WorldWideScience

Sample records for alignment environmental impact

  1. The Rail Alignment Environmental Impact Statement: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sweeney

    2005-01-20

    mostly rail scenario, the DOE would rely on a combination of rail, truck and possibly barge to transport to the repository site at Yucca Mountain up to 70,000 MTHM of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, with most of the spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste being transported by rail. This will ultimately require construction of a rail line in Nevada to the repository. In addition, the DOE has decided to select the Caliente rail corridor in which to examine potential alignments within which to construct that rail line. A corridor is a strip of land, approximately 400 meters (0.25 miles) wide, that encompasses one of several possible routes through which DOE could build a rail line. An alignment is the specific location of a rail line in a corridor, and would likely be 60 meters [200 feet] or less in width. Also on April 8, 2004, DOE issued a Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Alignment, Construction, and Operation of a Rail Line to a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, NV. In the Notice of Intent, the Department announced its intent to prepare a Rail Alignment EIS to assist in selecting a possible alignment for construction of a rail line that would connect the repository at Yucca Mountain to an existing main rail line in Nevada. The Rail Alignment EIS also would consider the potential construction and operation of a rail-to-truck intermodal transfer facility, proposed to be located at the confluence of an existing mainline railroad and a highway, to support legal-weight truck transportation until the rail system is fully operational. This corridor is approximately 513 kilometers (319 miles) long and would cost an estimated $880 million (2001 dollars). Should DOE decide to build the Caliente corridor, it may be the longest rail line built in the United States since the Transcontinental Railroad was constructed in 1869. Some of the challenges in building this rail corridor are steep grades

  2. Galaxy alignments: Observations and impact on cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, Donnacha; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kitching, Thomas D; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Sifón, Cristóbal; Cacciato, Marcello; Choi, Ami; Kiessling, Alina; Leonard, Adrienne; Rassat, Anais; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy shapes are not randomly oriented, rather they are statistically aligned in a way that can depend on formation environment, history and galaxy type. Studying the alignment of galaxies can therefore deliver important information about the astrophysics of galaxy formation and evolution as well as the growth of structure in the Universe. In this review paper we summarise key measurements of intrinsic alignments, divided by galaxy type, scale and environment. We also cover the statistics and formalism necessary to understand the observations in the literature. With the emergence of weak gravitational lensing as a precision probe of cosmology, galaxy alignments took on an added importance because they can mimic cosmic shear, the effect of gravitational lensing by large-scale structure on observed galaxy shapes. This makes intrinsic alignments an important systematic effect in weak lensing studies. We quantify the impact of intrinsic alignments on cosmic shear surveys and finish by reviewing practical mitigat...

  3. 78 FR 13082 - Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental...: The Bureau of Reclamation has made available for public review and comment the draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS/EIS) for the...

  4. Environmental impact report (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  5. Impact of Baryonic Physics on Intrinsic Alignments

    CERN Document Server

    Tenneti, Ananth; Feng, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and AGN feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of "MassiveBlack-II" family. Using smaller volume simulations, we explored the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and found remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  6. Impact of Baryonic Physics on Intrinsic Alignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneti, Ananth; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Feng, Yu

    2017-01-01

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of the “MassiveBlack-II” family. Using smaller-volume simulations, we explore the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and find remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  7. Impact of Baryonic Physics on Intrinsic Alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenneti, Ananth [Carnegie Mellon U.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Fermilab; Feng, Yu [UC, Berkeley

    2016-07-24

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and AGN feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of "MassiveBlack-II" family. Using smaller volume simulations, we explored the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and found remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  8. 76 FR 62442 - Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for Upper Truckee River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for Upper Truckee.... ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact... publication of the final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. ADDRESSES: The...

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  10. Environment and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Fátima Victor Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows what can be environmental impacts and how those happen, both by the actions made by human kind and by natural disasters. Another concern of the research is the unstoppable incident of the natural resources destruction, result f the globalization actions and the economy, and that the environment impacts have happen in every direction, independently of the geographic scale, harming the life in earth, without giving importance who is the target. The article made reference to incidents because of the disorder of the environment, the consequences of rural exodus, the improper tourism, and which actions to solve this problem have not been enough. With reference to sustainable development, it is waited that everyone can live under environmental, social and economical equilibrium, and also has reasonable habit, being sensible to the conservation of the environmental practice. The article emphasizes the values as a need in the equilibrium of sustainability, and even made reference to the lost of the country in the sustainable development and that Brazil could have more interest by the cause, mainly in the managing in the use of pesticides e fungicides in agriculture. The concern with the globalized economy is a radical change which the developing countries are facing. The cause affects of pollutions resulting in health problems. The danger that humanity faces with its own action, as predatory fishing, causing aquatic disorder and the invasion of commerce in the area of permanent conservation.

  11. Aligning Heart Intelligence for Strategic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, George; Walsh, Barbara; Drendall, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    believe you can't improve what you can't measure. We now had a tool that could measure progress in managing personal and work-related stress. This opened the door in 2002 to a formal partnership with HeartMath as the experts on “The Power to Change Performance.” We offered workshops on a twice-monthly basis; participants volunteered to attend. Pleased with the number of registrants, we realized we were only touching the tip of the iceberg. Soon after, HeartMath created the POQA, which gave us another measure of the workshops' impact. We finally had the combination of assessment tools to guarantee progress and scientific rigor for our journey. Results: Two events ignited our Coherence Journey: (1) implementation of the Baron EQ-I assessment for leaders (2005); among the strong predictors of success are stress management and general mood and (2) HeartMath introduced Transforming Stress (2008) to our executive leadership team. As our champions, these team members enlisted their teams in learning the skills. Conclusion: We reached more than 900 individuals and continue to offer a variety of learning formats. We adapt to the pressures our healthcare associates experience in these changing times. Coherence is the heart of our healing environment.

  12. 78 FR 54906 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement... Coachella Valley Conservation Commission (CVCC), has prepared a joint draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement (draft Supplemental EIR/EIS) under the...

  13. 78 FR 14117 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass... Water Resources intend to prepare an environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report (EIS... addressed in the environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report: 1. March 14, 2013, 1:30-3:30...

  14. Environmental Impacts - Coastal Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.P.; Baas, Andreas C.W.; Bartholdy, Jesper; Jones, Laurence; Ruessink, B.G.; Temmerman, Stijn; van de Pol, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the impacts of climate change on the natural coastal ecosystems in the North Sea region. These comprise sandy shores and dunes and salt marshes in estuaries and along the coast. The chapter starts by describing the characteristic geomorphological features of these systems and t

  15. The Impact of National Cultures on Business & IT Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvius, A.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Aligning IT to business needs is still one of the most important concerns for senior management. The message of Business & IT Alignment (BIA) is logical and undisputed, but implementation apparently difficult. As part of a research program on the differences between the theory and practice of BIA th

  16. Irrigated agriculture and environmental sustainability: an alignment perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül; Bressers, J.T.A.; Coenen, F.H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a key policy issue in many countries since it is the major user of water and land resources while it also threatens environmental sustainability due to the overexploitation, degradation and pollution of water and soil resources. Given its cross-cutting, unstructured and rele

  17. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  18. The impact of shared domain knowledge on strategic information systems planning and alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simla Maharaj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of alignment or harmony between information technology (IT and business imperatives continues to plague organisations despite decades of research. Strategic information systems planning (SISP is the process of coordinating the relationship between IT and the business in order to steer alignment. Shared domain knowledge (SDK is a factor that is posited as important for improving both SISP and alignment, which is theorised to be the main outcome of SISP. Objectives: The aim of this article is to examine the impact of SDK on SISP and alignment. Method: Data were gathered from management consultants in a large, global IT organisation, through the use of a structured questionnaire, and analysed. Results: It was shown that SDK positively influences SISP characteristics and the alignment outcome. Specifically, it was found that high levels of rationality in SISP positively influenced the intellectual dimension of alignment, whilst IT manager participation in business planning influenced the social dimension of alignment. SDK was found to have a bearing on all of the SISP characteristics measured (i.e. rationality, adaptation, business planning-SISP integration and IT manager participation in business planning. SDK was also found to positively impact both the intellectual and social dimensions of alignment.Conclusion: The implications of the findings are that fostering a knowledge sharing environment in organisations will help improve alignment, as well as the formal processes designed to steer alignment such as SISP.

  19. 78 FR 5837 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report on the Sacramento...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report on the... plans to continue work on a joint environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR... (68 FR 44811). Dated: December 11, 2012. Anastasia T. Leigh, Regional Environmental Officer,...

  20. 77 FR 45652 - Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the San Joaquin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the... prepared a joint Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (Final PEIS/R...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act and the...

  1. 76 FR 55703 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report and Notice of Public Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report and Notice of... public review and comment the joint draft environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report... meetings regarding the project's environmental effects. The meetings will be held on September 22,...

  2. The impact of single substitutions on multiple sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaere, Steffen; Gesell, Tanja; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2008-12-27

    We introduce another view of sequence evolution. Contrary to other approaches, we model the substitution process in two steps. First we assume (arbitrary) scaled branch lengths on a given phylogenetic tree. Second we allocate a Poisson distributed number of substitutions on the branches. The probability to place a mutation on a branch is proportional to its relative branch length. More importantly, the action of a single mutation on an alignment column is described by a doubly stochastic matrix, the so-called one-step mutation matrix. This matrix leads to analytical formulae for the posterior probability distribution of the number of substitutions for an alignment column.

  3. Impact of Information Technology Governance Structures on Strategic Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Fitzroy R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the relationship between Information Technology (IT) strategic alignment and IT governance structure within the organization. This dissertation replicates Asante (2010) among a different population where the prior results continue to hold, the non-experimental approach explored two research questions but include two…

  4. Information Assurance Alignment: A Study of Performance Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezal, Said

    2011-01-01

    The positive effect on performance of the alignment between a business strategy and its different functional strategies has a wide support in the literature. As an emerging functional area, information assurance has come to play a strategic role by providing all departments and functions across an organization with a reliable, safe, and efficient…

  5. 78 FR 32269 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Klamath Facilities Removal AGENCY: Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance... Department of Fish and Wildlife have prepared a final environmental impact statement and environmental...

  6. 76 FR 80346 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Proposed Berths 302-306 American President Lines (APL) Container... of Los Angeles, has completed a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

  7. 75 FR 80068 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Report/Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Report/ Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern California Edison Eldorado-Ivanpah Transmission Project... (CPUC) have prepared a Final Environmental Impact Report (EIR)/Final Environmental Impact Statement...

  8. Environmental Impact of Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Brînzã Georgiana

    2012-01-01

    In this research we create a method to transform the savings/ decrease in CO2 into quality increase in physical distribution. And the method consists in finding the right allocation of environmental impact (in terms of CO2 amount) from the distribution activity to every end product. We need to observe and calculate the amount of CO2 in order to know how much CO2 needs to be allocated to every product. The mechanism consists in offering to end-customers the possibility of selecting the distrib...

  9. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  10. 78 FR 68860 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Stateline Solar Farm and Proposed California Desert Conservation... Impact Statement (EIS) and Draft Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the Stateline Solar Farm...

  11. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  12. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  13. 75 FR 47796 - Availability of the Draft Joint Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Availability of the Draft Joint Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the San Clemente Shoreline Feasibility Study in San Clemente, CA AGENCY... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (Draft EIS/EIR) for the San Clemente Shoreline Feasibility Study....

  14. Environmental impact prediction using remote sensing images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pezhman ROUDGARMI; Masoud MONAVARI; Jahangir FEGHHI; Jafar NOURI; Nematollah KHORASANI

    2008-01-01

    Environmental impact prediction is an important step in many environmental studies. Awide variety of methods have been developed in this concern. During this study, remote sensing images were used for environmental impact prediction in Robatkarim area, Iran, during the years of 2005~2007. It was assumed that environmental impact could be predicted using time series satellite imageries. Natural vegetation cover was chosen as a main environmental element and a case study. Environmental impacts of the regional development on natural vegetation of the area were investigated considering the changes occurred on the extent of natural vegetation cover and the amount of biomass. Vegetation data, land use and land cover classes (as activity factors) within several years were prepared using satellite images. The amount ofbiomass was measured by Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) based on satellite images. The resulted biomass estimates were tested by the paired samples t-test method. No significant difference was observed between the average biomass of estimated and control samples at the 5% significance level. Finally, regression models were used for the environmental impacts prediction. All obtained regression models for prediction of impacts on natural vegetation cover show values over 0.9 for both correlation coefficient and R-squared. According to the resulted methodology, the prediction models of projects and plans impacts can also be developed for other environmental elements which may be derived using time series remote sensing images.

  15. THE IMPACT OF PILATES EXERCISES ON THE POSTURAL ALIGNMENT OF HEALTHY ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Krawczky

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Exercises of Pilates method have been widely used to improve postural alignment. There is strong evidence favoring their use in improving flexibility and balance, as well as some evidence of improvement in muscle strength. However, the benefits related to posture are not well established. Objective: To investigate in healthy adults, the impact of the Pilates method in the postural alignment through some angles in the sagittal plane and the occurrence of pain before and after an exercise session, and after the completion of a 16-session program. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study of pre and post-intervention type. Healthy adults (n = 37 interested in starting Pilates were evaluated for acute effects on posture after a Pilates session (n = 37 and after a 16-session program, for a period of 10 weeks (n = 13. Using the postural assessment software (SAPO, six angles were analyzed: head horizontal alignment (HHA, pelvis horizontal alignment (PHA, hip angle (HA, vertical alignment of the body (VAB, thoracic kyphosis (TK, and lumbar lordosis (LL. The occurrence of pain was investigated to control adverse effects. Results: Statistically significant (p<0.05 differences found after one session include increased HHA (left view, decreased VAB (left view and TK (both side views. After 16 sessions, we observed an increase of HHA, and a decrease of TK, LL (both side views and HA (right view. All the differences point to an improvement of postural alignment. A significant reduction of prevalence of pain was verified after the first session (40.5% vs. 13.5%; p=0.004 and after the full program (30.8% vs. 15.3%; p=0.02. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the Pilates method has a positive impact on postural alignment in healthy adults, besides being a safe exercise.

  16. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics.

  17. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  18. Microbiome structure of the fungid coral Ctenactis echinata aligns with environmental differences

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2015-06-19

    The significance of bacteria for eukaryotic functioning is increasingly recognized. Coral reef ecosystems critically rely on the relationship between coral hosts and their intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates, but the role of the associated bacteria remains largely theoretical. Here, we set out to relate coral-associated bacterial communities of the fungid host species Ctenactis echinata to environmental settings (geographic location, substrate cover, summer/winter, nutrient and suspended matter concentrations) and coral host abundance. We show that bacterial diversity of C. echinata aligns with ecological differences between sites and that coral colonies sampled at the species’ preferred habitats are primarily structured by one bacterial taxon (genus Endozoicomonas) representing more than 60% of all bacteria. In contrast, host microbiomes from lower populated coral habitats are less structured and more diverse. Our study demonstrates that the content and structure of the coral microbiome aligns with environmental differences and denotes habitat adequacy. Availability of a range of coral host habitats might be important for the conservation of distinct microbiome structures and diversity.

  19. 78 FR 23953 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass.... We published the notice of intent in the Federal Register on March 4, 2013 (78 FR 14117). The public.... Dated: March 29, 2013. Russell W. Grimes, Chief, Environmental Compliance and Conservation Branch,...

  20. 77 FR 46427 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/DEIR) for Proposed Aggregate Terminal Project on Pier D in the... Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), the Port will serve as the Lead Agency for the preparation of an EIR for...

  1. Environmental Impact of Fuel Cell Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, N.T.; Day, M.J. [Rolls-Royce Strategic Research Centre, PO Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Brandon, N.P. [T.H.Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Shemilt, J.E. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Fuel Cells potentially offer environmental benefits when compared to conventional technology but it is important to consider the full environmental impact including the manufacturing and disposal steps. This paper describes a case study that compares the energy requirements for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell fabrication routes. The results show that that, when compared to the benefits during use, the associated environmental impact is relatively small. Therefore the choice of manufacturing routes will have little effect on the overall advantage of implementing Fuel Cell systems. The total environmental impact of fuel cell fabrication will also include the production of materials. This could contribute a large share of the total environmental burden, however it could be minimised by adopting a design that allows the materials to be recycled in an efficient manner. (author)

  2. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  3. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  4. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared......This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...

  5. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  6. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlson, Mårten, E-mail: mkarlso@kth.se; Mörtberg, Ulla, E-mail: mortberg@kth.se; Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  7. Designing environmental research for impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C A; Lefroy, E C; Caddy-Retalic, S; Bax, N; Doherty, P J; Douglas, M M; Johnson, D; Possingham, H P; Specht, A; Tarte, D; West, J

    2015-11-15

    Transdisciplinary research, involving close collaboration between researchers and the users of research, has been a feature of environmental problem solving for several decades, often spurred by the need to find negotiated outcomes to intractable problems. In 2005, the Australian government allocated funding to its environment portfolio for public good research, which resulted in consecutive four-year programmes (Commonwealth Environmental Research Facilities, National Environmental Research Program). In April 2014, representatives of the funders, researchers and research users associated with these programmes met to reflect on eight years of experience with these collaborative research models. This structured reflection concluded that successful multi-institutional transdisciplinary research is necessarily a joint enterprise between funding agencies, researchers and the end users of research. The design and governance of research programmes need to explicitly recognise shared accountabilities among the participants, while respecting the different perspectives of each group. Experience shows that traditional incentive systems for academic researchers, current trends in public sector management, and loose organisation of many end users, work against sustained transdisciplinary research on intractable problems, which require continuity and adaptive learning by all three parties. The likelihood of research influencing and improving environmental policy and management is maximised when researchers, funders and research users have shared goals; there is sufficient continuity of personnel to build trust and sustain dialogue throughout the research process from issue scoping to application of findings; and there is sufficient flexibility in the funding, structure and operation of transdisciplinary research initiatives to enable the enterprise to assimilate and respond to new knowledge and situations.

  8. Alignment of palatally impacted canine with open window technique and modified K-9 spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Shastri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient was an 18-year-old female who had an Angle Class I malocclusion with a left palatally impacted maxillary canine. The orthodontic treatment of a palatally impacted canine is aimed at bringing the tooth into its correct position in the dental arch without causing any periodontal damage. To achieve this goal, a variety of surgical and orthodontic techniques have been proposed in relation to the position of the impacted tooth and there are various treatment methods used for traction. The duration of the traction was 3 months and alignment duration was 12 months the total treatment time was 15 months. In the following case, we presented that maxillary palatally impacted canine was brought into the arch with open window method for canine exposure and modified K-9 spring for traction, that is simple spring for orthodontic traction of the palatally impacted canines.

  9. Environmental impact of Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    The explosion of a supernovae (SN) represents the sudden injection of about 10^51 ergs of thermal and mechanical energy in a small region of space, causing the formation of powerful shock waves that propagate through the interstellar medium at speeds of several thousands of km/s. These waves sweep, compress and heat the interstellar material that they encounter, forming the supernova remnants. Their evolution over thousands of years change forever, irreversibly, not only the physical but also the chemical properties of a vast region of space that can span hundreds of parsecs. This contribution briefly analyzes the impact of these explosions, discussing the relevance of some phenomena usually associated with SNe and their remnants in the light of recent theoretical and observational results.

  10. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts would result in... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact...

  11. Evidence for unnatural-parity contributions to electron-impact ionization of laser-aligned atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, G. S. J.; Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.; Amami, S.; Madison, D. H.; Pursehouse, J.; Nixon, K. L.; Murray, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    Recent measurements have examined the electron-impact ionization of excited-state laser-aligned Mg atoms. In this work we show that the ionization cross section arising from the geometry where the aligned atom is perpendicular to the scattering plane directly probes the unnatural parity contributions to the ionization amplitude. The contributions from natural parity partial waves cancel exactly in this geometry. Our calculations resolve the discrepancy between the nonzero measured cross sections in this plane and the zero cross section predicted by distorted-wave approaches. We demonstrate that this is a general feature of ionization from p -state targets by additional studies of ionization from excited Ca and Na atoms.

  12. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... in projects with inherent positive effects on climate change? This paper reviews practice, and takes up these questions based on a document study of 19 EIA reports of renewable energy projects in Denmark. The results show that climate change mitigation is included in 18 of the EIA reports reviewed, while...... fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed...

  13. 76 FR 53423 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the Section 408 Permission for the Southport Sacramento River Early... to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) under Section...

  14. 77 FR 54904 - Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Ballona Wetlands Restoration Project at Ballona Creek Within the... a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/EIR) for the...

  15. 77 FR 23670 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Encinitas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Los Angeles District intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Encinitas and Solana Beach Shoreline Protection Project, San Diego County,...

  16. Comprehensive assessment method for environmental impact of railway based on geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小萍; 陈秀方; 马超群; 杨晓宇; 冉茂平; 孟祥定

    2004-01-01

    By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the geographic information system (GIS), a GIS based map overlay method was developed to analyze comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around railway and its impact on the environment, which is adapted for the comprehensive assessment of railway environmental impact and the optimization of railway alignments. The assessment process of the GIS based map overlay method was presented, which includes deciding the system structure and weights of assessment factors, making environmental vulnerability grade maps, and evaluating the alternative alignments comprehensively to obtain the best one. With the GIS functions of spatial analysis, such as overlay analysis and buffer analysis, and functions of handling attribute data, the GIS based map overlay method overcomes the shortcomings of the existing map overlay method and the conclusion is more reasonable. In the end, a detailed case study was illustrated to verify the efficiency of the method.

  17. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  18. The environmental impact of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Barlow, C. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The first generation of wind turbine (WT) blades are now reaching their end of life, signalling the beginning of a large problem for the future. Currently most waste is sent to landfill, which is not an environmentally desirable solution. Awareness of this issue is rising, but no studies have fully assessed the eco impact of WT blades. The present study aims to provide a macroscopic quantitative assessment of the lifetime environmental impact of WT blades. The first stage has been to analyse global data to calculate the amount of WT blade materials consumed in the past. The life cycle environmental impact of a single WT blade has then been estimated using eco data for raw materials, manufacturing processes, transportation, and operation and maintenance processes. For a typical 45.2 meter 1.5 MW blade this is 795 GJ (CO2 footprint 42.1 tonnes), dominated by manufacturing processes and raw materials (96% of the total. Based on the 2014 installed capacity, the total mass of WTB is 78 kt, their energy consumption is 82 TJ and the carbon dioxide footprint is 4.35 Mt. These figures will provide a basis for suggesting possible solutions to reduce WTB environmental impact.

  19. Environmental and social impacts of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Ellis, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The most common reasons for non- technical delays to wind energy projects are local resistance and poor strategic spatial planning. This chapter looks at the environmental and social impacts of wind energy and discusses how the public can gain trust in the public planning and private project...

  20. World aquaculture: environmental impacts and troubleshooting alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  1. Quantitative Assessment of Implicit Environmental Impacts of Construction Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI Xiao-gen; LI Hui-qiang; TANG Li

    2009-01-01

    Assessment system of implicit environmental impacts was established including environmental impact indicator, resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantification of environmental impact indicators is based on the life cycle assessment system of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the evaluation software BEES. Normalization reference values and weights of 12 categories of environmental impacts were identified, and the environmental impact indicators in the phases of raw material extraction, transportation, manufacturing, use and end of life were analyzed. By analyzing the environmental performance of a university refectory as a case study, it is demonstrated that human health, global warming and acidification are the first three environmental impacts in 12 categories. The total implicit environmental impact load per square meter of this project is 18.448×10~(-2) standard human equivalent weight. Moreover, 97.3% of total environmental impacts occur in the phase of raw material extraction.

  2. Environmental impact estimation of mold making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Daeyoung

    Increasing concern of environmental sustainability regarding depletion of natural resources and resulting negative environmental impact has triggered various movements to address these issues. Various regulations about product life cycle have been made and applied to industries. As a result, how to evaluate the environmental impact and how to improve current technologies has become an important issue to product developers. Molds and dies are very generally used manufacturing tools and indispensible parts to the production of many products. However, evaluating environmental impact in mold and die manufacturing is not well understood and not much accepted yet. The objective of this thesis is to provide an effective and straightforward way of environmental analysis for mold and die manufacturing practice. For this, current limitations of existing tools were identified. While conventional life cycle assessment tools provide a lot of life cycle inventories, reliable data is not sufficient for the mold and die manufacturer. Even with comprehensive data input, current LCA tools only provide another comprehensive result which is not directly applicable to problem solving. These issues are critical especially to the mold and die manufacturer with limited resource and time. This thesis addresses the issues based on understanding the needs of mold and die manufacturers. Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is the most frequently used software tool and includes most manufacturing information including the process definition and sometimes geometric modeling. Another important usage of CAM software tools is problem identification by process simulation. Under the virtual environment, possible problems are detected and solved. Environmental impact can be handled in the same manner. To manufacture molds and dies with minimizing the associated environmental impact, possible environmental impact sources must be minimized before the execution in the virtual environment. Molds and dies

  3. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang K

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaizhi Tang,1 Xiong Liu,1 Stacey L Harper,2 Jeffery A Steevens,3 Roger Xu1 1Intelligent Automation, Inc, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 3US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA Abstract: As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake, and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity. To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI. NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS, Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. Keywords: nanomaterial environmental impact, data integration, data management

  4. Environmental Radioactive Impact Associated to Uranium Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One century of uranium mining in Europe and North-America created a legacy of ore mining and milling sites needing rehabilitation for environmental and human safety. In the last decades developments of uranium mining displaced the core of this activity to Australia, Canada and African countries. In the coming years, uranium mining is expected to grow further, in those countries and elsewhere, due to the possible increase of nuclear power production and thus the amount of radioactive and toxic tailing materials will grow. Approach: International radiation protection guidelines and legislation have known recent developments and set the radiation dose limit applied to members of the public at 1 mSv y-1. Taking into account past and present uranium waste management and environmental remediation measures adopted already in some countries, we assessed the implications of enforcing this new dose limit in uranium milling and mining areas. Results: The radioactive impact of uranium mining and milling was illustrated through case studies. Environmental radioactivity monitoring and surveillance carried out in areas impacted by uranium mining and milling industry showed generally that dose limit for members of the public was exceeded. The compliance with this dose limit is nowadays the main goal for environmental remediation programs of legacy sites implemented in European Union countries. Taking into account the new radiation protection regulations, a change is required in mining practices from traditionally reactionary (problem solving to proactive (integrated management and life-cycle approach. Conclusion: A new paradigm in uranium mining should be implemented worldwide to ensure reduced environmental radioactivity impact current and future reduced radiation risk exposure of population.

