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Sample records for align troponin complexes

  1. Troponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Daniele; Nash, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Troponin T and I can be found within the myocardial filaments. Measuring these cardiac troponin levels in full-term newborns and premature infants has not become a common practice in the neonatal intensive care unit and newborn nurseries. Research studies are discovering that an elevation in troponin T and I levels can be directly correlated with the severity of the infant's illness, and it can be potentially prognostic of morbidity. This literature analysis discusses what can be considered normal cardiac troponin levels along with what elevated levels are and possible conditions associated with those elevations.

  2. Ca2+ dependence of the distance between Cys-98 of troponin C and Cys-133 of troponin I in the ternary troponin complex. Resonance energy transfer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, T; Gowell, E; Strasburg, G M; Gergely, J; Leavis, P C

    1989-07-11

    We have used resonance energy transfer to study the spatial relationship between Cys-98 of rabbit skeletal troponin C and Cys-133 of rabbit skeletal troponin I in the reconstituted ternary troponin complex. The donor was introduced by labeling either troponin C or troponin I with N-(iodoacetyl)-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine, while the acceptor was introduced by labeling either protein with N-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl-4'-azophenyl]maleimide. The extent of energy transfer was determined by measuring the quenching of the donor fluorescence decay. The results indicate first that the distance between these two sites is not fixed, suggesting that the protein regions involved possess considerable segmental flexibility. Second, the mean distance between the two sites is dependent on the metal-binding state of troponin C, being 39.1 A when none of the metal-binding sites are occupied, 41.0 A when Mg2+ ions bind at the high-affinity sites, and 35.5 A when Ca2+ ions bind to the low-affinity sites. Neither the magnitude of the distances nor the trend of change with metal ions differs greatly when the locations of the probes are switched or when steady-state fluorometry was used to determine the transfer efficiency. Since the low-affinity sites have been implicated as the physiological triggering sites, our findings suggest that one of the key events in Ca2+ activation of skeletal muscle contraction is a approximately 5-A decrease in the distance between the Cys-98 region of troponin C and the Cys-133 region of troponin I.

  3. The structure of the muscle protein complex 4Ca{sup 2+} {center_dot}troponin C {center_dot} troponin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, G.A.; Trewhella, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Analysis of scattering data based on a Monte Carlo integration method was used to 2+ obtain a low resolution model of the 4Ca{sup 2+}{circ} troponin C{circ}troponin I complex. This modeling method allows rapid testing of plausible structures where the best fit model can be ascertained by a comparison between model structure scattering profiles and measured scattering data. In the best fit model, troponin I appears as a spiral structure 2+ that wraps around 4Ca{sup 2+}{circ}troponin C which adopts an extended dumbbell conformation similar to that observed in the crystal structures of troponin C. The Monte Carlo modeling method can be applied to other biological systems in which detailed structural information is lacking.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of the cardiac troponin complex performed with FRET distances as restraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant James Jayasundar

    Full Text Available Cardiac troponin (cTn is the Ca(2+-sensitive molecular switch that controls cardiac muscle activation and relaxation. However, the molecular detail of the switching mechanism and how the Ca(2+ signal received at cardiac troponin C (cTnC is communicated to cardiac troponin I (cTnI are still elusive. To unravel the structural details of troponin switching, we performed ensemble Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements and molecular dynamic (MD simulations of the cardiac troponin core domain complex. The distance distributions of forty five inter-residue pairs were obtained under Ca(2+-free and saturating Ca(2+ conditions from time-resolved FRET measurements. These distances were incorporated as restraints during the MD simulations of the cardiac troponin core domain. Compared to the Ca(2+-saturated structure, the absence of regulatory Ca(2+ perturbed the cTnC N-domain hydrophobic pocket which assumed a closed conformation. This event partially unfolded the cTnI regulatory region/switch. The absence of Ca(2+, induced flexibility to the D/E linker and the cTnI inhibitory region, and rotated the cTnC N-domain with respect to rest of the troponin core domain. In the presence of saturating Ca(2+ the above said phenomenon were absent. We postulate that the secondary structure perturbations experienced by the cTnI regulatory region held within the cTnC N-domain hydrophobic pocket, coupled with the rotation of the cTnC N-domain would control the cTnI mobile domain interaction with actin. Concomitantly the rotation of the cTnC N-domain and perturbation of the D/E linker rigidity would control the cTnI inhibitory region interaction with actin to effect muscle relaxation.

  5. Cross-linking of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin subunits: labeling of cysteine-98 of troponin C with 4-maleimidobenzophenone and analysis of products formed in the binary complex with troponin T and the ternary complex with troponins I and T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszyk, J; Collins, J H; Leavis, P C; Tao, T

    1988-09-06

    The sulfhydryl-specific, heterobifunctional, photoactivatable cross-linker 4-maleimidobenzophenone (BPMal) was used to study the interaction of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin subunits TnC, TnT, and TnI. TnC was labeled at Cys-98 by the maleimide moiety of BPMal and then mixed with either TnT alone or TnI plus TnT, in the presence of Ca2+. Upon photolysis, TnI and/or TnT formed covalent cross-links with TnC. The cross-linked TnC-TnT heterodimer obtained from the binary complex was digested into progressively smaller cross-linked peptides that were purified by HPLC and then characterized by amino acid analysis and sequencing. An initial cross-linked CNBr fraction contained the expected peptide CB9 (residues 84-135) of TnC, plus CNBr peptides spanning residues 152-230 of TnT. Results from a peptic digest of the CNBr cross-linked fraction permitted the identification of residues 159-197 as the most highly cross-linked region in TnT. A final subtilisin digest yielded a heterogeneous cross-linked fraction, which suggested that an especially high degree of cross-links was formed in the vicinity of residues 175-178 (Met-Lys-Lys-Lys) of TnT. Although this region of TnT had previously been implicated in binding, we show here for the first time that it is close to Cys-98 of TnC. In an analogous study on the binary complex of TnC and TnI [Leszyk, J., Collins, J. H., Leavis, P. C., & Tao, T. (1987) Biochemistry 26, 7042-7047], we previously showed that Cys-98 of TnC was cross-linked mainly to CN4, the "inhibitory region", of TnI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Troponin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    TroponinI; TnI; TroponinT; TnT; Cardiac-specific troponin I; Cardiac-specific troponin T; cTnl; cTnT ... your heart not getting enough blood flow.) The troponin test may also be done to help detect ...

  7. Cardiac troponins and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Michael J; Jarolim, Petr

    2014-03-01

    Measurement of circulating cardiac troponins I and T has become integral to the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. This article discusses the structure and function of the troponin complex and the release of cardiac troponin molecules from the injured cardiomyocyte into the circulation. An overview of current cardiac troponin assays and their classification according to sensitivity is presented. The diagnostic criteria, role, and usefulness of cardiac troponin for myocardial infarction are discussed. In addition, several examples are given of the usefulness of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays for short-term and long-term prediction of adverse events.

  8. The value of troponin assays in modern medical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Cutajar, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac troponins – C, I and T – form part of the troponin complex which is involved in the regulation of the calcium-mediated interaction of actin and myosin in myocytes. Each troponin has a different role in the above mentioned complex. Troponin C is involved in binding calcium, troponin I inhibits interaction of actin to myosin, while Troponin T binds to tropomyosin and facilitates muscle contraction. Both skeletal as well as cardiac muscle types express troponin C, ho...

  9. PKCα-specific phosphorylation of the troponin complex in human myocardium: a functional and proteomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Kooij

    Full Text Available Protein kinase Cα (PKCα is one of the predominant PKC isoforms that phosphorylate cardiac troponin. PKCα is implicated in heart failure and serves as a potential therapeutic target, however, the exact consequences for contractile function in human myocardium are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PKCα phosphorylation of cardiac troponin (cTn on myofilament function in human failing cardiomyocytes and to resolve the potential targets involved.Endogenous cTn from permeabilized cardiomyocytes from patients with end-stage idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was exchanged (∼69% with PKCα-treated recombinant human cTn (cTn (DD+PKCα. This complex has Ser23/24 on cTnI mutated into aspartic acids (D to rule out in vitro cross-phosphorylation of the PKA sites by PKCα. Isometric force was measured at various [Ca(2+] after exchange. The maximal force (Fmax in the cTn (DD+PKCα group (17.1±1.9 kN/m(2 was significantly reduced compared to the cTn (DD group (26.1±1.9 kN/m(2. Exchange of endogenous cTn with cTn (DD+PKCα increased Ca(2+-sensitivity of force (pCa50 = 5.59±0.02 compared to cTn (DD (pCa50 = 5.51±0.02. In contrast, subsequent PKCα treatment of the cells exchanged with cTn (DD+PKCα reduced pCa50 to 5.45±0.02. Two PKCα-phosphorylated residues were identified with mass spectrometry: Ser198 on cTnI and Ser179 on cTnT, although phosphorylation of Ser198 is very low. Using mass spectrometry based-multiple reaction monitoring, the extent of phosphorylation of the cTnI sites was quantified before and after treatment with PKCα and showed the highest phosphorylation increase on Thr143.PKCα-mediated phosphorylation of the cTn complex decreases Fmax and increases myofilament Ca(2+-sensitivity, while subsequent treatment with PKCα in situ decreased myofilament Ca(2+-sensitivity. The known PKC sites as well as two sites which have not been previously linked to PKCα are phosphorylated in human cTn complex treated

  10. A polyaniline based ultrasensitive potentiometric immunosensor for cardiac troponin complex detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Prabhu, Alok; San, Avdar; Al-Sharab, Jafar F; Levon, Kalle

    2015-10-15

    An ultrasensitive immunosensor based on potentiometric ELISA for the detection of a cardiac biomarker, troponin I-T-C (Tn I-T-C) complex, was developed. The sensor fabrication involves typical sandwich ELISA procedures, while the final signal readout was achieved using open circuit potentiometry (OCP). Glassy carbon (GC) working electrodes were first coated with emulsion-polymerized polyaniline/dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (PANI/DNNSA) and the coated surface was utilized as a transducer layer on which sandwich ELISA incubation steps were performed. An enzymatic reaction between o-phenylenediamine (OPD) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled on the secondary antibodies. The polymer transducer charged state was mediated through electron (e(-)) and charge transfers between the transducer and charged species generated by the same enzymatic reaction. Such a change in the polymer transducer led to potential variations against an Ag/AgCl reference electrode as a function of Tn I-T-C complex concentration during incubations. The sequence of OPD and H2O2 additions, electrochemical properties of the PANI/DNNSA layer and non-specific binding prevention were all crucial factors for the assay performance. Under optimized conditions, the assay has a low limit of detection (LOD) ( 6 orders of magnitude), high repeatability (coefficient of variance < 8% for all concentrations higher than 5 pg/mL) and a short detection time (< 10 min).

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Ca{sup 2+}-bound C-terminal lobe of troponin C in complex with a troponin I-derived peptide fragment from Akazara scallop

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    Yumoto, Fumiaki [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Department of Physiology II, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-19-18 Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Nagata, Koji; Miyauchi, Yumiko [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ojima, Takao; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nishita, Kiyoyoshi [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-8611 (Japan); Ohtsuki, Iwao [Department of Physiology II, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-19-18 Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Tanokura, Masaru, E-mail: amtanok@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2007-06-01

    Recombinant TnC was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, complexed with a 24-residue synthetic peptide derived from scallop troponin I (TnI) and crystallized. Troponin C (TnC) is the Ca{sup 2+}-binding component of troponin and triggers muscle contraction. TnC of the invertebrate Akazara scallop can bind only one Ca{sup 2+} at the C-terminal EF-hand motif. Recombinant TnC was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, complexed with a 24-residue synthetic peptide derived from scallop troponin I (TnI) and crystallized. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.80 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 32.1, b = 42.2, c = 60.0 Å. The asymmetric unit was assumed to contain one molecular complex of the Akazara scallop TnC C-lobe and TnI fragment, with a Matthews coefficient of 1.83 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 33.0%.

  12. Fluorescence Based Characterization of Calcium Sensitizer Action on the Troponin Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlecht, William; Li, King-Lun; Hu, Dehong; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2016-02-01

    By examining the behavior of each Ca2+ -sensitizer on cTnC at different levels of reconstitution (cTnI-cTnC, full troponin, or full troponin in thin filament) the importance of these proteins on sensitizer efficacy was evaluated, lending insight into the mechanism of action behind each drug. A fluorescence based approach was used to monitor the opening and closing of cardiac troponin C's hydrophobic pocket in the presence and absence of four common Ca2+ -sensitizers: EMD 57033, levosimendan, bepridil and pimobendan. Ca2+ -titration experiments were employed to determine the effect on Ca2+- sensitivity and cooperativity of cTnC opening, while stopped flow experiments were used to investigate the impact on cTnC relaxation kinetics. This study shows EMD 57033 is unable to sensitize cTnC to Ca2+, and likely requires the presence of myosin to illicit a response. Levosimendan, bepridil, and pimobendan were all able to increase the sensitivity of cTnC for Ca2+ to varying degrees; levosimendan and pimobendan reduced the rate of cTnC closing, while bepridil increased this rate. Additionally the same experiments were run on thin filament samples containing cTnT (T204E), a known Ca2+- blunting phosphorylation mimic. Levosimendan, bepridil, and pimobendan were found to elevate the Ca2+-sensitivity of cTnT(T204E) containing thin filaments to within range of the wild type thin filaments.

  13. Disease causing mutations of troponin alter regulated actin state distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalovich, Joseph M

    2012-12-01

    Striated muscle contraction is regulated primarily through the action of tropomyosin and troponin that are bound to actin. Activation requires Ca(2+) binding to troponin and/or binding of high affinity myosin complexes to actin. Mutations within components of the regulatory complex may lead to familial cardiomyopathies and myopathies. In several cases examined, either physiological or pathological changes in troponin alter the distribution among states of actin-tropomyosin-troponin that differ in their abilities to stimulate myosin ATPase activity. These observations open possibilities for managing disorders of the troponin complex. Furthermore, analyses of mutant forms of troponin give insights into the regulation of striated muscle contraction.

  14. Finding optimal interaction interface alignments between biological complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2015-06-13

    Motivation: Biological molecules perform their functions through interactions with other molecules. Structure alignment of interaction interfaces between biological complexes is an indispensable step in detecting their structural similarities, which are keys to understanding their evolutionary histories and functions. Although various structure alignment methods have been developed to successfully access the similarities of protein structures or certain types of interaction interfaces, existing alignment tools cannot directly align arbitrary types of interfaces formed by protein, DNA or RNA molecules. Specifically, they require a \\'blackbox preprocessing\\' to standardize interface types and chain identifiers. Yet their performance is limited and sometimes unsatisfactory. Results: Here we introduce a novel method, PROSTA-inter, that automatically determines and aligns interaction interfaces between two arbitrary types of complex structures. Our method uses sequentially remote fragments to search for the optimal superimposition. The optimal residue matching problem is then formulated as a maximum weighted bipartite matching problem to detect the optimal sequence order-independent alignment. Benchmark evaluation on all non-redundant protein-DNA complexes in PDB shows significant performance improvement of our method over TM-align and iAlign (with the \\'blackbox preprocessing\\'). Two case studies where our method discovers, for the first time, structural similarities between two pairs of functionally related protein-DNA complexes are presented. We further demonstrate the power of our method on detecting structural similarities between a protein-protein complex and a protein-RNA complex, which is biologically known as a protein-RNA mimicry case. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Reducing beam shaper alignment complexity: diagnostic techniques for alignment and tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-10-01

    Safe and efficient optical alignment is a critical requirement for industrial laser systems used in a high volume manufacturing environment. Of specific interest is the development of techniques to align beam shaping optics within a beam line; having the ability to instantly verify by a qualitative means that each element is in its proper position as the beam shaper module is being aligned. There is a need to reduce these types of alignment techniques down to a level where even a newbie to optical alignment will be able to complete the task. Couple this alignment need with the fact that most laser system manufacturers ship their products worldwide and the introduction of a new set of variables including cultural and language barriers, makes this a top priority for manufacturers. Tools and methodologies for alignment of complex optical systems need to be able to cross these barriers to ensure the highest degree of up time and reduce the cost of maintenance on the production floor. Customers worldwide, who purchase production laser equipment, understand that the majority of costs to a manufacturing facility is spent on system maintenance and is typically the largest single controllable expenditure in a production plant. This desire to reduce costs is driving the trend these days towards predictive and proactive, not reactive maintenance of laser based optical beam delivery systems [10]. With proper diagnostic tools, laser system developers can develop proactive approaches to reduce system down time, safe guard operational performance and reduce premature or catastrophic optics failures. Obviously analytical data will provide quantifiable performance standards which are more precise than qualitative standards, but each have a role in determining overall optical system performance [10]. This paper will discuss the use of film and fluorescent mirror devices as diagnostic tools for beam shaper module alignment off line or in-situ. The paper will also provide an overview

  16. The structure of the muscle protein complex 4Ca{sup 2+}. Tronponin C*troponin: A Monte Carlo modeling analysis of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, G.A.; Trewhella, J.

    1995-11-01

    Analysis of scattering data based on a Monte Carlo integration method was used to obtain a low resolution model of the 4Ca2+.troponin c.troponin I complex. This modeling method allows rapid testing of plausible structures where the best fit model can be ascertained by a comparison between model structure scattering profiles and measured scattering data. In the best fit model, troponin I appears as a spiral structure that wraps about 4CA2+.trophonin C which adopts an extended dumbell conformation similar to that observed in the crystal structures of troponin C. The Monte Carlo modeling method can be applied to other biological systems in which detailed structural information is lacking.

  17. Ca2+-induced PRE-NMR changes in the troponin complex reveal the possessive nature of the cardiac isoform for its regulatory switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Nicole M; Liew, Chu K; Potluri, Phani R; Curmi, Paul M; Fajer, Piotr G; Logan, Timothy M; Mackay, Joel P; Brown, Louise J

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between myosin and actin in cardiac muscle, modulated by the calcium (Ca2+) sensor Troponin complex (Tn), is a complex process which is yet to be fully resolved at the molecular level. Our understanding of how the binding of Ca2+ triggers conformational changes within Tn that are subsequently propagated through the contractile apparatus to initiate muscle activation is hampered by a lack of an atomic structure for the Ca2+-free state of the cardiac isoform. We have used paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE)-NMR to obtain a description of the Ca2+-free state of cardiac Tn by describing the movement of key regions of the troponin I (cTnI) subunit upon the release of Ca2+ from Troponin C (cTnC). Site-directed spin-labeling was used to position paramagnetic spin labels in cTnI and the changes in the interaction between cTnI and cTnC subunits were then mapped by PRE-NMR. The functionally important regions of cTnI targeted in this study included the cTnC-binding N-region (cTnI57), the inhibitory region (cTnI143), and two sites on the regulatory switch region (cTnI151 and cTnI159). Comparison of 1H-15N-TROSY spectra of Ca2+-bound and free states for the spin labeled cTnC-cTnI binary constructs demonstrated the release and modest movement of the cTnI switch region (∼10 Å) away from the hydrophobic N-lobe of troponin C (cTnC) upon the removal of Ca2+. Our data supports a model where the non-bound regulatory switch region of cTnI is highly flexible in the absence of Ca2+ but remains in close vicinity to cTnC. We speculate that the close proximity of TnI to TnC in the cardiac complex is favourable for increasing the frequency of collisions between the N-lobe of cTnC and the regulatory switch region, counterbalancing the reduction in collision probability that results from the incomplete opening of the N-lobe of TnC that is unique to the cardiac isoform.

  18. Troponin-I is present as an essential component of muscles in echinoderm larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Yaguchi, Junko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The troponin complex, composed of Troponin-I, Troponin-T and Troponin-C, is an essential mediator of the contraction of striated muscle downstream of calcium signaling in almost all bilaterians. However, in echinoderms and hemichordates, collectively termed Ambulacraria, the components of the troponin complex have never been isolated, thus suggesting that these organisms lost the troponin system during evolution. Here, by analyzing genomic information from sea urchins, we identify the troponin-I gene and isolate its complete mRNA sequence. Using this information, we reveal that the larval muscles express this gene and its translated product and that the protein is definitely a functional molecule expressed in sea urchin larvae by showing that Troponin-I morphants are unable to swallow algae. We conclude that muscular contraction in all bilaterians universally depends on a regulatory system mediated by Troponin-I, which emerged in the common ancestor of bilaterians. PMID:28272398

  19. Structural alignment of RNA with complex pseudoknot structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas K F; Lam, T W; Sung, Wing-Kin; Cheung, Brenda W Y; Yiu, S M

    2011-01-01

    The secondary structure of an ncRNA molecule is known to play an important role in its biological functions. Aligning a known ncRNA to a target candidate to determine the sequence and structural similarity helps in identifying de novo ncRNA molecules that are in the same family of the known ncRNA. However, existing algorithms cannot handle complex pseudoknot structures which are found in nature. In this article, we propose algorithms to handle two types of complex pseudoknots: simple non-standard pseudoknots and recursive pseudoknots. Although our methods are not designed for general pseudoknots, it already covers all known ncRNAs in both Rfam and PseudoBase databases. An evaluation of our algorithms shows that it is useful to identify ncRNA molecules in other species which are in the same family of a known ncRNA.

  20. Molecular Modeling of Cardiac Troponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Edward P.

    The cardiac thin filament regulates interactions of actin and myosin, the force-generating elements of muscular contraction. Over the past several decades many details have been discovered regarding the structure and function of the cardiac thin filament and its components, including cardiac troponin (cTn). My hypothesis is that signal propagation occurs between distant ends of the cardiac troponin complex through calcium-dependent alterations in the dynamics of cTn and tropomyosin (Tm). I propose a model of the thin filament that encompasses known structures of cTn, Tm and actin to gain insight into cardiac troponin's allosteric regulation of thin filament dynamics. By performing molecular dynamics simulations of cTn in conjunction with overlapping Tm in two conditions, with and without calcium bound to site II of cardiac troponin C (cTnC), I found a combination of calcium-dependent changes in secondary structure and dynamics throughout the cTn-Tm complex. I then applied this model to investigate familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC), a disease of the sarcomere that is one of the most commonly occurring genetic causes of heart disease. Approximately 15% of known FHC-related mutations are found in cardiac troponin T (cTnT), most of which are in or flank the alpha-helical N-tail domain TNT1. TNT1 directly interacts with overlapping Tm coiled coils. Using this model I identified effects of TNT1 mutations that propagate to the cTn core where site II of cTnC, the regulatory site of calcium binding in the thin filament, is located. Specifically, I found that mutations in TNT1 alter the flexibility of TNT1 and that the flexibility of TNT1 is inversely proportional to the cooperativity of calcium activation of the thin filament. Further, I identified a pathway of propagation of structural and dynamic changes linking TNT1 to site II of cTnC. Mutation-induced changes at site II cTnC alter calcium coordination which corresponds to biophysical measurements of calcium

  1. Structure and function of cardiac troponin C (TNNC1): Implications for heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and troponin modulating drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Monica X; Hwang, Peter M

    2015-10-25

    In striated muscle, the protein troponin complex turns contraction on and off in a calcium-dependent manner. The calcium-sensing component of the complex is troponin C, which is expressed from the TNNC1 gene in both cardiac muscle and slow-twitch skeletal muscle (identical transcript in both tissues) and the TNNC2 gene in fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Cardiac troponin C (cTnC) is made up of two globular EF-hand domains connected by a flexible linker. The structural C-domain (cCTnC) contains two high affinity calcium-binding sites that are always occupied by Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) under physiologic conditions, stabilizing an open conformation that remains anchored to the rest of the troponin complex. In contrast, the regulatory N-domain (cNTnC) contains a single low affinity site that is largely unoccupied at resting calcium concentrations. During muscle activation, calcium binding to cNTnC favors an open conformation that binds to the switch region of troponin I, removing adjacent inhibitory regions of troponin I from actin and allowing muscle contraction to proceed. Regulation of the calcium binding affinity of cNTnC is physiologically important, because it directly impacts the calcium sensitivity of muscle contraction. Calcium sensitivity can be modified by drugs that stabilize the open form of cNTnC, post-translational modifications like phosphorylation of troponin I, or downstream thin filament protein interactions that impact the availability of the troponin I switch region. Recently, mutations in cTnC have been associated with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy. A detailed understanding of how calcium sensitivity is regulated through the troponin complex is necessary for explaining how mutations perturb its function to promote cardiomyopathy and how post-translational modifications in the thin filament affect heart function and heart failure. Troponin modulating drugs are being developed for the treatment of cardiomyopathies and heart failure.

  2. Solution conformation of the C-terminal domain of skeletal troponin C. Cation, trifluoperazine and troponin I binding effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabikowski, W; Dalgarno, D C; Levine, B A; Gergely, J; Grabarek, Z; Leavis, P C

    1985-08-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the cation (Mg2+, Ca2+)-dependent conformational states of the C-terminal domain of rabbit skeletal troponin C under a variety of solution conditions. Nuclear Overhauser data and paramagnetic probe observations provide definition of the configuration of this region of troponin C. Comparative study of homologous proteins identify common features of the tertiary structure relevant to the cation binding reaction. Complex formation with troponin I and the drug trifluoperazine is observed to adjust the solution conformation of the C-terminal domain of troponin C. The interactive conformational response to cation coordination and the binding of the drug and troponin I are discussed.

  3. Thin filament activation probed by fluorescence of N-((2-(Iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole-labeled troponin I incorporated into skinned fibers of rabbit psoas muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, B; Kraft, T; Yu, LC; Chalovich, JM

    1999-01-01

    A method is described for the exchange of native troponin of single rabbit psoas muscle fibers for externally applied troponin complexes without detectable impairment of functional properties of the skinned fibers. This approach is used to exchange native troponin for rabbit skeletal troponin with a fluorescent label (N-((2-(iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole, IANBD) on Cys(133) of the troponin I subunit. IANBD-labeled troponin I has previously been used in solut...

  4. Expression and assembly of active human cardiac troponin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Michael W

    2013-02-01

    Cardiomyopathy-related mutations in human cardiac troponin subunits, including troponin C (hcTnC), troponin I (hcTnI), and troponin T (hcTnT), are well-documented. Recently, it has been recognised that human cardiac troponin (hcTn) is a sophisticated allosteric system. Therefore, the effect of drugs on this protein complex should be studied with assembled hcTn rather than a short fragment of a subunit or the subunit itself. Here, we describe the expression and assembly of active hcTn in Escherichia coli, a novel method that is rapid and simple, and produces large amounts of functional hcTn.

  5. Linear Transceiver Design for Interference Alignment: Complexity and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Razaviyayn, Meisam; Luo, Zhi-Quan

    2010-01-01

    Consider a MIMO interference channel whereby each transmitter and receiver are equipped with multiple antennas. The basic problem is to design optimal linear transceivers (or beamformers) that can maximize system throughput. The recent work [1] suggests that optimal beamformers should maximize the total degrees of freedom and achieve interference alignment in high SNR. In this paper we first consider the interference alignment problem in spatial domain and prove that the problem of maximizing the total degrees of freedom for a given MIMO interference channel is NP-hard. Furthermore, we show that even checking the achievability of a given tuple of degrees of freedom for all receivers is NP-hard when each receiver is equipped with at least three antennas. Interestingly, the same problem becomes polynomial time solvable when each transmit/receive node is equipped with no more than two antennas. Finally, we propose a distributed algorithm for transmit covariance matrix design, while assuming each receiver uses a ...

  6. Reconstitution of the muscle thin filament from recombinant troponin components and the native thin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Fumiko; Deshimaru, Shungo; Oda, Toshiro; Fujiwara, Satoru

    2010-04-15

    We have developed a technique by which muscle thin filaments are reconstituted from the recombinant troponin components and the native thin filaments. By this technique, the reconstituted troponin complex is exchanged into the native thin filaments in the presence of 20% glycerol and 0.3M KCl at pH 6.2. More than 90% of endogenous troponin complex was replaced with the recombinant troponin complex. Structural integrity and Ca(2+) sensitivity of the reconstituted thin filament prepared by this technique was confirmed by X-ray fiber diffraction measurements and the thin filament-activated myosin subfragment 1 ATPase measurements, respectively.

  7. Cardiac troponin T mutations in Chinese patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴恒芳; 杨笛; 万文辉; 卞智萍; 徐晋丹; 马文珠; 张寄南

    2004-01-01

    @@ Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a myocardial disorder characterized by unexplained ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, with a prevalence of about 0.2% in general population. HCM is associated with gene abnormalities. Nearly 200 mutations have been described in ten genes in patients with HCM.1 Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is an essential component of the troponin complex and plays a central role in the calcium regulation of contractions in cardiac myocytes

  8. Fabrication of self-aligned, nanoscale, complex oxide varactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Richard X.; Toonen, Ryan C.; Hirsch, Samuel G.; Ivill, Mathew P.; Cole, Melanie W.; Strawhecker, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Applications in ferroelectric random access memory and superparaelectric devices require the fabrication of ferroelectric capacitors at the nanoscale that exhibit extremely small leakage currents. To systematically study the material-size dependence of ferroelectric varactor performance, arrays of parallel-plate structures have been fabricated with nanoscale dielectric diameters. Electron beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma dry etching have been used to fabricate arrays of ferroelectric varactors using top electrodes as a self-aligned etch mask. Parallel-plate test structures using RF-sputtered Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin-films were used to optimize the fabrication process. Varactors with diameters down to 20 nm were successfully fabricated. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were measured to evaluate the significance of etch-damage and fabrication quality by ensuring low leakage currents through the structures.

  9. An in silico analysis of troponin I mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy of Indian origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Ramachandran

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM is an autosomal dominant disorder of the myocardium which is hypertrophied resulting in arrhythmias and heart failure leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD. Several sarcomeric proteins and modifier genes have been implicated in this disease. Troponin I, being a part of the Troponin complex (troponin I, troponin C, troponin T, is an important gene for sarcomeric function. Four mutations (1 novel were identified in Indian HCM cases, namely, Pro82Ser, Arg98Gln, Arg141Gln and Arg162Gln in Troponin I protein, which are in functionally significant domains. In order to analyse the effect of the mutations on protein stability and protein-protein interactions within the Troponin complex, an in silico study was carried out. The freely available X-ray crystal structure (PDB ID: 1JIE was used as the template to model the protein followed by loop generation and development of troponin complex for both the troponin I wild type and four mutants (NCBI ID: PRJNA194382. The structural study was carried out to determine the effect of mutation on the structural stability and protein-protein interactions between three subunits in the complex. These mutations, especially the arginine to glutamine substitutions were found to result in local perturbations within the troponin complex by creating/removing inter/intra molecular hydrogen bonds with troponin T and troponin C. This has led to a decrease in the protein stability and loss of important interactions between the three subunits. It could have a significant impact on the disease progression when coupled with allelic heterogeneity which was observed in the cases carrying these mutations. However, this can be further confirmed by functional studies on protein levels in the identified cases.

  10. Cardiospecific troponins in non-ischemic cardiological pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiospecific troponin T (TnT and I (TnI are low-molecularweight proteins that form part of the troponin complex and are integral components of the myofibrillar contractile apparatus of the heart. Loss of integrity of cardiac myocyte membranes causes release of cardiac troponins into the circulation, which can be detected by highly sensitive assays for cTnT and cTnI developed to the stat diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. Regardless of preanalytical and analytical sources (incorrect collection or handling of the specimen, malfunctioning of the analyzer, heterophilic antibodies, a diagnostic troponin value is expression of myocardial damage, though it does not provide definitive clue on the nature of such an increment. In fact, increases in serum cardiac troponins also occur in the absence of cardiac ischemia and may sometimes led to an inappropriate or unjustified clinical decision making. Abnormal troponin values in plasma are frequently observed in various clinical contexts independent from the acute coronary disease, like myocarditis, pulmonary embolism, acute heart failure, septic shock, and as a result of cardiotoxic drugs as well as after therapeutic procedures like coronary angioplasty, electrophysiological ablations, or electrical cardioversion. Awareness of this issue is essential to either prevent unjustified alarmism or underestimation of clinical situations that may finally compromise the patient’s health.

  11. Grain alignment induced by radiative torques: effects of internal relaxation of energy and complex radiation fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thiem

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies of grain alignment dealt mostly with interstellar grains that have strong internal relaxation of energy which aligns grain axis of maximum moment of inertia with respect to grain's angular momentum. In this paper, we study the alignment by radiative torques for large irregular grains, e.g., grains in accretion disks, for which internal relaxation is subdominant. We use both numerical calculations and the analytical model of a helical grain introduced by us earlier. We demonstrate that grains in such a regime exhibit more complex dynamics. In particular, if initially the grain axis of maximum moment of inertia makes a small angle with angular momentum, then radiative torques can align the grain axis of maximum moment of inertia with angular momentum, and both axis of maximum moment of inertia and angular momentum are aligned with the magnetic field when attractors with high angular momentum (high-J attractors) are available. For the alignment without high-J attractors, beside the earlier studie...

  12. Alignment-Free Phylogenetic Reconstruction: Sample Complexity via a Branching Process Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Daskalakis, Constantinos

    2011-01-01

    We present an efficient phylogenetic reconstruction algorithm, allowing insertions and deletions, which provably achieves a sequence-length requirement (or sample complexity) growing polynomially in the number of taxa. Our algorithm is distance-based, that is, it relies on pairwise sequence comparisons. More importantly, our approach largely bypasses the difficult problem of multiple sequence alignment.

  13. Cardiac troponins in dogs and cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Rebecca; Willesen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac troponins are sensitive and specific markers of myocardial injury. The troponin concentration can be thought of as a quantitative measure of the degree of injury sustained by the heart, however, it provides no information on the cause of injury or the mechanism of troponin release. Conven...

  14. Physical exertion may cause high troponin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agewall, Stefan; Tjora, Solve

    2011-11-15

    It is important to measure troponin levels when acute myocardial infarct is suspected. Many other factors that affect the heart can cause an increase in troponin levels, for example extreme physical exertion. Recent studies have shown that more normal physical activity can also lead to increase in troponin levels in healthy individuals.

  15. Troponin I controls ovulatory contraction of non-striated actomyosin networks in the C. elegans somatic gonad

    OpenAIRE

    Obinata, Takashi; Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2010-01-01

    The myoepithelial sheath of the Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad has non-striated actomyosin networks that provide contractile forces during ovulation, a process in which a mature oocyte is expelled from the ovary. Troponin T and troponin C are known regulators of contraction of the myoepithelial sheath. These are two of the three components of the troponin complex that is generally considered as a striated-muscle-specific regulator of actomyosin contraction. Here, we report identificatio...

  16. Docking-complex-independent alignment of Chlamydomonas outer dynein arms with 24-nm periodicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshiyuki; Abe, Tatsuki; Yanagisawa, Haruaki; Kikkawa, Masahide

    2016-04-15

    The docking complex is a molecular complex necessary for assembly of outer dynein arms (ODAs) on the axonemal doublet microtubules (DMTs) in cilia and flagella. The docking complex is hypothesized to be a 24-nm molecular ruler because ODAs align along the DMTs with 24-nm periodicity. In this study, we rigorously tested this hypothesis using structural and genetic methods. We found that the ODAs can bind to DMTs and porcine microtubules with 24-nm periodicities even in the absence of the docking complexin vitro Using cryo-electron tomography and structural labeling, we observed that the docking complex took an unexpectedly flexible conformation and did not lie along the length of DMTs. In the absence of docking complex, ODAs were released from the DMT at relatively low ionic strength conditions, suggesting that the docking complex strengthens the electrostatic interactions between the ODA and DMT. Based on these results, we conclude that the docking complex serves as a flexible stabilizer of the ODA rather than as a molecular ruler.

  17. Dephosphorylation specificities of protein phosphatase for cardiac troponin I, troponin T, and sites within troponin T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1, acting in concert with protein kinase C (PKC and protein kinase A (PKA, is a pivotal regulatory mechanism of protein phosphorylation. Isolated rat cardiac myofibrils phosphorylated by PKC/PKA and dephosphorylated by PP1 were used in determining dephosphorylation specificities, Ca2+-stimulated Mg2+ATPase activities, and Ca2+ sensitivities. In reconstituted troponin (Tn complex, PP1 displayed distinct substrate specificity in dephosphorylation of TnT preferentially to TnI, in vitro. In situ phosphorylation of cardiomyocytes with calyculin A, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, resulted in an increase in the phosphorylation stiochiometry of TnT (0.3 to 0.5 (67%, TnI (2.6 to 3.6 (38%, and MLC2 (0.4 to 1.7 (325%. These results further confirmed that though MLC2 is the preferred target substrate for protein phosphatase in the thick filament, the Tn complex (TnI and TnT from thin filament and C-protein in the thick filament are also protein phosphatase substrates. Our in vitro dephosphorylation experiments revealed that while PP1 differentially dephosphorylated within TnT at multiple sites, TnI was uniformly dephosphorylated. Phosphopeptide maps from the in vitro experiments show that TnT phosphopeptides at spots 4A and 4B are much more resistant to PP1 dephosphorylation than other TnT phosphopeptides. Mg2+ATPase assays of myofibrils phosphorylated by PKC/PKA and dephosphorylated by PP1 delineated that while PKC and PKA phosphorylation decreased the Ca2+-stimulated Mg2+ATPase activities, dephosphorylation antagonistically restored it. PKC and PKA phosphorylation decreased Ca2+ sensitivity to 3.6 µM and 5.0 µM respectively. However, dephosphorylation restored the Mg2+ATPase activity of PKC (99% and PKA (95%, along with the Ca2+ sensitivities (3.3 µM and 3.0 µM, respectively.

  18. Alignment and integration of complex networks by hypergraph-based spectral clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Michoel, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks possess a rich, multi-scale structure reflecting the dynamical and functional organization of the systems they model. Often there is a need to analyze multiple networks simultaneously, to model a system by more than one type of interaction or to go beyond simple pairwise interactions, but currently there is a lack of theoretical and computational methods to address such problems. Here we introduce a framework for multi-network analysis based on hypergraph representations. Our main result is a generalization of the Perron-Frobenius theorem from which we derive spectral clustering algorithms for directed and undirected hypergraphs. We illustrate our approach with applications for tripartite community detection in folksonomies, for local and global alignment of protein-protein interaction networks between multiple species and for detecting clusters of overlapping regulatory pathways in directed networks.

  19. Cardiac troponin elevations among critically ill patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Elevated levels of cardiac troponins, indicative of the presence of cardiac injury, have been reported in critically ill patients. In this review, the incidence, significance, and clinical relevance of elevated troponin levels among this group of patients will be discussed. RE

  20. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis N Mavridis; Maria Meliou; Efstratios-Stylianos Pyrgelis

    2015-01-01

    Troponin (tr) elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words:“troponin elevation”and“subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr>1μg/L), worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients’ cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  1. Structural dynamics of troponin during activation of skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Luca; Brunello, Elisabetta; Sevrieva, Ivanka R.; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved changes in the conformation of troponin in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle were followed during activation in situ by photolysis of caged calcium using bifunctional fluorescent probes in the regulatory and the coiled-coil (IT arm) domains of troponin. Three sequential steps in the activation mechanism were identified. The fastest step (1,100 s−1) matches the rate of Ca2+ binding to the regulatory domain but also dominates the motion of the IT arm. The second step (120 s−1) coincides with the azimuthal motion of tropomyosin around the thin filament. The third step (15 s−1) was shown by three independent approaches to track myosin head binding to the thin filament, but is absent in the regulatory head. The results lead to a four-state structural kinetic model that describes the molecular mechanism of muscle activation in the thin filament–myosin head complex under physiological conditions. PMID:24616505

  2. The Interparticle Interaction Between a Vertically Aligned Dust Particle Pair in a Complex Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ke; Ding, Zhiyue; Kong, Jie; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between dust particles is a fundamental topic in complex plasma. In experiments on earth, the interparticle interaction in the horizontal direction (i.e., perpendicular to the gravitational force) is generally recognized to be a Yukawa potential. However, the interaction in the vertical direction is much more complicated, primarily due to the ion flow in the plasma sheath. In this research, we introduce a non-intrusive method to study the interaction between a vertically aligned dust particle pair confined in a glass box placed on the lower powered electrode within a GEC reference cell. This system is investigated for varying rf powers to obtain the trend of the interparticle interaction strength, which is contrasted with theoretical results. Using spontaneous thermal fluctuations of the neutral gas as the only driving force, we obtain the normal mode spectra of the dust pair, revealing not only the oscillation frequencies, but also the vibration amplitudes of the normal modes. The interaction strength between the upper and lower particle is obtained quantitatively from these mode spectra, showing strong nonreciprocity in both the vertical and horizontal directions. It will also be shown that the resulting horizontal attractive force of the upper particle on the lower particle can be larger than the horizontal confinement produced by the glass box alone. NSF / DOE funding is gratefully acknowledged - PHY1414523 & PHY1262031.

  3. Mutual Alignment Comparison Facilitates Abstraction and Transfer of a Complex Scientific Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Judy M.; Anggoro, Florencia K.; Jee, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Learning about a scientific concept often occurs in the context of unfamiliar examples. Mutual alignment analogy--a type of analogical comparison in which the analogues are only partially understood--has been shown to facilitate learning from unfamiliar examples . In the present study, we examined the role of mutual alignment analogy in the…

  4. A non-ischaemic cause of elevated troponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Guy; D'Antonio, Claude; Caffery, Terrell

    2014-04-04

    A 27-year-old woman with chest pain was admitted for elevated troponin levels. Troponin remained mildly elevated upon repeat testing, and a review of the medical record revealed that she had had an elevated troponin level in the past. She had a cardiac catheterisation that revealed angiographically normal coronary arteries. Repeat troponin testing with and without ethylene glycol revealed a negative troponin level after addition of ethylene glycol, suggesting antibodies were interfering with the assay.

  5. Troponins Biomarkers Of Miocardic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Consuelo González Patiño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers or Biological markers are tools that for their availability, economy, specificity and sensitivity are useful in the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of canine and feline patients with cardiovascular alterations; widely used and standardized in human cardiology, presented as an excellent complement, of easy access, for specialized tests such as Doppler ultrasound and electrocardiography that, sometimes, are not available in everyday clinical practice. The cardiac troponins are sensitive and specific biomarkers in the detection of different abnormalities that affect the integrity of the myocardium, these are minimally invasive tests, inexpensive and would provide valuable information in the treatment of cardiac patients; therefore, the possibility of making these part of the protocol in the routine evaluation of patients, with suspect of heart disease should be considered.

  6. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  7. Troponin not just a simple cardiac marker: prognostic significance of cardiac troponin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benny Mulyanto Setiadi; LEI Han; CHANG Jing

    2009-01-01

    Objective The object of this study was to review the role of cardiac troponin as a prognostic factor in acute coronary syndrome patients of varying circumstances.Data sources The data used in this review were obtained mainly from the studies of cardiac troponin reported in pubmed from 1981 to 2006.Study selection Relevant articles on studies of cardiac troponin were selected.Results Elevated cardiac troponin in patients with ST elevation and non ST elevation myocardial infarction was associated with adverse outcomes, including a higher incidence of congestive heart failure, shock, and death. Patients with elevated cardiac troponin value seemed to benefit more from invasive strategies including a percutaneous coronary intervention and bypass surgery, but elevated cardiac troponin was also correlated with adverse outcomes, including a higher degree of failure, shock, and mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention; a higher degree of perioperative myocardial infarction, low cardiac output syndrome, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and new-onset ventricular arrhythmia in patients undergoing bypass surgery were also observed. Elevated troponin after a percutaneous coronary intervention seemed to be associated with short-term adverse outcomes rather than long-term adverse outcomes, unless the elevation of the troponin post percutaneous coronary intervention was quite high (about 5 times above normal). On the contrary, elevated cardiac troponin after bypass surgery was more confusing to analyze since it happened in almost all patients. Furthermore, differences in cutoff values and time measurements in some studies add more confusion; thus, further research is warranted.Conclusions The prognostic value of cardiac troponin is demonstrated in almost all acute coronary syndrome patients. In addition to its high sensitivity and specificity, the prognostic value of cardiac troponin is another reason to make it the "golden cardiac marker' of this time.

  8. Implications of troponin testing in clinical medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinertz Thomas

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the past decade considerable research has been conducted into the use of cardiac troponins, their diagnostic capability and their potential to allow risk stratification in patients with acute chest pain. Determination of risk in patients with suspected myocardial ischaemia is known to be as important as retrospective confirmation of a diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI. Therefore, creatine kinase (CK-MB - the former 'gold standard' in detecting myocardial necrosis - has been supplanted by new, more accurate biomarkers.Measurement of cardiac troponin levels constitute a substantial determinant in assessment of ischaemic heart disease, the presentations of which range from silent ischaemia to acute MI. Under these conditions, troponin release is regarded as surrogate marker of thrombus formation and peripheral embolization, and therefore new therapeutic strategies are focusing on potent antithrombotic regimens to improve long-term outcomes. Although elevated troponin levels are highly sensitive and specific indicators of myocardial damage, they are not always reflective of acute ischaemic coronary artery disease; other processes have been identified that cause elevations in these biomarkers. However, because prognosis appears to be related to the presence of troponins regardless of the mechanism of myocardial damage, clinicians increasingly rely on troponin assays when formulating individual therapeutic plans.

  9. Alignment validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  10. Multipoint alignment monitoring with amorphous silicon position detectors in a complex light path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A., E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.e [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    This document presents an application of the new generation of amorphous silicon position detecting (ASPD) sensors to multipoint alignment. Twelve units are monitored along a 20 m long laser beam, where the light path is deflected by 90{sup o} using a pentaprism.

  11. Alignment in Complex Education Systems: Achieving Balance and Coherence. OECD Education Working Papers, Number 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Janet W.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of OECD countries now implement one form or another of standards-based assessment and evaluation. The core logic of standards-based systems rests upon the alignment of three key elements: "standards" defining the knowledge and skills--or "competences"--students are expected to have attained at different stages of their education;…

  12. Troponin-like regulation in muscle thin filaments of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Bivalvia: Mytiloida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyatchin, Ilya G; Shevchenko, Ulyana V; Lazarev, Stanislav S; Matusovsky, Oleg S; Shelud'ko, Nikolay S

    2015-10-01

    Muscles of bivalve molluscs have double calcium regulation--myosin-linked and actin-linked. While the mechanism of myosin-linked regulation is sufficiently studied, there is still no consensus on the mechanism of actin-linked regulation. Earlier we showed a high degree of Ca2+-sensitivity of thin filaments from the adductor muscle of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Mytiloida). In order to elucidate the nature of this regulation, we isolated the fraction of minor proteins from the mussel thin filaments, which confers Ca2+-sensitivity to reconstituted actomyosin-tropomyosin. Proteins of this fraction, ABP-19, ABP-20, and ABP-28, were chromatographically purified and identified. According to the results of mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis, as well as by their functional properties, these mussel actin-binding proteins appeared to correspond to the troponin components from the skeletal muscles of vertebrates (TnC, TnI and TnT). The reconstituted mussel troponin complex confers to actomyosin-tropomyosin more than 80% Ca2+-sensitivity. The in vivo molar ratio of actin/tropomyosin/troponin was calculated to be 7:1:0.5, i.e., the content of troponin in mussel thin filaments is two times lower than in thin filaments of skeletal muscles of vertebrates. These data demonstrate that troponin-like regulation found in the catch muscle of the mussel C. grayanus is present at least in two suborders of bivalves: Pectinoida and Mytiloida.

  13. Comparison of ARCHITECT chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay for determination of Troponin I in serum with AXYM MEIA technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafija Serdarević

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was determination of troponin I at serum using Architect (Abbott and AxSYM System (Abbott. Troponin is regulatory subunit of the troponin complex associate with actin filament within muscle cells and it is a marker for diagnosis of myocardial damage.Methods: We used Architect STAT chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA and AxSYM microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA, techniques for quantitative determination of cardiac TnI in human serum or plasma. At our study we have proved precision, reproducibility and accuracy from both methods. The investigation included patients (n=119 who have myocardial infarction or ischemic heart damage and were treated at cardiology, emergency, internal medicine and neurology unit in Clinical Center University in Sarajevo.Results: The precision for three controls using Architect STAT TnI asssay technology were 3.6 – 5.2 % and reproducibility was 3.7 to 5.6 %. The AxSYM STAT TnI has precision for three controls 4.3–6.6 % and reproducibilitywas from 4.8 to 7.8 %. We have got very good correlation between Architect and AxSYM technology r = 0.999 in the investigation of troponin I in serum.Conclusions: We can conclude that chemiluminescent troponin assay I (Architect showed good analytical performance and gave new possibility at troponin I determination.

  14. Cardiac troponins in dogs and cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Rebecca; Willesen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    . Conventionally, the cardiac troponins have been used for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in humans and have become the gold standard biomarkers for this indication. They have become increasingly recognized as an objective measure of cardiomyocyte status in both cardiac and noncardiac disease, supplying...

  15. Cardiac troponin assays in the management of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Matthew; Jarolim, Petr

    2015-02-20

    Cardiac troponins I and T are established biomarkers of cardiac injury. Testing for either of these two cardiac troponins has long been an essential component of the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. In addition, cardiac troponin concentrations after acute myocardial infarction predict future adverse events including development of ischemic heart failure and chronic elevations of cardiac troponin correlate with heart failure severity. These predictions and correlations are particularly obvious when cardiac troponin concentrations are measured using the new high sensitivity cardiac troponin assays. Thus, a growing body of literature suggests that cardiac troponin testing may have important clinical implications for heart failure patients with reduced or preserved ejection fraction. In this review, we explore the prognostic utility of measuring cardiac troponin concentrations in patients with acute or chronic heart failure and in populations at risk of developing heart failure and the relationship between cardiac troponin levels and disease severity. We also summarize the ongoing debates and research on whether serial monitoring of cardiac troponin levels may become a useful tool for guiding therapeutic interventions in patients with heart failure.

  16. Fluorescence lifetime and acrylamide quenching studies of the interactions between troponin subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavis, P C; Gowell, E; Tao, T

    1984-08-28

    Fluorescence lifetime and acrylamide quenching studies were carried out to characterize the interactions between the subunits of troponin under various conditions of metal ion binding. Troponin C was labeled at Cys-98 with N-(iodoacetyl)-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine. In the presence of Ca2+, the fluorescence decay of labeled troponin C (TnC*) was monoexponential, lifetime tau = 15.5 ns and quenching rate constant kq = 2.97 X 10(8) M-1 s-1. In the absence of Ca2+, the decay was resolvable into a major component with tau = 11.9 ns and a minor component with tau = 20.5 ns, with corresponding values of kq = 4.80 X 10(8) and 0.66 X 10(8) M-1 s-1, respectively. Upon the binding of either troponin I (TnI) or troponin T (TnT) in the presence of Ca2+, tau increased to approximately 18 ns, and kq decreased to approximately 0.8 X 10(8) M-1 s-1. For the Ca2+ form of the TnC*-TnI-TnT ternary complex, values of tau = 17.6 ns and kq = 1.73 X 10(8) M-1 s-1 were obtained. These values did not vary significantly when Ca2+ was removed, or when Mg2+ replaced Ca2+. These findings were interpreted as follows: the region around Cys-98 of TnC* adopts a looser conformation upon the removal of Ca2+ from the high-affinity sites. Both TnI and TnT bind to TnC* in the region containing Cys-98. The probe is shielded from the solvent to a greater extent in the binary complexes than in the ternary complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Alignment of Configuration and Documentation for Highly Engineered Complex Product Configuration Systems: a Demonstration from a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Adequate documentation is critical for successful implementation, maintenance and further developments of product configuration system (PCS) specially in companies making complex and highly engineered products. This article is based on experience of modelling and utilizing a PCS from an Engineer......-To-Order (ETO), where the main focus is on the challenges concerned with the documentation of the PCS, both in the development and production phase. Aligning the development of the PCS with an automatic documentation system creates value. Using the suggested method for documentation facilitates the following...... activities: (1) iterative testing of the system during the development, (2) communication with domain experts, (3) documentation and maintenance, and finally (4) updates without spending a lot of time and resources. This article is supplemented with a case study from an ETO company where the method...

  18. Troponin T3 expression in skeletal and smooth muscle is required for growth and postnatal survival: characterization of Tnnt3(tm2a(KOMP)Wtsi) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yawen; Li, Jie; Xie, Chao; Ritchlin, Christopher T; Xing, Lianping; Hilton, Matthew J; Schwarz, Edward M

    2013-09-01

    The troponin complex, which consists of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T), is known to regulate muscle contraction in skeletal and cardiac muscle, but its role in smooth muscle remains controversial. Troponin T3 (TnnT3) is a fast skeletal muscle troponin believed to be expressed only in skeletal muscle cells. To determine the in vivo function and tissue-specific expression of Tnnt3, we obtained the heterozygous Tnnt3+/flox/lacZ mice from Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) Repository. Tnnt3(lacZ/+) mice are smaller than their WT littermates throughout development but do not display any gross phenotypes. Tnnt3(lacZ/lacZ) embryos are smaller than heterozygotes and die shortly after birth. Histology revealed hemorrhagic tissue in Tnnt3(lacZ/lacZ) liver and kidney, which was not present in Tnnt3(lacZ/+) or WT, but no other gross tissue abnormalities. X-gal staining for Tnnt3 promoter-driven lacZ transgene expression revealed positive staining in skeletal muscle and diaphragm and smooth muscle cells located in the aorta, bladder, and bronchus. Collectively, these findings suggest that troponins are expressed in smooth muscle and are required for normal growth and breathing for postnatal survival. Moreover, future studies with this mouse model can explore TnnT3 function in adult muscle function using the conditional-inducible gene deletion approach

  19. Review article: elevated troponin: diagnostic gold or fool's gold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atifur; Broadley, Simon A

    2014-04-01

    Troponin is a highly sensitive biomarker of myocardial injury and has been used extensively in everyday clinical practice in the community as well as in hospitals for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and for risk stratification of patients with acute coronary symptoms. Dynamic elevations in biomarkers (troponin) are considered fundamental to the diagnosis of AMI. Unfortunately, many clinical conditions can cause troponin elevation in the absence of myocardial ischaemia, and elevated levels sometimes pose a diagnostic dilemma. In some cases, inappropriate diagnosis of 'AMI' based primarily on a raised troponin can have a deleterious impact on an individual, including on driving, insurance and other medicolegal matters. An incorrect diagnosis of myocardial infarction can also lead to the oversight of serious life-threatening alternative causes of troponin elevation (e.g. pulmonary embolism). This article discusses the role of troponin in our everyday clinical practice in the ED.

  20. Troponin elevation after noncardiac surgery: Significance and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horr, Samuel; Reed, Grant; Menon, Venu

    2015-09-01

    How to interpret and manage troponin elevations after noncardiac surgery is a common clinical question for cardiologists and internists. An estimated 5% to 25% of patients who undergo noncardiac surgery have an elevated postoperative troponin level. Patients with troponin elevation are at higher short-term and long-term risk of morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines provide few recommendations on how to manage these patients. The authors review the evidence and guidelines and propose treatment strategies.

