WorldWideScience

Sample records for alien plant management

  1. Alien plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    No-one’s ever travelled to an extrasolar planet, or even observed one that we’re sure harbours life. But if plants do exist on such alien worlds, we can have fun speculating what form they might take.

  2. Scientific challenges in the field of invasive alien plant management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines scientific challenges in the field of invasion alien plant management in South Africa. Overview of the Working for Water program, Issues of research funding, and Biological control research. It also includes some of the papers...

  3. Pathway models for analysing and managing the introduction of alien plant pests - an overview and categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Pautasso, M.; Venette, R.C.; Robinet, C.; Hemerik, L.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Schans, J.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Alien plant pests are introduced into new areas at unprecedented rates through global trade, transport, tourism and travel, threatening biodiversity and agriculture. Increasingly, the movement and introduction of pests is analysed with pathway models to provide risk managers with quantitative

  4. The evolution of fire and invasive alien plant management practices in fynbos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. van Wilgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The history and development of fire and invasive alien plant management policies in fynbos during the 20th century are reviewed. Fire was initially condemned outright as a destructive force, but as its vital role became better understood, management policies switched from protection to active burning in 1968. During the 1970s, large, coordinated research programmes were established, resulting in a solid basis of knowledge on which to develop fire management policies. Despite policies of prescribed burning, wild fires remain the dominant feature of the region, fortunately driving a variable fire regime that remains broadly aligned with conservation objectives. The problem of conserving fire-adapted fynbos is complicated by invading alien trees that are also fire-adapted. Research results were used to demonstrate the impacts of these invasions on water yields, leading to the creation of one of the largest alien plant control programmes globally. Despite improvements in control methods, alien trees, notably pines, continue to spread almost unchecked. Biological control offered some hope for controlling pines, but was ruled out as too high a risk for these commercially-important trees. Failure to address this problem adequately will almost certainly result in the severe degradation of remaining fynbos ecosystems.

  5. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Padmanaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical production forests and plantation forests as sources of invasions are presented. We discuss species traits and processes affecting spread and invasion, and silvicultural practices that favor invasions. We also highlight potential impacts of invasive plant species and discuss options for managing them in production forests. We suggest that future forestry practices need to reduce the risks of plant invasions by conducting surveillance for invasive species; minimizing canopy opening during harvesting; encouraging rapid canopy closure in plantations; minimizing the width of access roads; and ensuring that vehicles and other equipment are not transporting seeds of invasive species. Potential invasive species should not be planted within dispersal range of production forests. In invasive species management, forewarned is forearmed.

  6. Inventory of the Invasive Alien Plant Species in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    TJITROSOEDIRDJO, SRI SUDARMIYATI

    2005-01-01

    An inventory of the alien plant species in Indonesia based on the existing references and herbarium specimens concluded that 1936 alien plant species are found in Indonesia which belong to 187 families. Field studies should be done to get the complete figures of alien plant species in Indonesia. Based on the existing figures of the plant species, the invasive alien plant species can be identified, followed by studies on the assessment of losses, biology, management and their possible utilizat...

  7. Proposed prioritization system for the management of invasive alien plants in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson, MP

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available system described in this article was designed to assess objectively research and control priorities of invasive alien plants at a national scale in South Africa. The evaluation consists of seventeen criteria, grouped into five modules that assess...

  8. Pathway models for analysing and managing the introduction of alien plant pests—an overview and categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Douma; M. Pautasso; R.C. Venette; C. Robinet; L. Hemerik; M.C.M. Mourits; J. Schans; W. van der Werf

    2016-01-01

    Alien plant pests are introduced into new areas at unprecedented rates through global trade, transport, tourism and travel, threatening biodiversity and agriculture. Increasingly, the movement and introduction of pests is analysed with pathway models to provide risk managers with quantitative estimates of introduction risks and effectiveness of management options....

  9. Assessing the status of biological control as a management tool for suppression of invasive alien plants in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariades, Costas; Paterson, Iain D.; Strathie, Lorraine W.; Hill, Martin P.; van Wilgen, Brian W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biological control of invasive alien plants (IAPs) using introduced natural enemies contributes significantly to sustained, cost-effective management of natural resources in South Africa. The status of, and prospects for, biological control is therefore integral to National Status Reports (NSRs) on Biological Invasions, the first of which is due in 2017. Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the status of, and prospects for, biological control of IAPs in South Africa. We discuss...

  10. Can alien plants support generalist insect herbivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas Tallamy; Meg Ballard; Vincent D' Amico

    2009-01-01

    Rearing experiments were conducted to address two questions relevant to understanding how generalist lepidopteran herbivores interact with alien plants. We reared 10 yellow-striped armyworms (Spodoptera ornithogalli),...

  11. Economic assessment of the contribution of biological control to the management of invasive alien plants and to the protection of ecosystem services in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is a first attempt at a holistic economic evaluation of South African endeavours to manage invasive alien plants using biological control. The author’s focus was on the delivery of ecosystem services from habitats that are invaded...

  12. Native plant community response to alien plant invasion and removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara ANDREU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the potential ecological impacts of invasive species, removal of alien plants has become an important management challenge and a high priority for environmental managers. To consider that a removal effort has been successful requires both, the effective elimination of alien plants and the restoration of the native plant community back to its historical composition and function. We present a conceptual framework based on observational and experimental data that compares invaded, non-invaded and removal sites to quantify invaders’ impacts and native plant recover after their removal. We also conduct a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of plant invaders and the consequences of their removal on the native plant community, across a variety of ecosystems around the world. Our results that invasion by alien plants is responsible for a local decline in native species richness and abundance. Our analysis also provides evidence that after removal, the native vegetation has the potential to recover to a pre-invasion target state. Our review reveal that observational and experimental approaches are rarely used in concert, and that reference sites are scarcely employed to assess native species recovery after removal. However, we believe that comparing invaded, non-invaded and removal sites offer the opportunity to obtain scientific information with relevance for management.

  13. Clearing invasive alien plants as a cost-effective strategy for water catchment management: The case of the Olifants river catchment, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshepo Morokong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien plants have a negative impact on ecosystem goods and services derived from ecosystems. Consequently, the aggressive spread of invasive alien plants (IAPs in the river catchments of South Africa is a major threat to, inter alia, water security. The Olifants River catchment is one such a catchment that is under pressure because of the high demand for water from mainly industrial sources and unsustainable land-use, which includes IAPs. This study considered the cost-effectiveness of clearing IAPs and compared these with the cost of a recently constructed dam. The methods used for data collection were semistructured interviews, site observation, desktop data analysis, and a literature review to assess the impact of IAPs on the catchment’s water supply. The outcomes of this study indicate that clearing invasive alien plants is a cost-effective intervention with a Unit Reference Value (URV of R1.44/m3, which compares very favourably with that of the De Hoop dam, the URV for which is R2.93/m3. These results suggest that clearing invasive alien plants is a cost-effective way of catchment management, as the opportunity cost of not doing so (forfeiting water to the value of R2.93/m3 is higher than that of protecting the investment in the dam.

  14. Recreational trails as corridors for alien plants in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Floye H.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Alien plant species often use areas of heavy human activity for habitat and dispersal. Roads and utility corridors have been shown to harbor more alien species than the surrounding vegetation and are therefore believed to contribute to alien plant persistence and spread. Recreational trails represent another corridor that could harbor alien species and aid their spread. Effective management of invasive species requires understanding how alien plants are distributed at trailheads and trails and how their dispersal may be influenced by native vegetation. Our overall goal was to investigate the distribution of alien plants at trailheads and trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. At trailheads, we found that although the number of alien species was less than the number of native species, alien plant cover ( x̄=50%) did not differ from native plant cover, and we observed a large number of alien seedlings in the soil seed bank, suggesting that alien plants are a large component of trailhead communities and will continue to be so in the future. Along trails, we found higher alien species richness and cover on trail (as opposed to 4 m from the trail) in 3 out of 4 vegetation types, and we observed higher alien richness and cover in meadows than in other vegetation types. Plant communities at both trailheads and trails, as well as seed banks at trailheads, contain substantial diversity and abundance of alien plants. These results suggest that recreational trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado may function as corridors that facilitate the spread of alien species into wildlands. Our results suggest that control of alien plants should begin at trailheads where there are large numbers of aliens and that control efforts on trails should be prioritized by vegetation type.

  15. EMAPi 2015: Highlighting links between science and management of alien plant invasions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daehler, C. C.; van Kleunen, M.; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-3 ISSN 1619-0033 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasions * plants * animals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Evolution of fire and invasive alien plant management practices in fynbos

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available policies switched from protection to active burning in 1968. During the 1970s, large, coordinated research programmes were established, resulting in a solid basis of knowledge on which to develop fire management policies. Despite policies of prescribed...

  17. Modelling Hotspots for Invasive Alien Plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Dibyendu; Tiwary, Raghuvar; Barik, Saroj Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Identification of invasion hotspots that support multiple invasive alien species (IAS) is a pre-requisite for control and management of invasion. However, till recently it remained a methodological challenge to precisely determine such invasive hotspots. We identified the hotspots of alien species invasion in India through Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) using species occurrence data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). The predicted area of invasion for selected species were classified into 4 categories based on number of model agreements for a region i.e. high, medium, low and very low. About 49% of the total geographical area of India was predicted to be prone to invasion at moderate to high levels of climatic suitability. The intersection of anthropogenic biomes and ecoregions with the regions of 'high' climatic suitability was classified as hotspot of alien plant invasion. Nineteen of 47 ecoregions of India, harboured such hotspots. Most ecologically sensitive regions of India, including the 'biodiversity hotspots' and coastal regions coincide with invasion hotspots, indicating their vulnerability to alien plant invasion. Besides demonstrating the usefulness of ENM and open source data for IAS management, the present study provides a knowledge base for guiding the formulation of an effective policy and management strategy for controlling the invasive alien species.

  18. Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Viktoria; Chytrý, Milan; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Pergl, Jan; Hennekens, Stephan; Biurrun, Idoia; Knollová, Ilona; Berg, Christian; Vassilev, Kiril; Rodwell, John S.; Škvorc, Željko; Jandt, Ute; Ewald, Jörg; Jansen, Florian; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Casella, Laura; Attorre, Fabio; Rašomavičius, Valerijus; Ćušterevska, Renata; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Brunet, Jörg; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens Christian; Kącki, Zygmunt; Petrášová-Šibíková, Mária; Šilc, Urban; García-Mijangos, Itziar; Campos, Juan Antonio; Fernández-González, Federico; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Onyshchenko, Viktor; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Woodlands make up a third of European territory and carry out important ecosystem functions, yet a comprehensive overview of their invasion by alien plants has never been undertaken across this continent. Location: Europe. Methods: We extracted data from 251,740 vegetation plots stored in the

  19. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  20. Alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie: Effects of vegetation type and anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Anderson, P.J.; Newton, W.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of alien plant species to invade a region depends not only on attributes of the plant, but on characteristics of the habitat being invaded. Here, we examine characteristics that may influence the success of alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in western North Dakota, USA. The park consists of two geographically separate units with similar vegetation types and management history, which allowed us to examine the effects of native vegetation type, anthropogenic disturbance, and the separate park units on the invasion of native plant communities by alien plant species common to counties surrounding both park units. If matters of chance related to availability of propagules and transient establishment opportunities determine the success of invasion, park unit and anthropogenic disturbance should better explain the variation in alien plant frequency. If invasibility is more strongly related to biotic or physical characteristics of the native plant communities, models of alien plant occurrence should include vegetation type as an explanatory variable. We examined >1300 transects across all vegetation types in both units of the park. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the fully parameterized model, including the interaction among vegetation type, disturbance, and park unit, best described the distribution of both total number of alien plants per transect and frequency of alien plants on transects where they occurred. Although all vegetation types were invaded by alien plants, mesic communities had both greater numbers and higher frequencies of alien plants than did drier communities. A strong element of stochasticity, reflected in differences in frequencies of individual species between the two park units, suggests that prediction of risk of invasion will always involve uncertainty. In addition, despite well-documented associations between anthropogenic disturbance and alien plant invasion, five of

  1. Alien plant species list and distribution for Camdeboo National Park, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmoto L. Masubelele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas globally are threatened by the potential negative impacts that invasive alien plants pose, and Camdeboo National Park (CNP, South Africa, is no exception. Alien plants have been recorded in the CNP since 1981, before it was proclaimed a national park by South African National Parks in 2005. This is the first publication of a list of alien plants in and around the CNP. Distribution maps of some of the first recorded alien plant species are also presented and discussed. To date, 39 species of alien plants have been recorded, of which 13 are invasive and one is a transformer weed. The majority of alien plant species in the park are herbaceous (39% and succulent (24% species. The most widespread alien plant species in the CNP are Atriplex inflata (= A. lindleyi subsp. inflata, Salsola tragus (= S. australis and cacti species, especially Opuntia ficus-indica. Eradication and control measures that have been used for specific problematic alien plant species are described. Conservation implications: This article represents the first step in managing invasive alien plants and includes the collation of a species list and basic information on their distribution in and around the protected area. This is important for enabling effective monitoring of both new introductions and the distribution of species already present. We present the first species list and distribution information for Camdeboo National Park.