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  6. Alignment of Healthy Dietary Patterns and Environmental Sustainability: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Miriam E; Hamm, Michael W; Hu, Frank B; Abrams, Steven A; Griffin, Timothy S

    2016-11-01

    To support food security for current and future generations, there is a need to understand the relation between sustainable diets and the health of a population. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated and compared different dietary patterns to better understand which foods and eating patterns have less of an environmental impact while meeting nutritional needs and promoting health. This systematic review (SR) of population-level dietary patterns and food sustainability extends and updates the SR that was conducted by the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, an expert committee commissioned by the federal government to inform dietary guidance as it relates to the committee's original conclusions. In the original SR, 15 studies met the criteria for inclusion; since then, an additional 8 studies have been identified and included. The relations between dietary intake patterns and both health and environmental outcomes were compared across studies, with methodologies that included modeling, life cycle assessment, and land use analysis. Across studies, consistent evidence indicated that a dietary pattern higher in plant-based foods (e.g., vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds, nuts, whole grains) and lower in animal-based foods (especially red meat), as well as lower in total energy, is both healthier and associated with a lesser impact on the environment. This dietary pattern differs from current average consumption patterns in the United States. Our updated SR confirms and strengthens the conclusions of the original US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee SR, which found that adherence to several well-characterized dietary patterns, including vegetarian (with variations) diets, dietary guidelines-related diets, Mediterranean-style diets, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and other sustainable diet scenarios, promotes greater health and has a less negative impact on the environment than current average dietary intakes.

  7. Regional analysis and environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Brocksen, R.W.; Emanuel, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a number of techniques that can be used to assess environmental impacts on a regional scale. Regional methodologies have been developed which examine impacts upon aquatic and terrestrial biota in regions through consideration of changes in land use, land cover, air quality, water resource use, and water quality. Techniques used to assess long-range atmospheric transport, water resources, effects on sensitive forest and animal species, and impacts on man are presented in this paper, along with an optimization approach which serves to integrate the analytical techniques in an overall assessment framework. A brief review of the research approach and certain modeling techniques used within one regional studies program is provided. While it is not an all inclusive report on regional analyses, it does present an illustration of the types of analyses that can be performed on a regional scale.

  8. 77 FR 46790 - Environmental Impact Statement: Dane County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Dane County, WI AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY:...

  9. Stakeholder Pressures, Environmental Impact and Managerial Initiatives of SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    impact was available in Denmark. Consequently, a longitudinal research project was initiated to enlighten the situation. This study investigates environmentally related initiatives taken in response to the perception of stakeholder pressures and the perceived corporate environmental impact. The empirical...

  10. Lifetimes of atmospheric species: Integrating environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Michael J.

    2002-11-01

    The environmental damage caused by atmospheric pollutants is proportional to the duration of their effects. The global impacts of greenhouse gases (as measured by global warming potential) and ozone depleting substances (as measured by ozone depletion potential) have traditionally been calculated using the atmospheric lifetime of the source gas as a quantitative measure of the impact's duration, assuming that the gas quickly reaches a steady-state pattern which decays exponentially according to the lifetime. This assumed behavior obviously does not match the true rise and fall of impacts, particularly secondary ones like ozone depletion, that can be seen in numerical integrations or chemical mode decomposition. Here, the modes decomposition is used to prove that: (a) the steady-state pattern of impacts caused by specified emissions, multiplied by (b) the steady-state lifetime of the source gas for that emission pattern, is exactly equal to (c) the integral of all impacts - independent of the number and atmospheric residence times of secondary impacts.

  11. Environmental impact assessment: An international evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollick, Malcolm

    1986-03-01

    Experiences with environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a number of countries are discussed in the light of both explicit and implicit goals and objectives. Adequate environmental information is not always available to decision makers because of failure to apply EIA to all relevant decisions, the continuing inadequacies of prediction and evaluation techniques, the failure to consider alternatives adequately, and the bias of some EISs. EIA frequently results in changes to proposals and may result in stricter environmental management conditions in some cases, but some people regard it as a failure because it has not stopped development. Generally, EIA leads to better integration of environmental factors into project planning. Open procedures and freedom of information encourage responsiveness to EIA procedures, which can be weakened by discretionary powers and lack of access to the courts by public interest groups. However, legal standing may have side effects that offset its advantages. EIA can encourage cooperation and coordination between agencies but does not ensure them. Similarly, it can have a limited role in coordinating interstate and international policies. In the long term, the success of EIA depends on adequate monitoring, reassessment, and enforcement over the life of the project. EIA has generally opened up new opportunities for public participation, and may help to reduce conflict. EIA procedures need to be integrated with other environmental protection and development control programs, and various means exist for reducing its cost to developers and the public.

  12. 75 FR 26272 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite National Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite... Environmental Impact Statement for development of a new environmental education center in Yosemite National Park... practical the NPS will begin to implement development of a new environmental education center at...

  13. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  14. Philippine Environmental Impact Assessment, Mining and Genuine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Ingelson, William Holden & Meriam Bravante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Genuine development reflects sustainability. To promote genuine development in the context of mining, the environmental impact assessment process in the Philippines needs to be changed to respect ecological integrity, mitigate cumulative environmental effects, provide more information on environmental impacts to residents affected by a proposed mine and facilitate meaningful public participation in the impact assessment process.

  15. Identification and alignment of strategic indicators for socio-environmental quality - Case Fosfértil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barbosa Vianna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the quality indicators that are aligned with competitive sustainable strategies. It is a case study, with exploratory character, that analyzes the implemented processes: 5S, QMS, certifications ISO 9000 and 14000 and MIS.The results bring indicators that favor the alignment of products and processes to the strategical objectives to be integrated in a general management plan. Some results and benefits of the evaluation method that use Indicators are also discussed.

  16. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CSREES official specified in § 3407.4(b) that the changes are pertinent to environmental concerns, a... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.11 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving...

  17. 14 CFR 1216.315 - Processing legislative environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legislative environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.315 Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (a) Preparation of a...

  18. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/.

  19. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  20. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  1. Environmental impact and management of phosphogypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayibi, Hanan; Choura, Mohamed; López, Félix A; Alguacil, Francisco J; López-Delgado, Aurora

    2009-06-01

    The production of phosphoric acid from natural phosphate rock by the wet process gives rise to an industrial by-product called phosphogypsum (PG). About 5 tons of PG are generated per ton of phosphoric acid production, and worldwide PG generation is estimated to be around 100-280 Mt per year. This by-product is mostly disposed of without any treatment, usually by dumping in large stockpiles. These are generally located in coastal areas close to phosphoric acid plants, where they occupy large land areas and cause serious environmental damage. PG is mainly composed of gypsum but also contains a high level of impurities such as phosphates, fluorides and sulphates, naturally occurring radionuclides, heavy metals, and other trace elements. All of this adds up to a negative environmental impact and many restrictions on PG applications. Up to 15% of world PG production is used to make building materials, as a soil amendment and as a set controller in the manufacture of Portland cement; uses that have been banned in most countries. The USEPA has classified PG as a "Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material" (TENORM). This work reviews the different environmental impacts associated with PG storage and disposal. The methods described in the literature to minimise the negative effects of this waste are classified by treatment type, i.e. physical, chemical, thermal, etc., and different suggested applications for PG are detailed.

  2. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  3. The impact of intrinsic alignment on current and future cosmic shear surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Elisabeth; Blazek, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic alignment (IA) of source galaxies is one of the major astrophysical systematics for ongoing and future weak lensing surveys. This paper presents the first forecasts of the impact of IA on cosmic shear measurements for current and future surveys (DES, Euclid, LSST, WFIRST) using simulated likelihood analyses and realistic covariances that include higher-order moments of the density field in the computation. We consider a range of possible IA scenarios and test mitigation schemes, which parameterize IA by the fraction of red galaxies, normalization, luminosity and redshift dependence of the IA signal (for a subset we consider joint IA and photo-z uncertainties). Compared to previous studies we find smaller biases in time-dependent dark energy models if IA is ignored in the analysis; the amplitude and significance of these biases vary as a function of survey properties (depth, statistical uncertainties), luminosity function, and IA scenario: Due to its small statistical errors and relatively shallow ob...

  4. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  5. Environmental impact of used motor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R.

    1989-02-01

    The information concerning the effects of used motor oil on the environment is reviewed. The production and fate of used motor oil are analyzed and the effects on soil and aquatic organisms are described. The combustion of waste crankcase oil, with particular reference to environmental impact, is discussed. The mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of used motor oil are described. Information on the biodegradation of lubricating motor oil is also reviewed. The available information shows that used motor oil is a very dangerous polluting product. As a consequence of its chemical composition, world-wide dispersion and effects on the environment, used motor oil must be considered a serious environmental problem. 3 tabs., 114 refs.

  6. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession......Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era......, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach...

  7. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  8. 75 FR 21252 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Department of the Army; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for Phase 3 of Reclamation District No. 17 100-Year Levee Seepage... statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for Phase 3 of Reclamation District No. 17's (RD 17)...

  9. 77 FR 43575 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Ballona Wetlands Restoration Project at Ballona Creek Within the.../Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/EIR) for the proposed Ballona Wetlands Restoration Project. The...

  10. Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Department of Fish and Game. The Rincon Indian Reservation also commented. Agencies expressed concern for biological, cultural, and water resources...Environmental Impact Statement 49 Figure 12. Vegetative Provinces of the Sonoran Desert. SO U RC E : Shreve & W igg ins, 1964 Needles Yum a San Luis ...County 76,205 106,895 119,650 Major Communities San Luis 1,946 4,212 7,910 Somerton 3,969 5,282 5,970 Wellton 911 1,066 1,075 Yuma 42,481 54,923 60,150

  11. Alignment of business and information strategies and its impact on business performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Björn; Sudzina, Frantisek; Pucihar, Andreja

    2014-01-01

    people perceived their business strategy and information strategy to be aligned. Respondents’ statements from the questionnaire survey on their perceived alignment between business strategy and information strategy were checked against the firms’ revenue growth. The analysis of perceived alignment...... between business strategy, information strategy, and revenue growth shows that there is a significant relationship between alignment and revenue growth in Slovenia, and this link is positive. Managers should aim to align business and information strategies in order to achieve better business performance.......Alignment between business strategy and information strategy has been focused on for several years with research suggesting different explanations to how this alignment influences a firm’s performance. This article presents results from an investigation of firms in Slovenia about how business...

  12. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.136 Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND...

  13. Use of environmental impacts in sensor scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Peter J.; Gioioso, Marisa; Snell, Hilary E.

    2010-04-01

    Current surveillance systems operate in a highly dynamic environment in which large numbers of sensors on board multiple platforms must cooperate in order to achieve overall mission success. In an attempt to maximize sensor performance, today's sensors employ rudimentary or, in some cases, inflexible sensor tasking schemes. These approaches are highly tuned to a specific scenario and geometry and are inflexible to changes in the mission, environmental conditions, heterogeneous sensors, and different system architectures. As the complexity of the problem space increases and new sensors become available, it is critical to have a sensor management scheme that is capable of incorporating new environmental knowledge, new sensors and different systems approaches with minimal computational impact on the overall system. Each system should develop an autonomous sensor tasking capability which factors in global concerns within the complete distributed network of platforms and sensors. Moreover, tasking efficiency can be improved by a highly developed understanding of sensor performance at each point in time. This can be achieved by incorporating the impact of problem geometry - sensor location, track object type and view angle - and weather phenomena, such as clouds, aerosols, turbulence and sun glint. This paper describes our approach for simultaneously optimizing sensor resource management, surveillance objectives, and atmospheric transmission of signals while minimizing sensor and environmental noise. Our approach uses a genetic algorithm to evolve a population of sensor tasking assignments through constantly-updating track locations, weather conditions, and lighting conditions. Preliminary studies demonstrate encouraging improvements in sensor management performance. We will present results from our preliminary studies and discuss a path forward for our technology.

  14. 75 FR 25288 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Report and Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern California Edison Eldorado-Ivanpah Transmission Project... need for the EITP project is to respond to Southern California Edison's (SCE) application for a right.... Authority: 40 CFR 1506.6, 1506.10, and 43 CFR 1610.2 Thomas Pogacnik, Deputy State Director. BILLING...

  15. 76 FR 41817 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Alta East Wind Project, and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Kern... comments on issues and alternatives related to the Alta East Wind Project Draft EIS/EIR and CDCA Plan...), which may include an amendment to the California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan (1980 as...

  16. Quantification of environmental impacts of various energy technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfors, A. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses problems related to economic assessment of the environmental impacts and abatement measures in connection with energy projects. Attention is called to the necessity of assessing environmental impacts both in the form of reduced economic welfare and in the form of costs of abatement measures to reduce the impact. In recent years, several methods for valuing environmental impacts have been developed, but the project shows that few empirical studies have been carried out. The final report indicates that some important factors are very difficult to evaluate. In addition environmental impacts of energy development in Norway vary considerably from project to project. This makes it difficult to obtain a good basis for comparing environmental impacts caused by different technologies, for instance hydroelectric power versus gas power or wind versus hydroelectric power. It might be feasible however to carry out more detailed economic assessments of environmental impacts of specific projects. 33 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. 78 FR 57447 - Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... demand, and congestion that will likely cause environmental degradation and higher safety risks, if not...'s Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545, May 26, 1999), project-level air... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward Program...

  18. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction on... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  19. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of de

  20. 77 FR 20690 - Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico AGENCY... the Interstate 25 and Paseo del Norte Interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Heitmann, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, New Mexico...

  1. Impact of alignment to gravito-inertial force on motion sickness and cardiopulmonary variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In tilting trains partial alignment to the gravito-inertial force (GIF) in the curves seems to be the best tilt compensation to reduce the incidence of motion sickness. We investigated the effect of alignment to the GIF on the development of motion sickness during low-frequency horizon

  2. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method.The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authorsindicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  3. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  4. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  5. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  6. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  7. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  8. Environmental information system for visualizing environmental impact assessment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserny, Angelika; Kovács, Zsófia; Domokos, Endre; Rédey, Akos

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Engineering at the University of Pannonia has undertaken the challenge to develop an online environmental information system. This system is able to receive and process the collected environmental data via Internet. The authors have attached importance to the presentation of the data and have included other comprehensible information for laymen as well in order to work out visualisation techniques that are expressive and attract attention for environmental questions through the developed information system. The ways of visualizing physical and chemical parameters of surface water and the effects of motorway construction were examined.

  9. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  10. Traffic Infrastructure, Environmental Impact and Urban Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilabild Premzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the twentieth centwy motor and railway transport has increasedthe accessibility to goods and people through mobility,flexibility and comfort they provide. The result is generally theimprovement of living standards and beller opportunity forcommercial development of towns and regions as a whole. Theincreased number of vehicles in everyday traffic have increasedthe demand for new traffic infrastructures. A lot has alreadybeen built in open spaces as welt as in urban environment withbad impact on urban shape.Planning and construction of traffic infrastructurethroughout the urban structure is neither merely a11 engineeringnor just an aesthetic issue when integrating a new highway, freewayor railway into an urban environment. It is especially, if notprimarily, an issue of urban design. This means joint efforts ofengineering design and both urban and landscape architecturewith focusing sufficient alfention on possible multiple uses ofcommon urban space in good environmental conditions. TheSlovene Long Term Regional Plan, planning and constructionof highways in Slovenia initiated consideration and search foramethodology appropriate for the assessment of suitable layouts,especially in the complex cases of traffic infrastructure passingby or through urban areas. New findings described in this papersupplement the methodological approaches used so far.

  11. 24 CFR 58.37 - Environmental impact statement determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statement determinations. 58.37 Section 58.37 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Classification § 58.37 Environmental impact statement determinations. (a) An EIS is required when the project...

  12. 77 FR 74479 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/03/2012 Through 12/07/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section..., Searchlight Wind Energy Project, NVN-084626 and NVN-086777, Application for Right-of-Way Grant on Public...

  13. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  14. Alternative electrical transmission systems and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    A general description is provided of electrical transmission systems as an aid in determining their environmental impacts. Alternating current, direct current, overhead systems, underground systems, and water crossings are treated. The cost, performance, reliability, safety, and environmental impact of these systems are compared.

  15. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for the 75th Street Corridor Improvement Project, which involves construction of new railroad main tracks, two new rail...

  16. Reduction of the environmental impacts in crystalline silicon module manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we review the most important options to reduce environmental impacts of crystalline silicon modules. We investigate which are the main barriers for implementation of the measure. Finally we review which measures to reduce environmental impacts could also lead to a cost reduction. Reduc

  17. 76 FR 13017 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Los Angeles County, California...), 2241 N. Eastern Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90032. Pasadena--Lake Avenue Church, (4th floor above Harris...

  18. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland); Poroddsson, P. [Skipulagsstofnun (Iceland)

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  19. 77 FR 3545 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Program Environmental Impact Report (PEIR): Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Availability of the Draft Program Environmental Impact Report... (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Draft Program Environmental Impact Report (PEIR... Environmental Impact Report (PEIR), SCH 2011051018, in accordance with the California Environmental Quality...

  20. Impact of fixed orthodontic appliance or clear-aligner on daily performance, in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie; Bhikoo, Chandradev; Guo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA) or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0), 6 months after bonding (T1), and 12 months after bonding (T2). Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner) and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (PFOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (PFOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment. PMID:27616881

  1. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in respe

  2. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  3. Oceanic Impact: Mechanisms and Environmental Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersonde, Rainer (Editor); Deutsch, Alex (Editor); Ivanov, Boris A. (Editor); Kyte, Frank T. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The contents include the following: Oceanic impacts-a growing field of fundamental geoscience. Shock metamorphism on the ocean floor (numerical simulations). Numerical modeling of impact-induced modifications of the deep-sea floor. Computer modelling of the water resurge at a marine impact: the Lockne crater, Sweden. Experimental investigation of the role of water in impact vaporization chemistry. Calcareous plankton stratigraphy around the Pliocene Eltanin asteroid impact area (SE Pacific): documentation and application for geological and paleoceanographic reconstruction. Composition of impact melt debris from the Eltanin impact strewn field, Bellingshausen Sea. Iridium concentrations and abundances of meteoritic ejecta from the Eltanin impact in sediment cores from Polarstern expedition ANT XII/4. Unmelted meteoritic debris collected from Eltanin ejecta in Polarstern cores from expedition ANT XII/4. Impact tsunami-Eltanin. Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America. The Mjolnir marine impact crater porosity anomaly. Kardla (Hiiu-maa Island, Estonia) - the buried and well-preserved Ordovician marine impact structure. Long-term effect of the Kardla crater (Hiiu-maa, Estonia) on Late Ordovician carbonate sedimentation. The middle Devonian Kaluga impact crater (Russia): new interpretation of marine setting.

  4. Environmental impacts of increased hydroelectric development at existing dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Railsback, S. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrich, C. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shaakir-Ali, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watts, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-04-01

    This report describes the environmental impacts of a proposed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to promote the development of hydropower resources at existing dams. Hydropower development at existing dams has, in general, fewer impacts than development of additional fossil-fueled resources or hydropower at new dams, although potential cumulative impacts of developing multiple hydropower projects have not been explicitly addressed. Environmental review of project impacts and mitigation needs can ensure that additional hydropower development at existing dams can provide a renewable resource with fewer impacts than alternative resources.

  5. Impact of carbon nanotube length on electron transport in aligned carbon nanotube networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonyoon; Stein, Itai Y.; Devoe, Mackenzie E.; Lewis, Diana J.; Lachman, Noa; Kessler, Seth S.; Buschhorn, Samuel T.; Wardle, Brian L.

    2015-02-01

    Here, we quantify the electron transport properties of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) networks as a function of the CNT length, where the electrical conductivities may be tuned by up to 10× with anisotropies exceeding 40%. Testing at elevated temperatures demonstrates that the aligned CNT networks have a negative temperature coefficient of resistance, and application of the fluctuation induced tunneling model leads to an activation energy of ≈14 meV for electron tunneling at the CNT-CNT junctions. Since the tunneling activation energy is shown to be independent of both CNT length and orientation, the variation in electron transport is attributed to the number of CNT-CNT junctions an electron must tunnel through during its percolated path, which is proportional to the morphology of the aligned CNT network.

  6. 75 FR 22829 - National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast Guard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) to implement enhanced environmental protection measures, as necessary, for... potential environmental impacts of specific Coast Guard vessel and aircraft operations on MPS and MPAs...

  7. Environmental impacts assessment of industrial estate providing with managerial process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A.H.; Younesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Hashemi, I. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran)

    2007-07-01

    The existence of balance, coordination and required order among natural elements is one of the key factors in the ecosystem. If this balance is disturbed under certain circumstances, it will damage the structure of living existences and more specifically human beings. Since a half century ago, factors such as important economical and industrial activites, advanced technologies together with growing population and lack of concordance among different couhntries to take optimal advantage of the existing natural resources have distrubed the balance in the ecosystem. As a result, man has caused many problems such as high death tolls and arduous diseases due to the different pollutions in water, air, land, sound, temperature, etc and factors such as erosion, desert, expansion, floods, extinction of plant and animal species, ozone layer destruction, global warming, sea level rise and greenhouse gases increase. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is to recognize and assess systematic consequences of projects and programs on elements like physicochemical, biological, cultural, economical and social phenomena in th environment; in other words it is a way or method to determine the direction of predication and assessment of environmental impacts of activities on the environmental health of the ecosystem affecting human lives. In this study, and environmental impact assessment of the establishment of the Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulting from establishment of the indutrial estate were investigated using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the harmful environmental impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done in regard to the amount and kind of predicted pollution for the

  8. Impacts of fixed orthodontic appliance and clear-aligner on daily performance in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin F

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Feiou Lin,1 Linjie Yao,2 Chandradev Bhikoo,1 Jing Guo3 1Department of Orthodontics, 2Department of Pedodontics, School of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Objective: To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods: The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0, 6 months after bonding (T1, and 12 months after bonding (T2. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA. Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results: There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (P<0.05 or P<0.01. However, only OIDP total score was significantly increased at T1 compared to the baseline in the CA group. OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation were significantly higher in patients wearing FOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusion: Patients wearing clear-aligner have fewer impacts on daily life than those wearing FOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment. Keywords: clear-aligner, fixed orthodontic appliance, OIDP, quality of life, oral health

  9. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory...... of material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA...... on the product system sets the frame for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and the bearings it has on current LCIA methodology are described in this paper together with the newest developments within this discipline....

  10. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the applicant seek the Administrator's advice as to form and substance of the assessment for the... environmental effects. The environmental assessment and all documents used as a basis for the assessment shall... and prudent alternative to the use of such land; and (ii) The project includes all planning...

  11. The impact of camera optical alignments on weak lensing measures for the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonik, M. L.; Bacon, D. J.; Bridle, S.; Doel, P.; Brooks, D.; Worswick, S.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, R.; DePoy, D.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gladders, M.; Gutierrez, G.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.; Kent, S. M.; Lahav, O.; Parker, S. -. J.; Roodman, A.; Walker, A. R.

    2013-04-10

    Telescope point spread function (PSF) quality is critical for realizing the potential of cosmic weak lensing observations to constrain dark energy and test general relativity. In this paper, we use quantitative weak gravitational lensing measures to inform the precision of lens optical alignment, with specific reference to the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We compute optics spot diagrams and calculate the shear and flexion of the PSF as a function of position on the focal plane. For perfect optical alignment, we verify the high quality of the DES optical design, finding a maximum PSF contribution to the weak lensing shear of 0.04 near the edge of the focal plane. However, this can be increased by a factor of approximately 3 if the lenses are only just aligned within their maximum specified tolerances. We calculate the E- and B-mode shear and flexion variance as a function of the decentre or tilt of each lens in turn. We find tilt accuracy to be a few times more important than decentre, depending on the lens considered. Finally, we consider the compound effect of decentre and tilt of multiple lenses simultaneously, by sampling from a plausible range of values of each parameter. We find that the compound effect can be around twice as detrimental as when considering any one lens alone. Furthermore, this combined effect changes the conclusions about which lens is most important to align accurately. For DES, the tilt of the first two lenses is the most important.

  12. Environmental and economic impact of alien terrestrial arthropods in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Vaes-Petignat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades abundance and importance of invasive alien species has grown continuously due to the undiminished growth of global trade. In most cases, arthropod introductions were unintended and occurred as hitchhikers or contaminants. Alien arthropods can have significant environmental impacts and can be economically costly. To measure these impacts, we expand the generic impact scoring system initially developed for mammals and birds, and applied it to terrestrial arthropods. The scoring of the 77 most widely distributed arthropod species alien to Europe revealed the mite Varroa destructor as the most harmful species, followed by the Chinese longhorn beetle Anoplophora chinensis and the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. The highest environmental impact is through herbivory, disease transmission, and ecosystem impacts. The highest economic impact is on agriculture and human infrastructure. The generic impact scoring system allows comparing impact scores of vertebrates and arthropods, thus serving as a background for decision making processes of policies and stakeholders.

  13. Determination of Acoustic Effects on Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles for the Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    Mammals and Sea Turtles for the Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement...Mammals and Sea Turtles for the Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement 5a...methodology to estimate acoustic effects on designated marine fauna, which include marine mammals and sea turtles . This report describes the process

  14. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  15. Environmental Impact of Teleworking and Teleshopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    This paper analyses the impact of two ICT applications on the total demand for transport (telework and teleshopping). These applications are selected as they were expected to be among the applications with the highest potential for savings in transport. The analysis indicates that the total impact...... is limited and might be even negative if rebound effects are included, and that the promotion of ICT applications must be accommodated by other measures before a noticeable positive impact on transport behaviour can be achieved....

  16. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  17. An environmental impact causal model for improving the environmental performance of construction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Casals, Alba; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel; Roca Ramon, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing efforts made by the construction sector to reduce the environmental impact of their processes, construction sites are still a major source of pollution and adverse impacts on the environment. This paper aims to improve the understanding of construction-related environmental impacts by identifying on-site causal factors and associated immediate circumstances during construc- tion processes for residential building projects. Based on the literature and focus g...