  1. High-sensitive cardiac troponin T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Yi Xu; Xiao-Fa Zhu; Ye Yang; Ping Ye

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac troponin is the preferred biomarker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The recent development of a high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) assay permits detection of very low levels of cTnT. Using the hs-cTnT assay improves the overall diagnostic accuracy in patients with suspected AMI, while a negative result also has a high negative predictive value. The gain in sensitivity may be particularly important in patients with a short duration from symptom onset to admission. Measurement of cardiac troponin T with the hs-cTnT assay may provide strong prognostic information in patients with acute coronary syndromes, stable coronary artery disease, heart failure and even in the general population; however, increased sensitivity comes at a cost of decreased specificity. Serial testing, as well as clinical context and co-existing diseases, are likely to become increasingly important for the interpretation of hs-cTnT assay results.

  2. Inherited cardiomyopathies caused by troponin mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun-Wei Lu; Xiao-Yan Wu; Sachio Morimoto

    2013-01-01

    Genetic investigations of cardiomyopathy in the recent two decades have revealed a large number of mutations in the genes encoding sarcomeric proteins as a cause of inherited hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), or restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Most functional analyses of the effects of mutations on cardiac muscle contraction have revealed significant changes in the Ca2+-regulatory mechanism, in which cardiac troponin (cTn) plays important structural and functional roles as a key regulatory protein. Over a hundred mutations have been identified in all three subunits of cTn, i.e., cardiac troponins T, I, and C. Recent studies on cTn mutations have provided plenty of evidence that HCM- and RCM-linked mutations increase cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, while DCM-linked mutations decrease it. This review focuses on the functional consequences of mutations found in cTn in terms of cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, ATPase activity, force generation, and cardiac troponin I phosphorylation, to understand potential molecular and cellular pathogenic mechanisms of the three types of inherited cardiomyopathy.

  3. 复杂网络结构比对算法研究进展%Advances in algorithms for construction alignment of complex networks research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘富; 姜奕含; 邹青宇

    2015-01-01

    The construction alignment of complex networks problems in biological science、computer science、social science and other fields have practical signification.In recent years, different types of construction alignment of complex networks have been sprung up.In this paper, we mainly analysed the construction alignment algorithms based on graph and construction alignment algorithms and mathematical framework.Illustrating the key problem in the study of the networks alignment algorithm is analyzed and compared the algorithms of construction alignment. We explained their advantages and disadvantages,at last we forecast the future progress of algorithms for construc-tion alignment of complex networks.%复杂网络的结构比对问题在生物科学、计算机科学和社会科学等多个领域都具有很重要的现实意义。近年来涌现出了很多针对不同类型复杂网络的结构对比算法,对现有的网络结构比对算法进行梳理,重点分析了基于图的网络结构比对方法和基于数学框架网络结构比对方法。对这2种方法的特点进行了总结与比较,重点阐述了网络结构比对研究中的关键问题,分析和总结了现有的网络结构比对算法,阐述了网络结构比对中优势和不足。以此为基础提出了复杂网络结构比对问题未来的研究方向。

  4. Thin filament activation probed by fluorescence of N-((2-(iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-labeled troponin I incorporated into skinned fibers of rabbit psoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, B; Kraft, T; Yu, L C; Chalovich, J M

    1999-11-01

    A method is described for the exchange of native troponin of single rabbit psoas muscle fibers for externally applied troponin complexes without detectable impairment of functional properties of the skinned fibers. This approach is used to exchange native troponin for rabbit skeletal troponin with a fluorescent label (N-((2-(iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole, IANBD) on Cys(133) of the troponin I subunit. IANBD-labeled troponin I has previously been used in solution studies as an indicator for the state of activation of reconstituted actin filaments (. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77:7209-7213). In the skinned fibers, the fluorescence of this probe is unaffected when cross-bridges in their weak binding states attach to actin filaments but decreases either upon the addition of Ca(2+) or when cross-bridges in their strong binding states attach to actin. Maximum reduction is observed when Ca(2+) is raised to saturating concentrations. Additional attachment of cross-bridges in strong binding states gives no further reduction of fluorescence. Attachment of cross-bridges in strong binding states alone (low Ca(2+) concentration) gives only about half of the maximum reduction seen with the addition of calcium. This illustrates that fluorescence of IANBD-labeled troponin I can be used to evaluate thin filament activation, as previously introduced for solution studies. In addition, at nonsaturating Ca(2+) concentrations IANBD fluorescence can be used for straightforward classification of states of the myosin head as weak binding (nonactivating) and strong binding (activating), irrespective of ionic strength or other experimental conditions. Furthermore, the approach presented here not only can be used as a means of exchanging native skeletal troponin and its subunits for a variety of fluorescently labeled or mutant troponin subunits, but also allows the exchange of native skeletal troponin for cardiac troponin.

  5. Fundamental concepts of effective troponin use: important principles for internists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Jaskanwal D S; Holmes, David R; Jaffe, Allan S

    2015-02-01

    Troponin testing is an essential component of our diagnostic approach to patients in acute medical care settings. With the advent of high-sensitivity troponin assays, its importance will extend to patients in chronic disease settings. Although elevated troponin levels provide diagnostic information, inform treatment decisions, and influence patient prognosis, proper interpretation of the values is essential. This requires an understanding of the operating characteristics of troponin testing; the likelihood ratios associated with a positive/negative test result and the pre- and post-test probabilities related to individual clinical settings. These principles will become more important as high-sensitivity assays become introduced over the coming years in the United States. This article reviews the important principles of troponin testing focusing in particular on acute settings and is aimed at internal medicine and hospital specialists.

  6. Prediction of Antimicrobial Peptides Based on Sequence Alignment and Support Vector Machine-Pairwise Algorithm Utilizing LZ-Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yi Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns an attempt to establish a new method for predicting antimicrobial peptides (AMPs which are important to the immune system. Recently, researchers are interested in designing alternative drugs based on AMPs because they have found that a large number of bacterial strains have become resistant to available antibiotics. However, researchers have encountered obstacles in the AMPs designing process as experiments to extract AMPs from protein sequences are costly and require a long set-up time. Therefore, a computational tool for AMPs prediction is needed to resolve this problem. In this study, an integrated algorithm is newly introduced to predict AMPs by integrating sequence alignment and support vector machine- (SVM- LZ complexity pairwise algorithm. It was observed that, when all sequences in the training set are used, the sensitivity of the proposed algorithm is 95.28% in jackknife test and 87.59% in independent test, while the sensitivity obtained for jackknife test and independent test is 88.74% and 78.70%, respectively, when only the sequences that has less than 70% similarity are used. Applying the proposed algorithm may allow researchers to effectively predict AMPs from unknown protein peptide sequences with higher sensitivity.

  7. A high-throughput processing service for retention time alignment of complex proteomics and metabolomics LC-MS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, Isthiaq; Suits, Frank; Hoekman, Berend; Swertz, Morris A.; Byelas, Heorhiy; Dijkstra, Martijn; Hooft, Rob; Katsubo, Dmitry; van Breukelen, Bas; Bischoff, Rainer; Horvatovich, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Warp2D is a novel time alignment approach, which uses the overlapping peak volume of the reference and sample peak lists to correct misleading peak shifts. Here, we present an easyto- use web interface for high-throughput Warp2D batch processing time alignment service using the Dutch Life Science Gr

  8. The content and distribution of troponin I, troponin T, myoglobin, and alpha-hydroxybutyric acid dehydrogenase in the human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaanenburg, JCJM; Visser-VanBrummen, PJ; DeJongste, MJL; Tiebosch, ATHM

    2001-01-01

    We studied the content and distribution of heart-specific markers troponin I and troponin T in relation to conventional non-heart specific myoglobin and alpha-hydroxybutyric acid dehydrogenase (HBD) in the hearts of 34 patients who died of various causes. Tissue was obtained from the right and left

  9. Label-Free Detection of Cardiac Troponin-I Using Carbon Nanofiber Based Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Koehne, Jessica Erin; Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Meyyappan, M.

    2013-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. A carbon nanofiber (CNF) multiplexed array has been fabricated with 9 sensing pads, each containing 40,000 carbon nanofibers as nanoelectrodes. Here, we report the use of vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for the detection of cardiac Troponin-I for the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Antibody, antitroponin, probe immobilization and subsequent binding to human cardiac troponin-I were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Each step of the modification process resulted in changes in electrical capacitance or resistance to charge transfer due to the changes at the electrode surface upon antibody immobilization and binding to the specific antigen. This sensor demonstrates high sensitivity, down to 0.2 ng/mL, and good selectivity making this platform a good candidate for early stage diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

  10. High sensitivity troponin and valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cian P; Donnellan, Eoin; Phelan, Dermot; Griffin, Brian P; Sarano, Maurice Enriquez-; McEvoy, John W

    2017-01-16

    Blood-based biomarkers have been extensively studied in a range of cardiovascular diseases and have established utility in routine clinical care, most notably in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (e.g., troponin) and the management of heart failure (e.g., brain-natriuretic peptide). The role of biomarkers is less well established in the management of valvular heart disease (VHD), in which the optimal timing of surgical intervention is often challenging. One promising biomarker that has been the subject of a number of recent VHD research studies is high sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn). Novel high-sensitivity assays can detect subclinical myocardial damage in asymptomatic individuals. Thus, hs-cTn may have utility in the assessment of asymptomatic patients with severe VHD who do not have a clear traditional indication for surgical intervention. In this state-of-the-art review, we examine the current evidence for hs-cTn as a potential biomarker in the most commonly encountered VHD conditions, aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation. This review provides a synopsis of early evidence indicating that hs-cTn has promise as a biomarker in VHD. However, the impact of its measurement on clinical practice and VHD outcomes needs to be further assessed in prospective studies before routine clinical use becomes a reality.

  11. Troponin elevation in conditions other than acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanindi A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Asli Tanindi, Mustafa CemriGazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Acute coronary syndromes comprise a large spectrum of clinical conditions ranging from unstable angina pectoris to acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Chest pain is usually the major symptom of atherosclerotic heart disease; however, it may be challenging to diagnose correctly, especially in the emergency department, because of the ambiguous way that pain is characterized by some patients. Cardiac troponins are sensitive and specific biomarkers used in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction that are released into the bloodstream when cardiac myocytes are damaged by acute ischemia or any other mechanism. They are the cornerstone for the diagnosis, risk assessment, prognosis, and determination of antithrombotic and revascularization strategies. However, troponin elevation indicates the presence, not the mechanism, of myocardial injury. There are many clinical conditions other than myocardial infarction that cause troponin elevation; thus, the physician should be aware of the wide spectrum of disease states that may result in troponin elevation and have a clear understanding of the related pathophysiology to effectively make a differential diagnosis. This review focuses on causes of troponin elevation other than acute coronary syndromes.Keywords: cardiac troponin, troponin elevation without acute coronary syndrome, differential diagnosis

  12. Drug-Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Elevated Cardiac Troponin T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm, Gro; Pareek, Manan

    2015-01-01

    The essential role of cardiac troponin in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction has led to the development of high-sensitivity assays, which are able to detect very small amounts of myocardial necrosis. The high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T assay, however, is not entirely specific...... for myocardial injury. This case report describes a 48-year-old woman, who, two years after cardiac transplantation, presented with rhabdomyolysis. During the course of the disease, her troponin T level was elevated on repeated occasions, but other definitive evidence of myocardial injury was not found...

  13. Troponin I and cardiovascular risk prediction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blankenberg, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Makarova, Nataliya;

    2016-01-01

    implication of statin therapy based on troponin concentration in 12 956 individuals free of cardiovascular disease in the JUPITER study. Troponin I remained an independent predictor with a hazard ratio of 1.37 for cardiovascular mortality, 1.23 for cardiovascular disease, and 1.24 for total mortality......-index discrimination and NRI increment. In individuals above 6 ng/L of troponin I, a concentration near the upper quintile in BiomarCaRE (5.9 ng/L) and JUPITER (5.8 ng/L), rosuvastatin therapy resulted in higher absolute risk reduction compared with individuals

  14. Interdomain orientation of cardiac troponin C characterized by paramagnetic relaxation enhancement NMR reveals a compact state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Nicole M; Liew, Chu Kong; Gell, David A; Fajer, Piotr G; Mackay, Joel P; Brown, Louise J

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac troponin C (cTnC) is the calcium binding subunit of the troponin complex that triggers the thin filament response to calcium influx into the sarcomere. cTnC consists of two globular EF-hand domains (termed the N- and C-domains) connected by a flexible linker. While the conformation of each domain of cTnC has been thoroughly characterized through NMR studies involving either the isolated N-domain (N-cTnC) or C-domain (C-cTnC), little attention has been paid to the range of interdomain orientations possible in full-length cTnC that arises as a consequence of the flexibility of the domain linker. Flexibility in the domain linker of cTnC is essential for effective regulatory function of troponin. We have therefore utilized paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) NMR to assess the interdomain orientation of cTnC. Ensemble fitting of our interdomain PRE measurements reveals that isolated cTnC has considerable interdomain flexibility and preferentially adopts a bent conformation in solution, with a defined range of relative domain orientations.

  15. Highly sensitive troponin T in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Ueland, T; Aukrust, P;

    2012-01-01

    in decedents than in survivors. After adjustment for stroke severity, C-reactive protein, age, NT-proBNP and prior heart and/or renal failure, hsTnT levels were not a significant predictor of long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion: Elevated levels of hsTnT are frequently present......Background: Newly developed troponin assays have superior diagnostic and prognostic performance in acute coronary syndrome (ACS), when compared to conventional troponin assays; however, highly sensitive troponin has not been evaluated in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: Highly...... sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) was measured daily during the first 4 days in 193 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke without overt ACS or atrial fibrillation. The patients were previously tested normal with a fourth-generation TnT assay. The patients were followed for 47 months, with all...

  16. Cleavage of a specific bond in troponin C by thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavis, P C; Rosenfeld, S; Lu, R C

    1978-08-21

    Limited proteolysis of rabbit skeletal troponin C with bovine thrombin yielded two fragments, TH1 (Mr = 11000) containing Ca2+ binding regions I--III and TH2 (Mr = 6000) containing region IV. Determination of the partial sequences of the fragments established the site of cleavage at Arg120-Ala121. Secondary cleavage by thrombin at other arginyl or lysyl residues in troponin C was ruled out by the sequence data and by the amino acid compositions of the two fragments.

  17. Troponin in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: Updates and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jason; Wehner, William; Nambi, Vijay

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac troponin has been well described as the preferred biomarker for diagnosis of myocardial infarction due to the high sensitivity and specificity for myocardial injury. Numerous other conditions apart from acute coronary syndrome can also lead to small elevations in troponin levels. However, the use of cTn as prognostic biomarker for the primary assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic patient has only recently been described. And with the development of newer generations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays that can detect 10-fold lower concentrations of troponin, the potential value cTn in the prevention and management of asymptomatic cardiovascular disease has come to the fore. This review provides an overview of the transition of cardiac troponin as a marker of acute myocardial injury to one that detects sub-clinical injury. Evidence continues to show that high-sensitivity troponin is emerging as one of the most powerful prognostic biomarkers for the assessment of cardiovascular risk in the general population.

  18. Motor neurone disease presenting with raised serum Troponin T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Jonathan P

    2015-05-01

    Myocardial damage indicated by a rise in cardiac Troponin may not necessarily be due to a cardiac event. Many diseases such as sepsis, pulmonary embolism, heart and renal failure can also be associated with an elevated cardiac Troponin level. This brief report discusses the rare event of a patient with motor neurone disease, where the possible diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction arose due to an elevated cardiac Troponin. A 69-year-old gentleman presented with a history of a central chest ache of mild intensity, lasting a total of 2 h prior to complete resolution. Multiple cardiac Troponin assays were elevated, and echocardiography did not show any acute changes of myocardial damage. His electrocardiogram was also normal. This patient's raised cardiac Troponin was therefore explained on the basis of his active motor neurone disease. This rare case outlines the importance of considering motor neurone disease as a cause of elevated cardiac Troponin in the absence of clinical evidence of an acute coronary event.

  19. Three slow skeletal muscle troponin genes in small-tailed Han sheep (Ovis aries): molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Guizhi; Ji, Zhibin; Chao, Tianle; Liu, Zhaohua; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Guanqing; Wu, Changhao; Wang, Jianmin

    2016-09-01

    To explore the basic characteristics and expressing profile of the three slow skeletal muscle troponin genes TNNC1 (Troponin C type 1), TNNI1 (troponin I type 1) and TNNT1 (troponin T type 1). Three purebred Dorper sheep and another three purebred small-tailed Han sheep were selected. The sequence of the genes from the small-tailed Han sheep was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; The characteristics of the predicted amino acids sequences were analyzed using bioinformatics analysis software; Gene expression analyses were performed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The full-length cDNA sequences of the genes were 707, 898, and 1001 bp, respectively, and were submitted to GenBank under accession numbers KR153938, KT218688 and KT218690. The three predicted proteins were predicted to be hydrophilic, non-secretory proteins and contain several phosphorylation sites. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the predicted proteins were relatively conserved in mammals. The expression results of the three genes in eight tissues of Dorper and small-tailed Han sheep revealed that the three genes had a similar mRNA expression pattern, whereas distinct differences were observed among the eight tissues of the two sheep species. We cloned the full-length cDNA of the three genes, analyzed the amino acid sequences, and determined the expression levels of the genes. These results might play important roles in facilitating the future research of the three genes.

  20. Multivariate curve resolution based chromatographic peak alignment combined with parallel factor analysis to exploit second-order advantage in complex chromatographic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastar, Hadi; Akvan, Nadia

    2014-03-13

    In the present contribution, a new combination of multivariate curve resolution-correlation optimized warping (MCR-COW) with trilinear parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) is developed to exploit second-order advantage in complex chromatographic measurements. In MCR-COW, the complexity of the chromatographic data is reduced by arranging the data in a column-wise augmented matrix, analyzing using MCR bilinear model and aligning the resolved elution profiles using COW in a component-wise manner. The aligned chromatographic data is then decomposed using trilinear model of PARAFAC in order to exploit pure chromatographic and spectroscopic information. The performance of this strategy is evaluated using simulated and real high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) datasets. The obtained results showed that the MCR-COW can efficiently correct elution time shifts of target compounds that are completely overlapped by coeluted interferences in complex chromatographic data. In addition, the PARAFAC analysis of aligned chromatographic data has the advantage of unique decomposition of overlapped chromatographic peaks to identify and quantify the target compounds in the presence of interferences. Finally, to confirm the reliability of the proposed strategy, the performance of the MCR-COW-PARAFAC is compared with the frequently used methods of PARAFAC, COW-PARAFAC, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS), and MCR-COW-MCR. In general, in most of the cases the MCR-COW-PARAFAC showed an improvement in terms of lack of fit (LOF), relative error (RE) and spectral correlation coefficients in comparison to the PARAFAC, COW-PARAFAC, MCR-ALS and MCR-COW-MCR results.

  1. Limited proteolysis combined with isotope labeling and quantitative LC-MALDI MS for monitoring protein conformational changes: a study on calcium-binding sites of cardiac Troponin C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Chris; Li Liang

    2005-04-04

    Studies of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions are important for understanding biological functions of proteins. A new technique based on the partial proteolysis of proteins combined with quantitative mass spectrometry is developed as a means of tracking structural changes after the formation of a protein-ligand complex. In this technique, a protein of interest with and without the binding of a ligand is digested with an enzyme to generate a set of peptides, followed by separation of the peptides by liquid chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is used to identify chromatographically separated peptides, and locate their sequence alignments in the parent protein. Using an isotopically labeled protein as a sample against an unlabeled protein standard, quantitative information can be gathered. This overcomes the inherent lack of quantitative capability of MALDI MS. The utility of the technique to investigate protein-ligand interactions is demonstrated in a model system involving calcium binding to cardiac Troponin C (cTnC). Using this technique, the general location of the three calcium-binding sites of cTnC can be determined by using several different enzymes to generate overlapping peptide maps of cTnC.

  2. Genetic variation in exon 5 of troponin - I gene in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle disorders and are classified as 1 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM 2 Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM 3 Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM and 4 Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD as per WHO classification, of which HCM and DCM are common. HCM is a complex but relatively common form of inherited heart muscle disease with prevalence of 1 in 500 individuals and is commonly associated with sarcomeric gene mutations. Cardiac muscle troponin I (TNNI-3 is one such sarcomeric protein and is a subunit of the thin filament-associated troponin-tropomyosin complex involved in calcium regulation of skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. Mutations in this gene were found to be associated with a history of sudden cardiac death in HCM patients. Aim: Therefore the present study aims to identify for mutations associated with troponin I gene in a set of HCM patients from Indian population. Materials and Methods: Mutational analyses of 92 HCM cases were carried out following PCR based SSCP analysis. Results: The study revealed band pattern variation in 3 cases from a group of 92 HCM patients. This band pattern variation, on sequencing revealed base changes, one at nt 2560 with G>T transversion in exon-5 region with a wobble and others at nt 2479 and nt 2478 with G>C and C>G transversions in the intronic region upstream of the exon 5 on sequencing. Further analysis showed that one of the probands showed apical form of hypertrophy, two others showing asymmetric septal hypertrophy. Two of these probands showed family history of the condition. Conclusions: Hence, the study supports earlier reports of involvement of TNNI-3 in the causation of apical and asymmetrical forms of hypertrophy.

  3. Distance measurements in cardiac troponin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Leavis, P C

    1990-01-01

    Intramolecular distance measurements were made in cardiac troponin C (cTnC) by fluorescence energy transfer using Eu3+ or Tb3+ as energy donors and Nd3+ or an organic chromophore as acceptors. The laser-induced luminescence of bound Eu3+ is quenched in Eu1Nd1cTnC with a lifetime of 0.328 ms, compared with 0.43 ms for Eu2cTnC. The enhanced decay corresponds to an energy transfer efficiency of 0.25, or a distance of 1.1 nm between the two high affinity sites. We have also labeled cTnC with 4-dimethylaminophenylazophenyl-4'-maleimide (DAB-Mal) at the two cysteine residues (Cys-35 and Cys-84). Energy transfer measurements were carried out between Tb3+ bound to the high affinity sites and the labels attached to the domain containing the low affinity site. Upon uv irradiation at pH 6.7, Tb1cTnCDAB emits tyrosine-sensitized Tb3+ luminescence that decays bioexponentially with lifetimes of 1.29 and 0.76 ms. The shorter lifetime is ascribed to energy transfer from Tb3+ to the DAB labels, yielding an average distance of 3.4 nm between the donor and the acceptors. At pH 5.0, however, the luminescence decays exclusively with a single lifetime of 1.31 ms, suggesting that under these conditions all Tb3+ ions are more than 5.2 nm away from the label. Thus cTnC, like skeletal TnC, undergoes a pH-dependent conformational transition which converts an elongated structure at lower pH's to a rather compact conformation in a more physiological medium.

  4. Cardiac Troponin I, Creatine Phosphokinase and Myoglobine Levels in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kale

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate minor myocardial injury in preeclamptic pregnancies by serum markers of cardiac troponin-I, creatine phosphokinase and myoglobine. Group I consisted of 45 preeclamptic pregnancies, Group 2 consisted of uncomplicated pregnancies. The groups were compared for maternal age, parity, mean troponin–I, creatine phosphokinase and myoglobine values. Student-t test were used in statistical analyses. Significance was accepted as p<0.05. Cardiac troponin-I levels were statistically significantly higher in preeclamptic pregnancies (0,97 ± 0,11ng/ml than control groups (0,12 ± 0.09 ng/ml (p<0.001. No statistically significant difference was found with mean levels of creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin levels between two groups. Higher values of troponin-I’in preeclamptic patients is thought to be a result of myocardial injury and associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  5. Clinical utility of natriuretic peptides and troponins in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Devin W; Buttan, Anshu; Siegel, Robert J; Rader, Florian

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is based on clinical, echocardiographic and in some cases genetic findings. However, prognostication remains limited except in the subset of patients with high-risk indicators for sudden cardiac death. Additional methods are needed for risk stratification and to guide clinical management in HCM. We reviewed the available data regarding natriuretic peptides and troponins in HCM. Plasma levels of natriuretic peptides, and to a lesser extent serum levels of troponins, correlate with established disease markers, including left ventricular thickness, symptom status, and left ventricular hemodynamics by Doppler measurements. As a reflection of left ventricular filling pressure, natriuretic peptides may provide an objective measure of the efficacy of a specific therapy. Both natriuretic peptides and troponins predict clinical risk in HCM independently of established risk factors, and their prognostic power is additive. Routine measurement of biomarker levels therefore may be useful in the clinical evaluation and management of patients with HCM.

  6. Markedly Elevated Troponin in Diabetic Ketoacidosis without Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Menekşe Gerede

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Troponin gives excellent accuracy in the identification of myocardial necrosis, however, it may elevate also in a series of non-atherosclerotic heart diseases. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. She had markedly increased levels (90 fold of cardiac biomarkers (troponin I and CK-MB and initial electrocardiography changes compatible with myocardial infarction. She had normal a coronary angiogram. This case shows that nonspecific myocardial injury may occur in DKA with the findings mimicking myocardial infarction including increased level of cardiac biomarkers and electrocardiography changes.

  7. Falsely elevated troponin: rare occurrence or future problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Nguyen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Troponins are known to be released in response to cardiac damage and therefore are the biomarkers of choice for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, improving outcome in patients presenting with chest pain. However, false results can occur due to interference from other substances in the blood. Case: A 52-year-old male with a past medical history of alcohol abuse, hypertension, and coronary artery bypass graft at age 34 with normal stress test 2 years before presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of 1 day of non-exertional chest pain with radiation to the neck and left arm. His troponin was elevated to 5 ng/mL in two samples drawn 12 h apart, with normal CK-MB. Renal function was normal. Electrocardiogram (ECG showed normal sinus rhythm with no ST elevations or depressions. He underwent cardiac catheterization which showed no obstructive lesions. Five years later, he returned to the ED with abdominal pain and shortness of breath. Troponin was elevated and showed no signs of downtrend on repeat every 6 h. ECG was unchanged from 5 years before. He was discharged with a follow-up cardiac computed tomography (CT. Troponin was measured on the day of his scan and remained elevated; he was asymptomatic. Cardiac CT showed unremarkable coronaries and bypass grafts. Given persistently positive troponin in the setting of minimal to no symptoms, he was thought to have falsely elevated troponins. Centrifugation and 2:1 dilution of the sample resulted in the same general value, respectively. Rheumatoid factor and heterophile antibodies were negative. When his blood sample was sent to a different hospital utilizing a three-site immunoassay method, the value was found zero. Discussion: Cardiac troponins (cTn are structural proteins unique to the heart, not expressed outside of cardiac tissue and have high sensitivity and specificity for myocardial damage. Therefore, it is the test of choice for the diagnosis of

  8. Effect of pillow height on the biomechanics of the head-neck complex: investigation of the cranio-cervical pressure and cervical spine alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicong Ren

    2016-08-01

    spine alignment were height-specific, and they were believed to reflect quality of sleep. Our results provide a quantitative and objective evaluation of the effect of pillow height on the biomechanics of the head-neck complex, and have application in pillow design and selection.

  9. Complex rotation with internal dissipation. Applications to cosmic-dust alignment and to wobbling comets and asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Efroimsky, M; Sidorenko, V; Efroimsky, Michael; Sidorenko, Vladislav

    2002-01-01

    Neutron stars, asteroids, comets, cosmic-dust granules, spacecraft, as well as whatever other freely spinning body dissipate energy when they rotate about any axis different from principal. We discuss the internal-dissipation-caused relaxation of a freely precessing rotator towards its minimal-energy mode (mode that corresponds to the spin about the maximal-inertia axis). While the body nutates at some rate, the internal stresses and strains within the body oscillate at frequencies both higher and lower than this rate. The internal dissipation takes place mostly the second and higher harmonics. We discuss the application of our findings to asteroids. Regarding the comets, estimates show that the currently available angular resolution of spacecraft-based instruments makes it possible to observe wobble damping within year- or maybe even month-long spans of time. We also discuss cosmic-dust astrophysics; in particular, the role played by precession damping in the dust alignment. We show that this damping provide...

  10. Making sense of high sensitivity troponin assays and their role in clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lori B

    2014-04-01

    Cardiac troponin assays have an established and undisputed role in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with acute myocardial infarction. As troponin assays gets more sensitive and more precise, the number of potential uses has rapidly expanded, but the use of this test has also become more complicated and controversial. Highly sensitive troponin assays can now detect troponin levels in most individuals, but accurate interpretation of these levels requires a clear understanding of the assay in the context of the clinical scenario. This paper provides a practical and up-to-date overview of the uses of highly sensitive troponin assays for diagnosis, prognosis, and risk stratification in clinical practice.

  11. Distinct conformational and functional effects of two adjacent pathogenic mutations in cardiac troponin I at the interface with troponin T

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, Shirin; Jin, J.-P.

    2015-01-01

    The α-helix in troponin I (TnI) at the interface with troponin T (TnT) is a highly conserved structure. A point mutation in this region, A116G, was found in human cardiac TnI in a case of cardiomyopathy. An adjacent dominantly negative mutation found in turkey cardiac TnI (R111C, equivalent to K117C in human and K118C in mouse) decreased diastolic function and blunted beta-adrenergic response in transgenic mice. To investigate the functional importance of the TnI–TnT interface and pathologica...

  12. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Fransson, Boel A; Bergström, Annika; Häggström, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameters were associated with cTnI increase. Methods Preoperative plasma levels of cTnI were investigated in 58 female dogs with pyometra and 9 controls. The value of physical examination findings, haematological, serum biochemical and pro-inflammatory (CRP and TNF-α) parameters as possible predictors of increased cTnI levels was also evaluated. Results Seven dogs with pyometra (12%) and one control dog (11%) had increased levels of cTnI. In the pyometra group, the levels ranged between 0.3–0.9 μg l-1 and in the control dog the level was 0.3 μg l-1. The cTnI levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. No cardiac abnormalities were evident on preoperative physical examinations. Four of the pyometra patients died within two weeks of surgery, of which two were examined post mortem. In one of these cases (later diagnosed with myocarditis and disseminated bacterial infection) the cTnI levels increased from 0.9 μg l-1 preoperatively to 180 μg l-1 the following day when also heart arrhythmia was also detected. The other patient had cTnI levels of 0.7 μg l-1 with no detectable heart pathology post mortem. CTnI increase was not associated with presence of SIRS. There was a trend for the association of cTnI increase with increased mortality. No preoperative physical examination findings and few but unspecific laboratory parameters were associated with increased cTnI levels. Conclusion Increased cTnI levels were observed in 12% of the dogs with pyometra. The proportions of dogs

  13. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman Ragnvi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameters were associated with cTnI increase. Methods Preoperative plasma levels of cTnI were investigated in 58 female dogs with pyometra and 9 controls. The value of physical examination findings, haematological, serum biochemical and pro-inflammatory (CRP and TNF-α parameters as possible predictors of increased cTnI levels was also evaluated. Results Seven dogs with pyometra (12% and one control dog (11% had increased levels of cTnI. In the pyometra group, the levels ranged between 0.3–0.9 μg l-1 and in the control dog the level was 0.3 μg l-1. The cTnI levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. No cardiac abnormalities were evident on preoperative physical examinations. Four of the pyometra patients died within two weeks of surgery, of which two were examined post mortem. In one of these cases (later diagnosed with myocarditis and disseminated bacterial infection the cTnI levels increased from 0.9 μg l-1 preoperatively to 180 μg l-1 the following day when also heart arrhythmia was also detected. The other patient had cTnI levels of 0.7 μg l-1 with no detectable heart pathology post mortem. CTnI increase was not associated with presence of SIRS. There was a trend for the association of cTnI increase with increased mortality. No preoperative physical examination findings and few but unspecific laboratory parameters were associated with increased cTnI levels. Conclusion Increased cTnI levels were observed in 12% of the dogs with pyometra. The

  14. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy related cardiac troponin C L29Q mutation alters length-dependent activation and functional effects of phosphomimetic troponin I*.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Y Li

    Full Text Available The Ca(2+ binding properties of the FHC-associated cardiac troponin C (cTnC mutation L29Q were examined in isolated cTnC, troponin complexes, reconstituted thin filament preparations, and skinned cardiomyocytes. While higher Ca(2+ binding affinity was apparent for the L29Q mutant in isolated cTnC, this phenomenon was not observed in the cTn complex. At the level of the thin filament in the presence of phosphomimetic TnI, L29Q cTnC further reduced the Ca(2+ affinity by 27% in the steady-state measurement and increased the Ca(2+ dissociation rate by 20% in the kinetic studies. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that L29Q destabilizes the conformation of cNTnC in the presence of phosphomimetic cTnI and potentially modulates the Ca(2+ sensitivity due to the changes of the opening/closing equilibrium of cNTnC. In the skinned cardiomyocyte preparation, L29Q cTnC increased Ca(2+ sensitivity in a highly sarcomere length (SL-dependent manner. The well-established reduction of Ca(2+ sensitivity by phosphomimetic cTnI was diminished by 68% in the presence of the mutation and it also depressed the SL-dependent increase in myofilament Ca(2+ sensitivity. This might result from its modified interaction with cTnI which altered the feedback effects of cross-bridges on the L29Q cTnC-cTnI-Tm complex. This study demonstrates that the L29Q mutation alters the contractility and the functional effects of the phosphomimetic cTnI in both thin filament and single skinned cardiomyocytes and importantly that this effect is highly sarcomere length dependent.

  15. Interpretation of positive troponin results among patients with and without myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecson, Kristen M.; Arnold, William; Barrett, Tyler; Birkhahn, Robert; Daniels, Lori B.; DeFilippi, Christopher; Headden, Gary; Peacock, W. Frank; Reed, Michael; Singer, Adam J.; Schussler, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Stephen; Than, Martin P.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring cardiac troponins is integral to diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, troponins may be elevated without AMI, and the use of multiple different assays confounds comparisons. We considered characteristics and serial troponin values in emergency department chest pain patients with and without AMI to interpret troponin excursions. We compared serial troponin in 124 AMI and non-AMI patients from the observational Performance of Triage Cardiac Markers in the Clinical Setting (PEARL) study who presented with chest pain and had at least one troponin value exceeding the 99th percentile of normal. Because 8 assays were used during data collection, we employed a method of scaling the troponin value to the corresponding assay's 99th percentile upper reference limit to standardize the results. In 81 AMI patients, 96% had elevated troponin at the first test following initial elevation, compared to 73% of the 43 non-AMI patients (P < 0.001). Scaling troponin to the 99th percentile of normal yielded a median value that was 4.8 [2.2, 14.1] times higher than the 99th percentile cutpoint among AMI patients, compared to 2.3 [1.5, 6.5] times higher among non-AMI patients (P = 0.04). The rise in serial scaled troponin values distinguished the AMI patients. Scaling to the 99th percentile was useful for comparing troponin when different assays were utilized. PMID:28127121

  16. [Value of troponins in acute coronary syndrome in patients with renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Amparo; Curós, Antonio; Corominas, Augusto

    2004-10-23

    Patients with renal insufficiency can have elevations of serum troponin without suspected clinical coronary ischemia. Although cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in patients with renal failure, the process of elevation of serum troponin is not well known. Troponin T is more frequently elevated than troponin I in these patients which leads to uncertainty in the clinical interpretation of results. There are studies suggesting that troponin elevations are associated with a higher risk and increased mortality. To explain the process leading to troponin increases in this kind of pathology and to confirm its usefulness in the diagnosis, evolution and prognosis it would be necessary to carry out more clinical studies monitoring troponin and studying the stratification of risk.

  17. A Green Tea Catechin Normalizes the Enhanced Ca2+ Sensitivity of Myofilaments Regulated by a Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Associated Mutation in Human Cardiac Troponin I (K206I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Chad M.; Karam, Chehade N.; Wolska, Beata M.; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi; de Tombe, Pieter P.; Arteaga, Grace M.; Bos, J. Martijn; Ackerman, Michael J.; Solaro, R. John

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiovascular disease characterized by thickening of ventricular walls and decreased left ventricular chamber volume. The majority of HCM-associated mutations are found in genes encoding sarcomere proteins. Herein, we set out to functionally characterize a novel HCM-associated mutation (K206I-TNNI3), and elucidate the mechanism of dysfunction at the level of myofilament proteins. Methods and Results The male index case was diagnosed with HCM after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest which was followed by comprehensive clinical evaluation, transthoracic echocardiography, and clinical genetic testing. To determine molecular mechanism(s) of the mutant human cardiac troponin I (K206I), we tested the Ca2+ dependence of thin filament-activated myosin-S1-ATPase activity in a reconstituted, regulated, actomyosin system comparing wildtype human troponin complex, 50% mix of K206I/wildtype, or 100% K206I. We also exchanged native troponin detergent extracted fibers with reconstituted troponin containing either wildtype or a 65% mix of K206I/wildtype, and measured force generation. The Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments containing the K206I variant was significantly increased, and when treated with 20 μM EGCG (green tea) was restored back to wildtype levels in ATPase and force measurements. The K206I mutation impairs the ability of the troponin I to inhibit ATPase activity in the absence of Ca-hcTnC (calcium-bound-human cardiac troponin C). The ability of Ca-hcTnC to neutralize the inhibition of K206I was greater than with wildtype TnI. Conclusions Compromised interactions of K206I with actin and hcTnC may lead to impaired relaxation and HCM. PMID:26553696

  18. Troponin assays in the assessment of the equine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, T M; Pyle, W G; Maxie, M G; Pearl, D L; Physick-Sheard, P W

    2014-05-01

    In 2000, troponin assays were adopted as the test of choice for detection of myocardial injury in man. This decision was made after extensive testing and followed a 60 year search for a biomarker of myocardial damage with sufficient analytical sensitivity and specificity. This has led to proliferation of assays for use in human medicine, each requiring extensive testing and validation before it could be made available on the open market for human use. The search for ever-more analytically sensitive assays and for a standard reference material continues. The adoption of troponin testing in veterinary medicine followed shortly after its development for use in man, providing a much-needed means of detecting and monitoring myocardial damage in horses. However, application of these tests in veterinary medicine has exclusively involved use of assays designed for and clinically validated in human patients. There is no mandated requirement for test validation in veterinary medicine and, while many of these assays have been shown to be capable of detecting equine troponin, the wide diversity of available tests, lack of validation, absence of protocols for their use and lack of standardisation make their application problematic. The objective of this review article is to address this issue, offering guidance where data are available and encouraging caution where there are none. Ultimately, the overall goal of this review is to examine critically the use of troponin assays in the horse and to promote the accurate and appropriate interpretation of valid results.

  19. Cardiac troponins in the elderly: interpretation of elevated levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Elderly patients with myocardial infarction commonly present with symptoms other than chest pain. The clinician evaluation of the elderly may rely on laboratory methods more so than in younger patients. Fortunately, advances in laboratory science have brought newer biomarkers of cardiac injury to the clinical arena including cardiac troponins I and T(cTnI,cTnT). These regulatory components of the contractile apparatus are sensitive indicators of myocardial injury. Their central role in the current definition of acute myocardial infarction highlights their utility in the diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemic syndromes. The troponins are also released in some clinical situations where thrombotic complications of coronary artery disease and resultant acute myocardial infarction have not occurred. Examples of these conditions include conditions like myocarditis, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, and acute stroke. Elevated troponins in these conditions are thought to emanate from injured myocardial cells and in most circumstances have been associated with adverse outcomes. Interpretation of elevated troponin in the elderly requires consideration of other possible conditions.

  20. Effect of prolonged walking on cardiac troponin levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; George, K.; Shave, R.; Gaze, D.; Levine, B.D.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Increased cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a marker for cardiac damage, has been reported after strenuous exercise in young subjects. However, little is known about changes in cTnI after moderate-intensity exercise in a heterogenous population or which factors may contribute to this change in cTnI levels.

  1. Incremental Alignment Manifold Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Han; De-Yu Meng; Zong-Sen Xu; Nan-Nan Gu

    2011-01-01

    A new manifold learning method, called incremental alignment method (IAM), is proposed for nonlinear dimensionality reduction of high dimensional data with intrinsic low dimensionality. The main idea is to incrementally align low-dimensional coordinates of input data patch-by-patch to iteratively generate the representation of the entire dataset. The method consists of two major steps, the incremental step and the alignment step. The incremental step incrementally searches neighborhood patch to be aligned in the next step, and the alignment step iteratively aligns the low-dimensional coordinates of the neighborhood patch searched to generate the embeddings of the entire dataset. Compared with the existing manifold learning methods, the proposed method dominates in several aspects: high efficiency, easy out-of-sample extension, well metric-preserving, and averting of the local minima issue. All these properties are supported by a series of experiments performed on the synthetic and real-life datasets. In addition, the computational complexity of the proposed method is analyzed, and its efficiency is theoretically argued and experimentally demonstrated.

  2. A cis-regulatory mutation in troponin-I of Drosophila reveals the importance of proper stoichiometry of structural proteins during muscle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Hena; Mohan, Jayaram; Naz, Sarwat; Arathi, Prabhashankar; Ramesh, Saraf R; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2015-05-01

    Rapid and high wing-beat frequencies achieved during insect flight are powered by the indirect flight muscles, the largest group of muscles present in the thorax. Any anomaly during the assembly and/or structural impairment of the indirect flight muscles gives rise to a flightless phenotype. Multiple mutagenesis screens in Drosophila melanogaster for defective flight behavior have led to the isolation and characterization of mutations that have been instrumental in the identification of many proteins and residues that are important for muscle assembly, function, and disease. In this article, we present a molecular-genetic characterization of a flightless mutation, flightless-H (fliH), originally designated as heldup-a (hdp-a). We show that fliH is a cis-regulatory mutation of the wings up A (wupA) gene, which codes for the troponin-I protein, one of the troponin complex proteins, involved in regulation of muscle contraction. The mutation leads to reduced levels of troponin-I transcript and protein. In addition to this, there is also coordinated reduction in transcript and protein levels of other structural protein isoforms that are part of the troponin complex. The altered transcript and protein stoichiometry ultimately culminates in unregulated acto-myosin interactions and a hypercontraction muscle phenotype. Our results shed new insights into the importance of maintaining the stoichiometry of structural proteins during muscle assembly for proper function with implications for the identification of mutations and disease phenotypes in other species, including humans.

  3. Beyond Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking to Architecting Enterprises is a comprehensive reader about how enterprises can apply systems thinking in their enterprise architecture practice, for business transformation and for strategic execution. The book's contributors find that systems thinking...... is a valuable way of thinking about the viable enterprise and how to architect it....

  4. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with $N_f$ Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the $N_f=2,3$ and $4$ case. For $N...

  5. Elevated troponin T after acute ischemic stroke: Association with severity and location of infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Abdi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Serum troponin elevation, characteristic of ischemic myocardial injury, has been observed in some acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients. Its cause and significance are still controversial. The purpose of this study is to find determinants of troponin elevation and its relationship with stroke severity and location.Between January 2013 and August 2013, 114 consecutive AIS patients confirmed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were recruited in this study. Serum troponin T level was measured as part of routine laboratory testing on admission. Ten lead standard electrocardiogram (ECG was performed and stoke severity was assessed based on National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS.Troponin T was elevated in 20 (17.6% of 114 patients. Patients with elevated troponin were more likely to have higher age, higher serum creatinine and ischemic ECG changes. Troponin levels were higher in patients with more severe stroke measured by NIHSS [7.96 (6.49-9.78 vs. 13.59 (10.28-18.00]. There was no association between troponin and locations of stroke and atrial fibrillation. There were 6 (5% patients with elevated troponin in the presence of normal creatinine and ECG.Stroke severity, not its location, was associated with higher troponin levels. Abnormal troponin levels are more likely, but not exclusively, to be due to cardiac and renal causes than cerebral ones.

  6. Individual Differences in the Alignment of Structural and Functional Markers of the V5/MT Complex in Primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Large, I.; Bridge, H.; Ahmed, B.

    2016-01-01

    Extrastriate visual area V5/MT in primates is defined both structurally by myeloarchitecture and functionally by distinct responses to visual motion. Myelination is directly identifiable from postmortem histology but also indirectly by image contrast with structural magnetic resonance imaging (s...... and neighboring MST. Thus, sMRI in macaques accurately locates histologically defined myelin within areas known to be motion selective. Second, we investigated the functionally homologous human motion complex (hMT+) using high-resolution in vivo imaging. Humans showed considerable intersubject variability in h...

  7. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  8. The N-DRC forms a conserved biochemical complex that maintains outer doublet alignment and limits microtubule sliding in motile axonemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Raqual; Tritschler, Douglas; Vanderwaal, Kristyn; Perrone, Catherine A; Mueller, Joshua; Fox, Laura; Sale, Winfield S; Porter, M E

    2013-04-01

    The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) is proposed to coordinate dynein arm activity and interconnect doublet microtubules. Here we identify a conserved region in DRC4 critical for assembly of the N-DRC into the axoneme. At least 10 subunits associate with DRC4 to form a discrete complex distinct from other axonemal substructures. Transformation of drc4 mutants with epitope-tagged DRC4 rescues the motility defects and restores assembly of missing DRC subunits and associated inner-arm dyneins. Four new DRC subunits contain calcium-signaling motifs and/or AAA domains and are nearly ubiquitous in species with motile cilia. However, drc mutants are motile and maintain the 9 + 2 organization of the axoneme. To evaluate the function of the N-DRC, we analyzed ATP-induced reactivation of isolated axonemes. Rather than the reactivated bending observed with wild-type axonemes, ATP addition to drc-mutant axonemes resulted in splaying of doublets in the distal region, followed by oscillatory bending between pairs of doublets. Thus the N-DRC provides some but not all of the resistance to microtubule sliding and helps to maintain optimal alignment of doublets for productive flagellar motility. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that regulate motility and further highlight the importance of the proximal region of the axoneme in generating flagellar bending.

  9. Troponin Ⅰ,cardiac diastolic dysfunction and restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-pei HUANG; Jian-feng DU

    2004-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies are diseases of heart muscle that are associated with cardiac dysfunction. Molecular genetic studies performed to date have demonstrated that the damage or mutations in several sarcomeric contractile protein genes are associated with the development of the diseases. In this review, cardiac troponin Ⅰ, one of the sarcomeric thin filament protein, will be discussed regarding its role in cardiac function, its deficiency-related diastolic dysfunction, and the mutation of this protein-mediated restrictive cardiomyopathy.

  10. Pyro-Align: Sample-Align based Multiple Alignment system for Pyrosequencing Reads of Large Number

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Fahad

    2009-01-01

    Pyro-Align is a multiple alignment program specifically designed for pyrosequencing reads of huge number. Multiple sequence alignment is shown to be NP-hard and heuristics are designed for approximate solutions. Multiple sequence alignment of pyrosequenceing reads is complex mainly because of 2 factors. One being the huge number of reads, making the use of traditional heuristics,that scale very poorly for large number, unsuitable. The second reason is that the alignment cannot be performed arbitrarily, because the position of the reads with respect to the original genome is important and has to be taken into account.In this report we present a short description of the multiple alignment system for pyrosequencing reads.

  11. Measurement of Calcium Dissociation Rates from Troponin C in Rigor Skeletal Myofibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Sean C.; Tikunova, Svetlana B.; Norman, Catalina; Swartz, Darl R.; Davis, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+ dissociation from the regulatory domain of troponin C may influence the rate of striated muscle relaxation. However, Ca2+ dissociation from troponin C has not been measured within the geometric and stoichiometric constraints of the muscle fiber. Here we report the rates of Ca2+ dissociation from the N-terminal regulatory and C-terminal structural domains of fluorescent troponin C constructs reconstituted into rabbit rigor psoas myofibrils using stopped-flow technology. Chicken skeletal t...

  12. Long-term outcomes of minor troponin elevations in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, A; Ghassemi, M; Szolovits, P; Park, S; Osorio, J; Dejam, A; Celi, L

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study is to determine the short-term and long-term outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with minor troponin elevations. The retrospective study compared ICU patients with peak troponin elevation less than 0.1 ng/ml to those with only negative tests during their hospital stay. Data were gathered from ICUs at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 2001 and 2008. A total of 4224 patients (2547 controls and 1677 positives) were analysed. The primary outcome was mortality at one year. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and hospital and ICU lengths of stay. After adjusting for age, sex, Simplified Acute Physiology Score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and combined Elixhauser score, we found that minor troponin elevations (peak troponin elevation between 0.01 and 0.09 ng/ml) were associated with a higher one-year mortality (Hazard Ratio 1.22, P troponin presence; Hazard Ratio 1.03, P troponin increment). This relationship held for the subgroup of seven-day post-discharge survivors (Hazard Ratio 1.26, P troponin also significantly increased the net reclassification index over traditional risk markers for mortality prediction (net reclassification score 0.12, P troponin elevation was also associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio 1.33, P=0.003). Importantly, troponin testing did not increase the adjusted mortality odds (P=0.9). Minor elevations in troponin substantially increase one-year, all-cause mortality in a stepwise fashion; it was also independently associated with 30-day mortality. We propose that minor elevations in troponin should not be regarded as clinically unimportant, but rather be included as a prognostic element if measured. We recommend prospective ICU studies to assess prognostic value of routine troponin determination.

  13. Cardiac troponin: an emerging cardiac biomarker in animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal V. Undhad

    Full Text Available Analysis of cardiac troponin I (cTn I and T (cTnT are considered the “gold standard” for the non-invasive diagnosis of myocardial injury in human and animals. It has replaced traditionally used cardiac biomarkers such as myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and CK-MB due to its high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of myocardial injury. Cardiac troponins are proteins that control the calcium-mediated interaction between actin and myosin, allowing contraction at the sarcomere level. Concentration of the cTn can be correlated microscopic lesion and loss of immunolabeling in myocardium damage. Troponin concentration remains elevated in blood for 1-2wks so that wide window is available for diagnosis of myocardial damage. The cTn test has >95% specificity and sensitivity and test is less time consuming (10 to 15 minutes and less costly (INR 200 to INR 500. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 508-511

  14. GraphAlignment: Bayesian pairwise alignment of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolář Michal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased experimental availability and accuracy of bio-molecular networks, tools for their comparative and evolutionary analysis are needed. A key component for such studies is the alignment of networks. Results We introduce the Bioconductor package GraphAlignment for pairwise alignment of bio-molecular networks. The alignment incorporates information both from network vertices and network edges and is based on an explicit evolutionary model, allowing inference of all scoring parameters directly from empirical data. We compare the performance of our algorithm to an alternative algorithm, Græmlin 2.0. On simulated data, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 in several benchmarks except for computational complexity. When there is little or no noise in the data, GraphAlignment is slower than Græmlin 2.0. It is faster than Græmlin 2.0 when processing noisy data containing spurious vertex associations. Its typical case complexity grows approximately as O(N2.6. On empirical bacterial protein-protein interaction networks (PIN and gene co-expression networks, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 with respect to coverage and specificity, albeit by a small margin. On large eukaryotic PIN, Græmlin 2.0 outperforms GraphAlignment. Conclusions The GraphAlignment algorithm is robust to spurious vertex associations, correctly resolves paralogs, and shows very good performance in identification of homologous vertices defined by high vertex and/or interaction similarity. The simplicity and generality of GraphAlignment edge scoring makes the algorithm an appropriate choice for global alignment of networks.

  15. Nuclear tropomyosin and troponin in striated muscle: new roles in a new locale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, P Bryant; Szczypinski, Mark P; Soto, Elliott P

    2013-08-01

    Tropomyosin and troponin have well known Ca(2+)-regulatory functions in the striated muscle sarcomere. In this review, we summarize experimental evidence that tropomyosin and troponin are localized, with as yet unidentified functional roles, in the striated muscle cell nucleus. We also apply bioinformatics approaches that predict localization of some tropomyosin and troponin to the nucleus, and that SUMOylation could be a covalent modification that modulates their nuclear localization and function. Further, we provide examples of cardiomyopathy mutations that alter the predicted likelihood of nuclear localization and SUMOylation of tropomyosin. These observations suggest novel mechanisms by which cardiomyopathy mutations in tropomyosin and troponin might alter not only cardiac contractility but also nuclear function.

  16. Improved troponin T ELISA specific for cardiac troponin T isoform: assay development and analytical and clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Bardorff, M; Hallermayer, K; Schröder, A; Ebert, C; Borgya, A; Gerhardt, W; Remppis, A; Zehelein, J; Katus, H A

    1997-03-01

    The first generation of troponin T ELISA (TnT 1) can yield false-positive results in patients with severe skeletal muscle injury. Therefore, a cardiac-specific second-generation troponin T ELISA (TnT 2) was developed, in which the cross-reactive antibody 1B10 has been replaced by a high-affinity cardiac-specific antibody M11.7. No cross-reactivity of TnT 2 was observed with purified skeletal muscle troponin T (1000 micrograms/L) or in test samples from 43 marathon runners and 24 patients with rhabdomyolysis and highly increased creatine kinase. TnT 2 was increased > 0.2 microgram/L in 5 of 40 patients with renal failure and in 4 of 20 muscular dystrophy patients. The detection limit is 0.012 microgram/L. Day-to-day imprecision (CV) within the range 0.19-14.89 micrograms/L was error of estimate (Sey) of 1.18, 0.01 micrograms/L, and 0.81 microgram/L, respectively.

  17. Mutations in troponin T associated with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy increase Ca(2+)-sensitivity and suppress the modulation of Ca(2+)-sensitivity by troponin I phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Andrew E; Bayliss, Christopher R; El-Mezgueldi, Mohammed; Redwood, Charles S; Ward, Douglas G; Leung, Man-Ching; Papadaki, Maria; Dos Remedios, Cristobal; Marston, Steven B

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effect of 7 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)-causing mutations in troponin T (TnT) on troponin function in thin filaments reconstituted with actin and human cardiac tropomyosin. We used the quantitative in vitro motility assay to study Ca(2+)-regulation of unloaded movement and its modulation by troponin I phosphorylation. Troponin from a patient with the K280N TnT mutation showed no difference in Ca(2+)-sensitivity when compared with donor heart troponin and the Ca(2+)-sensitivity was also independent of the troponin I phosphorylation level (uncoupled). The recombinant K280N TnT mutation increased Ca(2+)-sensitivity 1.7-fold and was also uncoupled. The R92Q TnT mutation in troponin from transgenic mouse increased Ca(2+)-sensitivity and was also completely uncoupled. Five TnT mutations (Δ14, Δ28 + 7, ΔE160, S179F and K273E) studied in recombinant troponin increased Ca(2+)-sensitivity and were all fully uncoupled. Thus, for HCM-causing mutations in TnT, Ca(2+)-sensitisation together with uncoupling in vitro is the usual response and both factors may contribute to the HCM phenotype. We also found that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can restore coupling to all uncoupled HCM-causing TnT mutations. In fact the combination of Ca(2+)-desensitisation and re-coupling due to EGCG completely reverses both the abnormalities found in troponin with a TnT HCM mutation suggesting it may have therapeutic potential.