  2. Invasive alien plants and South African rivers: a proposed approach to the prioritisation of control operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel initiatives in South Africa have been addressing the prioritisation and management of invasive alien plant species, the prioritisation of rivers for the conservation of biodiversity, and broad-scale planning for water resource management...

  3. Alien plant dynamics following fire in mediterranean-climate California shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Baer-Keeley, M.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Over 75 species of alien plants were recorded during the first five years after fire in southern California shrublands, most of which were European annuals. Both cover and richness of aliens varied between years and plant association. Alien cover was lowest in the first postfire year in all plant associations and remained low during succession in chaparral but increased in sage scrub. Alien cover and richness were significantly correlated with year (time since disturbance) and with precipitation in both coastal and interior sage scrub associations. Hypothesized factors determining alien dominance were tested with structural equation modeling. Models that included nitrogen deposition and distance from the coast were not significant, but with those variables removed we obtained a significant model that gave an R2 = 0.60 for the response variable of fifth year alien dominance. Factors directly affecting alien dominance were (1) woody canopy closure and (2) alien seed banks. Significant indirect effects were (3) fire intensity, (4) fire history, (5) prefire stand structure, (6) aridity, and (7) community type. According to this model the most critical factor influencing aliens is the rapid return of the shrub and subshrub canopy. Thus, in these communities a single functional type (woody plants) appears to the most critical element controlling alien invasion and persistence. Fire history is an important indirect factor because it affects both prefire stand structure and postfire alien seed banks. Despite being fire-prone ecosystems, these shrublands are not adapted to fire per se, but rather to a particular fire regime. Alterations in the fire regime produce a very different selective environment, and high fire frequency changes the selective regime to favor aliens. This study does not support the widely held belief that prescription burning is a viable management practice for controlling alien species on semiarid landscapes. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of

  4. Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular emphasis on South ... their spread results in native species loss, increased biomass and fire intensity ... areas by changing the size, distribution and plant chemistry of the biomass.

  5. Perceptions of impact: Invasive alien plants in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Luke J; Gaertner, Mirijam; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Richardson, David M

    2018-06-08

    Many alien plant species are introduced to urban areas to create, augment or restore ecosystem services (ES). However, many of these species spread beyond original plantings, sometimes causing negative effects on existing ES or creating novel ecosystem disservices (EDS). An understanding of the perceptions of urban residents regarding invasive alien plants (IAPs) and the ES and EDS they provide is needed for the effective prioritisation of IAP management efforts in cities. Using the city of Cape Town, South Africa as a case study, we conducted questionnaire-based surveys (online and face-to-face) to determine the perceptions of urban residents regarding IAPs and their capacity to provide ES and EDS. Most urban residents perceive IAPs negatively (i.e. agreeing that they create EDS), but many recognise their importance in providing ES. Although most residents are not opposed to the management of IAPs, such actions are not perceived as a high priority relative to other environmental problems. Socio-demographic variables such as age, education, environmental awareness, and ethnicity shape urban residents' perceptions of IAPs. Older, more educated respondents were more likely to perceive IAPs negatively, while respondents with greater environmental awareness were aware of the benefits provided by IAPs. This study highlights the need to integrate public perceptions into the planning and management of IAPs and emphasises the importance of including ES assessments into the decision-making process, particularly in urban areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie: effects of vegetation type, stochiasticity, and anthropogenic disturbance in two park units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Newton, Wesley E.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of alien plant species to invade a region depends not only on attributes of the plant, but on characteristics of the habitat being invaded. Here, we examine characteristics that may influence the success of alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in western North Dakota, USA. The park consists of two geographically separate units with similar vegetation types and management history, which allowed us to examine the effects of native vegetation type, anthropogenic disturbance, and the separate park units on the invasion of native plant communities by alien plant species common to counties surrounding both park units. If matters of chance related to availability of propagules and transient establishment opportunities determine the success of invasion, park unit and anthropogenic disturbance should better explain the variation in alien plant frequency. If invasibility is more strongly related to biotic or physical characteristics of the native plant communities, models of alien plant occurrence should include vegetation type as an explanatory variable. We examined >1300 transects across all vegetation types in both units of the park. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the fully parameterized model, including the interaction among vegetation type, disturbance, and park unit, best described the distribution of both total number of alien plants per transect and frequency of alien plants on transects where they occurred. Although all vegetation types were invaded by alien plants, mesic communities had both greater numbers and higher frequencies of alien plants than did drier communities. A strong element of stochasticity, reflected in differences in frequencies of individual species between the two park units, suggests that prediction of risk of invasion will always involve uncertainty. In addition, despite well-documented associations between anthropogenic disturbance and alien plant invasion, five of

  7. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  8. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Invasive alien woody plants of the northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 31% (90/286 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 23 species of which the most prominent invaders were Prosopis spp. The most prominent remaining species were: Opuntia ficus-indica, Nicotiana glauca and Melia azedarach. The greatest abundance and diversity of alien invader plants were recorded near human settlements. More than half of the total recorded species have invaded perennial riverbanks. The episodic Molopo and Kuruman Rivers have been invaded almost exclusively by  Prosopis spp., which in places have formed extensive stands.

  10. A strategic study of the impact of invasive alien plants in the high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to determine the impact of upland (non-riparian) invasive alien plants in the high rainfall catchments and riparian areas in all catchments on the total surface water yield available in each of the water management areas of South Africa. This would enable the Department of ...

  11. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  12. Past approaches and future challenges to the management of fire and invasive alien plants in the new Garden Route National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Cowling

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The recently established Garden Route National Park (GRNP along the Cape south coast of South Africa occurs in a landscape where indigenous forests, fire-prone fynbos shrublands and fire-sensitive plantations of alien invasive trees are interspersed. We used the area as a case study in the challenges facing conservation managers in the achievement of biodiversity goals in a fire-prone environment. We explored the context within which fire management was practised during the past century by interviewing former catchment managers and reviewing forestry and catchment management policies. Mountain fynbos adjacent to plantations was subjected to burning regimes aimed at the protection of commercial timber resources rather than the preservation of fynbos biodiversity. Prescribed burning of fynbos adjacent to the plantations was typically done in multiple belt systems at rotations of about 4–8 years during spring, summer and autumn, to avoid the winter berg wind season. Such short-rotation and low-intensity fires favour resprouting graminoids over slow-maturing reseeders, and likely account for the compositional impoverishment observed in fynbos near plantations. Current and future challenges faced by the GRNP include (1 balancing conflicting fire management requirements for plantation safety against fynbos conservation; (2 the continual invasion of fynbos by fire-propagated alien pines sourced from plantations; (3 inadequate resources to redress the ‘invasion debt’ caused by the socio-economic legacy and past management neglect; and (4 fragmentation of land use between conservation and forestry threatening the sustainability of the region at large. We provide recommendations for management actions and research priorities to address these challenges.

  13. Satellite-based annual evaporation estimates of invasive alien plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of densely-invaded riparian areas is likely more pronounced. We concluded that the clearing of IAPs by the WFW programme has a positive effect on the availability of water resources through a reduction in ET. Keywords: invasive alien plants; indigenous vegetation; remote sensing; water use; evapotranspiration; SEBAL; ...

  14. THE DISTRIBUTION AND SPREAD OF ALIEN VASCULAR PLANTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys of alien plants at subantarctic Prince Edward Island in 2001 show that the ranges of all three introduced species have increased since the last survey in 1998. Poa annua, the longest-established species, increased its range substantially after 1987, prior to which it was confined to a single site for more than 20 years ...

  15. Internal and external dispersal of plants by animals: an aquatic perspective on alien interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Casper

    2018-01-01

    Many alien plants use animal vectors for dispersal of their diaspores (zoochory). If alien plants interact with native disperser animals, this can interfere with animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores. Interference by alien species is known for frugivorous animals dispersing fruits of

  16. The effects of an invasive alien plant (Chromolaena odorata on large African mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihle Dumalisile

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alien plants have invaded most ecosystem types (terrestrial, fresh water and marine and are responsible for the loss of irreplaceable natural services on which humankind relies. They alter food quantity, quality and accessibility, and may result in declines in native species richness, which may ultimately result in extinction. For an effective management of invasive alien plants, it is important to understand the effects that such plants have on all levels of biodiversity. However, the effects that invasive alien plants, such as the Triffid weed (Chromolaena odorata, have on mammalian biodiversity, especially large mammalian species, are not well-known, although they play major ecological roles in areas such as nutrient cycling. Also, little is known about the recovery of the ecosystem following alien plant removal. This study investigated the effects of C. odorata invasion on large mammalian herbivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park and whether clearing of this plant helped in rehabilitating the habitat. We used track counts to estimate and compare species richness, diversity and abundance indices for large mammalian species between areas with differing C. odorata invasion durations (ca 2 years, ca 10 years, ca 20 years, areas with differing clearing times (cl < 2 years, cl 3–5 years and an area without any history of C. odorata invasion as a control. The results from this study show that large mammalian species utilised the uninvaded and the cleared areas more than the invaded areas. Species richness, abundance and diversity decreased with increasing invasion duration and cleared areas showed an increasing species richness and abundance. We conclude that this invasive alien plant modifies habitats and their removal does aid in the restoration of the ecosystem.

  17. The changing role of ornamental horticulture in alien plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleunen, Mark; Essl, Franz; Pergl, Jan; Brundu, Giuseppe; Carboni, Marta; Dullinger, Stefan; Early, Regan; González-Moreno, Pablo; Groom, Quentin J; Hulme, Philip E; Kueffer, Christoph; Kühn, Ingolf; Máguas, Cristina; Maurel, Noëlie; Novoa, Ana; Parepa, Madalin; Pyšek, Petr; Seebens, Hanno; Tanner, Rob; Touza, Julia; Verbrugge, Laura; Weber, Ewald; Dawson, Wayne; Kreft, Holger; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Klonner, Günther; Talluto, Matthew V; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina

    2018-03-05

    The number of alien plants escaping from cultivation into native ecosystems is increasing steadily. We provide an overview of the historical, contemporary and potential future roles of ornamental horticulture in plant invasions. We show that currently at least 75% and 93% of the global naturalised alien flora is grown in domestic and botanical gardens, respectively. Species grown in gardens also have a larger naturalised range than those that are not. After the Middle Ages, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, a global trade network in plants emerged. Since then, cultivated alien species also started to appear in the wild more frequently than non-cultivated aliens globally, particularly during the 19th century. Horticulture still plays a prominent role in current plant introduction, and the monetary value of live-plant imports in different parts of the world is steadily increasing. Historically, botanical gardens - an important component of horticulture - played a major role in displaying, cultivating and distributing new plant discoveries. While the role of botanical gardens in the horticultural supply chain has declined, they are still a significant link, with one-third of institutions involved in retail-plant sales and horticultural research. However, botanical gardens have also become more dependent on commercial nurseries as plant sources, particularly in North America. Plants selected for ornamental purposes are not a random selection of the global flora, and some of the plant characteristics promoted through horticulture, such as fast growth, also promote invasion. Efforts to breed non-invasive plant cultivars are still rare. Socio-economical, technological, and environmental changes will lead to novel patterns of plant introductions and invasion opportunities for the species that are already cultivated. We describe the role that horticulture could play in mediating these changes. We identify current research challenges, and call for more

  18. Seed dispersal networks in the Galápagos and the consequences of alien plant invasions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heleno, R. H.; Olesen, Jens Mogens; Nogales, M.

