INS). The performance of initial alignment directly affects the following navigation accuracy. However, the rapid convergence of meridians and the small horizontalcomponent of rotation of Earth make the traditional alignment methods ineffective in polar regions. In this paper, from the perspective of global inertial navigation, a novel alignment algorithm based on pseudo-Earth frame and backward process is proposed to implement the initial alignment in polar regions. Considering that an accurate coarse alignment of azimuth is difficult to obtain in polar regions, the dynamic error modeling with large azimuth misalignment angle is designed. At the end of alignment phase, the strapdown attitude matrix relative to local geographic frame is obtained without influence of position errors and cumbersome computation. As a result, it would be more convenient to access the following polar navigation system. Then, it is also expected to unify the polar alignment algorithm as much as possible, thereby further unifying the form of external reference information. Finally, semi-physical static simulation and in-motion tests with large azimuth misalignment angle assisted by unscented Kalman filter (UKF) validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Modified alignment CGHs for aspheric surface test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Bong; Yang, Ho-Soon; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2009-08-01

    Computer Generated Holograms (CGH) for optical test are commonly consisted of one main pattern for testing aspheric surface and some alignment patterns for aligning the interferometer, CGH, and the test optics. To align the CGH plate and the test optics, we designed the alignment CGHs modified from the cat's eye alignment method, which are consisted of a couple of CGH patterns. The incident beam passed through the one part of the alignment CGH pattern is focused onto the one radius position of the test aspheric surface, and is reflected to the other part, and vice versa. This method has several merits compared to the conventional cat's eye alignment method. First, this method can be used in testing optics with a center hole, and the center part of CGH plate can be assigned to the alignment pattern. Second, the alignment pattern becomes a concentric circular arc pattern. The whole CGH patterns including the main pattern and alignment patterns are consisted of only concentric circular fringes. This concentric circular pattern can be easily made by the polar coordinated writer with circular scanning. The required diffraction angle becomes relatively small, so the 1st order diffraction beams instead of the 3rd order diffraction beam can be used as alignment beams, and the visibility can be improved. This alignment method also is more sensitive to the tilt and the lateral shift of the test aspheric surface. Using this alignment pattern, a 200 mm diameter F/0.5 aspheric mirror and a 600 mm diameter F/0.9 mirror were tested.

  15. Essential numerical computer methods

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface of the current and potential applications of computers and computer methods in biomedical research. The various chapters within this volume include a wide variety of applications that extend far beyond this limited perception. As part of the Reliable Lab Solutions series, Essential Numerical Computer Methods brings together chapters from volumes 210, 240, 321, 383, 384, 454, and 467 of Methods in Enzymology. These chapters provide ...

  16. DSP Architecture Design Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Marković, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    In DSP Architecture Design Essentials, authors Dejan Marković and Robert W. Brodersen cover a key subject for the successful realization of DSP algorithms for communications, multimedia, and healthcare applications. The book addresses the need for DSP architecture design that maps advanced DSP algorithms to hardware in the most power- and area-efficient way. The key feature of this text is a design methodology based on a high-level design model that leads to hardware implementation with minimum power and area. The methodology includes algorithm-level considerations such as automated word-length reduction and intrinsic data properties that can be leveraged to reduce hardware complexity. From a high-level data-flow graph model, an architecture exploration methodology based on linear programming is used to create an array of architectural solutions tailored to the underlying hardware technology. The book is supplemented with online material: bibliography, design examples, CAD tutorials and custom software.

  17. Are Archetypes Essential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Warren

    2018-06-01

    This paper distinguishes between Jung's theoretical discourse regarding the archetypes and his phenomenological account of numinous experience. For this author, the initial attraction of 'my Jung' came from both the vivid Romanticism of his descriptions of the anima and the apparent 'ground of being' offered by his theory of archetypes. However, the essentialism inherent to archetypal theory in general and the anima in particular has necessitated a re-evaluation of Jung's theory in terms of emergence theory. My own version of this emphasises the role of symbols in the constitution of affect through collective human action in the world. In this reconfiguration, the visceral energy of numinous experience is retained while the problematic theory of archetypes is no longer needed. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. Essential French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Essential French Grammar is an innovative reference grammar and workbook for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of French (CEFR levels B2 to C1). Its clear explanations of grammar are supported by contemporary examples and lively cartoon drawings.  Each chapter contains: * real-life language examples in French, with English translations * a 'key points' box and tables that summarise grammar concepts * a variety of exercises to reinforce learning * a contemporary primary source or literary extract to illustrate grammar in context. To aid your understanding, this book also contains a glossary of grammatical terms in French and English, useful verb tables and a key to the exercises. Together, these features all help you to grasp complex points of grammar and develop your French language skills.

  19. Essentials of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Murti, Y V G S

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on Nonlinear Optics varies widely in terms of content, style, and coverage of specific topics, relative emphasis of areas and the depth of treatment. While most of these books are excellent resources for the researchers, there is a strong need for books appropriate for presenting the subject at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels in Universities. The need for such a book to serve as a textbook at the level of the bachelors and masters courses was felt by the authors while teaching courses on nonlinear optics to students of both science and engineering during the past two decades. This book has emerged from an attempt to address the requirement of presenting the subject at college level. A one-semester course covering the essentials can effectively be designed based on this.

  20. Essential real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous introduction to the techniques and results of real analysis, metric spaces and multivariate differentiation, suitable for undergraduate courses. Starting from the very foundations of analysis, it offers a complete first course in real analysis, including topics rarely found in such detail in an undergraduate textbook such as the construction of non-analytic smooth functions, applications of the Euler-Maclaurin formula to estimates, and fractal geometry.  Drawing on the author’s extensive teaching and research experience, the exposition is guided by carefully chosen examples and counter-examples, with the emphasis placed on the key ideas underlying the theory. Much of the content is informed by its applicability: Fourier analysis is developed to the point where it can be rigorously applied to partial differential equations or computation, and the theory of metric spaces includes applications to ordinary differential equations and fractals. Essential Real Analysis will appeal t...

  1. TQM: the essential concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D W

    1998-01-01

    This is an introduction to the major concepts in total quality management, a loose collection of management approaches that focus on continuous improvement of processes, guided by routine data collection and adjustment of the processes. Customer focus and involvement of all members of an organization are also characteristics commonly found in TQM. The seventy-five-year history of the movement is sketched from its beginning in statistical work on quality assurance through the many improvements and redefinitions added by American and Japanese thinkers. Essential concepts covered include: control cycles, focus on the process rather than the defects, the GEAR model, importance of the customer, upstream quality, just-in-time, kaizen, and service quality.

  2. Specification and R and D Program on Magnet Alignment Tolerances for NSLS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Jain, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    The NSLS-II light source is a proposed 3 GeV storage ring, with the potential for ultra-low emittance. Despite the reduced emittance goal for the bare lattice, the closed orbit amplification factors are on average >55 in both planes, for random quadrupole alignment errors. The high chromaticity will also require strong sextupoles and the low 3 GeV energy will require large dynamic and momentum aperture to insure adequate lifetime. This will require tight alignment tolerances (∼ 30(micro)m) on the multipole magnets during installation. By specifying tight alignment tolerances of the magnets on the support girders, the random alignment tolerances of the girders in the tunnel can be significantly relaxed. Using beam based alignment to find the golden orbit through the quadrupole centers, the closed orbit offsets in the multipole magnets will then be reduced to essentially the alignment errors of the magnets, restoring much of the dynamic aperture and lifetime of the bare lattice. Our R and D program to achieve these tight alignment tolerances of the magnets on the girders using a vibrating wire technique, will be discussed and initial results presented.

  3. Alignment of CT-PPS detectors in 2016, before TS2

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspar, J

    2017-01-01

    This note presents the first alignment of the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) using the data from before Technical Stop 2 (TS2), 2016. This new procedure involves two stages. In the first one, data from a special calibration fill are used. In this fill, both horizontal and vertical Roman Pots (RPs) were inserted very close to the beam. In the second stage, hit distributions from physics fills (with only horizontal RPs inserted) are matched to the previously aligned reference from the calibration fill. The alignment and optics calibration is verified by reconstructing consistent $\\xi$ spectra from different RPs and LHC fills.

  4. Observation of Coherent and Incoherent Dissociation Mechanisms in the Angular Distribution of Atomic Photofragment Alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracker, A.S.; Lee, Y.T.; Bracker, A.S.; Wouters, E.R.; Suits, A.G.; Lee, Y.T.; Lee, Y.T.; Vasyutinskii, O.S.

    1998-01-01

    We have analyzed the recoil angle dependence of chlorine atom angular momentum alignment for the dissociation of chlorine molecules at 355nm. This angular distribution was isolated from ion image measurements, which map a three-dimensional velocity vector distribution of state-selectively-ionized photofragments into a two-dimensional spatial distribution. Using a general quantum mechanical method to simulate the alignment angular distribution, we show that there are clear contributions to alignment from both incoherent and coherent components of a perpendicular optical transition in the molecule. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  5. Alignment-related Effects in Forward Proton Experiments at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Staszewski, R.; Korcyl, K.; Trzebiński, M.

    2015-11-21

    The activity in the field of difractive physics at the Large Hadron Collider has been constantly increasing. This includes the planning for additional dedicated apparatus -- horizontal forward proton detectors. This work focusses on the problems related to the alignment of such detectors. The effects of the misalignment of the detectors on their geometric acceptance and the proton kinematics reconstruction is studied. The requirements for the alignment precision is inferred for different types of possible measurements.

  6. Alignment-related effects in forward proton experiments at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staszewski, R., E-mail: Rafal.Staszewski@ifj.edu.pl; Chwastowski, J., E-mail: Janusz.Chwastowski@ifj.edu.pl; Korcyl, K., E-mail: Krzysztof.Korcyl@ifj.edu.pl; Trzebiński, M., E-mail: Maciej.Trzebinski@ifj.edu.pl

    2015-11-21

    The activity in the field of diffractive physics at the Large Hadron Collider has been constantly increasing. This includes the planning for additional dedicated apparatus – horizontal forward proton detectors. This work focuses on the problems related to the alignment of such devices. The effects of the misalignment of the detectors on their geometric acceptance and on the reconstruction of the proton kinematics are studied. The requirements for the alignment precision are inferred for different types of possible measurements.

  7. Comment on "Astronomical alignments as the cause of ~M6+ seismicity"

    OpenAIRE

    Zanette, Damian H.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that, according to the criteria used by M. Omerbashich (arXiv:1104.2036v4 [physics.gen-ph]), during 2010 the Earth was aligned with at least one pair of planets some 98.6% of the time. This firmly supports Omerbashich's claim that 2010 strongest earthquakes occurred during such astronomical alignments. On this basis, we argue that seismicity is, generally, a phenomenon of astrological origin.

  8. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory Hugh

    1966-01-01

    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  9. A simple method for fabrication of electrospun fibers with controlled degree of alignment having potential for nerve regeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimal, Sunil Kumar; Ahamad, Nadim; Katti, Dhirendra S., E-mail: dsk@iitk.ac.in

    2016-06-01

    In peripheral nerve injuries where direct suturing of nerve endings is not feasible, nerve regeneration has been facilitated through the use of artificially aligned fibrous scaffolds that provide directional growth of neurons to bridge the gap. The degree of fiber alignment is crucial and can impact the directionality of cells in a fibrous scaffold. While there have been multiple approaches that have been used for controlling fiber alignment, however, they have been associated with a compromised control on other properties, such as diameter, morphology, curvature, and topology of fibers. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a modified electrospinning set-up, that enabled fabrication of electrospun fibers with controlled degree of alignment from non-aligned (NA), moderately aligned (MA, 75%) to highly aligned (HA, 95%) sub-micron fibers while keeping other physical properties unchanged. The results demonstrate that the aligned fibers (MA and HA) facilitated directional growth of human astrocytoma cells (U373), wherein the aspect ratio of cells was found to increase with an increase in degree of fibers alignment. In contrast to NA and MA fibers, the HA fibers showed improved contact guidance to U373 cells that was demonstrated by a significantly higher cell aspect ratio and nuclear aspect ratio. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated a modified electrospinning setup to fabricate differentially aligned fibrous scaffolds with the HA fibers showing potential for use in neural tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Modified electrospinning set-up for fabrication of fibers with controlled alignment • Three parameter-based control on the degree of alignment of fibers • The aligned fibers enhanced cell elongation and cell-cell contact. • The aligned fibers show potential for use in nerve regeneration.