  18. The innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations on maritime transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Repka, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Maritime transport is facing wide-ranking challenges due to stricter environmental regulations. It has been positioned that these stricter environmental regulations will significantly hamper the competitiveness of the shipping industry and other export/import oriented industries. However......, contrasting views, arguing that environmental regulations will, in fact, enhance firms’ competitiveness by inducing innovation, have also been voiced. Here this issue is examined through a literature review on the innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations (i.e. the Porter Hypothesis......), in general, and the economic impacts of environmental regulations (here Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention) as it applies to shipping in Northern Europe, in particular. According to the review, the literature is still inconclusive and lacks a clear consensus on the economic and innovation inducement impacts...

  19. 78 FR 11593 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ...)). Examples of unusual circumstances include significant environmental impacts, substantial controversy on... is not a term of art that is used in the FTA Emergency Relief Program. The Agencies agree that...

  20. Final Environmental Impact Statement Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This final environmental impact statement identifies the purpose and need for a management plan; outlines the legal foundation for management of the Rocky Mountain...

  1. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal... highway project in Yellowstone County, Montana. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Hasselbach, Right... (I-90) and Old Highway 312 in or near the city of Billings, Yellowstone County, Montana....

  2. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  3. Anticipating the Environmental Impacts and Behavioral Drivers of Deep Decarbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is seeking regular and early career applications proposing research that will contribute to an improved ability to understand and anticipate the public health and environmental impacts and behavioral drivers of significant changes in energy consumption

  4. 75 FR 62627 - Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT AGENCY: Federal Highway... Department of Transportation, Region One Office, 166 West Southwell Street, Ogden, UT 84404-4194,...

  5. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT...

  6. Potential Environmental Impacts of Oil Spills in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report analyses information status and research needs in relation to potential environmental impacts of oil spills (offshore and onshore) in Greenland. The report assesses potential effects and potential mitigation and monitoring measures. Information gaps are identified and a number...

  7. 75 FR 13138 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National Park, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... National Park Service Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National...), the National Park Service is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Ditch...

  8. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National Preserve... to inform preparation of a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  9. 75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne National Park,...

  10. Kinematically complete study on electron impact ionisation of aligned hydrogen molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senftleben, Arne

    2009-10-28

    Within the work presented here, single ionisation of spatially aligned hydrogen molecules by 200 eV electrons was studied in a kinematically complete experiment. For the first time, a comprehensive set of fully differential cross sections (FDCS) was obtained for this process on a molecular target. The direction of the internuclear axis was derived from the fragment emission of post-collision dissociation of the residual H{sub 2}{sup +} ion. Therefore, a protonic fragment was detected in coincidence with the two final-state electrons using a dedicated reaction microscope and sophisticated data analysis. For direct ionisation into the ionic ground state, existing theoretical cross sections for aligned molecules were tested. Additionally, we observed molecular frame angular distributions of Auger electrons emitted through dissociative autoionisation of H{sub 2}. Earlier findings of kinematically incomplete experiments were reproduced, but the FDCS reveal structures so far unknown. Furthermore, for random alignment, differential cross sections at two distinct values of the mean internuclear distance were obtained, providing new arguments in the current discussion on the nature of discrepancies observed between atomic and molecular collisions. (orig.)

  11. The impact of camera optical alignments on weak lensing measures for the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Antonik, Michelle L; Bridle, Sarah; Doel, Peter; Brooks, David; Worswick, Sue; Bernstein, Gary; Bernstein, Rebecca; DePoy, Darren; Flaugher, Brenna; Frieman, Joshua A; Gladders, Michael; Gutierrez, Gaston; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Jarvis, Michael; Kent, Stephen M; Lahav, Ofer; Roodman, Aaron; Walker, Alistair R

    2012-01-01

    Telescope Point Spread Function (PSF) quality is critical for realising the potential of cosmic weak lensing observations to constrain dark energy and test General Relativity. In this paper we use quantitative weak gravitational lensing measures to inform the precision of lens optical alignment, with specific reference to the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We compute optics spot diagrams and calculate the shear and flexion of the PSF as a function of position on the focal plane. For perfect optical alignment we verify the high quality of the DES optical design, finding a maximum PSF contribution to the weak lensing shear of 0.04 near the edge of the focal plane. However this can be increased by a factor of approximately three if the lenses are only just aligned within their maximum specified tolerances. We calculate the E and B-mode shear and flexion variance as a function of de-centre or tilt of each lens in turn. We find tilt accuracy to be a few times more important than de-centre, depending on the lens conside...

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  13. The impact of the member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the fourth enlargement (with Sweden, Austria and Finland) on the European Union's environmental policy. This is done by comparing the priorities and strategies of the newcomers with those of the former environmental pioneers (Germany, Netherlands and Denmark)....

  14. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurance, William F.; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such devel

  15. Small Manufacturing Industries: The Impact of Environmental Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Clare M D'Souza; Roman Peretiatko

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of environmental issues on small Indian enterprises. Due to India's rapid industrialization the environment is now becoming more of a major business concern. This paper compares small with large enterprises to see of there are any differences in the way they approach environmental issues. Small firms in particular, have been encouraged and given due assistance by the Indian government but this policy now conflicts with India's environmental responsibilities as f...

  16. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  17. 76 FR 39436 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) and Notice of Scoping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Trust Assets (if any), air quality/climate change, socioeconomics including impacts to agricultural production, and environmental justice. Special Assistance for Public Meetings If special assistance is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  18. Environmental impacts of products: A detailed review of studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Jansen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects of economic activities are ultimately driven by consumption, via impacts of the production, use, and waste management phases of products and services ultimately consumed. Integrated product policy (IPP) addressing the life-cycle impacts of products forms an innovative new gener

  19. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply...

  20. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  1. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  2. Environmental Effects of Large Impacts on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Teresa L.; Toon, Owen B.; Colaprete, Anthony; Zahnle, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    The martian valley networks formed near the end of the period of heavy bombardment of the inner solar system, about 3.5 billion years ago. The largest impacts produced global blankets of very hot ejecta, ranging in thickness from meters to hundreds of meters. Our simulations indicated that the ejecta warmed the surface, keeping it above the freezing point of water for periods ranging from decades to millennia, depending on impactor size, and caused shallow subsurface or polar ice to evaporate or melt. Large impacts also injected steam into the atmosphere from the craters or from water innate to the impactors. From all sources, a typical 100-, 200-, or 250-kilometers asteroid injected about 2, 9, or 16 meters, respectively, of precipitable water into the atmosphere, which eventually rained out at a rate of about 2 meters per year. The rains from a large impact formed rivers and contributed to recharging aquifers.

  3. Carbon Capture and Sequestration. Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, P.; Santillo, D. [Greenpeace Research Laboratories, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-01

    Over the last few years, understanding of the profound implications of anthropogenically driven climate change has grown. In turn, this has fuelled research into options to mitigate likely impacts. Approaches involving the capture of carbon dioxide and its storage in geological formations, or in marine waters, have generated a raft of proposed solutions. The scale of some of these proposals is such that they will exert impacts of global significance in their own right. Proposals fall into two broad categories: (1) storage of liquid CO2 or products of reacted CO2 into intermediate/deep oceanic waters. and (2) storage of liquid CO2 into sub-seabed or terrestrial geological formations. For the most part, while the technical feasibility of these schemata has been widely explored, the same is not true of their ecological implications. In the case of deep/intermediate oceanic waters, poor baseline understanding of the associated ecosystems is a considerable impediment to any reliable predictive assessment of likely impacts of carbon dioxide storage in these systems. Disruption of marine microbiological processes and degradation of benthic ecosystems, including those with high levels of endemicity, have been identified as potentially serious impacts. Similarly, the physiology, ecology and likely responses of micro-organisms present in targeted geological formations require evaluation prior to any consideration of the use of such formations for storage of CO2. In addition, the impacts of any leakage to surface need also to be considered. Accordingly this paper explores current uncertainties and detailed informational needs related to ocean and geological storage of fossil fuel-derived CO2. Particular emphasis is placed upon the ecological impacts of these proposals in relation to existing and emergent understanding of deep water/soil ecosystems and the indeterminacies attached to this understanding.

  4. Application of graph overlay method to environmental impact assessment of railway noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-ping; YANG Xiao-yu; MA Chao-qun; RAN Mao-ping

    2005-01-01

    The graph overlay method is used to evaluate the noise impact of route alignment and the results can serve as a reference for the route alignment optimal selection. The geographic information system(GIS), with its powerful function of handling attribute data and spatial analysis, is adopted to calculate the noise comprehensive impact area of each alignment. With the graph overlay method, the noise vulnerability and noise impact distribution are both taken into account in the noise impact assessment of route alignment. With GIS, the efficiency of work and the reliability of result are greatly improved. By a combination of them, the noise impact on environment is fully presented in a visual way and the assessment result has vital value in route alignment optimal selection. A detailed case study is illustrated and the efficiency of the method is verified.

  5. (Environmental impact statement on the US Antarctic program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R.M.; Railsback, S.F.; McLean, R.B.

    1989-12-22

    Three staff members from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in a site visit to US Antarctic Program (USAP) facilities at McMurdo Station, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, and remote field and support sites. Interviews were conducted with National Science Foundation, Navy, and ITT/Antarctic Services staff responsible for environmental management functions. The ORNL team visited all facilities at McMurdo Station, three remote field camps, a Navy refueling facility, South Pole Station, and Scott Base (a New Zealand installation). In general, the team found that environmental impacts of the USAP are minor for the Antarctic continent as a whole. Improvements for the handling and disposal of solid wastes and the discharge of wastewaters that have been initiated should help minimize environmental impacts of USAP activities. The information collected during the site visit will be used in a draft supplemental environmental impact statement on the USAP to be published for public review in June 1990.

  6. High-Performance, Low Environmental Impact Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, E. T.; Dhooge, P. M.; Glass, S. M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Refrigerants used in process and facilities systems in the US include R-12, R-22, R-123, R-134a, R-404A, R-410A, R-500, and R-502. All but R-134a, R-404A, and R-410A contain ozone-depleting substances that will be phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Some of the substitutes do not perform as well as the refrigerants they are replacing, require new equipment, and have relatively high global warming potentials (GWPs). New refrigerants are needed that addresses environmental, safety, and performance issues simultaneously. In efforts sponsored by Ikon Corporation, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ETEC has developed and tested a new class of refrigerants, the Ikon (registered) refrigerants, based on iodofluorocarbons (IFCs). These refrigerants are nonflammable, have essentially zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP), low GWP, high performance (energy efficiency and capacity), and can be dropped into much existing equipment.

  7. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hayati; M.H. Sayadi

    2012-01-01

    Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban...

  8. Gulfport Harbor, Mississippi. Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    the finback whale (Balaenoptera physalus), humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae ), sei whale (B. borealis), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas...Environmental Policy Act, as amended, 42 USC 4321, et seq. Rivers and Harbors Act, 33 USC 401 et seq. Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act, 16...USC 1001, et seq. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, as amended, 16 USC 1271, et seq. Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act

  9. A Maintainability Prediction Method Considering Environmental Impacts and Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability prediction is one kind of primary maintainability action. Design deficiency would be found through predicting maintainability parameters under certain conditions. Now a maintainability prediction method that mainly considers maintenance time or maintenance man-hour is a kind of prediction method with a single index. With increasing product complexity and people's environmental consciousness, more attention is paid to environment impacts and maintenance cost or resource consumption in the maintenance process. It is necessary for a maintainability prediction method that can predict maintenance cost and maintenance environmental impacts. A new maintainability prediction method is presented in this paper based on analyzing existing maintainability prediction methods.The method is MABTCE (maintenance activity based timing/costing/environment impact assessment )and can predict maintenance time, maintenance costing and maintenance environmental impacts andthen improve maintainability design with prediction results.

  10. New technology in everyday life - social processes and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    aspect both of changes in everyday life and of the environmental impact of everyday-life activities. Technological change is often seen as an important part of the solutions to environmental problems, however, when technological change is seen from the perspective of everyday life, this image becomes...... more complex. In this paper technological changes are explored from the perspective of consumption and everyday life, and it is argued that environmental impacts arise through the interplay of technology, consumption and everyday life. Firstly, because technological renewals form integral parts......In the environmental debate it is increasingly acknowledged that our way of life has profound environmental consequences. Therefore, it becomes ever more important to focus on and to understand how everyday life is formed and how it changes over time. Changing technology constitutes an important...

  11. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  12. Management of impacted all canines with surgical exposure and alignment by orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine impaction is a dental problem very often encountered in orthodontic practice. After the third molar, the canine is the most frequently impacted tooth. Bringing the impacted canine into a normal position is important for functional occlusion and the final esthetics of the orthodontic treatment. This article illustrates a peculiar case, in which all four permanent canines maintained their unerupted status at age of 16 years. All four impacted canines were surgically exposed, attachment bonded, traction given with K-9 spring and ideally positioned with fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy.

  13. 75 FR 5873 - Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From CPV Ashley Wind...) of renewable energy from CPV Ashley Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV), a direct subsidiary of CPV Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV REC). In order to supply this renewable energy, CPV is proposing...

  14. Nai Kun wind farm environmental impact assessment study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, S.; Shum, M.; Embley, E. [Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-05-01

    Uniterre Resources Ltd., ABB New Ventures and ABB Inc. propose the Nai Kun Wind Farm project, and the firm Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants LTD. (PGL) was commissioned to conduct an environmental impact assessment for the project. A description of the studies considered as a requirement for the environmental impacts assessment of the project is included in this draft report. Before proceeding with the detailed studies, it was decided to present this draft report to the stakeholders and regulatory authorities to obtain feedback and a review. Nowadays in electricity markets, wind energy is becoming a differentiated and highly valued product. The Nai Kun Wind Farm project, as proposed, would entail the development, construction and operation of a 700 megawatt (MW) wind generation facility located off the northeast coast of Graham Island (Haida Gwaii) in Hecate Strait in British Columbia. It is expected that the project will generate greenhouse gas emission reduction credits. The information about the site and the project, as was known on May 24, 2002, was used for the preparation of this draft report. The present document includes an introduction in Chapter 1, followed by background information in Chapter 2. The Environmental impact assessment framework was reviewed in Chapter 3, and the public consultation plan was described in Chapter 4. The environmental impact assessment designs are discussed in Chapter 5 and a schedule for environmental studies provided in Chapter 6. The next steps are detailed in Chapter 7 of the document. 10 refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  16. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion.

  17. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  18. [Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Carsjens, Gerrit-Jan

    2011-02-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based on Avenue, the secondary developing language of ArcView GIS. The system makes it convenient for planning practitioners exchanging information, and can spatially, visually and quantitatively describe environmental impact and its change. In this study, the urban-rural combination area located between EDE and Veenendaal of The Netherlands was taken as case, and the results indicated that the environment was incorporated well in the planning procedure based on the concepts, and could also demonstrate the effects of planning measures on environment spatially, explicitly, and in real-time, facilitating the participation of planning practitioners and decision-making. Some proposals of how to promote STEEP application in China were suggested.

  19. Environmental Impact of the use of natural Resources (EIRES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Tukker, Arnold; Weidema, Bo

    products for the federal product and environment policy. Final report. Institut Wallon de développement économique et social et d'aménagement du territoire ASBL and Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) for the Belgian Federal Services of Environment, Department on Product Policy. * Dall O...... in the present study to what extent the results of the studies can be applied in the EU's resources strategy. It turns out that all of the considered studies do contribute to our understanding of what are the environmentally most relevant types of resource use, through identifying relationships between...... be required to explore such links. Types of environmental impacts considered Environmental impacts are typically classified in a number of impact categories of which the following are covered by most of the considered studies: * Acidification * Climate change (global warming) * Ecotoxicity * Human toxicity...

  20. Assessment of Periodontal Status of Surgically Exposed and Orthodontically Aligned Impacted Maxillary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Coșarcă

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the periodontal status of impacted canines after 5 years following completion of the combined surgical and orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods: We examined 20 labially impacted canines and 20 palatally impacted canines at 5 years after the end of treatment. We assessed the periodontal status of these teeth. Results: Different outcomes were found regarding the probing depth and the amount of keratinized gingiva in the two mentioned groups of teeth. Conclusions: The assessed periodontal indices may signal the appearance of a periodontal disease around the teeth that were surgically and orthodontically treated

  1. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    Bridge infrastructure consumes large amount of energy and raw materials, leading to considerable environmental burdens. The traditional infrastructure construction prioritizes its technical and economic viability. In recent years, the society devotes an ever-increased attention to the environmental...... impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  2. Investigating the Impact of NGSS-Aligned Professional Development on PreK-3 Teachers' Science Content Knowledge and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Nicole; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Molitor, Scott; Czerniak, Charlene M.; Johnson-Whitt, Eugenia; Bloomquist, Debra; Namatovu, Winnifred; Wilson, Grant

    2016-11-01

    This pilot study investigates the impact of a 2-week professional development Summer Institute on PK-3 teachers' knowledge and practices. This Summer Institute is a component of [program], a large-scale early-childhood science project that aims to transform PK-3 science teaching. The mixed-methods study examined concept maps, lesson plans, and classroom observations to measure possible changes in PK-3 teachers' science content knowledge and classroom practice from 11 teachers who attended the 2014 Summer Institute. Analysis of the concept maps demonstrated statistically significant growth in teachers' science content knowledge. Analysis of teachers' lesson plans demonstrated that the teachers could design high quality science inquiry lessons aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards following the professional development. Finally, examination of teachers' pre- and post-Summer Institute videotaped inquiry lessons showed evidence that teachers were incorporating new inquiry practices into their teaching, especially regarding classroom discourse. Our results suggest that an immersive inquiry experience is effective at beginning a shift towards reform-aligned science and engineering instruction but that early elementary educators require additional support for full mastery.

  3. Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports.

  4. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh.

  5. Energy use and environmental impact of new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalberth, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the energy use and environmental impact of residential buildings. Seven authentic buildings built in the 1990s in Sweden are investigated. They are analysed according to energy use and environmental impact during their life cycle: manufacture of building materials, transport of building materials and components to the building site, erection to a building, occupancy, maintenance and renovation, and finally demolition and removal of debris. Results show that approx. 85 % of the total estimated energy use during the life cycle is used during the occupation phase. The energy used to manufacture building and installation materials constitutes approx. 15 % of the total energy use. 70-90 % of the total environmental impact arises during the occupation phase, while the manufacture of construction and installation materials constitutes 10-20 %. In conclusion, the energy use and environmental impact during the occupation phase make up a majority of the total. At the end of the thesis, a tool is presented which helps designers and clients predict the energy use during the occupation phase for a future multi-family building before any constructional or installation drawings are made. In this way, different thermal properties may be elaborated in order to receive an energy-efficient and environmentally adapted dwelling.

  6. Environmental Impact of ICT on the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption.......This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption....

  7. The impact of new member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992.......The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992....

  8. Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts.

  9. An evaluative study of the impact of the "Curriculum Alignment Toolbox" on middle school science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carol L.

    The number of computer-assisted education programs on the market is overwhelming science teachers all over the Michigan. Though the need is great, many teachers are reluctant to procure computer-assisted science education programs because they are unsure of the effectiveness of such programs. The Curriculum Alignment Toolbox (CAT) is a computer-based program, aligned to the Michigan Curriculum Framework's Benchmarks for Science Education and designed to supplement science instruction in Michigan middle schools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CAT in raising the standardized test scores of Michigan students. This study involved 419 students from one urban, one suburban and one rural middle school. Data on these students was collected from 4 sources: (1) the 8th grade Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) test, (2) a 9 question, 5-point Likert-type scale student survey, (3) 4 open-response student survey questions and (4) classroom observations. Results of this study showed that the experimental group of 226 students who utilized the CAT program in addition to traditional instruction did significantly better on the Science MEAP test than the control group of 193 students who received only traditional instruction. The study also showed that the urban students from a "high needs" school seemed to benefit most from the program. Additionally, though both genders and all identified ethnic groups benefited from the program, males benefited more than females and whites, blacks and Asian/Pacific Islander students benefited more than Hispanic and multi-racial students. The CAT program's success helping raise the middle school MEAP scores may well be due to some of its components. CAT provided students with game-like experiences all based on the benchmarks required for science education and upon which the MEAP test is based. The program also provided visual and auditory stimulation as well as numerous references which students indicated

  10. 75 FR 25217 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Northwest Aggregates' Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Northwest... (Corps) Seattle District is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze the... Aggregates dock replacement project and potential environmental issues including completed construction...

  11. The Impact of Organisational Alignment on the Effectiveness of Firms' Sustainability Strategic Performance Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is becoming a mainstream issue for many organisations. A limited number of studies exist, however, on integrating sustainability into daily practices. Indeed, most of the research to date addresses only the definition and motivation for companies’ interest in environmental and soci...

  12. A Study on Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJing

    2005-01-01

    China's legislature on the environmental impact assessments contains related provisions on public participation as an important element of institutions in this field. So far, however, the stipulation remains at the level of a plain statement of principle both substantially and procedurally. The newly enacted Law on the Assessment of the Environment Impact has seen great progress in provisions for public participation if compared with similar statutes enacted in the past legislation. However, there is a gap in the procedures,

  13. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  14. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Environmentally Lean Production: The Development and Incorporation of an Environmental Impact Index into Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Roosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to include environmental waste alongside other lean wastes. Current concepts of environmental waste focus on the total production of waste from a plant. However waste is generated by individual processes within the production. Therefore focused management of waste requires engineers to know what and where waste is being generated. This is often simply not known with any accuracy. This work offer a solution by developing a method to integrate environmental waste into the lean method of Value Stream Mapping (VSM. Specifically it integrate corporate environmental standards with the VSM process, thereby permitting established lean improvement process to be focused at specific environmental improvement actions. Application of the method is demonstrated in a manufacturing setting, representing a variety of environmental impacts. The deployment is capable of being generalised to any number of environmental factors. It is able to represent a customised waste index for a particular industry. Several ways to represent the multidimensional environmental wastes were explored via industry focus group. The resulting method can be used by production staff to quantify environmental impacts at the level of the individual process and aggregated to report wastes for the whole value stream.

  16. Yakima Fisheries Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington.

    1996-01-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. These activities, known as the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. The YFP is included in the Northwest Power Planning Council`s (Council`s) fish and wildlife program. The Council selected the Yakima River system for attention because fisheries resources are severely reduced from historical levels and because there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA`s proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities ({open_quotes}adaptive management{close_quotes}); and (3) die construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Examined in addition to No Action are two alternatives for action: (1) supplementation of depressed natural populations of upper Yakima spring chinook and (2) that same supplementation plus a study to determine the feasibility of reestablishing naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho in the Yakima Basin. Alternative 2 is the preferred action. A central hatchery would be built for either alternative, as well as three sites with six raceways each for acclimation and release of spring chinook smolts. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery.

  17. Environmental impacts of open loop geothermal system on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Koo-Sang; Park, Youngyun; Yun, Sang Woong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Application of renewable energies such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat has gradually increased to reduce emission of CO2 which is supplied from combustion of fossil fuel. The geothermal energy of various renewable energies has benefit to be used to cooling and heating systems and has good energy efficiency compared with other renewable energies. However, open loop system of geothermal heat pump system has possibility that various environmental problems are induced because the system directly uses groundwater to exchange heat. This study was performed to collect data from many documents such as papers and reports and to summarize environmental impacts for application of open loop system. The environmental impacts are classified into change of hydrogeological factors such as water temperature, redox condition, EC, change of microbial species, well contamination and depletion of groundwater. The change of hydrogeological factors can induce new geological processes such as dissolution and precipitation of some minerals. For examples, increase of water temperature can change pH and Eh. These variations can change saturation index of some minerals. Therefore, dissolution and precipitation of some minerals such as quartz and carbonate species and compounds including Fe and Mn can induce a collapse and a clogging of well. The well contamination and depletion of groundwater can reduce available groundwater resources. These environmental impacts will be different in each region because hydrogeological properties and scale, operation period and kind of the system. Therefore, appropriate responses will be considered for each environmental impact. Also, sufficient study will be conducted to reduce the environmental impacts and to improve geothermal energy efficiency during the period that a open loop system is operated. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning

  18. Determination of Acoustic Effects on Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles for the Hawaii-Southern California Training and Testing Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    Mammals and Sea Turtles for the Hawaii-Southern California Training and Testing Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact...Effects on Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles for the Hawaii- Southern California Training and Testing Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas...program uses quantitative analysis methodology to estimate acoustic effects on designated marine fauna, which include marine mammals and sea turtles . This

  19. Selecting Materials for Environmental-Friendly Buildings: The Need for Improved Environmental Impact Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachawit T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings of the future need to be more environmental-friendly. Selecting environmentally-benign materials in design stage would partly help achieving such goal. Examination of existing environmental impact data of building materials reveals that the data differ greatly from one source to another. Comparisons of environmental impact values of selected materials are presented. The sources that give rise to data variation are identified and discussed. The applicability of existing data is assessed from the designers’ perspective. Limitations of current practice in data acquisition and presentation are also discussed. It is concluded that existing environmental impact data of building materials are inconsistent and perplexing to designers. An alternative approach to data acquisition and presentation is to break the life cycle of building materials into several phases and to calculate the total impact value as the sum of the impacts of all phases. This would make the determination of the full life cycle value feasible and increase external validity of research results.

  20. Public participation in environmental impact assessment: why, who and how?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glucker, A.N.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Kolhoff, A.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Even a cursory glance at the literature on environmental impact assessment (EIA) reveals that public participation is being considered as an integral part of the assessment procedure. Public participation in EIA is commonly deemed to foster democratic policy-making and to render EIA more effective.

  1. The Aswan Dam: A Lesson on Man's Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Burnell

    This curriculum unit was prepared for senior high classroom use to teach geography, history, and environmental issues. The objective of the lesson is to illustrate the historical man/river relationship between Egypt and the Nile River, and the impact of the Aswan dam on the agricultural and economic needs of the country today. The lesson requires…

  2. Environmental impact assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role in the production of textile products for more than 70 years. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact of man-made cellulose fibres. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for three types of fibres (i.e. Viscose, Modal

  3. Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Peacekeeper Rail Garrison Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    advanced culture characterized by an extensive trade network and a series of traits such as ceremonial architecture and maize (corn) agriculture...Statement, Pantex Plant Site, Amarillo , Texas (U.S. Department of Energy 1983), which covers nuclear weapons assembly, stockpile monitoring, maintenance...1983 Final Environmental Impact Statement, Pantex Plant Site, Amarillo ,_ Texas (DOE/EIS-0098). National Technical Information Service, Washington

  4. 78 FR 56621 - Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... section of this document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sarah Lopas, Office of Nuclear Material Safety... evaluation of the environmental impacts that may occur as a result of continuing to store spent fuel after.... Keith I. McConnell, Director, Waste Confidence Directorate, Office of Nuclear Material Safety...