    2013-01-01

    Alien plants are a growing threat to the Gala´pagos unique biota. We evaluated the impact of alien plants on eight seed dispersal networks from two islands of the archipelago. Nearly 10 000 intact seeds from 58 species were recovered from the droppings of 18 bird and reptile dispersers. The most......, followed by small ground finch, two mockingbirds, the giant tortoise and two insectivorous birds. Most animals dispersed alien seeds, but these formed a relatively small proportion of the interactions. Nevertheless, the integration of aliens was higher in the island that has been invaded for longest......, suggesting a time-lag between alien plant introductions and their impacts on seed dispersal networks. Alien plants become more specialized with advancing invasion, favouring more simplified plant and disperser communities. However, only habitat type significantly affected the overall network structure. Alien...

  19. Floristic characteristics of alien invasive seed plant species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhou, Jiawei; DU, Daolin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the floristic characteristics of alien invasive seed plant species (AISPS) in China. There are a total of five hundred and thirteen AISPS, belonging to seventy families and two hundred and eighty-three genera. Seventy families were classified into nine areal types at the family level, and "Cosmopolitan" and "Pantropic" are the two main types. Two hundred and eighty-three genera were classified into twelve areal types at the genus level, and "Pantropic", "Trop. Asia & Amer. disjuncted", and "Cosmopolitan" are the three main types. These results reveal a certain degree of diversity among AISPS in China. The floristic characteristics at the family level exhibit strong pantropic characteristics. Two possible reasons for this are as follows. Firstly, southeastern China is heavily invaded by alien invasive plant species and this region has a mild climate. Secondly, southeastern China is more disturbed by human activities than other regions in China. The floristic characteristics at the genus level display strong pantropic but with abundant temperate characteristics. This may be due to that China across five climatic zones and the ecosystems in which the most alien invasive plant species occur have the same or similar climate with their natural habitat.

  20. Internal and External Dispersal of Plants by Animals: An Aquatic Perspective on Alien Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H. A. van Leeuwen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many alien plants use animal vectors for dispersal of their diaspores (zoochory. If alien plants interact with native disperser animals, this can interfere with animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores. Interference by alien species is known for frugivorous animals dispersing fruits of terrestrial plants by ingestion, transport and egestion (endozoochory. However, less attention has been paid to possible interference of alien plants with dispersal of diaspores via external attachment (ectozoochory, epizoochory or exozoochory, interference in aquatic ecosystems, or positive effects of alien plants on dispersal of native plants. This literature study addresses the following hypotheses: (1 alien plants may interfere with both internal and external animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores; (2 interference also occurs in aquatic ecosystems; (3 interference of alien plants can have both negative and positive effects on native plants. The studied literature revealed that alien species can comprise large proportions of both internally and externally transported diaspores. Because animals have limited space for ingested and adhering diaspores, alien species affect both internal and external transport of native diaspores. Alien plant species also form large proportions of all dispersed diaspores in aquatic systems and interfere with dispersal of native aquatic plants. Alien interference can be either negative (e.g., through competition with native plants or positive (e.g., increased abundance of native dispersers, changed disperser behavior or attracting additional disperser species. I propose many future research directions, because understanding whether alien plant species disrupt or facilitate animal-mediated dispersal of native plants is crucial for targeted conservation of invaded (aquatic plant communities.

  1. Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, V.; Chytrý, M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, B.; Pergl, Jan; Hennekens, S. M.; Biurrun, I.; Knollová, I.; Berg, C.; Vassilev, K.; Rodwell, J. S.; Škvorc, Ž.; Jandt, U.; Ewald, J.; Jansen, F.; Tsiripidis, I.; Botta-Dukát, Z.; Casella, L.; Attorre, F.; Rašomavičius, V.; Ćušterevska, R.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Brunet, J.; Lenoir, J.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kacki, Z.; Petrášová-Šibíková, M.; Šilc, U.; García-Mijangos, I.; Campos, J. A.; Fernández-González, F.; Wohlgemuth, T.; Onyshchenko, V.; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2017), s. 969-981 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : neophyte * non-native * invasive plants * EUNIS * forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 4.391, year: 2016

  2. Aliens. Plantes mobiles et experts en mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Matthey, Laurent; Fall, Juliet Jane

    2008-01-01

    Berce du Caucase, Renouée du Japon, Séneçon du Cap, Solidage du Canada : le monde s’invite dans nos jardins et nos paysages. Or, cet exotisme botanique, longtemps valorisé et promu par les Sociétés d’acclimatation, est aujourd’hui perçu comme un important problème écologique. Hors des limites contrôlées de nos jardins publics ou privés, ces plantes nous envahissent. Elles se mobilisent, concurrencent nos espèces indigènes, se dotent de pouvoirs allergènes et nous nuisent.

  3. Alien plant invasions and native plant extinctions: a six-threshold framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Paul O; Richardson, David M

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are widely acknowledged as a major threat to global biodiversity. Species from all major taxonomic groups have become invasive. The range of impacts of invasive taxa and the overall magnitude of the threat is increasing. Plants comprise the biggest and best-studied group of invasive species. There is a growing debate; however, regarding the nature of the alien plant threat-in particular whether the outcome is likely to be the widespread extinction of native plant species. The debate has raised questions on whether the threat posed by invasive plants to native plants has been overstated. We provide a conceptual framework to guide discussion on this topic, in which the threat posed by invasive plants is considered in the context of a progression from no impact through to extinction. We define six thresholds along the 'extinction trajectory', global extinction being the final threshold. Although there are no documented examples of either 'in the wild' (Threshold 5) or global extinctions (Threshold 6) of native plants that are attributable solely to plant invasions, there is evidence that native plants have crossed or breached other thresholds along the extinction trajectory due to the impacts associated with plant invasions. Several factors may be masking where native species are on the trajectory; these include a lack of appropriate data to accurately map the position of species on the trajectory, the timeframe required to definitively state that extinctions have occurred and management interventions. Such interventions, focussing mainly on Thresholds 1-3 (a declining population through to the local extinction of a population), are likely to alter the extinction trajectory of some species. The critical issue for conservation managers is the trend, because interventions must be implemented before extinctions occur. Thus the lack of evidence for extinctions attributable to plant invasions does not mean we should disregard the broader threat

  4. Alien plant invasions and native plant extinctions: a six-threshold framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Paul O.; Richardson, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are widely acknowledged as a major threat to global biodiversity. Species from all major taxonomic groups have become invasive. The range of impacts of invasive taxa and the overall magnitude of the threat is increasing. Plants comprise the biggest and best-studied group of invasive species. There is a growing debate; however, regarding the nature of the alien plant threat—in particular whether the outcome is likely to be the widespread extinction of native plant species. The debate has raised questions on whether the threat posed by invasive plants to native plants has been overstated. We provide a conceptual framework to guide discussion on this topic, in which the threat posed by invasive plants is considered in the context of a progression from no impact through to extinction. We define six thresholds along the ‘extinction trajectory’, global extinction being the final threshold. Although there are no documented examples of either ‘in the wild’ (Threshold 5) or global extinctions (Threshold 6) of native plants that are attributable solely to plant invasions, there is evidence that native plants have crossed or breached other thresholds along the extinction trajectory due to the impacts associated with plant invasions. Several factors may be masking where native species are on the trajectory; these include a lack of appropriate data to accurately map the position of species on the trajectory, the timeframe required to definitively state that extinctions have occurred and management interventions. Such interventions, focussing mainly on Thresholds 1–3 (a declining population through to the local extinction of a population), are likely to alter the extinction trajectory of some species. The critical issue for conservation managers is the trend, because interventions must be implemented before extinctions occur. Thus the lack of evidence for extinctions attributable to plant invasions does not mean we should disregard the broader

  5. Status, Impact and Management of Invasive Alien Species in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used three methodological approaches including documentary search, interviews with relevant stakeholders and limited field visits. Findings from the study have indicated that the awareness, trends, distribution and impacts of the invasive alien species in Tanzania are variable, and similarly are the management ...

  6. An extensive alien plant inventory from the inhabited areas of galapagos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guézou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant invasions are causing habitat degradation in Galapagos. Problems are concentrated on the four inhabited islands. Plants introduced to rural areas in the humid highlands and urban areas on the arid coast act as foci for invasion of the surrounding Galapagos National Park. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present results of the most comprehensive inventory to date of alien vascular plants in the inhabited areas of Galapagos. The survey was conducted between 2002 and 2007, in 6031 properties (97% of the total on Floreana, Isabela, San Cristobal and Santa Cruz Islands. In total 754 alien vascular plant taxa were recorded, representing 468 genera in 123 families. Dicotyledons represented 554 taxa, monocotyledons 183, there were 7 gymnosperms and 10 pteridophytes. Almost half (363 of the taxa were herbaceous. The most represented families were Fabaceae (sensu lato, Asteraceae and Poaceae. The three most recorded species in the humid rural areas were Psidium guajava, Passiflora edulis and Bryophyllum pinnatum, and in the dry urban areas, Aloe vera, Portulaca oleracea and Carica papaya. In total, 264 (35% taxa were recorded as naturalized. The most common use for taxa was ornamental (52%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This extensive survey has increased the known alien vascular flora of Galapagos by 257 species, giving a ratio of alien to native taxa of 1.57:1. It provides a crucial baseline for plant invasion management in the archipelago and contributes data for meta analyses of invasion processes worldwide. A repeat of the survey in the future would act as an effective early detection tool to help avoid further invasion of the Galapagos National Park.