  10. RevTrans: multiple alignment of coding DNA from aligned amino acid sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2003-01-01

    The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the 'signal-to-noise ratio' in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. Besides this information-theoretical advantage, protein alignments also benefit...... proteins. It is therefore preferable to align coding DNA at the amino acid level and it is for this purpose we have constructed the program RevTrans. RevTrans constructs a multiple DNA alignment by: (i) translating the DNA; (ii) aligning the resulting peptide sequences; and (iii) building a multiple DNA...

  11. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...

  12. Alignment performance monitoring for ASML systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woong-Jae; Temchenko, Vlad; Hauck, Tarja; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2006-03-01

    In today's semiconductor industry downscaling of the IC design puts a stringent requirement on pattern overlay control. Tighter overlay requirements lead to exceedingly higher rework rates, meaning additional costs to manufacturing. Better alignment control became a target of engineering efforts to decrease rework rate for high-end technologies. Overlay performance is influenced by known parameters such as "Shift, Scaling, Rotation, etc", and unknown parameters defined as "Process Induced Variation", which are difficult to control by means of a process automation system. In reality, this process-induced variation leads to a strong wafer to wafer, or lot to lot variation, which are not easy to detect in the mass-production environment which uses sampling overlay measurements for only several wafers in a lot. An engineering task of finding and correcting a root cause for Process Induced Variations of overlay performance will be greatly simplified if the unknown parameters could be tracked for each wafer. This paper introduces an alignment performance monitoring method based on analysis of automatically generated "AWE" files for ASML scanner systems. Because "AWE" files include alignment results for each aligned wafer, it is possible to use them for monitoring, controlling and correcting the causes of "process induced" overlay performance without requiring extra measurement time. Since "AWE" files include alignment information for different alignment marks, it is also possible to select and optimize the best alignment recipe for each alignment strategy. Several case studies provided in our paper will demonstrate how AWE file analysis can be used to assist engineer in interpreting pattern alignment data. Since implementing our alignment data monitoring method, we were able to achieve significant improvement of alignment and overlay performance without additional overlay measurement time. We also noticed that the rework rate coming from alignment went down and

  13. Nuclear alignment following compound nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.A.; Nolan, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for calculating the alignment of a nuclear state populated by a compound nucleus reaction is given and used to investigate how alignment varies for different types of population mechanisms. The calculations are compared to both predictions of Gaussian models for the state population distribution and to experimental data, for a variety of types of nuclear reactions. The treatment of alignment in the analysis of γ-ray angular distribution is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Clear aligners generations and orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A

    2016-03-01

    Clear aligner technology has evolved over the last 15 years, with these appliances continually being modified to increase the range of tooth movements that they can achieve. However, there is very little clinical research available to show how these appliances achieve their results. This article describes the different generations of clear aligners that are available and highlights their use. However, until more clinical research becomes available, aligners cannot be routinely prescribed as an effective alternative to fixed labial appliances.

  15. Triangular Alignment (TAME). A Tensor-based Approach for Higher-order Network Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Shahin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gleich, David F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kolda, Tamara G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Grama, Ananth [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Network alignment is an important tool with extensive applications in comparative interactomics. Traditional approaches aim to simultaneously maximize the number of conserved edges and the underlying similarity of aligned entities. We propose a novel formulation of the network alignment problem that extends topological similarity to higher-order structures and provide a new objective function that maximizes the number of aligned substructures. This objective function corresponds to an integer programming problem, which is NP-hard. Consequently, we approximate this objective function as a surrogate function whose maximization results in a tensor eigenvalue problem. Based on this formulation, we present an algorithm called Triangular AlignMEnt (TAME), which attempts to maximize the number of aligned triangles across networks. We focus on alignment of triangles because of their enrichment in complex networks; however, our formulation and resulting algorithms can be applied to general motifs. Using a case study on the NAPABench dataset, we show that TAME is capable of producing alignments with up to 99% accuracy in terms of aligned nodes. We further evaluate our method by aligning yeast and human interactomes. Our results indicate that TAME outperforms the state-of-art alignment methods both in terms of biological and topological quality of the alignments.

  16. UV beam shaper alignment sensitivity: grayscale versus binary designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2008-08-01

    What defines a good flat top beam shaper? What is more important; an ideal flat top profile or ease of alignment and stability? These are the questions designers and fabricators can not easily define, since they are a function of experience. Anyone can generate a theoretical beam shaper design and model it until it is clear that on paper the design looks good and meets the general needs of the end customer. However, the method of fabrication can add a twist that is not fully understood by either party until the beam shaper is actually tested for the first time in a system and also produced in high volume. This paper provides some insight into how grayscale and binary fabrication methods can produce the same style of beam shaper, with similar beam shaping performance; however provide a result wherein each fabricated design has separate degrees of sensitivity for alignment and stability. The paper will explain the design and fabrication approach for the two units and present alignment and testing data to provide a contrast comparison. Further data will show that over twenty sets of each fabricated design there is a consistency to the sensitivity issue. An understanding of this phenomenon is essential when considering the use of beam shapers on production equipment that is dedicated to producing micron-precision features within high value microelectronic and consumer products. We will present our findings and explore potential explanations and solutions.

  17. Aligned carbon nanotubes patterned photolithographically by silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoming; Mau, Albert H. W.

    2003-02-01

    Selective growth of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by pyrolysis of iron (II) phthalocyanine (FePc) on quartz substrate patterned photolithographically by metallic silver has been demonstrated. Micro/nanopattern of aligned CNTs can be achieved by using a photomask with features on a microscale. With convenient use of simple high-contract black and white films as a photomask, aligned nanotubes patterned with 20 μm resolution in large scale can be fabricated. This practical fabrication of aligned CNTs on patterned conducting substrate could be applied to various device applications of CNTs.

  18. The art of editing RNA structural alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious, it is re......Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious...

  19. Peripheral pin alignment system for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    An alignment system is provided for nuclear fuel assemblies in a nuclear core. The core support structure of the nuclear reactor includes upwardly pointing alignment pins arranged in a square grid and engage peripheral depressions formed in the lateral periphery of the lower ends of each of the fuel assemblies of the core. In a preferred embodiment, the depressions are located at the corners of the fuel assemblies so that each depression includes one-quarter of a cylindrical void. Accordingly, each fuel assembly is positioned and aligned by one-quarter of four separate alignment pins which engage the fuel assemblies at their lower exterior corners. (author)

  20. The 2012 CASPER Physics Circus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona Reyes, Jorge; Land-Zandstra, Anne; Cheng, Joyce; Douglass, Angela; Harris, Brandon; Zhang, Zhuanhao; Chen, Mudi; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2012-10-01

    The CASPER Physics Circus is one component of a CASPER ongoing educational outreach initiative known as the CASPER Seamless Pathway. The Physics Circus is funded by the United States Department of Education and is designed to increase interest in, engagement with, and understanding of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) within students in grades 6 through 12. The program's material and curriculum is aligned with both TEKS (Texas Essentials Knowledge and Skills) and National Science and Mathematics Standards, with its components (theatre, hands-on exhibitions, game show, professional development and curriculum) reinforcing these goals in a creative and entertaining format. Pre- and post-assessments measuring both content understanding and attitude towards science were conducted for a representative sample of the cohort and the analyzed data will be presented. The role the Circus plays within CASPER's Seamless Pathway will also be discussed along with other current CASPER programs including its High School Scholars program, CASPER's Interns program and CASPER NSF funded REU/RET programs for college undergraduates and K-12 teachers.

  1. Rhetoric and Essentially Contested Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Eugene

    1978-01-01

    Draws a connection between Gallie's essentially contested concepts and Aristotle's account of rhetorical argument by presenting a definition of Essentially Contested Argument which is used as the connecting term between rhetoric and essentially contested concepts and by demonstrating the value of making this connection. (JF)

  2. Theory for the alignment of cortical feature maps during development

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-08-23

    We present a developmental model of ocular dominance column formation that takes into account the existence of an array of intrinsically specified cytochrome oxidase blobs. We assume that there is some molecular substrate for the blobs early in development, which generates a spatially periodic modulation of experience-dependent plasticity. We determine the effects of such a modulation on a competitive Hebbian mechanism for the modification of the feedforward afferents from the left and right eyes. We show how alternating left and right eye dominated columns can develop, in which the blobs are aligned with the centers of the ocular dominance columns and receive a greater density of feedforward connections, thus becoming defined extrinsically. More generally, our results suggest that the presence of periodically distributed anatomical markers early in development could provide a mechanism for the alignment of cortical feature maps. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  3. Structural anisotropy of magnetically aligned single wall carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B. W.; Benes, Z.; Luzzi, D. E.; Fischer, J. E.; Walters, D. A.; Casavant, M. J.; Schmidt, J.; Smalley, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Thick films of aligned single wall carbon nanotubes and ropes have been produced by filtration/deposition from suspension in strong magnetic fields. We measured mosaic distributions of rope orientations in the film plane, for samples of different thicknesses. For an ∼1 μm film the full width at half maximum (FWHM) derived from electron diffraction is 25 degree sign -28 degree sign . The FWHM of a thicker film (∼7 μm) measured by x-ray diffraction is slightly broader, 35±3 degree sign . Aligned films are denser than ordinary filter-deposited ones, and much denser than as-grown material. Optimization of the process is expected to yield smaller FWHMs and higher densities. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. Improving nuclear plant management effectiveness: Aligning strategy, systems, and people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of any organization requires alignment of the appropriate financial, physical, and human resources. The manager's role is to efficiently utilize the right combination of these resources to achieve organizational objectives. In-depth studies of the nuclear programs of three major investor-owned utilities using a culture assessment process called the communication, values, and rewards (CVR) assessment have shown significant misalignments in those organizations' strategies, systems and people management. The CVR assessment related employees' perceptions of what drives their company's culture with the stated company strategic direction and management philosophies. Specifically, CVR provides a comparison of employee-held work-related values with those desired by management. Data obtained by a CVR assessment can be used to understand organizational misalignment and make changes to bring systems into alignment with corporate strategy and culture

  5. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the multipurpose experiments that records the products of the LHC proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in these collisions, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using two different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and microstrips) and drift-tube based detectors. Together they constitute the ATLAS Inner Detector, which is embedded in a 2 T axial field. Efficiently reconstructing tracks from charged particles traversing the detector, and precisely measure their momenta is of crucial importance for physics analyses. In order to achieve its scientific goals, an alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector is required to accurately determine its more than 700,000 degrees of freedom. The goal of the alignment is set such that the limited knowledge of the sensor locations should not deteriorate the resolution of track parameters by more than 20% with respect to the intrinsic tracker resolution. The implementation of t...

  6. Aligning seminars with Bologna requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer; Lueg, Klarissa; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep...... learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT); as a conceptual framework the authors suggest the SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) taxonomy and constructive alignment as suggested by Biggs and Tang. Our study presents results from the introduction of RPT in a large...... and students, suggest that RPT fosters deeper learning than does teacher-led instruction. Based on these findings, the authors also offer guidelines regarding how to implement RPT and how to overcome barriers....

  7. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  8. Quantized wobbling excitations with alignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Ikuko; Hagemann, Gudrun B.

    2003-01-01

    The wobbling excitations in the presence of an appreciable amount of alignment are expected to appear more easily at lower angular momenta of the yrast spectra, compared with those in the textbook example. The large B(E2;I→I-1) value for Δn=1 transitions where n expresses the number of wobbling phonons is shown to be a strongly increasing function of the triaxiality parameter γ, especially for γ > or approx. +20 deg., while it is relatively independent of moments of inertia. On the other hand, the relation of the wobbling phonon energy to the total angular momentum may be used to extract quantitative information on nuclear moments of inertia. It is concluded that the γ value of the triaxial, strongly deformed bands in 163 Lu is about equal to +20 deg. and may be slightly increasing as a function of I

  9. Attributes of Alignment of Real Estate and Facilities Management to Business Needs – an international comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiem-shin, Danny Then; Tan, Teng-hee; Santovito, Rogerio Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose •The purpose of this paper is to present a model for consideration of real estate and facilities management (RE/FM) alignment to business needs and to validate the model based on questionnaire surveys carried out in a number of countries around the world. Design/methodology/approach •The......”, being the most important criteria for the alignment between supply and demand of facility solutions in relation to business needs. One of the main differences in agreement was between the importance of strategy versus cost in the alignment between “facility solutions” and “FM services”. Originality....../value •Alignment of RE/FM to business needs is an essential management task and an important tool for RE/FM executives to create added value to their core business. However, there has so far only been limited research into such an alignment concept applicable to FM and an implementation model....