  5. Business Plan : Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    This document contains the appendices for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Business Plan: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Included are: BPA products and services; Rate design; Methodology and assumptions for numerical analysis; Retail utility operations; Comments and responses to the draft business plan EIS.

  6. Schools That Sustain: Lessening the Environmental Impact of New Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peele, Katherine N.; Malone, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Discusses sustainable school design and its benefits to the environment, offering examples of illustrative schools. Provides suggestions on site selection (such as using smaller sites and recycling existing buildings), sharing facilities with the community, and construction elements that improve environmental impact (such as flexibility,…

  7. Review on Chlorobenzoic Acids Biodegradation and Their Environmental Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuWenming; QiYun; ZhaoLin; TanXin

    2005-01-01

    Chlorobenzoic Acids are toxic organic compounds largely distributed in soils and sediments. They can be degraded to various products by microorgans. This paper is a review of the literature on biodegradability of the chlorobenzoic acids. The degradation pathways, degradation genes, role of transposable elements, and construction of strains are discussed. A brief introduction is given on the environmental impacts and the pollution control.

  8. 75 FR 67806 - Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway... proposed improvements to United States Highway 181/State Highway 286 (Crosstown Expressway), in Nueces... Nueces County, Texas. The project limits were defined as the limits of the schematic design. The...

  9. Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.;

    2014-01-01

    that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can...

  10. Dynamic simulation of traffic and its environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissfeldt, N.; Metzler, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). ZAIK; Wagner, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    This paper demonstrates a model-chain that is able to determine environmental impacts of traffic. The dynamic microsimulation models described cover the problems of traffic assignment and calculation of emissions by microscopic vehicle states. Due to their computational efficiency the model-chain promises to be applicable even for large networks with millions of drivers. First results will be presented. (orig.)

  11. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air q...

  12. The environmental impact of fibre crops in industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Bos, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    A short literature survey is presented on health and environmental issues in relation to the production and use of fibre crops. Next a short introduction to Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is given and the various commonly applied methods for quantifying ecological impacts are discussed in short. The avai

  13. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal..., UT 84118, telephone (801) 963-0182, e-mail Edward.Woolford@dot.gov . The Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) contact is Brandon Weston, Project Manager, 2010 South 2760 West, Salt Lake City, UT...

  14. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  15. 75 FR 41163 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Overseas Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as implemented by the Council on Environmental Quality... area does not include the Arctic. This EIS and OEIS is being prepared to renew and combine current... responsibility (except for the Arctic). The AFTT study area covers approximately 2.6 million square...

  16. Environmental impacts of phosphogypsum vs. borrow pits in roadfill construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D F; Dooris, P M; Sumpter, D

    2001-01-01

    A comparison was performed of the environmental impacts of using phosphogypsum versus conventional fill materials (e.g., from borrow pits) for road construction. The study compared a hypothetical roadway with an actual roadway in Florida; the two facilities differed only in that phosphogypsum was employed as fill material instead of conventional materials. The effect of the two construction approaches on the plant and animal communities was considered, as was the impact on the surface and ground water. A summary was made of the comparative impacts, and a comparison matrix was constructed using integral numbers to depict impacts ranging from -5 (most impact) to 0 (none) to + 5, showing most benefit of the part of the project on a given resource. Values were subjective, based upon investigators' experience. Four categories (plant and animal communities, water quality, water resources, and air quality) were considered. The cumulative total was +12 for phosphogypsum and -6 for conventional fill material.

  17. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  18. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  19. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products:hot spots and environmental policies

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials ...

  20. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hai-Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  1. Planning Environmental Impact Assessment Orienting Sustainable Development:Opportunities and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yanjun; Chen Xingeng; Bao Yun; Peng Xiaochun; Gao Changbo

    2005-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment is a frontier subject in the field of Environmental Impact Assessment. In the past two decades, especially in recent years, much more importance has been attached to Strategic Environmental Assessment. The Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the P.R.China which was promulgated provides a great opportunity for the development of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment and brings great challenges for the development of traditional Project Environmental Impact Assessment and Planning Environmental Impact Assessment at the same time.In order to promote the implementation of"The EIA Law", the inherent limitations of Project Environmental Impact Assessment must be identified sufficiendy and the theory research and practice of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment should be strengthened as well. Measures should be taken currendy to enforce the operation system. The authors wish to offer a few references to the progress and implementation of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment in China.

  2. Discussion of Environmental Problem and Study of Environmental Impact on Steel Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The environmental conditions in steel industry were discussed in detail. It was also pointed out that it was necessary to reduce the quantity of waste generated and discharged by improving the raw material, energy structure and consumption rate, and reinforcing the waste control and management. At the same time, the relevant mathematical models of environmental impact were set up on the basis of raw material consumption, energy consumption and waste generation and discharge in different technical routes of steelmaking. The result showed that the production route of DR-iron clearly has more environmental advantages over that of BF-hot metal.

  3. 76 FR 58833 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Agreement (KHSA). The KHSA established a process for studies and environmental review leading to a... (KBRA) provides for restoration of native fisheries and sustainable water supplies throughout the... resources, geomorphology, flood hydrology, water quality, air quality, public safety, hazardous...

  4. 24 CFR 58.60 - Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental impact statements. 58.60 Section 58.60 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD... Environmental Impact Statements § 58.60 Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements. (a)...

  5. 24 CFR 58.53 - Use of prior environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of prior environmental impact... RESPONSIBILITIES Environmental Review Process: Environmental Impact Statement Determinations § 58.53 Use of prior environmental impact statements. Where any final EIS has been listed in the Federal Register for a...

  6. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  7. Quantitative Assessment on the Embodied Environmental Impact of Concrete with or without Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sitang; LI Huiqiang

    2005-01-01

    According to the life cycle assessment and the environmental design method of industry production, a quantitative assessment model for the embodied environmental impact of concrete with or without fly ash was proposed. The environmental burden impact indicator (EBII), the resources depletion impact indicator (RDII), and the environmental impact comprehensive indicator (EICI) are defined. The specific environmental impact values of different grade concretes with or without fly ash were presented. In the embodied process of concrete with or without fly ash, the key potential environmental impact categories are global warming and dust emission, and it is an effective way for reducing the embodied environmental impact of concrete to mix fly ash and lower grade cement. The method presented in this paper makes it possible to quantitatively assess the embodied environmental impact of concrete with or without fly ash. The results calculated in this paper can be used to quantitatively assess the life cycle environmental impact of construction materials and buildings.

  8. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a new... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for...

  9. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-14

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering & Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone & Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested

  10. 76 FR 68741 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environment Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environment Impact Report (DEIS/DEIR) for a... wetlands, streams, rivers, and other waters of the U.S. and the potential impacts on the human...

  11. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  12. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSchmitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders.

  13. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of consumption......How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... to decoupling argue that with increasing income the composition of consumption changes in the direction of more environment-friendly goods and services. This paper discusses this hypothesis critically on the basis of several studies dealing with historical experience. First, it is argued that an overall...

  14. Dairy cattle environmental impacts in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Schiavi Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the six larger producers of cow milk in the world. In 2010, the national milk production reached 30.7 billion liters, corresponding to 4.8% of total world production, according to official data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE. Paraná state has 114,488 milk producers, being responsible for 71% production increase between 1997 and 2006. Besides such remarkable figures, there are still important challenges to be surpassed in milk chain, which includes environmental adequation of livestock production. According to a study published by Banco do Brasil Foundation and Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation – IICA in 2010, social and environmental sustainability are among factors restricting milk chain competitiveness. Thus, this paper aims at assessing the adoption of good environmental practices in milk production, towards sustainable production. Practices included: plot rotation system; no-tillage technique; agroecology system; and practices for reducing water and energetic consumptions in milk cattle system. Methodological procedures in this research comprised: (a literature review on milk agribusiness system and environmental adequation; (b formulation of semi-structured questionnaires, including questions about environmental practices in 2011; (c data analysis through descriptive statistics. Random sampling included milk producers in Santa Izabel do Oeste and Marechal Candido Rondon, in southwestern Paraná. Eighty producers were interviewed, equally sampled in both places, resulting in 79 valid interviews. As results, we could find that 95% of producers adopted at least one of those good environmental practices considered, mostly plot rotation system and no-tillage technique. According to literature, plot rotation favors soils quality and consequently increases forage availability, resulting in positive impact on natural resources. No-tillage agriculture, on its turn, causes less damage on

  15. 76 FR 34066 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Legislative Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) and training missions at NAWSCL, in addition to other... defense-related purposes. The environmental analysis in the EIS/LEIS will be incorporated in an update to...., Trona Community Senior Center, 13187 Market Street, Trona, California 93562. Additional...

  16. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement for the Closure of Mather Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    the California Health and Safety Code). The Department would like to be informed of future activities and use plans associated with the Muther AFB...Page 2 cc: Lt. Col Richard Blank Chief, Environmental Management 323rd Flying Training Wing Mather Air Force Base, CA 95655-5000 Lt. Col. Jose Saenz

  17. Proposed Owyhee Resource Management Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement

    OpenAIRE

    U.S. Bureau of Land Management

    1999-01-01

    Five alternatives are described and analyzed i9n the final Environmental Impact Statement. Alternative A is a continuation of current management. Alternative B was developed through BLM staff interpretation and analysis of information submitted by the Owyhee Country Commissioners with the assistance of the Owyhee County Natural Resources Committee. Alternative C was developed by the BLM lower Snake River District interdisciplinary planning team. Alternative D was developed through BLM staff i...

  18. Environmental impacts assessment for hydropower development planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Hongbin; Yu Weiqi; Cui Lei

    2009-01-01

    This article briefly introduced China's law framework and technical standards related to environmental im-pacts assessment(EIA) for hydropower development, and the EIA developing process for hydropower development plan-ning. Authors summarized the working experiences about hydropower development planning EIA done in the recent years in China, discussed the considerations and methods of hydropower development planning EIA, and put forward the index system for hydropower development planning EIA initially.

  19. Environmental impact assessment with multimedia spatial information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, A.; Gouveia, C.; A Câmara; J.P. Silva

    1995-01-01

    The environmental impact assessment (ETA) process involves the consideration of large amounts of data comprising several variables and phenomena, with complex interrelationships varying in space and time. The potential of spatial information systems (SIS) has been increasingly realized for use in ETA, although they are used only for the production and presentation of maps, without the exploration of their ability to analyze spatial data. The integration of multimedia with SIS may contribute t...

  20. Environmental impact of heavy metal pollution in natural aquatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tayab, Muhammad Rehan

    1991-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The distribution of heavy metals between soil and soil solutions is a key issue in evaluating the environmental impact of long term applications of heavy metals to land. Contamination of soils by heavy metals has been reported by many workers. Metal adsorption is affected by many factors, including soil pH, clay mineralogy, abundance of oxides and organic matter, soil composition and solution...

  1. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Otto Schwake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water.

  2. Environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Glasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles have been seen by some policymakers as a tool to target reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.1,2 Some researchers have shown that the full environmental impact of electric vehicles depends very much on the cleanliness of the electricity grid.3 In countries such as the USA and China, where coal-fired power plants still play a very important role in electricity generation, the environmental impact of electric vehicles is equivalent to, or even higher than that of cars running on internal combustion engines.4,5 In this study, the environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa were investigated. We found that, as the bulk of South Africa’s electricity is generated from relatively low-quality coal and the advanced exhaust clean up technologies are not implemented in the current coal-fired power plants, the use of electric vehicles in South Africa would not help to cut greenhouse gas emissions now (2010 or in the future (in 2030 using the IRP 2010 Revision 2, policy-adjusted IRP scenario, and actually would lead to higher SOx and NOx emissions.

  3. Environmental Intelligence and its Impact on Collaborative Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Trivedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Green IT can be defined as the conscious implementation of technologies, techniques and policies designed to reduce the carbon footprint of the IT function within the organization and the use of IT to reduce the carbon footprint of the whole organization. By adopting Green IT practices, business enterprises can contribute positively to environmental stewardship and protect the environment while reducing the energy costs. The holistic approach to environmental sustainability making the best use of IT resources available to the organization is termed as environmental intelligence (EI in this paper. This paper explores creative ways of looking at the environmental challenge, opens up opportunities to examine processes for collaboration, take stock of the inventory and infrastructure for optimization, and explore the possibilities of new business streams. This research paper aims to find out the impact of technologies such as server virtualization, cloud computing, anytime anywhere technologies and right network (as a specialist domain of Green ICT on EI of different business organizations of Vadodara. This study employed the ordinal logistic regression to understand the impact of green ICT on the manufacturing business.

  4. Impact of Electronic Wastes Recycling on Environmental Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental quality of Guiyu, Guangdong impacted by the electronic waste recycling industry. Methods The surface water, ground water and sediment samples taken separately from two sites that recycle E-wastes and other rubbish relevant to the E-waste recycling, and an agricultural area, were analyzed, and the data were used to evaluate the impact of E-waste recycling on the environmental quality of Guiyu based on environmental quality standards in China. Results The concentrations of lead and iron in the surface water samples significantly different in the three locations. The maximum value of lead in the first site was 8 times higher than the threshold of environmental quality standards for surface water. The concentration of iron in polluted sample was 22 times that of the background sample. Manganese and iron also showed a significant difference in ground water samples between the three sites. The amount of iron was 22 times that of the threshold of the quality standard for ground water, and 120 times that of the background sample. Moreover, the results of all the eight heavy metals showed significant differences among the sediment samples. The concentrations of copper, cadmium,nickel, and lead in the polluted samples were above the median benchmarks of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The copper concentration of 2670 mg/kg was 10 times that of the median benchmark. ConclusionE-waste recycling has led to the severe pollution Guiyu.

  5. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  6. 76 FR 49786 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Reclamation (Reclamation), the lead Federal agency, and the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the lead State agency, have prepared a joint Final EIS/EIR for the proposed Nimbus Fish Hatchery Weir... Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River,...

  7. Atmospheric and environmental impacts of volcanic ash particle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Globally, at any one time, there may be 20 volcanoes erupting that collectively emit a constant flux of gases and aerosol, including silicate particles (tephra), to the atmosphere which influences processes including cloud microphysics, heterogeneous chemistry and radiative balance. The nature and impact of atmospheric volcanic particle fluxes depend on total mass erupted, emission rate, emission source location, physical and chemical properties of the particles, and the location and residence time of the particles in the atmosphere. Removal of ash particles from the atmosphere through sedimentation is strongly influenced by particle aggregation through hydrometeor formation, and convective instabilities such as mammatus. I will address the following questions: What are the atmospheric impacts of volcanic ash emissions? What controls the residence time of volcanic particles in the atmosphere? What affects particle accumulation at the surface? And what are the human and environmental impacts of ash fallout?

  8. 76 FR 40354 - Notice of Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Crowned Ridge Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Area Power Administration Notice of Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Crowned Ridge Wind Energy Center Project, Codington and Grant Counties, SD AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The...

  9. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Program...(2)(C), the National Park Service announces the availability of the Bison Brucellosis...

  10. 76 FR 23335 - Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... proper food storage; party size; camping and campsites; human waste management; stock use; meadow... National Park Service Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon... Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement for Wilderness Stewardship Plan, Sequoia and...

  11. Meat (substitutes) comparing environmental impacts. A Case study comparing Quorn and pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, Joep

    2007-01-01

    The production of food by humans is said to contribute significantly to environmental impacts. Especially meat is seen as part of the diet with a high environmental impact. Replacing this meat with meat substitutes could potentially change this environmen

  12. 77 FR 14418 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... National Park Service Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain... of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain... Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. The purpose of...

  13. 76 FR 29786 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Big Cypress National Preserve Addition, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Big Cypress National Preserve Addition, Florida. On February 4, 2011, the Regional Director, Southeast... National Park Service Environmental Impact Statement for the Big Cypress National Preserve Addition... Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for the Big Cypress National Preserve Addition....

  14. 76 FR 59247 - Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances; Technical... considerations, food additives, and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances to correct minor errors in the... affecting certain regulations regarding environmental impact considerations (part 25), food additives...

  15. 78 FR 7450 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems... a Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing... a manner that supports long-term ecosystem protection, supports natural ecosystem recovery...

  16. 77 FR 56835 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Constitution Pipeline Project, Request for Comments on... environmental impacts of the proposed Constitution Pipeline Project (Project) involving construction...

  17. Changes in environmental impacts of major crops in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Suh, Sangwon

    2015-09-01

    As with life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in general, agricultural LCAs often rely on static and outdated inventory data, but literature suggests that agricultural systems may be highly dynamic. Here, we applied life cycle impact assessment methods to investigate the trends and underlying drivers of changes in non-global environmental impacts of major crops in the US. The results show that the impact per hectare corn and cotton generated on the ecological health of freshwater systems decreased by about 50% in the last decade. This change is mainly due to the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which has reduced the application of insecticides and relatively toxic herbicides such as atrazine. However, the freshwater ecotoxicity impact per hectare soybean production increased by 3-fold, mainly because the spread of an invasive species, soybean aphid, has resulted in an increasing use of insecticides. In comparison, other impact categories remained relatively stable. By evaluating the relative ecotoxicity potential of a large number of pesticides, our analysis offers new insight into the benefits associated with GM crops. Our study also implies that because different impact categories show different degrees of changes, it is worthwhile focusing on the rapidly changing categories when updating agricultural LCA databases under time and resource constraints.

  18. Life cycle assessment for the "implicit" environmental impact of construction projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The paper has established an assessment system and a quantitative calculation method of the "implicit" environmental impact including environmental impact indicator,resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantitative calculation of the environmental impact indicator is based on the life cycle assessment system and the evaluation software BEES. The paper identifies normalization reference values and weights for 12 categories of the environmental impact. It also analyzes the env...

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gałaś, Slávka, E-mail: sgalas@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Gałaś, Andrzej, E-mail: pollux@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Zeleňáková, Martina, E-mail: martina.zelenakova@tuke.sk [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Zvijáková, Lenka, E-mail: lenkazvijakova@gmail.com [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Fialová, Jitka, E-mail: jitka.fialova@mendelu.cz [Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Landscape Management, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment in Norway--Understanding Implementation as a Function of Professional Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelin, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Describes the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in Norway using a survey of the paradigm of environmental management carried out in the central and regional Norwegian environmental administrations. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  2. 77 FR 39503 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Proposed Rawlins Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Madre (CCSM) Wind Energy Project (Volume II) Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), and by this... direct, indirect and cumulative environmental impacts of constructing and operating the CCSM wind... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement,...

  3. 78 FR 57624 - Availability of a Draft Integrated Feasibility Report (Feasibility Study/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Study/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report), Los Angeles River Ecosystem Restoration Study, City of Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps... Feasibility Report (IFR), which includes a Draft Feasibility Study (FS) and Environmental Impact...

  4. 75 FR 17133 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for Training Range and Garrison Support Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... environmental and socioeconomic impacts resulting from the proposed construction of 12 range projects and 2... DEIS examines the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation... Department of the Army Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for Training Range and Garrison...

  5. 76 FR 80366 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... significant environmental impacts are anticipated from the issuance of the 2012 Construction General Permit... significant environmental impacts are anticipated from the issuance of the 2012 Construction General Permit... that no significant environmental impacts are anticipated from the issuance of the 2012...

  6. 76 FR 30320 - Public Scoping Meeting and Preparation of Environmental Impact Statement for Luce Bayou...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... will assess the potential social, economic and environmental impacts of the construction and operation... Scoping Meeting and Preparation of Environmental Impact Statement for Luce Bayou Interbasin Transfer... indicated that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was not required. However, based on continuing...

  7. 76 FR 64893 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Rosemont Copper Project on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Coronado National Forest announces the availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for public review. The DEIS discloses the potential environmental impacts of the construction, operation and... Forest Service Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Rosemont Copper Project...

  8. 77 FR 47876 - Intent To Prepare Environmental Impact Statements: Potential Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... construction and operations plan (COP), BOEM intends to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Intent To Prepare Environmental Impact Statements: Potential Commercial... the Atlantic OCS, by preparing an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzes the potential impacts...

  9. 78 FR 40488 - Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of... Guard announces the availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) and announces a public... Environmental Impact Statement. The Coast Guard will hold a public meeting on the DEIS on Wednesday, August...

  10. 75 FR 1359 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for...: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The comment period for the Final Environmental Impact... Web version of the Final Environmental Impact Statement had problems with the Web links. The...

  11. Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock production has a major impact on the environment. Choosing a more environmentally-friendly livestock product in a diet can mitigate environmental impact. The objective of this research was to compare assessments of the environmental impact of livestock products. Twenty-five peer-reviewed s

  12. 76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National... National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  13. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... National Park Service Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death...: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs... environmental impact analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death...

  14. 75 FR 52967 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Palm Beach, Florida. A Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for South... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic... environmental impact statement for the South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant Management Plan....

  15. A Model for Environmental Impact Assessment of Land Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; LI Shu-heng; MAO Liang; YIN Yong; ZHU Da-kui

    2007-01-01

    Land reclamation is a complex marine environmental engineering and has a huge impact on social, economic, and physical environment. Reclamation environmental impact assessment (REIA) is also a complicated project, including the assessment of social economic background, ocean engineering, coastal geomorphology, sediment transportation, marine hydrodynamics and marine ecosystem and so on. Nowadays, a large number of land reclaimed projects have been carried out or in the process of construction along the coastal zone, thus, it is necessary to build up a framework on REIA to evaluate and quantify the environmental changes, to contribute to reclamation program, to reduce marine environmental disasters, and to sustain development of coastal zone. This article focuses on the research of REIA framework theory and puts forward a REIA model on land reclaimed evaluation, at the same time, applies this assessment system in Shenzhen City, which is a highly developed coastal city with an expectation of land reclamation. By use of the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, along with the topographic map and in situ survey in reclamation area, it concludes that the area of 2680 hectares in total has been reclaimed in Shenzhen city by the end of the year 2000. Thus, reclamation is usually applied to meet the needs for infrastructure, such as harbors, industries and highways in Shenzhen City. However, some serious negative impacts have been created to the coastal environment shown clearly in the following aspects. Firstly, it caused the dramatic changes of tidal flat and channels along the western coast, made this area more unstable, which is threatening the function of the harbor in this area. Secondly, Tidal prism has decreased rapidly. During the 20 years of reclamation, the tidal prism has been reduced by 20%~30% along the western coast in the Lingdingyang Estuary, and 15.6% in the Shenzhen Bay. As a result, the velocity of the tidal current

  16. Biogas upgrading technologies:Energetic analysis and environmental impact assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajing Xu; Ying Huang; Bin Wu; Xiangping Zhang; Suojiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Biogas upgrading for removing CO2 and other trace components from raw biogas is a necessary step before the biogas to be used as a vehicle fuel or supplied to the natural gas grid. In this work, three technologies for biogas upgrading, i.e., pressured water scrubbing (PWS), monoethanolamine aqueous scrubbing (MAS) and ionic liquid scrubbing (ILS), are studied and assessed in terms of their energy consumption and environmental impacts with the process simulation and green degree method. A non-random-two-liquid and Henry's law property method for a CO2 separation system with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) is established and verified with experimental data. The assessment results indicate that the specific energy consumption of ILS and PWS is almost the same and much less than that of MAS. High purity CO2 product can be obtained by MAS and ILS methods, whereas no pure CO2 is recovered with the PWS. For the environmental aspect, ILS has the highest green degree production value, while MAS and PWS produce serious environmental impacts.

  17. Environmental and health impacts of artificial turf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan; Reinhard, Martin

    2014-02-18

    With significant water savings and low maintenance requirements, artificial turf is increasingly promoted as a replacement for natural grass on athletic fields and lawns. However, there remains the question of whether it is an environmentally friendly alternative to natural grass. The major concerns stem from the infill material that is typically derived from scrap tires. Tire rubber crumb contains a range of organic contaminants and heavy metals that can volatilize into the air and/or leach into the percolating rainwater, thereby posing a potential risk to the environment and human health. A limited number of studies have shown that the concentrations of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in the air above artificial turf fields were typically not higher than the local background, while the concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants in the field drainages were generally below the respective regulatory limits. Health risk assessment studies suggested that users of artificial turf fields, even professional athletes, were not exposed to elevated risks. Preliminary life cycle assessment suggested that the environmental impacts of artificial turf fields were lower than equivalent grass fields. Areas that need further research to better understand and mitigate the potential negative environmental impacts of artificial turf are identified.

  18. A general exergy-based environmental impact index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Mendez, Sosimo E. [Autonomous University of Carmen, Campeche (Mexico); Rodriguez-Lelis, Jose Maria [National Center for Research and Technical Development, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel [Guanajuato University, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    An ecosystem is a complex system in which biotic and abiotic factors interact and influence each other both directly and indirectly. Each of these factors has to comply with a specific function in the different processes that occur inside the ecosystem, whether transporting or transforming energy or both. When anthropogenic emissions are produced, part of the useful energy of the ecosystem is used to assimilate or absorb those emissions, and the energy spent, loses its function and becomes lost work in accordance with the Gouy-Stodola theorem. Thus, the work that an ecosystem can carry out varies as a function of the lost work produced by anthropogenic sources. The permanency or loss of the ecosystem depends on how many irreversibilities it can support. The second law of thermodynamics through a systematic use of the exergy and lost work is the basis of this paper where a general environmental impact index, based on exergy, is proposed. For the purpose of this work, the ecosystem is divided in subsystems--water, soil, atmosphere, organisms and society- -all of them inter-related. The ideal work variation can be obtained from each subsystem within the selected ecosystem, and a global index can be determined by adding the partial lost work of each subsystem. This global index is then used to determine the trend followed by the ecosystem from its pristine, original or environmental line base state. This environmental impact index applicability is presented for a simple combustion example.

  19. [Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2013-02-01

    "Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one.