  7. Do invasive alien plants benefit more from global environmental change than native plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Oduor, Ayub M O; Zhang, Zhen; Manea, Anthony; Tooth, Ifeanna M; Leishman, Michelle R; Xu, Xingliang; van Kleunen, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Invasive alien plant species threaten native biodiversity, disrupt ecosystem functions and can cause large economic damage. Plant invasions have been predicted to further increase under ongoing global environmental change. Numerous case studies have compared the performance of invasive and native plant species in response to global environmental change components (i.e. changes in mean levels of precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO 2 concentration or nitrogen deposition). Individually, these studies usually involve low numbers of species and therefore the results cannot be generalized. Therefore, we performed a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis to assess whether there is a general pattern of differences in invasive and native plant performance under each component of global environmental change. We compiled a database of studies that reported performance measures for 74 invasive alien plant species and 117 native plant species in response to one of the above-mentioned global environmental change components. We found that elevated temperature and CO 2 enrichment increased the performance of invasive alien plants more strongly than was the case for native plants. Invasive alien plants tended to also have a slightly stronger positive response to increased N deposition and increased precipitation than native plants, but these differences were not significant (N deposition: P = 0.051; increased precipitation: P = 0.679). Invasive alien plants tended to have a slightly stronger negative response to decreased precipitation than native plants, although this difference was also not significant (P = 0.060). So while drought could potentially reduce plant invasion, increases in the four other components of global environmental change considered, particularly global warming and atmospheric CO 2 enrichment, may further increase the spread of invasive plants in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Dispersal limitation does not control high elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundel, Philip W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada of California were used to test the hypothesis that alien plant species invading high elevations around the world are typically climate generalists capable of growing across a wide elevational range. The Sierra Nevada has been heavily impacted for more than a century and a half, first by heavy grazing up into high elevation meadows, followed by major logging, and finally, by impacts associated with recreational use. The comparative elevational patterns of distribution and growth form were compared for native and alien plant species in the four families (Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) that contribute the majority of naturalized aliens in the study area. The distribution of realized climatic niche breadth, as measured by elevational range of occurrence, was virtually identical for alien and native species, with both groups showing a roughly Gaussian distribution peaking with species whose range covers a span of 1500–1999 m. In contrast to alien species, which only rarely occurred at higher elevations, native species showed a distribution of upper elevation limits peaking at 3000–3499 m, an elevation that corresponds to the zone of upper montane and subalpine forests. Consistent with a hypothesis of abiotic limitations, only a few alien species have been ecologically successful invaders at subalpine and alpine elevations above 2500 m. The low diversity of aliens able to become established in these habitats is unlikely due to dispersal limitations, given the long history of heavy grazing pressure at high elevations across this region. Instead, this low diversity is hypothesized to be a function of life history traits and multiple abiotic stresses that include extremes of cold air and soil temperature, heavy snowfall, short growing seasons, and low resource availability. These findings have significant implications for resource managers.

  9. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    . Data collected from this survey can be used by the park and other landowners to help detect and manage invasive plant species that threaten the natural resources of their lands, and survey findings will inform managers of threats from alien species established along corridors beyond park boundaries. Recommendations were made for refining the list of incipient invasive plant species to search for near the park and for the repetition of periodic roadside weed surveys in the park.

  10. Invasive alien plants used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 38 invasive alien plant species belonging to 23 families were recorded to be used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS related symptoms. The largest proportion of recorded invasive alien plants belonged to the family Asteraceae with 16%. Roots were the most frequently used parts constituting 35% followed ...

  11. The invasive alien plants threatened the balance of ecosystem in conservative area in Ontoloe Island, Flores-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonius Mboka Segu Wake, Ignatius; Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri; Jumari

    2018-05-01

    Invasive alien plants threaten to biodiversity, particularly in small island with high endemicity values such as Ontoloe Island, a tourist destination area of Riung Seventeen Island in Flores. The study aims to characterized the invasive plants have attacked the conservative area in Ontoloe Island. The method used by combining the line method and the plot method with three observation stations in utilization block and four observation station in protection block. Plot of 1mx1m was used for the observation of ground cover plants and seedling, 5mx5m for the observation in stake level, 10mx10m for the observation in pole level, 20mx20m for the observation in tree level. The data level of the plants obtained then analyzed with Important Value Index (IVI). Result showed that Lamtoro plants (Leuchaena leucocephala) is the invasive alien species which has the highest IVI in both of utilization block and protection block in each level of tree, stake, and pole. There are other invasive alien plants such as Tembeleken (Lantana camara) and Bidara (Zizipus mauritiana) dominated in stake level and Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) dominated in seedling level. All the native plants in Ontoloe Island will be threatened their existing because of the less control of invasive alien plants. Therefore, needs serious handling by the government in order to keep the balanced of the ecosystems in Ontoloe Island to be maintained especially to not deviated from management objectives area of Komodo Dragons conservation (Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, 1912).

  12. Evidence, perceptions, and trade-offs associated with invasive alien plant control in the Table Mountain National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available citizens regard the trees as attractive and ecologically beneficial, and for these reasons the alien plant control programs have been controversial. I briefly outline the legal obligations to deal with invasive alien plants, the history of control...

  13. Two decades of fighting aliens: exploring Working for Water successes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntshotsho, P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ntshotsho and her colleagues sought to verify and characterise success in government’s efforts to restore degraded ecosystems through invasive alien plant management. Invasive alien plants pose a significant threat to South Africa’s biodiversity...

  14. Alien invasive vascular plants in South African natural and semi-natural environments : bibliography from 1830

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moran, VC

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available A compilation of references to research on alien invasive plants in South Africa is given. Crop weeds and indigenous plants are not included. Reference is made to 457 publications. Keyword listings and a keyword index are provided....

  15. Aliens.

    OpenAIRE

    Juliet Fall; Laurent Matthey

    2008-01-01

    Berce du Caucase, Renouée du Japon, Séneçon du Cap, Solidage du Canada : le monde s’invite dans nos jardins et nos paysages. Or, cet exotisme botanique, longtemps valorisé et promu par les Sociétés d’acclimatation, est aujourd’hui perçu comme un important problème écologique. Hors des limites contrôlées de nos jardins publics ou privés, ces plantes nous envahissent. Elles se mobilisent, concurrencent nos espèces indigènes, se dotent de pouvoirs allergènes et nous nuisent. ......

  16. Aliens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Fall

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Berce du Caucase, Renouée du Japon, Séneçon du Cap, Solidage du Canada : le monde s’invite dans nos jardins et nos paysages. Or, cet exotisme botanique, longtemps valorisé et promu par les Sociétés d’acclimatation, est aujourd’hui perçu comme un important problème écologique. Hors des limites contrôlées de nos jardins publics ou privés, ces plantes nous envahissent. Elles se mobilisent, concurrencent nos espèces indigènes, se dotent de pouvoirs allergènes et nous nuisent. ...

  17. Allelopathic potential of segetal and ruderal invasive alien plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Novak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available At the global level, the invasion of alien organisms is considered the second largest threat to biodiversity. The assumption is that the high allelopathic potential is one of the features that helps invasive plant species to spread to new areas. Allelopathic potential of 8 invasive plant species (donor species and their impact on test-species was determined in the study. Donor species were velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Med., ragweed (Ambrosia elatior L., jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L., common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L., tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle, indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa L., Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica Houtt. and giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea Aiton. Three cultivated plant species from 3 different plant families were used as test-species. Test-species were: oat (Avena sativa L., oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. Water extracts made of whole plants of donor species were applied to the seeds of the test-species. High allelopathic potential was proven for all species included in experiment. Allelopathic effects were exclusively negative. Impact on germination for all species was much lower in relation to the impact on the radicle and shoot length of the test-species. Perennial donor species had a stronger allelopathic potential than annual donor species. Tree of heaven was the species with the strongest allelopathic potential. Its extracts inhibited germination, radicle and shoot length of oilseed rape by 19%, 94.88% and 98.91% respectively.

  18. Invasive alien woody plants of the Orange Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 66% (151/230 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 64 species of which the most prominent (in order of prominence in streambank habitats were:  Salix babylonica, Populus x  canescens, Acacia dealbata and  Salix fragilis (fide R.D. Meikle pers. comm . The most prominent species (in order of prominence in roadside and veld habitats were:  Opunlia ficus-indica, Prunus persica, Eucalyptus spp..  Rosa eglanteria, Pyracantha angustifolia and Acacia dealbata.Little invasion was recorded for most of the province. The greatest intensity of invasion was recorded along the perennial rivers and rocky hillsides in the moist grassland of the eastern mountain region bordering on Lesotho and Natal.

  19. Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular emphasis on South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chamier, J; Schachtschneider, K; le Maitre, DC; Ashton, PJ; van Wilgen, BW

    2012-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of quantified impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with a focus on South Africa. In South Africa, over 200 introduced plant species are regarded as invasive. Many of these species are particularly prominent in riparian ecosystems and their spread results in native species loss, increased biomass and fire intensity and consequent erosion, as well as decreased river flows. Research on the impact of invasive alien plants on water resources h...

  20. Stakeholder Perceptions of an Ecosystem Services Approach to Clearing Invasive Alien Plants on Private Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren S. Urgenson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Incentivizing private landowners and other stakeholders is central to the effective conservation of ecosystem services in working landscapes. To better understand how to design effective incentives, the perceptions of landowners and other stakeholders are explored regarding a proposed approach to clearing invasive alien plants on private land in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The public funded national program, Working for Water, conserves ecosystem services while employing and training people from marginalized sectors of society to clear these plants. Private landowner involvement is a key conservation challenge, because without adequate landowner involvement, invasive alien plants persist on the landscape and continuously reinvade cleared areas. We collected interview data from private landowners in three study sites, and web-survey data from conservation professionals and Working for Water managers, in order to compare stakeholder perceptions of (1 government and landowners' responsibilities for clearing invasive alien plants; (2 existing and proposed policy tools; and (3 the extent to which stakeholders consider the proposed financial incentive to be sufficient. There was significant consensus among stakeholders concerning their preference for shared landowner and government responsibility and for a policy mix that combines incentives with disincentives. Landowners from the three study sites differed in the level of responsibility they were willing to assume. Stakeholders also diverged in terms of their perceptions of the proposed financial incentives. Furthermore, the perspectives of landowners were strongly associated with ecological and social features of the landscapes in which they are located. Understanding stakeholders' points of view within their differing contexts is shown to be a valuable means of gaining insight into the opportunities and constraints that face ecosystem service conservation in working landscapes.

  1. How Will Global Environmental Changes Affect the Growth of Alien Plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jujie Jia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes can create novel habitats, promoting the growth of alien plants that often exhibit broad environmental tolerance and high phenotypic plasticity. However, the mechanisms underlying these growth promotory effects are unknown at present. Here, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis using data from 111 published studies encompassing the responses of 129 alien plants to global warming, increased precipitation, N deposition, and CO2 enrichment. We compared the differences in the responses of alien plants to the four global environmental change factors across six categories of functional traits between woody and non-woody life forms as well as C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Our results showed that all four global change factors promote alien plant growth. Warming had a more positive effect on C4 than C3 plants. Although the effects of the four factors on the functional traits of alien plants were variable, plant growth was mainly promoted via an increase in growth rate and size. Our data suggest that potential future global environmental changes could further facilitate alien plant growth.

  2. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Lampinen

    Full Text Available Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  3. Biological invasions: economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pimentel, David

    2011-01-01

    ...: Economic and Environmental Costs of Alien Plant, Animal, and Microbe Species, this reference discusses how non-native species invade new ecosystems and the subsequent economic and environmental effects of these species...

  4. Alien plants as mediators of ecosystem services and disservices in urban systems: a global review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Potgieter, LJ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available by human activities and their floras comprise a high proportion of alien plant species, many of which were intentionally introduced to provide, augment or restore ES. Urban environments also have novel disturbance regimes and provide colonization sites...

  5. Railway side mapping of alien plant distributions in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndifelani Mararakanye

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Knowledge of the species’ occurrence and their extent will assist landowners and relevant authorities to control the spread of alien plants, which impact rail safety, agricultural production, water availability and biodiversity.

  6. Alien plant invasions--incorporating emerging invaders in regional prioritization: a pragmatic approach for Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgidi, Theresa N; Le Maitre, David C; Schonegevel, Lucille; Nel, Jeanne L; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

    2007-07-01

    Plant invasions are a serious threat to natural and semi-natural ecosystems worldwide. Most management-orientated research on invasions focuses on invaders that are already widespread and often have major impacts. This paper deals with "emerging" invaders-those alien species with the potential to become important problems without timely intervention. A climate matching procedure was developed to define areas of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland that could be invaded by 28 plant species that had previously been classified as emerging invaders. Information on the location of populations of these species in the study area was combined with information on their distributions (as native or alien) in parts of Australia and the United States of America. These two countries had the best available distribution data for this study. They also share many invasive alien plant species with South Africa. Climatic data obtained for weather stations near points of known occurrence in these countries were used to define the climatically suitable areas for each species in the study area. Almost 80% of the remaining natural environment in southern Africa was found to be vulnerable to invasion by at least one of these species, 50% by six or more and 24% by 16 or more species. The most vulnerable areas are the highveld grasslands and the eastern escarpment. The emerging invaders with the greatest potential range included Acacia podalyriifolia and Cortaderia selloana. The globally important invaders Ulex europaeus and Lythrum salicaria had a more limited invasion potential but could still become major invaders. There was no relationship between the extent of the climatically suitable areas for the different species and an expert ranking of their invasion potential, emphasising the uncertainties inherent in making expert assessments based on very little information. The methods used in this analysis establish a protocol for future modelling exercises to assess the invasion potential of

  7. Past approaches and future challenges to the management of fire and invasive alien plants in the new Garden Route National Park

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kraaij, T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available century by interviewing former catchment managers and reviewing forestry and catchment management policies. Mountain fynbos adjacent to plantations was subjected to burning regimes aimed at the protection of commercial timber resources rather than...