  18. Analytical and assay issues for use of cardiac troponin testing for risk stratification in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alan H B; Christenson, Robert H

    2013-08-01

    Cardiac troponin is the standard marker for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and risk stratification of patients who present to an emergency department with signs and symptoms of acute cardiac ischemia. Over the past few years, the analytical sensitivity of assays for cardiac troponin has improved significantly to the point where a detectable amount of troponin can be measured in essentially all healthy subjects. Recent studies have shown that use of a highly sensitive troponin assays may provide value to traditional markers of primary disease risk for patients, i.e., for those who have no history of heart disease. There are barriers to the adoption of cardiac troponin for screening high risk cohorts such as the elderly, diabetics and perhaps even the asymptomatic population. Strategies used for the assignment of cutoff concentrations in acute care, i.e., the 99 th percentile, may not be appropriate for primary care as changes over baseline levels may provide more accurate information of risk than cross-sectional results. A review of biological variation has shown that cardiac troponin as a biomarker has low index of individuality, indicating that reference values are of little utility. Whether or not cardiac troponin can be released in reversible injury is a debate that could have significance for detecting minor myocardial injury. A major hurdle for use of troponin in primary care is the lack of assay standardization and nomenclature for the different generations of troponin assays. Standardization requires knowledge of what is released after cardiac injury and what the various cardiac troponin assays are measuring. Currently it is not clear if the cardiac troponin release after ischemic injury is identical to that in circulation of healthy individuals. This may affect the design of future assays and standardization approaches. There is potential that a marker of myocardial injury such as troponin can add to the value of existing indicators and biomarkers

  19. The effect of exercise training on the course of cardiac troponin T and I levels: three independent training studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der N.; Klinkenberg, L.J.J.; Leenders, M.; Tieland, C.A.B.; Verdijk, L.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of high-sensitive assays, cardiac troponins became potential biomarkers for risk stratification and prognostic medicine. Observational studies have reported an inverse association between physical activity and basal cardiac troponin levels. However, causality has never been dem

  20. Evaluation of a high-sensitivity assay for measurement of canine and feline serum cardiac troponin I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Rebecca; Willesen, Jakob; Tarnow, Inge;

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac troponins are established as the gold standard biomarkers for acute cardiac injury. As even small elevations of cardiac troponins have prognostic relevance in people, it is important to investigate the performance of sensitive assays for use in veterinary medicine....

  1. The CMS Silicon Tracker Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Castello, R

    2008-01-01

    The alignment of the Strip and Pixel Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, with its large number of independent silicon sensors and its excellent spatial resolution, is a complex and challenging task. Besides high precision mounting, survey measurements and the Laser Alignment System, track-based alignment is needed to reach the envisaged precision.\\\\ Three different algorithms for track-based alignment were successfully tested on a sample of cosmic-ray data collected at the Tracker Integration Facility, where 15\\% of the Tracker was tested. These results, together with those coming from the CMS global run, will provide the basis for the full-scale alignment of the Tracker, which will be carried out with the first \\emph{p-p} collisions.

  2. Drosophila muscleblind is involved in troponin T alternative splicing and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vicente-Crespo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNL have been involved in a developmental switch in the use of defined cassette exons. Such transition fails in the CTG repeat expansion disease myotonic dystrophy due, in part, to sequestration of MBNL proteins by CUG repeat RNA. Four protein isoforms (MblA-D are coded by the unique Drosophila muscleblind gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used evolutionary, genetic and cell culture approaches to study muscleblind (mbl function in flies. The evolutionary study showed that the MblC protein isoform was readily conserved from nematods to Drosophila, which suggests that it performs the most ancestral muscleblind functions. Overexpression of MblC in the fly eye precursors led to an externally rough eye morphology. This phenotype was used in a genetic screen to identify five dominant suppressors and 13 dominant enhancers including Drosophila CUG-BP1 homolog aret, exon junction complex components tsunagi and Aly, and pro-apoptotic genes Traf1 and reaper. We further investigated Muscleblind implication in apoptosis and splicing regulation. We found missplicing of troponin T in muscleblind mutant pupae and confirmed Muscleblind ability to regulate mouse fast skeletal muscle Troponin T (TnnT3 minigene splicing in human HEK cells. MblC overexpression in the wing imaginal disc activated apoptosis in a spatially restricted manner. Bioinformatics analysis identified a conserved FKRP motif, weakly resembling a sumoylation target site, in the MblC-specific sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis of the motif revealed no change in activity of mutant MblC on TnnT3 minigene splicing or aberrant binding to CUG repeat RNA, but altered the ability of the protein to form perinuclear aggregates and enhanced cell death-inducing activity of MblC overexpression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together our genetic approach identify cellular processes influenced by Muscleblind function, whereas in vivo and cell culture experiments

  3. Roles of the troponin isoforms during indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Salam Herojeet; Kumar, Prabodh; Ramachandra, Nallur B; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2014-08-01

    Troponin proteins in cooperative interaction with tropomyosin are responsible for controlling the contraction of the striated muscles in response to changes in the intracellular calcium concentration. Contractility of the muscle is determined by the constituent protein isoforms, and the isoforms can switch over from one form to another depending on physiological demands and pathological conditions. In Drosophila, amajority of themyofibrillar proteins in the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) undergo post-transcriptional and post-translational isoform changes during pupal to adult metamorphosis to meet the high energy and mechanical demands of flight. Using a newly generated Gal4 strain (UH3-Gal4) which is expressed exclusively in the IFMs, during later stages of development, we have looked at the developmental and functional importance of each of the troponin subunits (troponin-I, troponin-T and troponin-C) and their isoforms. We show that all the troponin subunits are required for normal myofibril assembly and flight, except for the troponin-C isoform 1 (TnC1). Moreover, rescue experiments conducted with troponin-I embryonic isoform in the IFMs, where flies were rendered flightless, show developmental and functional differences of TnI isoforms and importance of maintaining the right isoform.

  4. Calcium-induced movement of troponin-I relative to actin in skeletal muscle thin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, T; Gong, B J; Leavis, P C

    1990-03-16

    The role of troponin-I (the inhibitory subunit of troponin) in the regulation by Ca2+ of skeletal muscle contraction was investigated with resonance energy transfer and photo cross-linking techniques. The effect of Ca2+ on the proximity of troponin-I to actin in reconstituted rabbit skeletal thin filaments was determined. The distance between the cysteine residue at position 133 (Cys133) of troponin-I and Cys374 of actin increases by approximately 15 angstroms on binding of Ca2+ to troponin-C. Also, troponin-I labeled at Cys133 with benzophenone-4-maleimide could be photo cross-linked to actin in the absence of Ca2+, but not in its presence. These results suggest that troponin-I is attached to actin in the Ca2(+)-free or relaxed state of muscle, and that it detaches from actin on Ca2+ activation of contraction. Thus, troponin-I may function as a Ca2(+)-dependent molecular switch in regulation of skeletal muscle contraction.

  5. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Myocardial Infarction, Myocardial Injury, and Nonelevated Troponins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S

    2015-01-01

    was diagnosed in cases of a cardiac troponin I increase or decrease pattern with at least 1 value >30 ng/L (99th percentile) together with myocardial ischemia. Myocardial injury was defined as cardiac troponin I values >30 ng/L, but without signs or symptoms indicating overt cardiac ischemia. Patients with peak...

  6. Roles of the troponin isoforms during indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Salam Herojeet Singh; Prabodh Kumar; Nallur B. Ramachandra; Upendra Nongthomba

    2014-08-01

    Troponin proteins in cooperative interaction with tropomyosin are responsible for controlling the contraction of the striated muscles in response to changes in the intracellular calcium concentration. Contractility of the muscle is determined by the constituent protein isoforms, and the isoforms can switch over from one form to another depending on physiological demands and pathological conditions. In Drosophila, amajority of themyofibrillar proteins in the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) undergo post-transcriptional and post-translational isoform changes during pupal to adult metamorphosis to meet the high energy and mechanical demands of flight. Using a newly generated Gal4 strain (UH3-Gal4) which is expressed exclusively in the IFMs, during later stages of development, we have looked at the developmental and functional importance of each of the troponin subunits (troponin-I, troponin-T and troponin-C) and their isoforms. We show that all the troponin subunits are required for normal myofibril assembly and flight, except for the troponin-C isoform 1 (TnC1). Moreover, rescue experiments conducted with troponin-I embryonic isoform in the IFMs, where flies were rendered flightless, show developmental and functional differences of TnI isoforms and importance of maintaining the right isoform.

  7. Prevalence and significance of troponin elevations in patients without acute coronary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kirstine Roll; Jespersen, Camilla HB; Arnadottir, Asthildur;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponin T and I are important diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Troponin elevations in various non-ACS scenarios have been documented, but few studies have been conducted on the general hospitalized population, none compared...

  8. Troponin I in acute decompensated heart failure : insights from the ASCEND-HF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felker, G. Michael; Hasselblad, Vic; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Metra, Marco; McMurray, John J. V.; Butler, Javed; Heizer, Gretchen M.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Massie, Barry M.; Atar, Dan; Troughton, Richard W.; Anker, Stefan D.; Califf, Robert M.; Starling, Randall C.; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prognostic importance of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in a cohort of patients enrolled in the ASCEND-HF study of nesiritide in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Circulating troponins are a prognostic marker in patients with ADHF. Contemporary assays with greater sensitivity requ

  9. Computational Studies of the Effect of the S23D/S24D Troponin I Mutation on Cardiac Troponin Structural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanhua; Lindert, Steffen; Kekenes-Huskey, Peter; Rao, Vijay S.; Solaro, R. John; Rosevear, Paul R.; Amaro, Rommie; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCammon, J. Andrew; Regnier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During β-adrenergic stimulation, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) at sites S23/S24, located at the N-terminus of cTnI. This phosphorylation has been shown to decrease KCa and pCa50, and weaken the cTnC-cTnI (C-I) interaction. We recently reported that phosphorylation results in an increase in the rate of early, slow phase of relaxation (kREL,slow) and a decrease in its duration (tREL,slow), which speeds up the overall relaxation. However, as the N-terminus of cTnI (residues 1–40) has not been resolved in the whole cardiac troponin (cTn) structure, little is known about the molecular-level behavior within the whole cTn complex upon phosphorylation of the S23/S24 residues of cTnI that results in these changes in function. In this study, we built up the cTn complex structure (including residues cTnC 1–161, cTnI 1–172, and cTnT 236–285) with the N-terminus of cTnI. We performed molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations to elucidate the structural basis of PKA phosphorylation-induced changes in cTn structure and Ca2+ binding. We found that introducing two phosphomimic mutations into sites S23/S24 had no significant effect on the coordinating residues of Ca2+ binding site II. However, the overall fluctuation of cTn was increased and the C-I interaction was altered relative to the wild-type model. The most significant changes involved interactions with the N-terminus of cTnI. Interestingly, the phosphomimic mutations led to the formation of intrasubunit interactions between the N-terminus and the inhibitory peptide of cTnI. This may result in altered interactions with cTnC and could explain the increased rate and decreased duration of slow-phase relaxation seen in myofibrils. PMID:25296321

  10. RF Jitter Modulation Alignment Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, L. F.; Fulda, P.; Diaz-Ortiz, M.; Perez Sanchez, G.; Ciani, G.; Voss, D.; Mueller, G.; Tanner, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will present the numerical and experimental results of a new alignment sensing scheme which can reduce the complexity of alignment sensing systems currently used, while maintaining the same shot noise limited sensitivity. This scheme relies on the ability of electro-optic beam deflectors to create angular modulation sidebands in radio frequency, and needs only a single-element photodiode and IQ demodulation to generate error signals for tilt and translation degrees of freedom in one dimension. It distances itself from current techniques by eliminating the need for beam centering servo systems, quadrant photodetectors and Gouy phase telescopes. RF Jitter alignment sensing can be used to reduce the complexity in the alignment systems of many laser optical experiments, including LIGO and the ALPS experiment.

  11. Troponin T: role in altering patient management and enabling earlier discharge from a district general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, A; Khan, W; Griffiths, K D

    2001-03-01

    The use of troponin T to facilitate early patient discharge was investigated in a prospective study in a district general hospital. Troponin T was measured in 91 patients admitted over a period of 6 months with chest pain but without evidence of myocardial infarction. The main outcome measure was length of hospital stay. A negative troponin T was found in 70 patients. Fifty of these were discharged within 24 h of the troponin result being available and they had a significantly shorter hospital stay than a case control group and a historical control group from the previous 6 months. Troponin T measurement has a role in altering patient management by enabling early discharge, resulting in significant cost savings and increasing bed availability.

  12. Mechanism of troponin elevations in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper K.; Atar, Dan; Mickley, Hans

    2007-01-01

    the introduction of troponin in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, this marker has been measured in a number of other conditions as well. One of these conditions is acute ischemic stroke, causing diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. Because various electrocardiographic alterations have also been reported......Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases frequently co-exist in the same patient, and similar risk factors are shared. For 60 years, experimental, observational, and clinical trial data have incessantly indicated that neurologically induced myocardial injury exists. Since...

  13. Clinical considerations in the interpretation of elevated troponin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rujic, Dragana; Pareek, Manan; Egholm, Gro

    2015-01-01

    The essential role of cardiac troponin (cTn) in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction has led to the development of high-sensitivity assays, which are able to detect very small amounts of myocardial necrosis. However, although elevated blood levels of cTn indicate myocardial injury, they do...... not provide a causal explanation. The differential diagnosis of minor elevations of the cTn-level is broad and includes both acute and chronic cardiac and non-cardiac conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review common causes of elevated cTn-levels in daily clinical practice....

  14. Aligning component upgrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Di Cosmo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern software systems, like GNU/Linux distributions or Eclipse-based development environment, are often deployed by selecting components out of large component repositories. Maintaining such software systems by performing component upgrades is a complex task, and the users need to have an expressive preferences language at their disposal to specify the kind of upgrades they are interested in. Recent research has shown that it is possible to develop solvers that handle preferences expressed as a combination of a few basic criteria used in the MISC competition, ranging from the number of new components to the freshness of the final configuration. In this work we introduce a set of new criteria that allow the users to specify their preferences for solutions with components aligned to the same upstream sources, provide an efficient encoding and report on the experimental results that prove that optimising these alignment criteria is a tractable problem in practice.

  15. Distinct conformational and functional effects of two adjacent pathogenic mutations in cardiac troponin I at the interface with troponin T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Shirin; Jin, J-P

    2015-01-01

    The α-helix in troponin I (TnI) at the interface with troponin T (TnT) is a highly conserved structure. A point mutation in this region, A116G, was found in human cardiac TnI in a case of cardiomyopathy. An adjacent dominantly negative mutation found in turkey cardiac TnI (R111C, equivalent to K117C in human and K118C in mouse) decreased diastolic function and blunted beta-adrenergic response in transgenic mice. To investigate the functional importance of the TnI-TnT interface and pathological impact of the cardiac TnI mutations, we engineered K118C and A117G mutations in mouse cardiac TnI for functional studies. Despite their adjacent locations, A117G substitution results in faster mobility of cardiac TnI in SDS-PAGE whereas K118C decreases gel mobility, indicating significant and distinct changes in overall protein conformation. Consistently, monoclonal antibody epitope analysis demonstrated distinct local and remote conformational alterations in the two mutant proteins. Protein binding assays showed that K118C, but not A117G, decreased the relative binding affinity of cardiac TnI for TnT. K118C mutation decreased binding affinity for troponin C in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, whereas A117G had a similar but less profound effect. Protein kinase A phosphorylation or truncation to remove the cardiac specific N-terminal extension of cardiac TnI resulted in similar conformational changes in the region interfacing with TnT and minimized the functional impacts of the mutations. The data demonstrate potent conformational and functional impacts of the TnT-interfacing helix in TnI and suggest a role of the N-terminal extension of cardiac TnI in modulating TnI-TnT interface functions.

  16. Correlation between lipid profile and troponin I test results in patients with chest pain in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar; Brijesh Sathian

    2013-01-01

    To study the usefulness of traditional lipid profile levels in screening subjects who had developed chest pain due to cardiac event as indicated by a positive troponin I test. Methods: In this retrospective study data of the 430 patients presented to the emergency department with symptoms of cardiac ischemia who underwent both troponin and lipid profiles tests were compared with the lipid profiles of 165 normal healthy subjects (controls). The troponin was detected qualitatively when a specimen contains troponin I (cTnI) above the 99th percentile (TnI>0.5 ng/mL). The total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins cholesterol, very low density lipoproteins and triacyl glycerol levels were also analyzed and low density lipoprotein level was calculated using Friedewald’s formula. Results: Patients with chest pain and positive troponin test (with confirmed cardiac event) were found to have significantly elevated levels of total cholesterol, triacyl glycerol levels, low density lipoprotein level and significantly reduced high density lipoproteins cholesterol levels when compared to the patients who experienced only chest pain (negative troponin) and healthy controls. Conclusions: Traditional lipid profile levels is still can be used in screening populations to identify the subjects with high risk of developing cardiac event in case if the laboratory set up has not troponin test facilities.

  17. Estimation of the poly (ε-caprolactone [PCL] and α-cyclodextrin [α-CD] stoichiometric ratios in their inclusion complexes [ICs], and evaluation of porosity and fiber alignment in PCL nanofibers containing these ICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Narayanan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the utilization of Proton-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR to quantify the stoichiometric ratios between poly (ε-caprolactone [PCL] and α-cyclodextrin (α-CD present in their non-stoichiometric inclusion complexes [(n-s-ICs]. This paper further describes the porosity and fiber alignment of PCL nanofibers nucleated by the [(n-s-ICs] during electrospinning. 1H NMR indicated that the two non-stoichiometric inclusion complexes utilized in this study had differing stoichiometric ratios that were closely similar to those of the starting ratios used to make them. Studies on porosity and fiber alignments were conducted on the scanning electron microscope images using ImageJ. The data indicates that both fiber alignment as well as porosity values remain almost the same over all the samples. Thus we can conclude the improvement in mechanical properties was due only to the loading of the ICs, and their subsequent interaction with bulk unthreaded PCL.

  18. Diagnostic Implications of an Elevated Troponin in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maame Yaa Yiadom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the proportion of initial troponin (cTn elevations associated with Type I MI versus other cardiovascular and noncardiovascular diagnoses in an emergency department (ED and whether or not a relationship exists between the cTn level and the likelihood of Type I MI. Background. In the ED, cTn is used as a screening test for myocardial injury. However, the differential diagnosis for an initial positive cTn result is not clear. Methods. Hospital medical records were retrospectively reviewed for visits associated with an initial positive troponin I-ultra (cTnI, ≥0.05 μg/L. Elevated cTnI levels were stratified into low (0.05–0.09, medium (0.1–0.99, or high (≥1.0. Discharge diagnoses were classified into 3 diagnostic groups (Type I MI, other cardiovascular, or noncardiovascular. Results. Of 23,731 ED visits, 4,928 (21% had cTnI testing. Of those tested, 16.3% had initial cTnI ≥0.05. Among those with elevated cTn, 11% were classified as Type I MI, 34% had other cardiovascular diagnoses, and 55% had a noncardiovascular diagnosis. Type I MI was more common with high cTnI levels (41% incidence than among subjects with medium (9% or low (6%. Conclusion. A positive cTn is most likely a noncardiovascular diagnosis, but Type I MI is far more common with cTnI levels ≥1.0.

  19. Troponin elevations in patients with chronic cardiovascular disease: An analysis of current evidence and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Archer K; Malhotra, Anita K; Sullivan, Breandan L; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Serum troponin elevation above the 99th percentile of the upper reference limit in healthy subjects (troponin laboratory assays) is required to establish the diagnosis the diagnosis of myocardial necrosis in acute cardiovascular syndromes, as well as guide prognosis and therapy. In the perioperative period, for patients with cardiac disease undergoing noncardiac surgery, it is a particularly critical biomarker universally used to assess the myocardial damage. The value of troponin testing and elevation (as well as its significance) in patients with chronic cardiac valvular, vascular, and renal disease is relatively less well understood. This evidence-based review seeks to examine the currently available data assessing the significance of troponin elevation in certain chronic valvular and other disease states.

  20. Benefit of abciximab in patients with refractory unstable angina in relation to serum troponin T levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Hamm (Christian); C. Heeschen (Christopher); B. Goldmann (Britta); A. Vahanian (Alec); J. Adgey (Jennifer); C.M. Miguel (Carlos); W.R. Rutsch (Wolfgang); J. Berger (Jürgen); J.G. Kootstra (Jille); M.L. Simoons (Maarten)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In patients with refractory unstable angina, the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa-receptor antibody abciximab reduces the incidence of cardiac events before and during coronary angioplasty. We investigated whether serum troponin T levels identify patients most

  1. Pre-treatment with clopidogrel and postprocedure troponin elevation after elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, MB; Ottervanger, JP; Miedema, K; Suryapranata, H; de Boer, MJ; Hoorntje, JCA; van 't Hof, AWJ; Gosselink, M; Zijlstra, F; Dambrink, Jan Hendrik Everwijn

    2006-01-01

    Elevated troponin after elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCl) has been associated with a worse prognosis. Pretreatment with clopidogrel may be beneficial in patients undergoing PCl. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted to address the potential role of clopidogrel in

  2. Diagnosis of Unstable Angina Pectoris Has Declined Markedly with the Advent of More Sensitive Troponin Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Maria; Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    in unselected hospital patients. METHODS: During 2010 we evaluated all patients in whom cardiac troponin I had been measured at a single university hospital. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI......BACKGROUND: Since the arrival of the universal definition of myocardial infarction more sensitive troponin assays have been developed. How these occurrences have influenced the proportions and clinical features of the components of acute coronary syndrome have not been studied prospectively......]) was established in cases of a rise and/or fall of cardiac troponin I together with cardiac ischemic features. Patients with unstable chest discomfort and cardiac troponin I values below the decision limit of myocardial infarction were diagnosed as having unstable angina pectoris. The definition of acute coronary...

  3. Multilingual alignments by monolingual string differences

    OpenAIRE

    Lardilleux, Adrien; Lepage, Yves

    2008-01-01

    International audience; We propose a method to obtain subsentential alignments from several languages simultaneously. The method handles several languages at once, and avoids the complexity explosion due to the usual pair-by-pair processing. It can be used for different units (characters, morphemes, words, chunks). An evaluation of word alignments with a trilingual machine translation corpus has been conducted. A comparison of the results with those obtained by state of the art alignment soft...

  4. Detected troponin elevation is associated with high early mortality after lung resection for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tornout Fillip

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial infarction can be difficult to diagnose after lung surgery. As recent diagnostic criteria emphasize serum cardiac markers (in particular serum troponin we set out to evaluate its clinical utility and to establish the long term prognostic impact of detected abnormal postoperative troponin levels after lung resection. Methods We studied a historic cohort of patients with primary lung cancer who underwent intended surgical resection. Patients were grouped according to known postoperative troponin status and survival calculated by Kaplan Meier method and compared using log rank. Parametric survival analysis was used to ascertain independent predictors of mortality. Results From 2001 to 2004, a total of 207 patients underwent lung resection for primary lung cancer of which 14 (7% were identified with elevated serum troponin levels within 30 days of surgery, with 9 (64% having classical features of myocardial infarction. The median time to follow up (interquartile range was 22 (1 to 52 months, and the one and five year survival probabilities (95% CI for patients without and with postoperative troponin elevation were 92% (85 to 96 versus 60% (31 to 80 and 61% (51 to 71 versus 18% (3 to 43 respectively (p T stage and postoperative troponin elevation remained independent predictors of mortality in the final multivariable model. The acceleration factor for death of elevated serum troponin after adjusting for tumour stage was 9.19 (95% CI 3.75 to 22.54. Conclusion Patients with detected serum troponin elevation are at high risk of early mortality with or without symptoms of myocardial infarction after lung resection.

  5. Triangular Alignment (TAME). A Tensor-based Approach for Higher-order Network Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Shahin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gleich, David F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kolda, Tamara G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Grama, Ananth [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Network alignment is an important tool with extensive applications in comparative interactomics. Traditional approaches aim to simultaneously maximize the number of conserved edges and the underlying similarity of aligned entities. We propose a novel formulation of the network alignment problem that extends topological similarity to higher-order structures and provide a new objective function that maximizes the number of aligned substructures. This objective function corresponds to an integer programming problem, which is NP-hard. Consequently, we approximate this objective function as a surrogate function whose maximization results in a tensor eigenvalue problem. Based on this formulation, we present an algorithm called Triangular AlignMEnt (TAME), which attempts to maximize the number of aligned triangles across networks. We focus on alignment of triangles because of their enrichment in complex networks; however, our formulation and resulting algorithms can be applied to general motifs. Using a case study on the NAPABench dataset, we show that TAME is capable of producing alignments with up to 99% accuracy in terms of aligned nodes. We further evaluate our method by aligning yeast and human interactomes. Our results indicate that TAME outperforms the state-of-art alignment methods both in terms of biological and topological quality of the alignments.

  6. [High-sensitivity troponin in patients with stable coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Hof, Arnoud W J

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of more sensitive markers of myocardial necrosis, it was shown that the diagnosis of (acute) myocardial infarction could be improved. However, many patients without myocardial infarction have elevated troponin levels (low sensitivity), resulting in additional diagnostic testing and longer admission times to find the cause of the troponin rise. Elevated troponin levels in these patients were found to have limited diagnostic but strong prognostic value. This led to studies assessing the value of high-sensitivity troponin in patients with stable disease, e.g. coronary artery disease, or even in patients without apparent (clinical) disease. These studies consistently showed a strong association with long-term (cardiac) mortality. What is the value for the general physician in daily practice? Although troponin levels may help in finding (healthy?) patients at higher risk, it remains unclear whether interventions (medication, lifestyle) are more (cost-)effective in this high-risk subgroup. The role of troponin levels as a prognostic marker in stable patients therefore remains to be determined.

  7. Elevated Troponin Level with Negative Outcome Was Found in Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buse Hasırcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Troponin increment is a highly sensitive and specific marker of myocardial necrosis. The reason of high troponin levels in acute stroke is not clear. The aim of this study was to identify the relationships between cardiac troponin-I (cTnI level and stroke. Methods. This study recruited 868 patients who were admitted to Istanbul Medeniyet University due to acute ischemic stroke, and the diagnosis was confirmed by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The patients with the causes increasing troponin level were excluded from the study. A total of 239 patients were finally included in the study. Clinics were evaluated by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS. Results. Serum level of troponin was higher in ischemic stroke patients with anterior circulation involvement in comparison to posterior involvement or hemorrhagic stroke (. Higher troponin levels related to increased stroke scale scores at discharge in ischemic stroke (. The level of cTnI was correlated with stroke scale scores at both admission and discharge in posterior stroke patients (. Conclusion. cTnI is a highly specific and sensitive marker of myocardial damage, and its elevation was associated with more severe neurological deficits in acute ischemic stroke.

  8. Vibrating wire alignment technique

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Long, Wang; lei, Wu; Chun-Hua, Li

    2013-01-01

    Vibrating wire alignment technique is a kind of method which through measuring the spatial distribution of magnetic field to do the alignment and it can achieve very high alignment accuracy. Vibrating wire alignment technique can be applied for magnet fiducialization and accelerator straight section components alignment, it is a necessary supplement for conventional alignment method. This article will systematically expound the international research achievements of vibrating wire alignment technique, including vibrating wire model analysis, system frequency calculation, wire sag calculation and the relation between wire amplitude and magnetic induction intensity. On the basis of model analysis this article will introduce the alignment method which based on magnetic field measurement and the alignment method which based on amplitude and phase measurement. Finally, some basic questions will be discussed and the solutions will be given.

  9. Gene regulation, alternative splicing, and posttranslational modification of troponin subunits in cardiac development and adaptation: a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Juan-Juan; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Troponin plays a central role in regulating the contraction and relaxation of vertebrate striated muscles. This review focuses on the isoform gene regulation, alternative RNA splicing, and posttranslational modifications of troponin subunits in cardiac development and adaptation. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations such as phosphorylation and proteolysis modifications, and structure-function relationships of troponin subunit proteins are summarized. The physiological and pathophysiological significances are discussed for impacts on cardiac muscle contractility, heart function, and adaptations in health and diseases.

  10. Rapid homogeneous immunoassay for cardiac troponin I using switchable lanthanide luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päkkilä, Henna; Malmi, Eeva; Lahtinen, Satu; Soukka, Tero

    2014-12-15

    Homogeneous assays are advantageous because of their simplicity and rapid kinetics but typically their performance is severely compromised compared to heterogeneous assay formats. Here, we report a homogeneous immunoassay utilizing switchable lanthanide luminescence for detection and site-specifically labeled recombinant antibody fragments as binders to improve the assay performance. Switchable lanthanide luminescence enabled elimination of assay background due to division of the luminescent lanthanide chelate into two non-luminescent label moieties. Simultaneous biomolecular recognition of model analyte cardiac troponin I by two antibody fragments brought the label moieties together and resulted in self-assembly of luminescent mixed chelate complex. The assay was very rapid as maximal signal-to-background ratios were achieved already after 6 min of incubation. Additionally, the limit of detection was 0.38 ng/mL (16 pM), which was comparable to the limit of detection for the heterogeneous reference assay based on the same binders (0.26 ng/mL or 11 pM). This is the first study to apply switchable lanthanide luminescence in immunoassays and demonstrates the versatile potential of the technology for rapid and sensitive homogeneous assays.

  11. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez.

    Since June of 2009, the muon alignment group has focused on providing new alignment constants and on finalizing the hardware alignment reconstruction. Alignment constants for DTs and CSCs were provided for CRAFT09 data reprocessing. For DT chambers, the track-based alignment was repeated using CRAFT09 cosmic ray muons and validated using segment extrapolation and split cosmic tools. One difference with respect to the previous alignment is that only five degrees of freedom were aligned, leaving the rotation around the local x-axis to be better determined by the hardware system. Similarly, DT chambers poorly aligned by tracks (due to limited statistics) were aligned by a combination of photogrammetry and hardware-based alignment. For the CSC chambers, the hardware system provided alignment in global z and rotations about local x. Entire muon endcap rings were further corrected in the transverse plane (global x and y) by the track-based alignment. Single chamber track-based alignment suffers from poor statistic...

  12. The Correlation between Troponin and Ferritin Serum Levels in the Patients with Major Beta-Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Shahramian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy whose most common complication is cardiac involvement which ends up in these patients’ death. Since troponin is a sensitive and specific marker for the detection of microinfarct, we studied the relationship between troponin and ferritin serum levels for early diagnosis of cardiac involvement in these patients. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 80 patients, including 40 patients with major thalassemia and normal echocardiography and 40 healthy volunteers ranging from 6 months to 16 years old. All the children were examined and the eligible children who were not infected with known heart disease, iron deficiency anemia, kidney disease, diabetes, fever, and systemic diseases were enrolled into the study after obtaining written informed consents from their parents. At 8:00 A.M. before breakfast, 5cc blood was drawn from these children. After collecting the samples, ferritin and troponin serum levels were evaluated using ELISA and electro- kymonolonsense methods, respectively. The gathered data were analyzed through the SPSS statistical software (v. 20 and T-test. Besides, P value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The study results revealed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean of the serum levels of troponin (P=0.045 and ferritin (P=0.001. In this study, no significant correlation was observed between serum troponin and ferritin levels and age and BMI in the two groups. Also, no significant relationship was found between serum troponin level and sex (P=0.264. Conclusions: In microinfarct, troponin increases independent of ferritin; therefore, it can be used for early detection of cardiac involvement in thalassemia patients to determine the sub-clinical effects.

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and J. Pivarski

    2011-01-01

    Alignment efforts in the first few months of 2011 have shifted away from providing alignment constants (now a well established procedure) and focussed on some critical remaining issues. The single most important task left was to understand the systematic differences observed between the track-based (TB) and hardware-based (HW) barrel alignments: a systematic difference in r-φ and in z, which grew as a function of z, and which amounted to ~4-5 mm differences going from one end of the barrel to the other. This difference is now understood to be caused by the tracker alignment. The systematic differences disappear when the track-based barrel alignment is performed using the new “twist-free” tracker alignment. This removes the largest remaining source of systematic uncertainty. Since the barrel alignment is based on hardware, it does not suffer from the tracker twist. However, untwisting the tracker causes endcap disks (which are aligned ...

  14. Serum cardiac troponin T after repeated endurance exercise events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, A; Tirelli, F; Albertini, R; Monica, C; Monica, M; Tredici, G

    1996-05-01

    Recently Dr. Rowe made a hypothesis according to which small areas of myocardial necrosis can be caused by microvascular spasm, related to high catecholamine concentrations and other mechanisms, following extraordinary unremitting endurance exercises or due to the cumulative effect of several endurance events. It was this last suggestion which prompted us to investigate 25 top cyclists, taking part in the 77th Giro d'Italia. Blood samples were obtained the day before the start of the competition and once a week thereafter until the end. We measured myoglobin, lactic dehydrogenase, total creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and serum cardiac troponin T (Tn-T), a highly sensitive and specific method for the detection of myocardial injury. While at measuring time points which followed we found a significant increase in the serum indicators of muscle damage, compared with their values at the beginning of the race, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB did not rise significantly and cardiac Tn-T was found in the serum of only 5 athletes, repeatedly in some cases, but always below the cut off values considered as indicating myocardial ischemia. On the basis of the behaviour of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and, above all, of cardiac Tn-T, we can conclude that heavy endurance exercises, repeated daily for 22 days, as was the case in our study, do not seem able to produce, in top athletes, permanent heart damage by means of acute myocardial injury.

  15. Influence of neurotropic compounds on the calmodulin- and troponin C-dependent processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldenkov, G.N.; Men' shikov, M.Yu.; Feoktistov, I.A.; Tkachuk, V.A.

    1986-01-20

    An analysis was made of the effects of neurotropic compounds on the Ca-binding proteins - calmodulin and troponin C. It was shown that most of the neuroleptics of the phenothiazine group interact effectively both with calmodulin and with troponin C and also inhibit the calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase of cyclic nucleotides and calcium-activated actomyosin ATPase. Neuroleptics of the butyrophenone group, as well as imipramine and diphenhydramine, are capable of a low-efficiency interaction only with calmodulin. It was found that one of the phenothiazines - methophenazine, which is an effective inhibitor of calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase - does not affect troponin C and Ca-dependent actomyosin ATPase. As a result of this, methophenazine can serve as a convenient tool for studying processes regulated by these Ca-binding proteins. It was concluded that troponin C possesses Ca-dependent binding sites for drugs structurally similar to those of calmodulin but binding the drugs less effectively and exhibiting selectivity with respect to certain preparations. It was shown that despite the homology of the two Ca-binding proteins, calmodulin and troponin C, a selective action on the processes regulated by them is possible.

  16. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    The main developments in muon alignment since March 2010 have been the production, approval and deployment of alignment constants for the ICHEP data reprocessing. In the barrel, a new geometry, combining information from both hardware and track-based alignment systems, has been developed for the first time. The hardware alignment provides an initial DT geometry, which is then anchored as a rigid solid, using the link alignment system, to a reference frame common to the tracker. The “GlobalPositionRecords” for both the Tracker and Muon systems are being used for the first time, and the initial tracker-muon relative positioning, based on the link alignment, yields good results within the photogrammetry uncertainties of the Tracker and alignment ring positions. For the first time, the optical and track-based alignments show good agreement between them; the optical alignment being refined by the track-based alignment. The resulting geometry is the most complete to date, aligning all 250 DTs, ...

  17. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

    2013-01-01

    When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

  18. The twilight zone of cis element alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Alvaro; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Sequence alignment of proteins and nucleic acids is a routine task in bioinformatics. Although the comparison of complete peptides, genes or genomes can be undertaken with a great variety of tools, the alignment of short DNA sequences and motifs entails pitfalls that have not been fully addressed yet. Here we confront the structural superposition of transcription factors with the sequence alignment of their recognized cis elements. Our goals are (i) to test TFcompare (http://floresta.eead.csic.es/tfcompare), a structural alignment method for protein-DNA complexes; (ii) to benchmark the pairwise alignment of regulatory elements; (iii) to define the confidence limits and the twilight zone of such alignments and (iv) to evaluate the relevance of these thresholds with elements obtained experimentally. We find that the structure of cis elements and protein-DNA interfaces is significantly more conserved than their sequence and measures how this correlates with alignment errors when only sequence information is considered. Our results confirm that DNA motifs in the form of matrices produce better alignments than individual sequences. Finally, we report that empirical and theoretically derived twilight thresholds are useful for estimating the natural plasticity of regulatory sequences, and hence for filtering out unreliable alignments.

  19. Serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T after exercise stress test in stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; Ruwald, Martin Huth; Dalsgaard, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT) post-exercise in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).......The aim was to assess serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT) post-exercise in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  20. Usefulness of positive troponin-T and negative creatine kinase levels in identifying high-risk patients with unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, T L; Doyle, T; Spiekerman, A M; Watson, L E; Riggs, M W; Lawrence, M E

    1997-08-15

    Troponin-T was measured in patients with chest pain and negative creatine phosphokinase-MB isoenzymes. Patients with elevated troponin-T had a significantly greater risk of cardiac events over the next 6 months than patients with normal troponin-T.

  1. Serum cardiac troponin T in unstable angina pectoris patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leowattana, W; Mahanonda, N; Bhuripanyo, K; Pokum, S; Kiartivich, S

    2000-11-01

    Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is a regulatory contractile protein not normally found in blood. Its detection in the circulation has been shown to be a sensitive and specific marker for myocardial cell damage. In this study, we used a second-generation enzyme immunoassay for cTnT to determine whether its presence in the serum of patients with unstable angina was a prognostic indicator. Thirty patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and 30 patients with Q-wave acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were screened for serum CK-MB activity and cTnT at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after the onset of chest pain, All of the mean concentrations of CK-MB activity determined in UAP patients were less than the upper limit of normal (25 U/L). Meanwhile, the mean concentration of cTnT at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after onset of chest pain were higher than the cutoff values (0.1 microg/L), We found that one third of UAP patients had serum cTnT at the time of admission more than 0.1 microg/L and that these groups of patients were associated with a high risk for cardiac events. Our results suggested that patients with elevated serum cTnT could be considered as high-risk patients for developing myocardial infarction, Patients with normal cTnT levels and a low or intermediate clinical risk could be stabilized and further stratified noninvasively.

  2. Modelling Ca2+ bound Troponin in Excitation Contraction Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry G. Zot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To explain disparate decay rates of cytosolic Ca2+ and structural changes in the thin filaments during a twitch, we model the time course of Ca2+ bound troponin (Tn resulting from the free Ca2+ transient of fast skeletal muscle. In fibers stretched beyond overlap, the decay of Ca2+ as measured by a change in fluo 3 fluorescence is significantly slower than the intensity decay of the meridional 1/38.5 nm-1 reflection of Tn; this is not simply explained by considering only the Ca2+ binding properties of Tn alone (Matsuo, T., Iwamoto, H., and Yagi, N. (2010. Biophys. J. 99, 193-200. We apply a comprehensive model that includes the known Ca2+ binding properties of Tn in the context of the thin filament with and without cycling crossbridges. Calculations based on the model predict that the transient of Ca2+ bound Tn correlates with either the fluo 3 time course in muscle with overlapping thin and thick filaments or the intensity of the meridional 1/38.5 nm-1 reflection in overstretched muscle. Hence, cycling crossbridges delay the dissociation of Ca2+ from Tn. Correlation with the fluo 3 fluorescence change is not causal given that the transient of Ca2+ bound Tn depends on sarcomere length, whereas the fluo-3 fluorescence change does not. Transient positions of tropomyosin calculated from the time course of Ca2+ bound Tn are in reasonable agreement with the transient of measured perturbations of the Tn repeat in overlap and non-overlap muscle preparations.

  3. Gambaran Kadar Troponin T dan Creatinin Kinase Myocardial Band pada Infark Miokard Akut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendi Dwi Prasetyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfark Miokard Akut (IMA adalah kematian sel miokardium akibat terlepasnya plak aterosklerotik dari salah satu arteri koroner yang mencetuskan terjadinya agregasi trombosit, pembentukan trombus, dan spasme koroner. Diagnosis IMA dapat dilakukan dengan cara: anamnesis, abnormalitas Elektrokardiogram (EKG, peningkatan Creatinin Kinase Myocardial Band (CKMB, dan cardiac specific troponin (cTnT. Diagnosis IMA dapat ditegakkan jika terdapat minimal dua dari tiga kriteria yang harus dipenuhi, yaitu: anamnesis, abnormalitas EKG, dan peningkatan aktivitas enzim jantung. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran kadar troponin T dan CKMB pada pasien IMA di RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang periode 1 Januari 2012 - 31 Desember 2012. Penelitian dilakukan secara retrospektif deskriptif terhadap 54 sampel rekam medik pasien IMA yang dirawat inap di bagian penyakit dalam dan jantung RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang periode 1 Januari 2012 - 31 Desember 2012. Kadar troponin T diperiksa dengan metode chemiluminescent dan CKMB diperiksa dengan metode enzymatic immunoassay with serum start. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan umur terbanyak pasien IMA adalah 40-60 tahun berjumlah 30 orang (55,56%. Jenis kelamin terbanyak pasien IMA adalah laki-laki berjumlah 39 orang (72,22%. Pasien IMA yang memiliki kadar CKMB ≥24 U/L berjumlah 35 orang (64,82%. Pasien IMA yang memiliki kadar troponin T ≥0,1 ng/mL berjumlah 44 orang (81,48%. Didapatkan peningkatan kadar troponin T dan CKMB pada pasien IMA.Kata kunci: infark miokard akut, troponin t, CKMBAbstractAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI is a muscle necrosis of the heart caused by rupture atherosclerotic plaque from one of coronary artery that cause platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and coronary spasm. Diagnosis of AMI can be made by some way : anamnesis, electrocardiogram (ECG abnormalities, increase levels of creatinine kinase myocardial band (CKMB and cardiac specific troponin (cTnT. Diagnosis of AMI can be

  4. Cardiac troponins I and T: molecular markers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and accurate triaging of patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ram P; Jain, Anubhav; Khan, Zakir; Kohli, Veena; Bharmal, R N; Kartikeyan, S; Bisen, Prakash S

    2012-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of death worldwide, with early diagnosis still being difficult. Promising new cardiac biomarkers such as troponins and creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are being studied and integrated into clinical practice for early diagnosis of AMI. The cardiac-specific troponins I and T (cTnI and cTnT) have good sensitivity and specificity as indicators of myocardial necrosis and are superior to CK and its MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) in this regard. Besides being potential biologic markers, cardiac troponins also provide significant prognostic information. The introduction of novel high-sensitivity troponin assays has enabled more sensitive and timely diagnosis or exclusion of acute coronary syndromes. This review summarizes the available information on the potential of troponins and other cardiac markers in early diagnosis and prognosis of AMI, and provides perspectives on future diagnostic approaches to AMI.

  5. Chest pain and high-sensitivity troponin: What is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ashmore

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of attendances and admissions of patients with chest pain to hospitals in England and Wales is increasing. Initial assessment may be unrewarding. Consequently, cardiac troponin has become the mainstay of investigation for non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina, although only a small proportion of patients are eventually diagnosed as such. Current National Institute for Healthcare and Clinical Excellence guidance recommends measuring cardiac troponin levels on presentation and 10–12 h after onset of symptoms. A more effective diagnostic tool is needed. The aims are twofold: to increase accuracy of acute coronary syndrome diagnosis thus implementing the most appropriate management at an earlier stage while reducing costs and to provide a more rapid diagnosis to ease the anxieties of patients. Three key issues have been highlighted. The first is that many current studies do not have a ‘normal/reference’ population, making comparison between two studies difficult to interpret. Second, whether newer ‘high-sensitivity’ cardiac troponin tests can be used to rule out a myocardial infarction in a patient with chest pain is discussed. Third, whether a ‘high-sensitivity’ cardiac troponin has great enough specificity to differentiate between the number of other causes of raised troponin in a single test or whether serial testing is needed is assessed. A strategy for such serial testing is discussed. Finally, use of ‘high-sensitivity’ cardiac troponin in risk stratification of other disease processes is highlighted, which is likely to become common practice, changing the way we manage patients with, and without, chest pain.

  6. Cardiac troponin I (CTnI level among children with epileptic seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Anwer Attia Khattab

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac troponin I is a perfect tool for early detection of cases with myocardial dysfunction in epileptic patients – cardiac troponin I is significantly increased in children with epilepsy especially the complicated epilepsy. Cardiac injury in epileptic children is more common in patients with early onset epilepsy, positive prenatal problem, idiopathic epilepsy, abnormal imaging and EEG – elevated TnI levels may be of value in assessing the severity and eventual outcome and mortality risk of the disease in children with epilepsy.

  7. Dermatomyositis presenting with symptomatic dermographism and raised troponin T: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Kartini F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermatomyositis is an important inflammation of skin and muscles. Generalised itch is frequent in the condition; however, symptomatic dermographism has not previously been reported as a presenting feature. Case presentation A 32-year-old Caucasian Scottish woman was diagnosed with dermatomyositis after initial presentation with symptomatic dermographism. No underlying neoplasm was found and her condition was successfully treated with systemic corticosteroids and high-dose human immunoglobulin infusions. At presentation, her troponin T and creatine phosphokinase enzymes were highly raised. Conclusion Symptomatic dermographism may be a presenting feature of dermatomyositis. Dermatomyositis is one of many conditions that can result in a raised troponin T.

  8. Decision limits and the reporting of cardiac troponin: Meeting the needs of both the cardiologist and the ED physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Peter E; Lindahl, Bertil; Cullen, Louise; Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jill; Potter, Julia M

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac troponin is the preferred biomarker for defining the acute coronary syndrome and acute myocardial infarction. Currently, the only decision limit formally endorsed with regard to the cardiac troponins is the 99th percentile. This is a "rule-in" criterion, intended to ensure that only persons with the acute coronary syndrome are reviewed. The 99th percentile is an arbitrary cut point and there are many problems associated with its application, including defining a truly healthy population, the difficulty of standardisation of cardiac troponin assays, especially but not only cardiac troponin I, and the effects of age and sex on this parameter. The Emergency Department (ED) screens many more persons for possible acute coronary syndromes than actually have the condition and their needs are best met by a "rule-out" test that enables them to clear their busy departments of the many persons who do not actually have the condition. The needs of the ED are not optimally met using the 99th percentile. The index of individuality for the cardiac troponins is small and significant changes consistent with an acute coronary syndrome can occur without the 99th percentile being exceeded. It appears that the ED may be better served by use of delta troponin changes rather than the 99th percentile, but there are problems with this approach, particularly in persons who present late when troponin release has plateaued. In addition, there are many non-acute coronary syndrome causes for cardiac troponin release. The needs of the cardiologist and the ED physician are so different that it may be inappropriate for both groups to use the same diagnostic criteria for cardiac troponin, and it is of great importance that cardiac troponin measurement be used as only one part of the assessment of the person presenting with possible acute coronary syndrome.

  9. Ontology alignment with OLA

    OpenAIRE

    Euzenat, Jérôme; Loup, David; Touzani, Mohamed; Valtchev, Petko

    2004-01-01

    euzenat2004d; International audience; Using ontologies is the standard way to achieve interoperability of heterogeneous systems within the Semantic web. However, as the ontologies underlying two systems are not necessarily compatible, they may in turn need to be aligned. Similarity-based approaches to alignment seems to be both powerful and flexible enough to match the expressive power of languages like OWL. We present an alignment tool that follows the similarity-based paradigm, called OLA. ...

  10. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Most of the work in muon alignment since December 2009 has focused on the geometry reconstruction from the optical systems and improvements in the internal alignment of the DT chambers. The barrel optical alignment system has progressively evolved from reconstruction of single active planes to super-planes (December 09) to a new, full barrel reconstruction. Initial validation studies comparing this full barrel alignment at 0T with photogrammetry provide promising results. In addition, the method has been applied to CRAFT09 data, and the resulting alignment at 3.8T yields residuals from tracks (extrapolated from the tracker) which look smooth, suggesting a good internal barrel alignment with a small overall offset with respect to the tracker. This is a significant improvement, which should allow the optical system to provide a start-up alignment for 2010. The end-cap optical alignment has made considerable progress in the analysis of transfer line data. The next set of alignment constants for CSCs will there...

  11. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Alignment work now focuses on producing a new track-based alignment with higher track statistics, making systematic studies between the results of the hardware and track-based alignment methods and aligning the barrel using standalone muon tracks. Currently, the muon track reconstruction software uses a hardware-based alignment in the barrel (DT) and a track-based alignment in the endcaps (CSC). An important task is to assess the muon momentum resolution that can be achieved using the current muon alignment, especially for highly energetic muons. For this purpose, cosmic ray muons are used, since the rate of high-energy muons from collisions is very low and the event statistics are still limited. Cosmics have the advantage of higher statistics in the pT region above 100 GeV/c, but they have the disadvantage of having a mostly vertical topology, resulting in a very few global endcap muons. Only the barrel alignment has therefore been tested so far. Cosmic muons traversing CMS from top to bottom are s...

  12. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    The main progress of the muon alignment group since March has been in the refinement of both the track-based alignment for the DTs and the hardware-based alignment for the CSCs. For DT track-based alignment, there has been significant improvement in the internal alignment of the superlayers inside the DTs. In particular, the distance between superlayers is now corrected, eliminating the residual dependence on track impact angles, and good agreement is found between survey and track-based corrections. The new internal geometry has been approved to be included in the forthcoming reprocessing of CRAFT samples. The alignment of DTs with respect to the tracker using global tracks has also improved significantly, since the algorithms use the latest B-field mapping, better run selection criteria, optimized momentum cuts, and an alignment is now obtained for all six degrees of freedom (three spatial coordinates and three rotations) of the aligned DTs. This work is ongoing and at a stage where we are trying to unders...

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    Since December, the muon alignment community has focused on analyzing the data recorded so far in order to produce new DT and CSC Alignment Records for the second reprocessing of CRAFT data. Two independent algorithms were developed which align the DT chambers using global tracks, thus providing, for the first time, a relative alignment of the barrel with respect to the tracker. These results are an important ingredient for the second CRAFT reprocessing and allow, for example, a more detailed study of any possible mis-modelling of the magnetic field in the muon spectrometer. Both algorithms are constructed in such a way that the resulting alignment constants are not affected, to first order, by any such mis-modelling. The CSC chambers have not yet been included in this global track-based alignment due to a lack of statistics, since only a few cosmics go through the tracker and the CSCs. A strategy exists to align the CSCs using the barrel as a reference until collision tracks become available. Aligning the ...

  14. SPEAR3 Construction Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCocq, Catherine; Banuelos, Cristobal; Fuss, Brian; Gaudreault, Francis; Gaydosh, Michael; Griffin, Levirt; Imfeld, Hans; McDougal, John; Perry, Michael; Rogers,; /SLAC

    2005-08-17

    An ambitious seven month shutdown of the existing SPEAR2 synchrotron radiation facility was successfully completed in March 2004 when the first synchrotron light was observed in the new SPEAR3 ring, SPEAR3 completely replaced SPEAR2 with new components aligned on a new highly-flat concrete floor. Devices such as magnets and vacuum chambers had to be fiducialized and later aligned on girder rafts that were then placed into the ring over pre-aligned support plates. Key to the success of aligning this new ring was to ensure that the new beam orbit matched the old SPEAR2 orbit so that existing experimental beamlines would not have to be reoriented. In this presentation a pictorial summary of the Alignment Engineering Group's surveying tasks for the construction of the SPEAR3 ring is provided. Details on the networking and analysis of various surveys throughout the project can be found in the accompanying paper.

  15. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

  16. Physics of Grain Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A

    2000-01-01

    Aligned grains provide one of the easiest ways to study magnetic fields in diffuse gas and molecular clouds. How reliable our conclusions about the inferred magnetic field depends critically on our understanding of the physics of grain alignment. Although grain alignment is a problem of half a century standing recent progress achieved in the field makes us believe that we are approaching the solution of this mystery. I review basic physical processes involved in grain alignment and show why mechanisms that were favored for decades do not look so promising right now. I also discuss why the radiative torque mechanism ignored for more than 20 years looks right now the most powerful means of grain alignment.

  17. Assessment of inflammatory factors and cardiac troponin T in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falaknazi Kianoosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis (HD patients suffer from chronic inflammations which make them at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to see if there is a significant association between inflammatory factors such as ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP as well as troponin T in patients on HD. We assessed these serum factors as well as other known cardiac risk factors in 53 patients on HD. The serum ferritin and CRP levels were measured by chemiluminescence′s immune assay while troponin T levels were measured by electrochemist luminescence immune assay. We found that serum concentrations of CRP and ferritin were not significantly higher in patients on HD with known cardiac risk factors (compared with the control group (p< 0.05. However, the serum troponin T levels in HD patients with cardiovascular risk factors were significantly higher than the control group. Our study suggests that elevated serum troponin T levels can play an important role as a predictor of cardiovascular disease in HD patients. Also, inflammatory factors such as CRP and ferritin may be influenced by chronic inflammation or nutritional status of these patients.

  18. A Case of Slow Coronary Flow Presented with Supraventricular Tachycardia and Troponin Positive Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akçakoyun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Slow coronary flow (SCF but normal epicardial coronary arteries phenomenon frequently have asymptomatic course, however, some reports have showed that this phenomenon may cause angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia and infarction. We described a patient presented with supraventricular tachycardia and Troponin elevation and whose coronary angiography’s had previously revealed slow flow in entire major epicardial coronary arteries.

  19. Serum cardiac troponin I in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol and TNF-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Christensen, Anders Fogh

    2004-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific marker of myocardial injury related to in-patient fatality and cardiac injury in acute stroke. We investigated whether cTnI in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol, acute inflammatory response, and insular damage. We also investigated whether c...

  20. Cardiac troponin I release and cytokine response during experimental human endotoxaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bockel, EAP; Tulleken, JE; Kobold, ACM; Ligtenberg, JJM; van der Werf, TS; Spanjersberg, R; Zijlstra, JG

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To study the relationship between cytokine levels and cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Design. Prospective experimental study. Setting. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Participants. Six healthy male volunteers. Interventions. Endotoxin, 4 ng/kg, was given as a 1-min intravenous in

  1. Prognostic significance of elevated troponin in non-cardiac hospitalized patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amna N; Blonde, Ken; Hackam, Daniel; Iansavichene, Alla; Mrkobrada, Marko

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac biomarker troponin can be elevated in patients without a primary cardiac diagnosis and may have prognostic value. We conducted a systematic review to estimate the prevalence and prognostic significance of elevated troponin levels in patients admitted to hospital without a primary cardiac diagnosis. Literature search was done using MEDLINE (1946 to November 2012), EMBASE (1974 to Week 45, 2012), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (November 2012). Two independent investigators reviewed full-text studies for final inclusion. We included studies of patients admitted without a primary cardiac diagnosis. Eligible studies compared adverse outcomes in patients with normal versus elevated troponin levels. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Elevated troponin was associated with increased in-hospital and 30-day mortality (25 studies, 7255 patients, OR 3.88, 95% CI 2.90-5.19, P troponin was also associated with increased risk of long-term mortality at 6 months (9 studies, 5368 patients, OR 4.21, 95% CI 1.84-9.64, P Troponin is an independent predictor of short-term mortality with a pooled adjusted OR of 2.36, 95% CI 1.47-3.76, P troponin in non-cardiac patients is independently associated with increased mortality.