  10. Heuristics for multiobjective multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; Paquete, Luís; Pereira, Francisco B

    2016-07-15

    Aligning multiple sequences arises in many tasks in Bioinformatics. However, the alignments produced by the current software packages are highly dependent on the parameters setting, such as the relative importance of opening gaps with respect to the increase of similarity. Choosing only one parameter setting may provide an undesirable bias in further steps of the analysis and give too simplistic interpretations. In this work, we reformulate multiple sequence alignment from a multiobjective point of view. The goal is to generate several sequence alignments that represent a trade-off between maximizing the substitution score and minimizing the number of indels/gaps in the sum-of-pairs score function. This trade-off gives to the practitioner further information about the similarity of the sequences, from which she could analyse and choose the most plausible alignment. We introduce several heuristic approaches, based on local search procedures, that compute a set of sequence alignments, which are representative of the trade-off between the two objectives (substitution score and indels). Several algorithm design options are discussed and analysed, with particular emphasis on the influence of the starting alignment and neighborhood search definitions on the overall performance. A perturbation technique is proposed to improve the local search, which provides a wide range of high-quality alignments. The proposed approach is tested experimentally on a wide range of instances. We performed several experiments with sequences obtained from the benchmark database BAliBASE 3.0. To evaluate the quality of the results, we calculate the hypervolume indicator of the set of score vectors returned by the algorithms. The results obtained allow us to identify reasonably good choices of parameters for our approach. Further, we compared our method in terms of correctly aligned pairs ratio and columns correctly aligned ratio with respect to reference alignments. Experimental results show

  11. ALIGNMENTS OF GROUP GALAXIES WITH NEIGHBORING GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yougang; Chen Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Yang Xiaohu; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of galaxy groups found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4, we measure the following four types of alignment signals: (1) the alignment between the distributions of the satellites of each group relative to the direction of the nearest neighbor group (NNG); (2) the alignment between the major axis direction of the central galaxy of the host group (HG) and the direction of the NNG; (3) the alignment between the major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and the NNG; and (4) the alignment between the major axes of the satellites of the HG and the direction of the NNG. We find strong signal of alignment between the satellite distribution and the orientation of central galaxy relative to the direction of the NNG, even when the NNG is located beyond 3r vir of the host group. The major axis of the central galaxy of the HG is aligned with the direction of the NNG. The alignment signals are more prominent for groups that are more massive and with early-type central galaxies. We also find that there is a preference for the two major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and NNG to be parallel for the system with both early central galaxies, however, not for the systems with both late-type central galaxies. For the orientation of satellite galaxies, we do not find any significant alignment signals relative to the direction of the NNG. From these four types of alignment measurements, we conclude that the large-scale environment traced by the nearby group affects primarily the shape of the host dark matter halo, and hence also affects the distribution of satellite galaxies and the orientation of central galaxies. In addition, the NNG directly affects the distribution of the satellite galaxies by inducing asymmetric alignment signals, and the NNG at very small separation may also contribute a second-order impact on the orientation of the central galaxy in the HG.

  12. Phylo: a citizen science approach for improving multiple sequence alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kawrykow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comparative genomics, or the study of the relationships of genome structure and function across different species, offers a powerful tool for studying evolution, annotating genomes, and understanding the causes of various genetic disorders. However, aligning multiple sequences of DNA, an essential intermediate step for most types of analyses, is a difficult computational task. In parallel, citizen science, an approach that takes advantage of the fact that the human brain is exquisitely tuned to solving specific types of problems, is becoming increasingly popular. There, instances of hard computational problems are dispatched to a crowd of non-expert human game players and solutions are sent back to a central server. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce Phylo, a human-based computing framework applying "crowd sourcing" techniques to solve the Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA problem. The key idea of Phylo is to convert the MSA problem into a casual game that can be played by ordinary web users with a minimal prior knowledge of the biological context. We applied this strategy to improve the alignment of the promoters of disease-related genes from up to 44 vertebrate species. Since the launch in November 2010, we received more than 350,000 solutions submitted from more than 12,000 registered users. Our results show that solutions submitted contributed to improving the accuracy of up to 70% of the alignment blocks considered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that, combined with classical algorithms, crowd computing techniques can be successfully used to help improving the accuracy of MSA. More importantly, we show that an NP-hard computational problem can be embedded in casual game that can be easily played by people without significant scientific training. This suggests that citizen science approaches can be used to exploit the billions of "human-brain peta-flops" of computation that are spent every day playing games

  13. Non-essential role for cilia in coordinating precise alignment of lens fibres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sugiyama, Y.; Shelley, E.J.; Yoder, B.K.; Kozmik, Zbyněk; May-Simera, H.L.; Beales, P.L.; Lovicu, F.J.; McAvoy, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 139, FEB 2016 (2016), s. 10-17 ISSN 0925-4773 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-23675S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Lens * Primary cilium * ift88 * Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) * Planar cell polarity (PCP) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016

  14. Microwave conductance properties of aligned multiwall carbon nanotube textile sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Brian L. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Martinez, Patricia [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Zakhidov, Anvar A. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Shaner, Eric A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Mark [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-07-06

    Understanding the conductance properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) textile sheets in the microwave regime is essential for their potential use in high-speed and high-frequency applications. To expand current knowledge, complex high-frequency conductance measurements from 0.01 to 50 GHz and across temperatures from 4.2 K to 300 K and magnetic fields up to 2 T were made on textile sheets of highly aligned MWNTs with strand alignment oriented both parallel and perpendicular to the microwave electric field polarization. Sheets were drawn from 329 and 520 μm high MWNT forests that resulted in different DC resistance anisotropy. For all samples, the microwave conductance can be modeled approximately by a shunt capacitance in parallel with a frequency-independent conductance, but with no inductive contribution. Finally, this is consistent with diffusive Drude conduction as the primary transport mechanism up to 50 GHz. Further, it is found that the microwave conductance is essentially independent of both temperature and magnetic field.

  15. Phrasal alignment in Functional Discourse Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although the term is alignment is typically associated with morphosyntactic expression of arguments of the Clause, alignment is also relevant to units of the Phrase. In Functional Discourse Grammar a basic distinction is made between two kinds of dependency relations obtaining both within Phrases

  16. SOA-Driven Business-Software Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishkov, Boris; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Quartel, Dick; Tsai, W.; Chung, J.; Younas, M.

    2006-01-01

    The alignment of business processes and their supporting application software is a major concern during the initial software design phases. This paper proposes a design approach addressing this problem of business-software alignment. The approach takes an initial business model as a basis in

  17. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function...

  18. Comparative genomics beyond sequence-based alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Yao, Zizhen; Wiklund, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent computational scans for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in multiple organisms have relied on existing multiple sequence alignments. However, as sequence similarity drops, a key signal of RNA structure--frequent compensating base changes--is increasingly likely to cause sequence-based alignment me...

  19. MEMS Integrated Submount Alignment for Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, W. Jeffrey; Pearson, Raymond A.; Grenestedt, Joachim L.; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Gupta, Vikas

    2005-02-01

    One of the most expensive and time-consuming production processes for single-mode fiber-optic components is the alignment of the photonic chip or waveguide to the fiber. The alignment equipment is capital intensive and usually requires trained technicians to achieve desired results. Current technology requires active alignment since tolerances are only ~0.2 μ m or less for a typical laser diode. This is accomplished using piezoelectric actuated stages and active optical feedback. Joining technologies such as soldering, epoxy bonding, or laser welding may contribute significant postbond shift, and final coupling efficiencies are often less than 80%. This paper presents a method of adaptive optical alignment to freeze in place directly on an optical submount using a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation technology. Postbond shift is eliminated since the phase change is the alignment actuation. This technology is not limited to optical alignment but can be applied to a variety of MEMS actuations, including nano-actuation and nano-alignment for biomedical applications. Experimental proof-of-concept results are discussed, and a simple analytical model is proposed to predict the stress strain behavior of the optical submount. Optical coupling efficiencies and alignment times are compared with traditional processes. The feasibility of this technique in high-volume production is discussed.

  20. Business and IT alignment in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvius, A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Already for more than two decades, the necessity and desirability of aligning business needs and information technology (IT) capabilities is considered to be one of the key issues in IT management. However, several studies report quite low scores on business and IT alignment (BIA). The question “Why

  1. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  2. Novel method of aligning ATF-1 coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.; Neilson, G.H.; Jernigan, T.C.

    1983-08-01

    The coils for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF-1) torsatron may be easily aligned before the machine is placed under vacuum. This is done by creating nulls in the magnetic field by energizing the coils in various configurations. All of the nulls in vertical bar B vector vertical bar occur on the z-axis. When the nulls coincide, the coils are properly aligned

  3. STELLAR: fast and exact local alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weese David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale comparison of genomic sequences requires reliable tools for the search of local alignments. Practical local aligners are in general fast, but heuristic, and hence sometimes miss significant matches. Results We present here the local pairwise aligner STELLAR that has full sensitivity for ε-alignments, i.e. guarantees to report all local alignments of a given minimal length and maximal error rate. The aligner is composed of two steps, filtering and verification. We apply the SWIFT algorithm for lossless filtering, and have developed a new verification strategy that we prove to be exact. Our results on simulated and real genomic data confirm and quantify the conjecture that heuristic tools like BLAST or BLAT miss a large percentage of significant local alignments. Conclusions STELLAR is very practical and fast on very long sequences which makes it a suitable new tool for finding local alignments between genomic sequences under the edit distance model. Binaries are freely available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X at http://www.seqan.de/projects/stellar. The source code is freely distributed with the SeqAn C++ library version 1.3 and later at http://www.seqan.de.

  4. Aligning Application Architecture to the Business Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Blanken, Henk; Fokkinga, M.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Eder, J.; Missikoff, M.

    Alignment of application architecture to business architecture is a central problem in the design, acquisition and implementation of information systems in current large-scale information-processing organizations. Current research in architecture alignment is either too strategic or too software

  5. Alignment of Developments in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, John; George, Judith W.; Pinheiro-Torres, Andreia

    2004-01-01

    This study builds upon the concept of alignment within the curriculum (due to Biggs) and suggests, in the context of two current examples, an integrated methodology for effectively aligned development activities within universities. Higher Education institutions face important challenges. Firstly, quality enhancement of the curriculum is now an…

  6. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  7. Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Gary Wayne (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System (PAAIS) used to automate the alignment and integration of space vehicle components. A PAAIS includes ground support apparatuses, a track assembly with a plurality of energy-emitting components and an energy-receiving component containing a plurality of energy-receiving surfaces. Communication components and processors allow communication and feedback through PAAIS.

  8. Morphology of SiO2 films as a key factor in alignment of liquid crystals with negative dielectric anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Tkachenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Control of liquid crystal (LC orientation using a proper SiO2 alignment layer is essential for the optimization of vertically aligned nematic (VAN displays. With this aim, we studied the optical anisotropy of thin SiO2 films by generalized ellipsometry as a function of deposition angle. The columnar SiO2 structure orientation measured by a noninvasive ellipsometry technique is reported for the first time, and its morphology influence on the LC alignment is demonstrated for large deposition angles.

  9. MICA: Multiple interval-based curve alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Beck, Matthias; Bender, Bela Johannes; Spiecker, Heinrich; Backofen, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    MICA enables the automatic synchronization of discrete data curves. To this end, characteristic points of the curves' shapes are identified. These landmarks are used within a heuristic curve registration approach to align profile pairs by mapping similar characteristics onto each other. In combination with a progressive alignment scheme, this enables the computation of multiple curve alignments. Multiple curve alignments are needed to derive meaningful representative consensus data of measured time or data series. MICA was already successfully applied to generate representative profiles of tree growth data based on intra-annual wood density profiles or cell formation data. The MICA package provides a command-line and graphical user interface. The R interface enables the direct embedding of multiple curve alignment computation into larger analyses pipelines. Source code, binaries and documentation are freely available at https://github.com/BackofenLab/MICA

  10. Ultrasonic inspections of fuel alignment pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathgeb, W.; Schmid, R.

    1994-01-01

    As a remedy to the practical problem of defects in fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X750, an inspection technique has been developed which fully meets the requirements of detecting defects. The newly used fuel alignment pins made of austenite are easy to test and therefore satisfy the necessity of further inspections.For the fuel alignment pins of the upper core structure a safe and fast inspection technique was made available. The inspection sensitivity is high and it is possible to give quantitative directions concerning defect orientation and depth. After the required inspections had been concluded in 1989, a total of 18 inspections were carried out in various national and international nuclear power plants in the following years. During this time more than 6000 fuel alignment pines were examined.For the fuel alignment pins the inspection technique provided could increase the understanding of the defect process. This technique contributed to the development of an adaptive and economical repair strategy. ((orig.))