  8. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  9. Wind dispersal of alien plant species into remnant natural vegetation from adjacent agricultural fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Egawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding the seed dispersal of alien species is crucial to manage invasion risk in fragmented natural habitats. Focusing on wind dispersal, this study assessed the spatial and quantitative extents to which a remnant natural fen receives the seeds of alien species dispersed from adjacent hay meadows in Hokkaido, northern Japan. I established a total of 80 funnel seed traps in the fen at distances of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 m from the meadows. The proportion of alien species in the seed rain at each distance was quantified, and the 99th-percentile dispersal distance from the meadows was estimated for each alien species by constructing dispersal kernels. Despite the presence of a marginal ditch and an elevational difference between the fen and the meadows, five alien species, including four grasses that do not have modified seed structures for wind dispersal, dispersed their seeds into the fen. These alien species accounted for up to 65.9% of the seed rain in terms of quantity. The 99th-percentile dispersal distances of the alien species ranged from 3.8 m to 309.3 m, and these distances were longer than the values predicted on the basis of their functional traits, such as terminal velocity. The results of this study demonstrated that numerous seeds of farmland-derived alien species were transported into the remnant vegetation via wind dispersal, and that simple predictions of dispersal distance based on functional traits could underestimate the potential area that alien species can reach. Continuous management both in farmland (to reduce seed escape and in remnant vegetation (to prevent the establishment of alien species is necessary to protect native vegetation from biological invasion in agricultural landscapes.

  10. Contribution to the alien flora of Montenegro and Supplementum to the Preliminary list of plant invaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is based on the field observations from 2011 to 2013. Besides new data about distribution of some known plant invaders, one new alien species for the flora of Montenegro is reported- Solidago gigantea. This plant was recorded in 2011, on two distinct localities near the road side in peri-urban area of Nikšić and Mojkovac, in the vicinity of gardens, were it has been grown as ornamental. In 2012 survey, species was again reported for Mojkovac, but it disappeared from Nikšić, due to environmental changes caused by road construction. Remaining locality is placed near the Tara river bank, so considering ecological preferences (roadsides, disturbed river banks and moist soils, this species might become more frequent in the area. It is included into the EPPO list of invasive alien plants. In addition, alien plant Tagetes minuta is added to the preliminary list of plant invaders in Montenegro.

  11. Temperature-dependent performance of competitive native and alien invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-10-01

    To assess the likely impacts of environmental change, the responses of two well-known invasive plant species, native Pueraria lobata and alien Humulus japonicus, to differences in growth temperature were studied in South Korea. Habitat preferences, physiological responses such as photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll contents, growth rates, and nutrient contents were quantified for each species. A competition experiment was conducted to evaluate the temperature preferences of the two species. All results indicated that the alien species H. japonicus can take advantage of elevated temperatures (35 °C) to enhance its competitive advantage against the native species P. lobata. While H. japonicus took advantage of elevated temperatures and preferred high-temperature areas, P. lobata showed reduced performance and dominance in high-temperature areas. Therefore, in future, due to global warming and urbanization, there are possibilities that H. japonicus takes advantage of elevated temperature against P. lobata that could lead to increased H. japonicus coverage over time. Therefore, consistent monitoring of both species especially where P. lobata is dominated are required because both species are found in every continents in the world. Controlling P. lobata requires thorough inspection of H. japonicus presence of the habitat in advance to prevent post P. lobata management invasion of H. japonicus.

  12. Estimates of the impacts of invasive alien plants on water flows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adverse impacts of alien plant invasions on water flows have been a prime motivation for South Africa's Working for Water Programme. The approach used in this study builds on a previous national assessment in 1998 by incorporating factors that limit plant water-use, information from recent research and improved flow ...

  13. Effects of alien woody plant invasion on the birds of Mountain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The density, biomass, species richness and composition of birds in plots in two Mountain Fynbos plant-species assemblages (Tall Mixed Fynbos and Restionaceous Tussock Marsh), infested with alien woody plants (mainly Australian Acacia spp.) at the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve, South Africa, were compared ...

  14. Can native plant species be preserved in an anthropogenic forest landscape dominated by aliens? A case study from Mediterranean Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Heinrichs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantations with fast growing exotic tree species can negatively affect native plant species diversity and promote the spread of alien species. Mediterranean Chile experienced major landscape changes with a vast expansion of industrial plantations of Pinus radiata in the past. However, with increasing knowledge of biodiversity effects on ecosystem services Chilean forest owners now aim to integrate the conservation of native biodiversity into forest management, but data on native species diversity and establishment within a plantation landscape is scarce. Here we investigated plant species diversity and composition in four forest management options applied within a landscape dominated by P. radiata plantations in comparison to an unmanaged reference: (i a clear cut, (ii a strip cut, (iii a native canopy of Nothofagus glauca and (iv a young P. radiata plantation. We wanted to assess if native plant species can be maintained either by natural regeneration or by planting of native tree species (Nothofagus glauca, N. obliqua, Quillaja saponaria within this landscape. Results show a high diversity of native and forest plant species within the different management options indicating a high potential for native biodiversity restoration within an anthropogenic landscape. In particular, herbaceous species can benefit from management. They are rare in unmanaged natural forests that are characterized by low light conditions and a thick litter layer. Management, however, also promoted a diversity of alien species. The rapid spread of alien grass species after management can deter an initial establishment of native tree species or the survival and growth after planting mainly under dry but less under sufficient moisture conditions. The most unsuccessful option for promoting native plant species was clear cutting in a dry area where alien grasses were abundant. For drought-tolerant tree species such as Quillaja saponaria, though

  15. Phalaris canariensis L. (Poaceae: A new alien plant record for Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugufta Rasheed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The correct taxonomic identification assumes first and foremost priority in the scientific documentation of biodiversity. The Kashmir Himalaya, located in the north-western side of the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot, is well-known for its diverse flora which merits immediate scientific documentation. In this context, the present study reports Phalaris canariensis L. (Poaceae as a new alien plant record to the flora of Kashmir Himalaya, India. In this paper, a detailed description, photographs, and comparison of diagnostic characters with allied species are provided to scientifically validate this alien plant record for this Himalayan region.

  16. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  17. Alien plant monitoring with ultralight airborne imaging spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Calviño-Cancela

    Full Text Available Effective management of invasive plants requires a precise determination of their distribution. Remote sensing techniques constitute a promising alternative to field surveys and hyperspectral sensors (also known as imaging spectrometers, with a large number of spectral bands and high spectral resolution are especially suitable when very similar categories are to be distinguished (e.g. plant species. A main priority in the development of this technology is to lower its cost and simplify its use, so that its demonstrated aptitude for many environmental applications can be truly realized. With this aim, we have developed a system for hyperspectral imaging (200 spectral bands in the 380-1000 nm range and circa 3 nm spectral resolution operated on board ultralight aircraft (namely a gyrocopter, which allows a drastic reduction of the running costs and operational complexity of image acquisition, and also increases the spatial resolution of the images (circa 5-8 pixels/m(2 at circa 65 km/h and 300 m height. The detection system proved useful for the species tested (Acacia melanoxylon, Oxalis pes-caprae, and Carpobrotus aff. edulis and acinaciformis, with user's and producer's accuracy always exceeding 90%. The detection accuracy reported corresponds to patches down to 0.125 m(2 (50% of pixels 0.5 × 0.5 m in size, a very small size for many plant species, making it very effective for initial stages of invasive plant spread. In addition, its low operating costs, similar to those of a 4WD ground vehicle, facilitate frequent image acquisition. Acquired images constitute a permanent record of the status of the study area, with great amount of information that can be analyzed in the future for other purposes, thus greatly facilitating the monitoring of natural areas at detailed spatial and temporal scales for improved management.

  18. Modeling invasive alien plant species in river systems : Interaction with native ecosystem engineers and effects on hydro-morphodynamic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, M.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geerling, G.W.; Egger, G.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Middelkoop, H.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species negatively impact native plant communities by out-competing species or changing abiotic and biotic conditions in their introduced range. River systems are especially vulnerable to biological invasions, because waterways can function as invasion corridors. Understanding

  19. A strategic study of the impact of invasive alien plants in the high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-20

    Jul 20, 2006 ... 2 National Working for Water Programme, Department of Water Affairs & Forestry, Private Bag X4390, Cape Town 8000, South Africa ... its public programme Working for Water (WfW) to develop a user charge system for the clearing of invasive alien plants in ... (WRM) charge, to cover the cost of clearing.

  20. The distribution and spread of alien vascular plants on Prince Edward Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, P.G.; Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys of alien plants at subantarctic Prince Edward Island in 2001 show that the ranges of all three introduced species have increased since the last survey in 1998. Poa annua, the longest-established species, increased its range substantially after 1987, prior to which it was confined to a single

  1. Internal transport of alien and native plants by geese and ducks: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Alberto; van Leeuwen, Casper H. A.; Luque, Carlos J.; Hussner, Andreas; Velez-Martin, Alberto; Perez-Vazquez, Andres; Green, Andy J.; Castellanos, Eloy M.

    2015-01-01

    Alien plant species are rapidly spreading in aquatic ecosystems around the world, causing major ecological effects. They are typically introduced by humans, after which natural vectors facilitate their further spread. Migratory waterbirds have long been recognised as important dispersal vectors for

  2. Impacts of invading alien plant species on water flows at stand and catchment scales

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies of the diverse impacts of invasions by alien plants but few have assessed impacts on water resources. We reviewed the information on the impacts of invasions on surface runoff and groundwater resources at stand...

  3. Invasive alien plants in the terrestrial ecosystems of Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Macdonald, IAW

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This report consists of two types of chapters. Most of the chapters are short syntheses of particular aspects of the alien plant problem in Natal, written by groups of participants during the workshop meeting. They are brief accounts of the state...

  4. An assessment of alien invasive plant species in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sithole, D.; Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Gandiwa, E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of alien plant species in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe. We focused on two main habitat types, namely riparian areas of the major rivers and dry land areas. Sampling was carried out from 42 sampling plots in both habitat types. Variables studied

  5. Preliminary assessment of the impacts of invasive alien plants on ecosystem services in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available and invasive alien plant infestations, and to use the two to estimate impacts on each of the services. In this paper our focus is on water resources only. We describe our approach for selecting species and areas in order to estimate current and future potential...

  6. Clearing of invasive alien plants in South Africa: a preliminary assessment of costs and progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides estimates of the costs of clearing important species of invasive alien plants, as well as of progress made with clearing, based on data from a recently developed GIS-based project information system. Before the deployment...

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Alien Plant Species Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, P.; Müllerová, J.; Bartaloš, T.; Brůna, J.

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species spread rapidly and their eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project in the Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms) by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV). We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer-assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid). Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded). The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.