  2. Value of detection of myocardial enzymes, troponin T, liver and renal function in children with severe pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Wang; Bin Wang; Lin Fu; Xue Ren

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the significance of myocardial enzymes, cardiac troponin T (Troponin T, cTnT), liver and renal function in children with severe pneumonia. Methods:A total of 164 children with pneumonia who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2014 to March, 2015 were included in the study and divided into the severe pneumonia group (n=82) and the common pneumonia group (n=82). The myocardial enzymes (AST,α-HBDH, LD, CK-MB), troponin T, and liver and renal function indicators (UCr, Alb, ALT) in the two groups were observed and compared. According to the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, the children with severe pneumonia were divided into the varying degrees of hypoxia groups, i.e. mild hypoxia group, moderate hypoxia group, and severe hypoxia group. The myocardial enzymes, troponin T, and liver and renal function in the three groups were compared. The correlation of partial pressure of blood oxygen with myocardial enzymes, troponin T, and liver and renal function was analyzed. Results:In the severe pneumonia group, the myocardial enzymes AST, LD, CK, HBDH, CK-MB was significantly higher than that in the ordinary pneumonia group;UCr, Alb ALT troponin T was significantly higher than that in the ordinary pneumonia group;With the increasing hypoxia degree, the levels of myocardial enzymes, troponin T, and liver and renal function indicators in the mild hypoxia group, moderate hypoxia group, and severe hypoxia group were elevated. In the severe pneumonia group, the partial pressure of blood oxygen was negatively correlated with myocardial enzymes, troponin T, and liver and renal function. Conclusions:Timely monitoring of the levels of myocardial enzymes, troponin T, and liver and renal function indicators in the clinic is extremely crucial to evaluate the progression in children with severe pneumonia.

  3. Algorithms for Automatic Alignment of Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Oliker, Leonid; Schreiber, Robert; Sheffler, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    Aggregate data objects (such as arrays) are distributed across the processor memories when compiling a data-parallel language for a distributed-memory machine. The mapping determines the amount of communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. A common approach is to break the mapping into two stages: an alignment that maps all the objects to an abstract template, followed by a distribution that maps the template to the processors. This paper describes algorithms for solving the various facets of the alignment problem: axis and stride alignment, static and mobile offset alignment, and replication labeling. We show that optimal axis and stride alignment is NP-complete for general program graphs, and give a heuristic method that can explore the space of possible solutions in a number of ways. We show that some of these strategies can give better solutions than a simple greedy approach proposed earlier. We also show how local graph contractions can reduce the size of the problem significantly without changing the best solution. This allows more complex and effective heuristics to be used. We show how to model the static offset alignment problem using linear programming, and we show that loop-dependent mobile offset alignment is sometimes necessary for optimum performance. We describe an algorithm with for determining mobile alignments for objects within do loops. We also identify situations in which replicated alignment is either required by the program itself or can be used to improve performance. We describe an algorithm based on network flow that replicates objects so as to minimize the total amount of broadcast communication in replication.

  4. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and troponin elevation in spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClendon, Jamal; Smith, Timothy R; Thompson, Sara E; Sugrue, Patrick A; Sauer, Andrew J; O'Shaughnessy, Brian A; Carabini, Louanne; Koski, Tyler R

    2014-07-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in high-risk surgical patients. However, their effect in spinal surgery has not been explored. Our objective was to determine the effect of RAS inhibitors on postoperative troponin elevation in spinal fusions, and to examine their correlation with hospital stay. We retrospectively analyzed 208 consecutive patients receiving spinal fusions ⩾5 levels between 2007-2010 with a mean follow-up of 1.7 years. Inclusion criteria were age ⩾18 years, elective fusions for kyphoscoliosis, and semi-elective fusions for tumor or infection. Exclusion criteria were trauma and follow-up troponin elevation (⩾0.04 ng/mL), peak troponin level, and hospital stay. The results featured 208 patients with a mean body mass index (BMI) 28.5 kg/m(2) who underwent 345 spinal fusions. ACEI/ARB were withheld the day prior to surgery in 121 patients with 11 patients noteworthy for intra-operative electrocardiogram changes, 126 patients with troponin elevation, and 14 MI identified prior to discharge. Multivariate logistic regression identified BMI (p=0.04), estimated blood loss (p=0.015), and preoperative ACEI/ARB (p=0.015, odds ratio=2.7) as significant independent predictors for postoperative troponin elevation. Multivariate linear regression showed preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (p=0.002), unplanned return to operating room (p=0.007), pneumonia prior to hospital discharge (ptroponin elevation and increased hospital stay.

  5. Characterization of troponin responses in isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury in the Hanover Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Malcolm; Scudamore, Cheryl; Brady, Sally; Chen, Christabelle; Wilson, Sharon; Curtis, Mark; Evans, Gareth; Griffiths, William; Whayman, Matthew; Williams, Thomas; Turton, John

    2007-06-01

    The investigations aimed to evaluate the usefulness of cardiac troponins as biomarkers of acute myocardial injury in the rat. Serum from female Hanover Wistar rats treated with a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of isoproterenol (ISO) was assayed for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) (ACS: 180SE, Bayer), cTnI (Immulite 2000, Diagnostic Products Corporation) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) (Elecsys 2010, Roche). In a time-course study (50.0 mg/kg ISO), serum cTnI (ACS:180SE) and cTnT increased above control levels at 1 hour postdosing, peaking at 2 hours (cTnI, 4.30 microg/L; cTnT, 1.79 microg/L), and declined to baseline by 48 hours, with histologic cardiac lesions first seen at 4 hours postdosing. The Immulite 2000 assay gave minimal cTnI signals, indicating poor immunoreactivity towards rat cTnI. In a dose-response study (0.25 to 20.0 mg/kg ISO), there was a trend for increasing cTnI (ACS:180SE) values with increasing ISO dose levels at 2 hours postdosing. By 24 hours, cTnI levels returned to baseline although chronic cardiac myodegeneration was present. We conclude that serum cTnI and cTnT levels are sensitive and specific biomarkers for detecting ISO induced myocardial injury in the rat. Serum troponin values reflect the development of histopathologic lesions; however peak troponin levels precede maximal lesion severity.

  6. High Sensitivity Troponin T as a Marker of Silent Myocardial Injury in Diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Datta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The new high sensitivity (hs troponin T is speci c biomarkers of myocardial necrosis. It has signi cant bene ts for early recognition of acute myocardial infarction. CK-MB in serum is an important marker in diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. Aim and objective: We aimed to analyse and compare the relationship between glycated haemoglobin levels and hs troponin T, CK-MB in chronic hyperglycaemic patients as a marker of silent micro infarcts. Method and materials: hs Troponin T and CK-MB levels were measured using ECLIA and glycated haemoglobin by using HPLC method by variant turbo II. We grouped 119 chronic diabetic aged 30 - 70yrs in three categories according to HbA1c level Group A 8 %. Diabetic patients with cardiovascular disorder, renal failure, sepsis, skeletal muscle disorder and acute cholecystitis were excluded. Results: There was a 4 fold increase in values of hsTrop T in group II while 9.4 fold for group III in comparison to group I. CK-MB was elevated by 2.7 fold in group II and 3.11 in group III in comparison to group I. Conclusion: The prevalence of detectable hs-cTnT was increased in diabetic population and found speci c than CK-MB to diagnose minimal myocardial cell injury. Troponin T levels can be used to detect early and minimal myocardial cell injury even in the presence of normal CK-MB. These data raise the possibility that hs Troponin T can be used as a predictor of minimal cardiac injury and micro infract in diabetic patients before symptoms manifest.

  7. Galaxy alignments: An overview

    CERN Document Server

    Joachimi, Benjamin; Kitching, Thomas D; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Hoekstra, Henk; Kiessling, Alina; Kirk, Donnacha; Rassat, Anais

    2015-01-01

    The alignments between galaxies, their underlying matter structures, and the cosmic web constitute vital ingredients for a comprehensive understanding of gravity, the nature of matter, and structure formation in the Universe. We provide an overview on the state of the art in the study of these alignment processes and their observational signatures, aimed at a non-specialist audience. The development of the field over the past one hundred years is briefly reviewed. We also discuss the impact of galaxy alignments on measurements of weak gravitational lensing, and discuss avenues for making theoretical and observational progress over the coming decade.

  8. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two......-dimensional shapes from a two-class recognition problem....

  9. Clinical implications of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin measurements in hospitalized medical patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Y Stein

    Full Text Available The increased use of high sensitivity cardiac troponins (hs-cTn, have made the diagnosis of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI challenging, especially in complex medical patients, in whom the clinical presentation of MI is nonspecific and multiple comorbidities as well as non-ischemic acute conditions may account for elevated hs-cTn levels. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of both elevated hs-cTn levels and dynamic changes in hospitalized patients.We conducted a retrospective study identifying all patients hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Division of Rabin Medical Center, Israel between January 2011 to December 2011, for whom at least one hs-cTn T (hs-cTnT measurement was obtained. Collected data included patient demographics, acute and chronic diagnosis, hs-cTnT and creatinine levels and date of death. Hs-cTnT levels were obtained in 5,696 admissions and was above the 99th percentile (> = 13 ng/L in 61.6% of the measurements. A relative change of 50% or higher was observed in 24% of the admissions. Among those with elevated hs-cTnT levels, acute coronary syndromes (ACS accounted for only 6.1% of acute diagnoses. Maximal hs-cTnT levels above 100 ng/L but not dynamic changes discriminated between ACS and non-ACS conditions (positive and negative predictive values of 12% and 96% respectively. The frequency of elevated hs-cTnT levels was age-dependent and over 75% of patients aged >70 years-old had levels above the 99th percentile. Multivariate analysis identified hs-cTnT levels higher than the 99th percentile, as an independent, strong predictor for 30-day mortality (OR 4.58 [2.8, 7.49], p<0.0001.Elevated hs-cTnT levels together with dynamic changes are frequent findings among hospitalized patients and in most cases, are not related to the ACS diagnosis. These findings highlight the diagnostic challenge of ACS in this complex population. Further studies are needed in order to optimize the use of hs-cTnT measurements

  10. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  11. Peri-operative troponin monitoring using a prototype high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay: comparisons with hs-cTnT and contemporary cTnI assays.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Graham R

    2013-09-18

    Non-cardiac surgery is associated with major vascular complications and higher incidences of elevated plasma troponin (cTn) concentration. Goal-directed therapy (GDT) is a stroke volume (SV)-guided approach to intravenous (IV) fluid therapy that improves tissue perfusion, oxygenation and reduces post-operative complications. In patients undergoing major gastro-intestinal surgery, we compared high sensitive and contemporary troponin assays and correlated results with patient outcome.

  12. Aligning parallel arrays to reduce communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffler, Thomas J.; Schreiber, Robert; Gilbert, John R.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha

    1994-01-01

    Axis and stride alignment is an important optimization in compiling data-parallel programs for distributed-memory machines. We previously developed an optimal algorithm for aligning array expressions. Here, we examine alignment for more general program graphs. We show that optimal alignment is NP-complete in this setting, so we study heuristic methods. This paper makes two contributions. First, we show how local graph transformations can reduce the size of the problem significantly without changing the best solution. This allows more complex and effective heuristics to be used. Second, we give a heuristic that can explore the space of possible solutions in a number of ways. We show that some of these strategies can give better solutions than a simple greedy approach proposed earlier. Our algorithms have been implemented; we present experimental results showing their effect on the performance of some example programs running on the CM-5.

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2012-01-01

      A new muon alignment has been produced for 2012 A+B data reconstruction. It uses the latest Tracker alignment and single-muon data samples to align both DTs and CSCs. Physics validation has been performed and shows a modest improvement in stand-alone muon momentum resolution in the barrel, where the alignment is essentially unchanged from the previous version. The reference-target track-based algorithm using only collision muons is employed for the first time to align the CSCs, and a substantial improvement in resolution is observed in the endcap and overlap regions for stand-alone muons. This new alignment is undergoing the approval process and is expected to be deployed as part of a new global tag in the beginning of December. The pT dependence of the φ-bias in curvature observed in Monte Carlo was traced to a relative vertical misalignment between the Tracker and barrel muon systems. Moving the barrel as a whole to match the Tracker cures this pT dependence, leaving only the &phi...

  14. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Szillasi

    2013-01-01

    The CMS detector has been gradually opened and whenever a wheel became exposed the first operation was the removal of the MABs, the sensor structures of the Hardware Barrel Alignment System. By the last days of June all 36 MABs have arrived at the Alignment Lab at the ISR where, as part of the Alignment Upgrade Project, they are refurbished with new Survey target holders. Their electronic checkout is on the way and finally they will be recalibrated. During LS1 the alignment system will be upgraded in order to allow more precise reconstruction of the MB4 chambers in Sector 10 and Sector 4. This requires new sensor components, so called MiniMABs (pictured below), that have already been assembled and calibrated. Image 6: Calibrated MiniMABs are ready for installation For the track-based alignment, the systematic uncertainties of the algorithm are under scrutiny: this study will enable the production of an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and to update alignment position errors eventually, crucial...

  15. Significance of serum troponin T and Creactive protein in the long-term prognosis of hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛永辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term prognostic factors and the significance of serum cardiac troponin T(cTnT) and C-reactive protein(CRP) in maintenance hemodialysis(MHD) patients.Methods Clinical data of

  16. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  17. The Role of Bedside Troponin T Test for Identification of High Risk Patients With Acute Chest Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo xiaobi; Feng Jianzhan; Guo Hengshan

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Evaluation of patients with acute chest pain when they admitted is time-consuming. We prospectively investigated the role of bedside troponin T test for predicting the risk of death and acute heart failure of patients with acute chest pain. Methods and Results 502 consecutive patients with chest pain for less than 24 hours were determined by troponin T test at bedside and quantitative troponin I test in lab. For bedside troponin T tests, there were 160 patients in positive and 323 in negative. During 30 days of followed-up. Myocardial infarction evolved in 139 patients among 160 patients in positive troponin T test, only 7 patients in negative one. Acute heart failure occurred in 51 patients among the positive group, but 37 occurred it at negative group.The odds ratio of acute heart failure of positive group vs.negative group was 3.6. Patients died 39 in positive group, 15 in negative group, the all-cause death odds ratio of positive group vs. negative group was 6.7; 31patients died with cardiac event in positive group, 5 in negative group only. Conclusions Bedside Troponin T test is a powerful and independent predictor of death and acute heart failure for patients with acute chest pain.

  18. Monitoring the structural behavior of troponin and myoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration during twitch of frog skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Naoto

    2010-07-07

    The interaction of troponin molecules on the thin filament with Ca(2+) plays a key role in regulating muscle contraction. To characterize the structural changes of troponin caused by Ca(2+) and crossbridge formation, we recorded the small-angle x-ray intensity and the myoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration using fluo-3 AM in the same frog skeletal muscle during twitch elicited by a single electrical pulse at 16 degrees C. In an overstretched muscle, the intensity of the meridional reflection from troponin at 1/38.5 nm(-1) began to change at 4 ms after the stimulus, reached a peak at 10 ms, and returned to the resting level with a halftime of 25 ms. The concentration of troponin-bound Ca(2+) began to increase at 1-2 ms after the stimulus, reached a peak at 5 ms, and returned to the resting level with a halftime of 40 ms, indicating that troponin begins to change conformation only after a sizable amount of Ca(2+) has bound to it, and returns to the resting structure even when there is still some bound Ca(2+). In a muscle with a filament overlap, crossbridge formation appears to slow down Ca(2+) release from troponin and have a large effect on its conformation.

  19. MaxAlign: maximizing usable data in an alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Sackett, Peter Wad; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of gaps in an alignment of nucleotide or protein sequences is often an inconvenience for bioinformatical studies. In phylogenetic and other analyses, for instance, gapped columns are often discarded entirely from the alignment. RESULTS: MaxAlign is a program that optimizes...... the alignment prior to such analyses. Specifically, it maximizes the number of nucleotide (or amino acid) symbols that are present in gap-free columns - the alignment area - by selecting the optimal subset of sequences to exclude from the alignment. MaxAlign can be used prior to phylogenetic and bioinformatical...... analyses as well as in other situations where this form of alignment improvement is useful. In this work we test MaxAlign's performance in these tasks and compare the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates including and excluding gapped columns from the analysis, with and without processing with MaxAlign...

  20. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    A new Muon misalignment scenario for 2011 (7 TeV) Monte Carlo re-processing was re-leased. The scenario is based on running of standard track-based reference-target algorithm (exactly as in data) using single-muon simulated sample (with the transverse-momentum spectrum matching data). It used statistics similar to what was used for alignment with 2011 data, starting from an initially misaligned Muon geometry from uncertainties of hardware measurements and using the latest Tracker misalignment geometry. Validation of the scenario (with muons from Z decay and high-pT simulated muons) shows that it describes data well. The study of systematic uncertainties (dominant by now due to huge amount of data collected by CMS and used for muon alignment) is finalised. Realistic alignment position errors are being obtained from the estimated uncertainties and are expected to improve the muon reconstruction performance. Concerning the Hardware Alignment System, the upgrade of the Barrel Alignment is in progress. By now, d...

  1. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2010-01-01

    For the last three months, the Muon Alignment group has focussed on providing a new, improved set of alignment constants for the end-of-year data reprocessing. These constants were delivered on time and approved by the CMS physics validation team on November 17. The new alignment incorporates several improvements over the previous one from March for nearly all sub-systems. Motivated by the loss of information from a hardware failure in May (an entire MAB was lost), the optical barrel alignment has moved from a modular, super-plane reconstruction, to a full, single loop calculation of the entire geometry for all DTs in stations 1, 2 and 3. This makes better use of the system redundancy, mitigating the effect of the information loss. Station 4 is factorised and added afterwards to make the system smaller (and therefore faster to run), and also because the MAB calibration at the MB4 zone is less precise. This new alignment procedure was tested at 0 T against photogrammetry resulting in precisions of the order...

  2. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    2012-01-01

      The new alignment for the DT chambers has been successfully used in physics analysis starting with the 52X Global Tag. The remaining main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based CSC alignment and producing realistic APEs (alignment position errors) and MC misalignment scenarios to match the latest muon alignment constants. Work on these items has been delayed from the intended timeline, mostly due to a large involvement of the muon alignment man-power in physics analyses over the first half of this year. As CMS keeps probing higher and higher energies, special attention must be paid to the reconstruction of very-high-energy muons. Recent muon POG reports from mid-June show a φ-dependence in curvature bias in Monte Carlo samples. This bias is observed already at the tracker level, where it is constant with muon pT, while it grows with pT as muon chamber information is added to the tracks. Similar studies show a much smaller effect in data, at le...

  3. Ergodic Secret Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Bassily, Raef

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce two new achievable schemes for the fading multiple access wiretap channel (MAC-WT). In the model that we consider, we assume that perfect knowledge of the state of all channels is available at all the nodes in a causal fashion. Our schemes use this knowledge together with the time varying nature of the channel model to align the interference from different users at the eavesdropper perfectly in a one-dimensional space while creating a higher dimensionality space for the interfering signals at the legitimate receiver hence allowing for better chance of recovery. While we achieve this alignment through signal scaling at the transmitters in our first scheme (scaling based alignment (SBA)), we let nature provide this alignment through the ergodicity of the channel coefficients in the second scheme (ergodic secret alignment (ESA)). For each scheme, we obtain the resulting achievable secrecy rate region. We show that the secrecy rates achieved by both schemes scale with SNR as 1/2log(SNR...

  4. Clinical value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays after acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-rui CAO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In view of a variety of cardiovascular events complicated by acute ischemic stroke, the importance of monitoring myocardial ischemic symptoms and signs, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and myocardial injury markers has been gradually recognized by clinicians. Cardiac troponin (cTn by conventional assay has been a unique marker of myocardial injury for its extremely high specificity. However, with the utilization of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn, cTn is no longer exclusive of a disease, but was given more significance in the diagnosis and application value. Therefore, we described the clinical significance of alterations of serum hs-cTn concentration after ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.11.015

  5. ESTIMATION OF HIGHLY SENSITIVE TROPONIN TESTS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kremneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Review is devoted to the value of the use of highly sensitive troponin (hs-cTn tests in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The classification of the Tn-tests depending on their sensitivity is presented. The possible reasons of troponins appearance in blood of healthy people are shown. Authors consider a 3-hour algorithm for myocardial infarction (MI diagnostic, recommended by the expert group in 2012. Study results of 2011-2015 years are presented as the basis for the development of a one-hour MI diagnostic algorithm, recommended by the European Society of Cardiology in 2015. Authors discuss the results of studies showing that modern HS-cTnt tests (together with ECG assessment are capable to diagnose MI in the early stages. They significantly increase the number of identified MI, especially MI without ST segment elevation, as well as identify the group of patients with subsequent favorable prognosis.

  6. The diagnostic utility of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T in acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated highly significant absolute and relative kinetic changes in hs-TnT levels in patients with AMI. The hs-TnT can be used for early rule in patients with MI as it could detect 97% of cases with MI whose Troponin I was negative and could detect 100% of cases of MI after 6–8 h compared to Troponin I which could detect only 21.2% of cases. This can be of great importance in the future introduction and use of the new high sensitive assay as a non-invasive reliable diagnostic tool to replace the currently used invasive diagnostic techniques for patients with ACS.

  7. Association between high-sensitive troponin I and coronary artery calcification in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik; Engborg, Jonathan; Grønhøj, Mette H.;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population....... METHODS: 1173 randomized, middle-aged subjects without known CVD underwent a non-contrast cardiac-CT scan for CAC determination. Hs-TnI was detected using ARCHITECT STAT High Sensitive Troponin-I immunoassay. Total 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk was estimated using HeartScore. The relationship...... between hs-TnI and CAC was assessed using logistic regression analyses and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC). RESULTS: Concentrations of hs-TnI above the limit of detection were measured in 89.3% of all subjects. Presence of CAC (Agatston score >0) was detected in 29% in the lowest hs...

  8. Association between Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Troponin in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Minuzzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western world and its treatment should be optimized to decrease severe adverse events. Objective: To determine the effect of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on cardiac troponin I measurement in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and evaluate clinical outcomes at 180 days. Methods: Prospective, observational study, carried out in a tertiary center, in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. Clinical, electrocardiographic and laboratory variables were analyzed, with emphasis on previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and cardiac troponin I. The Pearson chi-square tests (Pereira or Fisher's exact test (Armitage were used, as well as the non-parametric Mann-Whitney's test. Variables with significance levels of 0.5 ng / mL were high blood glucose at admission (p = 0.0034 and ST-segment depression ≥ 0.5 mm in one or more leads (p = 0.0016. The use of angiotensin-converting inhibitors prior to hospitalization was associated with troponin ≤ 0.5 ng / mL (p = 0.0482. The C-statistics for this model was 0.77. Conclusion: This study showed a correlation between prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and reduction in the myocardial necrosis marker troponin I in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. However, there are no data available yet to state that this reduction could lead to fewer severe clinical events such as death and re-infarction at 180 days.

  9. Titin and Troponin: Central Players in the Frank-Starling Mechanism of the Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Norio; Terui, Takako; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Ishiwata, Shin’ichi; Kurihara, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    The basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart is the intrinsic ability of cardiac muscle to produce greater active force in response to stretch, a phenomenon known as length-dependent activation. A feedback mechanism transmitted from cross-bridge formation to troponin C to enhance Ca2+ binding has long been proposed to account for length-dependent activation. However, recent advances in muscle physiology research technologies have enabled the identification of other factors involved ...

  10. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  11. Graphene-gated biochip for the detection of cardiac marker Troponin I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuteja, Satish K. [CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39-A, Chandigarh 160036 (India); CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39-A, Chandigarh 160036 (India); Priyanka,; Bhalla, Vijayender [CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39-A, Chandigarh 160036 (India); Deep, Akash; Paul, A.K. [AcSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Sector 30-C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Suri, C. Raman, E-mail: raman@imtech.res.in [CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39-A, Chandigarh 160036 (India)

    2014-01-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •One step lithium ion intercalation mediated exfoliation process for preparing monolithic graphene sheets. •A micro-device in the drain-source configuration using gold electrodes on a silicon chip. •The label free detection of cardiac biomarker, Troponin I. •Detection limit <0.1 pg mL{sup −1} for Troponin I. -- Abstract: We report lithium ion intercalation mediated efficient exfoliation of graphite to form monolithic graphene sheets which have subsequently been investigated for the development of highly sensitive label-free electrochemical detection platform for cardiac biomarker, Troponin I (cTnI). The spectroscopic and morphological analysis demonstrated the formation of defect free graphene sheets which were successfully employed to fabricate an inter-digited microdevice in a drain-source configuration on a silicon biochip. The graphene gated biochip functionalized with anti-cTnI antibodies used in label free detection of cTnI which exhibited an excellent sensitivity in the picogram range (∼1 pg mL{sup −1}) for cTnI without the use of any enzymatic amplification that promises its potential applicability for bio-molecular detection in clinical diagnosis.

  12. 重组Troponin I分离纯化工艺的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕永智; 程文超

    2008-01-01

    @@ 美国波士顿儿童医院科学家在研究抗癌新方法及寻找新血管生长抑制剂的过程中,从无血管且具有抗癌作用的软骨提取物巾分离纯化到Troponin I,并证明Troponin I能够抑制血管内皮细胞生长和血管形成,阻断新血管生长及抑制实体瘤的生长与转移,其生物活性比目前已进入临床试验的所有的同类血管形成抑制剂包括endostatin和angiostatin要强10~100倍,是一种极具研究和开发价值的新型抗肿瘤药物.我们在构建重组表达质粒pET22b(+)-Tn I的基础上,拟建立了Troponin I的纯化工艺方案,这为明确它的临床药理学性质及开发出其临床药用价值奠定了基础.

  13. Strategic Alignment of Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Cederberg, Niclas

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about the concept of strategic alignment of business intelligence. It is based on a theoretical foundation that is used to define and explain business intelligence, data warehousing and strategic alignment. By combining a number of different methods for strategic alignment a framework for alignment of business intelligence is suggested. This framework addresses all different aspects of business intelligence identified as relevant for strategic alignment of business intelligence...

  14. Orientation and Alignment Echoes

    CERN Document Server

    Karras, G; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Hartmann, J -M; Faucher, O; Gershnabel, E; Prior, Y; Averbukh, I Sh

    2015-01-01

    We present what is probably the simplest classical system featuring the echo phenomenon - a collection of randomly oriented free rotors with dispersed rotational velocities. Following excitation by a pair of time-delayed impulsive kicks, the mean orientation/alignment of the ensemble exhibits multiple echoes and fractional echoes. We elucidate the mechanism of the echo formation by kick-induced filamentation of phase space, and provide the first experimental demonstration of classical alignment echoes in a thermal gas of CO_2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

  15. Group Based Interference Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yanjun; Chen, Rui; Yao, Junliang

    2010-01-01

    in $K$-user single-input single-output (SISO) frequency selective fading interference channels, it is shown that the achievable multiplexing gain is almost surely $K/2$ by using interference alignment (IA). However when the signaling dimensions is limited, allocating all the resource to all the users simultaneously is not optimal. According to this problem, a group based interference alignment (GIA) scheme is proposed and a search algorithm is designed to get the group patterns and the resource allocation among them. Analysis results show that our proposed scheme achieves a higher multiplexing gain when the resource is limited.

  16. PILOT optical alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longval, Y.; Mot, B.; Ade, P.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Baustista, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bray, N.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousquet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Charra, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Crane, B.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J.-P.; Engel, C.; Etcheto, P.; Gélot, P.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P..; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Lepennec, Y.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Martignac, J.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Mirc, F.; Misawa, R.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Narbonne, J.; Nicot, J.-M.; Pajot, F.; Parot, G.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tapie, P.; Tauber, J.; Torre, J.-P.; Tucker, C.

    2016-07-01

    PILOT is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the polarization of dust emission in the diffuse interstellar medium in our Galaxy at wavelengths 240 μm with an angular resolution about two arcminutes. Pilot optics is composed an off-axis Gregorian type telescope and a refractive re-imager system. All optical elements, except the primary mirror, are in a cryostat cooled to 3K. We combined the optical, 3D dimensional measurement methods and thermo-elastic modeling to perform the optical alignment. The talk describes the system analysis, the alignment procedure, and finally the performances obtained during the first flight in September 2015.

  17. Artificial antibodies for troponin T by its imprinting on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: its use as sensory surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Felismina T C; Dutra, Rosa A F; Noronha, João P C; Cunha, Alexandre L; Sales, M Goreti F

    2011-10-15

    A novel artificial antibody for troponin T (TnT) was synthesized by molecular imprint (MI) on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). This was done by attaching TnT to the MWCNT surface, and filling the vacant spaces by polymerizing under mild conditions acrylamide (monomer) in N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (cross-linker) and ammonium persulphate (initiator). After removing the template, the obtained biomaterial was able to rebind TnT and discriminate it among other interfering species. Stereochemical recognition of TnT was confirmed by the non-rebinding ability displayed by non-imprinted (NI) materials, obtained by imprinting without a template. SEM and FTIR analysis confirmed the surface modification of the MWCNT. The ability of this biomaterial to rebind TnT was confirmed by including it as electroactive compound in a PVC/plasticizer mixture coating a wire of silver, gold or titanium. Anionic slopes of 50 mV decade(-1) were obtained for the gold wire coated with MI-based membranes dipped in HEPES buffer of pH 7. The limit of detection was 0.16 μg mL(-1). Neither the NI-MWCNT nor the MWCNT showed the ability to recognize the template. Good selectivity was observed against creatinine, sucrose, fructose, myoglobin, sodium glutamate, thiamine and urea. The sensor was tested successfully on serum samples. It is expected that this work opens new horizons on the design of new artificial antibodies for complex protein structures.

  18. Comparative studies on troponin, a Ca²⁺-dependent regulator of muscle contraction, in striated and smooth muscles of protochordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Takashi; Sato, Naruki

    2012-01-01

    Troponin is well known as a Ca(2+)-dependent regulator of striated muscle contraction and it has been generally accepted that troponin functions as an inhibitor of muscle contraction or actin-myosin interaction at low Ca(2+) concentrations, and Ca(2+) at higher concentrations removes the inhibitory action of troponin. Recently, however, troponin became detectable in non-striated muscles of several invertebrates and in addition, unique troponin that functions as a Ca(2+)-dependent activator of muscle contraction has been detected in protochordate animals, although troponin in vertebrate striated muscle is known as an inhibitor of the contraction in the absence of a Ca(2+). Further studies on troponin in invertebrate muscle, especially in non-striated muscle, would provide new insight into the evolution of regulatory systems for muscle contraction and diverse function of troponin and related proteins. The methodology used for preparation and characterization of functional properties of protochordate striated and smooth muscles will be helpful for further studies of troponin in other invertebrate animals.

  19. Aligning Theory with Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a structure to help preservice teachers get invaluable field experience by aligning theory with practice supported by the integration of elementary school children into their university mathematics methodology course. This course structure allowed preservice teachers to learn about teaching mathematics in a nonthreatening…

  20. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and Y. Pakhotin

    2012-01-01

      A new track-based alignment for the DT chambers is ready for deployment: an offline tag has already been produced which will become part of the 52X Global Tag. This alignment was validated within the muon alignment group both at low and high momentum using a W/Z skim sample. It shows an improved mass resolution for pairs of stand-alone muons, improved curvature resolution at high momentum, and improved DT segment extrapolation residuals. The validation workflow for high-momentum muons used to depend solely on the “split cosmics” method, looking at the curvature difference between muon tracks reconstructed in the upper or lower half of CMS. The validation has now been extended to include energetic muons decaying from heavily boosted Zs: the di-muon invariant mass for global and stand-alone muons is reconstructed, and the invariant mass resolution is compared for different alignments. The main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based C...

  1. Alignment of concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn;

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of patient-centered eHealth systems introduces new challenges, where patients come to play an increasingly important role. Realizing the promises requires an in-depth understanding of not only the technology, but also the needs of both clinicians and patients. However, insights from...... as a design rationale for successful eHealth, termed 'alignment of concerns'....

  2. Aligning Mental Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a framework that implements asymmetric communication theory proposed by Sperber and Wilson [1]. The framework applies a generalization model known as the Bayesian model of generalization (BMG) [2] for aligning knowledge possessed by two communicating parties. The work focuses...

  3. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-08-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-11-01

    Bioinformatics database is growing exponentially in size. Processing these large amount of data may take hours of time even if super computers are used. One of the most important processing tool in Bioinformatics is sequence alignment. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called \\'Alignment By Scanning\\' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the \\'GAP\\' (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 51% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the GAP Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Elements of Cellular Blind Interference Alignment --- Aligned Frequency Reuse, Wireless Index Coding and Interference Diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Jafar, Syed A

    2012-01-01

    We explore degrees of freedom (DoF) characterizations of partially connected wireless networks, especially cellular networks, with no channel state information at the transmitters. Specifically, we introduce three fundamental elements --- aligned frequency reuse, wireless index coding and interference diversity --- through a series of examples, focusing first on infinite regular arrays, then on finite clusters with arbitrary connectivity and message sets, and finally on heterogeneous settings with asymmetric multiple antenna configurations. Aligned frequency reuse refers to the optimality of orthogonal resource allocations in many cases, but according to unconventional reuse patterns that are guided by interference alignment principles. Wireless index coding highlights both the intimate connection between the index coding problem and cellular blind interference alignment, as well as the added complexity inherent to wireless settings. Interference diversity refers to the observation that in a wireless network ...

  6. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success

  7. Self-Aligned Interdigitated Transducers for Acoustofluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The surface acoustic wave (SAW is effective for the manipulation of fluids and particles at microscale. The current approach of integrating interdigitated transducers (IDTs for SAW generation into microfluidic channels involves complex and laborious microfabrication steps. These steps often require full access to clean room facilities and hours to align the transducers to the precise location. This work presents an affordable and innovative method for fabricating SAW-based microfluidic devices without the need for clean room facilities and alignment. The IDTs and microfluidic channels are fabricated using the same process and thus are precisely self-aligned in accordance with the device design. With the use of the developed fabrication approach, a few types of different SAW-based microfluidic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated for particle separation and active droplet generation.

  8. Atrial fibrillation associated with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism, changing axis deviation, troponin-I positive and without acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2011-08-04

    Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis deviation has been also rarely reported during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation or at the end of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with coronary heart disease or mortality from cardiovascular causes but it is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. It has also been reported that increased factor X activity in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism represents a potential hypercoagulable state. Serum troponin-I is a sensitive indicator of myocardial damage but abnormal troponin-I levels have been also reported without acute coronary syndrome and without cardiac damage. Abnormal troponin-I levels after supraventricular tachycardia have been also reported. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 49-year-old Italian man with atrial fibrillation, exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and troponin-I positive without acute coronary syndrome. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis deviation, on subclinical hyperthyroidism and on the importance of a correct evaluation of abnormal troponin-I levels.

  9. Formatt: Correcting protein multiple structural alignments by incorporating sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniels Noah M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of multiple protein structure alignments are usually computed and assessed based on geometric functions of the coordinates of the backbone atoms from the protein chains. These purely geometric methods do not utilize directly protein sequence similarity, and in fact, determining the proper way to incorporate sequence similarity measures into the construction and assessment of protein multiple structure alignments has proved surprisingly difficult. Results We present Formatt, a multiple structure alignment based on the Matt purely geometric multiple structure alignment program, that also takes into account sequence similarity when constructing alignments. We show that Formatt outperforms Matt and other popular structure alignment programs on the popular HOMSTRAD benchmark. For the SABMark twilight zone benchmark set that captures more remote homology, Formatt and Matt outperform other programs; depending on choice of embedded sequence aligner, Formatt produces either better sequence and structural alignments with a smaller core size than Matt, or similarly sized alignments with better sequence similarity, for a small cost in average RMSD. Conclusions Considering sequence information as well as purely geometric information seems to improve quality of multiple structure alignments, though defining what constitutes the best alignment when sequence and structural measures would suggest different alignments remains a difficult open question.

  10. Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Troponin T%家族性肥厚型心肌病与肌钙蛋白T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐潮; 宋怀东

    2009-01-01

    家族性肥厚型心肌病(familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,FHCM)是一种常染色体显性遗传病,是由编码心肌蛋白的基因突变引起,目前已识别出至少13个不同致病基因的200余种突变.目前,阐明FHCM的分子遗传学机制已经成为当前研究的热点之一.肌钙蛋白T通过与原肌凝蛋白结合,在将肌钙蛋白复合体锚钉到细肌丝上起重要作用.肌钙蛋白T(cardiac troponin T,TNNT2)基因突变是导致家族性肥厚型心肌病的主要原因,至今已经发现了大约30个突变,约占所有突变的15%~20%.肌钙蛋白T基因突变所致FHCM有两个主要特征:①心肌肥厚程度较轻,疾病外显率差别较大;②猝死率高.目前所发现的致FHCM突变,主要集中在肌钙蛋白T的T1和T2结构域.对肌钙蛋白T突变致FHCM分子机制的研究将有助于肥厚型心肌病的基因诊断和临床治疗.%Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM) is an autosomal dominant disorder.More than 200 mutations for thirteen genes are ilnvolved in FHCM,which result from all encoding components of the contractile apparatus of the cardiac myocyte.Troponin T (TnT) is one of the three subunits that form troponin complex which is responsible for the regulation of striated muscle contraction together with tropomyosin.In fact,the TNNT2 gene is the third most common gene responsible for familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,accounting for approximately 15%~20% of all cases.The mutations in cardiac tmponin T gene appear to be associated with incomplete penetrance and poor prognosis of the family hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.TNNT2 mutations are clustered in its two domains.The study on the molecular mechanism for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by TnT can lead to improved genetic counseling and better clinical management in families with HCM.

  11. Inflation by alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.P. [PH -TH Division, CERN,CH-1211, Genève 23 (Switzerland); Department of Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University,1280 Main Street West, Hamilton ON (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo ON (Canada); Roest, Diederik [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-06-08

    Pseudo-Goldstone bosons (pGBs) can provide technically natural inflatons, as has been comparatively well-explored in the simplest axion examples. Although inflationary success requires trans-Planckian decay constants, f≳M{sub p}, several mechanisms have been proposed to obtain this, relying on (mis-)alignments between potential and kinetic energies in multiple-field models. We extend these mechanisms to a broader class of inflationary models, including in particular the exponential potentials that arise for pGB potentials based on noncompact groups (and so which might apply to moduli in an extra-dimensional setting). The resulting potentials provide natural large-field inflationary models and can predict a larger primordial tensor signal than is true for simpler single-field versions of these models. In so doing we provide a unified treatment of several alignment mechanisms, showing how each emerges as a limit of the more general setup.

  12. AlignNemo: a local network alignment method to integrate homology and topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, Giovanni; Mina, Marco; Guzzi, Pietro H; Cannataro, Mario; Guerra, Concettina

    2012-01-01

    Local network alignment is an important component of the analysis of protein-protein interaction networks that may lead to the identification of evolutionary related complexes. We present AlignNemo, a new algorithm that, given the networks of two organisms, uncovers subnetworks of proteins that relate in biological function and topology of interactions. The discovered conserved subnetworks have a general topology and need not to correspond to specific interaction patterns, so that they more closely fit the models of functional complexes proposed in the literature. The algorithm is able to handle sparse interaction data with an expansion process that at each step explores the local topology of the networks beyond the proteins directly interacting with the current solution. To assess the performance of AlignNemo, we ran a series of benchmarks using statistical measures as well as biological knowledge. Based on reference datasets of protein complexes, AlignNemo shows better performance than other methods in terms of both precision and recall. We show our solutions to be biologically sound using the concept of semantic similarity applied to Gene Ontology vocabularies. The binaries of AlignNemo and supplementary details about the algorithms and the experiments are available at: sourceforge.net/p/alignnemo.

  13. Alignment of concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn;

    E-health promises to enable and support active patient participation in chronic care. However, these fairly recent innovations are complicated matters and emphasize significant challenges, such as patients’ and clinicians’ different ways of conceptualizing disease and illness. Informed by insight...... from medical phenomenology and our own empirical work in telemonitoring and medical care of heart patients, we propose a design rationale for e-health systems conceptualized as the ‘alignment of concerns’....

  14. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  15. Orbit IMU alignment: Error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive accuracy analysis of orbit inertial measurement unit (IMU) alignments using the shuttle star trackers was completed and the results are presented. Monte Carlo techniques were used in a computer simulation of the IMU alignment hardware and software systems to: (1) determine the expected Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) manual mode IMU alignment accuracy; (2) investigate the accuracy of alignments in later shuttle flights when the automatic mode of star acquisition may be used; and (3) verify that an analytical model previously used for estimating the alignment error is a valid model. The analysis results do not differ significantly from expectations. The standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 alignments was determined to the 68 arc seconds per axis. This corresponds to a 99.7% probability that the magnitude of the total alignment error is less than 258 arc seconds.

  16. Seeking the perfect alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first full-scale tests of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are about to begin in Prévessin. The set-up includes several layers of Monitored Drift Tubes Chambers (MDTs) and will allow tests of the performance of the detectors and of their highly accurate alignment system.   Monitored Drift Chambers in Building 887 in Prévessin, where they are just about to be tested. Muon chambers are keeping the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer team quite busy this summer. Now that most people go on holiday, the beam and alignment tests for these chambers are just starting. These chambers will measure with high accuracy the momentum of high-energy muons, and this implies very demanding requirements for their alignment. The MDT chambers consist of drift tubes, which are gas-filled metal tubes, 3 cm in diameter, with wires running down their axes. With high voltage between the wire and the tube wall, the ionisation due to traversing muons is detected as electrical pulses. With careful timing of the pulses, the position of the muon t...

  17. RECAT - Redundant Channel Alignment Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NUWC2015 14. ABSTRACT A problem in the analog-to- digital , (A/D), conversion of broadband tape recorded...Alignment Technique, is used to align data taken on one pass with data from any other pass. The accuracy of this alignment is a function of the digital ...Redundant Channel Alignment Technique; analog-to- digital ; A/D; Broadband Bearing Time Processing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  18. Method for alignment of microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardslee, Joseph A.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Sadtler, Bryce

    2017-01-24

    A method of aligning microwires includes modifying the microwires so they are more responsive to a magnetic field. The method also includes using a magnetic field so as to magnetically align the microwires. The method can further include capturing the microwires in a solid support structure that retains the longitudinal alignment of the microwires when the magnetic field is not applied to the microwires.

  19. Calcium binding to the low affinity sites in troponin C induces conformational changes in the high affinity domain. A possible route of information transfer in activation of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarek, Z; Leavis, P C; Gergely, J

    1986-01-15

    Residues 89-100 of troponin C (C89-100) and 96-116 of troponin I (I96-116) interact with each other in the troponin complex (Dalgarno, D.C., Grand, R.J.A., Levine, B.A. Moir, A., J.G., Scott, G.M.M., and Perry, S.V. (1982) FEBS Lett. 150, 54-58) and are necessary for the Ca2+ sensitivity of actomyosin ATPase (Syska, H., Wilkinson, J.M., Grand, R.J.A., and Perry, S.V. (1976) Biochem. J. 153, 375-387 and Grabarek, Z., Drabikowski, W., Leavis, P.C., Rosenfeld, S.S., and Gergely, J. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 13121-13127). We have studied Ca2+-induced changes in the region C89-100 by monitoring the fluorescence of troponin C (TnC) labeled at Cys-98 with 5-(iodoacetamidoethyl)aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid. Equilibrium titration of the labeled TnC with Ca2+ indicates that the probe is sensitive to binding to both classes of sites in free TnC as well as in its complex with TnI. When Mg2 X TnC is mixed with Ca2+ in a stopped flow apparatus, there is a rapid fluorescence increase related to Ca2+ binding to the unoccupied sites I and II followed by a slower increase (k = 9.9 s-1) that represents Mg2+-Ca2+ exchange at sites III and IV. In the TnC X TnI complex, the fast phase is much larger and the Mg2+-Ca2+ exchange at sites III and IV results in a small decrease rather than an increase in the fluorescence of the probe. The possibility is discussed that the fast change in the environment of Cys-98 upon Ca2+ binding to sites I and II may be instrumental in triggering activation of the thin filament by facilitating a contact between C89-100 and I96-116.

  20. RELEASE OF SERUM TROPONIN I AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO MULTIFACTORS FOLLOWING OPEN HEART SURGERY IN CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Ji-ming; SHI Zhen-ying; ZHOU Yan-ping; CHEN Lin; SU Zhao-kang; YANG Yan-min

    2005-01-01

    Objective To be released specifically after myocardial damage. The goal of this study was to measure serum cardiac troponin I levels after open heart surgery in children, and to evaluate relevance between TnTi and perioperative multi-factors. Methods Fifty-seven consecutive pediatric patients undergoing elective correction of congenital heart diseases were divided into group A (TOF, n=31) and group B (VSD, n=26). Blood samples were drawn preoperatively, 5min(T0), 6h(T6), 12h(T12), 24h(T24), 48h(T48), 72h(T72) after removal of aortic cross clamping. Myocardial protection consisted of moderate systemic hypothermia (30℃~ 32℃), cold crystalloid cardioplegia and topical cooling. Demographic information, cardiac defect, repair procedure, duration of bypass (CPBT), cross-clamping time (CCT), clinical score for cardiac function, electrocardiographic changes and outcomes were recorded. Results Compared with the baseline value, serum concentration of troponin I peaked at T0 (P0.05). Peak CTnI was 118 and 55 times higher than the baseline value, respectively in group A and group B.There was a positive correlation between peak CTnI and CPBT, CCT (r=0.51; P<0.01), myocardial operative injury after ventriculotomy and muscle resection (r=0.35, P<0.01). Also the peak CTnI value was correlated to the clinical score for cardiac function (r=-0.52; P<0.01). 2.3μg/L was a cutoff value which was highly predictive for postoperative recovery and inotropic support.Conclusion Postoperative serum troponin I is a highly specific and sensitive marker for myocardial ischemia and injury; therefore, its measurement may contribute to the assessment of recovery and outcome after open heart surgery.

  1. Electrocardiographic Findings and Serum Troponin I in Carbon Monoxide Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning, though with different sources, is one of the most deadly emergencies in all countries. CO can threaten men's life by several paths especially cardiac complications, which can mimic other cardiac problems such as myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to determine ECG findings and serum troponin I levels in CO poisoned patients. In this analytical cross-sectional study, 63 CO poisoning patients were consecutively included from hospital's emergency departments. CO content was measured by a CO-oximeter and an electrocardiography was taken first thing on admission. Arterial blood gas (ABG, troponin I and other data was collected afterwards. Data were divided by age groups (adults and children and gender. CO content was significantly higher only in subjects with normal T wave compared to patients with inverted T wave in their initial ECG (P=0.016. No other significant difference was noticed. None of the ABG findings correlated significantly with CO content. Also no significant correlation was found with CO content after stratification by gender and age groups, but pH in children (r=-0.484, P=0.026. CO content was significantly higher in adults (P=0.023, but other ABG data were not significantly different. Only 3 patients had elevated troponin I. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis showed no significant cutoff points in CO content for ECG changes. No significant specific change in electrocardiograms (ECG could contribute carboxyhemoglobin content in carbon monoxide poisoned patients. In addition, no specific difference was found between adults and pediatric subjects' ECGs. All other findings seemed to be accidental.

  2. Troponin Ⅰ测定对儿童心肌炎的诊断意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兆群; 陆超

    2001-01-01

    @@ 为评估心肌特异性肌钙蛋白Ⅰ在儿童心肌炎中的诊断意义,作者应用酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)检测41例心肌炎患儿心肌特异性肌钙蛋白Ⅰ(Troponin Ⅰ,cTN-Ⅰ)和CK-MB,并与正常对照组31例进行比较,现将结果报告如下.

  3. Effect of Exercise and Vitamin E on Cardiac Troponin Alterations in Myocardium and Serum of Rats after Stressful Intense Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. AL-Sowyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased concentrations of biomarkers reflecting myocardial stress such as cardiac troponin have been observed following strenuous exercise. The aim of this study was to determine whether the stress of forced exercise would result in injury to the myocardium. The effects of stress induced by short bout strenuous exercise and long term exercise on serum, cardiac and skeletal muscle troponin, also blood glucose and insulin were measured. Moreover, to determine whether vitamin E supplementation could modulate these effects or not. Five groups of rats were investigated, control, strenuous exercised rats, exercised and supplemented rats with vitamin E, long term exercise and long term exercised rats supplemented with vitamin E. Strenuous exercised rats and supplemented rats with vitamin E. produced significant increase in serum, cardiac and skeletal muscle troponin concentration. Long term exercise and long term exercised rats supplemented with vitamin E induced insignificant elevation of serum and muscle troponin concentration with significant increase in cardiac troponin level. In rats subjected to both strenuous and long term exercise and after supplementation of both group with vitamin E, there was a significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin level. These results suggest that stressful exercise induces alteration in myocardial troponin and that training before exercise and vitamin E attenuates the exercise induced heart damage. Accordingly, we can advise individuals who are subjected to strenuous exercise to supplement their diet with vitamin E to protect their heart from myocardial damage and sudden death which may be recorded in some athletes. Furthermore, these results demonstrate another support for the importance of exercise in diabetes mellitus.

  4. Protein Structure-Function Relationship at Work:Learning from Myopathy Mutations of the Slow Skeletal Muscle Isoform of Troponin T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupom Mondal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Troponin T (TnT is the sarcomeric thin filament anchoring subunit of the troponin complex in striated muscles. A nonsense mutation in exon 11 of the slow skeletal muscle isoform of TnT (ssTnT gene (TNNT1 was found in the Amish populations in Pennsylvania and Ohio. This single nucleotide substitution causes a truncation of the ssTnT protein at Glu180 and the loss of the C-terminal tropomyosin (Tm-binding site 2. As a consequence, it abolishes the myofilament integration of ssTnT and the loss of function causes an autosomal recessive nemaline myopathy (NM. More TNNT1 mutations have recently been reported in non-Amish ethnic groups with similar recessive NM phenotypes. A nonsense mutation in exon 9 truncates ssTnT at Ser108, deleting Tm-binding site 2 and a part of the middle region Tm-binding site 1. Two splicing site mutations result in truncation of ssTnT at Leu203 or deletion of the exon 14-encoded C-terminal end segment. Another splicing mutation causes an internal deletion of the 39 amino acids encoded by exon 8, partially damaging Tm-binding site 1. The three splicing mutations of TNNT1 all preserve the high affinity Tm-binding site 2 but still present recessive NM phenotypes. The molecular mechanisms for these mutations to cause myopathy provide interesting models to study and understand the structure-function relationship of TnT. This focused review summarizes the current knowledge of TnT isoform regulation, structure-function relationship of TnT and how various ssTnT mutations cause recessive NM, in order to promote in depth studies for further understanding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of TNNT1 myopathies toward the development of effective treatments.□

  5. Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a semiautomated RNA sequence editor (SARSE) that integrates tools for analyzing RNA alignments. The editor highlights different properties of the alignment by color, and its integrated analysis tools prevent the introduction of errors when doing alignment editing. SARSE readily...... connects to external tools to provide a flexible semiautomatic editing environment. A new method, Pcluster, is introduced for dividing the sequences of an RNA alignment into subgroups with secondary structure differences. Pcluster was used to evaluate 574 seed alignments obtained from the Rfam database...... and we identified 71 alignments with significant prediction of inconsistent base pairs and 102 alignments with significant prediction of novel base pairs. Four RNA families were used to illustrate how SARSE can be used to manually or automatically correct the inconsistent base pairs detected by Pcluster...

  6. ATLAS Inner Detector Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Bocci, A

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector that will study high-energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In order to achieve its physics goals, the ATLAS tracking requires that the positions of the silicon detector elements have to be known to a precision better than 10 μm. Several track-based alignment algorithms have been developed for the Inner Detector. An extensive validation has been performed with simulated events and real data coming from the ATLAS. Results from such validation are reported in this paper.

  7. CELT optics Alignment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Chanan, Gary A.; Noethe, Lothar

    2003-01-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) is a project to build a 30-meter diameter telescope for research in astronomy at visible and infrared wavelengths. The current optical design calls for a primary, secondary, and tertiary mirror with Ritchey-Chretién foci at two Nasmyth platforms. The primary mirror is a mosaic of 1080 actively-stabilized hexagonal segments. This paper summarizes a CELT report that describes a step-by-step procedure for aligning the many degrees of freedom of the CELT optics.

  8. TSGC and JSC Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    NASA and the SGCs are, by design, intended to work closely together and have synergistic Vision, Mission, and Goals. The TSGC affiliates and JSC have been working together, but not always in a concise, coordinated, nor strategic manner. Today we have a couple of simple ideas to present about how TSGC and JSC have started to work together in a more concise, coordinated, and strategic manner, and how JSC and non-TSG Jurisdiction members have started to collaborate: Idea I: TSGC and JSC Technical Alignment Idea II: Concept of Clusters.

  9. Partial Alignment for Improvement of Beam Transmission at KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Dae-Il; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Kim, Han-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The ion source and steering magnets were aligned for improving the beam transmission. It is expected that the re-alignment of accelerator components can reduce the beam loss which can occur for the dislocation among them. The center displacements of RFQ and 20MeV DTL are different to 100MeV DTL, so it is necessary to re-align in next maintenance period. 100MeV proton linac placed in KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been operated and provided to beam users. There are two maintenance periods every year, winter (Jan-Feb) and summer (Jul-Aug). In maintenance period, proton linac is re-aligned for the improvement of beam transmission. 4 newly steering magnet are installed in beam line. To align the steering magnet, network align in tunnel is measured using by laser tracker. In addition, the position of ion source is away from the position of RFQ in the result of the survey of network align. The alignment of steering magnet after installation is performed. At the same time, the position of accelerator component is checked and aligned partially.

  10. All about alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE absorbers, iron wall and superstructure have been installed with great precision. The ALICE front absorber, positioned in the centre of the detector, has been installed and aligned. Weighing more than 400 tonnes, the ALICE absorbers and the surrounding support structures have been installed and aligned with a precision of 1-2 mm, hardly an easy task but a very important one. The ALICE absorbers are made of three parts: the front absorber, a 35-tonne cone-shaped structure, and two small-angle absorbers, long straight cylinder sections weighing 18 and 40 tonnes. The three pieces lined up have a total length of about 17 m. In addition to these, ALICE technicians have installed a 300-tonne iron filter wall made of blocks that fit together like large Lego pieces and a surrounding metal support structure to hold the tracking and trigger chambers. The absorbers house the vacuum chamber and are also the reference surface for the positioning of the tracking and trigger chambers. For this reason, the ab...