  11. Effect of alignment of easy axes on dynamic magnetization of immobilized magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Matsugi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Naotaka; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Enpuku, Keiji; Viereck, Thilo; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2017-04-01

    In some biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), the particles are physically immobilized. In this study, we explore the effect of the alignment of the magnetic easy axes on the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs under an AC excitation field. We prepared three immobilized MNP samples: (1) a sample in which easy axes are randomly oriented, (2) a parallel-aligned sample in which easy axes are parallel to the AC field, and (3) an orthogonally aligned sample in which easy axes are perpendicular to the AC field. First, we show that the parallel-aligned sample has the largest hysteresis in the magnetization curve and the largest harmonic magnetization spectra, followed by the randomly oriented and orthogonally aligned samples. For example, 1.6-fold increase was observed in the area of the hysteresis loop of the parallel-aligned sample compared to that of the randomly oriented sample. To quantitatively discuss the experimental results, we perform a numerical simulation based on a Fokker-Planck equation, in which probability distributions for the directions of the easy axes are taken into account in simulating the prepared MNP samples. We obtained quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation. These results indicate that the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs is significantly affected by the alignment of the easy axes.

  12. Alignment of muscle precursor cells on the vertical edges of thick carbon nanotube films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Ian, E-mail: ian.holt@rjah.nhs.uk [Wolfson Centre for Inherited Neuromuscular Disease, RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Gestmann, Ingo, E-mail: Ingo.Gestmann@fei.com [FEI Europe B.V., Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 Eindhoven (Netherlands); Wright, Andrew C., E-mail: a.wright@glyndwr.ac.uk [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Glyndwr University, Plas Coch, Mold Rd, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    The development of scaffolds and templates is an essential aspect of tissue engineering. We show that thick (> 0.5 mm) vertically aligned carbon nanotube films, made by chemical vapour deposition, can be used as biocompatible substrates for the directional alignment of mouse muscle cells where the cells grow on the exposed sides of the films. Ultra high resolution scanning electron microscopy reveals that the films themselves consist mostly of small diameter (10 nm) multi-wall carbon nanotubes of wavy morphology with some single wall carbon nanotubes. Our findings show that for this alignment to occur the nanotubes must be in pristine condition. Mechanical wiping of the films to create directional alignment is detrimental to directional bioactivity. Larger areas for study have been formed from a composite of multiply stacked narrow strips of nanotubes wipe-transferred onto elastomer supports. These composite substrates appear to show a useful degree of alignment of the cells. Highlights: • Highly oriented muscle precursor cells grown on edges of carbon nanotube pads • Mechanical treatment of nanotube pads highly deleterious to cell growth on edges • Larger areas created from wipe-transfer of narrow strips of nanotubes onto elastomer supports • Very high resolution SEM reveals clues to aligned cell growth.

  13. An improved image alignment procedure for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang; Liu, Yan; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jianghua

    2010-06-01

    Image alignment is essential for image processing methods such as through-focus exit-wavefunction reconstruction and image averaging in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Relative image displacements exist in any experimentally recorded image series due to the specimen drifts and image shifts, hence image alignment for correcting the image displacements has to be done prior to any further image processing. The image displacement between two successive images is determined by the correlation function of the two relatively shifted images. Here it is shown that more accurate image alignment can be achieved by using an appropriate aperture to filter the high-frequency components of the images being aligned, especially for a crystalline specimen with little non-periodic information. For the image series of crystalline specimens with little amorphous, the radius of the filter aperture should be as small as possible, so long as it covers the innermost lattice reflections. Testing with an experimental through-focus series of Si[110] images, the accuracies of image alignment with different correlation functions are compared with respect to the error functions in through-focus exit-wavefunction reconstruction based on the maximum-likelihood method. Testing with image averaging over noisy experimental images from graphene and carbon-nanotube samples, clear and sharp crystal lattice fringes are recovered after applying optimal image alignment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alignment of muscle precursor cells on the vertical edges of thick carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, Ian; Gestmann, Ingo; Wright, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of scaffolds and templates is an essential aspect of tissue engineering. We show that thick (> 0.5 mm) vertically aligned carbon nanotube films, made by chemical vapour deposition, can be used as biocompatible substrates for the directional alignment of mouse muscle cells where the cells grow on the exposed sides of the films. Ultra high resolution scanning electron microscopy reveals that the films themselves consist mostly of small diameter (10 nm) multi-wall carbon nanotubes of wavy morphology with some single wall carbon nanotubes. Our findings show that for this alignment to occur the nanotubes must be in pristine condition. Mechanical wiping of the films to create directional alignment is detrimental to directional bioactivity. Larger areas for study have been formed from a composite of multiply stacked narrow strips of nanotubes wipe-transferred onto elastomer supports. These composite substrates appear to show a useful degree of alignment of the cells. Highlights: • Highly oriented muscle precursor cells grown on edges of carbon nanotube pads • Mechanical treatment of nanotube pads highly deleterious to cell growth on edges • Larger areas created from wipe-transfer of narrow strips of nanotubes onto elastomer supports • Very high resolution SEM reveals clues to aligned cell growth

  15. Use cases and DEMO: aligning functional features of ICT-infrastructure to business processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maij, E; Toussaint, P J; Kalshoven, M; Poerschke, M; Zwetsloot-Schonk, J H M

    2002-11-12

    The proper alignment of functional features of the ICT-infrastructure to business processes is a major challenge in health care organisations. This alignment takes into account that the organisational structure not only shapes the ICT-infrastructure, but that the inverse also holds. To solve the alignment problem, relevant features of the ICT-infrastructure should be derived from the organisational structure and the influence of this envisaged ICT to the work practices should be pointed out. The objective of our study was to develop a method to solve this alignment problem. In a previous study we demonstrated the appropriateness of the business process modelling methodology Dynamic Essential Modelling of Organizations (DEMO). A proven and widely used modelling language for expressing functional features is Unified Modelling Language (UML). In the context of a specific case study at the University Medical Centre Utrecht in the Netherlands we investigated if the combined use of DEMO and UML could solve the alignment problem. The study demonstrated that the DEMO models were suited as a starting point in deriving system functionality by using the use case concept of UML. Further, the case study demonstrated that in using this approach for the alignment problem, insight is gained into the mutual influence of ICT-infrastructure and organisation structure: (a) specification of independent, re-usable components-as a set of related functionalities-is realised, and (b) a helpful representation of the current and future work practice is provided for in relation to the envisaged ICT support.

  16. Accelerated convergence and robust asymptotic regression of the Gumbel scale parameter for gapped sequence alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yonil; Sheetlin, Sergey; Spouge, John L

    2005-01-01

    Searches through biological databases provide the primary motivation for studying sequence alignment statistics. Other motivations include physical models of annealing processes or mathematical similarities to, e.g., first-passage percolation and interacting particle systems. Here, we investigate sequence alignment statistics, partly to explore two general mathematical methods. First, we model the global alignment of random sequences heuristically with Markov additive processes. In sequence alignment, the heuristic suggests a numerical acceleration scheme for simulating an important asymptotic parameter (the Gumbel scale parameter λ). The heuristic might apply to similar mathematical theories. Second, we extract the asymptotic parameter λ from simulation data with the statistical technique of robust regression. Robust regression is admirably suited to 'asymptotic regression' and deserves to be better known for it

  17. Simultaneous alignment and Lorentz angle calibration in the CMS silicon tracker using Millepede II

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, Nazar

    2013-01-01

    The CMS silicon tracker consists of 25 684 sensors that provide measurements of trajectories of charged particles that are used by almost every physics analysis at CMS. In order to achieve high measurement precision, the positions and orientations of all sensors have to be determined very accurately. This is achieved by track-based alignment using the global fit approach of the Millepede II program. This approach is capable of determining about 200 000 parameters simultaneously.The alignment precision reached such a high level that even small calibration inaccuracies are noticeable. Therefore the alignment framework has been extended to treat position sensitive calibration parameters. Of special interest is the Lorentz angle which affects the hit positions due to the drift of the signal electrons in the magnetic field. We present the results from measurements of the Lorentz angle and its time dependence during full 2012 data taking period as well as general description of the alignment and calibration procedu...

  18. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector in the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco Navarro, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS physics goals require excellent resolution, unbiased measurement of all charged particle kinematic parameters. These critically depend on the layout and performance of the tracking system and on the quality of its offline alignment. ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the Run II of the LHC, the system was upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL). An outline of the track based alignment approach and its implementation within the ATLAS software will be presented. Special attention will be paid to integration of the IBL into the alignment framework, techniques allowing to identify and eliminate tracking systematics as well as strategies to deal with time-dependent alignment. Performance from the commissioning of Cosmic data and potentially early LHC Run II proton-proton collisions will be discussed.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Aligned Carbon Nanotubes/Polyacrylonitrile Composite Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the electrospinning process, a modified parallel electrode method (MPEM, conducted by placing a positively charged ring between the needle and the parallel electrode collector, was used to fabricate highly aligned carbon nanotubes/polyacrylonitrile (CNTs/PAN composite nanofibers. Characterizations of the samples—such as morphology, the degree of alignment, and mechanical and conductive properties—were investigated by a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, universal testing machine, high-resistance meter, and other methods. The results showed the MPEM could improve the alignment and uniformity of electrospun CNTs/PAN composite nanofibers, and enhance their mechanical and conductive properties. This meant the successful preparation of highly aligned CNT-reinforced PAN nanofibers with enhanced physical properties, suggesting their potential application in appliances and communication areas.

  20. Use of clear aligners in open bite cases: an unexpected treatment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Garino, Francesco; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2017-06-01

    In open bite case treatments, a proper diagnostic differentiation is essential in determining the appropriate corrective procedures. Dental open bites are generally more responsive to treatment with orthodontics alone, whereas skeletal open bites often require a combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. Patient selection and treatment principles for non-surgical open bite treatment routinely include fixed appliances both labial or lingual. However, removable clear aligners have gained a consistent popularity in the treatment of complex cases including open bite malocclusions. In this article, the authors describe three different clinical cases in which open bite cases had been satisfactorily treated by using clear aligners.

  1. Clear aligners for orthodontic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Hanieh; Graham, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials (CENTRAL), Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and LILACS databases. Clinical prospective and retrospective studies of orthodontic treatment with clear aligners on patients over the age of 15 that included clear descriptions of the materials and applied technique were included. Selection was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Two reviewers extracted data independently with study quality being assessed using the grading system described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). A narrative summary of the findings was presented. Eleven studies involving a total of 480 patients were included consisting of two randomised controlled trials, five prospective studies and four retrospective studies. Six studies were considered to be of moderate quality, the remainder of limited quality. Most of the studies presented with methodological problems: small sample size, bias and confounding variables, lack of method error analysis, blinding in measurements, and deficient or missing statistical methods. The quality level of the studies was not sufficient to draw any evidence-based conclusions.

  2. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, William N

    2009-09-01

    A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities.