  8. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J Lembrechts

    Full Text Available Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  9. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembrechts, Jonas J; Milbau, Ann; Nijs, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  10. Aliens in Transylvania: risk maps of invasive alien plant species in Central Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Zimmermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the MAXENT algorithm, we developed risk maps for eight invasive plant species in southern Transylvania, Romania, a region undergoing drastic land-use changes. Our findings show that invasion risk increased with landscape heterogeneity. Roads and agricultural areas were most prone to invasion, whereas forests were least at risk.

  11. Public attitude in the city of Belgrade towards invasive alien plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomićević Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are seen as a major threat to biodiversity at a global level, while the number of new invasions is increasing at an alarming rate. Raising the awareness of the public, academic world and policy makers about the dangers caused by invasive species, is essential for the creation of the support needed to implement and coordinate the policies necessary to address this problem. The aim of this study is to determine the level of local public awareness of the existence of these plant species, examine the public attitude towards alien invasive plant species and willingness to get involved in the prevention of their spreading. The survey was conducted in four nurseries on the territory of the City of Belgrade and the investigation dealt only with alien invasive woody plant species. Thirty customers were questioned in each of the four nurseries. The results show that local public is uninformed on the issue of invasive plant species. It is necessary to constantly and intensively raise their awareness of this issue, as well as the awareness of harmful consequences that may occur due to the uncontrolled spreading of alien invasive species. This refers not only to the population that visits the nurseries and buys the plants there and to those employed in plant production and selling, but also to the whole local public and decision makers.

  12. Paradise lost: alien plant invaders compromising productive, rich state forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy J. Loewenstein; James H. Miller; Erwin Chamblis

    2008-01-01

    Kudzu and Chinese privet along Alabama roadways are a familiar sight and Japanese honeysuckle is so commonplace it has practically become a part of Southern culture. But are these and other invasive plants really having a negative impact on forests? Just how bad is the invasive plant problem? What are the most effective ways to combat invasive plants?

  13. Modeling invasive alien plant species in river systems: Interaction with native ecosystem engineers and effects on hydro-morphodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, M.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geerling, G. W.; Egger, G.; Leuven, R. S. E. W.; Middelkoop, H.

    2017-08-01

    Invasive alien plant species negatively impact native plant communities by out-competing species or changing abiotic and biotic conditions in their introduced range. River systems are especially vulnerable to biological invasions, because waterways can function as invasion corridors. Understanding interactions of invasive and native species and their combined effects on river dynamics is essential for developing cost-effective management strategies. However, numerical models for simulating long-term effects of these processes are lacking. This paper investigates how an invasive alien plant species affects native riparian vegetation and hydro-morphodynamics. A morphodynamic model has been coupled to a dynamic vegetation model that predicts establishment, growth and mortality of riparian trees. We introduced an invasive alien species with life-history traits based on Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica), and investigated effects of low- and high propagule pressure on invasion speed, native vegetation and hydro-morphodynamic processes. Results show that high propagule pressure leads to a decline in native species cover due to competition and the creation of unfavorable native colonization sites. With low propagule pressure the invader facilitates native seedling survival by creating favorable hydro-morphodynamic conditions at colonization sites. With high invader abundance, water levels are raised and sediment transport is reduced during the growing season. In winter, when the above-ground invader biomass is gone, results are reversed and the floodplain is more prone to erosion. Invasion effects thus depend on seasonal above- and below ground dynamic vegetation properties and persistence of the invader, on the characteristics of native species it replaces, and the combined interactions with hydro-morphodynamics.

  14. A framework for engaging stakeholders on the management of alien species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Shackleton, Ross; Canavan, Susan; Cybèle, Cathleen; Davies, Sarah J; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Fried, Jana; Gaertner, Mirijam; Geerts, Sjirk; Griffiths, Charles L; Kaplan, Haylee; Kumschick, Sabrina; Le Maitre, David C; Measey, G John; Nunes, Ana L; Richardson, David M; Robinson, Tamara B; Touza, Julia; Wilson, John R U

    2018-01-01

    Alien species can have major ecological and socioeconomic impacts in their novel ranges and so effective management actions are needed. However, management can be contentious and create conflicts, especially when stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who incur costs. Such conflicts of interests mean that management strategies can often not be implemented. There is, therefore, increasing interest in engaging stakeholders affected by alien species or by their management. Through a facilitated workshop and consultation process including academics and managers working on a variety of organisms and in different areas (urban and rural) and ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic), we developed a framework for engaging stakeholders in the management of alien species. The proposed framework for stakeholder engagement consists of 12 steps: (1) identify stakeholders; (2) select key stakeholders for engagement; (3) explore key stakeholders' perceptions and develop initial aims for management; (4) engage key stakeholders in the development of a draft management strategy; (5) re-explore key stakeholders' perceptions and revise the aims of the strategy; (6) co-design general aims, management objectives and time frames with key stakeholders; (7) co-design a management strategy; (8) facilitate stakeholders' ownership of the strategy and adapt as required; and (9) implement the strategy and monitor management actions to evaluate the need for additional or future actions. In case additional management is needed after these actions take place, some extra steps should be taken: (10) identify any new stakeholders, benefits, and costs; (11) monitor engagement; and (12) revise management strategy. Overall, we believe that our framework provides an effective approach to minimize the impact of conflicts created by alien species management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing determinants of alien bird impacts across two continents: implications for risk assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas; Kumschick, Sabrina; Dyer, Ellie; Blackburn, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Invasive alien species can have serious adverse impacts on both the environment and the economy. Being able to predict the impacts of an alien species could assist in preventing or reducing these impacts. This study aimed to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with the impacts of alien birds across two continents, Europe and Australia, as a first step toward identifying life history traits that may have the potential to be adopted as predictors of alien bird impacts. A recently established impact scoring system was used in combination with a literature review to allocate impact scores to alien bird species with self-sustaining populations in Australia. These scores were then tested for correlation with a series of life history traits. The results were compared to data from a previous study in Europe, undertaken using the same methodology, in order to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with impact across both continents. Habitat generalism was the only life history trait found to be consistently correlated with impact in both Europe and Australia. This trait shows promise as a potential predictor of alien bird impacts. The results support the findings of previous studies in this field, and could be used to inform decisions regarding the prevention and management of future invasions.

  16. Invasion of alien plants in fire-damaged forests at southern boundary of the taiga zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khapugin, A.A.; Vargot, E.V.; Chugunov, G.G.; Shugaev, N.I.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Biological invasions are one of the most important areas of forest research. In this study, we revealed invasibility of fire-damaged forests at the southern boundary of the taiga zone. Area of study: The Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Central Russia). Material and Methods: Altogether, 11 square plots of each 100 ×100 m were established in different types of fire-damaged forests. To test plant invasion outside the established plots, field researches were carried out by route method in fire-damaged area of the Mordovia Reserve. Main Results: Six alien species (Erigeron canadensis, E. annuus, Oenothera biennis, Lactuca serriola, Sambucus racemosa, Viola arvensis) were registered within the established plots in 2011–2014. In addition, two alien invasive plants (Solidago canadensis and Bidens frondosa) were found outside these plots. No differences were detected in invasibility of the tested forest ecosystems. Research highlights: Among the revealed alien species, Erigeron canadensis, Lactuca serriola and Solidago canadensis are the most invasive plants in forest ecosystems. The first one was observed with a high occurrence frequency and abundance in all forest types tested. The second one has not been differed by abundance, but it characterized by a high competition as well as a large biomass and a large number of seeds. Solidago canadensis penetrated to natural forest ecosystem in a short time period due to closest location of its dispersal centers near the boundary of the Mordovia Reserve. These species are the most probable invaders of the forest ecosystems. (Author)

  17. Alien Plant Species in the Agricultural Habitats of Ukraine: Diversity and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burda Raisa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first critical review of the diversity of the Ukrainian adventive flora, which has spread in agricultural habitats in the 21st century. The author’s annotated checklist contains the data on 740 species, subspecies and hybrids from 362 genera and 79 families of non-native weeds. The floristic comparative method was used, and the information was generalised into some categories of five characteristic features: climamorphotype (life form, time and method of introduction, level of naturalisation, and distribution into 22 classes of three habitat types according to European Nature Information System (EUNIS. Two assessments of the ecological risk of alien plants were first conducted in Ukraine according to the European methods: the risk of overcoming natural migration barriers and the risk of their impact on the environment. The exposed impact of invasive alien plants on ecosystems has a convertible character; the obtained information confirms a high level of phytobiotic contamination of agricultural habitats in Ukraine. It is necessary to implement European and national documents regarding the legislative and regulative policy on invasive alien species as one of the threats to biotic diversity.

  18. Greater Focus Needed on Alien Plant Impacts in Protected Areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulme, P. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Schaffner, U.; Vila, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2014), s. 459-466 ISSN 1755-263X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * impact * protected areas Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.241, year: 2014

  19. The identification and remote detection of alien invasive plants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kabir Peerbhay

    remote sensing techniques offer a synoptic rapid approach for detecting and mapping weeds ... plant substrates, soil properties, the microclimate, water relations, density and height of .... Additionally, a precise weed detection system ..... complexities when detecting IAP species for real-time monitoring and decision making.

  20. Widespread plant species: natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stohlgren, T. J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D. M.; Wilson, J. R. U.; Murray, B. R.; Phillips, M. L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 9 (2011), s. 1931-1944 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species distribution * Old and New World Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2011

  1. Contribution to the alien flora of Montenegro and Supplementum to the Preliminary list of plant invaders

    OpenAIRE

    Stešević, D.; Caković, D.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution is based on the field observations from 2011 to 2013. Besides new data about distribution of some known plant invaders, one new alien species for the flora of Montenegro is reported- Solidago gigantea. This plant was recorded in 2011, on two distinct localities near the road side in peri-urban area of Nikšić and Mojkovac, in the vicinity of gardens, were it has been grown as ornamental. In 2012 survey, species was again reported for Mojkovac, but it disappeared f...

  2. Mycorrhizal status helps explain invasion success of alien plant species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menzel, A.; Hempel, S.; Klotz, S.; Moora, M.; Pyšek, Petr; Rillig, M. C.; Zobel, M.; Kühn, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2017), s. 92-102 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasion * mycorrhiza * naturalization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.809, year: 2016

  3. The succession of plant associations at the territories of the alienation zone in post-Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    The article discusses the results of studies on ecological succession in the zone of alienation (Vetkovskij area of the Gomel' region). The lands of this zone have not been used for agricultural purposes. The connection between characteristics of regeneration ecosystems and ecological condition of agricultural landscape is established. The change of vegetation in the course of succession is considered. Plant associations which are formed in the zone of alienation are described. (authors)

  4. Conserving a geographically isolated Charaxes butterfly in response to habitat fragmentation and invasive alien plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casparus J. Crous

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, much of the forest biome is vulnerable to human-induced disturbance. The forest-dwelling butterfly Charaxes xiphares occidentalis is naturally confined to a small forest region in the south-western Cape, South Africa. Most of the remaining habitat of this species is within a fragmented agricultural matrix. Furthermore, this geographical area is also heavily invaded by alien plants, especially Acacia mearnsii. We investigated how C. x. occidentalis behaviourally responds to different habitat conditions in the landscape. We were particularly interested in touring, patrolling and settling behaviour as a conservation proxy for preference of a certain habitat configuration in this agricultural matrix. Remnant forest patches in the agricultural matrix showed fewer behavioural incidents than in a reference protected area. Moreover, dense stands of A. mearnsii negatively influenced the incidence and settling pattern of this butterfly across the landscape, with fewer tree settlings associated with more heavily invaded forest patches. This settling pattern was predominantly seen in female butterflies. We also identified specific trees that were settled upon for longer periods by C. x. occidentalis. Distance to a neighbouring patch and patch size influenced behavioural incidences, suggesting that further patch degradation and isolation could be detrimental to this butterfly. Conservation implications: We highlight the importance of clearing invasive tree species from vulnerable forest ecosystems and identify key tree species to consider in habitat conservation and rehabilitation programmes for this butterfly. We also suggest retaining as much intact natural forest as possible. This information should be integrated in local biodiversity management plans.