  11. Interference Alignment via Improved Subspace Conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    For the K user, single input single output (SISO), frequency selective interference channel, a new low complexity transmit beamforming design that improves the achievable sum rate is presented. Jointly employing the interference alignment (IA) scheme presented by Cadambe and Jafar in [1] and linear minimum mean square error (MMSE) decoding at the transmitters and receivers, respectively, the new IA precoding design improves the average sum rate while preserving the achievable degrees of freedom of the Cadambe and Jafar scheme, K/2.

  12. Testing the tidal alignment model of galaxy intrinsic alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uros

    2011-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has become a powerful probe of large-scale structure and cosmological parameters. Precision weak lensing measurements require an understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxy ellipticities, which can in turn inform models of galaxy formation. It is hypothesized that elliptical galaxies align with the background tidal field and that this alignment mechanism dominates the correlation between ellipticities on cosmological scales (in the absence of lensing). We use recent large-scale structure measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to test this picture with several statistics: (1) the correlation between ellipticity and galaxy overdensity, w_{g+}; (2) the intrinsic alignment auto-correlation functions; (3) the correlation functions of curl-free, E, and divergence-free, B, modes (the latter of which is zero in the linear tidal alignment theory); (4) the alignment correlation function, w_g(r_p,theta), a recently developed statistic that generalizes the galaxy correlation func...

  13. Overcoming low-alignment signal contrast induced alignment failure by alignment signal enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Soo; Kim, Young Ha; Hwang, Hyunwoo; Lee, Jeongjin; Kong, Jeong Heung; Kang, Young Seog; Paarhuis, Bart; Kok, Haico; de Graaf, Roelof; Weichselbaum, Stefan; Droste, Richard; Mason, Christopher; Aarts, Igor; de Boeij, Wim P.

    2016-03-01

    Overlay is one of the key factors which enables optical lithography extension to 1X node DRAM manufacturing. It is natural that accurate wafer alignment is a prerequisite for good device overlay. However, alignment failures or misalignments are commonly observed in a fab. There are many factors which could induce alignment problems. Low alignment signal contrast is one of the main issues. Alignment signal contrast can be degraded by opaque stack materials or by alignment mark degradation due to processes like CMP. This issue can be compounded by mark sub-segmentation from design rules in combination with double or quadruple spacer process. Alignment signal contrast can be improved by applying new material or process optimization, which sometimes lead to the addition of another process-step with higher costs. If we can amplify the signal components containing the position information and reduce other unwanted signal and background contributions then we can improve alignment performance without process change. In this paper we use ASML's new alignment sensor (as was introduced and released on the NXT:1980Di) and sample wafers with special stacks which can induce poor alignment signal to demonstrate alignment and overlay improvement.

  14. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays: answers to frequently asked questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Éric; Charpentier, Sandrine; Dehoux, Monique; Lefevre, Guillaume; Meune, Christophe; Ray, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac troponin (cTn) assays have quickly gained in analytical sensitivity to become what are termed 'high-sensitivity cardiac troponin' (hs-cTn) assays, bringing a flurry of dense yet incomplete literature data. The net result is that cTn assays are not yet standardized and there are still no consensus-built data on how to use and interpret cTn assay results. To address these issues, the authors take cues and clues from multiple disciplines to bring responses to frequently asked questions. In brief, the effective use of hs-cTn hinges on knowing: specific assay characteristics, particularly precision at the 99th percentile of a reference population; factors of variation at the 99th percentile value; and the high-individuality of hs-cTn assays, for which the notion of individual kinetics is more informative than straight reference to 'normal' values. The significance of patterns of change between two assay measurements has not yet been documented for every hs-cTn assay. Clinicians need to work hand-in-hand with medical biologists to better understand how to use hs-cTn assays in routine practice.

  15. European multicenter analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krintus, Magdalena; Kozinski, Marek; Boudry, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    high sensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay and its 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL). METHODS: Laboratories from nine European countries evaluated the ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) immunoassay on the ARCHITECT i2000SR/i1000SR immunoanalyzers. Imprecision, limit...... hs-cTnI assay and contemporary cTnI assay at 99th percentile cut-off was found to be 95%. TnI was detectable in 75% and 57% of the apparently healthy population using the lower (1.1 ng/L) and upper (1.9 ng/L) limit of the LoD range provided by the ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI package insert, respectively....... The 99th percentile values were gender dependent. CONCLUSIONS: The new ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI assay with improved analytical features meets the criteria of high sensitive Tn test and will be a valuable diagnostic tool....

  16. Ultrasensitive cardiac troponin I antibody based nanohybrid sensor for rapid detection of human heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Deepika; Kaur, Inderpreet; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-02-01

    An ultrasensitive cardiac troponin I antibody conjugated with graphene quantum dots (GQD) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) nanohybrid modified gold electrode based sensor was developed for the rapid detection of heart attack (myocardial infarction) in human. Screen printed gold (Au) electrode was decorated with 4-aminothiophenol for amine functionalization of the Au surface. These amino groups were further coupled with carboxyl functionalities of GQD with EDC-NHS reaction. In order to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor, PAMAM dendrimer was successively embedded on GQD through carbodiimide coupling to provide ultra-high surface area for antibody immobilization. The activated cardiac troponin I (cTnI) monoclonal antibody was immobilized on PAMAM to form nanoprobe for sensing specific heart attack marker cTnI. Various concentrations of cardiac marker, cTnI were electrochemically measured using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in human blood serum. The modifications on sensor surface were characterized by FTIR and AFM techniques. The sensor is highly specific to cTnI and showed negligible response to non-specific antigens. The sensitivity of the sensor was 109.23μAcm(-2)μg(-1) and lower limit of detection of cTnI was found 20fgmL(-1).

  17. High sensitive troponin T in individuals with chest pain of presumed ischemic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Giovanni; Lentini, Margherita; Gallo, Luigia; Lucia, Fortunata G; Giacinto Carinci, Lorenzina; Mancuso, Serafina; Biondi, Rosa A; Sinopoli, Raffaella; Casadonte, Rita; Guzzi, Pietro H; Cannataro, Mario; Mongiardo, Annalisa; Iaconetti, Claudio; Bochicchio, Angela; Curcio, Antonio; Torella, Daniele; Ricci, Pietroantonio; Indolfi, Ciro; Costanzo, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the bias of high sensitive cardiac troponin T vs. the standard cardiac troponin T in a selected population with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin. Serum cTnT was determined in 132 patients and in 106 apparently healthy controls by both assays. The hs-cTnT outperformed the standard generation assay by: i) allowing a larger and earlier diagnosis of AMI (74.2 percent vs. 64.3 percent patients resulted positive at the final diagnosis of AMI when tested with the hs-cTnT or the std-cTnT assay, respectively); ii) showing a better time-dependent dynamics in patients with AMI due to a higher precision at low concentrations; iii) identifying, within the controls, 6 subjects in whom a further examination revealed the presence of chronic asymptomatic cardiac ischemia. The results underscore the excellent performance of the hs-cTnT assay in our population. The use of this test can thus be strongly recommended in subjects presenting to the emergency unit with chest pain of presumed ischemic origin in order to increase the probability of earlier diagnosis of AMI, especially in non-STEMI.

  18. Baseline cardiac troponin t levels are elevated in subjects with untreated diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, M; Nielsen, M L; Leósdóttir, M

    2015-01-01

    and cardiac troponin T in middle-aged or older apparently healthy subjects. Design and method: We examined cross-sectional associations between highsensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) and FPG categorized as normal fasting glucose (NFG: FPG/=7.0mmol/L), in 535 men and 226 women aged 56-79 years without...... (NFG: 7.55 ng/L +/- standard deviation 3.99 ng/L; IFG: 8.09 ng/L +/- 6.81 ng/L; DM: 10.28 ng/L +/- 7.55 ng/L; p subjects with DM compared to NFG (p subjects with NFG and IFG (p = 0......) defined by the Sokolow-Lyon index and/or Cornell voltage-duration product,FPGcategory remained significantly associated with hsTnT (B = 0.87 [95% CI, 0.35-1.39]; p = 0.001), independently of age (B = 0.29 [95% CI, 0.22-0.36]; p

  19. Titin and troponin: central players in the frank-starling mechanism of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Norio; Terui, Takako; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Kurihara, Satoshi

    2009-05-01

    The basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart is the intrinsic ability of cardiac muscle to produce greater active force in response to stretch, a phenomenon known as length-dependent activation. A feedback mechanism transmitted from cross-bridge formation to troponin C to enhance Ca(2+) binding has long been proposed to account for length-dependent activation. However, recent advances in muscle physiology research technologies have enabled the identification of other factors involved in length-dependent activation. The striated muscle sarcomere contains a third filament system composed of the giant elastic protein titin, which is responsible for most passive stiffness in the physiological sarcomere length range. Recent studies have revealed a significant coupling of active and passive forces in cardiac muscle, where titin-based passive force promotes cross-bridge recruitment, resulting in greater active force production in response to stretch. More currently, the focus has been placed on the troponin-based "on-off" switching of the thin filament state in the regulation of length-dependent activation. In this review, we discuss how myocardial length-dependent activation is coordinately regulated by sarcomere proteins.

  20. Pareto optimal pairwise sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRonne, Kevin W; Karypis, George

    2013-01-01

    Sequence alignment using evolutionary profiles is a commonly employed tool when investigating a protein. Many profile-profile scoring functions have been developed for use in such alignments, but there has not yet been a comprehensive study of Pareto optimal pairwise alignments for combining multiple such functions. We show that the problem of generating Pareto optimal pairwise alignments has an optimal substructure property, and develop an efficient algorithm for generating Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments. All possible sets of two, three, and four profile scoring functions are used from a pool of 11 functions and applied to 588 pairs of proteins in the ce_ref data set. The performance of the best objective combinations on ce_ref is also evaluated on an independent set of 913 protein pairs extracted from the BAliBASE RV11 data set. Our dynamic-programming-based heuristic approach produces approximated Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments that contain comparable alignments to those on the exact frontier, but on average in less than 1/58th the time in the case of four objectives. Our results show that the Pareto frontiers contain alignments whose quality is better than the alignments obtained by single objectives. However, the task of identifying a single high-quality alignment among those in the Pareto frontier remains challenging.

  1. SinicView: A visualization environment for comparisons of multiple nucleotide sequence alignment tools

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Chun-Yi; Wu Yu-Wei; Chen Shiang-Heng; Peng Chin-Lin; Lin Laurent; Lee DT; Shih Arthur; Chou Meng-Yuan; Shiao Tze-Chang; Hsieh Mu-Fen

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Deluged by the rate and complexity of completed genomic sequences, the need to align longer sequences becomes more urgent, and many more tools have thus been developed. In the initial stage of genomic sequence analysis, a biologist is usually faced with the questions of how to choose the best tool to align sequences of interest and how to analyze and visualize the alignment results, and then with the question of whether poorly aligned regions produced by the tool are indee...

  2. Novel Nano-scale Overlay Alignment Method for Room-temperature Imprint Lithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; DING Yu-cheng; LU Bing-heng; LI Han-song; YAN Le; QIU Zhi-hui; LIU Hong-zhong; YIN Lie

    2005-01-01

    A novel nano-scale alignment technique based on Moiré signal for room-temperature imprint are used to estimate the alignment errors in x and y directions. The experiment result indicates that complex and the alignment resolutions obtained in x and y directions are ±20 nm(3σ) and ±24 nm(3σ). They can meet the requirement of alignment accuracy for submicron imprint lithography.

  3. Understanding greater cardiomyocyte functions on aligned compared to random carbon nanofibers in PLGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiri AM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Asiri,1 Hadi M Marwani,1 Sher Bahadar Khan,1 Thomas J Webster1,2 1Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated greater cardiomyocyte density on carbon nanofibers (CNFs aligned (compared to randomly oriented in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA composites. Although such studies demonstrated a closer mimicking of anisotropic electrical and mechanical properties for such aligned (compared to randomly oriented CNFs in PLGA composites, the objective of the present in vitro study was to elucidate a deeper mechanistic understanding of how cardiomyocyte densities recognize such materials to respond more favorably. Results showed lower wettability (greater hydrophobicity of CNFs embedded in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selectively lower wettability in aligned CNF regions. Furthermore, the results correlated these changes in hydrophobicity with increased adsorption of fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin (all proteins known to increase cardiomyocyte adhesion and functions on CNFs in PLGA compared to pure PLGA, thus providing evidence of selective initial protein adsorption cues on such CNF regions to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion and growth. Lastly, results of the present in vitro study further confirmed increased cardiomyocyte functions by demonstrating greater expression of important cardiomyocyte biomarkers (such as Troponin-T, Connexin-43, and α-sarcomeric actin when CNFs were aligned compared to randomly oriented in PLGA. In summary, this study provided evidence that cardiomyocyte functions are improved on CNFs aligned in PLGA compared to randomly oriented in PLGA since CNFs are more hydrophobic than PLGA and attract the adsorption of key proteins (fibronectin, laminin, and vironectin that are known to promote cardiomyocyte adhesion

  4. Metabolic network alignment in large scale by network compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ay Ferhat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic network alignment is a system scale comparative analysis that discovers important similarities and differences across different metabolisms and organisms. Although the problem of aligning metabolic networks has been considered in the past, the computational complexity of the existing solutions has so far limited their use to moderately sized networks. In this paper, we address the problem of aligning two metabolic networks, particularly when both of them are too large to be dealt with using existing methods. We develop a generic framework that can significantly improve the scale of the networks that can be aligned in practical time. Our framework has three major phases, namely the compression phase, the alignment phase and the refinement phase. For the first phase, we develop an algorithm which transforms the given networks to a compressed domain where they are summarized using fewer nodes, termed supernodes, and interactions. In the second phase, we carry out the alignment in the compressed domain using an existing network alignment method as our base algorithm. This alignment results in supernode mappings in the compressed domain, each of which are smaller instances of network alignment problem. In the third phase, we solve each of the instances using the base alignment algorithm to refine the alignment results. We provide a user defined parameter to control the number of compression levels which generally determines the tradeoff between the quality of the alignment versus how fast the algorithm runs. Our experiments on the networks from KEGG pathway database demonstrate that the compression method we propose reduces the sizes of metabolic networks by almost half at each compression level which provides an expected speedup of more than an order of magnitude. We also observe that the alignments obtained by only one level of compression capture the original alignment results with high accuracy. Together, these suggest that our

  5. High-sensitive cardiac troponin T measurements in prediction of non-cardiac complications after major abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P. G.; van Geffen, O.; Dijkstra, I. M.; Boerma, D.; Meinders, A. J.; Rettig, T. C D; Eefting, F. D.; van Loon, D.; van de Garde, E. M W; van Dongen, E. P A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative non-cardiac complication rates are as high as 11-28% after high-risk abdominal procedures. Emerging evidence indicates that postoperative cardiac troponin T elevations are associated with adverse outcome in non-cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the rel

  6. Cardiac troponin T and CK-MB mass release after visually successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravkilde, J; Nissen, H; Mickley, H

    1994-01-01

    The incidence of cardiac troponin T (Tn-T) and creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme MB mass release was studied in 23 patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing visually successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Serial blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum Tn...

  7. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares.

  8. Recurrent and founder mutations in the Netherlands : mutation p.K217del in troponin T2, causing dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, E.; Deprez, R. H. Lekanne Dit; Weiss, M. M.; van Slegtenhorst, M.; Joosten, M.; van der Smagt, J. J.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W. S.; Roofthooft, M. T. R.; Balk, A. H. M. M.; van den Berg, M. P.; van Tintelen, J. P.; Ruiter, J.S.; de Jonge, N.

    2010-01-01

    Background. About 30% of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases are familial. Mutations are mostly found in the genes encoding lanain A/C, beta-myosin heavy chain and the sarcomeric protein cardiac troponin-T (TNNT2). Mutations in TNNT2 are reported in approximately 3% of DCM patients. The overall pheno

  9. The influence of hemolysis, turbidity and icterus on the measurements of CK-MB, troponin I and myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hi J; Seo, Eun J; Min, Ki O

    2003-03-01

    To decide on the acceptability of a specimen for the measurement of serum CK-MB, troponin I and myoglobin, we investigated the influence of hemolysis, turbidity, and icterus on those tests by adding arbitrarily made interferents. A total of 16 cases each for CK-MB and troponin I, and 18 cases for myoglobin tests were studied to verify the effects of hemolysis, turbidity, and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. A total of 16 cases were studied to clarify the effects of the conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. We graded the severity of hemolysis, turbidity, and icterus as mild, moderate, and severe after adding hemolysate, Intralipos (20% soybean oil), and unconjugated or conjugated bilirubin to sera. ACS180SE automated chemiluminescence system was used to measure CK-MB, troponin I, and myoglobin. CK-MB and troponin I were affected by any degree of hemolysis, turbidity, unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, while myoglobin was affected only by severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the samples with concentration higher than reference range, resulting in concentration level lower than baseline. In conclusion, the results of cardiac markers should be carefully interpreted when the specimens are hemolyzed, turbid or icteric.

  10. Troponin elevation in patients with heart failure: on behalf of the third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction Global Task Force: Heart Failure Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januzzi, James L; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Nieminen, Markku; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac troponin testing is commonly performed in patients with heart failure (HF). Despite being strongly linked to spontaneous (Type I) acute myocardial infarction (MI)--a common cause of acute HF syndromes--it is well recognized that concentrations of circulating troponins above the 99 th percentile of a normal population in the context of both acute and chronic HF are highly prevalent, and frequently unrelated to Type I MI. Other mechanism(s) leading to troponin elevation in HF syndromes remain elusive in many cases but prominently includes supply-demand inequity (Type II MI), which may be associated with coronary artery obstruction and endothelial dysfunction, or may occur in the absence of coronary obstruction due to increased oxygen demand related to increased wall tension, anaemia, or other factors provoking subendocardial injury. Non-coronary triggers, such as cellular necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy in the context of wall stress may explain the troponin release in HF, as can toxic effects of circulating neurohormones, toxins, inflammation, and infiltrative processes, among others. Nonetheless, across a wide spectrum of HF syndromes, when troponin elevation occurs, independent of mechanism, it is strongly predictive of an adverse outcome. Clinicians should be aware of the high frequency of troponin elevation when measuring the marker in patients with HF, should keep in mind the possible causes of this phenomenon, and, independent of a diagnosis of 'acute MI', should recognize the considerable ramifications of troponin elevation in this setting.

  11. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  12. DIAGNOSTIC EFFICACY OF CARDIAC TROPONIN-T IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PATIENTS ADMITTED IN INTENSIVE CARDIAC CARE UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Myocardial infarction is a common and severe manifestation of ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is the result of death of heart muscle cells following either from a prolonged or severe ischaemia. The World Health Organisation emphasises IHD as our "Modern Epidemic" and AMI as common cause of sudden death. AIM The present study has been undertaken with the aim to assess the role of cardiac Troponin-T in early diagnosis of AMI and to evaluate its positive roles over CK-MB and LDH enzyme assays. The study also aims to find out the role of cardiac Troponin-T test, where ECG changes are nondiagnostic and inconclusive for AMI. MATERIAL & METHOD One hundred cases of provisionally diagnosed AMI, who were admitted during June 2012 to July 2015 in ICC Unit of TMC & Dr. BRAM Teaching Hospital, formed the subjects for the study. Those patients reported 2 to 10 hours after onset of chest pain were included in this study. Patients reported beyond 10 hours after onset of chest pain of AMI cases and patients having chest pain of non-AMI causes are excluded from the study. The provisional diagnosis of AMI was done on the basis of the history, chest pain, clinical findings and ECG changes. Trop-T test (Troponin-T sensitive rapid test by Muller Bardoff, et al, 1991 as well as CK-MB (creatine kinase-MB isoenzymeassays were performed immediately for each and every patient. Trop-T test was repeated in some selective cases where the early changes were insignificant and the results were compared with those of CK-MB, at different period of the disease onset. RESULTS The rapid cardiac Troponin-T test (CTn-T has 100% specificity for AMI whereas CK-MB and LDH have specificities of 80% and 60% respectively. The CTn-T has diagnostic efficiency of 92% for AMI but ECG has only 69% sensitivity and 80% specificity. The overall diagnostic efficacy of cardiac Troponin-T is higher than that of CK-MB, LDH and ECG (94% versus 92%, 91 % and 72

  13. Accelerating large-scale protein structure alignments with graphics processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Bin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale protein structure alignment, an indispensable tool to structural bioinformatics, poses a tremendous challenge on computational resources. To ensure structure alignment accuracy and efficiency, efforts have been made to parallelize traditional alignment algorithms in grid environments. However, these solutions are costly and of limited accessibility. Others trade alignment quality for speedup by using high-level characteristics of structure fragments for structure comparisons. Findings We present ppsAlign, a parallel protein structure Alignment framework designed and optimized to exploit the parallelism of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. As a general-purpose GPU platform, ppsAlign could take many concurrent methods, such as TM-align and Fr-TM-align, into the parallelized algorithm design. We evaluated ppsAlign on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU card, and compared it with existing software solutions running on an AMD dual-core CPU. We observed a 36-fold speedup over TM-align, a 65-fold speedup over Fr-TM-align, and a 40-fold speedup over MAMMOTH. Conclusions ppsAlign is a high-performance protein structure alignment tool designed to tackle the computational complexity issues from protein structural data. The solution presented in this paper allows large-scale structure comparisons to be performed using massive parallel computing power of GPU.

  14. Can we monitor heart attack in the troponin era: evidence from a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin Jamie M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Troponins (highly sensitive biomarkers of myocardial damage increase counts of myocardial infarction (MI in clinical practice, but their impact on trends in admission rates for MI in National statistics is uncertain. Methods Cases coded as MI or other cardiac diagnoses in the Hospital Morbidity Data Collection (MI-HMDC in Western Australia in 1998 and 2003 were classified using revised criteria for MI developed by an International panel convened by the American Heart Association (AHA criteria using information on symptoms, ECGs and cardiac biomarkers abstracted from samples of medical notes. Age-sex standardized rates of MI-HMDC were compared with rates of MI based on AHA criteria including troponins (MI-AHA or traditional biomarkers only (MI-AHAck. Results Between 1998 and 2003, rates of MI-HMDC decreased by 3.5% whereas rates of MI-AHA increased by 17%, a difference largely due to increased false-negative cases in the HMDC associated with marked increased use of troponin tests in cardiac admissions generally, and progressively lower test thresholds. In contrast, rates of MI-AHAck declined by 18%. Conclusions Increasing misclassification of MI-AHA by the HMDC may be due to reluctance by clinicians to diagnose MI based on relatively small increases in troponin levels. These influences are likely to continue. Monitoring MI using AHA criteria will require calibration of commercially available troponin tests and agreement on lower diagnostic thresholds for epidemiological studies. Declining rates of MI-AHAck are consistent with long-standing trends in MI in Western Australia, suggesting that neither MI-HMDC nor MI-AHA reflect the true underlying population trends in MI.

  15. Proton magnetic resonance studies on peptide fragments of troponin-C containing single calcium-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavis, P C; Evans, J S; Levine, B A

    1982-07-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to study the solution conformation of three cleavage fragments of troponin-C, each containing a single Ca(II)-binding site and corresponding to different regions in the primary sequence; viz. CB8 (residues 46-77), CB9 (residues 85-134) and TH2 (residues 121-159). Although all three peptides lack a well-defined tertiary fold in the absence of metal ions, several spectral features indicate the presence of local conformational constraints in each apo-peptide. Ca(II) binding led to spectral changes consistent with increased restriction of backbone motility and the adoption of a more compact conformation. Studies using paramagnetic ions as conformational probes support current views concerning the nature of the ligands at the metal binding sites. The nature and kinetics of the structural influence of metal binding suggest that the conformational constraints existing in the CB8 apo-peptide provide an adequate Ca(II)-binding configuration. In contrast, the CB9 and TH2 peptides exhibit spectral changes consistent with an increased local structure in the region of helix E (residues 94-102) in the case of CB9 and helix H (residues 148-159) in the case of TH2. In CB9, conformation changes also appear to be transmitted to a portion of the sequence (residues 87-93) preceding helix E, a putative site of interaction between troponin-C and troponin-I. These data are discussed with reference to the contribution of long-range (interdomain) interactions within troponin-C and the modulation of troponin subunit protein-protein interactions by Ca(II) binding.

  16. [Interest of the combination of high-sensitivity troponine and copeptin in diagnosis of non ST elevation myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Caroline; Douplat, Marion; Guieu, Régis; Pradel, Vincent; Fromonot, Julien; Bonnet, Jean-Louis; Alazia, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of non ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is very important for the emergency doctor. According to the literature copeptin, a marker of the endogenous stress, combined with troponin could be of interest in this diagnosis. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of high-sensitivity (HS) troponin and copeptine to eliminate the diagnosis of NSTEMI or unstable angina (UA) in patients arriving in Casualty with a thoracic pain. This prospective study included patients showing up at Casualty with a thoracic pain less than 12 hours old. Copeptin was measured by the BRAHMS method at admission and HS troponin was measured at admission, after 2 and 6 hours. The patients also had a follow-up phone call after 3 months. The study included 114 patients with an average age of 54.6 years. NSTEMI was diagnosed for 8.8% of them and UA for 6.1%. The patients presenting NSTEMI or UA had a copeptin rate at admission higher than the others (24.7 pmol/L versus 7.1; p negative predictive value of the association of HS troponin and copeptin was 95% whereas the sensitivity was 76.5% and the specificity 78.4%. The ROC curve analysis of the copeptin results brought to light a positivity limit which would have been more successful at 10.3 pmol/L than at 14.0. The association of copeptin and HS troponin can be useful to exclude the diagnosis of NSTEMI and favours faster treatment in Casualty.

  17. Myocardial damage in dogs affected by heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis): immunohistochemical study of cardiac myoglobin and troponin I in naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretón, E; Grandi, G; Morchón, R; Simón, F; Passeri, B; Cantoni, A M; Kramer, L; Montoya-Alonso, J A

    2012-10-26

    It has recently been reported that dogs affected by canine heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) can show an increase in plasma levels of myoglobin and cardiac troponin I, two markers of muscle/myocardial injury. In order to determine if this increase is due to myocardial damage, the right ventricle of 24 naturally infected dogs was examined by routine histology and immunohistochemistry with anti-myoglobin and anti-cardiac troponin I antibodies. Microscopic lesions included necrosis and myocyte vacuolization, and were associated with loss of staining for one or both proteins. Results confirm that increased levels of myoglobin and cardiac troponin I are indicative of myocardial damage in dogs affected by heartworm disease.

  18. Relationship between serum cardiac troponin T level and cardiopulmonary function in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattori K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kumiko Hattori, Takeo Ishii, Takashi Motegi, Yuji Kusunoki, Akihiko Gemma, Kozui Kida Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Oncology; Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan Background: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT in serum is a useful marker of acute myocardial injury, yet information is limited in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We aimed to explore the association between hs-cTnT levels and cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and at-risk individuals. Methods: We examined community-dwelling adults with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with a life-long smoking history, current symptoms of dyspnea during exertion, prolonged coughing, and/or sputum. Serum hs-cTnT concentrations were measured, and subjects underwent pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography of the chest, an echocardiogram, and a 6-minute walking test. Results: Eighty-six stable patients were identified (mean age 65.5 years; predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1% predicted] 75.0%. Their overall mean hs-cTnT level was 0.008 ng/mL. Logarithmically transformed hs-cTnT levels significantly and positively correlated with age, smoking index, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, right ventricle systolic pressure, low attenuation area percentage, and brain natriuretic peptide levels (range r=0.231–0.534, P=0.000 to P=0.042. Further, logarithmically transformed hs-cTnT values significantly and negatively correlated with forced vital capacity, FEV1% predicted, diffusion capacity, arterial oxygen tension, and 6-minute walking distance (range r= -0.482 to -0.377, P=0.000 to P=0.002. Multivariate analyses showed that hs-cTnT values varied independently according to the following three parameters: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (B=0.157, ß=0.450, t=3.571, P=0.001, age (B=0.008, ß=0.352, t=2.789, P=0

  19. Troponins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  20. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  1. RNA-RNA interaction prediction based on multiple sequence alignments

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Andrew X; Qin, Jing; Reidys, Christian M

    2010-01-01

    Recently, $O(N^6)$ time and $O(N^4)$ space dynamic programming algorithms have become available that compute the partition function of RNA-RNA interaction complexes for pairs of RNA sequences. These algorithms and the biological requirement of more reliable interactions motivate to utilize the additional information contained in multiple sequence alignments and to generalize the above framework to the partition function and base pairing probabilities for multiple sequence alignments.

  2. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter V Henstock

    Full Text Available High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1 a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2 a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3 a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow.

  3. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henstock, Peter V; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow.

  4. RNA Structural Alignments, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Gorodkin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous alignment and secondary structure prediction of RNA sequences is often referred to as "RNA structural alignment." A class of the methods for structural alignment is based on the principles proposed by Sankoff more than 25 years ago. The Sankoff algorithm simultaneously folds and alig...... the methods based on the Sankoff algorithm. All the practical implementations of the algorithm use heuristics to make them run in reasonable time and memory. These heuristics are also described in this chapter.......Simultaneous alignment and secondary structure prediction of RNA sequences is often referred to as "RNA structural alignment." A class of the methods for structural alignment is based on the principles proposed by Sankoff more than 25 years ago. The Sankoff algorithm simultaneously folds and aligns...... two or more sequences. The advantage of this algorithm over those that separate the folding and alignment steps is that it makes better predictions. The disadvantage is that it is slower and requires more computer memory to run. The amount of computational resources needed to run the Sankoff algorithm...

  5. Lexical alignment in triadic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one's interlocutor's lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants' lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment.

  6. Magnetic alignment study of rare-earth-containing liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyametdinov, Yury G; Haase, Wolfgang; Goderis, Bart; Moors, Dries; Driesen, Kris; Van Deun, Rik; Binnemans, Koen

    2007-12-20

    The liquid-crystalline rare-earth complexes of the type [Ln(LH)3(DOS)3]-where Ln is Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, or Yb; LH is the Schiff base N-octadecyl-4-tetradecyloxysalicylaldimine; and DOS is dodecylsulfate-exhibit a smectic A phase. Because of the presence of rare-earth ions with a large magnetic anisotropy, the smectic A phase of these liquid crystals can be easier aligned in an external magnetic field than smectic A phases of conventional liquid crystals. The magnetic anisotropy of the [Ln(LH)3(DOS)3] complexes was determined by measurement of the temperature-dependence of the magnetic susceptibility using a Faraday balance. The highest value for the magnetic anisotropy was found for the dysprosium(III) complex. The magnetic alignment of these liquid crystals was studied by time-resolved synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. Depending on the sign of the magnetic anisotropy, the director of the liquid-crystalline molecules was aligned parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. A positive value of the magnetic anisotropy (and parallel alignment) was found for the thulium(III) and the ytterbium(III) complexes, whereas a negative value of the magnetic anisotropy (and perpendicular alignment) was observed for the terbium(III) and dysprosium(III) complexes.

  7. SinicView: A visualization environment for comparisons of multiple nucleotide sequence alignment tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Chun-Yi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deluged by the rate and complexity of completed genomic sequences, the need to align longer sequences becomes more urgent, and many more tools have thus been developed. In the initial stage of genomic sequence analysis, a biologist is usually faced with the questions of how to choose the best tool to align sequences of interest and how to analyze and visualize the alignment results, and then with the question of whether poorly aligned regions produced by the tool are indeed not homologous or are just results due to inappropriate alignment tools or scoring systems used. Although several systematic evaluations of multiple sequence alignment (MSA programs have been proposed, they may not provide a standard-bearer for most biologists because those poorly aligned regions in these evaluations are never discussed. Thus, a tool that allows cross comparison of the alignment results obtained by different tools simultaneously could help a biologist evaluate their correctness and accuracy. Results In this paper, we present a versatile alignment visualization system, called SinicView, (for Sequence-aligning INnovative and Interactive Comparison VIEWer, which allows the user to efficiently compare and evaluate assorted nucleotide alignment results obtained by different tools. SinicView calculates similarity of the alignment outputs under a fixed window using the sum-of-pairs method and provides scoring profiles of each set of aligned sequences. The user can visually compare alignment results either in graphic scoring profiles or in plain text format of the aligned nucleotides along with the annotations information. We illustrate the capabilities of our visualization system by comparing alignment results obtained by MLAGAN, MAVID, and MULTIZ, respectively. Conclusion With SinicView, users can use their own data sequences to compare various alignment tools or scoring systems and select the most suitable one to perform alignment in the

  8. Alignment of flexible protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatsky, M; Fligelman, Z Y; Nussinov, R; Wolfson, H J

    2000-01-01

    We present two algorithms which align flexible protein structures. Both apply efficient structural pattern detection and graph theoretic techniques. The FlexProt algorithm simultaneously detects the hinge regions and aligns the rigid subparts of the molecules. It does it by efficiently detecting maximal congruent rigid fragments in both molecules and calculating their optimal arrangement which does not violate the protein sequence order. The FlexMol algorithm is sequence order independent, yet requires as input the hypothesized hinge positions. Due its sequence order independence it can also be applied to protein-protein interface matching and drug molecule alignment. It aligns the rigid parts of the molecule using the Geometric Hashing method and calculates optimal connectivity among these parts by graph-theoretic techniques. Both algorithms are highly efficient even compared with rigid structure alignment algorithms. Typical running times on a standard desktop PC (400 MHz) are about 7 seconds for FlexProt and about 1 minute for FlexMol.

  9. Alignments in the nobelium isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Zie; XU Fu-Rong; YUAN Cen-Xi; QI Chong

    2009-01-01

    Total-Routhian-Surface calculations have been performed to investigate the deformation and align-ment properties of the No isotopes. It is found that normal deformed and superdeformed states in these nuclei can coexist at low excitation energies. In neutron-deficient No isotopes, the superdeformed shapes can even become the ground states. Moreover, we plotted the kinematic moments of inertia of the No isotopes, which follow very nicely available experimental data. It is noted that, as the rotational frequency increases, align-ments develop at hω=0.2-0.3 MeV. Our calculations show that the occupation of the vj orbital plays an important role in the alignments of the No isotopes.

  10. Downlink Interference Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Changho; Tse, David

    2010-01-01

    We develop an interference alignment (IA) technique for a downlink cellular system. In the uplink, IA schemes need channel-state-information exchange across base-stations of different cells, but our downlink IA technique requires feedback only within a cell. As a result, the proposed scheme can be implemented with a few changes to an existing cellular system where the feedback mechanism (within a cell) is already being considered for supporting multi-user MIMO. Not only is our proposed scheme implementable with little effort, it can in fact provide substantial gain especially when interference from a dominant interferer (base-station) is significantly stronger than the remaining interference: it is shown that in the two-isolated cell layout, our scheme provides four-fold gain in throughput performance over a standard multi-user MIMO technique. We show through simulations that our technique provides respectable gain under more realistic scenarios: it gives approximately 55% and 20% gain for a linear cell layou...

  11. Interference Alignment for Secrecy

    CERN Document Server

    Koyluoglu, Onur Ozan; Lai, Lifeng; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the frequency/time selective $K$-user Gaussian interference channel with secrecy constraints. Two distinct models, namely the interference channel with confidential messages and the one with an external eavesdropper, are analyzed. The key difference between the two models is the lack of channel state information (CSI) about the external eavesdropper. Using interference alignment along with secrecy pre-coding, it is shown that each user can achieve non-zero secure Degrees of Freedom (DoF) for both cases. More precisely, the proposed coding scheme achieves $\\frac{K-2}{2K-2}$ secure DoF {\\em with probability one} per user in the confidential messages model. For the external eavesdropper scenario, on the other hand, it is shown that each user can achieve $\\frac{K-2}{2K}$ secure DoF {\\em in the ergodic setting}. Remarkably, these results establish the {\\em positive impact} of interference on the secrecy capacity region of wireless networks.

  12. Space Mirror Alignment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean L.

    2011-01-01

    An optical alignment mirror mechanism (AMM) has been developed with angular positioning accuracy of +/-0.2 arcsec. This requires the mirror s linear positioning actuators to have positioning resolutions of +/-112 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are 0.1 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy, which translates into linear positioning resolutions at the actuator of 50 nm. The mechanism consists of a structure with sets of cross-directional flexures that enable the mirror s tip and tilt motion, a mirror with its kinematic mount, and two linear actuators. An actuator comprises a brushless DC motor, a linear ball screw, and a piezoelectric brake that holds the mirror s position while the unit is unpowered. An interferometric linear position sensor senses the actuator s position. The AMMs were developed for an Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) optical bench, which is part of an interferometer development. Custom electronics were also developed to accommodate the presence of multiple AMMs within the ABC and provide a compact, all-in-one solution to power and control the AMMs.

  13. Risk Stratification with Serum Cardiac Troponin I in Acute Myocardial Infarction on Admission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铸; 苏恩本; 张寄南; 杨志健; 曹克将; 马文珠

    2001-01-01

    Objective To assess the prognostic significance of serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentration in patients with acute myocardial infarction on admission. Methods Serum samples of 108 patients with established AMI were collected on admission for measuring cTnI and were grouped according to the intervals between the onset of chest pain and admission. Results In each of these groups, the serum cTnI concentrations in patients died after admission were significantly higher than those who survived (all P<0.05). Conclusions A higher serum cTnI concentration on admission in patients with AMI was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cardiac death during hospitalization.

  14. Production and Characterisation of Anti-Cardiac Troponin-I Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. H. Haider

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I was isolated from bovine left ventricular tissue and used as immunogen. Sixteen murine hybridoma lines were produced with two of them. I D 12 and 5F4, showing a high specificity for cTn-I; both of these monoclonal antibodies (McAbs were isotyped as IgG I with kappa - light chains. The specificity of the McAbs for cTn-1 was confirmed by ELISA, western blotting and by the ability of the antibodies to block actomyosin ATPase inhibition by cTn-I. The McAbs may be useful for human ill vivo imaging of myocardial infarcts and other pathological conditions related to cardiac myocyte damage.

  15. Fabrication of Anti-human Cardiac Troponin I Immunogold Nanorods for Sensing Acute Myocardial Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z. R.; Gu, C. R.; Fan, X.; Bian, Z. P.; Wu, H. F.; Yang, D.; Gu, N.; Zhang, J. N.

    2009-12-01

    A facile, rapid, solution-phase method of detecting human cardiac troponin I for sensing myocardial damage has been described using gold nanorods-based biosensors. The sensing is demonstrated by the distinct change of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance wavelength of the gold nanorods to specific antibody-antigen binding events. For a higher sensitivity, the aspect ratio of gold nanorods is increased up to ca 5.5 by simply adding small amount of HCl in seed-mediated growth solution. Experimental results show that the detecting limit of the present method is 10 ng/mL. Contrast tests reveal that these gold nanorods-based plasmonic biosensors hold much higher sensitivity than that of conventionally spherical gold nanoparticles.

  16. Fabrication of Anti-human Cardiac Troponin I Immunogold Nanorods for Sensing Acute Myocardial Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan X

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A facile, rapid, solution-phase method of detecting human cardiac troponin I for sensing myocardial damage has been described using gold nanorods-based biosensors. The sensing is demonstrated by the distinct change of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance wavelength of the gold nanorods to specific antibody–antigen binding events. For a higher sensitivity, the aspect ratio of gold nanorods is increased up to ca 5.5 by simply adding small amount of HCl in seed-mediated growth solution. Experimental results show that the detecting limit of the present method is 10 ng/mL. Contrast tests reveal that these gold nanorods-based plasmonic biosensors hold much higher sensitivity than that of conventionally spherical gold nanoparticles.

  17. Can troponin T levels be useful in the diagnosis of rheumatic carditis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Halil Ertug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF is an endemic disease observed in children of developing countries. The purpose of this study was to test if it was possible to identify myocardial involvement in cases with rheumatic carditis by the measurement of serum cardiac TnT. Methods: 30 patients diagnosed as ARF underwent echocardiography and their cardiac troponin T (cTnT serum levels were measured. Patients were divided into group 1: Arthritis alone, group 2: carditis, and group 3 carditis with congestive heart failure (CHF. Results: cTnT serum levels were normal in all except one patient with in group 3. Two patients in carditis (group 2 and three patients in CHF (group 3 had dilation in left ventricular end diastolic diameter. Conclusions: Normal cTnT levels in our patient group suggests that inflammation rather than myocardial necrosis is predominant in ARF carditis.

  18. Magnetic alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, L. V.; Schenz, R. F.; Sommargren, G. E.

    1990-08-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This article begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100-μm accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The 100-μm accuracy is an error circle about an ideal axis for 300 m or more. The article describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axes of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development of a straight-line reference based on the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. The Poisson alignment reference system should be accurate to 25 μm over 300 m, which is believed to be a factor-of-4 improvement over earlier techniques. An error budget shows that only 25% of the total budgeted tolerance is used for the alignment reference system, so the remaining tolerances should fall within the allowable range for FEL alignment.

  19. Variation Tendency of the Align Network for the 100MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daeil; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Hansung; Seo, Donghyuk; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, the variation tendency of the align networks is checked and the survey results are considered to compensate the position of the accelerator components in the tunnel. Two years ago, the align networks on the tunnel were installed and checked to align the accelerator components. In recent survey of align networks, the displacement by temperature was confirmed according to comparison of the position. When the accelerator components are realigned, the displacement should be used to compensate position of the accelerator components. 100MeV proton linac for KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been operated at the Gyeong-ju. Linac is composed of a 50keV proton injector, a 3MeV RFQ, DTL tanks and a beam dump. The align networks were built to align the accelerator components. The survey work of align networks should be accomplished whenever need the alignment of the accelerator by using the laser tracker.

  20. TNNI3K is a novel mediator of myofilament function and phosphorylates cardiac troponin I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Lin; Song, Li; Zhang, Yan-Wan; Ye, Jue; Xu, Rui-Xia; Shi, Na; Meng, Xian-Min [Core Laboratory, Fu Wai Hospital and Cardiovascular Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2013-02-01

    The phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) plays an important role in the contractile dysfunction associated with heart failure. Human cardiac troponin I-interacting kinase (TNNI3K) is a novel cardiac-specific functional kinase that can bind to cTnI in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether TNNI3K can phosphorylate cTnI at specific sites and to examine whether the phosphorylation of cTnI caused by TNNI3K can regulate cardiac myofilament contractile function. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to confirm that TNNI3K could interact with cTnI. Kinase assays further indicated that TNNI3K did not phosphorylate cTnI at Ser23/24 and Ser44, but directly phosphorylated Ser43 and Thr143 in vitro. The results obtained for adult rat cardiomyocytes also indicated that enhanced phosphorylation of cTnI at Ser43 and Thr143 correlated with rTNNI3K (rat TNNI3K) overexpression, and phosphorylation was reduced when rTNNI3K was knocked down. To determine the contractile function modulated by TNNI3K-mediated phosphorylation of cTnI, cardiomyocyte contraction was studied in adult rat ventricular myocytes. The contraction of cardiomyocytes increased with rTNNI3K overexpression and decreased with rTNNI3K knockdown. We conclude that TNNI3K may be a novel mediator of cTnI phosphorylation and contribute to the regulation of cardiac myofilament contraction function.

  1. High sensitivity troponin in cardiovascular disease. Is there more than a marker of myocardial death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsounis, Dimitrios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Bouras, Georgios; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Anatoliotakis, Nikolaos; Raisakis, Konstantinos; Kossyvakis, Charalambos; Cleman, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and coronary artery disease is its most prevalent manifestation, associated with high mortality and morbidity. In clinical practice cardiac troponins (cTn) are the cornerstone of the diagnosis, risk stratification and thus selection of the optimal treatment strategy in patients with acute coronary syndrome. According to the third update of the universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) cTn is the preferred cardiac biomarker of myocardial necrosis in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia. Over the last years newer high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have been developed that are more sensitive than conventional assays, have low limit of detection, low imprecision and low reference limits, but due to variability, the deployment of a standardization and harmonization method is required before their wide use in clinical practice. Recent studies have shown that their utilization seems to improve the diagnostic accuracy detecting MI in patients presenting with chest pain. However, the improved sensitivity comes along with a decreased specificity, though serial cTn measurements and the detection of early changes could improve the specificity and the overall diagnostic performance. Moreover, apart from their use in the diagnosis and risk stratification of MI and acute coronary syndromes, hs-cTn assays seem to have a key role in risk stratification and short and long-term prognosis in a variety of cardiovascular modalities such as stable coronary disease, heart failure and acute pulmonary embolism. In addition, studies have suggested that cTns may be used as a biomarker in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease leading to the identification of high-risk populations or individuals with silent heart disease.

  2. Early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction using high-sensitivity troponin I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Francisco; Renné, Thomas; Schnabel, Renate B.; Zeller, Tanja; Karakas, Mahir; Blankenberg, Stefan; Westermann, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a clinical need for early and accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend diagnosis of non-ST-elevation AMI based on serial troponin measurements. We aimed to challenge the ESC guidelines using 1) a high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) baseline cutoff, 2) an absolute hs-TnI change after 1 hour and 3) additional application of an ischemic ECG. Methods 1,516 patients with suspected AMI presenting to the emergency department were included. Hs-TnI was measured directly at admission, after 1 and 3 hours. We investigated baseline concentrations, absolute changes of hs-TnI and additional application of an ischemic ECG to diagnose AMI. A positive predictive value (PPV) of more than 85% was targeted. Results The median age of the study population was 65 years; 291 patients were diagnosed with AMI. The PPV of the 3-hours ESC algorithm was 85.5% (CI 79.7, 90.1) and 65.8% (CI 60.5,70.8) for the 1-hour algorithm. Using a high baseline hs-TnI concentration of 150 ng/L resulted in a PPV of 87.8% (CI 80.9,92.9). Alternatively, a hs-TnI change of 20 ng/L after 1 hour, resulted in a PPV of 86.5% (80.9,91.0), respectively for the diagnosis of AMI. Additional use of an ischemic ECG increased the PPV to 90.5% (CI 83.2,95.3), while reducing the efficacy. Conclusion The diagnosis of AMI based on hs-TnI is challenging. The application of absolute hs-TnI changes after 1 hour may facilitate rapid rule-in of patients. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457). PMID:28333976

  3. Troponin release following endurance exercise: is inflammation the cause? a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hanlon Rory

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology and clinical significance of troponin release following endurance exercise is unclear but may be due to transient myocardial inflammation. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR affords us the opportunity to evaluate the presence of myocardial inflammation and focal fibrosis and is the ideal imaging modality to study this hypothesis. We sought to correlate the relationship between acute bouts of ultra endurance exercise leading to cardiac biomarkers elevation and the presence of myocardial inflammation and fibrosis using CMR. Methods 17 recreation athletes (33.5 +/- 6.5 years were studied before and after a marathon run with troponin, NTproBNP, and CMR. Specific imaging parameters to look for inflammation included T2 weighted images, and T1 weighted spin-echo images before and after an intravenous gadolinium-DTPA to detect myocardial hyperemia secondary to inflammation. Late gadolinium imaging was performed (LGE to detect any focal regions of replacement fibrosis. Results Eleven of the 17 participant had elevations of TnI above levels of cut off for myocardial infarction 6 hrs after the marathon (0.075 +/- 0.02, p = 0.007. Left ventricular volumes were reduced post marathon and a small increase in ejection fraction was noted (64+/- 1% pre, 67+/- 1.2% post, P = 0.014. Right ventricular volumes, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were unchanged post marathon. No athlete fulfilled criteria for myocardial inflammation based on current criteria. No regions of focal fibrosis were seen in any of the participants. Conclusion Exercise induced cardiac biomarker release is not associated with any functional changes by CMR or any detectable myocardial inflammation or fibrosis.

  4. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  5. Transitioning high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) into routine diagnostic use: More than just a sensitivity issue

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    High sensitivity cardiac troponin T and I (hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI) assays show analytical, diagnostic and prognostic improvement over contemporary sensitive cTn assays. However, given the importance of troponin in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, implementing this test requires rigorous analytical and clinical verification across the total testing pathway. This was the aim of this study.

  6. [Should the patient with myocardial bridge be advised not to performe extreme sport effort? Case of a patient with troponin I elevation after exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Krzysztof; Ożdżeńska-Milke, Ewa; Jankowski, Łukasz; Rzewuska, Ewa; Dul, Przemysław; Ilnicka, Edyta; Kobylecka, Małgorzata; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of cardiac troponins are an established method of diagnosis of heart muscle necrosis. A case of a long distance amateur-marathon runner, who showed significant elevation of plasma troponin I after extreme physical effort is reported. The diagnostic examinations did not reveal atherosclerosis burden, but myocardial bridging of coronary artery. The authors describe the significance of the pathology in the view of extreme sport effort performed by the described patient.

  7. Prokaryotic expression and anti-angiogenesis activity of human troponin Ⅰ%troponin Ⅰ的原核表达及其抗血管生活性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕永智

    2013-01-01

    为了建立肌钙蛋白-Ⅰ(troponin Ⅰ,TnⅠ)的原核表达,试验以人肝脏cDNA文库为模板,通过PCR方法扩增出肌钙蛋白-Ⅰ基因,将其克隆到PCR-TOPO质粒中,构建表达质粒pET-22b(+)-TnⅠ,转化大肠杆菌BL21 (DE3)-RPX并进行诱导表达.结果表明:表达的目的蛋白占菌体总蛋白的20%以上,并主要以可溶形式存在.说明试验建立了troponin Ⅰ的非亲和色谱纯化工艺,重组蛋白具有良好的抗血管生成活性.

  8. Magnetic axis alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lee V.; Schenz, Richard F.; Sommargren, Gary E.

    1989-01-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This paper begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100 micrometer accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The paper describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axis of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development and use of the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. An error budget shows that the Poisson alignment reference system will make it possible to meet the alignment tolerances for an FEL.

  9. Cardiac troponin testing in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and systemic sclerosis-spectrum disorders: biomarkers to distinguish between primary cardiac involvement and low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael; Lilleker, James B; Herrick, Ariane L; Chinoy, Hector

    2015-05-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, an under-recognised manifestation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc)-spectrum disorders, is associated with significant mortality. Within these two conditions, traditional skeletal muscle enzyme testing may not effectively distinguish between skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement, especially in patients with subclinical cardiac disease. Accurate biomarkers are thus required to screen for cardiac disease, to better inform both therapeutic decision-making and treatment response. The widespread uptake of cardiac troponin testing has revolutionised the management of acute coronary syndromes. While cardiac troponin I (cTnI) appears specific to the myocardium, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is also expressed by skeletal muscle, including regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There is increasing interest about the role of cardiac troponins as a putative biomarker of primary cardiac involvement in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders. Herewith we discuss subclinical cardiac disease in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders, the respective roles of cTnI and cTnT testing, and the re-expression of cTnT within regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There remains wide variation in access to cardiac troponin testing nationally and internationally. We propose two pragmatic clinical pathways using cardiac troponins, preferably measuring concomitant cTnT followed by confirmatory (cardiac) cTnI to screen patients for subclinical cardiac disease and/or low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity, and also an agenda for future research.

  10. A Network Model of Interpersonal Alignment in Dialog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mehler

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In dyadic communication, both interlocutors adapt to each other linguistically, that is, they align interpersonally. In this article, we develop a framework for modeling interpersonal alignment in terms of the structural similarity of the interlocutors’ dialog lexica. This is done by means of so-called two-layer time-aligned network series, that is, a time-adjusted graph model. The graph model is partitioned into two layers, so that the interlocutors’ lexica are captured as subgraphs of an encompassing dialog graph. Each constituent network of the series is updated utterance-wise. Thus, both the inherent bipartition of dyadic conversations and their gradual development are modeled. The notion of alignment is then operationalized within a quantitative model of structure formation based on the mutual information of the subgraphs that represent the interlocutor’s dialog lexica. By adapting and further developing several models of complex network theory, we show that dialog lexica evolve as a novel class of graphs that have not been considered before in the area of complex (linguistic networks. Additionally, we show that our framework allows for classifying dialogs according to their alignment status. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach to measuring alignment in communication that explores the similarities of graph-like cognitive representations.

  11. Mechanism for collective cell alignment in Myxococcus xanthus bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Balagam, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    M. xanthus cells self-organize into clusters, aligned cell groups, at various stages of its lifecycle. Formation of these clusters is crucial for complex dynamic multi-cellular behavior of these bacteria. However the mechanism underlying the cell alignment and clustering is not fully understood. Motivated by studies of clustering in self-propelled rods, we hypothesized that M. xanthus cells can align and form clusters through pure mechanical interactions among cells and between cells and substrate. We test this hypothesis using an agent-based simulation framework where each agent is based on biophysical model of individual M. xanthus cell. We show that model agents, under realistic cell flexibility values, can align and form cell clusters but only when periodic reversals of cell directions are suppressed. However, by extending our model to introduce observed ability of cells to lay and follow slime trails, we show that effective trail following leads to clusters in reversing cells. Furthermore, we conclude th...

  12. Cardiac troponin: a critical review of the case for point-of-care testing in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingisser, Roland; Cairns, Charles; Christ, Michael; Hausfater, Pierre; Lindahl, Bertil; Mair, Johannes; Panteghini, Mauro; Price, Christopher; Venge, Per

    2012-10-01

    The measurement of cardiac troponin concentrations in the blood is a key element in the evaluation of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, according to current guidelines, and contributes importantly to the ruling in or ruling out of acute myocardial infarction. The introduction of point-of-care testing for cardiac troponin has the potential to reduce turnaround time for assay results, compared with central laboratory testing, optimizing resource use. Although, in general, many point-of-care cardiac troponin tests are less sensitive than cardiac troponin tests developed for central laboratory-automated analyzers, point-of-care systems have been used successfully within accelerated protocols for the reliable ruling out of acute coronary syndromes, without increasing subsequent readmission rates for this condition. The impact of shortened assay turnaround times with point-of-care technology on length of stay in the emergency department has been limited to date, with most randomized evaluations of this technology having demonstrated little or no reduction in this outcome parameter. Accordingly, the point-of-care approach has not been shown to be cost-effective relative to central laboratory testing. Modeling studies suggest, however, that reengineering overall procedures within the emergency department setting, to take full advantage of reduced therapeutic turnaround time, has the potential to improve the flow of patients through the emergency department, to shorten discharge times, and to reduce cost. To properly evaluate the potential contribution of point-of-care technology in the emergency department, including its cost-effectiveness, future evaluations of point-of-care platforms will need to be embedded completely within a local decision-making structure designed for its use.

  13. Artificial antibodies for troponin T by its imprinting on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Its use as sensory surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Felismina T.C.; Dutra, Rosa A.F.; Noronha, João P. C.; Cunha, Alexandre L.; Sales, M. Goreti F.

    2011-01-01

    A novel artificial antibody for troponin T (TnT) was synthesized by molecular imprint (MI) on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). This was done by attaching TnT to the MWCNT surface, and filling the vacant spaces by polymerizing under mild conditions acrylamide (monomer) in N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (cross-linker) and ammonium persulphate (initiator). After removing the template, the obtained biomaterial was able to rebind TnT and discriminate it among other interfering spe...