  3. Thermic and thermodynamic properties of desorption process of essential oil of Hyssopus seravshanicus from bentonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukaniev, M.A.; Badalov, A.B.; Sharopov, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    It shown, that desorption process of essential oil of Hyssopus seravshanicus from bentonite clays include by four parts (lines) and the nature between essential oil of Hyssopus seravshanicus from bentonite clays is physical and chemical sorption

  4. A fast cross-validation method for alignment of electron tomography images based on Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Edwards, Thomas J; Pankratz, Logan M; Kuhn, Richard J; Lanman, Jason K; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Wen

    2015-11-01

    In electron tomography, accurate alignment of tilt series is an essential step in attaining high-resolution 3D reconstructions. Nevertheless, quantitative assessment of alignment quality has remained a challenging issue, even though many alignment methods have been reported. Here, we report a fast and accurate method, tomoAlignEval, based on the Beer-Lambert law, for the evaluation of alignment quality. Our method is able to globally estimate the alignment accuracy by measuring the goodness of log-linear relationship of the beam intensity attenuations at different tilt angles. Extensive tests with experimental data demonstrated its robust performance with stained and cryo samples. Our method is not only significantly faster but also more sensitive than measurements of tomogram resolution using Fourier shell correlation method (FSCe/o). From these tests, we also conclude that while current alignment methods are sufficiently accurate for stained samples, inaccurate alignments remain a major limitation for high resolution cryo-electron tomography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Essential Oils and Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production. PMID:29099084

  6. New nurse transition: success through aligning multiple identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yee Mun Jessica; Crossman, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of new nurses in Singapore of their experiences of role transition and to examine the implications for managers in terms of employee training, development and retention. This qualitative study was conducted using a constructivist grounded theory approach. In total 26 novice nurses and five preceptors (n=31) from five different hospitals participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and reflective journal entries and analysed using the constant comparative method. The findings revealed that novice nurses remained emotionally and physically challenged when experiencing role transition. Two major constructs appear to play an important part in the transition process; learning how to Fit in and aligning personal with professional and organisational identities. The findings highlight factors that facilitate or impede Fitting in and aligning these identities. Although the concept of Fitting in and its relation to the attrition of novice nurses has been explored in global studies, that relationship has not yet been theorised as the dynamic alignment of multiple identities. Also, whilst most research around Fitting in, identity and retention has been conducted in western countries, little is known about these issues and their interrelationship in the context of Singapore. The study should inform decision making by healthcare organisations, nurse managers and nursing training institutions with respect to improving the transition experience of novice nurses.

  7. Alignment data streams for the ATLAS inner detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, B; Amorim, A; Pereira, P; Elsing, M; Hawkings, R; Schieck, J; Garcia, S; Schaffer, A; Ma, H; Anjos, A

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment uses a complex trigger strategy to be able to reduce the Event Filter rate output, down to a level that allows the storage and processing of these data. These concepts are described in the ATLAS Computing Model which embraces Grid paradigm. The output coming from the Event Filter consists of four main streams: physical stream, express stream, calibration stream, and diagnostic stream. The calibration stream will be transferred to the Tier-0 facilities that will provide the prompt reconstruction of this stream with a minimum latency of 8 hours, producing calibration constants of sufficient quality to allow a first-pass processing. The Inner Detector community is developing and testing an independent common calibration stream selected at the Event Filter after track reconstruction. It is composed of raw data, in byte-stream format, contained in Readout Buffers (ROBs) with hit information of the selected tracks, and it will be used to derive and update a set of calibration and alignment constants. This option was selected because it makes use of the Byte Stream Converter infrastructure and possibly gives better bandwidth usage and storage optimization. Processing is done using specialized algorithms running in the Athena framework in dedicated Tier-0 resources, and the alignment constants will be stored and distributed using the COOL conditions database infrastructure. This work is addressing in particular the alignment requirements, the needs for track and hit selection, and the performance issues

  8. Alignment of the Thomson scattering diagnostic on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B P; Diallo, A

    2013-01-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic can provide profile measurement of the electron temperature, T e , and density, n e , in plasmas. Proper laser beam path and optics arrangement permits profiles T e (R) and n e (R) measurement along the major radius R. Keeping proper alignment between the laser beam path and the collection optics is necessary for an accurate determination of the electron density. As time progresses the relative position of the collection optics field of view with respect to the laser beam path will invariably shift. This can be kept to a minimum by proper attention to the physical arrangement of the collection and laser-beam delivery optics. A system has been in place to monitor the relative position between laser beam and collection optics. Variation of the alignment can be detected before it begins to affect the quality of the profile data. This paper discusses details of the instrumentation and techniques used to maintain alignment during NSTX multi-month experimental campaigns

  9. Sparse alignment for robust tensor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Zhao, Cairong; Sun, Mingming

    2014-10-01

    Multilinear/tensor extensions of manifold learning based algorithms have been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper first provides a systematic analysis of the multilinear extensions for the most popular methods by using alignment techniques, thereby obtaining a general tensor alignment framework. From this framework, it is easy to show that the manifold learning based tensor learning methods are intrinsically different from the alignment techniques. Based on the alignment framework, a robust tensor learning method called sparse tensor alignment (STA) is then proposed for unsupervised tensor feature extraction. Different from the existing tensor learning methods, L1- and L2-norms are introduced to enhance the robustness in the alignment step of the STA. The advantage of the proposed technique is that the difficulty in selecting the size of the local neighborhood can be avoided in the manifold learning based tensor feature extraction algorithms. Although STA is an unsupervised learning method, the sparsity encodes the discriminative information in the alignment step and provides the robustness of STA. Extensive experiments on the well-known image databases as well as action and hand gesture databases by encoding object images as tensors demonstrate that the proposed STA algorithm gives the most competitive performance when compared with the tensor-based unsupervised learning methods.

  10. Face Alignment via Regressing Local Binary Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shaoqing; Cao, Xudong; Wei, Yichen; Sun, Jian

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a highly efficient and accurate regression approach for face alignment. Our approach has two novel components: 1) a set of local binary features and 2) a locality principle for learning those features. The locality principle guides us to learn a set of highly discriminative local binary features for each facial landmark independently. The obtained local binary features are used to jointly learn a linear regression for the final output. This approach achieves the state-of-the-art results when tested on the most challenging benchmarks to date. Furthermore, because extracting and regressing local binary features are computationally very cheap, our system is much faster than previous methods. It achieves over 3000 frames per second (FPS) on a desktop or 300 FPS on a mobile phone for locating a few dozens of landmarks. We also study a key issue that is important but has received little attention in the previous research, which is the face detector used to initialize alignment. We investigate several face detectors and perform quantitative evaluation on how they affect alignment accuracy. We find that an alignment friendly detector can further greatly boost the accuracy of our alignment method, reducing the error up to 16% relatively. To facilitate practical usage of face detection/alignment methods, we also propose a convenient metric to measure how good a detector is for alignment initialization.

  11. Fabrication of uniaxially aligned 3D electrospun scaffolds for neural regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Anuradha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan, E-mail: swami@sastra.edu [Center for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-04-15

    Nanofibrous scaffolds are very promising physical guidance substrates for regenerating nerves to traverse larger nerve gaps. In this study, we have attempted to develop 2D random and 3D longitudinally oriented nanofibers of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) by the modified electrospinning process and characterized the surface morphology, mechanical properties, porosity, degradation and wettability. The orientation of aligned fibers was optimized by varying the speed of the rotating mandrel in the electrospinning process. The mean diameter of random PLGA nanofibers was 197 {+-} 72 nm, whereas that of the aligned PLGA fiber was 187 {+-} 121 nm. The pore size of aligned PLGA nanofibers (3.5 {+-} 1.1 {mu}m) was significantly lower than their respective random nanofibers (8.0 {+-} 2.0 {mu}m) (p < 0.05). However, the percentage porosity of both scaffolds was comparable (p > 0.05). The mass loss percentage and molecular weight loss percentage due to degradation was higher in random PLGA fibers when compared to aligned PLGA after 5 weeks (p < 0.05). The tensile strength and Young's modulus of random PLGA fibers were significantly higher than those of the aligned PLGA nanofibers (p < 0.05). Both random and longitudinally aligned scaffolds were used for the in vitro culture of Schwann cells. Morphology and cell proliferation results demonstrated that the aligned fibers assist the direction of Schwann cells and a better proliferation rate than their random fibers. The results confirmed that aligned nanofibers have better deformability, slow degradation, comparable porosity and orientation cues than random nanofibers. Hence the longitudinally aligned nanofibers may be ideal scaffolds for nerve regeneration.

  12. DNAAlignEditor: DNA alignment editor tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guill Katherine E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With advances in DNA re-sequencing methods and Next-Generation parallel sequencing approaches, there has been a large increase in genomic efforts to define and analyze the sequence variability present among individuals within a species. For very polymorphic species such as maize, this has lead to a need for intuitive, user-friendly software that aids the biologist, often with naïve programming capability, in tracking, editing, displaying, and exporting multiple individual sequence alignments. To fill this need we have developed a novel DNA alignment editor. Results We have generated a nucleotide sequence alignment editor (DNAAlignEditor that provides an intuitive, user-friendly interface for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments with functions for input, editing, and output of sequence alignments. The color-coding of nucleotide identity and the display of associated quality score aids in the manual alignment editing process. DNAAlignEditor works as a client/server tool having two main components: a relational database that collects the processed alignments and a user interface connected to database through universal data access connectivity drivers. DNAAlignEditor can be used either as a stand-alone application or as a network application with multiple users concurrently connected. Conclusion We anticipate that this software will be of general interest to biologists and population genetics in editing DNA sequence alignments and analyzing natural sequence variation regardless of species, and will be particularly useful for manual alignment editing of sequences in species with high levels of polymorphism.

  13. Alignment and stability of future machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiltsev, V.D.

    1996-06-01

    Leading accelerator laboratories mount serious efforts in alignment and vibration studies concerning stability of future accelerator facilities such as photon and meson factories, future linear colliders (LCs), and hadron supercolliders (HCs). Some 200 publications covered the topic since late 80s, following pioneering works of G.E. Fischer. Four International workshops on accelerator alignment were held since 1989 at SLAC, DESY, CERN and KEK. The SSCL hosted the workshop on vibration control and dynamic alignment (1992). This article briefly covers some present achievements and issues in the field. We discuss major effects and tolerances for the future accelerators, results of measurements up-to-date, correction techniques and make some conclusions

  14. Automatic Angular alignment of LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Azzopardi, Gabriella; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Mereghetti, Alessio; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a complex collimation system to protect sensitive equipment from unavoidable beam losses. Collimators are positioned close to the beam using an alignment procedure. Until now they have always been aligned assuming no tilt between the collimator and the beam, however, tank misalignments or beam envelope angles at large-divergence locations could introduce a tilt limiting the collimation performance. Three different algorithms were implemented to automatically align a chosen collimator at various angles. The implementation was tested on a number of collimators during this MD and no human intervention was required.

  15. NOVA integrated alignment/diagnostic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under Contract 3772003 to the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Aerojet ElectroSystems Company has investigated a number of alignment system design topics for the NOVA and SHIVA upgrade lasers. Prior reports dealt with the Main Beam Alignment System, and with Multipass Amplifier Alignment Concepts. This report, which completes the contract, examines ways in which the Return Beam Diagnostic (RBD) package and Incident Beam Diagnostic (IBD) packages may be reconfigured to a more integrated package. In particular, the report shows that the RBD optics may be directly integrated in the Pointing Focus and Centering (PFC) sensor, and that the IBD optics may use the same basic common configuration as the PFC/RBD package

  16. Availability of WHO Essential Medicines for Cancer Treatment in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoda M. Martei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Stock outs of cancer drugs are potentially fatal but have not been systematically studied in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the availability and alignment of the Botswana National Essential Medicines List (NEML for cancer drugs with the WHO’s Essential Medicines List (EML. Methods: The availability and cost of cancer drugs were analyzed using data from a weekly stock catalog sent by Botswana’s Central Medical Store to all pharmacy departments in government hospitals. Comparative data were extracted from the WHO EML and the “International Drug Price Indicator Guide-2014” from the Management Sciences for Health. Interviews with key informants were used to collect data on the Botswana NEML and the drug supply chain in the public sector. Results: The 2015 Botswana NEML for cancer had 80.5% alignment with the WHO EML. At least 40% of essential drugs were out of stock for a median duration of 30 days in 2015. Stock outs affected chemotherapy drugs included in first-line regimens for treating potentially curable diseases such as cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer and were not associated with buyer price of therapy. Analyses showed that the median price ratio for procured drugs was greater than 1 for 61% of the NEML drugs, which suggests inefficiency in procurement in the public sector. Conclusions: Botswana has one of the highest alignments of NEML to the WHO EML in the sub-Saharan African region, which is consistent with investment in the health care system evident in other clinical spheres. Better quantification of chemotherapy requirements using data from the National Cancer Registry and resource-sensitive treatment guidelines can help reduce stock outs and facilitate more effective and efficient procurement processes.

  17. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... desktop! more... Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Article Chapters Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem print full article print this chapter email this ...