  20. HYDROLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS CAUSED BY DEFORESTATION UNDERGROUND: PETROPOLIS, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Magalhães da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion in Petropolis region is due to massive deforestation for housing and other human activities. Deforestation is the main cause ecological imbalances, resulting in: flooding, decrease in porosity and desertification of soil. By AIA semi-qualitative technique analysis it studied possible losses and benefits of urban expansion in the locality, if changes were likely or not of occurrence and their level of impaction. It was observed that the probability of occurrence of damage was much higher than that of benefits. The result corroborates the literature, therefore, has been seen that vegetation plays an important role in water control of the town, and also in the physical and chemical soil. The probability of catastrophic consequences, due to deforestation, is extremely high, and even mid-sized consequences have capacity of environmental impacts that are likely to be irreversible. Deforestation intensifies the consequences of major frequent rainfall in the summer of the State of Rio de Janeiro, so the higher the deforestation, the greater the likelihood of recurrent and intense rainfall events resulting from large. Therefore, it is necessary to control urban sprawl in the region to reduce water environmental impact in the region. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.17327

  1. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  2. Use of Animal Species Data in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knegtering, Edo; Drees, J. Marijke; Geertsema, Paul; Huitema, Hans J.; Uiterkamp, Anton J. M. Schoot

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies on fauna data used in the EIAs. Objectives were to determine for different taxa (a) the relative representation of species in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); (b) the extent to which EISs referred to specific species and the accuracy of survey data referred to; and (c) apparent roles of different EIA actors in species inclusion. EIAs were found to use data on various taxa but on limited numbers of species. The frequency with which taxa were included varied significantly. Birds were most frequently included, followed by mammals, amphibians, and other species groups. The quality of data on birds exceeded that regarding other vertebrates. Our results indicate that (a) EIA working groups of independent experts were the most influential in determining the data to be used; (b) on average, proponents included data more often than required by guidelines; and (c) in 30 to 40% of the EIAs, the participation of nongovernmental organizations prompted use of data. Despite the key role of experts in data inclusion, the taxon rankings found in the EIAs showed little deviation from those observed in studies on people’s preferences for species. Given the limited ranges of species considered, it is doubtful that the EIAs examined effectively contributed to conserving animal species diversity.

  3. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    The main progress of the muon alignment group since March has been in the refinement of both the track-based alignment for the DTs and the hardware-based alignment for the CSCs. For DT track-based alignment, there has been significant improvement in the internal alignment of the superlayers inside the DTs. In particular, the distance between superlayers is now corrected, eliminating the residual dependence on track impact angles, and good agreement is found between survey and track-based corrections. The new internal geometry has been approved to be included in the forthcoming reprocessing of CRAFT samples. The alignment of DTs with respect to the tracker using global tracks has also improved significantly, since the algorithms use the latest B-field mapping, better run selection criteria, optimized momentum cuts, and an alignment is now obtained for all six degrees of freedom (three spatial coordinates and three rotations) of the aligned DTs. This work is ongoing and at a stage where we are trying to unders...

  4. Galaxy alignments: An overview

    CERN Document Server

    Joachimi, Benjamin; Kitching, Thomas D; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Hoekstra, Henk; Kiessling, Alina; Kirk, Donnacha; Rassat, Anais

    2015-01-01

    The alignments between galaxies, their underlying matter structures, and the cosmic web constitute vital ingredients for a comprehensive understanding of gravity, the nature of matter, and structure formation in the Universe. We provide an overview on the state of the art in the study of these alignment processes and their observational signatures, aimed at a non-specialist audience. The development of the field over the past one hundred years is briefly reviewed. We also discuss the impact of galaxy alignments on measurements of weak gravitational lensing, and discuss avenues for making theoretical and observational progress over the coming decade.

  5. 75 FR 15427 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Staff Assessment for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/ Staff Assessment for the Proposed Construction and Operation of... environmental impacts associated with construction and operation would not occur. Agency Responsibilities... Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/ Staff Assessment, Possible Land Use Plan...

  6. 76 FR 45780 - Notice of Availability for a Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for Emergency Restoration of Seagrass Impacts From the... Administrative Trustee (LAT) for this emergency seagrass restoration. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, an Environmental Assessment for Emergency Restoration of Seagrass Impacts from the Deepwater...

  7. Analysis of environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Aynur Aydın; Turker, Ozhan

    2011-04-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) System, which embodies the "prevention principle" of the environmental law, is an important tool for environmental protection. This tool has a private importance for Turkey since it is a developing country, and it entered the Turkish law in 1983 with the Environmental Law. Besides, the EIA Regulation, which shows the application principles, became effective in 1993. Because Turkey is a candidate for European Union (EU), the EIA Regulation has been changed due to the EU compliance procedure, and its latest version became valid in 2008. This study aims to emphasize The EIA system in Turkey to supervise the efficiency of this procedure and point the success level. In the introduction part, general EIA concept, its importance, and some notations are mentioned. Following that, the legislation, which builds the EIA system, has been analyzed starting from the 1982 Turkish Constitution. Then, the legislation rules are explained due to the basic steps of the EIA procedure. In order to shed light upon the application, the EIA final decisions given until today, the results, and their distributions to the industries are assessed. In the final part of the study, a SWOT analysis is made to mention the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and threats of the EIA system in Turkey.

  8. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  9. Investigation of the environmental impacts of sedimentation in Anzali Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmal, Milad; Neshaei, Seyed Ahmad; Farzan, Niloofar

    2016-04-01

    Anzali harbor is the most essential transportation pole between Iran and other countries of the Caspian Sea basin. Anzali pond is an important ecosystem in the region due to its unique plant and animal species. In order to determine the effects of interaction between pond and sea, a series of in-depth studies and analysis on the pattern of sedimentation in Anzali harbor and pond were performed. The study area is Anzali harbor and pond which is located in southwest of the Caspian Sea in Iran. In recent years the economical importance and improvement program of this region has devoted many scientists and authorities attention to itself. In this paper, researches on environmental impact by sediment and pollution in this zone are performed. Analysis indicates that by disposal of sediment and pollution in this area, the physical and chemical quality of water has declined. Some practical suggestions are made to improve the quality of the studied region in terms of environmental aspects.

  10. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  11. Environmental Impact of Flame Retardants (Persistence and Biodegradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Brenner

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Flame-retardants (FR are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. Currently, the largest market group of FRs is the brominated flame retardants (BFRs. Many of the BFRs are considered toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative. Bioremediation of contaminated water, soil and sediments is a possible solution for the problem. However, the main problem with this approach is the lack of knowledge concerning appropriate microorganisms, biochemical pathways and operational conditions facilitating degradation of these chemicals at an acceptable rate. This paper reviews and discusses current knowledge and recent developments related to the environmental fate and impact of FRs in natural systems and in engineered treatment processes.

  12. Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols For Tidal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Michael Leroy [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Xue, Huijie [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Johnson, Teresa R. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME

    2014-02-02

    The Maine Tidal Power Initiative (MTPI), an interdisciplinary group of engineers, biologists, oceanographers, and social scientists, has been conducting research to evaluate tidal energy resources and better understand the potential effects and impacts of marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) development on the environment and local community. Project efforts include: 1) resource assessment, 2) development of initial device design parameters using scale model tests, 3) baseline environmental studies and monitoring, and 4) human and community responses. This work included in-situ measurement of the environmental and social response to the pre-commercial Turbine Generator Unit (TGU®) developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) as well as considering the path forward for smaller community scale projects.

  13. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced no more than approximately 10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 billion years and 3.5 2.5 billion years, the biggest of which were approximately30-100 times more energetic, comparable to the Orientale impact on the Moon (1x10 (sup 26) joules). To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid

  14. New-sandwiched hydrogen separation membranes with low environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Ozaki, T.; Komaki, M.; Nishimura, C. [Eco-Energy Materials Group, Ecomaterials Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    There is a strong interest in economical methods for hydrogen separation. In this work, we have developed sandwiched membranes, Pd-Ag/V-15Ni/Pd-Ag, which had much lower environmental impact than palladium-based membranes, which are the most commonly used membrane for the current production of highly pure hydrogen. The Pd-Ag overlayer was prepared on V-15Ni substrates (thickness 40 {mu}m) using multi-target sputtering. The hydrogen permeation of the Pd-Ag/V-15Ni/Pd-Ag sandwiched membranes was examined using gas permeation technology. (orig.)

  15. CISBAT 2007 - Environmental impacts of construction (ecological materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the eighth part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Environmental impacts of construction the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Nanostructured coatings for active solar facades' and 'Sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrids as binders for TISS paints'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings.

  16. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF TAX ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Tsakas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the performance of tax organizations in Greece, based on data obtained from a sample of 35 tax offices. Performance evaluation was conducted using DEA with bootstrap methods. In addition, Tobit regression analysis was employed to examine the environmental variables that impact on the efficiency performance of these tax offices. From the analysis, weaknesses, and management issues are derived from the tax offices inefficiency. The general conclusion is that a robust governance structure within the tax office operational framework is needed in order to improve organisational efficiency.

  17. Synthetic fuels technology overview with health and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, E. J., Jr.; Salmon, E. J.

    1981-06-01

    An introduction is presented to the following synthetic fuels technologies: (1) the Lurgi gasification of coal; (2) the Fischer-Tropsch liquefaction of coal; (3) coal-methanol conversion; (4) donor solvent gas liquefaction; (5) Tosco surface shale retorting; ethanol production from coal; and (6) the coal-methanol-gasoline conversion process. After establishing the system characteristics of these six technologies, consideration is given to their potential major health, safety, environmental and socio-economic impacts at the global, regional and local levels. It is determined that the main global consequence of synfuels development is climate modification, to which may be added the regional impact of dry and wet deposition of gaseous and particulate pollutants, and land and water quality deterioration due to soil erosion at the local level.

  18. Organics in environmental ices: sources, chemistry, and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Voisin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and biological processes involving organics in ice in the environment impact a number of atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles. Organic material in snow or ice may be biological in origin, deposited from aerosols or atmospheric gases, or formed chemically in situ. In this manuscript, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the sources, properties, and chemistry of organic materials in environmental ices. Several outstanding questions remain to be resolved and fundamental data gathered before a comprehensive, accurate model of organic species in the cryosphere will be possible. For example, more information is needed regarding the quantitative impacts of chemical and biological processes, ice morphology, and snow formation on the fate of organic material in cold regions. Interdisciplinary work at the interfaces of chemistry, physics and biology is needed in order to fully characterize the nature and evolution of organics in the cryosphere and predict the effects of climate change on the Earth's carbon cycle.

  19. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced ~10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 Ga and 3.5 Ga, the biggest of which were ~30-100X more energetic than Chicxulub. To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid under the circumstances). (iv) The surface temperature of dry land is presumed to be the same as the lower atmosphere. A

  20. Modeling Of Construction Noise For Environmental Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Hamoda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the noise levels generated at different construction sites in reference to the stage of construction and the equipment used, and examined the methods to predict such noise in order to assess the environmental impact of noise. It included 33 construction sites in Kuwait and used artificial neural networks (ANNs for the prediction of noise. A back-propagation neural network (BPNN model was compared with a general regression neural network (GRNN model. The results obtained indicated that the mean equivalent noise level was 78.7 dBA which exceeds the threshold limit. The GRNN model was superior to the BPNN model in its accuracy of predicting construction noise due to its ability to train quickly on sparse data sets. Over 93% of the predictions were within 5% of the observed values. The mean absolute error between the predicted and observed data was only 2 dBA. The ANN modeling proved to be a useful technique for noise predictions required in the assessment of environmental impact of construction activities.

  1. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  2. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  3. Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact: How Murky the Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed W. Super

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of water from the nation’s waterways to cool industrial facilities kills billions of adult, juvenile, and larval fish each year. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA promulgation of categorical rules defining the best technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact (AEI could standardize and improve the control of such mortality. However, in an attempt to avoid compliance costs, industry has seized on the statutory phrase “adverse environmental impact” to propose significant procedural and substantive hurdles and layers of uncertainty in the permitting of cooling-water intakes under the Clean Water Act. These include, among other things, a requirement to prove that a particular facility threatens the sustainability of an aquatic population as a prerequisite to regulation. Such claims have no foundation in science, law, or the English language. Any nontrivial aquatic mortality constitutes AEI, as the EPA and several state and federal regulatory agencies have properly acknowledged. The focus of scientists, lawyers, regulators, permit applicants, and other interested parties should not be on defining AEI, but rather on minimizing AEI, which requires minimization of impingement and entrainment.

  4. Environmental impact assessment in the Alberta oil sands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, I.B.; Herasymuik, G.; Schmidt, N.; Kovats, Z.; Clipperton, K. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Some of the activities associated with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process in oil sands operations in Alberta were reviewed with particular reference to key regional issues such as instream flow needs (IFN), basal water management, lake acidification potential, and climate change. The proven approaches to maintain timelines and maximize success were also discussed with reference to the factors that can be managed to promote an efficient application, review and approval process. It was noted that although the EIA process is well-defined and robust, it is evolving due to new challenges such as increasingly complex tools and new regulations. Alberta's Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) continuously refines environmental objectives for NOx, SOx, surface water, and the Muskeg River and the Athabasca River watersheds. In particular, much effort has gone into determining the water withdrawals from the Athabasca River during the winter months and its effect on resident fish populations. Operators must determine the viability of a project if studies of IFN indicate that there is limited river flow available for abstraction. This paper identified several factors that can be addressed to keep the process on schedule. These include planning, understanding issues, completing baseline surveys, and commanding the attention of regulators. 12 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  5. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Draft Environmental Impact State.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound's power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Puget Sound area electric reliability plan. Draft environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power & Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound`s power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  8. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  9. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  10. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF URBAN SPRAWL IN LONDRINA, PARANÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Polidoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public policies encouraging the insertion of large industrial and commercial developments near highways, associated to exclusionary housing policies, have shaped over the past decades a new urbanization phenomenon; the sprawl. This is largely characterized by discontinuous and fragmented occupation, with random population densities. This phenomenon brings environmental and social impacts to the urban and rural population, in addition to a great burden for the Government. In line with this and considering the lack of discussion about the topic, this paper discusses some of those impacts observed in Londrina - PR, Brazil. The influence of urban sprawl in this city has shown to impact traffic, waterproofing rates and green areas, in addition to underutilizing the infrastructure due to large urban voids and vacant lots. With the data presented here, it is hoped that debates emerge on the importance of rethinking the plan, so that everyone can have legal access to the city (endowed with infrastructure, as well as the importance of developing strategies to contain urban sprawl.

  12. Poverty and environmental impacts of electricity price reforms in Montenegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia [Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Studiestraede 6, DK-1455 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Klytchnikova, Irina [The World Bank, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Department (ECSPE) (United States); Radevic, Dragana [Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (ME)

    2009-03-15

    The creation of the Energy Community of South Eastern Europe in 2005 committed countries in South Eastern Europe to liberalize their energy markets in accordance to EU regulations. The Government of Montenegro is thus in the process of reforming its energy sector, which includes an electricity tariff reform. This paper analyzes the environmental and social impacts of an increase in residential electricity tariffs contemplated - which is expected to range anywhere from 40 to over 100% increase. As this analysis shows, such a significant price rise will impose a heavy burden on the poor households and it may adversely affect the environment. In an ex ante investigation of the welfare impact of this price increase on households in Montenegro, we show that the anticipated price increase will result in a very significant increase in households' energy expenditures. A simulation of alternative policy measures analyzes the impact of different tariff levels and structures, focusing on the poor and vulnerable households. Higher electricity prices could also significantly increase the proportion of households using fuelwood for space heating. Thus the level of fuelwood consumption should be carefully monitored under the electricity tariff reforms and the Government of Montenegro should combine the tariff reforms with a carefully evaluated set of policy measures to mitigate the effect of the electricity price increase on the poor. (author)

  13. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  14. Development of Reaction Process with the Consideration of Environmental Impact Minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈启石; 冯霄

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is presented to identify environmental impact minimization alternative for reaction processes and assess their environmental performance.The potential environmental impact (PEI) scheme can be used to visibly display the transformation relationships among different types of PEI,identify the sources of environmental impacts,and propose alternatives for eliminating of minimizing the impacts.To evaluate the environmental performance of the alternatives effectively,some new indices,such as PEI input rate of non-products,PEI output rate of non-products per profit and the PEI conversion efficiency are proposed.Finally,the application of the methodology is illustrated using an industrial case study.

  15. The scope of environmental impact statements for biofuelled energy plants in Sweden and its environmental relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn-Tysk, S.

    2001-03-01

    This thesis aims to evaluate how the Swedish environmental impact assessment (EIA) system works in practice and to analyse the environmental relevance of the scoping process during the ElA process. As a case study, environmental impact statements (EISs) for bio fuelled energy plants have been reviewed in order to illustrate the scope of the statements and hence evaluate how the ElA system works and analyses what environmental aspects that are prioritised by ElA actors. Based on the review results, the scope of the EISs indicates that the Swedish ElA system did not work as intended during the studied period since not even the legal requirements were fulfilled in many of the EISs. In addition, international EIA practice does not seem to have influenced the Swedish practice of ElA at that time. The EISs also show that EIA actors apply narrow system boundaries, i.e. they focus only on the activities of the energy plant that are explicitly linked to the energy plant location and its immediate vicinity. Moreover, these narrow system boundaries exclude important aspects of an energy plant, like resource extraction and global and long-term effects. Many of the energy plants have been planned and developed partly due to a Government Bill, in which a development of the Swedish energy system was proposed in order to achieve a sustainable development of Sweden. However, a sustainable development requires that effects on present as well as future generations are focused on as well. Therefore, an ElA process and a decision-making process, which prioritises local and short-term effects, often do not promote the societal goals of sustainable development. In order to promote the goals of sustainable development, the perspectives of ElA actors have to widen to include global and future, long-term effects.

  16. 75 FR 76444 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of the Air Force Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a... advising the public of its intent to prepare an EIS evaluating potential environmental impacts associated...: Cancellation of Pan-STARRS EIS. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969,...

  17. 78 FR 44137 - Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of..., ``Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway Bridge Across...; correction. SUMMARY: The comment period end date listed for the Manatee River Draft Environmental...

  18. 75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...: Notice of availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption... Environmental Assessment Background The commencement of construction provisions of 10 CFR 30.33, 40.32(e),...

  19. 77 FR 41774 - Notice of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Construction and... significant impact. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA) (42... Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for construction and operation of a radiological work and...

  20. Evaluation of indicators to assess the environmental impact of dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Current awareness of environmental pollution of animal production in Western Europe has triggered research on development of environmental indicators at farm level. Only when the environmental impact of commercial farms can be quantified effectively, important differences in impact can be demonstrat

  1. 10 CFR 51.92 - Supplement to the final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (6) Include an analysis of any environmental issue related to the impacts of construction or... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplement to the final environmental impact statement. 51.92 Section 51.92 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL...

  2. 10 CFR 51.86 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of § 51.74. legislative environmental impact statements—proposals for legislation ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51.86 Section 51.86 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL...

  3. 78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) which examines the reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts and socio-economic impacts of... SECURITY Coast Guard Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

  4. 75 FR 81031 - Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After Cessation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Commission 10 CFR Part 51 Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI47 Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent... environmental considerations; it was based on finding that 30 years beyond the licensed life for operation...

  5. Alignment validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  6. Life cycle assessment for the "implicit" environmental impact of construction projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-gen Shuai; Hui-qiang Li; Li Tang

    2009-01-01

    The paper has established an assessment system and a quantitative calculation method of the "implicit" environmental impact including environmental impact indicator, resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantitative calculation of the environmental impact indicator is based on the life cycle assessment system and the evaluation software BEES. The paper identifies normalization reference values and weights for 12 categories of the environmental impact. It also analyzes the environmental impact indicator in life cycle stages, raw materials, transportation, manufacturing, utilization, and end of life. A university refectory project is studied. The result has shown that human health, global warming and acidification are the first three environmental impacts in 12 categories. The environmental impact indicator per m2 of this project is 18.448×10-2 standard human equivalent weight. Moreover, 97.3 % of the total environmental impact occurs at the raw material stage, in which the most severe environmental impact is cancerous health effect; the global warming is the main impact at the transportation and manufacturing stages; the indoor air quality impact is at the usage stage.

  7. 75 FR 4842 - Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY... Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone ] National Park, located in...

  8. 75 FR 41452 - Withdrawal of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Development Process for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to address the potential impacts associated with the construction of the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Withdrawal of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)...

  9. 78 FR 50049 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Activities and Operations at Yuma Proving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Department of the Army Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Activities and Operations at...). This document ] analyzes and evaluates potential environmental impacts associated with short-term and... impacts from new construction, changes in testing and training, and activities conducted under...

  10. 76 FR 3652 - Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... National Park Service Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation... Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area. SUMMARY: Pursuant to...) is releasing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan (Draft...

  11. 76 FR 24050 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National... Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan (Plan/FEIS) for Biscayne National Park, Florida....

  12. Environmental impact assessment of combustible wastes utilization in rotary cement kilns

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental impact assessment of the coal combustion and its substitution by alternative fuels from combustible wastes during Portland cement clinker sinterization in rotary cement kiln. Environmental impact assessment was carried out based on the fuels chemical composition and operating parameters of a rotary cement kiln in accordance with EURITS and IMPACT 2002+ methods.

  13. 76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... occupational health and safety; and waste management. The environmental impacts on these resource areas were... impacts on land use, noise, historic and cultural, scenic and visual, or ecological resources. The... the quality of the human environment. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement...

  14. Does the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine have an impact on disk degeneration? Minimum 10-year follow-up of asymptomatic volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Eijiro; Matsumoto, Morio; Ichihara, Daisuke; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Momoshima, Suketaka; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Ogawa, Jun; Watanabe, Masahiko; Takahata, Takeshi

    2009-11-01

    There have been few studies that investigated and clarified the relationships between progression of degenerative changes and sagittal alignment of the cervical spine. The objective of the study was to longitudinally evaluate the relationships among progression of degenerative changes of the cervical spine with age, the development of clinical symptoms and sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in healthy subjects. Out of 497 symptom-free volunteers who underwent MRI and plain radiography of the cervical spine between 1994 and 1996, 113 subjects (45 males and 68 females) who responded to our contacts were enrolled. All subjects underwent another MRI at an average of 11.3 years after the initial study. Their mean age at the time of the initial imaging was 36.6 +/- 14.5 years (11-65 years). The items evaluated on MRI were (1) decrease in signal intensity of the intervertebral disks, (2) posterior disk protrusion, and (3) disk space narrowing. Each item was evaluated using a numerical grading system. The subjects were divided into four groups according to the age and sagittal alignment of the cervical spine, i.e., subjects under or over the age of 40 years, and subjects with the lordosis or non-lordosis type of sagittal alignment of the cervical spine. During the 10-year period, progression of decrease in signal intensity of the disk, posterior disk protrusion, and disk space narrowing were recognized in 64.6, 65.5, and 28.3% of the subjects, respectively. Progression of posterior disk protrusion was significantly more frequent in subjects over 40 years of age with non-lordosis type of sagittal alignment. Logistic regression analysis revealed that stiff shoulder was closely correlated with females (P = 0.001), and that numbness of the upper extremity was closely correlated with age (P = 0.030) and male (P = 0.038). However, no significant correlation between the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine and clinical symptoms was detected. Sagittal alignment of the

  15. Shuttle sonic boom - Technology and predictions. [environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, P. F.; Wilhold, G. A.; Jones, J. H.; Garcia, F., Jr.; Hicks, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Because the shuttle differs significantly in both geometric and operational characteristics from conventional supersonic aircraft, estimation of sonic boom characteristics required a new technology base. The prediction procedures thus developed are reviewed. Flight measurements obtained for both the ascent and entry phases of the Apollo 15 and 16 and for the ascent phase only of the Apollo 17 missions are presented which verify the techniques established for application to shuttle. Results of extensive analysis of the sonic boom overpressure characteristics completed to date are presented which indicate that this factor of the shuttle's environmental impact is predictable, localized, of short duration and acceptable. Efforts are continuing to define the shuttle sonic boom characteristics to a fine level of detail based on the final system design.

  16. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... a population-based cohort of 2,486,646million persons born in Denmark between 1 January 1955 and 31 December 1993 using Danish registers. We found that PAR associated with urban birth was 11.73%; PAR associated with one, respectively 2, parent(s) with schizophrenia was 2.67% and 0.12%. PAR associated...... with second-generation immigration was 0.70%. Highest cumulative incidence (CI=20.23%; 95% CI=18.10-22.62) was found in male offspring of 2 parents with schizophrenia. Cumulative incidences for male offspring or female offspring of a parent with schizophrenia were 9.53% (95% CI=7.71-11.79), and 4.89%, (95% CI...

  17. Helicopter noise exposure curves for use in environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. S.; Rickley, E. J.; Bland, T. L.

    1982-11-01

    This report establishes the current (1982) FAA helicopter noise data base for use in environmental impact assessment. The report sets out assumptions, methodologies, and techniques used in arriving at noise-exposure-versus-distance relationships. Noise data are provided for 15 helicopters, including five flight regimes each: takeoff, approach, level flyover, hover in-ground-effect (HIGE) and hover out-of-ground effect (HOGE). When possible, level flyover data are presented for a variety of airspeeds. Sound exposure level (SEL) is provided for all operational modes except hover. In the case of hover operations (both HOGE and HIGE), the maximum A-Weighted Sound Level (LAM) is identified as a function of distance. The report also includes a discussion of helicopter performance characteristics required for full computer modeling of helicopter/heliport noise exposure.

  18. Environmental indicators for communication of life cycle impact assessment results and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Park, Jong Moon

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is performed to quantitatively evaluate all environmental impacts from products, systems, processes and services. However, LCIA does not always provide valuable information for choosing among alternatives with different specifications, functionalities and lifetimes. The objectives of this study are (1) to propose environmental indicators to evaluate environmental efficiency and value qualitatively and quantitatively on the basis of analogies to financial and economic indicators, and (2) to present the application of the indicators. Incremental evaluation using a reference is employed to obtain the environmental indicators. The environmental efficiency indicators are conceptually based on the ratios of reduced environmental burdens returned to environmental burdens required: environmental return on investment, environmental payback period and environmental internal rate of return. The environmental value indicator is the sum of all reduced and required environmental burdens: i.e., environmental net present value. All the environmental indicators can be used to compare and rank the environmental efficiencies or values of alternatives. The environmental efficiency indicators can be applied to a new environmental labeling. The concept of eco-efficiency labeling is developed by combining the environmental efficiency indicators with financial indicators. A case study is performed to illustrate the necessity and importance of the environmental indicators. These environmental indicators can help easily communicate LCIA results in the field of environmental management.