  14. Alignment of Memory Transfers of a Time-Predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Brandner, Florian

    2014-01-01

    different approaches to handle the alignment problem in the stack cache: (1) unaligned transfers, (2) alignment through compiler-generated padding, (3) a novel hardware extension ensuring the alignment of all transfers. Simulation results show that our hardware extension offers a good compromise between...... of complex cache states. Instead, only the occupancy level of the cache has to be determined. The memory transfers generated by the standard stack cache are not generally aligned. These unaligned accesses risk to introduce complexity to the otherwise simple WCET analysis. In this work, we investigate three...

  15. High prevalence of Arginine to Glutamine Substitution at 98, 141 and 162 positions in Troponin I (TNNI3 associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy among Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Deepa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Troponin I (TNNI3 is the inhibitory subunit of the thin filament regulatory complex Troponin, which confers calcium-sensitivity to striated muscle actomyosin ATPase activity. Mutations (2-7% in this gene had been reported in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients (HCM. However, the frequencies of mutations and associated clinical presentation have not been established in cardiomyopathy patients of Indian origin, hence we have undertaken this study. Methods We have sequenced all the exons, including the exon-intron boundaries of TNNI3 gene in 101 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients (HCM, along with 160 healthy controls, inhabited in the same geographical region of southern India. Results Our study revealed a total of 16 mutations. Interestingly, we have observed Arginine to Glutamine (R to Q mutation at 3 positions 98, 141 and 162, exclusively in HCM patients with family history of sudden cardiac death. The novel R98Q was observed in a severe hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy patient (HOCM. The R141Q mutation was observed in two familial cases of severe asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH++. The R162Q mutation was observed in a ASH++ patient with mean septal thickness of 29 mm, and have also consists of allelic heterogeneity by means of having one more synonymous (E179E mutation at g.4797: G → A: in the same exon 7, which replaces a very frequent codon (GAG: 85% with a rare codon (GAA: 14%. Screening for R162Q mutation in all the available family members revealed its presence in 9 individuals, including 7 with allelic heterogeneity (R162Q and E179E of which 4 were severely affected. We also found 2 novel SNPs, (g.2653; G → A and g.4003 C → T exclusively in HCM, and in silico analysis of these SNPs have predicted to cause defect in recognition/binding sites for proteins responsible for proper splicing. Conclusion Our study has provided valuable information regarding the prevalence of TNNI3 mutations in

  16. Cardiomyopathy-related mutation (A30V) in mouse cardiac troponin T divergently alters the magnitude of stretch activation in α- and β-myosin heavy chain fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Alexis V; Gollapudi, Sampath K; Chandra, Murali

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the functional consequences of the human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutation A28V in cardiac troponin T (TnT). The A28V mutation is located within the NH2 terminus of TnT, a region known to be important for full activation of cardiac thin filaments. The functional consequences of the A28V mutation in TnT remain unknown. Given how α- and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms differently alter the functional effect of the NH2 terminus of TnT, we hypothesized that the A28V-induced effects would be differently modulated by α- and β-MHC isoforms. Recombinant wild-type mouse TnT (TnTWT) and the mouse equivalent of the human A28V mutation (TnTA30V) were reconstituted into detergent-skinned cardiac muscle fibers extracted from normal (α-MHC) and transgenic (β-MHC) mice. Dynamic and steady-state contractile parameters were measured in reconstituted muscle fibers. Step-like length perturbation experiments demonstrated that TnTA30V decreased the magnitude of the muscle length-mediated recruitment of new force-bearing cross bridges (ER) by 30% in α-MHC fibers. In sharp contrast, TnTA30V increased ER by 55% in β-MHC fibers. Inferences drawn from other dynamic contractile parameters suggest that directional changes in ER in TnTA30V + α-MHC and TnTA30V + β-MHC fibers result from a divergent impact on cross bridge-regulatory unit (troponin-tropomyosin complex) cooperativity. TnTA30V-mediated effects on Ca(2+)-activated maximal tension and instantaneous muscle fiber stiffness (ED) were also divergently affected by α- and β-MHC. Our study demonstrates that TnTA30V + α-MHC and TnTA30V + β-MHC fibers show contrasting contractile phenotypes; however, only the observations from β-MHC fibers are consistent with the clinical data for A28V in humans.

  17. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor with high anti-fouling ability for the detection of cardiac marker troponin T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen Tsai; Chen, Ching Jung; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Cross, Jeffrey S; Chang, Shwu-Jen; Tsai, Jang-Zern; Tanaka, Junzo

    2011-10-03

    Designing a surface recognition layer with high anti-fouling ability, high affinity, and high specificity is an important issue to produce high sensitivity biosensing transducers. In this study, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of a homogeneous mixture of oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG)-terminated alkanethiolate and mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) on Au was employed for immobilizing troponin T antibody and applied in detecting cardiac troponin T by using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The mixed SAM showed no phase segregation and exhibited human serum albumin resistance, particularly with an antibody-immobilized surface. X-ray photoemission spectra revealed that the chemical composition ratio of OEG to the mixed SAM was 69% and the OEG packing density was 82%. The specific binding of troponin T on the designed surface indicated a good linear correlation (R=0.991, P<0.0009) at concentrations lower than 50 μgmL(-1) with the limit of detection of 100 ngmL(-1) using a SPR measuring instrument. It is concluded that the mixed SAM functions as designed since it has high detection capability, high accuracy and reproducibility, as well as shows strong potential to be applied in rapid clinical diagnosis for label-free detection within 2 min.

  18. Identification and expression of troponin T, a new marker on the surface of cultured tumor endothelial cells by aptamer ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Mst Naznin; Hyodo, Mamoru; Ohga, Noritaka; Akiyama, Kosuke; Hida, Kyoko; Hida, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The identification of a specific biomarker involves the development of new clinical diagnostic tools, and an in-depth understanding of the disease at the molecular level. When new blood vessels form in tumor cells, endothelial cell production is induced, a process that plays a key role in disease progression and metastasis to distinct organs for solid tumor types. The present study reports on the identification of a new biomarker on primary cultured mouse tumor endothelial cells (mTECs) using our recently developed high-affinity DNA aptamer AraHH001 (Kd = 43 nmol/L) assisted proteomics approach. We applied a strategy involving aptamer-facilitated biomarker discovery. Biotin-tagged AraHH001 was incubated with lysates of mTECs and the aptamer-proteins were then conjugated with streptavidin magnetic beads. Finally, the bound proteins were separated by sodiumdodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with silver staining. We identified troponin T via matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, the molecular target of aptamer AraHH001, and its presence was confirmed by measuring mRNA, protein levels, western blot, immunostaining, a gel shift assay of AraHH001 with troponin T. We first report here on the discovery of troponin T on mTECs, a promising and interesting diagnostic tool in the development of antiangiogenic therapy techniques the involves the targeting of the tumor vasculature. PMID:24810801

  19. The effect of multiple analysers on the biochemical diagnosis of myocardial infarction using a contemporary troponin-I assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethick, James; Patel, Prashanth; Davies, Timothy; Thompson, John; Nallagonda, Madhavi; Beech, Alison; Collinson, Paul; Lee, Virginia; Gupta, Pankaj

    2016-11-01

    Background The measurement of cardiac troponin is central for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). It is recommended that a coefficient of variation of ≤10% is achieved at the diagnostic threshold and significant change between serial measurements reported. Many modern laboratories use multiple analysers linked by automation where samples are randomly assigned to an analyser. It is therefore important to consider the combined effect of all analysers on the analytical performance of troponin measurement. Method The performance of a contemporary troponin-I (cTn-I) assay run on three analysers, linked by an automated track, was undertaken across a range of cTn-I concentrations. The data for the three analysers were aggregated to obtain the combined analytical coefficient of variation (CVA) and reference change values (RCVs). Results The CVA improved with increasing concentration and calculated RCVs ranged from 67.2% (±13 ng/L) to 32% (±160 ng/L) between cTn-I values 20 ng/L and 500 ng/L. Although there were significant differences in cTn-I measurement between analysers around the diagnostic threshold ( P diagnosis of MI. We also show that the RCV varies according to baseline cTn-I values and that reporting a single RCV across the analytical range of cTn-I may not be appropriate.

  20. Utility of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaes AH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne H Blaes,1 Aamer Rehman,2 David M Vock,3,4 Xianghua Luo,3,4 Mark Menge,5 Douglas Yee,3 Emil Missov,6 Daniel Duprez6 1Division of Hematology/Oncology/Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 2Division of Cardiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 3Masonic Cancer Center, 4Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 5Park Nicollet Frauenshuh Cancer Center, St Louis Park, 6Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Background: Anthracycline chemotherapy remains an integral part of the care for curative intent chemotherapy in breast cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Better tools need to be identified to predict cardiac complications of anthracycline chemotherapy. Materials and methods: We investigated the utility of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin T and I, and creatine kinase (CK-MB in cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, in order to determine whether baseline levels or changes in these biomarkers may help predict the onset of congestive heart failure. Results: Eighteen consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of breast cancer or non-Hodgkin lymphoma were enrolled. The median dose of doxorubicin exposure was 240 mg/m2 (range 240–400 mg/m2. After treatment with doxorubicin, the hscTnT increased to 19.1 pg/mL (P<0.001. CKMB and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels increased to 1.1 ng/mL and 88.3 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.02. When subjects who had a decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography were compared to those who did not have a change in LVEF, there was a suggestion that those subjects with an elevated baseline hscTnT were more likely to have a decline in LVEF (2.7 pg/mL and 0.1 pg/mL, respectively; P=0.07. Spearman

  1. Sensing Characteristics of A Precision Aligner Using Moire Gratings for Precision Alignment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lizhong; Hideo Furuhashi; Yoshiyuki Uchida

    2001-01-01

    Sensing characteristics of a precision aligner using moire gratings for precision alignment sysem has been investigated. A differential moire alignment system and a modified alignment system were used. The influence of the setting accuracy of the gap length and inclination of gratings on the alignment accuracy has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Setting accuracy of the gap length less than 2.5μm is required in modified moire alignment. There is no influence of the gap length on the alignment accuracy in the differential alignment system. The inclination affects alignment accuracies in both differential and modified moire alignment systems.

  2. Working the System: School counselors aligning to advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Braube Stillman, Ed.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study, based in the substantive area of school counselors, was conducted using classical grounded theory, an inductive, systemic method of data collection and analysis. The core variable, or the school counselors’ main concern and how they were resolving it, emerged as the need to develop and implement a comprehensive program within the complex ecology of a school. Working the system: Aligning to advantage was discovered to be the school counselors’ resolving process. The data revealed that as school counselors work the system, they engage in strategic actions of aligning to advantage themselves, others, and/or the overall system. Working the system comprises three stages: accessing, engaging, and sustaining, each associated with aligning behaviors, which have personal, interpersonal, and structural dimensions. The theory is useful to school counselors and other leaders engaged in systemic change in complex ecological systems.

  3. Product Grammars for Alignment and Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L; Stadler, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory of algebraic operations over linear and context-free grammars that makes it possible to combine simple "atomic" grammars operating on single sequences into complex, multi-dimensional grammars. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by constructing the search spaces of complex alignment problems on multiple input sequences explicitly as algebraic expressions of very simple one-dimensional grammars. In particular, we provide a fully worked frameshift-aware, semiglobal DNA-protein alignment algorithm whose grammar is composed of products of small, atomic grammars. The compiler accompanying our theory makes it easy to experiment with the combination of multiple grammars and different operations. Composite grammars can be written out in L(A)T(E)X for documentation and as a guide to implementation of dynamic programming algorithms. An embedding in Haskell as a domain-specific language makes the theory directly accessible to writing and using grammar products without the detour of an external compiler. Software and supplemental files available here: http://www.bioinf. uni-leipzig.de/Software/gramprod/.

  4. Benefit of combining quantitative cardiac CT parameters with troponin I for predicting right ventricular dysfunction and adverse clinical events in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Mathias, E-mail: mr.meyer.mathias@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Fink@umm.de [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Roeger, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.roeger@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Apfaltrer@umm.de [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Haghi, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.haghi@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Kaminski, Wolfgang E., E-mail: wolfgang.kaminski@umm.de [Department of Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Neumaier, Michael, E-mail: michael.neumaier@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O., E-mail: Stefan.Schoenberg@umm.de [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); and others

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative cardiac CT parameters alone and in combination with troponin I for the assessment of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) and adverse clinical events in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and results: This prospective study had institutional review board approval and was HIPAA compliant. In total 83 patients with confirmed PE underwent echocardiography and troponin I serum level measurements within 24 h. Three established cardiac CT measurements for the assessment of RVD were obtained (RV/LV{sub axial}, RV/LV{sub 4-CH}, and RV/LV{sub volume}). CT measurements and troponin I serum levels were correlated with RVD found on echocardiography and adverse clinical events according to Management Strategies and Prognosis in Pulmonary Embolism Trial-3 (MAPPET-3 criteria. 31 of 83 patients with PE had RVD on echocardiography and 39 of 83 patients had adverse clinical events. A RV/LV{sub volume} ratio > 1.43 showed the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.65) for the prediction of adverse clinical events when compared to RV/LV{sub axial}, RV/LV{sub 4Ch} and troponin I. The AUC for the detection of RVD of RV/LV{sub axial}, RV/LV{sub 4Ch}, RV/LV{sub volume}, and troponin I were 0.86, 0.86, 0.92, and 0.69, respectively. Combination of RV/LV{sub axial}, RV/LV{sub 4Ch}, RV/LV{sub volume} with troponin I increased the AUC to 0.87, 0.87 and 0.93, respectively. Conclusion: A combination of cardiac CT parameters and troponin I measurements improves the diagnostic accuracy for detecting RVD and predicting adverse clinical events if compared to either test alone.

  5. DIDA: Distributed Indexing Dispatched Alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamadi

    Full Text Available One essential application in bioinformatics that is affected by the high-throughput sequencing data deluge is the sequence alignment problem, where nucleotide or amino acid sequences are queried against targets to find regions of close similarity. When queries are too many and/or targets are too large, the alignment process becomes computationally challenging. This is usually addressed by preprocessing techniques, where the queries and/or targets are indexed for easy access while searching for matches. When the target is static, such as in an established reference genome, the cost of indexing is amortized by reusing the generated index. However, when the targets are non-static, such as contigs in the intermediate steps of a de novo assembly process, a new index must be computed for each run. To address such scalability problems, we present DIDA, a novel framework that distributes the indexing and alignment tasks into smaller subtasks over a cluster of compute nodes. It provides a workflow beyond the common practice of embarrassingly parallel implementations. DIDA is a cost-effective, scalable and modular framework for the sequence alignment problem in terms of memory usage and runtime. It can be employed in large-scale alignments to draft genomes and intermediate stages of de novo assembly runs. The DIDA source code, sample files and user manual are available through http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/dida. The software is released under the British Columbia Cancer Agency License (BCCA, and is free for academic use.

  6. General Alignment Concept of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lampen, T

    2006-01-01

    Efficient and accurate track reconstruction requires proper alignment of the tracking devices used. Here we describe the general alignment strategy envisaged for the CMS experiment. The hardware alignment devices of CMS are presented as well as the different track based alignment approaches.

  7. Photosensitive Polymers for Liquid Crystal Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahilny, U. V.; Stankevich, A. I.; Trofimova, A. V.; Muravsky, A. A.; Murauski, A. A.

    The peculiarities of alignment of liquid crystal (LC) materials by the layers of photocrosslinkable polymers with side benzaldehyde groups are considered. The investigation of mechanism of photostimulated alignment by rubbed benzaldehyde layer is performed. The methods of creation of multidomain aligning layers on the basis of photostimulated rubbing alignment are described.

  8. Clinical significance of serum cardiac troponin T in patients with congestive heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛春才; 于宏伟; 李瑞杰; 沃金善; 崔家玉; 程海宾; 王洪云; 管庆华; 索晓霞; 贾荣波

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the level of serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) was increased in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods This study consisted of 265 patients with CHF and 75 healthy people. Serum cTnT was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay using an Elecsys 1010 automatic analyzer. Results cTnT concentration was 0.181±0.536 ng/mL in CHF patients and 0.003±0.001 ng/mL in controls (P35%, cTnT was 0.07±0.0 5ng/mL (P0.05, class Ⅱ vs class Ⅲ P<0.01, class Ⅲ vs class Ⅳ P<0.01). A negative correlation was observed between serum cTnT concentration and LVEF in 265 patients with CHF (r=-0.493, P<0.001).Conclusions This study shows that the level of serum cTnT is increased in patients with CHF and that the increased level indicates the severity of CHF.

  9. Human cardiac troponin I sensor based on silver nanoparticle doped microsphere resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliminasab, Maryam; Bahrampour, Alireza; Zandi, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-12-01

    Human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific biomarker for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In this paper, a composite sensing system of an optical microsphere resonator and silver nanoparticles based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) techniques towards a point of care diagnostic system for AMI using the cTnI biomarker in HEPES buffered solution (HBS) is proposed. Pump and Raman signals enter the optical fiber coupling into the microsphere, and then SRS occurs in the microsphere. The presence of silver nanoparticles on the microsphere surface provides a tremendous enhancement of the resulting Raman signal through an electromagnetic enhancement of both the laser excitation and Stokes-shifted light of the order of 1010. This enhancement occurs in metals as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which increases the Raman gain through the SERS effect. Our simulation results show that this sensor presents a linear response for cTnI detection. The calculated enhanced Raman signal can be employed to detect the cTnI molecules around the microsphere.

  10. Cardiac troponin T: from diagnosis of myocardial infarction to cardiovascular risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Matthias; Vafaie, Mehrshad; Biener, Moritz; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac troponins (cTns) T and I are exclusively expressed at high concentrations in cardiac muscle and have emerged as the preferred biomarker in the universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI). With the recent introduction of high-sensitivity (hs) assays, diagnostic sensitivity for earlier detection of MI has substantially improved. However, lowering the diagnostic cut-off has increased the detection of myocardial injuries in various non-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) conditions, which are not related to myocardial ischemia, leading to rising difficulties in diagnosing MI in clinical situations. Several approaches, such as serial sampling and incorporation of relative or absolute δ-changes, have been proposed to overcome the limitation of decreased sensitivity for MI diagnosis with hs-cTn assays. Current consensus for rapid rule-in proposes a 20% increase within 3 or 6h when baseline cTn levels are elevated. In the case of negative baseline values, relative increases ≥50% above the 99(th) percentile were found to be adequate to improve accuracy of MI diagnosis. Besides improved diagnostic accuracy for myocardial injury, even minor cTn elevations provide important prognostic information, and increased levels of cTn are associated with adverse outcomes in both the ACS and non-ACS condition, irrespective of whether the underlying cause is an acute or chronic illness. Thus, it is highly likely that lowering the diagnostic cut-off with even more sensitive assays might improve risk stratification in both conditions.

  11. Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bailin; Morales, Andres W; Peterson, Ralph; Tang, Liang; Ye, Jing Yong

    2014-08-15

    A biosensor has been developed with a photonic crystal structure used in a total-internal-reflection (PC-TIR) configuration for label-free detection of a cardiac biomarker: Troponin I (cTnI). In contrast to a conventional optical microcavity that has a closed structure with its cavity layer sandwiched between two high-reflection surfaces, the PC-TIR configuration creates a unique open microcavity, which allows its cavity layer (sensing layer) to be easily functionalized and directly exposed to analyte molecules for bioassays. In this study, a PC-TIR sensor has been used for the label-free measurements of cardiac biomarkers by monitoring the changes in the resonant condition of the cavity due to biomolecular binding processes. Antibodies against cTnI are immobilized on the sensor surface for specific detection of cTnI with a wide range of concentrations. Detection limit of cTnI with a concentration as low as 0.1ngmL(-1) has been achieved.

  12. Persistent increase in cardiac troponin I in Fabry disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a frequent manifestation in Fabry disease (FD - an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by reduced activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. In FD an elevation of specific cardiac biomarkers, such as cardiac troponin I (cTNI has been reported in case of clinical manifestation suggestive of myocardial ischemia. In diagnosing acute myocardial infarction cTNI is considered the most reliable parameter. Case Presentation In the referred case we present a 59 years old female patient with the diagnosis of FD presenting with persistently increased cTNI level (lowest value 0.46 ng/ml, highest value 0.69 ng/ml; normal range Conclusions Our case report demonstrates a persistent cTNI release in FD with cardiac involvement. Proving the persistence in a symptom free interval, it might be related to a direct damage of myocytes. In FD cTNI could serve as a beneficial long term parameter providing new perspectives for screening strategies.

  13. Mechanism of production of troponin T fragments during postmortem aging of porcine muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Shin-ichi; Muroya, Susumu; Tanabe, Soichi; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Chikuni, Koichi; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2005-05-18

    Troponin T (TnT) is one of the myofibrillar proteins that is easily degraded during postmortem aging of pork. In this study, we determined the N-terminal amino acid sequences of TnT degradation fragments produced during postmortem aging and by m-calpain hydrolysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of TnT fragments produced during postmortem aging were EVHEPEEKPRPKLTAP, EKPRPKLTAPKIPEG, and APKIPEGEKVDF. On the other hand, the N-terminal amino acid sequences of TnT fragments produced by the action of m-calpain were APPPPAEV, EVHEPEEK, and APK. These sequences of degradation fragments could be mapped on fast type TnT isoform 2. The peptide bonds of His37-Glu38 and Thr51-Ala52 in fTnT2 were cleaved during postmortem aging as well as by the calpain hydrolysis; therefore, calpain was concluded to have an important role in TnT degradation during postmortem aging. It was also found that the sourness-suppressing peptide APPPPAEVHEVHEEVH (Okumura et al. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2004, 68, 1657-1662) derived from TnT degradation could be produced by the action of calpains on Glu21-Ala22 and His37-Glu38 sites.

  14. Typical rise and fall of troponin in(peri-procedural) myocardial infarction:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianne van Beek; Bas van Zaane; Marjolein Looije; Linda Peelen; Wilton van Klei

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify the typical shape of the rise and fall curve of troponin(Tn) following the different types of myocardial infarction(MI). METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubM ed and Embase including all studies which focused on the kinetics of Tn in MI type 1, type 4 and type 5. Tn levels were standardized using the 99 th percentile, a pooled mean with 95%CI was calculated from the weighted means for each time point until 72 h. RESULTS: A total of 34 of the 2528 studies identified in the systematic search were included. The maximum peak level of the Tn was seen after 6 h after successful reperfusion of an acute MI, after 12 h for type 1 MI and after 72 h for type 5 MI. In type 1 MI there were additional smaller peaks at 1 h and at 24 h. After successful reperfusion of an acute MI there was a second peak at 24 h. There was not enough data available to analyze the Tn release after MI associated with percutaneous coronary intervention(type 4).CONCLUSION: The typical rise and fall of Tn is different for type 1 MI, successful reperfusion of an acute MI and type 5 MI, with different timing of the peak levels and different slopes of the fall phase.

  15. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  16. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed Affan

    2012-01-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  17. Laser shaft alignment measurement model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chang-tao; Chen, Changzheng; Hou, Xiang-lin; Zhang, Guoyu

    2007-12-01

    Laser beam's track which is on photosensitive surface of the a receiver will be closed curve, when driving shaft and the driven shaft rotate with same angular velocity and rotation direction. The coordinate of arbitrary point which is on the curve is decided by the relative position of two shafts. Basing on the viewpoint, a mathematic model of laser alignment is set up. By using a data acquisition system and a data processing model of laser alignment meter with single laser beam and a detector, and basing on the installation parameter of computer, the state parameter between two shafts can be obtained by more complicated calculation and correction. The correcting data of the four under chassis of the adjusted apparatus moving on the level and the vertical plane can be calculated. This will instruct us to move the apparatus to align the shafts.

  18. New supervised alignment method as a preprocessing tool for chromatographic data in metabolomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Wiktoria; Wiczling, Paweł; Waszczuk-Jankowska, Małgorzata; Kaliszan, Roman; Markuszewski, Michał Jan

    2012-09-21

    The purpose of this work was to develop a new aligning algorithm called supervised alignment and to compare its performance with the correlation optimized warping. The supervised alignment is based on a "supervised" selection of a few common peaks presented on each chromatogram. The selected peaks are aligned based on a difference in the retention time of the selected analytes in the sample and the reference chromatogram. The retention times of the fragments between known peaks are subsequently linearly interpolated. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on a series of simulated and experimental chromatograms. The simulated chromatograms comprised analytes with a systematic or random retention time shifts. The experimental chromatographic (RP-HPLC) data have been obtained during the analysis of nucleosides from 208 urine samples and consists of both the systematic and random displacements. All the data sets have been aligned using the correlation optimized warping and the supervised alignment. The time required to complete the alignment, the overall complexity of both algorithms, and its performance measured by the average correlation coefficients are compared to assess performance of tested methods. In the case of systematic shifts, both methods lead to the successful alignment. However, for random shifts, the correlation optimized warping in comparison to the supervised alignment requires more time (few hours versus few minutes) and the quality of the alignment described as correlation coefficient of the newly aligned matrix is worse 0.8593 versus 0.9629. For the experimental dataset supervised alignment successfully aligns 208 samples using 10 prior identified peaks. The knowledge about retention times of few analytes' in the data sets is necessary to perform the supervised alignment for both systematic and random shifts. The supervised alignment method is faster, more effective and simpler preprocessing method than the correlation optimized

  19. The alignment-distribution graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

  20. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  1. Parallel progressive multiple sequence alignment on reconfigurable meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Ken D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most fundamental and challenging tasks in bio-informatics is to identify related sequences and their hidden biological significance. The most popular and proven best practice method to accomplish this task is aligning multiple sequences together. However, multiple sequence alignment is a computing extensive task. In addition, the advancement in DNA/RNA and Protein sequencing techniques has created a vast amount of sequences to be analyzed that exceeding the capability of traditional computing models. Therefore, an effective parallel multiple sequence alignment model capable of resolving these issues is in a great demand. Results We design O(1 run-time solutions for both local and global dynamic programming pair-wise alignment algorithms on reconfigurable mesh computing model. To align m sequences with max length n, we combining the parallel pair-wise dynamic programming solutions with newly designed parallel components. We successfully reduce the progressive multiple sequence alignment algorithm's run-time complexity from O(m × n4 to O(m using O(m × n3 processing units for scoring schemes that use three distinct values for match/mismatch/gap-extension. The general solution to multiple sequence alignment algorithm takes O(m × n4 processing units and completes in O(m time. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first time the progressive multiple sequence alignment algorithm is completely parallelized with O(m run-time. We also provide a new parallel algorithm for the Longest Common Subsequence (LCS with O(1 run-time using O(n3 processing units. This is a big improvement over the current best constant-time algorithm that uses O(n4 processing units.

  2. Effects of calcium binding and the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy A8V mutation on the dynamic equilibrium between closed and open conformations of the regulatory N-domain of isolated cardiac troponin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Nicole M; Liew, Chu K; Gell, David A; Fajer, Piotr G; Mackay, Joel P; Brown, Louise J

    2013-03-19

    Troponin C (TnC) is the calcium-binding subunit of the troponin complex responsible for initiating striated muscle contraction in response to calcium influx. In the skeletal TnC isoform, calcium binding induces a structural change in the regulatory N-domain of TnC that involves a transition from a closed to open structural state and accompanying exposure of a large hydrophobic patch for troponin I (TnI) to subsequently bind. However, little is understood about how calcium primes the N-domain of the cardiac isoform (cTnC) for interaction with the TnI subunit as the open conformation of the regulatory domain of cTnC has been observed only in the presence of bound TnI. Here we use paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) to characterize the closed to open transition of isolated cTnC in solution, a process that cannot be observed by traditional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Our PRE data from four spin-labeled monocysteine constructs of isolated cTnC reveal that calcium binding triggers movement of the N-domain helices toward an open state. Fitting of the PRE data to a closed to open transition model reveals the presence of a small population of cTnC molecules in the absence of calcium that possess an open conformation, the level of which increases substantially upon Ca(2+) binding. These data support a model in which calcium binding creates a dynamic equilibrium between the closed and open structural states to prime cTnC for interaction with its target peptide. We also used PRE data to assess the structural effects of a familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy point mutation located within the N-domain of cTnC (A8V). The PRE data show that the Ca(2+) switch mechanism is perturbed by the A8V mutation, resulting in a more open N-domain conformation in both the apo and holo states.

  3. The Rigors of Aligning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    organization must consider and work closely with its many stakeholders so as to guarantee satisfaction ; this idea is especially important as there is no...define success. Methodology includes a literature review, employee and customer surveys and a Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats...bearing in mind customer perceptions. Recommendations include employee training centered on goal alignment, which is vital to highlight the

  4. Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…

  5. Aligned natural inflation with modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwoon Choi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The weak gravity conjecture applied for the aligned natural inflation indicates that generically there can be a modulation of the inflaton potential, with a period determined by sub-Planckian axion scale. We study the oscillations in the primordial power spectrum induced by such modulation, and discuss the resulting observational constraints on the model.

  6. Progressive multiple sequence alignments from triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of progressive sequence alignments strongly depends on the accuracy of the individual pairwise alignment steps since gaps that are introduced at one step cannot be removed at later aggregation steps. Adjacent insertions and deletions necessarily appear in arbitrary order in pairwise alignments and hence form an unavoidable source of errors. Research Here we present a modified variant of progressive sequence alignments that addresses both issues. Instead of pairwise alignments we use exact dynamic programming to align sequence or profile triples. This avoids a large fractions of the ambiguities arising in pairwise alignments. In the subsequent aggregation steps we follow the logic of the Neighbor-Net algorithm, which constructs a phylogenetic network by step-wisely replacing triples by pairs instead of combining pairs to singletons. To this end the three-way alignments are subdivided into two partial alignments, at which stage all-gap columns are naturally removed. This alleviates the "once a gap, always a gap" problem of progressive alignment procedures. Conclusion The three-way Neighbor-Net based alignment program aln3nn is shown to compare favorably on both protein sequences and nucleic acids sequences to other progressive alignment tools. In the latter case one easily can include scoring terms that consider secondary structure features. Overall, the quality of resulting alignments in general exceeds that of clustalw or other multiple alignments tools even though our software does not included heuristics for context dependent (mismatch scores.

  7. CMS Muon Alignment: System Description and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Sobron, M

    2008-01-01

    The CMS detector has been instrumented with a precise and complex opto-mechanical alignment subsystem that provides a common reference frame between Tracker and Muon detection systems by means of a net of laser beams. The system allows a continuous and accurate monitoring of the muon chambers positions with respect to the Tracker body. Preliminary results of operation during the test of the CMS 4T solenoid magnet, performed in 2006, are presented. These measurements complement the information provided by the use of survey techniques and the results of alignment algorithms based on muon tracks crossing the detector.

  8. ChromAlign: A two-step algorithmic procedure for time alignment of three-dimensional LC-MS chromatographic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadygov, Rovshan G; Maroto, Fernando Martin; Hühmer, Andreas F R

    2006-12-15

    We present an algorithmic approach to align three-dimensional chromatographic surfaces of LC-MS data of complex mixture samples. The approach consists of two steps. In the first step, we prealign chromatographic profiles: two-dimensional projections of chromatographic surfaces. This is accomplished by correlation analysis using fast Fourier transforms. In this step, a temporal offset that maximizes the overlap and dot product between two chromatographic profiles is determined. In the second step, the algorithm generates correlation matrix elements between full mass scans of the reference and sample chromatographic surfaces. The temporal offset from the first step indicates a range of the mass scans that are possibly correlated, then the correlation matrix is calculated only for these mass scans. The correlation matrix carries information on highly correlated scans, but it does not itself determine the scan or time alignment. Alignment is determined as a path in the correlation matrix that maximizes the sum of the correlation matrix elements. The computational complexity of the optimal path generation problem is reduced by the use of dynamic programming. The program produces time-aligned surfaces. The use of the temporal offset from the first step in the second step reduces the computation time for generating the correlation matrix and speeds up the process. The algorithm has been implemented in a program, ChromAlign, developed in C++ language for the .NET2 environment in WINDOWS XP. In this work, we demonstrate the applications of ChromAlign to alignment of LC-MS surfaces of several datasets: a mixture of known proteins, samples from digests of surface proteins of T-cells, and samples prepared from digests of cerebrospinal fluid. ChromAlign accurately aligns the LC-MS surfaces we studied. In these examples, we discuss various aspects of the alignment by ChromAlign, such as constant time axis shifts and warping of chromatographic surfaces.

  9. CCQM-P58.1: Immunoassay Quantitation of Human Cardiac Troponin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, David; Noble, James; Knight, Alex E.; Wang, Lili; Klauenberg, Katy; Walzel, Monika; Elster, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    The CCQM study P58.1 assessed the equivalence of immunoassay measurements between participating NMIs. The aim of P58.1 was to demonstrate the equivalence of immunoassay measurements to determine the mass concentration of the clinically-relevant protein human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) present at low concentration relative to the protein concentration of the sample matrix. The measurement equivalence was assessed using traceability to a common certified reference material. To quantify cTnI, participants used a homogeneous sandwich-based immunoassay with an enzymatic amplification step. The antibody format consisted of a single capture and single detection antibody (referred to as 1 + 1), both were supplied to study participants. In the previous P58 study, ELISA measurement results were compared between laboratories which all used common ELISA reagents (including 96-well plates), samples, a standard for the production of calibrants, and a detailed ELISA protocol, which were supplied by a single laboratory. The P58.1 study only utilized common samples, a standard of the production of calibrants, and a set of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Because much of the experimental procedure for the P58 study was essentially standardized across participating labs, the study primarily highlighted between-laboratory differences in plate sampling designs and in plate reader response. As the participants in the P58.1 study had to produce most of their own analytical reagents and develop their own measurement procedure, the study provides a better evaluation of the equivalence of ELISA measurements between the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM.

  10. Measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood concentration in population surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The blood test for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the general population, as it is associated with subsequent incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of HS-CTnT testing within large nationally-representative population surveys in which blood samples are collected during household visits, shipped using the standard civil postal service, and then frozen for subsequent analyses. Methods The Health Survey for England (HSE) consists of a series of annual surveys beginning in 1991. It is designed to provide regular information on various aspects of the nation’s health and risk factors. We measured HS-CTnT in the blood of 200 people from the HSE 2016 wave, then froze and stored their blood samples at -40°C for 5–10 weeks, and then thawed and retested them to appreciate the extent of within-person agreement or test-retest reliability of the two measurements. Results The Cronbach's Alpha (Scale Reliability Coefficient) and the Interclass Correlation Coefficient (two-way mixed-effects model for consistency of agreement at individual level) were 0.97 (95%CI = 0.96–0.99) and 0.95 (95%CI = 0.94–0.96) respectively. The time delay from blood withdrawal to analysis and storage (1–4 days) did not affect the results, nor did the freezing time before the retest (5–10 weeks). Conclusion The measurement of HS-CTnT plasma concentration within large nationally-representative surveys such as the Health Survey for England is feasible. PMID:28141863

  11. Characterization of Cardiac Troponin Elevation in the Setting of Pediatric Supraventricular Tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeremy P; Arcilla, Lisa; Wang, Shuo; Lee, Michael S; Shannon, Kevin M

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac troponin (cTn) is currently considered the gold standard biomarker for detection of myocardial necrosis. Patients with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) often present with symptoms resulting in cTn assessment; however, there are no data on the results of such testing in childhood. We hypothesized that cTn elevation would be common in the pediatric SVT population and would portend a benign prognosis. A retrospective review of all pediatric patients (≤21 years) presenting with SVT was performed. Clinical and electrocardiographic variables from the emergency department (ED) presentation were reviewed and clinical outcomes during subsequent follow-up assessed. Of 128 patients seen in the ED for SVT, cTn was assessed in 48 (38 %). Of patients with cTn assessment, 14 (29 %) patients demonstrated cTn elevation. Univariate predictors of cTn elevation included presentation with respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms (50 vs 12 % and 42 vs 9 %; p = 0.008 and p = 0.01, respectively), lower mean arterial blood pressure (73 vs 85 mm Hg, p = 0.009), higher age-adjusted tachycardia rate (z score 9.3 vs 7.2, p < 0.001), and longer tachycardia duration (4.2 vs 1.0 h, p = 0.02). Multivariate logistic regression confirmed the association of age-adjusted tachycardia rate (odds ratio [OR] 3.8 per heart rate z score, confidence interval [CI] 1.9-11.8, p = 0.003) and duration (OR 1.5 per hour, CI 1.1-2.5, p = 0.03). Clinical outcome was excellent with no adverse sequelae during a median of 2.9 years of follow-up. Cardiac Tn elevation is common in the pediatric population presenting with SVT. Episode severity, characterized by respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms, lower mean blood pressure, and increased tachycardia rate and duration are predictive. Clinical follow-up is favorable.

  12. Serial High-Sensitivity Troponin T in Post-Primary Angioplasty Exercise Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Humberto Andres, E-mail: humbertovaz@cardiol.br; Vanz, Ana Paula; Castro, Iran [Instituto de Cardiologia - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    The kinetics of high-sensitivity troponin T (hscTnT) release should be studied in different situations, including functional tests with transient ischemic abnormalities. To evaluate the release of hscTnT by serial measurements after exercise testing (ET), and to correlate hscTnT elevations with abnormalities suggestive of ischemia. Patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary angioplasty were referred for ET 3 months after infarction. Blood samples were collected to measure basal hscTnT immediately before (TnT{sub 0h}), 2 (TnT{sub 2h}), 5 (TnT{sub 5h}), and 8 hours (TnT{sub 8h}) after ET. The outcomes were peak hscTnT, TnT{sub 5h}/TnT{sub 0h} ratio, and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) for hscTnT levels. Log-transformation was performed on hscTnT values, and comparisons were assessed with the geometric mean ratio, along with their 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was assessed by analysis of covariance with no adjustment, and then, adjusted for TnT{sub 0h}, age and sex, followed by additional variables (metabolic equivalents, maximum heart rate achieved, anterior wall STEMI, and creatinine clearance). This study included 95 patients. The highest geometric means were observed at 5 hours (TnT{sub 5h}). After adjustments, peak hscTnT, TnT{sub 5h}/TnT{sub 0h} and AUC were 59% (p = 0.002), 59% (p = 0.003) and 45% (p = 0.003) higher, respectively, in patients with an abnormal ET as compared to those with normal tests. Higher elevations of hscTnT may occur after an abnormal ET as compared to a normal ET in patients with STEMI.

  13. Cardiac Troponin Elevation Predicts Mortality in Patients Undergoing Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Snipelisky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. While patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT have high cardiovascular event rates, preoperative risk stratification may not necessarily predict those susceptible patients. Troponin T (TnT may help predict patients at risk for cardiovascular complications. Methods. Consecutive patients undergoing OLT at Mayo Clinic in Florida between 1998 and 2010 who had TnT obtained within 10 days following surgery were included. Three groups were compared based on TnT level: (1 normal (TnT ≤0.01 ng/mL, (2 intermediate (TnT 0.02–0.11 ng/mL, and (3 elevated (TnT >0.11 ng/mL. Overall and cardiovascular mortality was assessed. Results. Of the 78 patients included, there was no difference in age, gender, severity of liver disease, and echocardiographic findings. Patients in the normal and intermediate TnT groups had a lower overall mortality rate (14.3% and 0%, resp. when compared with those with elevated TnT (50%; P=0.001. Patients in the elevated TnT group had a cardiovascular mortality rate of 37.5% compared with 1.4% in the other groups combined (P<0.01. The elevated TnT group had a much higher mortality rate when compared with those in the intermediate group (P<0.0001. Conclusion. TnT may accurately help risk stratify patients in the early postoperative setting to better predict cardiovascular complications.

  14. Serial High-Sensitivity Troponin T in Post-Primary Angioplasty Exercise Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Andres Vaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The kinetics of high-sensitivity troponin T (hscTnT release should be studied in different situations, including functional tests with transient ischemic abnormalities. Objective: To evaluate the release of hscTnT by serial measurements after exercise testing (ET, and to correlate hscTnT elevations with abnormalities suggestive of ischemia. Methods: Patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI undergoing primary angioplasty were referred for ET 3 months after infarction. Blood samples were collected to measure basal hscTnT immediately before (TnT0h, 2 (TnT2h, 5 (TnT5h, and 8 hours (TnT8h after ET. The outcomes were peak hscTnT, TnT5h/TnT0h ratio, and the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC for hscTnT levels. Log-transformation was performed on hscTnT values, and comparisons were assessed with the geometric mean ratio, along with their 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was assessed by analysis of covariance with no adjustment, and then, adjusted for TnT0h, age and sex, followed by additional variables (metabolic equivalents, maximum heart rate achieved, anterior wall STEMI, and creatinine clearance. Results: This study included 95 patients. The highest geometric means were observed at 5 hours (TnT5h. After adjustments, peak hscTnT, TnT5h/TnT0h and AUC were 59% (p = 0.002, 59% (p = 0.003 and 45% (p = 0.003 higher, respectively, in patients with an abnormal ET as compared to those with normal tests. Conclusion: Higher elevations of hscTnT may occur after an abnormal ET as compared to a normal ET in patients with STEMI.

  15. Evaluation of troponin T criteria for periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugman, Ibrahim Meloud; Diu, Patrick; Gohil, Jayesh; Kadappu, Krishna Kishor; Leung, Melissa; Lo, Sidney; Leung, Dominic Y; Hopkins, Andrew P; Juergens, Craig P; French, John K

    2011-03-15

    In patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the diagnosis of periprocedural myocardial infarction is often problematic when the pre-PCI levels of cardiac troponin T (TnT) are elevated. Thus, we examined different TnT criteria for periprocedural myocardial infarction when the pre-PCI TnT levels were elevated and also the associations between the post-PCI cardiac marker levels and outcomes. We established the relation between the post-PCI creatine kinase-MB (CKMB) and TnT levels in 582 patients (315 with acute coronary syndromes and 272 with stable coronary heart disease). A post-PCI increase in the CKMB levels to 14.7 μg/L (3 × the upper reference limit [URL] in men) corresponded to a TnT of 0.23 μg/L. In the 85 patients with acute coronary syndromes and normal CKMB, but elevated post peak TnT levels before PCI (performed at a median of 5 days, interquartile range 3 to 7), the post-PCI cardiac marker increases were as follows: 21 (24.7%) with a ≥ 20% increase in TnT, 10 (11.8%) with an CKMB level >3 × URL, and 12 (14%) with an absolute TnT increase of >0.09 μg/L (p 3× URL compared to those without markers elevations, the rate of freedom from death or nonfatal myocardial infarction was 88% for those with TnT elevations versus 99% (p 3× URL. Also, periprocedural cardiac marker elevations in patients with acute coronary syndromes did not have prognostic significance.

  16. Progressive troponin I loss impairs cardiac relaxation and causes heart failure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Du, Jianfeng; Zhang, Chi; Walker, Jeffery W; Huang, Xupei

    2007-08-01

    Cardiac troponin I (TnI) knockout mice exhibit a phenotype of sudden death at 17-18 days after birth due to a progressive loss of TnI. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the physiological consequences of TnI depletion and the cause of death in these mice. Cardiac function was monitored serially between 12 and 17 days of age by using high-resolution ultrasonic imaging and Doppler echocardiography. Two-dimensional B-mode and anatomical M-mode imaging and Doppler echocardiography were performed using a high-frequency ( approximately 20-45 MHz) ultrasound imaging system on homozygous cardiac TnI mutant mice (cTnI(-/-)) and wild-type littermates. On day 12, cTnI(-/-) mice were indistinguishable from wild-type mice in terms of heart rate, atrial and LV (LV) chamber dimensions, LV posterior wall thickness, and body weight. By days 16 through 17, wild-type mice showed up to a 40% increase in chamber dimensions due to normal growth, whereas cTnI(-/-) mice showed increases in atrial dimensions of up to 97% but decreases in ventricular dimensions of up to 70%. Mitral Doppler analysis revealed prolonged isovolumic relaxation time and pronounced inversion of the mitral E/A ratio (early ventricular filling wave-to-late atrial contraction filling wave) only in cTnI(-/-) mice indicative of impaired LV relaxation. cTnI(-/-) mouse hearts showed clear signs of failure on day 17, characterized by >50% declines in cardiac output, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening. B-mode echocardiography showed a profoundly narrowed tube-like LV and enlarged atria at this time. Our data are consistent with TnI deficiency causing impaired LV relaxation, which leads to diastolic heart failure in this model.

  17. Cardiac troponin and tropomyosin: structural and cellular perspectives to unveil the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra de A. Marques

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inherited myopathies affect both skeletal and cardiac muscle and are commonly associated with genetic dysfunctions, leading to the production of anomalous proteins. In cardiomyopathies, mutations frequently occur in sarcomeric genes, but the cause-effect scenario between genetic alterations and pathological processes remains elusive. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM was the first cardiac disease associated with a genetic background. Since the discovery of the first mutation in the β-myosin heavy chain, more than 1,400 new mutations in 11 sarcomeric genes have been reported, awarding HCM the title of the disease of the sarcomere. The most common macroscopic phenotypes are left ventricle and interventricular septal thickening, but because the clinical profile of this disease is quite heterogeneous, these phenotypes are not suitable for an accurate diagnosis. The development of genomic approaches for clinical investigation allows for diagnostic progress and understanding at the molecular level. Meanwhile, the lack of accurate in vivo models to better comprehend the cellular events triggered by this pathology has become a challenge. Notwithstanding, the imbalance of Ca2+ concentrations, altered signaling pathways, induction of apoptotic factors, and heart remodeling leading to abnormal anatomy have already been reported. Of note, a misbalance of signaling biomolecules, such as kinases and tumor suppressors (e.g., Akt and p53, seems to participate in apoptotic and fibrotic events. In HCM, structural and cellular information about defective sarcomeric proteins and their altered interactome is emerging but still represents a bottleneck for developing new concepts in basic research and for future therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on the structural and cellular alterations triggered by HCM-causing mutations in troponin and tropomyosin proteins and how structural biology can aid in the discovery of new platforms for therapeutics. We

  18. The Corellation Between Serum Ferritin and Cardiac Troponin I in Major Beta Thalassemia Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Shodikin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Major beta thalassemia (MBT is a hereditary disease which synthesies defects in beta chains of haemoglobin, it is causes red blood cell destruction and the symptoms of anemia. Red blood cell destruction, frequent blood transfusion and low adherence to routine use of iron chelator lead to iron accumulation in the heart, liver and endocrine organs. Accumulation of iron in the myocard can lead acute myocardial infarction. One of cardiac markers that had been used for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction was cardiac troponin I (cTnI. The aim of this research is find the correlation between serum ferritin levels and cTnI in MBT children. A descriptive analytic research was conducted using a cross sectional design. The subjects were divided into 2 groups, the MBT group and the control group. In both groups, the serum ferritin and cTnI levels ere evaluated. Data were analyzed using t-test and Pearson correlation test. Eleven children in the MBT group and 11 children in the control group were involved in this study. In the MBT group, the mean of serum ferritin and cTnI levels were 4292.5 µg/L and 0.20 ng/mL respectively. The mean of serum ferritin levels in the MBT group were higher than in the control and statistically significant (p= 0.0004. The mean of serum ferritin levels in the MBT group were higher than in the control and statistically significant (p= 0.0004. The mean of serum cTnI in the MBT group were higher than in the control, but statistically not significant (p= 0.82. In the MBT group, there was a weak corellation between serum ferritin and cTnI levels (r= 0.34.

  19. Aligned Layers of Silver Nano-Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii B. Golovin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new dichroic polarizers made by ordering silver nano-fibers to aligned layers. The aligned layers consist of nano-fibers and self-assembled molecular aggregates of lyotropic liquid crystals. Unidirectional alignment of the layers is achieved by means of mechanical shearing. Aligned layers of silver nano-fibers are partially transparent to a linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The unidirectional alignment and density of the silver nano-fibers determine degree of polarization of transmitted light. The aligned layers of silver nano-fibers might be used in optics, microwave applications, and organic electronics.

  20. Plasma myeloperoxidase, NT-proBNP, and troponin-I in patients on CAPD compared with those on regular hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hweish, Abdulla; Sultan, Sherif S; Mogazi, Khaled; Elsammak, Mohamed Y

    2010-07-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a hemoprotein that is released during inflammation and may lead to irreversible protein and lipid modification, increasing levels of oxidized low density lipoprotein, and promoting athrogenesis. Recently, it has been considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Similarly, the measurement of carotid intima-media thickness gives an indication about the degree of atherosclerosis and prediction of clinical cardiovascular events. Elevated white blood cells counts may indicate a state of acute inflammation and follow its progression. Dialysis patients are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with healthy subjects. The role of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and increased cardiac troponin in identification and prognostication of cardiovascular diseases in end-stage renal disease patients has been investigated. The current study aimed to evaluate plasma MPO and its possible relationship with carotid intima-media thickness, troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA index) in a cohort of Saudi patients who are undergoing hemodialysis (HD) vs. continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease. Plasma MPO was significantly higher in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) than in those on HD and in normal subjects (P0.05). However, plasma MPO level correlated positively with the white blood cell count in patients on CAPD and in those on HD (P<0.05). Our findings suggest an increased oxidative stress in CAPD patients compared with HD patients, while the reported difference in plasma NT-proBNP and troponin-I may be related to the rapid decline of residual renal function in HD and type of membrane used in the HD dialysis procedure itself.

  1. Fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force of mouse fast skeletal muscle and ameliorates weakness due to nebulin-deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jeong Lee

    Full Text Available The effect of the fast skeletal muscle troponin activator, CK-2066260, on calcium-induced force development was studied in skinned fast skeletal muscle fibers from wildtype (WT and nebulin deficient (NEB KO mice. Nebulin is a sarcomeric protein that when absent (NEB KO mouse or present at low levels (nemaline myopathy (NM patients with NEB mutations causes muscle weakness. We studied the effect of fast skeletal troponin activation on WT muscle and tested whether it might be a therapeutic mechanism to increase muscle strength in nebulin deficient muscle. We measured tension-pCa relations with and without added CK-2066260. Maximal active tension in NEB KO tibialis cranialis fibers in the absence of CK-2066260 was ∼60% less than in WT fibers, consistent with earlier work. CK-2066260 shifted the tension-calcium relationship leftwards, with the largest relative increase (up to 8-fold at low to intermediate calcium levels. This was a general effect that was present in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. At pCa levels above ∼6.0 (i.e., calcium concentrations <1 µM, CK-2066260 increased tension of NEB KO fibers to beyond that of WT fibers. Crossbridge cycling kinetics were studied by measuring k(tr (rate constant of force redevelopment following a rapid shortening/restretch. CK-2066260 greatly increased k(tr at submaximal activation levels in both WT and NEB KO fiber bundles. We also studied the sarcomere length (SL dependence of the CK-2066260 effect (SL 2.1 µm and 2.6 µm and found that in the NEB KO fibers, CK-2066260 had a larger effect on calcium sensitivity at the long SL. We conclude that fast skeletal muscle troponin activation increases force at submaximal activation in both wildtype and NEB KO fiber bundles and, importantly, that this troponin activation is a potential therapeutic mechanism for increasing force in NM and other skeletal muscle diseases with loss of muscle strength.

  2. Cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Jie; Chen, Xu-Miao; Nie, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Jing; Cheng, Yun-Jiu; Lin, Xiao-Xiong; Wu, Su-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the relationship between these two biomarker levels and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the association of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Relevant studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE database through November 2013. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they reported the long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality of chronic kidney disease patients with abnormally elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin or C-reactive protein. Summary estimates of association were obtained using a random-effects model. Thirty-two studies met our inclusion criteria. From the pooled analysis, cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein were significantly associated with all-cause (HR 2.93, 95% CI 1.97-4.33 and HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29, respectively) and cardiovascular (HR 3.27, 95% CI 1.67-6.41 and HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.28, respectively) mortality. In the subgroup analysis of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein, significant heterogeneities were found among the subgroups of population for renal replacement therapy and for the proportion of smokers and the C-reactive protein analysis method. Elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein are significant associated with higher risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Further studies are warranted to explore the risk stratification in chronic kidney disease patients.

  3. The regulation of troponins I, C and ANP by GATA4 and Nkx2-5 in heart of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan E Luu

    Full Text Available Hibernation is an adaptive strategy used by various mammals to survive the winter under situations of low ambient temperatures and limited or no food availability. The heart of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus has the remarkable ability to descend to low, near 0°C temperatures without falling into cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that the transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2-5 may play a role in cardioprotection by facilitating the expression of key downstream targets such as troponin I, troponin C, and ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide. This study measured relative changes in transcript levels, protein levels, protein post-translational modifications, and transcription factor binding over six stages: euthermic control (EC, entrance into torpor (EN, early torpor (ET, late torpor (LT, early arousal (EA, and interbout arousal (IA. We found differential regulation of GATA4 whereby transcript/protein expression, post-translational modification (phosphorylation of serine 261, and DNA binding were enhanced during the transitory phases (entrance and arousal of hibernation. Activation of GATA4 was paired with increases in cardiac troponin I, troponin C and ANP protein levels during entrance, while increases in p-GATA4 DNA binding during early arousal was paired with decreases in troponin I and no changes in troponin C and ANP protein levels. Unlike its binding partner, the relative mRNA/protein expression and DNA binding of Nkx2-5 did not change during hibernation. This suggests that either Nkx2-5 does not play a substantial role or other regulatory mechanisms not presently studied (e.g. posttranslational modifications are important during hibernation. The data suggest a significant role for GATA4-mediated gene transcription in the differential regulation of genes which aid cardiac-specific challenges associated with torpor-arousal.

  4. Application of Image Servo Alignment Module Design to Automatic Laminating Machine for Touch Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ming Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For general add-on touch panels, a touch-sensitive layer is attached to the outside of LCD panel. As the touch panel has a sensitive layer, it must be aligned with the display panel very well, the laminating precision is also required. The integration of this kind of equipment is complex, and the research and development of the equipments covers many topics of system integration. It is difficult to customize the products for different sizes or functions. This research used key technologies, including different space alignment design and unmarked alignment method, to create an easily operated image servo alignment system. Stable and rapid alignment results were obtained by parametric optimization. Finally, this module was applied to the industrial automatic laminating machine in practice for alignment and lamination.

  5. Sequence alignment tools: one parallel pattern to rule them all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misale, Claudia; Ferrero, Giulio; Torquati, Massimo; Aldinucci, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we advocate high-level programming methodology for next generation sequencers (NGS) alignment tools for both productivity and absolute performance. We analyse the problem of parallel alignment and review the parallelisation strategies of the most popular alignment tools, which can all be abstracted to a single parallel paradigm. We compare these tools to their porting onto the FastFlow pattern-based programming framework, which provides programmers with high-level parallel patterns. By using a high-level approach, programmers are liberated from all complex aspects of parallel programming, such as synchronisation protocols, and task scheduling, gaining more possibility for seamless performance tuning. In this work, we show some use cases in which, by using a high-level approach for parallelising NGS tools, it is possible to obtain comparable or even better absolute performance for all used datasets.