  19. Magnetic field-aligned particle precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic field-aligned particle fluxes are a common auroral phenomenon. Precipitating field-aligned electrons are seen in the vicinity of auroral arcs as suprathermal bursts, as well as superimposed on the more isotropic inverted V electron precipitation. Electron distribution functions reveal two distinct source populations for the inverted V and field-aligned electron components, and also suggest possible acceleration mechanisms. The inverted V electrons are a hot, boundary plasma sheet population that gains the full parallel acceleration. The field-aligned component appears to originate from cold ionospheric electrons that may be distributed throughout the acceleration region. A turbulent parallel field might explain the apparent lifetime of cold electrons in the acceleration region

  20. Robust and Efficient Parametric Face Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    We propose a correlation-based approach to parametric object alignment particularly suitable for face analysis applications which require efficiency and robustness against occlusions and illumination changes. Our algorithm registers two images by iteratively maximizing their correlation coefficient

  1. EURRECA—Framework for Aligning Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Grammatikaki, E.; Matthys, C.; Raats, M.M.; Contor, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently no standard approach for deriving micronutrient recommendations, and large variations exist across Europe, causing confusion among consumers, food producers, and policy makers. More aligned information could influence dietary behaviors and potentially lead to a healthier

  2. Angular momentum alignment in molecular beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treffers, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown how the angular momentum alignment in a molecular beam can be determined using laser-induced fluorescence in combination with precession of the angular momenta in a magnetic field. After a general analysis of the method, some results are presented to illustrate the possibilities of the method. Experimental data are presented on the alignment production for Na 2 molecules that made a collision induced angular momentum transition. Magnitude as well as direction of the alignment have been determined for scattering with several scattering partners and for a large number of scattering angles and transitions. The last chapter deals with the total alignment production in a final J-state, i.e. without state selection of the initial rotational state. (orig.)

  3. Simulation of high-resolution X-ray microscopic images for improved alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiangxia; Zhang Xiaobo; Liu Gang; Cheng Xianchao; Li Wenjie; Guan Yong; Liu Ying; Xiong Ying; Tian Yangchao

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of precision optical elements to X-ray microscopes necessitates fine realignment to achieve optimal high-resolution imaging. In this paper, we demonstrate a numerical method for simulating image formation that facilitates alignment of the source, condenser, objective lens, and CCD camera. This algorithm, based on ray-tracing and Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory, is applied to simulate the X-ray microscope beamline U7A of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The simulations and imaging experiments show that the algorithm is useful for guiding experimental adjustments. Our alignment simulation method is an essential tool for the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) with optical elements and may also be useful for the alignment of optical components in other modes of microscopy.

  4. libgapmis: extending short-read alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachiotis, Nikolaos; Berger, Simon; Flouri, Tomáš; Pissis, Solon P; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of short-read alignment programmes have been published recently to tackle the problem of mapping millions of short reads to a reference genome, focusing on different aspects of the procedure such as time and memory efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy. These tools allow for a small number of mismatches in the alignment; however, their ability to allow for gaps varies greatly, with many performing poorly or not allowing them at all. The seed-and-extend strategy is applied in most short-read alignment programmes. After aligning a substring of the reference sequence against the high-quality prefix of a short read--the seed--an important problem is to find the best possible alignment between a substring of the reference sequence succeeding and the remaining suffix of low quality of the read--extend. The fact that the reads are rather short and that the gap occurrence frequency observed in various studies is rather low suggest that aligning (parts of) those reads with a single gap is in fact desirable. In this article, we present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. Apart from the standard CPU version, it includes ultrafast SSE- and GPU-based implementations. libgapmis is based on an algorithm computing a modified version of the traditional dynamic-programming matrix for sequence alignment. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the functions of the CPU version provided in this library accelerate the computations by a factor of 20 compared to other programmes. The analogous SSE- and GPU-based implementations accelerate the computations by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the CPU version. The library also provides the user the flexibility to split the read into fragments, based on the observed gap occurrence frequency and the length of the read, thereby allowing for a variable, but bounded, number of gaps in the alignment. We present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. We

  5. Polarization and alignment of nucleus fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation of fragment orientation with orientation axis of fissile nucleus and with n-vector f vector of fragment divergence is considered. Estimations of polarization and alignment of fission fragments of preliminarily oriented nuclei in correlation (with n-vector f recording) and integral (with n-vector f averaging) experiments were conducted. It is shown that high sensitivity of polarization and fragment alignment to the character of nucleus movement at the stage of descent from barrier to rupture point exists

  6. Unscented Kalman filter for SINS alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhanxin; Gao Yanan; Chen Jiabin

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the filter accuracy for the nonlinear error model of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) alignment, Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is presented for simulation with stationary base and moving base of SINS alignment.Simulation results show the superior performance of this approach when compared with classical suboptimal techniques such as extended Kalman filter in cases of large initial misalignment.The UKF has good performance in case of small initial misalignment.

  7. Optimal Nonlinear Filter for INS Alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞; 顾启泰

    2002-01-01

    All the methods to handle the inertial navigation system (INS) alignment were sub-optimal in the past. In this paper, particle filtering (PF) as an optimal method is used for solving the problem of INS alignment. A sub-optimal two-step filtering algorithm is presented to improve the real-time performance of PF. The approach combines particle filtering with Kalman filtering (KF). Simulation results illustrate the superior performance of these approaches when compared with extended Kalman filtering (EKF).

  8. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Robert W.; Robichaud, Roger E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  9. Control rod housing alignment and repair method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for underwater welding of a control rod drive housing inserted through a stub tube to maintain requisite alignment and elevation of the top of the control rod drive housing to an overlying and corresponding aperture in a core plate as measured by an alignment device which determines the relative elevation and angularity with respect to the aperture. It comprises providing a welding cylinder dependent from the alignment device such that the elevation of the top of the welding cylinder is in a fixed relationship to the alignment device and is gas-proof; pressurizing the welding cylinder with inert welding gas sufficient to maintain the interior of the welding cylinder dry; lowering the welding cylinder through the aperture in the core plate by depending the cylinder with respect to the alignment device, the lowering including lowering through and adjusting the elevation relationship of the welding cylinder to the alignment device such that when the alignment device is in position to measure the elevation and angularity of the new control rod drive housing, the lower distal end of the welding cylinder extends below the upper periphery of the stub where welding is to occur; inserting a new control rod drive housing through the stub tube and positioning the control rod drive housing to a predetermined relationship to the anticipated final position of the control rod drive housing; providing welding implements transversely rotatably mounted interior of the welding cylinder relative to the alignment device such that the welding implements may be accurately positioned for dispensing weldment around the periphery of the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing; measuring the elevation and angularity of the control rod drive housing; and dispensing weldment along the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing

  10. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. ev...

  11. Open bite treatment using clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Maria Paola; Oliverio, Teresa; Silvestre, Ivana; Lombardo, Luca; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old female patient with dentoalveolar open bite of 4 mm, molar Class I malocclusion, centered midlines, moderate crowding, and labial inclination of the lower incisor was treated with clear aligners to reduce protrusion and close the anterior open bite. The result showed that clear aligners were an effective method with which to correct this malocclusion. The treatment was complete after 18 months. The patient was satisfied with her new appearance and function.

  12. THE ATLAS INNER DETECTOR TRACK BASED ALIGNMENT

    CERN Document Server

    Marti i Garcia, Salvador; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector is performed with a track-based alignment algorithm. Its goal is to provide an accurate description of the detector geometry such that track parameters are accurately determined and free from biases. Its software implementation is modular and configurable, with a clear separation of the alignment algorithm from the detector system specifics and the database handling. The alignment must cope with the rapid movements of the detector as well as with the slow drift of the different mechanical units. Prompt alignment constants are derived for every run at the calibration stage. These sets of constants are then dynamically split from the beginning of the run in many chunks, allowing to describe the tracker geometry as it evolves with time. The alignment of the Inner Detector is validated and improved by studying resonance decays (Z and J/psi to mu+mu-), as well as using information from the calorimeter system with the E/p method with electrons. A detailed study of these res...

  13. Aligning Biomolecular Networks Using Modular Graph Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfic, Fadi; Greenlee, M. Heather West; Honavar, Vasant

    Comparative analysis of biomolecular networks constructed using measurements from different conditions, tissues, and organisms offer a powerful approach to understanding the structure, function, dynamics, and evolution of complex biological systems. We explore a class of algorithms for aligning large biomolecular networks by breaking down such networks into subgraphs and computing the alignment of the networks based on the alignment of their subgraphs. The resulting subnetworks are compared using graph kernels as scoring functions. We provide implementations of the resulting algorithms as part of BiNA, an open source biomolecular network alignment toolkit. Our experiments using Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens protein-protein interaction networks extracted from the DIP repository of protein-protein interaction data demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithms (as measured by % GO term enrichment of subnetworks identified by the alignment) is competitive with some of the state-of-the-art algorithms for pair-wise alignment of large protein-protein interaction networks. Our results also show that the inter-species similarity scores computed based on graph kernels can be used to cluster the species into a species tree that is consistent with the known phylogenetic relationships among the species.

  14. Spike Pattern Recognition for Automatic Collimation Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Azzopardi, Gabriella; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Mereghetti, Alessio; Redaelli, Stefano; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The LHC makes use of a collimation system to protect its sensitive equipment by intercepting potentially dangerous beam halo particles. The appropriate collimator settings to protect the machine against beam losses relies on a very precise alignment of all the collimators with respect to the beam. The beam center at each collimator is then found by touching the beam halo using an alignment procedure. Until now, in order to determine whether a collimator is aligned with the beam or not, a user is required to follow the collimator’s BLM loss data and detect spikes. A machine learning (ML) model was trained in order to automatically recognize spikes when a collimator is aligned. The model was loosely integrated with the alignment implementation to determine the classification performance and reliability, without effecting the alignment process itself. The model was tested on a number of collimators during this MD and the machine learning was able to output the classifications in real-time.

  15. FACT. Bokeh alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sebastian Achim [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need fast and large imaging optics to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors are inexpensive, lightweight and offer good image quality. However, alignment of the mirror facets remains a challenge. A good alignment is crucial in IACT observations to separate gamma rays from hadronic cosmic rays. We present a simple, yet extendable method, to align segmented reflectors using their Bokeh. Bokeh alignment does not need a star or good weather nights but can be done anytime, even during the day. Bokeh alignment optimizes the facet orientations by comparing the segmented reflector's Bokeh to a predefined template. The Bokeh is observed using the out of focus image of a nearby point like light source in a distance of about ten times the focal lengths. We introduce Bokeh alignment on segmented reflectors and present its use on the First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) on Canary Island La Palma, as well as on the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype in Berlin Adlershof.

  16. Orthodontic tooth movement with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl T; McGorray, Susan P; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. every two weeks using clear aligners. A duplicate aligner was provided for the second week of each cycle. Weekly polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were taken, and digital models were fabricated to measure OTM. Initial and final cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained to characterize OTM. Results were compared to data from a similar protocol, where subjects received a new aligner biweekly. No significant difference was found in the amount of OTM between the two groups, with mean total OTM of 1.11 mm. (standard deviation (SD) 0.30) and 1.07 mm. (SD 0.33) for the weekly aligner and biweekly control groups, respectively (P = 0.72). Over eight weeks, in two-week intervals, material fatigue does not play a significant role in the rate or amount of tooth movement.

  17. Numerical optimization of alignment reproducibility for customizable surgical guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Thomas; Valstar, Edward; Eisemann, Elmar

    2015-10-01

    Computer-assisted orthopedic surgery aims at minimizing invasiveness, postoperative pain, and morbidity with computer-assisted preoperative planning and intra-operative guidance techniques, of which camera-based navigation and patient-specific templates (PST) are the most common. PSTs are one-time templates that guide the surgeon initially in cutting slits or drilling holes. This method can be extended to reusable and customizable surgical guides (CSG), which can be adapted to the patients' bone. Determining the right set of CSG input parameters by hand is a challenging task, given the vast amount of input parameter combinations and the complex physical interaction between the PST/CSG and the bone. This paper introduces a novel algorithm to solve the problem of choosing the right set of input parameters. Our approach predicts how well a CSG instance is able to reproduce the planned alignment based on a physical simulation and uses a genetic optimization algorithm to determine optimal configurations. We validate our technique with a prototype of a pin-based CSG and nine rapid prototyped distal femora. The proposed optimization technique has been compared to manual optimization by experts, as well as participants with domain experience. Using the optimization technique, the alignment errors remained within practical boundaries of 1.2 mm translation and [Formula: see text] rotation error. In all cases, the proposed method outperformed manual optimization. Manually optimizing CSG parameters turns out to be a counterintuitive task. Even after training, subjects with and without anatomical background fail in choosing appropriate CSG configurations. Our optimization algorithm ensures that the CSG is configured correctly, and we could demonstrate that the intended alignment of the CSG is accurately reproduced on all tested bone geometries.