  5. A revised list of alien plants for the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Foxcroft

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Alien plants recorded in the Kruger National Park are listed, providing an update of species that have been recorded since the last published list in 1988. The serious consequences that invasive alien plants pose are widely recognised internationally and are regarded as the greatest threat to the Kruger National Park. It is extremely important to maintain an updated list of species to use as a reference and from which to monitor changes in the influx of invasive species. The list contains the invasive status of the plants, current impact, habitat types, biological control status and status according to the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (CARA, Act 43 of 1983, as amended in March 2001. The list comprises 370 species, of which 121 are invaders and two are transformer weeds, which may cause considerable damage and alterations to the indigenous biodiversity. A total of 91 species listed herein are also listed in the CARA regulations or are proposed additions to the CARA regulations.

  6. The Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on Pollen Transfer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Emer

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a threat to the maintenance of ecological processes, including pollination. Plant-flower visitor networks are traditionally used as a surrogated for pollination at the community level, despite they do not represent the pollination process, which takes place at the stigma of plants where pollen grains are deposited. Here we investigated whether the invasion of the alien plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae affects pollen transfer at the community level. We asked whether more alien pollen is deposited on the stigmas of plants on invaded sites, whether deposition is affected by stigma type (dry, semidry and wet and whether the invasion of I. glandulifera changes the structure of the resulting pollen transfer networks. We sampled stigmas of plants on 10 sites invaded by I. glandulifera (hereafter, balsam and 10 non-invaded control sites. All 20 networks had interactions with balsam pollen, although significantly more balsam pollen was found on plants with dry stigmas in invaded areas. Balsam pollen deposition was restricted to a small subset of plant species, which is surprising because pollinators are known to carry high loads of balsam pollen. Balsam invasion did not affect the loading of native pollen, nor did it affect pollen transfer network properties; networks were modular and poorly nested, both of which are likely to be related to the specificity of pollen transfer interactions. Our results indicate that pollination networks become more specialized when moving from the flower visitation to the level of pollen transfer networks. Therefore, caution is needed when inferring pollination from patterns of insect visitation or insect pollen loads as the relationship between these and pollen deposition is not straightforward.

  7. Invasive alien plants in protected areas within city borders, LODZ (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anna, B.; Grzegorz, W.J.; Krason, K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the occurrence of invasive alien plant species in two forest reserves: "Las Lagiewnicki"and "Polesie Konstantynowskie", located within the city of Lodz (Central Poland). Currently, five vascular plants (Impatiens parviflora, Juncus tenuis, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra, Robinia pseudoacacia) and one moss (Orthodontium lineare) considered as invasive were found in the studied reserves. Invasive plant species accounted for a small percentage of the flora in the studied reserves, and their sites were mainly concentrated in areas transformed by human activity. The most common species were Impatiens parviflora and Padus serotina. Due to the location of the reserves within city borders and the proven negative effect of the found species on ecological systems, their sites should be monitored. (author)

  8. Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Visser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alien grasses in South Africa to date using recorded occurrences of alien grasses in the country from various literature and database sources. Using historical literature, we reviewed past efforts to introduce alien grasses into South Africa. We sourced information on the origins, uses, distributions and minimum residence times to investigate pathways and patterns of spatial extent. We identified alien grasses in South Africa that are having environmental and economic impacts and determined whether management options have been identified, and legislation created, for these species. Results: There are at least 256 alien grass species in the country, 37 of which have become invasive. Alien grass species richness increased most dramatically from the late 1800s to about 1940. Alien grass species that are not naturalised or invasive have much shorter residence times than those that have naturalised or become invasive. Most grasses were probably introduced for forage purposes, and a large number of alien grass species were trialled at pasture research stations. A large number of alien grass species in South Africa are of Eurasian origin, although more recent introductions include species from elsewhere in Africa and from Australasia. Alien grasses are most prevalent in the south-west of the country, and the Fynbos Biome has the most alien grasses and the most widespread species. We identified 11 species that have recorded environmental and economic impacts in the

  9. Alien plant species (ephemerophytes in Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvirna Tetyana S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on ephemerophytes of the alien portion of the flora of the Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District (north-eastern Ukraine. It is a detailed study of this group of plants, conducted for the first time in the Ukraine. The checklist of alien vascular plants contains 345 species, of which 27 species are ephemerophytes (or 8%: Adonis aestivalis, A. annua, Papaver albiflorum, Urtica cannabina, Gypsophila perfoliata, Atriplex micrantha, Chenopodium × preissmannii, Ch. × thellungii, Rumex longifolius, Sisymbrium polymorphum, Euphorbia humifusa, Malus sylvestris, Onobrychis viciifolia, Astrodaucus orientalis, Datura tatula, Solanum schultesii, Lindernia procumbens, Melampyrum cristatum, Helianthus annuus, Petasites spurius, Xanthium ripicola × Xanthium albinum, Echinochloa tzvelevii, Panicum capillare, Panicum capillare L. subsp. barvipulvinatum, Phalaris canariensis, Setaria ×ambigua, Sorghum halepense. The basis of this work is original data of the author obtained during field studies, and a critical study of the literature, archival, cartographic materials and herbarium collections, and the use of classical methods of botanical classification. Complex research of this group of plants was conducted and as a result of these investigations the following characteristics were established: a predominance of kenophytes of Mediterranean origin in this group, species of arid areas, cosmopolitan species with a diffuse type of space structure, therophytes, herbaceous monocarpic plants, mesotrophes, heliophytes and xeromesophytes, with an insignificant degree of impact on native plant communities and with a limited distribution within the study region. The combination of these results indicates that ephemerophytes comprise a temporary, unstable component of the flora of this region of the Ukraine. The paper provides maps of the distribution of these 27 species.

  10. Understanding the dynamics in distribution of invasive alien plant species under predicted climate change in Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Sunil; Chitale, Vishwas; Rijal, Srijana Joshi; Bisht, Neha; Shrestha, Bharat Babu

    2018-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPS) can pose severe threats to biodiversity and stability of native ecosystems, therefore, predicting the distribution of the IAPS plays a crucial role in effective planning and management of ecosystems. In the present study, we use Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modelling approach to predict the potential of distribution of eleven IAPS under future climatic conditions under RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 in part of Kailash sacred landscape region in Western Himalaya. Based on the model predictions, distribution of most of these invasive plants is expected to expand under future climatic scenarios, which might pose a serious threat to the native ecosystems through competition for resources in the study area. Native scrublands and subtropical needle-leaved forests will be the most affected ecosystems by the expansion of these IAPS. The present study is first of its kind in the Kailash Sacred Landscape in the field of invasive plants and the predictions of potential distribution under future climatic conditions from our study could help decision makers in planning and managing these forest ecosystems effectively.

  11. RELATIONSHIPS OF ALIEN PLANT SPECIES ABUNDANCE TO RIPARIAN VEGETATION, ENVIRONMENT, AND DISTURBANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian ecosystems are often invaded by alien species. We evaluated vegetation, environment, and disturbance conditions and their interrelationships with alien species abundance along reaches of 29 streams in eastern Oregon, USA. Using flexible-BETA clustering, indicator species...

  12. Impacts of invading alien plant species on water flows at stand and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maitre, D. C.; Gush, M. B.; Dzikiti, S.

    2015-01-01

    There have been many studies of the diverse impacts of invasions by alien plants but few have assessed impacts on water resources. We reviewed the information on the impacts of invasions on surface runoff and groundwater resources at stand to catchment scales and covering a full annual cycle. Most of the research is South African so the emphasis is on South Africa's major invaders with data from commercial forest plantations where relevant. Catchment studies worldwide have shown that changes in vegetation structure and the physiology of the dominant plant species result in changes in surface runoff and groundwater discharge, whether they involve native or alien plant species. Where there is little change in vegetation structure [e.g. leaf area (index), height, rooting depth and seasonality] the effects of invasions generally are small or undetectable. In South Africa, the most important woody invaders typically are taller and deeper rooted than the native species. The impacts of changes in evaporation (and thus runoff) in dryland settings are constrained by water availability to the plants and, thus, by rainfall. Where the dryland invaders are evergreen and the native vegetation (grass) is seasonal, the increases can reach 300–400 mm/year. Where the native vegetation is evergreen (shrublands) the increases are ∼200–300 mm/year. Where water availability is greater (riparian settings or shallow water tables), invading tree water-use can reach 1.5–2.0 times that of the same species in a dryland setting. So, riparian invasions have a much greater impact per unit area invaded than dryland invasions. The available data are scattered and incomplete, and there are many gaps and issues that must be addressed before a thorough understanding of the impacts at the site scale can be gained and used in extrapolating to watershed scales, and in converting changes in flows to water supply system yields. PMID:25935861

  13. Impacts of invading alien plant species on water flows at stand and catchment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maitre, D C; Gush, M B; Dzikiti, S

    2015-05-01

    There have been many studies of the diverse impacts of invasions by alien plants but few have assessed impacts on water resources. We reviewed the information on the impacts of invasions on surface runoff and groundwater resources at stand to catchment scales and covering a full annual cycle. Most of the research is South African so the emphasis is on South Africa's major invaders with data from commercial forest plantations where relevant. Catchment studies worldwide have shown that changes in vegetation structure and the physiology of the dominant plant species result in changes in surface runoff and groundwater discharge, whether they involve native or alien plant species. Where there is little change in vegetation structure [e.g. leaf area (index), height, rooting depth and seasonality] the effects of invasions generally are small or undetectable. In South Africa, the most important woody invaders typically are taller and deeper rooted than the native species. The impacts of changes in evaporation (and thus runoff) in dryland settings are constrained by water availability to the plants and, thus, by rainfall. Where the dryland invaders are evergreen and the native vegetation (grass) is seasonal, the increases can reach 300-400 mm/year. Where the native vegetation is evergreen (shrublands) the increases are ∼200-300 mm/year. Where water availability is greater (riparian settings or shallow water tables), invading tree water-use can reach 1.5-2.0 times that of the same species in a dryland setting. So, riparian invasions have a much greater impact per unit area invaded than dryland invasions. The available data are scattered and incomplete, and there are many gaps and issues that must be addressed before a thorough understanding of the impacts at the site scale can be gained and used in extrapolating to watershed scales, and in converting changes in flows to water supply system yields. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  14. Linking biotic homogenization to habitat type, invasiveness and growth form of naturalized alien plants in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Qian; Qinfeng. Guo

    2010-01-01

    Aim Biotic homogenization is a growing phenomenon and has recently attracted much attention. Here, we analyse a large dataset of native and alien plants in North America to examine whether biotic homogenization is related to several ecological and biological attributes. Location North America (north of Mexico). Methods We assembled...