  6. Sequence Alignment Tools: One Parallel Pattern to Rule Them All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Misale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we advocate high-level programming methodology for next generation sequencers (NGS alignment tools for both productivity and absolute performance. We analyse the problem of parallel alignment and review the parallelisation strategies of the most popular alignment tools, which can all be abstracted to a single parallel paradigm. We compare these tools to their porting onto the FastFlow pattern-based programming framework, which provides programmers with high-level parallel patterns. By using a high-level approach, programmers are liberated from all complex aspects of parallel programming, such as synchronisation protocols, and task scheduling, gaining more possibility for seamless performance tuning. In this work, we show some use cases in which, by using a high-level approach for parallelising NGS tools, it is possible to obtain comparable or even better absolute performance for all used datasets.

  7. A Genetic Algorithm on Multiple Sequences Alignment Problems in Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The study and comparison of sequences of characters from a finite alphabet is relevant to various areas of science, notably molecular biology. The measurement of sequence similarity involves the consideration of the possible sequence alignments in order to find an optimal one for which the "distance" between sequences is minimum. In biology informatics area, it is a more important and difficult problem due to the long length (100 at least) of sequence, this cause the compute complexity and large memory require. By associating a path in a lattice to each alignment, a geometric insight can be brought into the problem of finding an optimal alignment, this give an obvious encoding of each path. This problem can be solved by applying genetic algorithm, which is more efficient than dynamic programming and hidden Markov model using commomly now.

  8. Collaborative Purchasing of Complex Technologies in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how buyers and the vendors pursue alignment in collaborative purchasing (CP) of complex medical technologies. Design/methodology/approach: – Through a literature review in CP, the paper identify factors for shareholder alignment (i.e. aligning ...

  9. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eHartmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  10. Aligning seminars with Bologna requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep...... learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT); as a conceptual framework the authors suggest the SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) taxonomy and constructive alignment as suggested by Biggs and Tang. Our study presents results from the introduction of RPT in a large...... course. The authors find that RPT produces satisfying learning outcomes, active students, and ideal constructive alignments of the seminar content with the exam, the intended learning outcomes, and the requirements of the Bologna Process. Our data, which comprise surveys and evaluations from both faculty...

  11. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  12. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  13. Aligned mesoporous architectures and devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng (University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA)

    2011-03-01

    This is the final report for the Presidential Early Career Award for Science and Engineering - PECASE (LDRD projects 93369 and 118841) awarded to Professor Yunfeng Lu (Tulane University and University of California-Los Angeles). During the last decade, mesoporous materials with tunable periodic pores have been synthesized using surfactant liquid crystalline as templates, opening a new avenue for a wide spectrum of applications. However, the applications are somewhat limited by the unfavorabe pore orientation of these materials. Although substantial effort has been devoted to align the pore channels, fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicular pore channels remains challenging. This project focused on fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicularly aligned pore channels. We demonstrated structures for use in water purification, separation, sensors, templated synthesis, microelectronics, optics, controlled release, and highly selective catalysts.

  14. The Cluster Substructure - Alignment Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Plionis, Manolis

    2001-01-01

    Using the APM cluster data we investigate whether the dynamical status of clusters is related to the large-scale structure of the Universe. We find that cluster substructure is strongly correlated with the tendency of clusters to be aligned with their nearest neighbour and in general with the nearby clusters that belong to the same supercluster. Furthermore, dynamically young clusters are more clustered than the overall cluster population. These are strong indications that cluster develop in ...

  15. Direct Uniaxial Alignment of a Donor-Acceptor Semiconducting Polymer Using Single-Step Solution Shearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leo; Hayoz, Pascal; Diao, Ying; Reinspach, Julia Antonia; To, John W F; Toney, Michael F; Weitz, R Thomas; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-04-13

    The alignment of organic semiconductors (OSCs) in the active layers of electronic devices can confer desirable properties, such as enhanced charge transport properties due to better ordering, charge transport anisotropy for reduced device cross-talk, and polarized light emission or absorption. The solution-based deposition of highly aligned small molecule OSCs has been widely demonstrated, but the alignment of polymeric OSCs in thin films deposited directly from solution has typically required surface templating or complex pre- or postdeposition processing. Therefore, single-step solution processing and the charge transport enhancement afforded by alignment continue to be attractive. We report here the use of solution shearing to tune the degree of alignment in poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) thin films by controlling the coating speed. A maximum dichroic ratio of ∼7 was achieved on unpatterned substrates without any additional pre- or postdeposition processing. The degree of polymer alignment was found to be a competition between the shear alignment of polymer chains in solution and the complex thin film drying process. Contrary to previous reports, no charge transport anisotropy was observed because of the small crystallite size relative to the channel length, a meshlike morphology, and the likelihood of increased grain boundaries in the direction transverse to coating. In fact, the lack of aligned morphological structures, coupled with observed anisotropy in X-ray diffraction data, suggests the alignment of polymer molecules in both the crystalline and the amorphous regions of the films. The shear speed at which maximum dichroism is achieved can be controlled by altering deposition parameters such as temperature and substrate treatment. Modest changes in molecular weight showed negligible effects on alignment, while longer polymer alkyl side chains were found to reduce the degree of alignment. This work demonstrates that solution shearing can be used

  16. Grain alignment in starless cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krejny, M. [Cree Inc., 4600 Silicon Dr., Durham, NC (United States); Andersson, B.-G. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Bastien, P., E-mail: tjj@astro.umn.edu [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  17. Cactus: Algorithms for genome multiple sequence alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Paten, Benedict; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Diekhans, Mark; Zerbino, Daniel; Haussler, David

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the problem of creating reliable multiple sequence alignments in a model incorporating substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Far less attention has been paid to the problem of optimizing alignments in the presence of more general rearrangement and copy number variation. Using Cactus graphs, recently introduced for representing sequence alignments, we describe two complementary algorithms for creating genomic alignments. We have implemented these algorithms...

  18. Hardware Acceleration of Bioinformatics Sequence Alignment Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, L.

    2011-01-01

    Biological sequence alignment is an important and challenging task in bioinformatics. Alignment may be defined as an arrangement of two or more DNA or protein sequences to highlight the regions of their similarity. Sequence alignment is used to infer the evolutionary relationship between a set of pr

  19. Physician-Hospital Alignment in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-09-01

    The concept of "alignment" between physicians and hospitals is a popular buzzword in the age of health care reform. Despite their often tumultuous histories, physicians and hospitals find themselves under increasing pressures to work together toward common goals. However, effective alignment is more than just simple cooperation between parties. The process of achieving alignment does not have simple, universal steps. Alignment will differ based on individual situational factors and the type of specialty involved. Ultimately, however, there are principles that underlie the concept of alignment and should be a part of any physician-hospital alignment efforts. In orthopedic surgery, alignment involves the clinical, administrative, financial, and even personal aspects of a surgeon's practice. It must be based on the principles of financial interest, clinical authority, administrative participation, transparency, focus on the patient, and mutual necessity. Alignment can take on various forms as well, with popular models consisting of shared governance and comanagement, gainsharing, bundled payments, accountable care organizations, and other methods. As regulatory and financial pressures continue to motivate physicians and hospitals to develop alignment relationships, new and innovative methods of alignment will also appear. Existing models will mature and evolve, with individual variability based on local factors. However, certain trends seem to be appearing as time progresses and alignment relationships deepen, including regional and national collaboration, population management, and changes in the legal system. This article explores the history, principles, and specific methods of physician-hospital alignment and its critical importance for the future of health care delivery.

  20. An Overview of Multiple Sequence Alignment Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Fahad

    2009-01-01

    An overview of current multiple alignment systems to date are described.The useful algorithms, the procedures adopted and their limitations are presented.We also present the quality of the alignments obtained and in which cases(kind of alignments, kind of sequences etc) the particular systems are useful.

  1. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao;

    2007-01-01

    sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...

  2. Inferring comprehensible business/ICT alignment rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumps, B.; Martens, D.; De Backer, M.; Haesen, R.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Baesens, B.; Snoeck, M.

    2009-01-01

    We inferred business rules for business/ICT alignment by applying a novel rule induction algorithm on a data set containing rich alignment information polled from 641 organisations in 7 European countries. The alignment rule set was created using AntMiner+, a rule induction technique with a reputati

  3. Shift dynamics of capillary self-alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutinov, G.; Mastrangeli, M.; Smits, E.C.P.; Heck, G.V.; Schoo, H.F.M.; Toonder, J.J.M. den; Dietzel, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of capillary self-alignment of components with initial shift offsets from matching receptor sites. The analysis of the full uniaxial self-alignment dynamics of foil-based mesoscopic dies from pre-alignment to final settling evidenced three distinct, sequential regim

  4. Alignment of lower-limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, M S; Spence, W D; Solomonidis, S E; Paul, J P

    1986-04-01

    Alignment of a prosthesis is defined as the position of the socket relative to the other prosthetic components of the limb. During dynamic alignment the prosthetist, using subjective judgment and feedback from the patient, aims to achieve the most suitable limb geometry for best function and comfort. Until recently it was generally believed that a patient could only be satisfied with a unique "optimum alignment." The purpose of this systematic study of lower-limb alignment parameters was to gain an understanding of the factors that make a limb configuration or optimum alignment, acceptable to the patient, and to obtain a measure of the variation of this alignment that would be acceptable to the amputee. In this paper, the acceptable range of alignments for 10 below- and 10 above-knee amputees are established. Three prosthetists were involved in the majority of the 183 below-knee and 100 above-knee fittings, although several other prosthetists were also involved. The effects of each different prosthetist on the established range of alignment for each patient are reported to be significant. It is now established that an amputee can tolerate several alignments ranging in some parameters by as much as 148 mm in shifts and 17 degrees in tilts. This paper describes the method of defining and measuring the alignment of lower-limb prostheses. It presents quantitatively established values for bench alignment position and the range of adjustment required for incorporation into the design of new alignment units.

  5. Aligning Projection Images from Binary Volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleichrodt, F.; Beenhouwer, J. de; Sijbers, J.; Batenburg, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    In tomography, slight differences between the geometry of the scanner hardware and the geometric model used in the reconstruction lead to alignment artifacts. To exploit high-resolution detectors used in many applications of tomography, alignment of the projection data is essential. Markerless align

  6. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  7. Strategic Alignment and New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Kandemir, Destan; Boer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Strategic alignment is widely accepted as a prerequisite for a firm’s success, but insight into the role of alignment in, and its impact on, the new product evelopment (NPD) process and its performance is less well developed. Most publications on this topic either focus on one form of alignment o...

  8. HCM-Linked Δ 160E Cardiac Troponin T Mutation Causes Unique Progressive Structural and Molecular Ventricular Remodeling in Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rachel K.; Grinspan, Lauren Tal; Jimenez, Jesus; Guinto, Pia J.; Ertz-Berger, Briar; Tardiff, Jil C.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary disease of cardiac muscle, and one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young people. Many mutations in cardiac troponin T (cTnT) lead to a complex form of HCM with varying degrees of ventricular hypertrophy and ~65% of all cTnT mutations occur within or flanking the elongated N-terminal TNT1 domain. Biophysical studies have predicted that distal TNT1 mutations, including Δ160E, cause disease by a novel, yet unknown mechanism as compared to N-terminal mutations. To begin to address the specific effects of this commonly observed cTnT mutation we generated two independent transgenic mouse lines carrying variant doses of the mutant transgene. Hearts from the 30% and 70% cTnT Δ160E lines demonstrated a highly unique, dose-dependent disruption in cellular and sarcomeric architecture and a highly progressive pattern of ventricular remodeling. While adult ventricular myocytes isolated from Δ160E transgenic mice exhibited dosage-independent mechanical impairments, decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium load and SERCA2a calcium uptake activity, the observed decreases in calcium transients were dosage-dependent. The latter findings were concordant with measures of calcium regulatory proteins abundance and phosphorylation state. Finally, studies of whole heart physiology in the isovolumic mode demonstrated dose-dependent differences in the degree of cardiac dysfuction. We conclude that the observed clinical severity of the cTnT Δ160E mutation is caused by a combination of direct sarcomeric disruption coupled to a profound disregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis at the cellular level that results in a unique and highly progressive pattern of ventricular remodeling. PMID:23434821

  9. Ultrasensitive and low-volume point-of-care diagnostics on flexible strips – a study with cardiac troponin biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Nandhinee Radha; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a flexible, mechanically stable, and disposable electrochemical sensor platform for monitoring cardiac troponins through the detection and quantification of cardiac Troponin-T (cTnT). We designed and fabricated nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) sensing electrodes on flexible porous polyimide substrates. We demonstrate ultrasensitive detection is capable at very low sample volumes due to the confinement phenomenon of target species within the ZnO nanostructures leading to enhancement of biomolecular binding on the sensor electrode surface. The performance of the ZnO nanostructured sensor electrode was evaluated against gold and nanotextured ZnO electrodes. The electrochemical sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for cTnT were immobilized on the sensor electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of cTnT in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) buffers was achieved at low sample volumes of 20 μL using non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Limit of detection (LOD) of 1E-4 ng/mL (i.e. 1 pg/mL) at 7% CV (coefficient of variation) for cTnT in HS was demonstrated on nanostructured ZnO electrodes. The mechanical integrity of the flexible biosensor platform was demonstrated with cyclic bending tests. The sensor performed within 12% CV after 100 bending cycles demonstrating the robustness of the nanostructured ZnO electrochemical sensor platform.

  10. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses of cardiac troponin T during cardiac development in the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Pietras, K M; Sferrazza, G F; Jia, P; Athauda, G; Rueda-de-Leon, E; Rveda-de-Leon, E; Maier, J A; Dube, D K; Lemanski, S L; Lemanski, L F

    2007-01-01

    The Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, is an excellent animal model for studying heart development because it carries a naturally occurring recessive genetic mutation, designated gene c, for cardiac nonfunction. The double recessive mutants (c/c) fail to form organized myofibrils in the cardiac myoblasts resulting in hearts that fail to beat. Tropomyosin expression patterns have been studied in detail and show dramatically decreased expression in the hearts of homozygous mutant embryos. Because of the direct interaction between tropomyosin and troponin T (TnT), and the crucial functions of TnT in the regulation of striated muscle contraction, we have expanded our studies on this animal model to characterize the expression of the TnT gene in cardiac muscle throughout normal axolotl development as well as in mutant axolotls. In addition, we have succeeded in cloning the full-length cardiac troponin T (cTnT) cDNA from axolotl hearts. Confocal microscopy has shown a substantial, but reduced, expression of TnT protein in the mutant hearts when compared to normal during embryonic development.

  11. Combining a micro/nano-hierarchical scaffold with cell-printing of myoblasts induces cell alignment and differentiation favorable to skeletal muscle tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Miji; Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-09-16

    Biomedical scaffolds must be used in tissue engineering to provide physical stability and topological/biochemical properties that directly affect tissue regeneration. In this study, a new cell-laden scaffold was developed that supplies micro/nano-topological cues and promotes efficient release of cells. The hierarchical structure consisted of poly(ε-caprolactone) macrosized struts for sustaining a three-dimensional structural shape, aligned nanofibers obtained with optimized electrospinning, and cell-printed myoblasts. Importantly, the printed myoblasts were fully safe and were efficiently released from the cell-laden struts to neighboring nanofiber networks. The incorporation of micro/nanofibers in the hierarchical scaffold significantly affected myoblast proliferation, alignment, and even facilitated the formation of myotubes. We observed that myosin heavy chain expression and the expression levels of various myogenic genes (MyoD, myogenin, and troponin T) were significantly affected by the fiber alignment achieved in our hierarchical cell-laden structure. We believe that the combination of cell-printing and a hierarchical scaffold that encourages fiber alignment is a highly promising technique for skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

  12. Cardiac Troponin I: A Valuable Biomarker Indicating the Cardiac Involvement in Fabry Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tanislav

    Full Text Available Assessment of the clinical severity of Fabry disease (FD, an X-linked, rare, progressive disorder based on a genetic defect in alpha-galactosidase is challenging, especially regarding cardiac involvement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of cardiac troponin I (cTnI in discriminating FD patients with cardiac involvement in a large FD patient cohort.cTnI levels were measured with a contemporary sensitive assay in plasma samples taken routinely from FD patients. The assay was calibrated to measure cTnI levels ≥0.01 ng/ml. Elevated cTnI values (cut-off ≥0.04 ng/ml were correlated with clinical data.cTnI was assessed in 62 FD patients (median age: 47 years, males: 36%. Elevated cTnI levels were detected in 23 (37% patients. Patients with a cTnI elevation were older (median 55 years versus 36 years, p<0.001. Elevated cTnI levels were associated with the presence of a LVH (16/23 versus 1/39; OR 65.81, CI: 6.747-641.859; p<0.001. In almost all patients with a left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH elevated cTnI levels were detected (16/17, 94%. Absolute cTnI levels in patients with LVH were higher than in those without (median 0.23 ng/ml versus 0.02 ng/ml; p<0.001. A cTnI level <0.04ng/ml had a high negative predictive value regarding the presence of a LVH (38/39, 97%. In a control group of non-FD patients (n = 17 with LVH (due to hypertension none showed cTnI levels ≥0.01 ng/ml.Elevated cTnI levels are common in FD patients, reflecting cardiac involvement. FD patients might benefit from a continuous cTnI monitoring.

  13. Cardiac Troponin I: A Valuable Biomarker Indicating the Cardiac Involvement in Fabry Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Anne Kathrin; Eichler, Sabrina; Sieweke, Nicole; Speth, Maria; Bauer, Timm; Hamm, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Assessment of the clinical severity of Fabry disease (FD), an X-linked, rare, progressive disorder based on a genetic defect in alpha-galactosidase is challenging, especially regarding cardiac involvement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in discriminating FD patients with cardiac involvement in a large FD patient cohort. Methods cTnI levels were measured with a contemporary sensitive assay in plasma samples taken routinely from FD patients. The assay was calibrated to measure cTnI levels ≥0.01 ng/ml. Elevated cTnI values (cut-off ≥0.04 ng/ml) were correlated with clinical data. Results cTnI was assessed in 62 FD patients (median age: 47 years, males: 36%). Elevated cTnI levels were detected in 23 (37%) patients. Patients with a cTnI elevation were older (median 55 years versus 36 years, p<0.001). Elevated cTnI levels were associated with the presence of a LVH (16/23 versus 1/39; OR 65.81, CI: 6.747–641.859; p<0.001). In almost all patients with a left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) elevated cTnI levels were detected (16/17, 94%). Absolute cTnI levels in patients with LVH were higher than in those without (median 0.23 ng/ml versus 0.02 ng/ml; p<0.001). A cTnI level <0.04ng/ml had a high negative predictive value regarding the presence of a LVH (38/39, 97%). In a control group of non-FD patients (n = 17) with LVH (due to hypertension) none showed cTnI levels ≥0.01 ng/ml. Conclusions Elevated cTnI levels are common in FD patients, reflecting cardiac involvement. FD patients might benefit from a continuous cTnI monitoring. PMID:27322070

  14. Upconverting nanophosphors as reporters in a highly sensitive heterogeneous immunoassay for cardiac troponin I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirkka, Nina, E-mail: nkelon@utu.fi; Lyytikäinen, Annika; Savukoski, Tanja; Soukka, Tero

    2016-06-21

    Photon upconverting nanophosphors (UCNPs) have a unique capability to produce anti-Stokes emission at visible wavelengths via sequential multiphoton absorption upon infrared excitation. Since the anti-Stokes emission can be easily spectrally resolved from the Stokes' shifted autofluorescence, the upconversion luminescence (UCL) is a highly attractive reporter technology for optical biosensors and biomolecular binding assays – potentially enabling unprecedented sensitivity in separation-based solid-phase immunoassays. UCL technology has not previously been applied in sensitive detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), which requires highly sensitive detection to enable accurate and timely diagnosis of myocardial infarction. We have developed an UCL-based immunoassay for cTnI using NaYF{sub 4}: Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} UCNPs as reporters. Biotinylated anti-cTnI monoclonal antibody (Mab) and Fab fragment immobilized to streptavidin-coated wells were used to capture cTnI. Captured cTnI was detected from dry well surface after a 15 min incubation with poly(acrylic acid) coated UCNPs conjugated to second anti-cTnI Mab. UCL was measured with a dedicated UCL microplate reader. The UCL-based immunoassay allowed sensitive detection of cTnI. The limit of detection was 3.14 ng L{sup −1}. The calibration curve was linear up to cTnI concentration 50,000 ng L{sup −1}. Plasma recoveries of added cTnI were 92–117%. Obtained cTnI concentrations from five normal plasma samples were 4.13–10.7 ng L{sup −1} (median 5.06 ng L{sup −1}). There is yet significant potential for even further improved limit of detection by reducing non-specifically bound fraction of the Mab-conjugated UCNPs. The assay background with zero calibrator was over 40-fold compared to the background obtained from wells where the reporter conjugate had been excluded. - Highlights: • Detection of attomole analyte quantity in microwell using upconversion luminescence. • Upconverting

  15. Elevation of Cardiac Troponin I in Diagnosis and Progress of Viral Myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether measurement of serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) could aid in the diagnosis and the evaluation of progress of viral myocarditis(VMC). Methods The cTnI of serum samples from 282 patients with clinical diagnosis of VMC were determined with ELISA using 2B1.9 and 2F6.6 monoclonal antibodies. The effect of the serum from 25 patients who had sustained high level of cTnI on the capacity and affinity of cardiac muscarinic receptor was evaluated with[3H-QNB] and frozen sliced human cardium. EVs RNA , mutation of mitochondrium DNA(mtDNA) in lymphocyte and cardiac biopsy specimen were assayed by the method of PCR. CVB IgM and neutralizing antibody titer were measured in part of patients. Results The level of serum cTnI in 157 of 282 patients was higher than the upper normal limit (>7.1 μg/L), the positive rate being 55.7%. The rate of cTnI level returning to the normal range was 52.3% and 90.8%, in 3 months and 6 months respectively. The serum from the patients with sustained cTnI elevation inhibited the capacity and affinity of human cardiac M receptor, which resulted in downregulation and desensitization of the receptor; these reactions were similar to those of the serum from patient with dilated cardiomyopathy(DCM). The mutation frequency of mtDNA in lymphocyte and cardiac biopsy specimen in VMC cases were 15.8 and 2.5 times higher than that in normal subjects. The duration of CVB IgM present in serum was much longer and the rates of symptom improvement and arrhythmia disappearance were significantly lower in the patients with higher serum cTnI than in those with normal level cTnI. Conclusion Elevation of serum cTnI seemed to be a good marker for the presence of myocardial injury in VMC patients. Sustained high level of serum cTnI in VMC patients might suggest the development of autoimmune antibodies, cardiac receptor injury and the higher frequency of mtDNA mutation that possibly contributed to DCM process.

  16. Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Safvan, C.P.; Sakai, H.;

    1999-01-01

    Molecules in a seeded supersonic beam are aligned by the interaction between an intense nonresonant linearly polarized laser field and the molecular polarizability. We demonstrate the general applicability of the scheme by aligning I2, ICl, CS2, CH3I, and C6H5I molecules. The alignment is probed...... by mass selective two dimensional imaging of the photofragment ions produced by femtosecond laser pulses. Calculations on the degree of alignment of I2 are in good agreement with the experiments. We discuss some future applications of laser aligned molecules....

  17. Subsonic Mechanical Alignment of Irregular Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, Alex

    2007-01-01

    We show that grains can be efficiently aligned by interacting with a subsonic gaseous flow. The alignment arises from grains having irregularities that scatter atoms with different efficiency in the right and left directions. The grains tend to align with long axes perpendicular to magnetic field, which corresponds to Davis-Greenstein predictions, but does not involve magnetic field. For rather conservative factors characterizing the grain helicity and scattering efficiency of impinging atoms, the alignment of helical grains is much more efficient than the Gold-type alignment processes.

  18. Galaxy alignments: Theory, modelling and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kiessling, Alina; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kirk, Donnacha; Kitching, Thomas D; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Brown, Michael L; Rassat, Anais

    2015-01-01

    The shapes of galaxies are not randomly oriented on the sky. During the galaxy formation and evolution process, environment has a strong influence, as tidal gravitational fields in large-scale structure tend to align the shapes and angular momenta of nearby galaxies. Additionally, events such as galaxy mergers affect the relative alignments of galaxies throughout their history. These "intrinsic galaxy alignments" are known to exist, but are still poorly understood. This review will offer a pedagogical introduction to the current theories that describe intrinsic galaxy alignments, including the apparent difference in intrinsic alignment between early- and late-type galaxies and the latest efforts to model them analytically. It will then describe the ongoing efforts to simulate intrinsic alignments using both $N$-body and hydrodynamic simulations. Due to the relative youth of this field, there is still much to be done to understand intrinsic galaxy alignments and this review summarises the current state of the ...

  19. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  20. FOGSAA: Fast Optimal Global Sequence Alignment Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Angana; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2013-04-01

    In this article we propose a Fast Optimal Global Sequence Alignment Algorithm, FOGSAA, which aligns a pair of nucleotide/protein sequences faster than any optimal global alignment method including the widely used Needleman-Wunsch (NW) algorithm. FOGSAA is applicable for all types of sequences, with any scoring scheme, and with or without affine gap penalty. Compared to NW, FOGSAA achieves a time gain of (70-90)% for highly similar nucleotide sequences (> 80% similarity), and (54-70)% for sequences having (30-80)% similarity. For other sequences, it terminates with an approximate score. For protein sequences, the average time gain is between (25-40)%. Compared to three heuristic global alignment methods, the quality of alignment is improved by about 23%-53%. FOGSAA is, in general, suitable for aligning any two sequences defined over a finite alphabet set, where the quality of the global alignment is of supreme importance.

  1. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  2. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempa, J., E-mail: kempa@pw.plock.pl [Warsaw University of Technology Branch Plock (Poland)

    2015-12-15

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  3. MEANS FOR DETERMINING CENTRIFUGE ALIGNMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.Q.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for remotely determining the alignment of a centrifuge. The centrifage shaft is provided with a shoulder, upon which two followers ride, one for detecting radial movements, and one upon the shoulder face for determining the axial motion. The followers are attached to separate liquid filled bellows, and a tube connects each bellows to its respective indicating gage at a remote location. Vibrations produced by misalignment of the centrifuge shaft are transmitted to the bellows, and tbence through the tubing to the indicator gage. This apparatus is particularly useful for operation in a hot cell where the materials handled are dangerous to the operating personnel.

  4. Association of Repeatedly Measured High-Sensitivity-Assayed Troponin I with Cardiovascular Disease Events in a General Population from the MORGAM/BiomarCaRE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Maria F; Ojeda, Francisco; Saarela, Olli;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity troponin I (hs-cTnI) concentrations reflect myocardial stress. The role of hs-cTnI in predicting long-term changes in the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general populations is not clearly defined. METHODS: We investigated whether the change in 3 repeated meas...

  5. Discordant diagnoses of acute myocardial infarction due to the different use of assays and cut-off points of cardiac troponins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck Hansen, Maria; Saaby, Lotte; Nybo, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several assays for the measurement of cardiac troponin (cTn) are available, but differences in their analytical performances may affect the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: A survey was conducted at all Danish departments of clinical biochemistry at hospitals...

  6. Diagnostic and prognostic value of a careful symptom evaluation and high sensitive troponin in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris without prior cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Debbie M; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Hosbond, Susanne E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Typical angina pectoris (AP) and high-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) are independently associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and future cardiovascular events (CVE). This study aimed to assess the individual and combined diagnostic and prognostic impact of symptoms and hs...

  7. Troponin T, N-terminal pro natriuretic peptide and a patent ductus arteriosus scoring system predict death before discharge or neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Khuffash, Afif F

    2011-03-01

    There is little consensus regarding the use of echocardiography in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) treatment in preterm infants. The use of troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal Pro-BNP (NTpBNP) in combination with echocardiography assessment may facilitate the development of a superior predictive model.

  8. Cystatin C for enhancement of risk stratification in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome patients with an increased troponin T.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhausen, F.; Hirsch, A.; Fischer, J.; Zee, P.M. van der; Sanders, G.T.; Straalen, J.P. van; Cornel, J.H.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Winter, R.J. de

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed the value of cystatin C for improvement of risk stratification in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (nSTE-ACS) and increased cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and we compared the long-term effects of an early invasive treatment strategy (EIS) with a selective in

  9. Cystatin C for Enhancement of Risk Stratification in Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients with an Increased Troponin T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Windhausen; A. Hirsch; J. Fischer; P.M. van der Zee; G.T. Sanders; J.P. van Straalen; J.H. Cornel; J.G.P. Tijssen; F.W.A. Verheugt; R.J. de Winter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We assessed the value of cystatin C for improvement of risk stratification in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (nSTE-ACS) and increased cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and we compared the long-term effects of an early invasive treatment strategy (EIS) with a selective in

  10. Effect of preoperative Mg sulfate infusion on serum cardiac troponin (cTn in moderate preeclamptic undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashwa S. Elzayyat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate and compare the effect of preoperative Mg sulfate infusion on serum cardiac troponin (cTn in moderate preeclampsia undergoing elective cesarean section. A total of fifty parturients having moderate preeclampsia scheduled for elective cesarean section were included. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups 25 each, magnesium group (GMg received preoperative magnesium sulfate infusion and control group (GC then both received spinal anesthesia, serum troponin measured preoperative then at 6, 12 and 24 h postoperative. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were also recorded. Baseline serum cardiac troponin was higher above normal and was comparable at the rest of times in both groups. Mean arterial pressure readings were significantly lower in GMg compared to GC at induction of spinal, skin incision and skin closure (P < 0.05 and were comparable at the rest of times. Serum cardiac troponin (cTn levels were comparable in parturients received magnesium sulfate infusion preoperatively with those did not receive magnesium sulfate.

  11. MARS: computing three-dimensional alignments for multiple ligands using pairwise similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabunde, Thomas; Giegerich, Clemens; Evers, Andreas

    2012-08-27

    The three-dimensional (3D) superimposition of molecules of one biological target reflecting their relative bioactive orientation is key for several ligand-based drug design studies (e.g., QSAR studies, pharmacophore modeling). However, with the lack of sufficient ligand-protein complex structures, an experimental alignment is difficult or often impossible to obtain. Several computational 3D alignment tools have been developed by academic or commercial groups to address this challenge. Here, we present a new approach, MARS (Multiple Alignments by ROCS-based Similarity), that is based on the pairwise alignment of all molecules within the data set using the tool ROCS (Rapid Overlay of Chemical Structures). Each pairwise alignment is scored, and the results are captured in a score matrix. The ideal superimposition of the compounds in the set is then identified by the analysis of the score matrix building stepwise a superimposition of all molecules. The algorithm exploits similarities among all molecules in the data set to compute an optimal 3D alignment. This alignment tool presented here can be used for several applications, including pharmacophore model generation, 3D QSAR modeling, 3D clustering, identification of structural outliers, and addition of compounds to an already existing alignment. Case studies are shown, validating the 3D alignments for six different data sets.

  12. OCPAT: an online codon-preserved alignment tool for evolutionary genomic analysis of protein coding sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman Lawrence I

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapidly accumulating genome sequence data from multiple species offer powerful opportunities for the detection of DNA sequence evolution. Phylogenetic tree construction and codon-based tests for natural selection are the prevailing tools used to detect functionally important evolutionary change in protein coding sequences. These analyses often require multiple DNA sequence alignments that maintain the correct reading frame for each collection of putative orthologous sequences. Since this feature is not available in most alignment tools, codon reading frames often must be checked manually before evolutionary analyses can commence. Results Here we report an online codon-preserved alignment tool (OCPAT that generates multiple sequence alignments automatically from the coding sequences of any list of human gene IDs and their putative orthologs from genomes of other vertebrate tetrapods. OCPAT is programmed to extract putative orthologous genes from genomes and to align the orthologs with the reading frame maintained in all species. OCPAT also optimizes the alignment by trimming the most variable alignment regions at the 5' and 3' ends of each gene. The resulting output of alignments is returned in several formats, which facilitates further molecular evolutionary analyses by appropriate available software. Alignments are generally robust and reliable, retaining the correct reading frame. The tool can serve as the first step for comparative genomic analyses of protein-coding gene sequences including phylogenetic tree reconstruction and detection of natural selection. We aligned 20,658 human RefSeq mRNAs using OCPAT. Most alignments are missing sequence(s from at least one species; however, functional annotation clustering of the ~1700 transcripts that were alignable to all species shows that genes involved in multi-subunit protein complexes are highly conserved. Conclusion The OCPAT program facilitates large-scale evolutionary and

  13. A comprehensive analysis of non-sequential alignments between all protein structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Valentin A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of relations between proteins can be represented as a conventional sequential alignment. Nevertheless, unusual non-sequential alignments with different connectivity of the aligned fragments in compared proteins have been reported by many researchers. It is interesting to understand those non-sequential alignments; are they unique, sporadic cases or they occur frequently; do they belong to a few specific folds or spread among many different folds, as a common feature of protein structure. We present here a comprehensive large-scale study of non-sequential alignments between available protein structures in Protein Data Bank. Results The study has been conducted on a non-redundant set of 8,865 protein structures aligned with the aid of the TOPOFIT method. It has been estimated that between 17.4% and 35.2% of all alignments are non-sequential depending on variations in the parameters. Analysis of the data revealed that non-sequential relations between proteins do occur systematically and in large quantities. Various sizes and numbers of non-sequential fragments have been observed with all possible complexities of fragment rearrangements found for alignments consisting of up to 12 fragments. It has been found that non-sequential alignments are not limited to proteins of any particular fold and are present in more than two hundred of them. Moreover, many of them are found between proteins with different fold assignments. It has been shown that protein structure symmetry does not explain non-sequential alignments. Therefore, compelling evidences have been provided that non-sequential alignments between proteins are systematic and widespread across the protein universe. Conclusion The phenomenon of the widespread occurrence of non-sequential alignments between proteins might represent a missing rule of protein structure organization. More detailed study of this phenomenon will enhance our understanding of protein

  14. Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.

    1989-03-01

    The technique of velocity-aligned Doppler spectrosocopy (VADS) is presented and discussed. For photolysis/probe experiments with pulsed initiation, VADS can yield Doppler profiles for nascent photofragments that allow detailed center-of-mass (c.m.) kinetic energy distributions to be extracted. When compared with traditional forms of Doppler spectroscopy, the improvement in kinetic energy resolution is dramatic. Changes in the measured profiles are a consequence of spatial discrimination (i.e., focused and overlapping photolysis and probe beams) and delayed observation. These factors result in the selective detection of species whose velocities are aligned with the wave vector of the probe radiation k/sub pr/, thus revealing the speed distribution along k/sub pr/ rather than the distribution of nascent velocity components projected upon this direction. Mathematical details of the procedure used to model VADS are given, and experimental illustrations for HI, H/sub 2/S, and NH/sub 3/ photodissociation are presented. In these examples, pulsed photodissociation produces H atoms that are detected by sequential two-photon, two-frequency ionization via Lyman-..cap alpha.. with a pulsed laser (121.6+364.7 nm), and measuring the Lyman-..cap alpha.. Doppler profile as a function of probe delay reveals both internal and c.m. kinetic energy distributions for the photofragments. Strengths and weaknesses of VADS as a tool for investigating photofragmentation phenomena are also discussed.

  15. Pairwise structure alignment specifically tuned for surface pockets and interaction interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2015-09-09

    To detect and evaluate the similarities between the three-dimensional (3D) structures of two molecules, various kinds of methods have been proposed for the pairwise structure alignment problem [6, 9, 7, 11]. The problem plays important roles when studying the function and the evolution of biological molecules. Recently, pairwise structure alignment methods have been extended and applied on surface pocket structures [10, 3, 5] and interaction interface structures [8, 4]. The results show that, even when there are no global similarities discovered between the global sequences and the global structures, biological molecules or complexes could share similar functions because of well conserved pockets and interfaces. Thus, pairwise pocket and interface structure alignments are promising to unveil such shared functions that cannot be discovered by the well-studied global sequence and global structure alignments. State-of-the-art methods for pairwise pocket and interface structure alignments [4, 5] are direct extensions of the classic pairwise protein structure alignment methods, and thus such methods share a few limitations. First, the goal of the classic protein structure alignment methods is to align single-chain protein structures (i.e., a single fragment of residues connected by peptide bonds). However, we observed that pockets and interfaces tend to consist of tens of extremely short backbone fragments (i.e., three or fewer residues connected by peptide bonds). Thus, existing pocket and interface alignment methods based on the protein structure alignment methods still rely on the existence of long-enough backbone fragments, and the fragmentation issue of pockets and interfaces rises the risk of missing the optimal alignments. Moreover, existing interface structure alignment methods focus on protein-protein interfaces, and require a "blackbox preprocessing" before aligning protein-DNA and protein-RNA interfaces. Therefore, we introduce the PROtein STucture Alignment

  16. Multiple sequence alignment accuracy and phylogenetic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, T Heath; Rosenberg, Michael S

    2006-04-01

    Phylogenies are often thought to be more dependent upon the specifics of the sequence alignment rather than on the method of reconstruction. Simulation of sequences containing insertion and deletion events was performed in order to determine the role that alignment accuracy plays during phylogenetic inference. Data sets were simulated for pectinate, balanced, and random tree shapes under different conditions (ultrametric equal branch length, ultrametric random branch length, nonultrametric random branch length). Comparisons between hypothesized alignments and true alignments enabled determination of two measures of alignment accuracy, that of the total data set and that of individual branches. In general, our results indicate that as alignment error increases, topological accuracy decreases. This trend was much more pronounced for data sets derived from more pectinate topologies. In contrast, for balanced, ultrametric, equal branch length tree shapes, alignment inaccuracy had little average effect on tree reconstruction. These conclusions are based on average trends of many analyses under different conditions, and any one specific analysis, independent of the alignment accuracy, may recover very accurate or inaccurate topologies. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian, in general, outperformed neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in terms of tree reconstruction accuracy. Results also indicated that as the length of the branch and of the neighboring branches increase, alignment accuracy decreases, and the length of the neighboring branches is the major factor in topological accuracy. Thus, multiple-sequence alignment can be an important factor in downstream effects on topological reconstruction.

  17. Galaxy alignment on large and small scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, X.; Lin, W. P.; Dong, X.; Wang, Y. O.; Dutton, A.; Macciò, A.

    2016-10-01

    Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some extent of mis-alignment. The massive haloes have stronger alignment than haloes in filament which connect massive haloes. This is contrary to the naive expectation that cosmic filament is the cause of halo alignment.

  18. Impact of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy on Troponin Release During Acute Myocardial Infarction: New Insights From a Comprehensive Translational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández‐Jiménez, Rodrigo; Silva, Jacobo; Martínez‐Martínez, Sara; López‐Maderuelo, Mª Dolores; Nuno‐Ayala, Mario; García‐Ruiz, José Manuel; García‐Álvarez, Ana; Fernández‐Friera, Leticia; Pizarro, Tech Gonzalo; García‐Prieto, Jaime; Sanz‐Rosa, David; López‐Martin, Gonzalo; Fernández‐Ortiz, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos; Fuster, Valentin; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Ibanez, Borja

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarkers are frequently used to estimate infarct size (IS) as an endpoint in experimental and clinical studies. Here, we prospectively studied the impact of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) on biomarker release in clinical and experimental myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results ST‐segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients (n=140) were monitored for total creatine kinase (CK) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) over 72 hours postinfarction and were examined by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) at 1 week and 6 months postinfarction. MI was generated in pigs with induced LVH (n=10) and in sham‐operated pigs (n=8), and serial total CK and cTnI measurements were performed and CMR scans conducted at 7 days postinfarction. Regression analysis was used to study the influence of LVH on total CK and cTnI release and IS estimated by CMR (gold standard). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to study the discriminatory capacity of the area under the curve (AUC) of cTnI and total CK in predicting LV dysfunction. Cardiomyocyte cTnI expression was quantified in myocardial sections from LVH and sham‐operated pigs. In both the clinical and experimental studies, LVH was associated with significantly higher peak and AUC of cTnI, but not with differences in total CK. ROC curves showed that the discriminatory capacity of AUC of cTnI to predict LV dysfunction was significantly worse for patients with LVH. LVH did not affect the capacity of total CK to estimate IS or LV dysfunction. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed significantly higher cTnI content in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Conclusions Peak and AUC of cTnI both significantly overestimate IS in the presence of LVH, owing to the higher troponin content per cardiomyocyte. In the setting of LVH, cTnI release during STEMI poorly predicts postinfarction LV dysfunction. LV mass should be taken into consideration when IS or LV function are estimated by troponin

  19. Troponin I的表达载体构建诱导表达和纯化及活性测定%CONSTRUCTION EXPRESSION PURIFICATION AND ANTI-ANGIOGENESIS DETYERMINATION OF HUMAN TROPONIN I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕永智; 黎波

    2006-01-01

    以人肝脏Cdna文库为模板,通过PCR方法扩增出Troponin基因,将其克隆到Pcr-TOPO质粒中,构建表达质粒Pet-22 b(+)-TnI,转化大肠杆菌BL 21(DE 3)-RPX并进行诱导表达,表达的目的蛋白占菌体总蛋白的20%以上并主要以可溶形式存在.建立了Troponin I的非亲和色谱纯化工艺,纯化后蛋白产量约为20 mg/L,纯度在90%以上.体外活性实验表明重组蛋白具有良好的抗血管生成.

  20. Parametric and non-parametric masking of randomness in sequence alignments can be improved and leads to better resolved trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Reumont Björn M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods of alignment masking, which refers to the technique of excluding alignment blocks prior to tree reconstructions, have been successful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in sequence alignments. However, the lack of formally well defined methods to identify randomness in sequence alignments has prevented a routine application of alignment masking. In this study, we compared the effects on tree reconstructions of the most commonly used profiling method (GBLOCKS which uses a predefined set of rules in combination with alignment masking, with a new profiling approach (ALISCORE based on Monte Carlo resampling within a sliding window, using different data sets and alignment methods. While the GBLOCKS approach excludes variable sections above a certain threshold which choice is left arbitrary, the ALISCORE algorithm is free of a priori rating of parameter space and therefore more objective. Results ALISCORE was successfully extended to amino acids using a proportional model and empirical substitution matrices to score randomness in multiple sequence alignments. A complex bootstrap resampling leads to an even distribution of scores of randomly similar sequences to assess randomness of the observed sequence similarity. Testing performance on real data, both masking methods, GBLOCKS and ALISCORE, helped to improve tree resolution. The sliding window approach was less sensitive to different alignments of identical data sets and performed equally well on all data sets. Concurrently, ALISCORE is capable of dealing with different substitution patterns and heterogeneous base composition. ALISCORE and the most relaxed GBLOCKS gap parameter setting performed best on all data sets. Correspondingly, Neighbor-Net analyses showed the most decrease in conflict. Conclusions Alignment masking improves signal-to-noise ratio in multiple sequence alignments prior to phylogenetic reconstruction. Given the robust performance of alignment

  1. Concentrations of cardiac Troponin I before and after ovariohysterectomy in 46 female dogs with pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelander, Lena; Hagman, Ragnvi; Häggström, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Background Canine pyometra is a common disease in countries where routine spaying of young dogs is not common practice. This disease is known to lead to systemic inflammation potentially affecting multiple organs in the body, including the heart. Cardiac-specific Troponin I (cTnI) is a sensitive marker of myocardial cell damage, which can result from ischemia, trauma, toxins or inflammation. Dogs with pyometra are also exposed to anaesthesia which can potentially result in myocardial cell damage. The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate the occurrence of myocardial cell damage as indicated by increased serum concentrations of cTnI in dogs with pyometra and relate these to presence of systemic inflammation and 2) to evaluate the change in cTnI-concentrations after anaesthesia and surgery. Methods Serum cTnI concentration was measured preoperatively and one day after surgery in 46 female dogs with pyometra and 15 female dogs that underwent surgery for other reasons (ovariohysterectomy and mammary tumours). Results Forty-six female dogs of different breeds diagnosed with pyometra were included. The dogs had a median age of 8.5 years (IQR 7.5–10) and a median weight of 29 kg (IQR 9–32). Of the 46 dogs, 37 (80%) fulfilled the chosen criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) at inclusion. Thirteen (28%) of the dogs had increased cTnI concentrations (> 0.2 μg/l) before surgery and 18 (39%) had increased cTnI-concentrations the day after surgery. The cTnI concentrations in the 13 dogs with increased preoperative cTnI concentrations decreased in 8 dogs, increased in 4 dogs, and was unchanged in one dog. Seven dogs with nondetectable preoperative cTnI concentrations had increased postoperative concentrations. The only significant association between the studied laboratory or clinical variables (including SIRS) and cTnI concentration was preoperative percentage band neutrophils (PBN) and postoperative cTnI concentration (P = 0.016). In total, 20 dogs

  2. Concentrations of cardiac Troponin I before and after ovariohysterectomy in 46 female dogs with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman Ragnvi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a common disease in countries where routine spaying of young dogs is not common practice. This disease is known to lead to systemic inflammation potentially affecting multiple organs in the body, including the heart. Cardiac-specific Troponin I (cTnI is a sensitive marker of myocardial cell damage, which can result from ischemia, trauma, toxins or inflammation. Dogs with pyometra are also exposed to anaesthesia which can potentially result in myocardial cell damage. The aims of the study were 1 to evaluate the occurrence of myocardial cell damage as indicated by increased serum concentrations of cTnI in dogs with pyometra and relate these to presence of systemic inflammation and 2 to evaluate the change in cTnI-concentrations after anaesthesia and surgery. Methods Serum cTnI concentration was measured preoperatively and one day after surgery in 46 female dogs with pyometra and 15 female dogs that underwent surgery for other reasons (ovariohysterectomy and mammary tumours. Results Forty-six female dogs of different breeds diagnosed with pyometra were included. The dogs had a median age of 8.5 years (IQR 7.5–10 and a median weight of 29 kg (IQR 9–32. Of the 46 dogs, 37 (80% fulfilled the chosen criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS at inclusion. Thirteen (28% of the dogs had increased cTnI concentrations (> 0.2 μg/l before surgery and 18 (39% had increased cTnI-concentrations the day after surgery. The cTnI concentrations in the 13 dogs with increased preoperative cTnI concentrations decreased in 8 dogs, increased in 4 dogs, and was unchanged in one dog. Seven dogs with nondetectable preoperative cTnI concentrations had increased postoperative concentrations. The only significant association between the studied laboratory or clinical variables (including SIRS and cTnI concentration was preoperative percentage band neutrophils (PBN and postoperative cTnI concentration (P = 0.016. In

  3. Fast pairwise structural RNA alignments by pruning of the dynamical programming matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Torarinsson, Elfar; Gorodkin, Jan

    2007-01-01

    genomes. One main problem with these methods is their computational complexity, and heuristics are therefore employed. Two heuristics are currently very popular: pre-folding and pre-aligning. However, these heuristics are not ideal, as pre-aligning is dependent on sequence similarity that may...... the advantage of providing the constraints dynamically. This has been included in a new implementation of the FOLDALIGN algorithm for pairwise local or global structural alignment of RNA sequences. It is shown that time and memory requirements are dramatically lowered while overall performance is maintained....... Furthermore, a new divide and conquer method is introduced to limit the memory requirement during global alignment and backtrack of local alignment. All branch points in the computed RNA structure are found and used to divide the structure into smaller unbranched segments. Each segment is then realigned...

  4. Evaluating mirror alignment systems using the optical sensing matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, M [Universita di Siena, INFN Pisa (Italy); Freise, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mantovan@ego-gw.it

    2008-07-15

    The most sensitive gravitational-wave detectors today are based on large-scale laser interferometers whose optics are suspended from pendulums to decouple the instrument from seismic motion. Complex control systems are required to set and maintain the microscopic position of each mirror at a precisely defined value. Such control systems use the interferometer signals as input signals, and ideally it is designed such that the degrees of freedom (mirror positions) are well decoupled in the interferometer signals. However, this is not always feasible, in particular the mirror alignment control signals in interferometric gravitational wave detectors often show strong couplings between the different degrees of freedom. In this paper we will describe a simple and powerful method to quantify in advance the performances of an alignment control system by analyzing the optical matrix of the proposed read-out system. We will motivate the method using a Fabry-Perot cavity as an example, and we will further present results for the Virgo alignment system where this method was used to characterize and improve the alignment sensing scheme.

  5. Partial Interference Alignment for K-user MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Huang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a Partial Interference Alignment and Interference Detection (PIAID) design for $K$-user quasi-static MIMO interference channels with discrete constellation inputs. Each transmitter has M antennas and transmits L independent data streams to the desired receiver with N receive antennas. We focus on the case where not all K-1 interfering transmitters can be aligned at every receiver. As a result, there will be residual interference at each receiver that cannot be aligned. Each receiver detects and cancels the residual interference based on the constellation map. However, there is a window of unfavorable interference profile at the receiver for Interference Detection (ID). In this paper, we propose a low complexity Partial Interference Alignment scheme in which we dynamically select the user set for IA so as to create a favorable interference profile for ID at each receiver. We first derive the average symbol error rate (SER) by taking into account of the non-Guassian residual interfere...

  6. Temporal alignment of electrocorticographic recordings for upper limb movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid eTalakoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of movement-related components of the brain activity is useful in the design of brain machine interfaces. A common approach is to classify the brain activity into a number of templates or states. To find these templates, the neural responses are averaged over each movement task. For averaging to be effective, one must assume that the neural components occur at identical times over repeated trials. However, complex arm movements such as reaching and grasping are prone to cross-trial variability due to the way movements are performed. Typically initiation time, duration of movement and movement speed are variable even as a subject tries to reproduce the same task identically across trials. Therefore, movement-related neural activity will tend to occur at different times across each trial. Due to this mismatch, the averaging of neural activity will not bring into salience movement-related components. To address this problem, we present a method of alignment that accounts for the variabilities in the way the movements are conducted. In this study, arm speed was used to align neural activity. Four subjects had electrocorticographic (ECoG electrodes implanted over their primary motor cortex and were asked to perform reaching and retrieving tasks using the upper limb contralateral to the site of electrode implantation. The arm speeds were aligned using a nonlinear transformation of the temporal axes resulting in averaged spectrograms with superior visualization of movement-related neural activity when compared to averaging without alignment.

  7. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Levi, Joshua; Liepmann, Till; Hahn, Walter; Bisson, Gary; Porpora, Dan; Hadjimichael, Theo

    2016-07-01

    The optical telescope element (OTE) of the James Webb Space Telescope has now been integrated and aligned. The OTE comprises the flight mirrors and the structure that supports them - 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine steering mirrors (both housed in the aft optics subsystem). The primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror have actuators to actively control their positions during operations. This allows the requirements for aligning the OTE subsystems to be in the range of microns rather than nanometers. During OTE integration, the alignment of the major subsystems of the OTE structure and optics were controlled to ensure that, when the telescope is on orbit and at cryogenic temperatures, the active mirrors will be within the adjustment range of the actuators. Though the alignment of this flagship mission was complex and intricate, the key to a successful integration process turned out to be very basic: a clear, concise series of steps employing advanced planning, backup measurements, and cross checks that this multi-organizational team executed with a careful and methodical approach. This approach was not only critical to our own success but has implications for future space observatories.

  8. From Word Alignment to Word Senses, via Multilingual Wordnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the successful commercial applications in language processing (text and/or speech dispense with any explicit concern on semantics, with the usual motivations stemming from the computational high costs required for dealing with semantics, in case of large volumes of data. With recent advances in corpus linguistics and statistical-based methods in NLP, revealing useful semantic features of linguistic data is becoming cheaper and cheaper and the accuracy of this process is steadily improving. Lately, there seems to be a growing acceptance of the idea that multilingual lexical ontologisms might be the key towards aligning different views on the semantic atomic units to be used in characterizing the general meaning of various and multilingual documents. Depending on the granularity at which semantic distinctions are necessary, the accuracy of the basic semantic processing (such as word sense disambiguation can be very high with relatively low complexity computing. The paper substantiates this statement by presenting a statistical/based system for word alignment and word sense disambiguation in parallel corpora. We describe a word alignment platform which ensures text pre-processing (tokenization, POS-tagging, lemmatization, chunking, sentence and word alignment as required by an accurate word sense disambiguation.

  9. Galaxy alignments: Observations and impact on cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, Donnacha; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kitching, Thomas D; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Sifón, Cristóbal; Cacciato, Marcello; Choi, Ami; Kiessling, Alina; Leonard, Adrienne; Rassat, Anais; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy shapes are not randomly oriented, rather they are statistically aligned in a way that can depend on formation environment, history and galaxy type. Studying the alignment of galaxies can therefore deliver important information about the astrophysics of galaxy formation and evolution as well as the growth of structure in the Universe. In this review paper we summarise key measurements of intrinsic alignments, divided by galaxy type, scale and environment. We also cover the statistics and formalism necessary to understand the observations in the literature. With the emergence of weak gravitational lensing as a precision probe of cosmology, galaxy alignments took on an added importance because they can mimic cosmic shear, the effect of gravitational lensing by large-scale structure on observed galaxy shapes. This makes intrinsic alignments an important systematic effect in weak lensing studies. We quantify the impact of intrinsic alignments on cosmic shear surveys and finish by reviewing practical mitigat...

  10. Magnetic alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Kimura and Tsunehisa Kimura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers under magnetic fields are reported. Static and rotating magnetic fields were used to align cellulose fibers with sizes ranging from millimeter to nanometer sizes. Cellulose fibers of the millimeter order, which were prepared for papermaking, and much smaller fibers with micrometer to nanometer sizes prepared by the acid hydrolysis of larger ones underwent magnetic alignment. Under a rotating field, a uniaxial alignment of fibers was achieved. The alignment was successfully fixed by the photopolymerization of a UV-curable resin precursor used as matrix. A monodomain chiral nematic film was prepared from an aqueous suspension of nanofibers. Using a field modulator inserted in a homogeneous magnetic field, simultaneous alignment and patterning were achieved

  11. Magnetic alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Fumiko; Kimura, Tsunehisa [Division of Forest and Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: tkimura@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-04-01

    The alignment and patterning of cellulose fibers under magnetic fields are reported. Static and rotating magnetic fields were used to align cellulose fibers with sizes ranging from millimeter to nanometer sizes. Cellulose fibers of the millimeter order, which were prepared for papermaking, and much smaller fibers with micrometer to nanometer sizes prepared by the acid hydrolysis of larger ones underwent magnetic alignment. Under a rotating field, a uniaxial alignment of fibers was achieved. The alignment was successfully fixed by the photopolymerization of a UV-curable resin precursor used as matrix. A monodomain chiral nematic film was prepared from an aqueous suspension of nanofibers. Using a field modulator inserted in a homogeneous magnetic field, simultaneous alignment and patterning were achieved.

  12. Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.