  18. How accurate is anatomic limb alignment in predicting mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ah; Choi, Sang-Hee; Chang, Moon Jong

    2015-10-27

    Anatomic limb alignment often differs from mechanical limb alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We sought to assess the accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each of three commonly used ranges for anatomic limb alignment (3-9°, 5-10° and 2-10°) in predicting an acceptable range (neutral ± 3°) for mechanical limb alignment after TKA. We also assessed whether the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment was affected by anatomic variation. This retrospective study included 314 primary TKAs. The alignment of the limb was measured with both anatomic and mechanical methods of measurement. We also measured anatomic variation, including the femoral bowing angle, tibial bowing angle, and neck-shaft angle of the femur. All angles were measured on the same full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs. The accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity for each range of anatomic limb alignment were calculated and compared using mechanical limb alignment as the reference standard. The associations between the accuracy of anatomic limb alignment and anatomic variation were also determined. The range of 2-10° for anatomic limb alignment showed the highest accuracy, but it was only 73 % (3-9°, 65 %; 5-10°, 67 %). The specificity of the 2-10° range was 81 %, which was higher than that of the other ranges (3-9°, 69 %; 5-10°, 67 %). However, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict varus malalignment was only 16 % (3-9°, 35 %; 5-10°, 68 %). In addition, the sensitivity of the 2-10° range to predict valgus malalignment was only 43 % (3-9°, 71 %; 5-10°, 43 %). The accuracy of anatomical limb alignment was lower for knees with greater femoral (odds ratio = 1.2) and tibial (odds ratio = 1.2) bowing. Anatomic limb alignment did not accurately predict mechanical limb alignment after TKA, and its accuracy was affected by anatomic variation. Thus, alignment after TKA should be assessed by measuring mechanical alignment rather than anatomic

  19. Relation between film character and wafer alignment: critical alignment issues on HV device for VLSI manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chuan; Lee, Chih-Hsiung; Lin, Hsun-Peng; Peng, Chiou-Shian

    1998-06-01

    Several continuous splits for wafer alignment target topography conditions to improve epitaxy film alignment were applied. The alignment evaluation among former layer pad oxide thickness (250 angstrom - 500 angstrom), drive oxide thickness (6000 angstrom - 10000 angstrom), nitride film thickness (600 angstrom - 1500 angstrom), initial oxide etch (fully wet etch, fully dry etch and dry plus wet etch) will be split to this experiment. Also various epitaxy deposition recipe such as: epitaxy source (SiHCl2 or SiCHCl3) and growth rate (1.3 micrometer/min approximately 2.0 micrometer/min) will be used to optimize the process window for alignment issue. All the reflectance signal and cross section photography of alignment target during NIKON stepper alignment process will be examined. Experimental results show epitaxy recipe plays an important role to wafer alignment. Low growth rate with good performance conformity epitaxy lead to alignment target avoid washout, pattern shift and distortion. All the results (signal monitor and film character) combined with NIKON's stepper standard laser scanning alignment system will be discussed in this paper.

  20. Characterization equipment essential drawing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILSON, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed

  1. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Guénault, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this revised and enlarged second edition of an established text Tony Guénault provides a clear and refreshingly readable introduction to statistical physics, an essential component of any first degree in physics. The treatment itself is self-contained and concentrates on an understanding of the physical ideas, without requiring a high level of mathematical sophistication. A straightforward quantum approach to statistical averaging is adopted from the outset (easier, the author believes, than the classical approach). The initial part of the book is geared towards explaining the equilibrium properties of a simple isolated assembly of particles. Thus, several important topics, for example an ideal spin-½ solid, can be discussed at an early stage. The treatment of gases gives full coverage to Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. Towards the end of the book the student is introduced to a wider viewpoint and new chapters are included on chemical thermodynamics, interactions in, for exam...

  2. Comparison of Lumbosacral Alignment in Geriatric and Non-Geriatric patients suffering low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Burhan Fatih; Berk, Ejder

    2018-01-01

    Lumbosacral alignment is a crucial factor for an appropriate spinal function. Changes in spinal alignment lead to diminished body biomechanics. Additionally, lumbosacral alignment may affect quality of life, sagittal balance and fall risk in elderly. In this study, we aimed to compare lumbosacral alignment in geriatric and non-geriatric patients suffering from low back pain. A total of 202 (120 male and 82 female) patients who visited to physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic with low back pain between January 2017 and August 2017 were enrolled in this study. Standing lateral lumbar radiographs were obtained from the electronic hospital database. Lumbar lordosis angle, sacral tilt, lumbosacral angle and lumbosacral disc angle were calculated on lateral standing lumbar radiographs. The mean age of the non-geriatric group was 43.02 ± 13.20 years, the geriatric group was 71.61 ± 6.42 years. In geriatric patients, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral tilt and lumbosacral disc angle were significantly smaller (p = 0.042, p = 0.017 and p = 0.017). No significant differences were observed in lumbosacral angle between the groups (p = 0.508). Our study indicates the specific changes in lumbosacral alignment with aging. Identifying these changes in lumbosacral alignment in the geriatric population will enable to create proper rehabilitation strategies.

  3. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  4. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to orthokeratology and alignment lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jennifer D; Holden, Brien A; Papas, Eric B; Willcox, Mark D P

    2009-02-01

    To determine whether contact lenses designed for orthokeratology (OK) are colonized by greater numbers of bacteria compared with standard (alignment fitted) design rigid gas permeable lenses before and after lens wear. Eighteen 1-year-old cats were randomly fitted with an OK lens in one eye and an alignment fitted (AF) lens in the other eye. Both lenses were made in the same diameter and central thickness and of the same material. Two separate wearing periods of 2 weeks and 6 weeks were used. After each wearing period, lenses were soaked in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6294 or 6206) for 10 min. The lenses were then reinserted onto their respective corneas for a wearing period of 16 hours after which lenses were collected and remaining adhered bacteria quantified. Unworn control lenses were also soaked and bacteria enumerated for comparison. There were no significant differences in the number of bacteria adherent to unworn AF and OK lenses. Analysis of lenses after wear showed OK lenses retained significantly higher numbers of viable bacteria than AF lenses in all studies. OK lenses retain more bacteria than AF rigid gas permeable lenses after bacteria-loaded overnight lens wear. This may increase the risk for an infection in OK patients should suitable conditions be present. Specific education on the cleaning of OK lenses is essential.

  5. Band alignment measurements at heterojunction interfaces in layered thin film solar cells & thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Public awareness of the increasing energy crisis and the related serious environmental concerns has led to a significantly growing demand for alternative clean and renewable energy resources. Thin film are widely applied in multiple renewable energy devices owing to the reduced amount of raw materials and increase flexibility of choosing from low-cost candidates, which translates directly into reduced capital cost. This is a key driving force to make renewable technology competitive in the energy market. This thesis is focused on the measurement of energy level alignments at interfaces of thin film structures for renewable energy applications. There are two primary foci: II -VI semiconductor ZnSe/ZnTe thin film solar cells and Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 thin film structures for thermoelectric applications. In both cases, the electronic structure and energy band alignment at interfaces usually controls the carrier transport behavior and determines the quality of the device. High-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (lab-based XPS & synchrotron-based UPS) was used to investigate the chemical and electronic properties of epitaxial Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films, in order to validate the anticipated band alignment at interfaces in Bi 2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices as one favoring electron-transmission. A simple, thorough two-step treatment of a chemical etching in dilute hydrochloric acid solution and a subsequent annealing at ˜150°C under ultra-high vacuum environment is established to remove the surface oxides completely. It is an essential step to ensure the measurements on electronic states are acquired on stoichimetric, oxide-free clean surface of Bi 2Te3 and Sb2Te3 films. The direct measurement of valence band offsets (VBO) at a real Sb 2Te3/Bi2Te3 interface is designed based on the Kraut model; a special stacking film structure is prepared intentionally: sufficiently thin Sb2Te3 film on top of Bi2Te 3 that photoelectrons from both of them are collected simultaneously. From a

  6. Field-aligned currents during northward IMF: Morphology and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Moretto, T.; Rastätter, L.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a global MHD simulation of solar wind magnetosphere interaction during northward IMF. In particular, we emphasize the effect of the IMF B y component on the reconnection geometry and the mapping along field lines to the polar ionosphere, through field-aligned currents. We...... find that the existence and geometry of the polar cap is closely connected to the IMF B y component. During strictly northward IMF the simulated magnetosphere can remain essentially closed because the solar wind field lines reconnect in both hemispheres, thereby creating newly reconnected closed...... exist both on open and closed field lines and are created by the shear of the newly reconnected field lines against the mantle field as they are convected tailward by the solar wind. When the IMF rotates from northward toward east, the magnetospheric mapping regions of the NBZ currents likewise rotates...

  7. A generalized method for alignment of block copolymer films: solvent vapor annealing with soft shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhe; Zhang, Yuanzhong; Groff, Jesse A; Cavicchi, Kevin A; Vogt, Bryan D

    2014-08-28

    One of the key issues associated with the utilization of block copolymer (BCP) thin films in nanoscience and nanotechnology is control of their alignment and orientation over macroscopic dimensions. We have recently reported a method, solvent vapor annealing with soft shear (SVA-SS), for fabricating unidirectional alignment of cylindrical nanostructures. This method is a simple extension of the common SVA process by adhering a flat, crosslinked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) pad to the BCP thin film. The impact of processing parameters, including annealing time, solvent removal rate and the physical properties of the PDMS pad, on the quality of alignment quantified by the Herman's orientational factor (S) is systematically examined for a model system of polystyrene-block-polyisoprene-block-polystyrene (SIS). As annealing time increases, the SIS morphology transitions from isotropic rods to highly aligned cylinders. Decreasing the rate of solvent removal, which impacts the shear rate imposed by the contraction of the PDMS, improves the orientation factor of the cylindrical domains; this suggests the nanostructure alignment is primarily induced by contraction of PDMS during solvent removal. Moreover, the physical properties of the PDMS controlled by the crosslink density impact the orientation factor by tuning its swelling extent during SVA-SS and elastic modulus. Decreasing the PDMS crosslink density increases S; this effect appears to be primarily driven by the changes in the solubility of the SVA-SS solvent in the PDMS. With this understanding of the critical processing parameters, SVA-SS has been successfully applied to align a wide variety of BCPs including polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS), polystyrene-block-poly(N,N-dimethyl-n-octadecylammonium p-styrenesulfonate) (PS-b-PSS-DMODA), polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) and polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinlypyridine) (PS-b-P2VP). These results suggest that SVA-SS is a generalizable

  8. Essential idempotents and simplex codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Chalom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We define essential idempotents in group algebras and use them to prove that every mininmal abelian non-cyclic code is a repetition code. Also we use them to prove that every minimal abelian code is equivalent to a minimal cyclic code of the same length. Finally, we show that a binary cyclic code is simplex if and only if is of length of the form $n=2^k-1$ and is generated by an essential idempotent.

  9. Understating Polarization in the Interstellar Medium Through the Theory of Radiative Torque Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Miranda; Andersson, B.-G.; Kulas, Kristin Rose

    2018-06-01

    Although it is known that the dust grains in the ISM align with magnetic fields, the alignment physics of these particles is still somewhat unclear. Utilizing direct observational data and Radiative Alignment Torque (RAT) theory, further constraints can be put onto this alignment. Due to the physics of this alignment, there is a linear relationship between the extinction of the light seen through a dust cloud (AV) and the wavelength of maximum polarization. A previous study, focusing on the Taurus cloud, found that there is a second, steeper relationship seen beyond an extinction of about four magnitudes, likely due to grain growth, in addition to the original linear relationship. We present early results from observations of low-to-medium extinction lines of sight in the starless cloud L183 (aka L134N), aimed at testing the Taurus results. We are currently extending the survey of stars behind L183 to higher extinctions to better probe the origins of the bifurcation seen in the Taurus results.