  19. Air travel, life-style, energy use and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger Nielsen, S.

    2001-09-01

    The overall aim of this project is to investigate the linkages between energy use, life style and environmental impact. As a case of study, this report investigates the future possibilities for reducing the growth in greenhouse gas emissions from commercial civil air transport, that is passenger air travel and airfreight. The season for this choice of focus is that we found that commercial civil air transport may become a relatively large energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter in the future. For example, according to different scenarios presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), commercial civil air transport's fuel burn may grow by between 0,8 percent a factor of 1,6 and 16 between 1990 and 2050 and 2050. The actual growth in fuel consumption will depend on the future growth in airborne passenger travel and freight and the improvement rate for the specific fuel efficiency. As a central mid-term estimate the IPCC foresees that the fuel consumption may grow by around 3 percent per year until 2015. This report looks into the possibilities for reducing the growth in air traffic, as well as the possibilities for reducing the specific fuel consumption, to achieve an environmentally sustainable development. For commercial civil air transport the main challenge seems to lie in the strong growth rates currently envisioned by the aeronautical industry for the next decades. Like it is the case with most other types of (fossil) energy intensive activities the bulk of air traffic is currently performed in and between industrialised countries. In an environmentally sustainable World countries should aim at distributing resources evenly between the World's citizens. Therefore, on the longer term, there are tremendous challenges to be overcome. Achieving environmentally sustainable commercial civil air transport will first of all require that people living in currently industrialised countries stop travelling ever more by air each year. As it is

  20. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  1. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  2. Historical trade-offs of livestock’s environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel Davis, Kyle; Yu, Kailiang; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Carr, Joel A.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Human demand for animal products has risen markedly over the past 50 years with important environmental impacts. Dairy and cattle production have disproportionately contributed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and land use, while crop demands of more intensive systems have increased fertilizer use and competition for available crop calories. At the same time, chicken and pig production has grown more rapidly than for ruminants, indicating a change in the environmental burden per animal calorie (EBC) with time. How EBCs have changed and to what extent resource use efficiency (RUE), the composition of animal production and the trade of feed have played a role in these changes have not been examined to date. We employ a calorie-based perspective, distinguishing animal calorie production between calories produced from feedcrop sources—directly competing with humans for available calories—and those from non-feed sources—plant biomass unavailable for direct human consumption. Combining this information with data on agricultural resource use, we calculate EBCs in terms of land, GHG emissions and nitrogen. We find that EBCs have changed substantially for land (-62%), GHGs (-46%) and nitrogen (+188%). Changes in RUE (e.g., selective breeding, increased grain-feeding) have been the primary contributor to these EBC trends, but shifts in the composition of livestock production were responsible for 12%-41% of the total EBC changes. In addition, the virtual trade of land for feed has more than tripled in the past 25 years with 77% of countries currently relying on virtual land imports to support domestic livestock production. Our findings indicate that important tradeoffs have occurred as a result of livestock intensification, with more efficient land use and emission rates exchanged for greater nitrogen use and increased competition between feed and food. This study provides an integrated evaluation of livestock’s impact on food security and the environment.

  3. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-22

    This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 Long Range Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been

  4. Global Energy and Environmental Impacts of an Expanding China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Warwick J. McKibbin

    2006-01-01

    China accounts for 10 percent of global energy use and will continue to rely on coal for generating approximately 75 percent of its energy over coming decades. The environmental problems associated with coal burning are a concern for China as well as regionally and globally. The present paper summarizes China's energy structure and likely future energy requirements, while exploring the impact of energy use on air quality, black carbon emission,sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions. Although China has begun to take action on local environmental problems from energy, there is still much to be done.In particular, the problem of black carbon and carbon dioxide emissions needs to be addressed. The present paper proposes addressing carbon dioxide emissions through a longer-term strategy that acknowledges the need for China to continue to grow without a short-term carbon constraint but with clear pricing of the short-term and long-term cost of carbon dioxide.

  5. Social and Environmental Impacts of Forest Management Certification in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Miteva

    Full Text Available In response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. However, despite the proliferation of forest certification over the past two decades, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness. Using temporally and spatially explicit village-level data on environmental and socio-economic indicators in Kalimantan (Indonesia, we evaluate the performance of the FSC-certified timber concessions compared to non-certified logging concessions. Employing triple difference matching estimators, we find that between 2000 and 2008 FSC reduced aggregate deforestation by 5 percentage points and the incidence of air pollution by 31%. It had no statistically significant impacts on fire incidence or core areas, but increased forest perforation by 4 km2 on average. In addition, we find that FSC reduced firewood dependence (by 33%, respiratory infections (by 32% and malnutrition (by 1 person on average. By conducting a rigorous statistical evaluation of FSC certification in a biodiversity hotspot such as Indonesia, we provide a reference point and offer methodological and data lessons that could aid the design of ongoing and future evaluations of a potentially critical conservation policy.

  6. Environmental education: impact and knowledge of its purposes and nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracely Burgos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Education ( EE , especially schooling , was institutionalized worldwide approximately 40 years ago as the best alternative to the break in the nature- human population , but today its global impact , regional and local level is imperceptible. Nature has satisfied needs of societies and cultures , opposite, they have caused global environmental crisis expressed in loss of soil and biodiversity, climate change and pollution. It was considered that the EA could mediate this relationship , but why has not been achieved ? Here are addressed and discuss possible causes: 1 . Revised EA concept , which although was appropriate, consistent and has been used , not popular , making it impossible to achieve its purpose, which is the social renewal coexistence look. Two. It showed individual and collective actions , however is unknown what criteria and responsibilities according to their abilities . Three . Achieving EA has translated into policies , although well structured, point out indicators and any appropriate action and result. April . EA policy focused school as optimal scenario to become effective , unfortunately this has not changed mobilizing aspects . Finally, a formal proposal that includes various aspects that would allow EA success in a local context.

  7. Environmental impacts of thermochemical biomass conversion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; McKinney, M.D.; Norton, M.V.; Abrams, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Thermochemical conversion in this study is limited to fast pyrolysis, upgrading of fast pyrolysis oils, and gasification. Environmental impacts of all types were considered within the project, but primary emphasis was on discharges to the land, air, and water during and after the conversion processes. The project discussed here is divided into five task areas: (1) pyrolysis oil analysis; (2) hydrotreating of pyrolysis oil; (3) gas treatment systems for effluent minimization; (4) strategic analysis of regulatory requirements; and (5) support of the IEA Environmental Systems Activity. The pyrolysis oil task was aimed at understanding the oil contaminants and potential means for their removal. The hydrotreating task was undertaken to better define one potential means for both improving the quality of the oil but also removing contaminants from the oil. Within Task 3, analyses were done to evaluate the results of gasification product treatment systems. Task 4 was a review and collection of regulatory requirements which would be applicable to the subject processes. The IEA support task included input to and participation in the IEA Bioenergy activity which directly relates to the project subject. Each of these tasks is described along with the results. Conclusions and recommendations from the overall project are given.

  8. The environmental impact on the development of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rekliti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, it is noted a great increase in asthma cases worldwide due to environmental contamination, according to the scientific community. Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system with a key point the shortness of breath due to a temporary airway stenosis. Its main characteristics are: an increasingly assuming epidemic dimensions disease, its chronicity and unidentified pathogenesis. Furthermore, it is a multifactor disease and it is always first on the subjects list of every scientific meeting. People of all ages and origins suffer from this chronic disease which can set great limits to their daily life or even be sometimes fatal, if it is not kept under control.Purpose: Show the environmental impact on the appearance and development of asthma.Review (Methodology: Bibliography review is recently Greek and international and information was retrieved from Pub med and TRIP databases.Results - Conclusions: Air pollution and the effect of western lifestyle contribute to the increase of asthma prevalence in developed countries. Data from several studies argue that changing nutritional habits, reducing physical activity and coping with daily stress in today’s fast-paced, changing world affect directly the development of asthma. By assuming new dimensions in world climate changes, increasing sensitization in allergens, using respiratory irritants, such as pesticides and compounds and chemicals of industrial origin, and at the same time the poor indoor air quality and family history of asthma lead to new asthma cases worldwide. Moreover, the minimization of the symptoms and the control of the disease offer the opportunity for the patient to a better quality of life. Finally, by understanding better the environmental factors which trigger the development of asthma and by explaining the involved gene action, they will be delivered more effective prevention and treatment programs.

  9. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang, Yize Sun, Yang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8 m/s, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000 W/m2. Root mean square error (RMSE between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  10. Game theoretic analysis of environmental impact assessment system in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Hongguang; QI Ye; PU Xiao; GONG Li

    2007-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) system has been established in China since 1973.In present EIA cases,there are four participants in general:governments,enterprises,EIA organizations and the public.The public has held responsible for both social costs and social duties.The public supervises social costs produced by enterprises discharging pollutant in EIA.However public participation is mostly deputized by governments,which severely weaken the independence of the public as one participant in EIA.In this paper,EIA refers to the different attitudes of the participants whose optional strategies may be described by a proper game model.According to disfigurements in EIA,three sides (governments,enterprises,and EIA organizations)dynamic iterative game theory of many phases is established referring to iterative game theory,dynamic game theory of incomplete information,and perfect Bayesian equilibrium theory to analyze the reciprocity relation among governments,EIA organizations and enterprises.The results show that in a short period,economic benefit is preponderant over social benefit.Governments and enterprises both do not want to take EIA to reveal social costs.EIA organizations' income comes from enterprises and the collusions are built between them to vindicate economic benefit.In a long run,social benefit loss caused by environmental pollution must be recuperated sooner or later and environmental deterioration will influence the achievements of economic benefit,so both governments and eaterprises are certain to pursue high social benefit and willing to take EIA,helpful to increase private benefit.EIA organizations will make fair assessment when their economic benefit are ensured.At present,the public as silent victims can not take actual part in EIA.The EIA system must be improved to break the present equilibrium of three sides,bringing the public to the equilibrium to exert public supervision.

  11. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-05-28

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.

  12. Evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle based on lifecycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan

    2014-03-01

    Energy resources have environmental impact through their entire lifecycle. The evaluation of the environmental impacts of the energy lifecycle can contribute to decision making regarding energy management. In this paper, the lifecycle assessment (LCA) method is introduced to calculate the environmental impact loads of different types of energy resources (including coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity) used in urban regions. The scope of LCA includes the production, transportation, and consumption processes. The pollutant emission inventory is listed, and the environmental impact loads are acquired through the calculation of environmental impact potentials, normalization, and weighted assessment. The evaluation method is applied to Beijing, China, revealing that photochemical oxidant formation and acidification are the primary impact factors in the lifecycle of all energy resources and that the total environmental impact load increased steadily from 132.69 million person equivalents (PE) in 1996 to 208.97 million PE in 2010. Among the energy types, coal contributes most to the environmental impact, while the impacts caused by oil, natural gas, and electricity have been growing. The evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle is useful for regulating energy structures and reducing pollution, which could help achieve sustainable energetic and environmental development.

  13. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho)

    1996-06-01

    This summary gives the major points of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery by the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and other interested parties. The Nez Perce once were one of the largest Plateau tribes in the Northwest and occupied a territory that included north central Idaho, southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. Salmon and other migratory fish species are an invaluable food resource and an integral part of the Nez Perce Tribe`s culture. Anadromous fish have always made up the bulk of the Nez Perce tribal diet and this dependence on salmon was recognized in the treaties made with the Tribe by the US. The historic economic, social, and religious significance of the fish to the Nez Perce Tribe continues to this day, which makes the decline of fish populations in the Columbia River Basin a substantial detrimental impact to the Nez Perce way of life. The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that would rear and release spring, summer, and fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), biologically similar to wild fish, to reproduce in the Clearwater River Subbasin. Program managers propose techniques that are compatible with existing aquatic and riparian ecosystems and would integrate hatchery-produced salmon into the stream and river environments needed to complete their life cycle.

  14. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures : An input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input–output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are e

  15. Importance of environmental impact assessment and monitoring studies in industrial development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    Environmental assessment is taken up in this exercise as a rapid assessment technique for determining the current status of the environment and identifying impact of critical activities on environmental parameters. EIA is a relatively new planning...

  16. Assessing impacts of wind turbines on birds through the Canadian environmental impact assessment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.M. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    While Environment Canada recognizes the benefits of wind power as a source of renewable energy, the adverse impacts of wind turbines on wildlife must be addressed. This presentation discussed the role of the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) in developing environmental guidelines for wind energy systems. The CWS is actively involved in the protection of migratory birds protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, as well as species at risk as listed under SARA. In order to aid in federal environmental assessment processes, the CWS is now preparing a guidance document that summarizes the potential impacts of wind turbines on migratory birds and highlights risk factors that should be considered by proponents. The document may be used to determine whether site sensitivity for planned wind farms is high for birds, which include species at risk; large breeding colonies; major concentrations of birds; and important bird areas. High levels of concern will generally anticipate a need for stronger evidence that environmental effects will be minimal. Most wind power projects will require pre-construction monitoring for a one-year period in order to estimate potential adverse impacts and identify possible mitigation measures. Breeding bird surveys may be conducted to determine the presence of species and their relative abundance, as well as to determine the behaviour of birds in relation to the proposed turbine locations. Post-construction monitoring may also be conducted from 1 to 3 years, depending on the risk factors. It was concluded that the recommended protocols for monitoring impacts of wind turbines on birds will also facilitate comparison of data among wind power projects. Targeted research projects are also being conducted by the CWS to improve efficiency of carcass searching, and understanding migration patterns and concentration sites. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Automobile air-conditioning. Its energy and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maximum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the international climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-conditioning (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment-recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential-led ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. (author)

  18. Environmental impacts of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, E.; Herzog, H.; Auerbach, D. [and others

    1995-11-01

    One option to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels is to capture and sequester power plant CO{sub 2} Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive, exists today. However, the ability to dispose of large quantities of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain. The deep ocean is one of only a few possible CO{sub 2} disposal options (others are depleted oil and gas wells or deep, confined aquifers) and is a prime candidate because the deep ocean is vast and highly unsaturated in CO{sub 2}. The term disposal is really a misnomer because the atmosphere and ocean eventually equilibrate on a timescale of 1000 years regardless of where the CO{sub 2} is originally discharged. However, peak atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations expected to occur in the next few centuries could be significantly reduced by ocean disposal. The magnitude of this reduction will depend upon the quantity of CO{sub 2} injected in the ocean, as well as the depth and location of injection. Ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} will only make sense if the environmental impacts to the ocean are significantly less than the avoided impacts of atmospheric release. Our project has been examining these ocean impacts through a multi-disciplinary effort designed to summarize the current state of knowledge. The end-product will be a report issued during the summer of 1996 consisting of two volumes an executive summary (Vol I) and a series of six, individually authored topical reports (Vol II). A workshop with invited participants from the U.S. and abroad will review the draft findings in January, 1996.

  19. Geochemical Principles and Methods of Assessment of Surface Water Environmental Impact on Sensitive Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鸿德; 程林; 等

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes how to carry out environmental impact assessment in an environmentally sensitive zone.The principles,the train of thought and methods are proposed in this paper,We have made the water environmental impact assessment on the engineering project of technical reforms in Guiyang Battery Mill.The hasis for engineering construction and environmental protection in this mill has been laid dawn.

  20. National Ignition Facility Project Input for Assessment of Environmental Impacts of NIF for the Sitewide Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S

    2003-10-01

    This report provides the baseline data from which the environmental impacts of bounding NIF operations can be assessed. Included are operations in the NE Laser and Target Area Building (LTAB) and the Optics Assembly Building (OAB), (Buildings 581 and 681), and the Building 582 equipment building. The NIF is an experimental laser fusion facility undergoing construction and commissioning at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The LTAB, the main experimental building of the NIF, is where laser-driven experiments will be conducted. The LTAB consists of two laser bays, two optical switchyards, a target bay, target diagnostics areas, capacitor bays, mechanical equipment areas, control rooms, and operational support areas. The LTAB provides an optically stable and clean environment and provides sufficient shielding against prompt radiation and residual radioactivity to meet the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle.

  1. Exploring the Attitudes-Action Gap in Household Resource Consumption: Does “Environmental Lifestyle” Segmentation Align with Consumer Behaviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Meyer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumption is a transcending challenge for the 21st century that is stimulating research on multiple pathways required to deliver a more environmentally sustainable future. This paper is nested in what is a much larger field of research on sustainable consumption and reports on part of a major Australian Research Council study into the determinants of household resource consumption, based on a survey of 1,250 residents in Melbourne, Australia. Three environmental lifestyle segments are established that represent the spectrum of attitudes, opinions and intentions across the surveyed population: “committed” greens, “material” greens and “enviro-sceptics” (representing respectively 33.5%, 40.3% and 26.3% of the population. Each segment was found to display distinctive socio-demographic attributes, as well as urban geographies. However, few differences were found in relation to each segment’s actual consumption of energy, water, housing space, urban travel and domestic appliances. The research findings indicate that in these areas of urban resource consumption—all principal contributors to the ecological footprint of households—there are sets of factors at work that override attitudes, opinions and intentions as indicators of consumer behaviour. Some of these factors are information, organization and finance related and are the focus of much public policy. However, the persistence of well ingrained habits and practices among individuals and households and the lack of norms and values in western societies that explicitly promote environmental conservation among its population, are fundamentally involved in the attitude-action gap and constitute important avenues for future research and action.

  2. 77 FR 43902 - Notice of Availability of a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the California...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... NEPA (40 CFR parts 1500 et seq.), and FRA's Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR..., 2012. Paul Nissenbaum, Associate Administrator for Railroad Policy & Development. BILLING CODE...

  3. 75 FR 7522 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, Presidio Flood Control... EIS) for flood control improvements to the Presidio Flood Control Project, Presidio, Texas (Presidio... Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, USIBWC Presidio Flood......

  4. The Impact of Grain Alignment of the Electron Transporting Layer on the Performance of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Banavoth; Labban, Abdulrahman El; Eid, Jessica; Alarousu, Erkki; Shi, Dong; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xixiang; Bakr, Osman M; Mohammed, Omar F

    2015-10-21

    This report presents a new strategy for improving solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) through grain alignment and morphology control of the ZnO electron transport layer (ETL) prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The systematic control over the ETL's grain alignment and thickness is shown, by varying the deposition pressure and operating substrate temperature during the deposition. Notably, a high PCE of 6.9%, short circuit current density (J(sc)) of 12.8 mA cm(-2), open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 910 mV, and fill factor of 59% are demonstrated using the poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione):[6,6]-phenyl-C(71) -butyric acid methyl ester polymer blend with ETLs prepared at room temperature exhibiting oriented and aligned rod-like ZnO grains. Increasing the deposition temperature during the ZnO sputtering induces morphological cleavage of the rod-like ZnO grains and therefore reduced conductivity from 7.2 × 10(-13) to ≈1.7 × 10(-14) S m(-1) and PCE from 6.9% to 4.28%. An investigation of the charge carrier dynamics by femtosecond (fs) transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability reveals clear evidence of faster carrier recombination for a ZnO layer deposited at higher temperature, which is consistent with the conductivity and device performance.

  5. Using Fuzzy Inference Systems to Optimize Highway Alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Dell’Acqua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the research project is to explore innovations in integrating infrastructure and land use planning for transportation corridors. In contexts with environmental impact, the choice of transportation routes must address the sensitivity of current and preexisting conditions. Multi-criteria analyses are used to solve problems of this nature, but they do not define an objective approach on a quantitative basis taking into account some important, but often intrinsically unmeasurable parameters. Fuzzy logic becomes a more effective model as systems become more complex. During the preliminary design phase, fuzzy inference systems offer a contribution to decision-making which is much more complete than a benefits/and costs analysis. In this study, alternative alignment options are considered, combining engineering, social, environmental, and economic factors in the decision-making. The research formalizes a general method useful for analyzing different case studies. The method can be used to justify highway alignment choices in environmental impact study analysis.

  6. Environmental regulation of tourism: impact on business innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    Tourism and environmental issues are particularly critical in small islands. This article compares environmental constraints and regulations on Bornholm, Isle of Wight and Mallorca.......Tourism and environmental issues are particularly critical in small islands. This article compares environmental constraints and regulations on Bornholm, Isle of Wight and Mallorca....

  7. The Semantic Management of Environmental Resources within the Interoperable Context of the EuroGEOSS: Alignment of GEMET and the GEOSS SBAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialone, Claudia; Stock, Kristin

    2010-05-01

    existing environmental projects (for example, GEOSS and INSPIRE). This requirement imposes constraints on the selection. Thirdly, the selected classification scheme or group of schemes (if more than one) must be capable of alignment (establishing different kinds of mappings between concepts, hence preserving intact the original knowledge schemes) or merging (the creation of another unique ontology from the original ontological sources) (Pérez-Gómez et al., 2004). Last but not least, there is the issue of including multi-lingual schemes that are based on free, open standards (non-proprietary). Using these selection criteria, we aim to support open and convenient data discovery and exchange for users who speak different languages (particularly the European ones for the broad scopes of EuroGEOSS). In order to support the project, we have developed a solution that employs two classification schemes: the Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs)3: the upper-level environmental categorization developed for the GEOSS project and the GEneral Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET)4: a general environmental thesaurus whose conceptual structure has already been integrated with the spatial data themes proposed by the INSPIRE project. The former seems to provide the spatial data keywords relevant to the INSPIRE's Directive (JRC, 2008). In this way, we provide users with a basic set of concepts to support resource description and discovery in the thematic areas while supporting the requirements of INSPIRE and GEOSS. Furthermore, the use of only two classification schemes together with the fact that the SBAs are very general categories while GEMET includes much more detailed, yet still top-level, concepts, makes alignment an achievable task. Alignment was selected over merging because it leaves the existing classification schemes intact and requires only a simple activity of defining mappings from GEMET to the SBAs. In order to accomplish this task we are developing a simple, automated, open

  8. Beyond Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking to Architecting Enterprises is a comprehensive reader about how enterprises can apply systems thinking in their enterprise architecture practice, for business transformation and for strategic execution. The book's contributors find that systems thinking...... is a valuable way of thinking about the viable enterprise and how to architect it....

  9. Hydrogeological and environmental impact of coal mining, Jharia coalfield, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.D. (Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Applied Geology)

    The Jharia coalfield is the most important and active mining region in India, it experiences groundwater inflow and affects groundwater levels in overlying aquifers, and it provides the basis for a conceptual model of the hydrogeological impacts of coal mining. The several sandstone aquifers of the overburden are separated by aquitards that limit vertical hydraulic connection, but the inflow responds to seasonal events and seems to be linked to shallow groundwater behaviour. The mine drainage behaviour suggests a hydraulic connection between the mine and the shallower groundwater system. The greatest declines are directly above the panels, with an immediate response to coal mining. The inflow is localized by natural and induced fracture zones and is mostly into recent workings. The groundwater behaviour is controlled by hydraulic property changes caused by mine-induced fracturing. The hydrological and chemical qualities of the shallow groundwater regime in 13 mining collieries in Mukunda Block have been investigated. Water samples were collected from 30 shallow monitoring dug wells. Rainfall, runoff, and infiltration rates have been calculated in the area. The water-quality plottings were used to interpret the distribution of individual chemical parameters and in predicting the water quality. The underground mine water has been classified as: (1) unconfined groundwater in the calcareous siltstone and sandstone - its composition in Na, Ca, SO{sub 4} and Na-MgHCO{sub 3} with moderate total dissolved solids (TDS)200-1480 ppm; (2) the deep groundwater originating from the coal seams and associated sediments in the near-surface environments - this is a Na-HCO{sub 3} water with higher TDS; and (3) spoil dump waters are essentially Na-HCO{sub 3} with high TDS. This article presents some hydrologic results and conclusions relating to the hydrogeological and environmental impacts of the coal mining in the Jharia coalfield. 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... develop and enforce relevant environmental standards. (3) The applicant or petitioner for rulemaking and... enforce relevant environmental standards. (5) Appropriate State, regional and metropolitan...

  11. Environmental impacts of the use of ecosystem services: case study of birdwatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Jakub

    2014-09-01

    The main reason for promoting the concept of ecosystem services lies in its potential to contribute to environmental conservation. Highlighting the benefits derived from ecosystems fosters an understanding of humans' dependence on nature, as users of ecosystem services. However, the act of using ecosystem services may not be environmentally neutral. As with the use of products and services generated within an economy, the use of ecosystem services may lead to unintended environmental consequences throughout the 'ecosystem services supply chain.' This article puts forward a framework for analyzing environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services, indicating five categories of impact: (1) direct impacts (directly limiting the service's future availability); and four categories of indirect impacts, i.e., on broader ecosystem structures and processes, which can ultimately also affect the initial service: (2) impacts related to managing ecosystems to maximize the delivery of selected services (affecting ecosystems' capacity to provide other services); (3) impacts associated with accessing ecosystems to use their services (affecting other ecosystem components); (4) additional consumption of products, infrastructure or services required to use a selected ecosystem service, and their life-cycle environmental impacts; and (5) broader impacts on the society as a whole (environmental awareness of ecosystem service users and other stakeholders). To test the usefulness of this framework, the article uses the case study of birdwatching, which demonstrates all of the above categories of impacts. The article justifies the need for a broader consideration of environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services.

  12. Worldwide environmental impacts from the eruption of Thera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, P. E.

    1995-10-01

    Helens, have done massive environmental damage but none can compare with the sociological, religious, economic, agricultural, and political impacts from Thera (Santorini). Major natural catastrophes that have occurred over historical time illustrate the force of nature and the impact on civilizations. Some examples of these are rains that flooded the Euphrates Valley during the time of Noah, and floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes in recent years, such as earthquakes in California and Hurricane Hugo on the east coast of the United States.

  13. Environmental mercury contamination in China: Sources and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Wong, M.H. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-01-15

    This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%, 38% and 17%, respectively, to the total Hg emission based on the data of 1999. Mercury contamination is widespread in different ecological compartments such as atmosphere, soil and water. There is evidence showing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Hg in aquatic food chains, with higher concentrations detected in carnivorous fish. In terms of human exposure to Hg, fish consumption is the major exposure pathway for residents living in coastal cities such as Hong Kong, but inhalation may be another major source, affecting human health in areas with severe atmospheric Hg, such as Guiyang City (Guizhou Province). There is also increasing evidence showing that skin disorders and autism in Hong Kong children are related to their high Hg body loadings (hair, blood and urine), through prenatal methyl Hg exposure. There seems to be an urgent need to identify the sources of Hg, speciation and concentrations in different ecological compartments, which may lead to high body loadings in human beings.