    1989-03-01

    The use of velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy (VADS) to measure center-of-mass kinetic-energy distributions of nascent photofragments produced in pulsed-initiation photolysis/probe experiments is described and demonstrated. In VADS, pulsed photolysis and probe laser beams counterpropagate through the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The theoretical principles of VADS and the mathematical interpretation of VADS data are explained and illustrated with diagrams; the experimental setup is described; and results for the photodissociation of HI, H2S, and NH3 are presented in graphs and characterized in detail. VADS is shown to give much higher kinetic-energy resolution than conventional Doppler spectroscopy.

  13. Aligned carbon nanotubes for nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Bong; Bae, Eunju; Kang, Donghun; Chae, Soodoo; Cheong, Byung-ho; Ko, Ju-hye; Lee, Eungmin; Park, Wanjun

    2004-10-01

    We discuss the central issues to be addressed for realizing carbon nanotube (CNT) nanoelectronics. We focus on selective growth, electron energy bandgap engineering and device integration. We have introduced a nanotemplate to control the selective growth, length and diameter of CNTs. Vertically aligned CNTs are synthesized for developing a vertical CNT-field effect transistor (FET). The ohmic contact of the CNT/metal interface is formed by rapid thermal annealing. Diameter control, synthesis of Y-shaped CNTs and surface modification of CNTs open up the possibility for energy bandgap modulation. The concepts of an ultra-high density transistor based on the vertical-CNT array and a nonvolatile memory based on the top gate structure with an oxide-nitride-oxide charge trap are also presented. We suggest that the deposited memory film can be used for the quantum dot storage due to the localized electric field created by a nano scale CNT-electron channel.

  14. Microwave Emission from Aligned Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A

    2003-01-01

    Polarized microwave emission from dust is an important foreground that may contaminate polarized CMB studies unless carefully accounted for. We discuss potential difficulties associated with this foreground, namely, the existence of different grain populations with very different emission/polarization properties and variations of the polarization yield with grain temperature. In particular, we discuss observational evidence in favor of rotational emission from tiny PAH particles with dipole moments, i.e. ``spinning dust'', and also consider magneto-dipole emission from strongly magnetized grains. We argue that in terms of polarization, the magneto-dipole emission may dominate even if its contribution to total emissivity is subdominant. Addressing polarized emission at frequencies larger than approsimately 100 GHz, we discuss the complications arising from the existence of dust components with different temperatures and possibly different alignment properties.

  15. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T is associated with cognitive decline in older adults at high cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijsman, Liselotte W; de Craen, Anton JM; Trompet, Stella

    2016-01-01

    diseases risk factors or Apolipoprotein E genotype. Further adjusting for NT-proBNP levels revealed the same results. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of hs-cTnT associate with worse cognitive function and steeper cognitive decline in older adults independent of cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and NT-proBNP.......AIMS: Cardiac troponin T (cTnT), measured with a high-sensitivity (hs) assay, is associated with cognitive decline, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We investigated the association of hs-cTnT with cognitive function and decline, and studied whether this association was independent....... Participants with pre-existent advanced clinical heart failure were excluded. Hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP obtained after 6 months of follow-up were related with cognitive function, tested repeatedly during a mean follow-up of 3.2 years. Participants with higher hs-cTnT performed worse at baseline on Stroop test...

  16. Chronic calcium imaging of neurons in the mouse visual cortex using a troponin C-based indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandre Ferrão; Hübener, Mark

    2014-05-01

    This protocol describes the use of the genetically encoded troponin C-based calcium indicator TN-XXL to chronically monitor the functional properties of single neocortical neurons in the mouse visual cortex. A cranial window is implanted over the brain of a mouse expressing TN-XXL in pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex. Several days later, the visual cortex is mapped and photographed to facilitate repeated imaging of the same region using two-photon microscopy. Initial two-photon imaging may be done ∼2 wk after the window is implanted. We show the application of this technique for long-term in vivo imaging of stimulus response properties. Beyond providing functional information, long-term imaging of TN-XXL-labeled neurons also enables the simultaneous monitoring of structural properties down to the level of single dendritic spines.

  17. Distributed Interference Alignment with Low Overhead

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yanjun; Chen, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Based on closed-form interference alignment (IA) solutions, a low overhead distributed interference alignment (LOIA) scheme is proposed in this paper for the $K$-user SISO interference channel, and extension to multiple antenna scenario is also considered. Compared with the iterative interference alignment (IIA) algorithm proposed by Gomadam et al., the overhead is greatly reduced. Simulation results show that the IIA algorithm is strictly suboptimal compared with our LOIA algorithm in the overhead-limited scenario.

  18. COS to FGS Alignment {NUV}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, George

    2009-07-01

    DESCRIPTION: In order to determine the location of the COS reference frame with respect to the FGS reference frames, NUV MIRRORA images will be obtained of an astrometric target and field. Astrometric guide stars and targets must be employed for this activity in order to facilitate the alignment wth the FGS. Images will be obtained at the initial pointing and at positions offset in V2 and in V3. Starting with the original blind pointing, obtain MIRRORA image exposures in a 5x5 POS-TARG grid centered on initial pointing; repeat the image sequence at two bracketing focus positions in same visit. Following completion of third pattern, return to nominal focus and perform 5x5 ACQ/SEARCH target acquisition and obtain one TIME-TAG MIRRORA image and one ACCUM verification exposure. Next perform an ACQ/IMAGE target acquisition followed by an ACCUM verification exposure. Also obtain ACCUM verification exposure for each of the two alternate focus positions used previously. Using MIRRORB obtain ACCUM confirmation image at nominal focus and ACCUM images at alternate focus positions and then perform an ACQ/IMAGE and confirming image at nominal focus. Analyze imagery, uplink pointing offset as offset 11469A and adjust nominal focus via patchable constant uplinked with subsequent visit of this program; update aperture locations via modified SIAF file uplinked with subsequent SMS. Use updated focus and offset pointing as input for COS 09 {program 11469 - NUV Optics Alignment and Focus} {note the SIAF update is not a prerequisite for COS 09 to proceed, but the pointing offset and focus update are}.

  19. Aligned deposition and electrical measurements on single DNA molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eidelshtein, Gennady; Kotlyar, Alexander; Hashemi, Mohtadin;

    2015-01-01

    A reliable method of deposition of aligned individual dsDNA molecules on mica, silicon, and micro/nanofabricated circuits is presented. Complexes of biotinylated double stranded poly(dG)–poly(dC) DNA with avidin were prepared and deposited on mica and silicon surfaces in the absence of Mg2+ ions...... bound to the surface, while the DNA counterpart interacts with the substrates much more weakly and can be lifted from the surface and realigned in any direction. Using this technique, avidin–DNA complexes were deposited across platinum electrodes on a silicon substrate. Electrical measurements...

  20. Precocious appearance of cardiac troponin T pre-mRNAs during early avian embryonic skeletal muscle development in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, R E; Solursh, M

    1990-07-01

    Cardiac troponin T (cTNT), a component of the muscle contractile apparatus, is transiently expressed in skeletal muscle during avian limb development. While cTNT was first detected immunohistochemically in limb buds undergoing overt myogenic differentiation (Hamburger and Hamilton stage 26, about 5 days in ovo), RNA blot analyses of early, predifferentiated wing buds have revealed the presence of cTNT transcripts in limb buds as early as stage 23 (4 days in ovo). Steady-state cTNT poly(A) RNAs of stage 22 through stage 37 fore- and hindlimbs were compared using both cTNT cDNA and cTNT intron-specific probes. In the predifferentiated state, two incompletely processed RNAs (3.8 and 2.4 kb) were expressed in the absence of the mature cTNT transcript, while a third pre-mRNA (3.5 kb) appeared concomitantly with the mature mRNA as differentiation and development proceeded. In addition, a population of unique cTNT transcripts were expressed in a proximal to distal manner in wing buds which had undergone initial overt myogenic differentiation (stage 26). Some of the cTNT pre-mRNAs observed in premyogenic limbs appeared to accumulate stably in a tissue-specific manner, based on their absence from the cardiac poly(A) RNA population. These results suggest that the appearance of cardiac troponin T mRNA, as well as the polypeptide, may be regulated at multiple levels including RNA processing, stability, and/or translation during early skeletal muscle myogenesis.

  1. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Ole

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen presenting cells (APCs sample the extra cellular space and present peptides from here to T helper cells, which can be activated if the peptides are of foreign origin. The peptides are presented on the surface of the cells in complex with major histocompatibility class II (MHC II molecules. Identification of peptides that bind MHC II molecules is thus a key step in rational vaccine design and developing methods for accurate prediction of the peptide:MHC interactions play a central role in epitope discovery. The MHC class II binding groove is open at both ends making the correct alignment of a peptide in the binding groove a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. Here, we present a novel stabilization matrix alignment method, SMM-align, that allows for direct prediction of peptide:MHC binding affinities. The predictive performance of the method is validated on a large MHC class II benchmark data set covering 14 HLA-DR (human MHC and three mouse H2-IA alleles. Results The predictive performance of the SMM-align method was demonstrated to be superior to that of the Gibbs sampler, TEPITOPE, SVRMHC, and MHCpred methods. Cross validation between peptide data set obtained from different sources demonstrated that direct incorporation of peptide length potentially results in over-fitting of the binding prediction method. Focusing on amino terminal peptide flanking residues (PFR, we demonstrate a consistent gain in predictive performance by favoring binding registers with a minimum PFR length of two amino acids. Visualizing the binding motif as obtained by the SMM-align and TEPITOPE methods highlights a series of fundamental discrepancies between the two predicted motifs. For the DRB1*1302 allele for instance, the TEPITOPE method favors basic amino acids at most anchor positions, whereas the SMM-align method identifies a preference for hydrophobic or neutral amino acids at the anchors. Conclusion

  2. Some aspects of SR beamline alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaponov, Yu.A., E-mail: Yury.Gaponov@maxlab.lu.se [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cerenius, Y. [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nygaard, J. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Ursby, T.; Larsson, K. [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Based on the Synchrotron Radiation (SR) beamline optical element-by-element alignment with analysis of the alignment results an optimized beamline alignment algorithm has been designed and developed. The alignment procedures have been designed and developed for the MAX-lab I911-4 fixed energy beamline. It has been shown that the intermediate information received during the monochromator alignment stage can be used for the correction of both monochromator and mirror without the next stages of alignment of mirror, slits, sample holder, etc. Such an optimization of the beamline alignment procedures decreases the time necessary for the alignment and becomes useful and helpful in the case of any instability of the beamline optical elements, storage ring electron orbit or the wiggler insertion device, which could result in the instability of angular and positional parameters of the SR beam. A general purpose software package for manual, semi-automatic and automatic SR beamline alignment has been designed and developed using the developed algorithm. The TANGO control system is used as the middle-ware between the stand-alone beamline control applications BLTools, BPMonitor and the beamline equipment.

  3. The art of editing RNA structural alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious, it is re......Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious...

  4. The effects of alignment error and alignment filtering on the sitewise detection of positive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gregory; Goldman, Nick

    2012-04-01

    When detecting positive selection in proteins, the prevalence of errors resulting from misalignment and the ability of alignment filters to mitigate such errors are not well understood, but filters are commonly applied to try to avoid false positive results. Focusing on the sitewise detection of positive selection across a wide range of divergence levels and indel rates, we performed simulation experiments to quantify the false positives and false negatives introduced by alignment error and the ability of alignment filters to improve performance. We found that some aligners led to many false positives, whereas others resulted in very few. False negatives were a problem for all aligners, increasing with sequence divergence. Of the aligners tested, PRANK's codon-based alignments consistently performed the best and ClustalW performed the worst. Of the filters tested, GUIDANCE performed the best and Gblocks performed the worst. Although some filters showed good ability to reduce the error rates from ClustalW and MAFFT alignments, none were found to substantially improve the performance of PRANK alignments under most conditions. Our results revealed distinct trends in error rates and power levels for aligners and filters within a biologically plausible parameter space. With the best aligner, a low false positive rate was maintained even with extremely divergent indel-prone sequences. Controls using the true alignment and an optimal filtering method suggested that performance improvements could be gained by improving aligners or filters to reduce the prevalence of false negatives, especially at higher divergence levels and indel rates.

  5. Effect of alignment changes on sagittal and coronal socket reaction moment interactions in transtibial prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Orendurff, Michael S; Zhang, Ming; Boone, David A

    2013-04-26

    Alignment is important for comfortable and stable gait of lower-limb prosthesis users. The magnitude of socket reaction moments in the multiple planes acting simultaneously upon the residual limb may be related to perception of comfort in individuals using prostheses through socket interface pressures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prosthetic alignment changes on sagittal and coronal socket reaction moment interactions (moment-moment curves) and to characterize the curves in 11 individuals with transtibial amputation using novel moment-moment interaction parameters measured by plotting sagittal socket reaction moments versus coronal ones under various alignment conditions. A custom instrumented prosthesis alignment component was used to measure socket reaction moments during walking. Prosthetic alignment was tuned to a nominally aligned condition by a prosthetist, and from this position, angular (3° and 6° of flexion, extension, abduction or adduction of the socket) and translational (5mm and 10mm of anterior, posterior, medial or lateral translation of the socket) alignment changes were performed in either the sagittal or the coronal plane in a randomized manner. A total of 17 alignment conditions were tested. Coronal angulation and translation alignment changes demonstrated similar consistent changes in the moment-moment curves. Sagittal alignment changes demonstrated more complex changes compared to the coronal alignment changes. Effect of sagittal angulations and translations on the moment-moment curves was different during 2nd rocker (mid-stance) with extension malalignment appearing to cause medio-lateral instability. Presentation of coronal and sagittal socket reaction moment interactions may provide useful visual information for prosthetists to understand the biomechanical effects of malalignment of transtibial prostheses.

  6. Displacement Analysis of Building Movement by using the Survey of Align Network at KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Il; Seo, Dong-Hyuk; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    100MeV proton linac has been operated and provided to beam users in KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex). Proton linac is composed of a 50keV proton injector, a 3MeV RFQ, 20MeV DTL tanks, 100MeV DTL tanks, beam dump and beam line for 20MeV and 100MeV. To align the accelerator components, the align networks based on reference point were installed on the wall inside tunnel. The survey works of align networks were accomplished by using the laser tracker. In this paper, the survey of align networks is performed and its results are presented. In recent survey of align networks, it was monitored to move the locations. The analysis of displacement was confirmed by compare the align networks. This analysis was used to re-align the accelerator components which can be compensated location of reference points. The displacement monitoring should be performed during the long-term period and need to find the other method for real-time, not the survey of align networks.

  7. Bayesian coestimation of phylogeny and sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Jens

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two central problems in computational biology are the determination of the alignment and phylogeny of a set of biological sequences. The traditional approach to this problem is to first build a multiple alignment of these sequences, followed by a phylogenetic reconstruction step based on this multiple alignment. However, alignment and phylogenetic inference are fundamentally interdependent, and ignoring this fact leads to biased and overconfident estimations. Whether the main interest be in sequence alignment or phylogeny, a major goal of computational biology is the co-estimation of both. Results We developed a fully Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method for coestimating phylogeny and sequence alignment, under the Thorne-Kishino-Felsenstein model of substitution and single nucleotide insertion-deletion (indel events. In our earlier work, we introduced a novel and efficient algorithm, termed the "indel peeling algorithm", which includes indels as phylogenetically informative evolutionary events, and resembles Felsenstein's peeling algorithm for substitutions on a phylogenetic tree. For a fixed alignment, our extension analytically integrates out both substitution and indel events within a proper statistical model, without the need for data augmentation at internal tree nodes, allowing for efficient sampling of tree topologies and edge lengths. To additionally sample multiple alignments, we here introduce an efficient partial Metropolized independence sampler for alignments, and combine these two algorithms into a fully Bayesian co-estimation procedure for the alignment and phylogeny problem. Our approach results in estimates for the posterior distribution of evolutionary rate parameters, for the maximum a-posteriori (MAP phylogenetic tree, and for the posterior decoding alignment. Estimates for the evolutionary tree and multiple alignment are augmented with confidence estimates for each node height and alignment column

  8. Alignments between galaxies, satellite systems and haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shi; Cautun, Marius; Frenk, Carlos S.; Gao, Liang; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-08-01

    The spatial distribution of the satellite populations of the Milky Way and Andromeda are puzzling in that they are nearly perpendicular to the discs of their central galaxies. To understand the origin of such configurations we study the alignment of the central galaxy, satellite system and dark matter halo in the largest of the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) simulation. We find that centrals and their satellite systems tend to be well aligned with their haloes, with a median misalignment angle of 33° in both cases. While the centrals are better aligned with the inner 10 kpc halo, the satellite systems are better aligned with the entire halo indicating that satellites preferentially trace the outer halo. The central-satellite alignment is weak (median misalignment angle of 52°) and we find that around 20 per cent of systems have a misalignment angle larger than 78°, which is the value for the Milky Way. The central-satellite alignment is a consequence of the tendency of both components to align with the dark matter halo. As a consequence, when the central is parallel to the satellite system, it also tends to be parallel to the halo. In contrast, if the central is perpendicular to the satellite system, as in the case of the Milky Way and Andromeda, then the central-halo alignment is much weaker. Dispersion-dominated (spheroidal) centrals have a stronger alignment with both their halo and their satellites than rotation-dominated (disc) centrals. We also found that the halo, the central galaxy and the satellite system tend to be aligned with the surrounding large-scale distribution of matter, with the halo being the better aligned of the three.

  9. Alignment of multiple-off-axis-beam imaging/interference systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, Shruthi K; Leibovici, Matthieu C R; Gaylord, Thomas K

    2016-04-20

    The alignment of components in complex multibeam arrangements is typically prone to errors that limit the performance of the system. A systematic procedure for aligning such systems is presented here. The method facilitates the precision alignment of the optical elements to achieve the accurate projection of multiple on- and off-axis images and the simultaneous interference of the multiple beams. In addition to the multibeam imaging/interference system presented, the procedure can be employed in other multibeam imaging and/or interfering configurations.

  10. Theoretical study of determining orientation and alignment of symmetric top molecule using laser-induced fluorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    General expressions used for extracting the orientation and alignment parameters of a symmetric top molecule from laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) intensity are derived by employing the density matrix approach. The molecular orientation and alignment are described by molecular state multipoles. Excitation and detection are circularly and linearly polarized lights, respectively. In general cases, the LIF intensity is a complex function of the initial molecular state multipoles, the dynamic factors and the excitation-detection geometrical factors. It contains a population, ten orientation and fourteen alignment multipoles. The problem of how to extract the initial molecular state multipoles from the resolved LIF intensity is discussed.

  11. AlignHUSH: Alignment of HMMs using structure and hydrophobicity information

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnadev Oruganty; Srinivasan Narayanaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Sensitive remote homology detection and accurate alignments especially in the midnight zone of sequence similarity are needed for better function annotation and structural modeling of proteins. An algorithm, AlignHUSH for HMM-HMM alignment has been developed which is capable of recognizing distantly related domain families The method uses structural information, in the form of predicted secondary structure probabilities, and hydrophobicity of amino acids to align HMMs of t...

  12. Flavour constraints on the Aligned Two-Higgs-Doublet Model and CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Tuzón, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The Aligned Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (A2HDM) describes a particular way of enlarging the scalar sector of the Standard Model, with a second Higgs doublet which is aligned to first the one in flavour space. This implies the absence of flavour-changing neutral currents at tree level and the presence of three complex parameters. Within this general approach, we analyze the charged Higgs phenomenology, including CP asymmetries in the K and B systems.

  13. Particle alignment reliability in single particle electron cryomicroscopy: a general approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, J.; J. Otón; Marabini, R; Carazo, J.M.; Sorzano, C.O.S.

    2016-01-01

    Electron Microscopy is reaching new capabilities thanks to the combined effect of new technologies and new image processing methods. However, the reconstruction process is still complex, requiring many steps and elaborated optimization procedures. Therefore, the possibility to reach a wrong structure exists, justifying the need of robust statistical tests. In this work, we present a conceptually simple alignment test, which does not require tilt-pair images, to evaluate the alignment consiste...

  14. Shear alignment of lamellar mesophase systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaju, S. J.; Kumaran, V.

    2015-11-01

    Mixtures of oil, water and surfactants form different microphases. Some of these phases, e.g. lamellar, hexagonal phases, lead to complex rheological behaviour at macroscale due to inherent anisotropy and irregularities in the microstructures. We present a comprehensive simulation study to examine the structure-rheology relationship in lamellar phase flow. At mesoscale, Reynolds number (Re), Schmidt number (Sc), Ericksen number (Er), extent of segregation between hydrophilic and hydrophobic components (r), ratio of viscosity of the two components (Δμ /μ0), and system size to layer width ratio (L / λ) complete the lamellar phase description. We have used lattice Boltzmann simulations to study a two dimensional lamellar phase system of moderate size. The domains and grain boundaries seen at low Sc are replaced by isolated edge dislocations at high Sc. The alignment mechanism does not change with changes in layer bending moduli (Er), viscosity contrast or r. Increasing segregation, increases disorder; this however does not lead to higher resistance to flow. At high Er, the shear tries homogenise the concentration field and disrupt layer formation. We see significantly higher peak viscosity at low Er at high viscosity contrast and due to defect pinning. The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for financial support, and Supercomputer Education and Research Centre at Indian Institute of Science for the computational resources.

  15. Protein sequence alignment analysis by local covariation: coevolution statistics detect benchmark alignment errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell J Dickson

    Full Text Available The use of sequence alignments to understand protein families is ubiquitous in molecular biology. High quality alignments are difficult to build and protein alignment remains one of the largest open problems in computational biology. Misalignments can lead to inferential errors about protein structure, folding, function, phylogeny, and residue importance. Identifying alignment errors is difficult because alignments are built and validated on the same primary criteria: sequence conservation. Local covariation identifies systematic misalignments and is independent of conservation. We demonstrate an alignment curation tool, LoCo, that integrates local covariation scores with the Jalview alignment editor. Using LoCo, we illustrate how local covariation is capable of identifying alignment errors due to the reduction of positional independence in the region of misalignment. We highlight three alignments from the benchmark database, BAliBASE 3, that contain regions of high local covariation, and investigate the causes to illustrate these types of scenarios. Two alignments contain sequential and structural shifts that cause elevated local covariation. Realignment of these misaligned segments reduces local covariation; these alternative alignments are supported with structural evidence. We also show that local covariation identifies active site residues in a validated alignment of paralogous structures. Loco is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/locoprotein/files/.

  16. RevTrans: multiple alignment of coding DNA from aligned amino acid sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2003-01-01

    The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the 'signal-to-noise ratio' in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. Besides this information-theoretical advantage, protein alignments also benefit...

  17. Business and IT alignment in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvius, A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Already for more than two decades, the necessity and desirability of aligning business needs and information technology (IT) capabilities is considered to be one of the key issues in IT management. However, several studies report quite low scores on business and IT alignment (BIA). The question “Why

  18. STELLAR: fast and exact local alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weese David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale comparison of genomic sequences requires reliable tools for the search of local alignments. Practical local aligners are in general fast, but heuristic, and hence sometimes miss significant matches. Results We present here the local pairwise aligner STELLAR that has full sensitivity for ε-alignments, i.e. guarantees to report all local alignments of a given minimal length and maximal error rate. The aligner is composed of two steps, filtering and verification. We apply the SWIFT algorithm for lossless filtering, and have developed a new verification strategy that we prove to be exact. Our results on simulated and real genomic data confirm and quantify the conjecture that heuristic tools like BLAST or BLAT miss a large percentage of significant local alignments. Conclusions STELLAR is very practical and fast on very long sequences which makes it a suitable new tool for finding local alignments between genomic sequences under the edit distance model. Binaries are freely available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X at http://www.seqan.de/projects/stellar. The source code is freely distributed with the SeqAn C++ library version 1.3 and later at http://www.seqan.de.

  19. Comparative genomics beyond sequence-based alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Yao, Zizhen; Wiklund, Eric D.;

    2008-01-01

    Recent computational scans for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in multiple organisms have relied on existing multiple sequence alignments. However, as sequence similarity drops, a key signal of RNA structure--frequent compensating base changes--is increasingly likely to cause sequence-based alignment me...

  20. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  1. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  2. Probabilistic sequence alignment of stratigraphic records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Luan; Khider, Deborah; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lawrence, Charles E.

    2014-10-01

    The assessment of age uncertainty in stratigraphically aligned records is a pressing need in paleoceanographic research. The alignment of ocean sediment cores is used to develop mutually consistent age models for climate proxies and is often based on the δ18O of calcite from benthic foraminifera, which records a global ice volume and deep water temperature signal. To date, δ18O alignment has been performed by manual, qualitative comparison or by deterministic algorithms. Here we present a hidden Markov model (HMM) probabilistic algorithm to find 95% confidence bands for δ18O alignment. This model considers the probability of every possible alignment based on its fit to the δ18O data and transition probabilities for sedimentation rate changes obtained from radiocarbon-based estimates for 37 cores. Uncertainty is assessed using a stochastic back trace recursion to sample alignments in exact proportion to their probability. We applied the algorithm to align 35 late Pleistocene records to a global benthic δ18O stack and found that the mean width of 95% confidence intervals varies between 3 and 23 kyr depending on the resolution and noisiness of the record's δ18O signal. Confidence bands within individual cores also vary greatly, ranging from ~0 to >40 kyr. These alignment uncertainty estimates will allow researchers to examine the robustness of their conclusions, including the statistical evaluation of lead-lag relationships between events observed in different cores.

  3. Sambamba : Fast processing of NGS alignment formats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarasov, Artem; Vilella, Albert J.; Cuppen, Edwin; Nijman, Isaac J.; Prins, Pjotr

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Sambamba is a high-performance robust tool and library for working with SAM, BAM and CRAM sequence alignment files; the most common file formats for aligned next generation sequencing data. Sambamba is a faster alternative to samtools that exploits multi-core processing and dramatically red

  4. Instructional Alignment under No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2012-01-01

    The alignment of instruction with the content of standards and assessments is the key mediating variable separating the policy of standards-based reform (SBR) from the outcome of improved student achievement. Few studies have investigated SBR's effects on instructional alignment, and most have serious methodological limitations. This research uses…

  5. Vacuum alignment with and without elementary scalars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Gertov, Helene; Meroni, Aurora;

    2016-01-01

    We systematically elucidate differences and similarities of the vacuum alignment issue in composite and renormalizable elementary extensions of the Standard Model featuring a pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We also provide general conditions for the stability of the vacuum in the elementary framework......, thereby extending previous studies of the vacuum alignment....

  6. Optical packet switching without packet alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Operation without packet alignment of an all-optical packet switch is proposed and predicted feasible through a detailed traffic analysis. Packet alignment units are eliminated resulting in a simple switch architecture while optimal traffic performance is maintained through the flexibility provided...

  7. Evaluating Alignment between Curriculum, Assessment, and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Andrea; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    The authors (a) discuss the importance of alignment for facilitating proper assessment and instruction, (b) describe the three most common methods for evaluating the alignment between state content standards and assessments, (c) discuss the relative strengths and limitations of these methods, and (d) discuss examples of applications of each…

  8. Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Gary Wayne (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System (PAAIS) used to automate the alignment and integration of space vehicle components. A PAAIS includes ground support apparatuses, a track assembly with a plurality of energy-emitting components and an energy-receiving component containing a plurality of energy-receiving surfaces. Communication components and processors allow communication and feedback through PAAIS.

  9. A precise CT phantom alignment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, N J; Bushong, S C

    1980-01-01

    Two of the AAPM CT performance phantom inserts require precise alignment. We present a method for aligning an insert which makes use of the partial volume effect. We demonstrate that the procedure is sensitive to tilts of less than one degree and, using the slice thickness insert, allows reproducible positioning.

  10. SOA-Driven Business-Software Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishkov, Boris; Sinderen, van Marten; Quartel, Dick

    2006-01-01

    The alignment of business processes and their supporting application software is a major concern during the initial software design phases. This paper proposes a design approach addressing this problem of business-software alignment. The approach takes an initial business model as a basis in derivin

  11. Aligning application architecture to the business context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, R.J.; Blanken, H.M.; Fokkinga, M.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Eder, J.; Missikoff, M.

    2003-01-01

    Alignment of application architecture to business architecture is a central problem in the design, acquisition and implementation of information systems in current large-scale information-processing organizations. Current research in architecture alignment is either too strategic or too software imp

  12. What is the Constructivism in Constructive Alignment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, Loretta M.; Jervis, Les

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of constructive alignment in respect of science education. The concept is placed in the context of its two contributory components--constructivism and instructional alignment. The former has a well-established body of critical literature that highlights the challenges of constructivism for both science and science…

  13. Vacuum alignment with(out) elementary scalars

    CERN Document Server

    Alanne, Tommi; Meroni, Aurora; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We systematically elucidate differences and similarities of the vacuum alignment issue in composite and renormalizable elementary extensions of the Standard Model featuring a pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We also provide general conditions for the stability of the vacuum in the elementary framework, thereby extending previous studies of the vacuum alignment.

  14. Improved accuracy of multiple ncRNA alignment by incorporating structural information into a MAFFT-based framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Hiroyuki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural alignment of RNAs is becoming important, since the discovery of functional non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Recent studies, mainly based on various approximations of the Sankoff algorithm, have resulted in considerable improvement in the accuracy of pairwise structural alignment. In contrast, for the cases with more than two sequences, the practical merit of structural alignment remains unclear as compared to traditional sequence-based methods, although the importance of multiple structural alignment is widely recognized. Results We took a different approach from a straightforward extension of the Sankoff algorithm to the multiple alignments from the viewpoints of accuracy and time complexity. As a new option of the MAFFT alignment program, we developed a multiple RNA alignment framework, X-INS-i, which builds a multiple alignment with an iterative method incorporating structural information through two components: (1 pairwise structural alignments by an external pairwise alignment method such as SCARNA or LaRA and (2 a new objective function, Four-way Consistency, derived from the base-pairing probability of every sub-aligned group at every multiple alignment stage. Conclusion The BRAliBASE benchmark showed that X-INS-i outperforms other methods currently available in the sum-of-pairs score (SPS criterion. As a basis for predicting common secondary structure, the accuracy of the present method is comparable to or rather higher than those of the current leading methods such as RNA Sampler. The X-INS-i framework can be used for building a multiple RNA alignment from any combination of algorithms for pairwise RNA alignment and base-pairing probability. The source code is available at the webpage found in the Availability and requirements section.

  15. isoSTED nanoscopy with intrinsic beam alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt, Franziska; Herr, Simon J; Lutz, Tobias; Schmidt, Roman; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J; Hell, Stefan W

    2015-11-30

    Despite the need for isotropic optical resolution in a growing number of applications, the majority of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy setups still do not attain an axial resolution comparable to that in the lateral dimensions. Three-dimensional (3D) nanoscopy implementations that employ only a single objective lens typically feature a trade-off between axial and lateral resolution. 4Pi arrangements, in which the sample is illuminated coherently through two opposing lenses, have proven their potential for rendering the resolution isotropic. However, instrument complexity due to a large number of alignment parameters has so far thwarted the dissemination of this approach. Here, we present a 4Pi-STED setup combination, also called isoSTED nanoscope, where the STED and excitation beams are intrinsically co-aligned. A highly robust and convenient 4Pi cavity allows easy handling without the need for readjustments during imaging experiments.

  16. Using Fuzzy Inference Systems to Optimize Highway Alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Dell’Acqua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the research project is to explore innovations in integrating infrastructure and land use planning for transportation corridors. In contexts with environmental impact, the choice of transportation routes must address the sensitivity of current and preexisting conditions. Multi-criteria analyses are used to solve problems of this nature, but they do not define an objective approach on a quantitative basis taking into account some important, but often intrinsically unmeasurable parameters. Fuzzy logic becomes a more effective model as systems become more complex. During the preliminary design phase, fuzzy inference systems offer a contribution to decision-making which is much more complete than a benefits/and costs analysis. In this study, alternative alignment options are considered, combining engineering, social, environmental, and economic factors in the decision-making. The research formalizes a general method useful for analyzing different case studies. The method can be used to justify highway alignment choices in environmental impact study analysis.

  17. Status and experiece with the alignment of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Jean-Frederic

    2016-01-01

    LINAC4 (L4) is an H- linear accelerator that will deliver, for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project requirements, a beam of protons at 160 MeV energy to the PS complex and then to the LHC. Its connection to the PS booster will take place during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) in 2019-2020 or earlier if any major failure of the LINAC2. The Linac4 project requires the precise alignment with a tolerance of about +/- 0.2 mm in both the horizontal and vertical planes, of elements along approximately 150 m beam line. This paper will give a status, an overview of the challenges of the alignment, the issues solved by the survey section, the techniques and methodology used to realise the survey activities over the last five years.

  18. Semiautomatic beam-based LHC collimator alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Valentino, Gianluca; Bruce, Roderik; Wollmann, Daniel; Sammut, Nicholas; Rossi, Adriana; Redaelli, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Full beam-based alignment of the LHC collimation system was a time-consuming procedure (up to 28 hours) as the collimators were set up manually. A yearly alignment campaign has been sufficient for now, although in the future due to tighter tolerances this may lead to a decrease in the cleaning efficiency if machine parameters such as the beam orbit drift over time. Automating the collimator setup procedure can reduce the beam time for collimator setup and allow for more frequent alignments, therefore reducing the risk of performance degradation. This article describes the design and testing of a semiautomatic algorithm as a first step towards a fully automatic setup procedure. The parameters used to measure the accuracy and performance of the alignment are defined and determined from experimental data. A comparison of these measured parameters at 450 GeV and 3.5 TeV with manual and semiautomatic alignment is provided.

  19. Accelerated large-scale multiple sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Scott

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sequence alignment (MSA is a fundamental analysis method used in bioinformatics and many comparative genomic applications. Prior MSA acceleration attempts with reconfigurable computing have only addressed the first stage of progressive alignment and consequently exhibit performance limitations according to Amdahl's Law. This work is the first known to accelerate the third stage of progressive alignment on reconfigurable hardware. Results We reduce subgroups of aligned sequences into discrete profiles before they are pairwise aligned on the accelerator. Using an FPGA accelerator, an overall speedup of up to 150 has been demonstrated on a large data set when compared to a 2.4 GHz Core2 processor. Conclusions Our parallel algorithm and architecture accelerates large-scale MSA with reconfigurable computing and allows researchers to solve the larger problems that confront biologists today. Program source is available from http://dna.cs.byu.edu/msa/.

  20. Alignment-free phylogenetics and population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Phylogenetics and population genetics are central disciplines in evolutionary biology. Both are based on comparative data, today usually DNA sequences. These have become so plentiful that alignment-free sequence comparison is of growing importance in the race between scientists and sequencing machines. In phylogenetics, efficient distance computation is the major contribution of alignment-free methods. A distance measure should reflect the number of substitutions per site, which underlies classical alignment-based phylogeny reconstruction. Alignment-free distance measures are either based on word counts or on match lengths, and I apply examples of both approaches to simulated and real data to assess their accuracy and efficiency. While phylogeny reconstruction is based on the number of substitutions, in population genetics, the distribution of mutations along a sequence is also considered. This distribution can be explored by match lengths, thus opening the prospect of alignment-free population genomics.

  1. Bokeh Mirror Alignment for Cherenkov Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ahnen, M L; Balbo, M; Bergmann, M; Biland, A; Blank, M; Bretz, T; Bruegge, K A; Buss, J; Domke, M; Dorner, D; Einecke, S; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Hughes, G; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Mueller, S A; Neise, D; Neronov, A; Noethe, M; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Shukla, A; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Toscano, S; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Wilbert, A

    2016-01-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need imaging optics with large apertures and high image intensities to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted from cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors fulfill these needs, and composed from mass production mirror facets they are inexpensive and lightweight. However, as the overall image is a superposition of the individual facet images, alignment remains a challenge. Here we present a simple, yet extendable method, to align a segmented reflector using its Bokeh. Bokeh alignment does not need a star or good weather nights but can be done even during daytime. Bokeh alignment optimizes the facet orientations by comparing the segmented reflectors Bokeh to a predefined template. The optimal Bokeh template is highly constricted by the reflector's aperture and is easy accessible. The Bokeh is observed using the out of focus image of a near by point like light source in a distance of about 10 focal lengths. We introduce Bokeh alignment ...

  2. Grassmannian Differential Limited Feedback for Interference Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Ayach, Omar El

    2011-01-01

    Channel state information (CSI) in the interference channel can be used to precode, align, and reduce the dimension of interference at the receivers, to achieve the channel's maximum multiplexing gain, through what is known as interference alignment. Most interference alignment algorithms require knowledge of all the interfering channels to compute the alignment precoders. CSI, considered available at the receivers, can be shared with the transmitters via limited feedback. When alignment is done by coding over frequency extensions in a single antenna system, the required CSI lies on the Grassmannian manifold and its structure can be exploited in feedback. Unfortunately, the number of channels to be shared grows with the square of the number of users creating too much overhead with conventional feedback methods. This paper proposes Grassmannian differential feedback to reduce feedback overhead by exploiting both the channel's temporal correlation and Grassmannian structure. The performance of the proposed algo...

  3. R3D Align: global pairwise alignment of RNA 3D structures using local superpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahrig, Ryan R.; Leontis, Neocles B.; Zirbel, Craig L.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Comparing 3D structures of homologous RNA molecules yields information about sequence and structural variability. To compare large RNA 3D structures, accurate automatic comparison tools are needed. In this article, we introduce a new algorithm and web server to align large homologous RNA structures nucleotide by nucleotide using local superpositions that accommodate the flexibility of RNA molecules. Local alignments are merged to form a global alignment by employing a maximum clique algorithm on a specially defined graph that we call the ‘local alignment’ graph. Results: The algorithm is implemented in a program suite and web server called ‘R3D Align’. The R3D Align alignment of homologous 3D structures of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA was compared to a high-quality hand alignment. A full comparison of the 16S alignment with the other state-of-the-art methods is also provided. The R3D Align program suite includes new diagnostic tools for the structural evaluation of RNA alignments. The R3D Align alignments were compared to those produced by other programs and were found to be the most accurate, in comparison with a high quality hand-crafted alignment and in conjunction with a series of other diagnostics presented. The number of aligned base pairs as well as measures of geometric similarity are used to evaluate the accuracy of the alignments. Availability: R3D Align is freely available through a web server http://rna.bgsu.edu/R3DAlign. The MATLAB source code of the program suite is also freely available for download at that location. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: r-rahrig@onu.edu PMID:20929913

  4. 肌钙蛋白单独与联合和肽素早期诊断非ST段抬高型心肌梗死临床价值的Meta分析%Meta-analysis for Clinical Values of Troponin Alone and Troponin Combining Copeptin in Early Diagnosis of Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨靓淇; 谭向宇; 沈文; 庄力钦; 姜宇; 吴清华

    2016-01-01

    目的:采用Meta分析评价肌钙蛋白单独与联合和肽素早期诊断非ST段抬高型心肌梗死(NSTEMI)的临床价值。方法:计算机检索Medline、EMBASE、Cochrane、Pubmed,中国知网、万方数据库自1995-01起至2015-10公开发表的肌钙蛋白单独及联合和肽素诊断早期NSTEMI的文献,按纳入与排除标准筛选文献,并通过诊断性研究的质量表(QUADAS)评价纳入文献的质量。通过Manager 5.2及Meta-DiSc 1.4软件分析计算肌钙蛋白单独及联合和肽素诊断早期NSTEMI的总敏感性、总特异性,并绘制综合受试者工作曲线(SROC),计算SROC下面积(AUC)。结果:纳入文献11篇,中文1篇。相对于肌钙蛋白对NSTEMI的早期诊断,肌钙蛋白联合和肽素对NSTEMI的早期诊断的总敏感性明显增高(90% vs 75%),但总特异性较低(60% vs 87%)。在SROC曲线中,两种检测方法的AUC均>0.7,但肌钙蛋白联合和肽素对NSTEMI早期诊断的AUC低于肌钙蛋白(0.805 vs 0.891)。结论:肌钙蛋白联合和肽素早期诊断NSTEMI具有更好的敏感性,虽然特异性相对降低,但联合和肽素升高,可提示患者可能合并有其他疾病,如心力衰竭、卒中等,具有重要的临床价值。%Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of troponin alone and troponin combining copeptin in early diagnosis of Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) by meta-analysis. Methods: We searched Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, Pubmed, CNKI and Wanfang database (1995-01 to 2015-10) for the publications of troponin alone and troponin combining copeptin in early diagnosis of NSTEMI. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, we screened the literatures and evaluated their quality by QUADAS items. Manager 5.2 and Meta-DiSc 1.4 software were used to study the pooled sensitivity and speciifcity for troponin alone and troponin combining copeptin in NSTEMI early diagnosis, and to calculate the

  5. Feature Tracking-Derived Peak Systolic Strain Compared to Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Troponin-Positive Myocarditis: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Justin; Nielsen, James C; Sengupta, Partho P; Sanz, Javier; Srivastava, Shubhika; Uppu, Santosh

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) assesses myocardial involvement in myocarditis (MYO). Current techniques are qualitative, subjective, and prone to interpretation error. Feature tracking (FT) analyzes myocardial strain using CMR and has not been examined in MYO. We hypothesize that regional left ventricular (LV) strain is abnormal in MYO. Regional strain by FT was compared to late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and troponin leak as measures of myocardial involvement. This single-center, retrospective CMR study reviewed patients with clinical MYO and structurally normal hearts who underwent CMR at our institution. Young adults with normal cardiac anatomy, function, and absent LGE served as controls. MYO patients with documented troponin leak and normal global ejection fraction (EF > 50 %) were included in comparison. FT determined regional myocardial peak systolic strain (pkS) in longitudinal and circumferential distributions. T tests compared strain values between cases and controls. Receiver operating characteristic curves determined pkS values with highest sensitivity and specificity for concurrent troponin leak and LGE. FT was performed on 57 patients: 37 MYO and 20 controls. Twenty-eight cases with normal EF, and 20 control patients were included in final analysis. Nearly all cases with normal function demonstrated abnormal regional pkS (27/28, 96 %). Cases had significantly diminished pkS when compared to controls in all regions except the longitudinal 2C distribution. FT-derived longitudinal and circumferential pkS is sensitive and specific in identifying myocardial involvement, namely the presence of troponin leak and LGE. FT may be a useful adjunctive, objective measure of myocardial involvement in patients with MYO and normal LV function.

  6. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3.

  7. Galaxy alignment on large and small scales

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, X; Wang, Y O; Dutton, A; Macciò, A

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some ex...

  8. Sparse alignment for robust tensor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Zhao, Cairong; Sun, Mingming

    2014-10-01

    Multilinear/tensor extensions of manifold learning based algorithms have been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper first provides a systematic analysis of the multilinear extensions for the most popular methods by using alignment techniques, thereby obtaining a general tensor alignment framework. From this framework, it is easy to show that the manifold learning based tensor learning methods are intrinsically different from the alignment techniques. Based on the alignment framework, a robust tensor learning method called sparse tensor alignment (STA) is then proposed for unsupervised tensor feature extraction. Different from the existing tensor learning methods, L1- and L2-norms are introduced to enhance the robustness in the alignment step of the STA. The advantage of the proposed technique is that the difficulty in selecting the size of the local neighborhood can be avoided in the manifold learning based tensor feature extraction algorithms. Although STA is an unsupervised learning method, the sparsity encodes the discriminative information in the alignment step and provides the robustness of STA. Extensive experiments on the well-known image databases as well as action and hand gesture databases by encoding object images as tensors demonstrate that the proposed STA algorithm gives the most competitive performance when compared with the tensor-based unsupervised learning methods.

  9. Coelostat and heliostat - Theory of alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demianski, M.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    1984-06-01

    For perfectly aligned heliostats and coelostats tracking at the solar rate and half the solar rate, respectively, the solar beam has no translational motion. But, particularly in the field at eclipses, it is not possible to align heliostats and coelostats with infinite precision. The authors derive the effect of small misalignments on the translational motion of the beam, and give tables to allow the calculation of the accuracy to which the instruments must be mounted and adjusted to attain a desired accuracy over a given duration. Further, it is shown how to derive the necessary adjustments to improve alignment, given measurements of the tracking error.

  10. Rotational Alignment Altered by Source Position Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Chris S.; Heflin, M. B.; Lanyi, G. E.; Sovers, O. J.; Steppe, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the construction of modern Celestial Reference Frames (CRFs) the overall rotational alignment is only weakly constrained by the data. Therefore, common practice has been to apply a 3-dimensional No-Net-Rotation (NNR) constraint in order to align an under-construction frame to the ICRF. We present evidence that correlations amongst source position parameters must be accounted for in order to properly align a CRF at the 5-10 (mu)as level of uncertainty found in current work. Failure to do so creates errors at the 10-40 (mu)as level.

  11. Robust and resistant 2D shape alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Eiriksson, Hrafnkell

    2001-01-01

    \\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\$ norm alignments are formulated as linear programming problems. The linear vector function formulation along with the different norms results in alignment methods that are both resistant from influence from outliers, robust wrt. errors in the annotation and capable of handling missing datapoints......We express the alignment of 2D shapes as the minimization of the norm of a linear vector function. The minimization is done in the \\$l\\_1\\$, \\$l\\_2\\$ and the \\$l\\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\$ norms using well known standard numerical methods. In particular, the \\$l\\_1\\$ and the \\$l...

  12. Preparation of Anti-cardiac Troponin I Monoclonal Antibodies and Their Characterization with Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac troponin I(cTnI) was separated and purified from human left ventricular tissue by affinity chromatographic method and used to immunize Balb/c mice by intraperitoneal injection and four hybridoma cell lines, which secreted monoclonal antibody(mAb) against human cTnI, were obtained by cell fusion, identification and cloning twice. Three mAbs(9F5, 2F11, 8C12) were produced from the ascites of Balb/c mice injected intraperitoneally the hybridoma cells and characterized by means of a surface plasmon resonance(SPR) biosensor. An optimal and specific sensing membrane for troponin I was prepared with staphylococcal protein A(SPA) as the intermediate layer and mAb against human cTnI as the capture antibody. On the basis of the sensing membrane, two modes of operation of the SPR biosensor were developed, i.e., a direct detection of antigen-antibody affinity and a sandwich assay. In the sandwich assay detection mode, the mAbs competition was measured by monitoring whether the secondary antibody had been attached to the cTnI already captured by the first antibody on the sensor surface. The SPR biosensor was shown to be able to directly detect the antigen-antibody affinity and the order of the affinity was found to be 9F5>2F11>8C12. In the sandwich detection mode, it was found that the different epitopes on the cTnI molecules were recognized by the three mAbs respectively, but the asymmetrical competition was shown between 2F11 and 8C12 and no competition was found between 9F5 and 2F11 or 8c12. Based on these results, a double monoclonal sandwich immunoassay for cTnI was developed by using the optimal antibody pair of 9F5 and 2F11 and the SPR biosensor with SPA substrate membrane, which showed an excellent sensitivity of 0.8 μg/L for both the buffer and the serum samples compared with the direct detection of cTnI for the buffer with the lowest detection limit of 4 μg/L and conventional ELISA with the sensitivity of 1.9 μg/L.

  13. Preparation of Anti—Cardiac Troponin I Monoclonal Antibodies and Their Characterization with Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIJing-yan; LIUXia; SONGDa-qian; BULi-sha; HUXing; MUYing

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac troponin I(cTuI)was separated and purified from human left ventricular tissue by affinity chromatographic method and used to immunize Balb/c mice by intraperitoneal injection and four hybridoma cell lines,which secreted monoclonal antibody(mAb)against buman cTnI,were obtained by cell fusion,identification and cloning twice.Three mAbs(9F5,2F11,8C12)were produced from the ascites of Balb/c mice injected intraperitoneally the hybridoma cells and characterized by means of a surface plasmon resonance(SPR) biosensor.An optimal and specific sensing membrane for troponin I was prepared with staphylococcal protein A(SPA) as the intermediate layer and mAb against human cTnI as the capture antibody.On the basis of the sensing membrane,two modes of operation of the SPR biosensor were developed,i.e..a direct detection of antigen-antibody affinity and a sandwich assay.In the sandwich assay deteciton mode,the mAbs competition was measured by monitoring whether the secondary antibody had been attached to the cTnI alresdy captured by the first antibody on the sensor surface.The SPR biosensor was shown to be able to directly daptured by the first antibody on the sensor surface.The SPR biosensor was shown to be abloe to directly detect the antigen-antibody affinity and the order of the affinity was found to be 9F5>2F11>8C12.In the sandwich detection mode,it was found that the different epitopes on the cTnI molecules were recognized by the three mAbs respectively,but the asymmetrical competition was shown between 2F11 and 8C12 and no competition was found between 9F5 and 2F11 or 8c12.Based on these results,a double monoclonal sandwich immunoassay for cTnI was developed by using the optmal antibody pair of 9F5 and 2F11 and the SPR biosensor with SPA substrate membrane,which showed an excellent sensitivity of 0.8μg/L for both the buffer and the serum samples compared with the direct detection of cTnI for the buffer with the lowest detection limit of 4μg/L and conventional

  14. Aligned Fibrous Scaffold Induced Aligned Growth of Corneal Stroma Cells in vitro Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yan; YAN Jing; CUI Xue-jun; WANG Hong-yan; WANG Qing

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of fibre arrangement to guiding the aligned growth of corneal stroma cells,aligned and randomly oriented fibrous scaffolds of gelatin and poly-L-lactic acid(PLLA) were fabricated by electrospinning.A comparative study of two different systems with corneal stroma cells on randomly organized and aligned fibres were conducted.The efficiency of the scaffolds for inducing the aligned growth of cells was assessed by morphological observation and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay.Results show that the cells cultured on both randomly oriented and aligned scaffolds maintained normal morphology and well spreading as well as long term proliferation.Importantly,corneal stroma cells grew high orderly on the aligned scaffold,while the cells grew disordered on the randomly oriented scaffold.Moreover,the cells exhibited higher viability in aligned scaffold than that in randomly oriented scaffold.These results indcate that electrospinng to prepare aligned fibrous scaffolds has provided an effective approach to the aligned growth of corneal stroma cells in vitro.Our findings that fiber arrangement plays a crucial role in guiding the aligned growth of cells may be helpful to the development of better biomaterials for tissue engineered cornea.

  15. Genetic algorithms with permutation coding for multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, Mohamed Tahar; Abdel-Azim, Gamil

    2013-08-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is one of the topics of bio informatics that has seriously been researched. It is known as NP-complete problem. It is also considered as one of the most important and daunting tasks in computational biology. Concerning this a wide number of heuristic algorithms have been proposed to find optimal alignment. Among these heuristic algorithms are genetic algorithms (GA). The GA has mainly two major weaknesses: it is time consuming and can cause local minima. One of the significant aspects in the GA process in MSA is to maximize the similarities between sequences by adding and shuffling the gaps of Solution Coding (SC). Several ways for SC have been introduced. One of them is the Permutation Coding (PC). We propose a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithms (GAs) with a PC and 2-opt algorithm. The PC helps to code the MSA solution which maximizes the gain of resources, reliability and diversity of GA. The use of the PC opens the area by applying all functions over permutations for MSA. Thus, we suggest an algorithm to calculate the scoring function for multiple alignments based on PC, which is used as fitness function. The time complexity of the GA is reduced by using this algorithm. Our GA is implemented with different selections strategies and different crossovers. The probability of crossover and mutation is set as one strategy. Relevant patents have been probed in the topic.

  16. Alignment free characterization of 2D gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Jørgensen, Jan Friis

    2015-01-01

    Fast characterization of 2-dimensional gratings is demonstrated using a Fourier lens optical system and a differential optimization algorithm. It is shown that both the grating specific parameters such as the basis vectors and the angle between them and the alignment of the sample, such as the rotation of the sample around the x-, y-, and z-axis, can be deduced from a single measurement. More specifically, the lattice vectors and the angle between them have been measured, while the corrections of the alignment parameters are used to improve the quality of the measurement, and hence reduce the measurement uncertainty. Alignment free characterization is demonstrated on both a 2D hexagonal grating with a period of 700 nm and a checkerboard grating with a pitch of 3000 nm. The method can also be used for both automatic alignment and in-line characterization of gratings.

  17. Faster exon assembly by sparse spliced alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Tiskin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Assembling a gene from candidate exons is an important problem in computational biology. Among the most successful approaches to this problem is \\emph{spliced alignment}, proposed by Gelfand et al., which scores different candidate exon chains within a DNA sequence of length $m$ by comparing them to a known related gene sequence of length n, $m = \\Theta(n)$. Gelfand et al.\\ gave an algorithm for spliced alignment running in time O(n^3). Kent et al.\\ considered sparse spliced alignment, where the number of candidate exons is O(n), and proposed an algorithm for this problem running in time O(n^{2.5}). We improve on this result, by proposing an algorithm for sparse spliced alignment running in time O(n^{2.25}). Our approach is based on a new framework of \\emph{quasi-local string comparison}.

  18. Alignment of the NOMAD-STAR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cervera-Villanueva, A

    2000-01-01

    This note describes the alignment of the NOMAD-STAR detector. This is the B/sub 4/C-silicon target installed in the NOMAD spectrometer in 1997. NOMAD-STAR is composed of modules of 12 silicon detectors each giving a total length of 72 cm. Ten of these modules (called ladders) are assembled to form a layer. There are five layers interleaved with passive boron carbide plates. The total surface of silicon is 1.14 m /sup 2/. Energetic muons from the flat-top of the CERN SPS cycle provide the necessary information to perform a very precise software alignment. This alignment is needed to ensure that the impact parameter measurement needed for the identification of taus in a detector like NOMAD-STAR will not be limited by the error in the alignment. (15 refs).

  19. Robust and Efficient Parametric Face Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    We propose a correlation-based approach to parametric object alignment particularly suitable for face analysis applications which require efficiency and robustness against occlusions and illumination changes. Our algorithm registers two images by iteratively maximizing their correlation coefficient

  20. AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Henry C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome assembly is difficult due to repeated sequences within the genome, which create ambiguities and cause the final assembly to be broken up into many separate sequences (contigs. Long range linking information, such as mate-pairs or mapping data, is necessary to help assembly software resolve repeats, thereby leading to a more complete reconstruction of genomes. Prior work has used optical maps for validating assemblies and scaffolding contigs, after an initial assembly has been produced. However, optical maps have not previously been used within the genome assembly process. Here, we use optical map information within the popular de Bruijn graph assembly paradigm to eliminate paths in the de Bruijn graph which are not consistent with the optical map and help determine the correct reconstruction of the genome. Results We developed a new algorithm called AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment. AGORA is the first algorithm to use optical map information directly within the de Bruijn graph framework to help produce an accurate assembly of a genome that is consistent with the optical map information provided. Our simulations on bacterial genomes show that AGORA is effective at producing assemblies closely matching the reference sequences. Additionally, we show that noise in the optical map can have a strong impact on the final assembly quality for some complex genomes, and we also measure how various characteristics of the starting de Bruijn graph may impact the quality of the final assembly. Lastly, we show that a proper choice of restriction enzyme for the optical map may substantially improve the quality of the final assembly. Conclusions Our work shows that optical maps can be used effectively to assemble genomes within the de Bruijn graph assembly framework. Our experiments also provide insights into the characteristics of the mapping data that most affect the performance of our algorithm, indicating the