  10. Integration of Information Literacy into the Curriculum: Constructive Alignment from Theory into Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Dahlqvist

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Librarian-teacher cooperation is essential for the integration of information literacy into course syllabi. Therefore, a common theoretical and methodological platform is needed. As librarians at Kristianstad University we have had the opportunity to develop such a platform when teaching information literacy in a basic course for teachers in higher education pedagogy. Information literacy is taught in context with academic writing, distance learning and teaching, and development of course syllabi. Constructive Alignment in Theory: We used constructive alignment in designing our part of the course. John Biggs’ ideas tell us that assessment tasks (ATs should be aligned to what is intended to be learned. Intended learning outcomes (ILOs specify teaching/learning activities (TLAs based on the content of learning. TLAs should be designed in ways that enable students to construct knowledge from their own experience. The ILOs for the course are to have arguments for the role of information literacy in higher education and ideas of implementing them in TLAs. The content of learning is for example the concept of information literacy, theoretical perspectives and constructive alignment for integration in course syllabi. TLAs are written pre-lecture reflections on the concept of information literacy, used as a starting point for the three-hour seminar. Learning reflections are written afterwards. The AT is to revise a syllabus (preferably using constructive alignment for a course the teacher is responsible for, where information literacy must be integrated with the other parts and topics of the course. Constructive Alignment in Practice: Using constructive alignment has taught us that this model serves well as the foundation of the theoretical and methodological platform for librarian-teacher cooperation when integrating information literacy in course syllabi. It contains all important aspects of the integration of information literacy in course

  11. Aligning ERP systems with companies' real needs: an `Operational Model Based' method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoghli, Sarra; Goepp, Virginie; Botta-Genoulaz, Valérie

    2017-02-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems offer standard functionalities that have to be configured and customised by a specific company depending on its own requirements. A consistent alignment is therefore an essential success factor of ERP projects. To manage this alignment, an 'Operational Model Based' method is proposed. It is based on the design and the matching of models, and conforms to the modelling views and constructs of the ISO 19439 and 19440 enterprise-modelling standards. It is characterised by: (1) a predefined design and matching order of the models; (2) the formalisation, in terms of modelling constructs, of alignment and misalignment situations; and (3) their association with a set of decisions in order to mitigate the misalignment risk. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the alignment management during ERP projects is given. Unlike existing methods, this one includes decisions related to the organisational changes an ERP system can induce, as well as criteria on which the best decision can be based. In this way, it provides effective support and guidance to companies implementing ERP systems, as the alignment process is detailed and structured. The method is applied on the ERP project of a Small and Medium Enterprise, showing that it can be used even in contexts where the ERP project expertise level is low.

  12. Laser alignment of rotating equipment at PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, R.H.

    1994-05-01

    Lateral vibration in direct-drive equipment is usually caused by misalignment. Over the years, because of the need to improve on techniques and ways of working more efficiently, various types of alignment methods have evolved. In the beginning, craftsmen used a straight-edge scale across the coupling with a feeler gauge measuring the misalignment error. This is still preferred today for aligning small couplings. The industry has since decided that alignment of large direct-drive equipment needed a more accurate type of instrumentation. Rim and face is another of the first alignment methods and is used on all sizes of equipment. A disadvantage of the rim and face method is that in most cases the coupling has to be disassembled. This can cause alignment problems when the coupling is reassembled. Also, the rim and face method is not fast enough to work satisfactorily on alignment of thermally hot equipment. Another concern is that the coupling has to be manufactured accurately for correct rim and face readings. Reverse dial alignment is an improvement over the rim and face method, and depending on the operator's experience, this method can be very accurate. A good training program along with field experience will bring the operator to a proper level of proficiency for a successful program. A hand-held computer with reverse dial calculations in memory is a must for job efficiency. An advantage over the rim and face method is that the coupling is not disassembled and remains locked together. Reverse dial instrumentation measures from both shaft center lines, rather than the coupling surface so the machining of the coupling during manufacture is not a major concern

  13. Mango: multiple alignment with N gapped oligos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Li, Ming

    2008-06-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a classical and challenging task. The problem is NP-hard. The full dynamic programming takes too much time. The progressive alignment heuristics adopted by most state-of-the-art works suffer from the "once a gap, always a gap" phenomenon. Is there a radically new way to do multiple sequence alignment? In this paper, we introduce a novel and orthogonal multiple sequence alignment method, using both multiple optimized spaced seeds and new algorithms to handle these seeds efficiently. Our new algorithm processes information of all sequences as a whole and tries to build the alignment vertically, avoiding problems caused by the popular progressive approaches. Because the optimized spaced seeds have proved significantly more sensitive than the consecutive k-mers, the new approach promises to be more accurate and reliable. To validate our new approach, we have implemented MANGO: Multiple Alignment with N Gapped Oligos. Experiments were carried out on large 16S RNA benchmarks, showing that MANGO compares favorably, in both accuracy and speed, against state-of-the-art multiple sequence alignment methods, including ClustalW 1.83, MUSCLE 3.6, MAFFT 5.861, ProbConsRNA 1.11, Dialign 2.2.1, DIALIGN-T 0.2.1, T-Coffee 4.85, POA 2.0, and Kalign 2.0. We have further demonstrated the scalability of MANGO on very large datasets of repeat elements. MANGO can be downloaded at http://www.bioinfo.org.cn/mango/ and is free for academic usage.

  14. The relationship between Business Strategy, IT Strategy and Alignment Capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. A.J.G. Silvius

    2009-01-01

    Aligning business and IT strategy is a prominent area of concern. Organizations that successfully align their business strategy and their IT strategy, outperform their non-aligned peers (Chan et al., 1997). This chapter explores the relationship between business strategy, IT strategy and alignment

  15. What Physical Health Means to Me: Perspectives of People with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Ewart, Stephanie B; Platania-Phung, Chris; Bocking, Julia; Scholz, Brett; Stanton, Robert

    2016-12-01

    There are significant inequalities in physical health and life expectancy between people with and without a mental illness. Understanding perspectives of people with mental illness on personal meanings of physical health is essential to ensuring health services are aligned with consumer understandings, needs, and values. A qualitative exploratory study was undertaken involving focus groups with 31 consumers in The Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Participants were asked: "What does physical health mean to you?" Thematic analysis was applied to interview transcripts. Five themes are discussed, representing different emphases in the meaning of physical health: (1) physical and mental are interconnected, (2) absence of disease, (3) moving the body, (4) struggling for healthy diet, and (5) functioning and participation. Physical pain was a difficulty that arose across these themes. Mental health consumers see physical health as always connected with well-being. Nurses would benefit from been informed by consumer understandings of physical health. In addition, there should be more attention to quality of life measures of people with mental illness as these are more congruent with consumer perspectives on physical health than biomedical measures.

  16. Study and application of micrometric alignment on the prototype girders of the CLIC Two-Beam Module

    CERN Document Server

    Gazis, Nikolaos; Mainaud-Durand, Hélène; Samochkine, Alexandre; Anastasopoulos, Michail

    2011-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), currently under study at CERN, aims at the development of a Multi-TeV e+ e- collider. The micro-precision CLIC RF-structures will have an accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m and will be mounted and aligned on specially developed supporting girders. The girder fabrication constraints are dictated by stringent physics requirements. The micrometric pre-alignment over several kilometers of girders, allow for the CLIC structures to fulfill their acceleration and collision functionality. Study of such girders and their sophisticated alignment method, is a challenging case involving dedicated mechanical design as well as prototype production and experimental testing.

  17. Aligning Physical Therapy practice with Brazil's leading Health priorities: a "call to action" in the 21st century Direcionando a prática da Fisioterapia com as principais prioridades de Saúde no Brasil: uma "chamada para ação" no século XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dornelas de Andrade

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article serves as a "call to action" for physical therapists in the 21st century with special attention to the needs of Brazilians. Compared with evidence-based practice supporting the use of specific interventions, practice that is informed by contemporary societal and Health priorities has seriously lagged behind over recent decades. "The First Physical Therapy Summit on Global Health" held at the 2007 World Congress of the World Confederation of Physical Therapy (WCPT in Canada highlighted the discrepancy between current practice trends globally and contemporary definitions of Physical Therapy (that subsume words such as health, well-being, quality of life, health promotion and prevention; the leading Health priorities within the WCPT regions; the proportions of physical therapists practicing in these priority areas; and the proportions of entry-level Physical Therapy professional education devoted to them. In the 20th century, the profession strived to align itself with societal needs, for example the world wars and poliomyelitis epidemics. Over the past 50 years, lifestyle conditions including ischemic heart disease, smoking-related conditions, hypertension, stroke, obesity, diabetes and cancer have predominated. Despite a remarkable shift from communicable diseases to non-communicable conditions over the past century, the profile of lifestyle conditions within professional practice and education remains low and disproportional to need. This is particularly striking given the unequivocal data in the literature that supports the cost-benefit relationship of noninvasive interventions (primarily Health education and exercise over the short and long-term, with regard to their prevention, "cure" and management. Often the outcomes from these simple inexpensive interventions for lifestyle conditions are superior to drugs and surgery, which are largely used to mitigate signs and symptoms rather than to address underlying causes

  18. Sustainable Survival for adolescents living with HIV: do SDG-aligned provisions reduce potential mortality risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Pantelic, Marija; Orkin, Mark; Toska, Elona; Medley, Sally; Sherr, Lorraine

    2018-02-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present a groundbreaking global development agenda to protect the most vulnerable. Adolescents living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience extreme health vulnerabilities, but we know little about the impacts of SDG-aligned provisions on their health. This study tests associations of provisions aligned with five SDGs with potential mortality risks. Clinical and interview data were gathered from N = 1060 adolescents living with HIV in rural and urban South Africa in 2014 to 2015. All ART-initiated adolescents from 53 government health facilities were identified, and traced in their communities to include those defaulting and lost-to-follow-up. Potential mortality risk was assessed as either: viral suppression failure (1000+ copies/ml) using patient file records, or adolescent self-report of diagnosed but untreated tuberculosis or symptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis. SDG-aligned provisions were measured through adolescent interviews. Provisions aligned with SDGs 1&2 (no poverty and zero hunger) were operationalized as access to basic necessities, social protection and food security; An SDG 3-aligned provision (ensure healthy lives) was having a healthy primary caregiver; An SDG 8-aligned provision (employment for all) was employment of a household member; An SDG 16-aligned provision (protection from violence) was protection from physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Research partners included the South African national government, UNICEF and Pediatric and Adolescent Treatment for Africa. 20.8% of adolescents living with HIV had potential mortality risk - i.e. viral suppression failure, symptomatic untreated TB, or both. All SDG-aligned provisions were significantly associated with reduced potential mortality risk: SDG 1&2 (OR 0.599 CI 0.361 to 0.994); SDG 3 (OR 0.577 CI 0.411 to 0.808); SDG 8 (OR 0.602 CI 0.440 to 0.823) and SDG 16 (OR 0.686 CI 0.505 to 0.933). Access to multiple SDG-aligned provisions showed a

  19. Multiple network alignment on quantum computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-01

    Comparative analyses of graph-structured datasets underly diverse problems. Examples of these problems include identification of conserved functional components (biochemical interactions) across species, structural similarity of large biomolecules, and recurring patterns of interactions in social networks. A large class of such analyses methods quantify the topological similarity of nodes across networks. The resulting correspondence of nodes across networks, also called node alignment, can be used to identify invariant subgraphs across the input graphs. Given graphs as input, alignment algorithms use topological information to assign a similarity score to each -tuple of nodes, with elements (nodes) drawn from each of the input graphs. Nodes are considered similar if their neighbors are also similar. An alternate, equivalent view of these network alignment algorithms is to consider the Kronecker product of the input graphs and to identify high-ranked nodes in the Kronecker product graph. Conventional methods such as PageRank and HITS (Hypertext-Induced Topic Selection) can be used for this purpose. These methods typically require computation of the principal eigenvector of a suitably modified Kronecker product matrix of the input graphs. We adopt this alternate view of the problem to address the problem of multiple network alignment. Using the phase estimation algorithm, we show that the multiple network alignment problem can be efficiently solved on quantum computers. We characterize the accuracy and performance of our method and show that it can deliver exponential speedups over conventional (non-quantum) methods.

  20. Evolution of shiva laser alignment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.D.

    1980-07-01

    The Shiva oscillator pulse is preamplified and divided into twenty beams. Each beam is then amplified, spatially filtered, directed, and focused onto a target a few hundred micrometers in size producing optical intensities up to 10 16 W/cm 2 . The laser was designed and built with three automatic alignment systems: the oscillator alignment system, which aligns each of the laser's three oscillators to a reference beamline; the chain input pointing system, which points each beam into its respective chain; and the chain output pointing, focusing and centering system which points, centers and focuses the beam onto the target. Recently the alignment of the laser's one hundred twenty spatial filter pinholes was also automated. This system uses digitized video images of back-illuminated pinholes and computer analysis to determine current positions. The offset of each current position from a desired center point is then translated into stepper motor commands and the pinhole is moved the proper distance. While motors for one pinhole are moving, the system can digitize, analyze, and send commands to other motors, allowing the system to efficiently align several pinholes in parallel