  14. Bonneville Power Administration Wildlife Mitigation Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information.

  15. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  16. Environmental Impact of Cage Culture on Poondi Reservoir, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anusuya Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out in Poondi reservoir, Tamil Nadu, for a period of 8 months from September, 2014 to April, 2015 where the cage culture has been already initiated by the state fisheries department. The water and sediment samples were collected from the reservoir at point and non- point sources of the cage culture units and were analyzed for their physico-chemical parameters. The total microbial load, E. coli and feacal streptococci population were also assessed from the reservoir. During the study period, pH, sulphate, nitrate and BOD values were found within the permissible range for drinking water quality. The alkalinity values were found optimum in the reservoir water. The sediment characteristics such as pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon and available phosphorus values were also found to be within the standard limit. The optimum water and sediment quality characteristics and the absence of E. coli and feacal streptococci observed in the cage culture unit clearly showed that the small cage farming in the reservoir does not have major environmental impacts on the water and sediment quality.

  17. Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

  18. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (Idaho).

    1996-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Nez Perce Tribe propose a supplementation program to restore chinook salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin in Idaho. The Clearwater River is a tributary to the Snake River, which empties into the Columbia River. The Nez Perce Tribe would build and operate two central incubation and rearing hatcheries and six satellite facilities. Spring, summer and fall chinook salmon would be reared and acclimated to different areas in the Subbasin and released at the hatchery and satellite sites or in other watercourses throughout the Subbasin. The supplementation program differs from other hatchery programs because the fish would be released at different sizes and would return to reproduce naturally in the areas where they are released. Several environmental issues were identified during scoping: the possibility that the project would fail if mainstem Columbia River juvenile and adult passage problems are not solved; genetic risks to fish listed as endangered or threatened; potential impacts to wild and resident fish stocks because of increase competition for food and space; and water quality. The Proposed Action would affect several important aspects of Nez Perce tribal life, primarily salmon harvest, employment, and fisheries management.

  19. Impact of environmental chemistry on mycogenic Mn oxide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, C. M.; Farfan, G. A.; Post, A.; Post, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestrial environments and their presence can have broad environmental consequences. In particular, Mn oxides scavenge nutrients and metals, degrade complex organics, and oxidize a variety of inorganic contaminants. The "reactivity" of Mn oxides, however, is highly dependent upon crystallite size, composition, and structure, which are largely determined by environmental factors such as solution chemistry. It is has been suggested that most Mn oxides in terrestrial and aquatic environments are formed by microbial activity; indeed, a diversity of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria and fungi have been isolated and their mineral byproducts are consistent with those observed in natural systems. Previous studies showed that Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi produce highly-disordered, nanocrystalline Mn oxides that are structurally similar to synthetic δ-MnO2 or natural vernadite. Unlike related studies with Mn-oxidizing bacteria, Mn oxides produced by these fungi did not "age" or transform to more crystalline mineral phases with time. We hypothesize that fungal growth conditions, in particular the low concentration of cations, are inhibiting secondary mineral formation. The overall goal of this research is to examine the structure and speciation of fungally-precipitated Mn oxides with respect to fungal species, time, and concentration of soluble Mn(II), Na, and Ca - three environmentally relevant cations that promote the transformation of δ-MnO2 to more crystalline mineral phases such as feitknechtite, birnessite, or ranciéite. For this study, we examined the Mn oxides formed by different species of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi (Pyrenochaeta sp., Stagonospora sp., Plectosphaerella cucumerina., and Acremonium strictum). Isolates were grown for 8 or 16 days in a nutrient lean media consisting of yeast extract, trace elements and 0.2 mM MnCl2 supplemented with varying concentrations of Na, Ca, or Mn(II) compounds. The

  20. The Impact of Grain Alignment of the Electron Transporting Layer on the Performance of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali

    2015-08-13

    This report presents a new strategy for improving solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) through grain alignment and morphology control of the ZnO electron transport layer (ETL) prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The systematic control over the ETL\\'s grain alignment and thickness is shown, by varying the deposition pressure and operating substrate temperature during the deposition. Notably, a high PCE of 6.9%, short circuit current density (Jsc) of 12.8 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 910 mV, and fill factor of 59% are demonstrated using the poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester polymer blend with ETLs prepared at room temperature exhibiting oriented and aligned rod-like ZnO grains. Increasing the deposition temperature during the ZnO sputtering induces morphological cleavage of the rod-like ZnO grains and therefore reduced conductivity from 7.2 × 10-13 to ≈1.7 × 10-14 S m-1 and PCE from 6.9% to 4.28%. An investigation of the charge carrier dynamics by femtosecond (fs) transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability reveals clear evidence of faster carrier recombination for a ZnO layer deposited at higher temperature, which is consistent with the conductivity and device performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment for Risk Governance Purposes; Across What Do We Integrate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebret, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential s

  2. The warm meal "foodprint"of the UMCG. Environmental impact of a hospital food system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Politiek, Eline

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Food is the third largest contributor to human-caused environmental impact (FAO, 2009). Food has an environmental impact on fields like: CO2 emission, energy use, land use, and water use (FAO, 2009). World-wide 30% to 50% of all food is lost or w

  3. Environmental impacts of international shipping. A case study of the port of Rotterdam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.; Verbraak, G. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    As part of the project 'Environmental Impacts of International Shipping: the role of ports' of the Working Group on Transport under OECD's Environment Policy Committee, CE Delft carried out this case study focusing on how the port of Rotterdam and the Dutch authorities address the environmental impacts of the port and its interactions with the hinterlands.

  4. 77 FR 30320 - General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Ross Lake National Recreation... the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the new General Management Plan (GMP) for Ross...

  5. 77 FR 61632 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Cattle Point Road Relocation, San Juan Island National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement for Cattle Point Road Relocation, San Juan.... ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for Cattle Point Road... bluff erosion that threatens a segment of the Cattle Point Road located in San Juan Island...

  6. 75 FR 34477 - Potomac-Appalachian Transmission Highline (PATH) Environmental Impact Statement, Harpers Ferry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Highline (PATH) Environmental Impact Statement, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, Appalachian... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for construction and right-of-way permits requested from Harpers Ferry... applications (Form 299) for those portions of the PATH project proposed to traverse Harpers Ferry...

  7. 78 FR 31628 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Milwaukee, WI to Minneapolis, MN Rail Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545; May 26, 1999). FRA and MnDOT will use a tiered... Federal Railroad Administration Environmental Impact Statement for the Milwaukee, WI to Minneapolis, MN... be prepared for the Milwaukee, WI to Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (Milwaukee-Twin Cities) High-Speed...

  8. 78 FR 47410 - General Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Gateway National Recreation Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... National Park Service General Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey and New York AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... National Park Service (NPS) is releasing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the...

  9. 78 FR 20942 - Niobrara Confluence and Ponca Bluffs Conservation Areas, NE and SD; Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ...; increase tourism; instill new money into local economies; improve quality of life through healthy air..., NE and SD; Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Land Protection Plan; Request for Public Comments..., announce the availability of a draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) and land protection plan...

  10. 76 FR 68503 - Ungulate Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Great Sand Dunes National Park and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... National Park Service Ungulate Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Great Sand Dunes National... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Ungulate Management Plan, Great Sand Dunes... Ungulate Management Plan, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado. The purpose of this...

  11. 77 FR 38823 - Notice of Availability of the Alta East Wind Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Draft California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan Amendment (PA) for the Alta East Wind Project... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Alta East Wind Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report and Proposed California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment,...

  12. 76 FR 27087 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... National Park Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National... Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located..., Yellowstone National Park, P.O. Box 168, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming 82190. If you wish to comment...

  13. 77 FR 38824 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY...) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming. DATES:...

  14. 75 FR 54177 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV...) has prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project... news releases, and/or mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments on the Crescent Dunes Solar...

  15. 75 FR 72836 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... (BLM) has prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Crescent Dunes Solar...

  16. 77 FR 44267 - Notice of Availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States AGENCY: Bureau of Land... availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six... Programmatic EIS and Proposed RMP Amendments, references, and additional information regarding solar...

  17. 77 FR 74470 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Gregory Canyon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact..., Los Angeles District (Regulatory Division) has completed a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... discharge fill material into waters of the U.S. associated with the construction of the proposed...

  18. 76 FR 74074 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Windy Gap Firming Project, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Windy Gap Firming Project, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Final Environmental... construction and address any project impacts to waters of the United States and jurisdictional wetlands....

  19. 77 FR 59703 - Environmental Impact Statement; Taos Regional Airport, Taos, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Taos Regional Airport, Taos, NM AGENCY...) for the ``Taos Regional Airport, Airport Layout Plan Improvements'' Environmental Impact Statement... requested the FAA to approve revisions to its Airport Layout Plan (ALP) to reflect and allow construction...

  20. 78 FR 32441 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... National Park Service Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain... Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain... Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. DATES: The National Park...

  1. 78 FR 26102 - Notice of Termination of Environmental Impact Statement for the Friedman Memorial Replacement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Termination of Environmental Impact Statement for the Friedman... to terminate the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Friedman Memorial Replacement Airport... for a replacement airport for Friedman Memorial Airport, Hailey, ID. The FAA proceeded with the...

  2. 76 FR 22917 - Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... National Park Service Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National... comment period for Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area. SUMMARY: The National Park Service has prepared a Draft Dog Management Plan...

  3. 78 FR 64412 - Proposed Waste Confidence Rule and Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AJ20 Proposed Waste Confidence Rule and Draft Generic Environmental Impact.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has rescheduled to November 12 the Waste Confidence public meeting it... disposal (the proposed Waste Confidence rule) and the draft generic environmental impact statement...

  4. 76 FR 63346 - Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Administration Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and Westchester... preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor project... Port Chester, Westchester County, New York including the Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River....

  5. 76 FR 51395 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP), Canaveral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... National Park Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP... Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP), Canaveral National... 1969 the NPS announces the availability of a DEIS/GMP for Canaveral National Seashore, Florida....

  6. 75 FR 1802 - Termination of the Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan, Gila Cliff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... heritage by providing a more unified management approach to the two units of the monument. --Alternative 4... National Park Service Termination of the Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan.... ACTION: Notice of termination of the Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan,...

  7. 77 FR 56671 - Draft Shoreline Restoration Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for Indiana Dunes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ...; 6065-4000-409] Draft Shoreline Restoration Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for...., Section 4332(2)(c), the National Park Service announces the availability of the Draft Shoreline.... DATES: The Draft Shoreline Restoration Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement (SRMP) will...

  8. THE WASTE REDUCTION (WAR) ALGORITHM: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, ENERGY CONSUMPTION, AND ENGINEERING ECONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A general theory known as the WAste Reduction (WAR) algorithm has been developed to describe the flow and the generation of potential environmental impact through a chemical process. This theory defines potential environmental impact indexes that characterize the generation and t...

  9. 75 FR 57005 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Public Hearings for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Public Hearings for the Proposed Energia... ``Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Project'' (DOE... a Presidential permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission, LLC (ESJ-U.S.), for...

  10. 75 FR 21343 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Round Mountain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Round Mountain... prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Round Mountain Expansion Project and by this... the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Round Mountain Expansion Project Final EIS...

  11. 77 FR 62214 - Travel Management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Eldorado National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Public Wheeled Motorized Travel Management EIS Record of Decision, March 2008 that were found by the... Forest Service Travel Management Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Eldorado National... supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: In March 2008, the U.S. Forest Service completed...

  12. Options to reduce environmental impacts of palm oil production in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for palm oil worldwide. In Thailand, oil palm is being promoted by the government but this expansion is associated with several environmental impacts. We identified 26 options for reducing the environmental impact of palm oil production in Thailand, and assessed their c

  13. 76 FR 70483 - Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan, Paterson Great Falls National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... National Park Service Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan, Paterson Great Falls... Environmental Impact Statement (GMP/EIS) for Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park (NHP), New Jersey. In the park's enabling legislation, Congress established the Paterson Great Falls NHP Advisory...

  14. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2013: Impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper updates previous assessments of how crop biotechnology has changed the environmental impact of global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use in the mid 1990s. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 553 million kg (-8.6%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by 19.1%. The technology has also facilitated important cuts in fuel use and tillage changes, resulting in a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from the GM cropping area. In 2013, this was equivalent to removing 12.4 million cars from the roads.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF CEMENT-CONCRETE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,a life-cycle assessment methodology is used to evaluate the environmental effects of cement-concrete system.The production factors notably affecting environment are obtained and the way improving environmental effects is indicated.

  16. Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Proposal : Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This environmental document assesses the potential environmental effects of establishment of a national wildlife refuge for the primary purpose of preserving and...

  17. Summary Report for the Environmental Protection Agency MERL/FRMAC Mission Alignment Exercise held at the Environmental Protection Agency Facility on June 24-26 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fournier, Sean Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leonard, Elliott J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    From June 24th thru June 26th 2014, members of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) participated in a joint nuclear incident emergency response/round robin exercise at the EPA facility in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of this exercise was to strengthen the interoperability relationship between the FRMAC Fly Away Laboratory (FAL) and the EPA Mobile Environmental Radiation Laboratory (MERL) stationed in Las Vegas, Nevada. The exercise was designed to allow for immediate delivery of pre-staged, spiked samples to the EPA MERL and the FAL for sample preparation and radiological analysis. Upon completion of laboratory analysis, data was reviewed and submitted back to the FRMAC via an electronic data deliverable (EDD). In order to conduct a laboratory inter-comparison study, samples were then traded between the two laboratories and re-counted. As part of the exercise, an evaluation was conducted to identify gaps and potential areas for improvements for FRMAC, FAL and EPA operations. Additionally, noteworthy practices and potential future areas of interoperability opportunities between the FRMAC, FAL and EPA were acknowledged. The exercise also provided a unique opportunity for FRMAC personnel to observe EPA sample receipt and sample preparation processes and to gain familiarity with the MERL laboratory instrumentation and radiation detection capabilities. The areas for potential improvements and interoperability from this exercise will be critical for developing a more efficient, integrated response for future interactions between the FRMAC and EPA MERL assets.

  18. Impact of gravitational radiation higher order modes on single aligned-spin gravitational wave searches for binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bustillo, Juan Calderón; Sintes, Alicia M; Püerrer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Current template-based gravitational wave searches for compact binary coalescences (CBC) use waveform models that neglect the higher order modes content of the gravitational radiation emitted, considering only the quadrupolar $(\\ell,|m|)=(2,2)$ modes. We study the effect of such a neglection for the case of aligned-spin CBC searches for equal-spin (and non-spinning) binary black holes in the context of two versions of Advanced LIGO: the upcoming 2015 version, known as early Advanced LIGO (eaLIGO) and its Zero-Detuned High Energy Power version, that we will refer to as Advanced LIGO (AdvLIGO). In addition, we study the case of a non-spinning search for initial LIGO (iLIGO). We do this via computing the effectualness of the aligned-spin SEOBNRv1 ROM waveform family, which only considers quadrupolar modes, towards hybrid post-Newtonian/Numerical Relativity waveforms which contain higher order modes. We find that for all LIGO versions, losses of more than $10\\%$ of events occur for mass ratio $q\\geq6$ and $M \\geq...

  19. Initial review and analysis of the direct environmental impacts of CSP in the northern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Justine; Gauché, Paul; Esler, Karen J.

    2016-05-01

    The Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) of 2010 and the IRP Update provide the most recent guidance to the electricity generation future of South Africa (SA) and both plans include an increased proportion of renewable energy generation capacity. Given that SA has abundant renewable energy resource potential, this inclusion is welcome. Only 600 MW of the capacity allocated to concentrating solar power (CSP) has been committed to projects in the Northern Cape and represents roughly a fifth of the capacity that has been included in the IRP. Although CSP is particularly new in the electricity generation system of the country, the abundant solar resources of the region with annual DNI values of above 2900 kWh/m2 across the arid Savannah and Nama-Karoo biomes offer a promising future for the development of CSP in South Africa. These areas have largely been left untouched by technological development activities and thus renewable energy projects present a variety of possible direct and indirect environmental, social and economic impacts. Environmental Impact Assessments do focus on local impacts, but given that ecological processes often extend to regional- and landscape scales, understanding this scaled context is important to the alignment of development- and conservation priorities. Given the capacities allocated to CSP for the future of SA's electricity generation system, impacts on land, air, water and biodiversity which are associated with CSP are expected to increase in distribution and the understanding thereof deems valuable already from this early point in CSP's future in SA. We provide a review of direct impacts of CSP on the natural environment and an overview of the anticipated specific significance thereof in the Northern Cape.

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  1. 76 FR 12788 - Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Federal Transit Administration Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental... system. The No-Build Alternative serves as the NEPA baseline against which the environmental effects...

  2. 77 FR 21619 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ..., comments should be submitted to Ms. Stacey M. Zee, FAA Environmental Protection Specialist, by one of the... issues or the EIS process should be mailed to: Ms. Stacey M. Zee, FAA Environmental Protection Specialist... trajectories would be to the east over the Gulf of Mexico. The potential environmental impacts of all...

  3. 78 FR 57626 - Algonquin Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare An Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... scoping process is to focus the analysis in the EIS on the important environmental issues. By this notice... notice. Currently, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Algonquin Incremental Market Project, Request for Comments...

  4. 78 FR 26354 - Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... to focus the analysis in the EIS on important environmental issues. By this notice, the Commission... agencies in the preparation of this EIS: the National Park Service, Environmental Protection Agency, U.S... Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Northeast Connector Project and Request for Comments...

  5. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H; Gates, R S; Green, A R; Mitloehner, F M; Moore, P A; Wathes, C M

    2011-01-01

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air quality and emit more ammonia than manure belt (MB) cage houses; 2) manure removal frequency in MB houses greatly affects ammonia emissions; 3) emissions from manure storage are largely affected by storage conditions, including ventilation rate, manure moisture content, air temperature, and stacking profile; 4) more baseline data on air emissions from high-rise and MB houses are being collected in the United States to complement earlier measurements; 5) noncage houses generally have poorer air quality (ammonia and dust levels) than cage houses; 6) noncage houses tend to be colder during cold weather due to a lower stocking density than caged houses, leading to greater feed and fuel energy use; 7) hens in noncage houses are less efficient in resource (feed, energy, and land) utilization, leading to a greater carbon footprint; 8) excessive application of hen manure to cropland can lead to nutrient runoff to water bodies; 9) hen manure on open (free) range may be subject to runoff during rainfall, although quantitative data are lacking; 10) mitigation technologies exist to reduce generation and emission of noxious gases and dust; however, work is needed to evaluate their economic feasibility and optimize design; and 11) dietary modification shows promise for mitigating emissions. Further research is needed on 1) indoor air quality, barn emissions, thermal conditions, and energy use in alternative hen housing systems (1-story floor, aviary, and enriched cage systems), along with conventional housing systems under different production conditions; 2) environmental footprint for different US egg production systems through life cycle assessment; 3) practical means to mitigate air

  6. Environmental impacts of rapid water level changes; Miljoekonsekvenser av raske vannstandsendringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnekleiv, Jo Vegar; Bakken, Tor Haakon; Bogen, Jim; Boensnes, Truls Erik; Elster, Margrethe; Harby, Atle; Kutznetsova, Yulia; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Sauterleute, Julian; Stickler, Morten; Sundt, Haakon; Tjomsland, Torulv; Ugedal, Ola

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge of the environmental impacts of power driving and rapid water level changes and describes possible mitigation measures. The report assesses the environmental effects of possible increased power installation in Mauranger and Tonstad power plants, based on existing data and knowledge. At Straumsmo plants in Barduelva there are collected some physical data and the environmental impact of existing power driving is considered. (eb)

  7. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E Novotny; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; Luiza da Costa, Vera; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Arti...

  8. Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of the extensive underground workings present at these mines. Mercury ores consisting primarily of cinnabar were processed in rotary furnaces and retorts and elemental mercury recovered from condensing systems. During the roasting process mercury phases more soluble than cinnabar are formed and concentrated in the mine tailings, commonly termed calcines. Differences in mineralogy and trace metal geochemistry between the two deposit types are reflected in mine drainage composition. Silica-carbonate type deposits have higher iron sulfide content than hot- spring type deposits and mine drainage from these deposits may have extreme acidity and very high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in mine drainage are relatively low at the point of discharge from mine workings. The concentration of both mercury species increases significantly in mine drainage that flows through and reacts with calcines. The soluble mercury phases in the calcines are dissolved and sulfate is added such that methylation of mercury by sulfate reducing bacteria is enhanced in calcines that are saturated with mine drainage. Where mercury mine drainage enters and first mixes with stream water, the addition of high concentrations of mercury and sulfate generates a favorable environment for methylation of mercury. Mixing of oxygenated stream water with mine drainage causes oxidation of dissolved iron(II) and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide that accumulates in the streambed. Both mercury and methylmercury are strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxide over the p

  9. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika, E-mail: vyskupova@fns.uniba.sk

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  10. Integrated approach of environmental impact and risk assessment of Rosia Montana Mining Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefănescu, Lucrina; Robu, Brînduşa Mihaela; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact assessment of mining sites represents nowadays a large interest topic in Romania. Historical pollution in the Rosia Montana mining area of Romania caused extensive damage to environmental media. This paper has two goals: to investigate the environmental pollution induced by mining activities in the Rosia Montana area and to quantify the environmental impacts and associated risks by means of an integrated approach. Thus, a new method was developed and applied for quantifying the impact of mining activities, taking account of the quality of environmental media in the mining area, and used as case study in the present paper. The associated risks are a function of the environmental impacts and the probability of their occurrence. The results show that the environmental impacts and quantified risks, based on quality indicators to characterize the environmental quality, are of a higher order, and thus measures for pollution remediation and control need to be considered in the investigated area. The conclusion drawn is that an integrated approach for the assessment of environmental impact and associated risks is a valuable and more objective method, and is an important tool that can be applied in the decision-making process for national authorities in the prioritization of emergency action.

  11. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awni Khatib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: A research was needed to monitor the environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW: production and relative production of olive mill waste. This was achieved by collecting data from 92 local olive mills in order to study the olive production yield, water consumption in olive washing and in oil recovery, wastewater generation relative to olive processed and oil generated, and solid waste generation. The OMW is usually discharged in the open environment, thus producing pollution to the soil surface and underground water. Approach: The progress on this problem is made by reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD as a major OMW pollutant. An upper flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB facility was constructed and operated for eight months in a progressive program operation for standardization and optimization purpose, and so to treat the waste by COD reduction. Results: The results reveal local variation in most of the investigated parameters. The olives in some area are found to contain large solid waste than other areas, resulting in lower oil yield and higher solid generation per ton of olive produced. The COD concentration was increased gradually from 5,000-30,000 mg/L and the efficiency improved significantly during the operation from 46%-84% COD removal. The organic load of OMW 27,000mg/L was reduce below 5,000 mg/L, that permits its direct discharge into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Conclusion: The implications and relevance of the results imply that OMW must be treated before discharge to the sewer system. On the other hand, the nonconformity between areas must be taken into consideration for future work.

  12. Quantification of the environmental impacts of road conditions in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomeu, Daniela Bacchi [Applied Economics and Researcher at CEPEA - ESALQ/USP (Brazil); Caixeta Filho, Jose Vicente [Department of Economics, Management and Sociology - ESALQ/USP (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    This study evaluates the impacts of Brazilian highway conditions on fuel consumption and, consequently, on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. For the purpose of this study, highway conditions refer to the level of highway maintenance: the incidence of large potholes, large surface cracks, uneven sections, and debris. Primary computer collected data related to the fuel consumption of three types of trucks were analyzed. The data were derived from 88 trips taken over six routes, each route representative of one of two highway conditions: better or worse. Study results are initially presented for each type of truck being monitored. The results are then aggregated to approximate the entire Brazilian highway network. In all cases, results confirmed environmental benefits resulting from travel over the better routes. There was found to be an increase in energy efficiency from traveling better roads, which resulted in lower fuel consumption and lower CO{sub 2} emissions. Statistical analysis of the results suggests that, in general, fuel consumption data were significant at {sup *}P < 0.05, rejecting the null hypothesis that average fuel consumption from traveling the better routes is statistically equal to average fuel consumption from traveling the worse routes. Improved Brazilian road conditions would generate economic benefits, reduce dependency on and consumption of fossil fuels (due to the increase in energy efficiency), and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. These findings may have additional relevancy if Brazil needs to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to reach future Kyoto Protocol's emissions targets, which should take effect in January 2013. (author)

  13. A STUDY OF EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF COAL MINING SUBSIDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国清; 顾强

    1990-01-01

    The land disturbance and its ecological impacts are the most significant one in the environmental problems which arise from increase of coal mining, processing and utilization. And the environmental impact assessment as one of the most powerful planning tools has been playing a good part in the environment protection in China. This paper, based on EIA experience,diseribes the methods of identification, prediction and analysis of the impacts of mining subsidence, the operational procedures and mitigating measures likely to take.

  14. Regulating the environmental impacts of factory farming in South Africa: legal perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Grobler, Ruché

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of factory farming on the environment in South Africa. It also determined whether the current existing environmental legislation in the country adequately regulates the growing industry. The various impacts that factory farms may have on the environment are discussed in detail and they include water pollution, air pollution and desertification. The applicable laws are discussed in detail and also applied to the environmental impact...

  15. 76 FR 55728 - Notice of the Extension of the Comment Period for the Draft Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Procedures for Considering Environmental Impacts (64 FR 28545 (May 26, 1999)), the California Environmental... Washington, DC, on August 31, 2011. Paul Nissenbaum, Director, Office of Passenger and Freight...

  16. The Evaluation of Impact on Business Organisations in Lithuania to Operate in an Environmentally Friendly Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bakanauskienė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical research on environmental stakeholders’ impact on Lithuanian business organisations to act in an environmentally friendly way. Theoretical research framework is based on the research tool of the International Business Environmental Barometer (IBEB and covers strengths and types of different environmental stakeholders (including internal and external stakeholders, organisational strategies of relations with them, and consequences of environmental stakeholders’ impact. The IBEB is a representative quantitative survey of managers of business organisations to examine how managers feel environmental stakeholders’ pressure. Taking the purpose and attitudes of the research framework and the results of pilot interviews into account, some changes in IBEB methodology have been made. The results reveal quite low pressure of environmental stakeholders on managers of business organisations to deal with environmental issues.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.1.8650

  17. Impact of gravitational radiation higher order modes on single aligned-spin gravitational wave searches for binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Bustillo, Juan; Husa, Sascha; Sintes, Alicia M.; Pürrer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Current template-based gravitational wave searches for compact binary coalescences use waveform models that omit the higher order modes content of the gravitational radiation emitted, considering only the quadrupolar (ℓ,|m |)=(2 ,2 ) modes. We study the effect of such omission for the case of aligned-spin compact binary coalescence searches for equal-spin (and nonspinning) binary black holes in the context of two versions of Advanced LIGO: the upcoming 2015 version, known as early Advanced LIGO (eaLIGO) and its zero-detuned high-energy power version, which we will refer to as Advanced LIGO (AdvLIGO). In addition, we study the case of a nonspinning search for initial LIGO (iLIGO). We do this via computing the effectualness of the aligned-spin SEOBNRv1 reduced order model waveform family, which only considers quadrupolar modes, toward hybrid post-Newtonian/numerical relativity waveforms which contain higher order modes. We find that for all LIGO versions losses of more than 10% of events occur in the case of AdvLIGO for mass ratio q ≥6 and total mass M ≥100 M⊙ due to the omission of higher modes, this region of the parameter space being larger for eaLIGO and iLIGO. Moreover, while the maximum event loss observed over the explored parameter space for AdvLIGO is of 15% of events, for iLIGO and eaLIGO, this increases up to (39,23)%. We find that omission of higher modes leads to observation-averaged systematic parameter biases toward lower spin, total mass, and chirp mass. For completeness, we perform a preliminar, nonexhaustive comparison of systematic biases to statistical errors. We find that, for a given signal-to-noise ratio, systematic biases dominate over statistical errors at much lower total mass for eaLIGO than for AdvLIGO.

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  19. Legal regulation of enterprises' environmental impact: a survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Mingan; Tong Liechun; Wang Lei

    2008-01-01

    The enterprise coordinates social resources, which changes the dialogue between human and the environ-ment into that between enterprise and environment. The profit-making character of enterprise leads to the abandon-ment of environmental ethics. Enterprise, which has the capability to solve environmental problems, however, lacks-the motive to do it. It has controlling power over society and should assume the responsibility of environmental protection. For its lack of environmental conscience, the external institutional arrangements should be made for enterprise. The strategy for environmental cost should be designed in connection with the interest orientation of en-terprise. And various tegal measures in constitutional law, social law, civil law, administrative law and criminal law should be utilized to regulate enterprise's behaviors regarding environmental protection.

  20. Strategic Alignment and New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Kandemir, Destan; Boer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Strategic alignment is widely accepted as a prerequisite for a firm’s success, but insight into the role of alignment in, and its impact on, the new product evelopment (NPD) process and its performance is less well developed. Most publications on this topic either focus on one form of alignment o...

  1. El Centro Geothermal Utility Core Field Experiment environmental-impact report and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The City of El Centro is proposing the development of a geothermal energy utility core field experiment to demonstrate the engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing moderate temperature geothermal heat, on a pilot scale, for space cooling, space heating, and domestic hot water. The proposed facility is located on part of a 2.48 acre (1 hectare) parcel owned in fee by the City in the southeastern sector of El Centro in Imperial County, California. Geothermal fluid at an anticipated temperature of about 250/sup 0/F (121/sup 0/C) will heat a secondary fluid (water) which will be utilized directly or processed through an absorption chiller, to provide space conditioning and water heating for the El Centro Community Center, a public recreational facility located approximately one-half mile north of the proposed well site. The geothermal production well will be drilled to 8500 feet (2590m) and an injection well to 4000 feet (1220m) at the industrially designated City property. Once all relevant permits are obtained it is estimated that site preparation, facility construction, the completion and testing of both wells would be finished in approximately 26 weeks. The environmental impacts are described.

  2. Copper: Its Environmental Impacts. AIO Red Paper #22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutis, Elizabeth; Jantzen, Jonathan Landis, Ed.

    Although copper is a widespread and useful metal, the process of mining and refining copper can have severe detrimental impacts on humans, plants, and animals. The most serious impacts from copper production are the release of sulphur dioxide and other air pollutants and the poisoning of water supplies. These impacts occur in both the mining and…

  3. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Is the time right to introduce environmental evaluation into the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system for large construction projects in China? The report analyses gaps to introducing environmental evaluation into EIAs and recommend how to bridge the gaps. The report also provides suggestions to the State Environmental Protection Administration on core elements of a guideline for environmental evaluation to include in the existing EIA guidelines. The report draws on international and Chinese research and best practice and conducts four case studies of environmental evaluation based on EIAs of investment projects e.g. a power plant, a waste water treatment plant, regional waste water irrigation, and a road construction project.

  4. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. Evaluation of Monticello Nuclear Power Plant, Environmental Impact Prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1976-11-01

    This report evaluates quantitatively the nonradiological environmental monitoring programs at Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant. The general objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of monitoring programs in the measurement of environmental impacts. Specific objectives include the following: (1) Assess the validity of environmental impact predictions made in the Environmental Statement by analysis of nonradiological monitoring data; (2) evaluate the general adequacy of environmental monitoring programs for detecting impacts and their responsiveness to Technical Specifications objectives; (3) assess the adequacy of preoperational monitoring programs in providing a sufficient data base for evaluating operational impacts; (4) identify possible impacts that were not predicted in the environmental statement and identify monitoring activities that need to be added, modified or deleted; and (5) assist in identifying environmental impacts, monitoring methods, and measurement problems that need additional research before quantitative predictions can be attempted. Preoperational as well as operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the analytical methods used to measure ecological and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data were available.

  6. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Minho, E-mail: minmin40@hanmail.net [Asset Management Division, Mate Plus Co., Ltd., 9th Fl., Financial News Bldg. 24-5 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-877 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: chnagyoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings.

  7. Synthetic fuels and the environment: an environmental and regulatory impacts analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Since July 1979 when DOE/EV-0044 report Environmental Analysis of Synthetic Liquid fuels was published the synthetic fuels program proposals of the Administration have undergone significant modifications. The program year for which the development goal of 1.5 million barrels per day is to be reached has been changed from 1990 to 1995. The program plan is now proposed to have two stages to ensure, among other things, better environmental protection: an initial stage emphasizing applied research and development (R and D), including environmental research, followed by a second stage that would accelerate deployment of those synthetic fuel technologies then judged most ready for rapid deployment and economic operation within the environmental protection requirements. These program changes have significantly expanded the scope of technologies to be considered in this environmental analysis and have increased the likelihood that accelerated environmental R and D efforts will be successful in solving principal environmental and worker safety concerns for most technologies prior to the initiation of the second stage of the accelerated deployment plan. Information is presented under the following section headings: summary; study description; the technologies and their environmental concerns (including, coal liquefaction and gasification, oil shale production, biomass and urban waste conversion); regulatory and institutional analyses; and environmental impacts analysis (including air and water quaility analyses, impacts of carbon dioxide and acid rain, water availability, solid and hazardous wastes, coal mining environmental impacts, transportation issues, community growth and change, and regional impacts). Additional information is presented in seventeen appendixes. (JGB)

  8. Environmental Methods Review: Retooling Impact Assessment for the New Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Nations Industrial Development Organisation ( UNIDO ). 1994. -Environmental considerations in project design: Learning Unit 9. UNlDO Training Course on...Ecologically Sustainable Development. New York: UNIDO Verheem. R. 1992. Environmental assessment at the strategic level in the Netherlands. Project...economic goods such as houses are really just aggregates of different characteristics. It is the combination of characteris- tics that determines what a

  9. Environmental health impacts of dispersed mineralisation in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. C.; Mundalamo, H. R.

    2010-11-01

    The crust of South Africa has undergone various episodes and styles of mineralisation, dating as far back as the Archaean. The suite of minerals produced is diverse and includes metals, non-metals and industrial minerals. Since the Pleistocene, substantial quantities of elements, both nutritional and toxic, that were involved in ore forming processes, have been remobilised and redistributed by surficial processes of intense tropical weathering, leaching, eluviation, podsolisation and gleying; and more recently, by mining and related processes, as well as by other urban and industrial activities. As a result of this "dispersion" it is not uncommon to find large tracts of the country containing anomalous trace element contents or deficiencies in essential micro-nutrient elements. Through water and food crops, extremes in trace element variation in soils are transmitted into the food chain, with often undesirable consequences for human and animal health. But the known variations are not as yet adequately documented. Nor is there sufficient knowledge on the implications of these variations for the health of the environment and its ecosystems. Nutrient deficient soils may be the principal causative factor in the devastating endemic osteoarthritic disease that afflicts two-thirds of the women in Maputaland, for instance. The generally low Se status of agricultural soils could represent an important co-factor in the relatively high diffusion rates of HIV-AIDS in the country. The impact of geology on animal health also remains an area of critical concern to both farmers and managers of the hugely important wildlife game reserves. This paper discusses a few known relationships between trace element excess/deficiency stemming originally from mineralisation processes, and the local and regional distribution of diseases in man and animals in South Africa. It is submitted that the challenge for future research in medical geology would lie in an organised effort aimed at

  10. Sensitivity Analysis on the Impact Factors of the GSHP System Considering Energy Generation and Environmental Impact Using LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehoon Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing a crisis due to energy depletion and environmental pollution. The ground source heat pump (GSHP system, the most efficient new/renewable energy (NRE system that can reduce the load of heating/cooling equipment in a building, can be used to address this crisis. Designers and contractors have implemented such systems depending on their experience, although there are many factors that affect the performance of the GSHP system. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a sensitivity analysis on the impact factors in terms of energy generation and environmental impact. This study was conducted as follows: (i collecting the impact factors that affect the GSHP system’s performance; (ii establishing the GSHP system’s scenarios with the impact factors; (iii determining the methodology and calculation tool to be used for conducting sensitivity analysis; and (iv conducting sensitivity analysis on the impact factors of the GSHP system in terms of energy generation and environmental impact using life cycle assessment. The results of this study can be used: (i to establish the optimal design strategy for different application fields and different seasons; and (ii to conduct a feasibility study on energy generation and environmental impact at the level of the life cycle.

  11. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  12. A critical realist perspective on decoupling negative environmental impacts from housing sector growth and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin

    2012-01-01

    The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses this que......The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses...

  13. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  14. Impacts of process variability of alternating-material self-aligned multiple patterning on SRAM circuit performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ting; Hong, Chuyang; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Yijian

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel modular patterning technology to reduce the edge-placement errors (EPE) significantly by combining alternating-material self-aligned multiple patterning (altSAMP) and selective etching processes. It is assumed that gates and fins are fabricated by the same type of altSAMP process as mixing two different processing techniques will drive up the manufacturing costs. Process variability induced circuit performance degradation is shown to be a serious issue as FinFET devices are scaled down to sub-10nm. We analyze the dependence of FinFET-based SRAM circuit performance on supply voltage, fin-width and gate-length variations. Improved device control with narrower fins helps to increase the static noise margin (SNM) in all SRAM cell designs. Higher supply voltage is also beneficial to the SNM performance. Our simulation results show that 6-T SRAM circuit design does not meet the six-sigma yield requirement when the half pitch is scaled down to sub-7 nm. To reduce the SRAM circuit variability, we study an 8-T SRAM cell and show that it significantly improves the SRAM performance.

  15. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated...... in impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...... reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  16. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  17. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B.; Cobas Flores, E.; McMichael, F.C.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Horvath, A.; Joshi, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  18. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  19. Environmental impact assessment in higher education institutions in East Africa: the case of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabera, Telesphore

    2017-03-01

    Due to the pressure on limited resources produced by a growing population and due to a decade of war, Rwanda is facing a major problem in environmental protection. Because of such problems, it seems only reasonable that environment-related courses should play an important role in the curricula of institutions of higher learning. The main aim of this research is to present a comprehensive picture of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) integration in graduate and undergraduate programs in Rwandese higher education institutions and to make recommendations for its improvement. During this study, two surveys were conducted: the first survey targeted Environmental Impact Assessment lecturers and the second survey was for Environmental Impact Assessment practitioners (including EIA certified experts and competent authorities). The study found that Environmental Impact Assessment is not well established in these institutions and it is not taught in some programs; civil engineering, for example, has no Environmental Impact Assessment courses. Recommendations to improve EIA education are proposed, such as requiring that a common core course in Environmental Impact Assessment be made available in Rwandese higher learning institutions.

  20. 77 FR 68803 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the HOPE SF Development at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the HOPE SF... prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/ EIS) for the HOPE SF Development at the Sunnydale and Velasco Public Housing Developments (Sunnydale HOPE SF Master Plan...

  1. 75 FR 58369 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the North Branch Ecorse Creek, Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... environmental impacts of the construction, operation, and maintenance of a number of structural and non... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for flood risk management measures along the North Branch Ecorse...

  2. 76 FR 4988 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Potomac Yard Metrorail Station in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of the Potomac Yard... Federal Transit Administration Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Potomac Yard... intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA)...

  3. 77 FR 51981 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement on the Construction and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement... environmental impacts, both individually and cumulatively, of the anticipated Proposed Action, the USACE intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in compliance with the National...

  4. 75 FR 29574 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay... Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in... Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park. The document describes and analyzes the environmental impacts of...

  5. Environmental Impacts of Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies: A Life Cycle Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Garvin

    2016-01-13

    All energy systems impact the environment. Much has been learned about these environmental impacts from decades of research. Through systematic reviews, meta-analysis and original research, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been building knowledge about environmental impacts of both renewable and conventional electricity generation technologies. Evidence for greenhouse gas emissions, water and land use will be reviewed mostly from the perspective of life cycle assessment. Impacts from oil and natural gas systems will be highlighted. Areas of uncertainty and challenge will be discussed as suggestions for future research, as well as career opportunities in this field.

  6. The Impact of Environmental Fluctuations on Evolutionary Fitness Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbinger, Anna; Vergassola, Massimo

    2015-10-19

    The concept of fitness as a measure for a species' success in natural selection is central to the theory of evolution. We here investigate how reproduction rates which are not constant but vary in response to environmental fluctuations, influence a species' prosperity and thereby its fitness. Interestingly, we find that not only larger growth rates but also reduced sensitivities to environmental changes substantially increase the fitness. Thereby, depending on the noise level of the environment, it might be an evolutionary successful strategy to minimize this sensitivity rather than to optimize the reproduction speed. Also for neutral evolution, where species with exactly the same properties compete, variability in the growth rates plays a crucial role. The time for one species to fixate is strongly reduced in the presence of environmental noise. Hence, environmental fluctuations constitute a possible explanation for effective population sizes inferred from genetic data that often are much smaller than the census population size.

  7. Environmental impacts during the operational phase of residential buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    To date, the focus in the field of sustainable building has been on new building design. However, existing residential buildings inflict great environmental burden through three causes: continuous energy consumption, regular building maintenance and replacements. This publication analyses and compa

  8. 76 FR 50213 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...-2827 Ext. 21. EIS No. 20110252, Final EIS, BLM, WY, Buckskin Mine Hay Creek II Project, Coal Lease... Environmental Study, To Improve Mobility and Safety by Reducing Roadway Congestion, City of Tupelo, MS,...

  9. The Impact of Media on Consumers’ Environmental Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Jagodic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available People, companies and society are becoming more mindful about the environment, and thus the market demand environmentally-sustainable merchandises and services. Today consumers act more pro-environmentally, as in the past decades they have changed their behaviour. We all recognise that the development of different types of media, especially the Internet and social media, has generated a different approach from societies and traders towards the individual consumer. In this research, we have established that the Internet, social media and TV have at the moment the largest influence on consumers’ environmental behaviour, due to the fact that companies and marketers are targeting at the same time different target groups of consumers. In the case of the Internet or social media, the marketers are very aggressive, although many consumers have the sense that they are something special for the companies and, therefore, change their environmental behaviour following the marketers and companies’ desires.

  10. 77 FR 68807 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Halletts Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Halletts... Environmental Quality Review Act (SEQRA), 6 NYCRR 617, intend to prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement... the U.S. Housing Act of 1937. This notice is in accordance with the Council on Environmental...

  11. The Impact of Media on Consumers’ Environmental Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Jagodic

    2016-01-01

    People, companies and society are becoming more mindful about the environment, and thus the market demand environmentally-sustainable merchandises and services. Today consumers act more pro-environmentally, as in the past decades they have changed their behaviour. We all recognise that the development of different types of media, especially the Internet and social media, has generated a different approach from societies and traders towards the individual consumer. In this re...

  12. 76 FR 17185 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... cost estimates, and estimated right-of-way and relocation requirements will also be developed. The... principally on existing railroad rights-of- way owned by CN, NS, and the Metra commuter railroad. The project..., effects on community cohesion and low-income and minority populations, economic impacts, and impacts...

  13. Social and Environmental Impact of the Rare Earth Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem H. Ali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of rare earth elements in various technologies continues to grow despite some alternatives being found for particular uses. Given a history of ecological concerns about pollution from rare earth mines, particularly in China, there are growing social and environmental concerns about the growth of the mining and mineral processing in this sector. This is best exemplified by the recent social and environmental conflict surrounding the development of the Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP in Kuantan, Malaysia which led to international activism and claims of environmental and social injustice. This paper analyses the structure of environmental and social conflicts surrounding rare earth minerals and opportunities for improving the social and environmental performance of the sector. Many of these elements are used for green technologies. Opportunities exist that offer a more circular supply chain following industrial ecological principles through which reuse and recycling of the materials can provide a means of mitigating social and environmental conflicts in this sector. In addition, public engagement processes that recognize community concerns about radiation, and transparent scientifically predicated decision-making through an appropriate governance structure within regulatory organizations are also presented.

  14. Structural diversity of eukaryotic 18S rRNA and its impact on alignment and phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiang; Lin, Jinzhong; Qin, Yan; Zhou, Jianfu; Bu, Wenjun

    2011-02-01

    Ribosomal RNAs are important because they catalyze the synthesis of peptides and proteins. Comparative studies of the secondary structure of 18S rRNA have revealed the basic locations of its many length-conserved and length-variable regions. In recent years, many more sequences of 18S rDNA with unusual lengths have been documented in GenBank. These data make it possible to recognize the diversity of the secondary and tertiary structures of 18S rRNAs and to identify the length-conserved parts of 18S rDNAs. The longest 18S rDNA sequences of almost every known eukaryotic phylum were included in this study. We illustrated the bioinformatics-based structure to show that, the regions that are more length-variable, regions that are less length-variable, the splicing sites for introns, and the sites of A-minor interactions are mostly distributed in different parts of the 18S rRNA. Additionally, this study revealed that some length-variable regions or insertion positions could be quite close to the functional part of the 18S rRNA of Foraminifera organisms. The tertiary structure as well as the secondary structure of 18S rRNA can be more diverse than what was previously supposed. Besides revealing how this interesting gene evolves, it can help to remove ambiguity from the alignment of eukaryotic 18S rDNAs and to improve the performance of 18S rDNA in phylogenetic reconstruction. Six nucleotides shared by Archaea and Eukaryota but rarely by Bacteria are also reported here for the first time, which might further support the supposed origin of eukaryote from archaeans.

  15. Traditional acupuncturists and higher education in Britain: the dual, paradoxical impact of biomedical alignment on the holistic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Assaf; Hatton, Kieron

    2015-04-01

    Traditional acupuncturists' quest for external legitimacy in Britain involves the standardization of their knowledge bases through the development of training schools and syllabi, formal educational structures, and, since the 1990s, the teaching of undergraduate courses within (or validated by) Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), a process which entails biomedical alignment of the curriculum. However, as holistic discourses were commonly used as a rhetorical strategy by CAM practitioners to distance themselves from biomedicine and as a source of public appeal, this 'mainstreaming' process evoked practitioners' concerns that their holistic claims are being compromised. An additional challenge is being posed by a group of academics and scientists in Britain who launched an attack on CAM courses taught in HEIs, accusing them of being 'unscientific' and 'non-academic' in nature. This paper explores the negotiation of all these challenges during the formalization of traditional acupuncture education in Britain, with a particular focus on the role of HEIs. The in-depth qualitative investigation draws on several data sets: participant observation in a university validated acupuncture course; in-depth interviews; and documentary analysis. The findings show how, as part of the formalization process, acupuncturists in Britain (re)negotiate their holistic, anti-reductionist discourses and claims in relation to contemporary societal, political and cultural forces. Moreover, the teaching and validation of acupuncture courses by HEIs may contribute to broadening acupuncturists' 'holistic awareness' of societal and cultural influences on individuals' and communities' ill-health. This investigation emphasises the dynamic and context-specific (rather than fixed and essentialized) nature of acupuncture practice and knowledge.

  16. Simulation Technology of Environmental Impacts by Zero-energy Residential Buildings Based on Emergy Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhou; XiaoLong Xue; WangShu Yang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation technology of environmental impact for the building. By emergy analysis method, emergy costs of building( or construction engineering) can be calculated in the life cycle. It includes the engineering cost, environmental cost and social cost of building. Through integrating GIS technology with multi-agent technology, life cycle substance and energy metabolism of building ( construction engineering) can be simulated and their environmental influence can be dynamically displayed. Based on the case study of entries works ‘Sunny Inside’ by Xiamen University in 2013 China International Solar Decathlon Competition, we discovered the changing pattern of surrounding environmental impact from waste streams of the zero-energy building and ordinary construction. The simulation results verified and showed the Odum principles of maximum power. This paper provides a new research perspective and integration approach for the environmental impact assessment in building and construction engineering. The result will help decision-making in design and construction engineering scheme.

  17. 77 FR 75646 - Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Soldotna, AK; Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Special mailings, newspaper advertisements, and other media announcements will inform the public of... Fish and Wildlife Service 123 Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Soldotna, AK; Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Shadura Natural Gas Development Project AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  18. 75 FR 53979 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Service announces the reopening of the public comment period on the Bison Brucellosis Remote...

  19. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area[Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-15

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (= the Disko West Area). (au)

  20. 78 FR 69664 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement-Interconnection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Statement--Interconnection of the Proposed Wilton IV Wind Energy Center Project, North Dakota (DOE/EIS-0469...), intends to prepare a Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement (SDEIS) for the interconnection...

  1. Hanford site solid waste management environmental impact statement technical information document [SEC 1 THRU 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRITZ, L.L.

    2003-04-01

    This Technical Information Document (TID) provides engineering data to support DOE/EIS-0286, ''Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement,'' including assumptions and waste volumes calculation data.

  2. Environmental impact of Funerals. Life cycle assessments of activities after life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY This research investigates the environmental impact of funerals in the Netherlands. There are multiple reasons for this research. First of all, there is interest from civilians, the funeral sector and governmental authorities. Furthermore, there

  3. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, and Wilderness Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the final Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP), Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), and Wilderness Review (WR) for the Yukon Flats National...

  4. 76 FR 75557 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan/Wilderness Study, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... National Park Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan/ Wilderness Study... is being prepared for updating the General Management Plan (GMP) for Hawaii Volcanoes National Park... park resources to Native Hawaiian culture; visitor experiences including use of facilities...

  5. Environmental impact assessment - A management tool for conservation of large marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    and conservation of natural resources. The problem has become crucial and the only alternative is the implementation of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) to evolve environmental management strategies for optimum use of a given coastal area without disturbing...

  6. 75 FR 77897 - Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... trail would be designated, emphasizing the removal experiences common to both tribes. An auto tour route... National Park Service Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement, National Trails Intermountain Region, NM AGENCY: National Park Service,...

  7. 77 FR 14568 - Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed General Management Plan, Pinnacles National Monument...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... analysis for this general management planning effort. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This new GMP will update... planning process to date, the NPS planning team developed four preliminary alternatives for the management... National Park Service Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed General Management Plan,...

  8. Final Environmental Impact Statement Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This final environmental impact statement identifies the purpose and need for a management plan; outlines the legal foundation for management of the Rocky Mountain...

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment and Sustainable Agricultural Development--With Special Reference to Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiragu, Consolater Wambuku; Goode, Pamela M.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of sustainable agriculture from the perspective of development in Kenya is discussed. The steps in an Environmental Impact Assessment which takes into account the physical, cultural, social, and ecological aspects of the problem are presented. (CW)

  10. Environmental impact assessment of benthic community stability in an estuarine complex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    . There was also a substantial decrease in clam production during the 10 year time under consideration. The implication of ever increasing mining rejects in the estuarine system and the utilization of quantitative benthic parameters in environmental impact studies...

  11. Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement: San Luis Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This final Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and Environmental Impact Statement was written to guide management on Alamosa, Monte Vista, and Baca National...

  12. 76 FR 76121 - Revised Notice, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Rosemont Copper Project on the Coronado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Environmental Impact Statement and public meetings and commenting options (76 FR 64893). This revised notice...-West Social Center, 1111 Via Arcoiris, Green Valley, AZ 85614. 4. December 10, 2011, 1 p.m. to 5...

  13. Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, and Wilderness Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes a final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Alaska Peninsula Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan. It describes five alternative...

  14. 77 FR 20872 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement: Milwaukee and Ozaukee Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... and design deficiencies while identifying methods to accommodate existing and projected future traffic... Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement: Milwaukee and Ozaukee Counties AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  15. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dibari, J.C. [Heritage College, Toppenish, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  17. The use of environmental impact assessment in protecting the built cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Errol David

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the application of the environmental impact assessment as a means of protecting the built and cultural heritage during and after the construction of the new national opera house in the Holmen area of Copenhagen. It assesses the affect the new building has had...... on the surrounding built and cultural heritage and examines how the environmental impact assessment was used during the development process....

  18. Assessment of environmental impacts with life cycle methods in nanotechnology industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kekäläinen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    This thesis inspected how nanotechnology companies in Finland have been assessing the environmental impacts of their products and processes. The research focused on using life cycle based methods that take into account the environmental impacts during the whole lifetime of a product. The subject was studied mainly through three qualitative case studies. Millidyne Oy, Vaisala Oyj and UPM-Kymmene Oyj were interviewed. Also quantitative research was used to some extend in the form of a compa...

  19. Green procurement of buildings: estimation of environmental impact and life-cycle cost

    OpenAIRE

    Sterner, Eva

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on environmental impact reduction and life-cycle cost estimations in building procurement. The aim for the work presented in this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of whether costs and environmental impact of a building can be integrated in a, from the users perspective, practical model applied for tender evaluation. The model should also be able to use as a base of evaluating different solutions in the design phase. Specifically this means to: Increase knowledg...

  20. Impact of Environmental Changes and Global Warming on Temperature in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ishtiaq Hassan; Abdul Razzaq Ghumman; Hashim Nisar Hashmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental changes and global warming have direct impact on human life. Estimation of these changes in various parameters of hydrologic cycle is necessary for future planning and development of a country. In this paper the impact of environmental changes and global warming on temperatures of Pakistan has been studied. The temperature changes in Pakistan have been extracted from simulations made using EdGCM model developed at Columbia University. Simulation study to the end o...