  15. Evidence, Perceptions, and Trade-offs Associated with Invasive Alien Plant Control in the Table Mountain National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. van Wilgen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Table Mountain National Park is a 265 km2 protected area embedded within a city of 3.5 million people. The park contains an extremely diverse flora with many endemic species, and has been granted World Heritage Site status in recognition of this unique biodiversity. Invasive alien plants are arguably the most significant threat to the conservation of this biodiversity, and the past decade has seen the implementation of aggressive programs aimed at the removal of invasions by these plants. These invasive alien plants include several species of trees, notably pines (Pinus species and eucalypts (Eucalyptus species, which historically have been grown in plantations, and which are utilized for recreation by the city's residents. In addition, many citizens regard the trees as attractive and ecologically beneficial, and for these reasons the alien plant control programs have been controversial. I briefly outline the legal obligations to deal with invasive alien plants, the history of control operations and the scientific rationale for their implementation, and the concerns that have been raised about the operations. Evidence in support of control includes the aggressive invasive nature of many species, and the fact that they displace native biodiversity (often irreversibly and have negative impacts on hydrology, fire intensity, and soil stability. Those against control cite aesthetic concerns, the value of pine plantations for recreation, the (perceived unattractive nature of the treeless natural vegetation, and the (incorrect belief that trees bring additional rainfall. The debate has been conducted through the press, and examples of perceptions and official responses are given. Despite opposition, the policy promoting alien plant removal has remained in place, and considerable progress has been made towards clearing pine plantations and invasive populations. This conservation success story owes much to political support, arising largely from job

  16. Assessment and prediction of the invasiveness of some alien plants in conditions of climate change in the steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Lykholat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the steppe Dnieper region is characterized by an abundance of naturalized alien species, some of which colonised over the last decade. Climate change, associated primarily with increasing temperature, became clearly manifested in this period. We tested the hypothesis that there is an association between climate change and the initiation of invasiveness of some alien plant species in the steppe Dnieper region. For this purpose, comparative studies of the distribution boundaries of naturalized alien trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants were conducted. Along the research route numerous 5–10-year-old broadleaf linden trees (Tilia platyphyllos Scop. were found in the man-made plantation communities of Dnipro city in areas with moist soil; seeded undergrowth was located at a significant distance from the adult linden plants. Numerous groups of young 7–10-year-old plants of the smoke trees (Cotinus coggygria Scop., which had a seed origin, were found in the shelterbelt and urban recreational plantations. Young 10–12-year-old virginal and generative plants of the black cherry (Padus serotina Ehrh. were found in large numbers in both the semi-natural and artificial plant communities at great distances from the adult trees. The alien plant species common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L. showed the ability to form fairly sparse seminal seedlings, which was presented by the plants at the age of 4–7 years in both the natural and urban plant communities. The perennial herbaceous plant common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L. was found in the course of the research in ruderal habitats, urban plant communities, and also in the agrocoenoses. The common milkweed reached its greatest abundance in fields of winter crops, where the spread of this species was accompanied by a sharp decrease in the number of other species of segetal plants. Our study results confirm that the extension of the distribution boundaries of alien species over the last

  17. Effects of invasive alien kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) on native plant species regeneration in a Hawaiian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, V.; Jacobi, J.D.; Porembski, S.; Boehmer, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: Does the invasive alien Hedychium gardnerianum (1) replace native understory species, (2) suppress natural regeneration of native plant species, (3) increase the invasiveness of other non-native plants and (4) are native forests are able to recover after removal of H. gardnerianum. Location: A mature rainforest in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawai'i (about 1200 m. a.s.l.; precipitation approximately 2770mm yr-1). Study sites included natural plots without effects of alien plants, ginger plots with a H. gardnerianum-domimted herb layer and cleared plots treated with herbicide to remove alien plants. Methods: Counting mature trees, saplings and seedlings of native and alien plant species. Using nonparametric H-tests to compare impact of H. gardnerianum on the structure of different sites. Results: Results confirmed the hypothesis that H. gardnerianum has negative effects on natural forest dynamics. Lower numbers of native tree seedlings and saplings were found on ginger-dominated plots. Furthermore, H. gardnerianum did not show negative effects on the invasive alien tree species Psidium cattleianum. Conclusions: This study reveals that where dominance of H. gardnerianum persists, regeneration of the forest by native species will be inhibited. Furthermore, these areas might experience invasion by P. cattleianum, resulting in displacement of native canopy species in the future, leading to a change in forest structure and loss of other species dependent on natural rainforest, such as endemic birds. However, if H. gardnerianum is removed the native Hawaiian forest is likely to regenerate and regain its natural structure. ?? 2009 International Association for Vegetation Science.

  18. Naturalized alien flora of the world: species diversity, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns, geographic distribution and global hotspots of plant invasion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Essl, F.; Lenzer, B.; Dawson, W.; Kreft, H.; Weigelt, P.; Winter, M.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Antonova, L. A.; Barcelona, J. F.; Cabezas, F. J.; Cárdenas, D.; Cárdenas-Toro, J.; Castanol, N.; Chacón, E.; Chatelain, C.; Dullinger, S.; Ebel, A. L.; Figueiredo, E.; Fuentes, N.; Genovesi, P.; Groom, Q. J.; Henderson, L.; Inderjit, Dr.; Kupriyanov, A.; Masciadri, S.; Maurel, N.; Meerman, J.; Morozova, O.; Moser, D.; Nickrent, D. L.; Nowak, P. M.; Pagad, S.; Patzelt, A.; Pelser, P. B.; Seebens, H.; Shu, W.-S.; Thomas, J.; Velayos, M.; Weber, E.; Wieringa, J. J.; Baptiste, M. P.; van Kleunen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 3 (2017), s. 203-274 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : GloNAF * alien plants * biogeography Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2016

  19. WORK ETHICS, ORGANIZATIONAL ALIENATION AND JUSTICE AMONG HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Jamileh Mahdi; Kahouei, Mehdi; Cheshmenour, Omran; Sangestani, Sajjad

    2016-06-01

    Failure to comply with work ethics by employees working in Health Information Technology (HIT) Departments and their negative attitudes about organizational justice may have an adverse impact on patient satisfaction, quality of care, collecting health statistics, reimbursement, and management and planning at all levels of health care; it can also lead to unbearable damages to the health information system in the country. As so far there has been no research on HIT managers to assess the moral and ethical aspects of works and their relationship with organizational alienation and justice, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between work ethics and organizational justice and alienation among the HIT managers. This study was performed in affiliated hospitals of Semnan University of medical sciences in Semnan, Iran, in 2015. In this study, a census method was used. The data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire. There was a negative and significant relationship between work ethic and organizational alienation (B= - 0.217, Pethic and organizational justice (B= 0.580, Pethic (B= - 0.215, P=0.034) and organizational justice (B=- 0.147, P=0.047). The results of this study showed that the managers' attitude toward justice and equality in the organization can affect their organizational commitment and loyalty and thus have a significant impact on the work ethics in the work environment. On the other hand, with increasing the education level of the managers, they will have higher expectation of the justice in the organization, and they feel that the justice is not observed in the organization.

  20. The prioritisation of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU No. 1143/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven alien plant species, pre-identified by horizon scanning exercises were prioritised for pest risk analysis (PRA using a modified version of the EPPO Prioritisation Process designed to be compliant with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. In Stage 1, species were categorised into one of four lists – a Residual List, EU List of Minor Concern, EU Observation List and the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants. Only those species included in the latter proceeded to the risk management stage where their priority for PRA was assessed. Due to medium or high spread potential coupled with high impacts twenty-two species were included in the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants and proceeded to Stage 2. Four species (Ambrosia trifida, Egeria densa, Fallopia baldschuanica and Oxalis pes-caprae were assigned to the EU Observation List due to moderate or low impacts. Albizia lebbeck, Clematis terniflora, Euonymus japonicus, Lonicera morrowii, Prunus campanulata and Rubus rosifolius were assigned to the residual list due to a current lack of information on impacts. Similarly, Cornus sericea and Hydrilla verticillata were assigned to the Residual List due to unclear taxonomy and uncertainty in native status, respectively. Chromolaena odorata, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Sphagneticola trilobata were assigned to the Residual List as it is unlikely they will establish in the Union under current climatic conditions. In the risk management stage, Euonymus fortunei, Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii were considered a low priority for PRA as they do not exhibit invasive tendencies despite being widely cultivated in the EU over several decades. Nineteen species were identified as having a high priority for a PRA (Acacia dealbata, Ambrosia confertiflora, Andropogon virginicus, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cortaderia jubata, Ehrharta calycina, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hakea sericea, Humulus scandens, Hygrophila polysperma

  1. Phylogenetically poor plant communities receive more alien species, which more easily coexist with natives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhold, P.; Pärtel, M.; Tackenberg, O.; Hennekens, S.M.; Bartish, I.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Fergus, A.J.F.; Ozinga, W.A.; Prinzing, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alien species can be a major threat to ecological communities, but we do not know why some community types allow the entry of many more alien species than do others. Here, for the first time, we suggest that evolutionary diversity inherent to the constituent species of a community may determine its

  2. Changes in the distribution of alien plants along roadsides in relation to adjacent land use over the course of 40 years

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, J.; Frantík, Tomáš; Šilarová, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 3 (2016), s. 442-448 ISSN 1126-3504 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : adjacent land use * alien plants * roads Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.390, year: 2016

  3. The prioritisation of invasive alien plant control projects using a multi-criteria decision model informed by stakeholder input and spatial data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forsyth, GG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available operations, the potential to enhance water resources and conserve biodiversity, and threats from priority invasive alien plant species. We selected spatial datasets and used them to generate weights that could be used to objectively compare alternatives...

  4. The casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe based on herbarium and literature records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2012-10-01

    Conservation implications: This research provides baseline information and historical invasion patterns of casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora in Zimbabwe. This inventory is a crucial starting point in trying to understand and initiate the management of biological invasions. This is also important for monitoring new introductions and management of existing alien plants in Zimbabwe.

  5. A biome-scale assessment of the impact of invasive alien plants on ecosystem services in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgen, B W; Reyers, B; Le Maitre, D C; Richardson, D M; Schonegevel, L

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports an assessment of the current and potential impacts of invasive alien plants on selected ecosystem services in South Africa. We used data on the current and potential future distribution of 56 invasive alien plant species to estimate their impact on four services (surface water runoff, groundwater recharge, livestock production and biodiversity) in five terrestrial biomes. The estimated reductions in surface water runoff as a result of current invasions were >3000 million m(3) (about 7% of the national total), most of which is from the fynbos (shrubland) and grassland biomes; the potential reductions would be more than eight times greater if invasive alien plants were to occupy the full extent of their potential range. Impacts on groundwater recharge would be less severe, potentially amounting to approximately 1.5% of the estimated maximum reductions in surface water runoff. Reductions in grazing capacity as a result of current levels of invasion amounted to just over 1% of the potential number of livestock that could be supported. However, future impacts could increase to 71%. A 'biodiversity intactness index' (the remaining proportion of pre-modern populations) ranged from 89% to 71% for the five biomes. With the exception of the fynbos biome, current invasions have almost no impact on biodiversity intactness. Under future levels of invasion, however, these intactness values decrease to around 30% for the savanna, fynbos and grassland biomes, but to even lower values (13% and 4%) for the two karoo biomes. Thus, while the current impacts of invasive alien plants are relatively low (with the exception of those on surface water runoff), the future impacts could be very high. While the errors in these estimates are likely to be substantial, the predicted impacts are sufficiently large to suggest that there is serious cause for concern.

  6. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi T Makino

    Full Text Available When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies, and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  7. Do invasive alien plants really threaten river bank vegetation? A case study based on plant communities typical for Chenopodium ficifolium—An indicator of large river valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Arkadiusz; Rola, Kaja

    2018-01-01

    Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed. Differences in the richness and abundance of species diagnostic for riverside habitats, as well as the contribution of resident and invasive alien species in vegetation plots along three rivers differing in terms of size and anthropogenic impact were also examined. Finally, the effect of invaders on the phytocoenoses typical for C. ficifolium was assessed. The frequency of C. ficifolium clearly decreased with an increasing distance from the river. Among natural habitats, the species mostly preferred the banks of large rivers. The vegetation plots developing on the banks of the three studied rivers differed in total species richness, the number and cover of resident, diagnostic and invasive alien species, as well as in species composition. Our research indicates that abiotic and anthropogenic factors are the most significant drivers of species richness and plant cover of riverbank vegetation, and invasive alien plants affect this type of vegetation to a small extent. PMID:29543919

  8. Do invasive alien plants really threaten river bank vegetation? A case study based on plant communities typical for Chenopodium ficifolium-An indicator of large river valleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Agnieszka; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Rola, Kaja

    2018-01-01

    Riparian zones are very rich in species but subjected to strong anthropogenic changes and extremely prone to alien plant invasions, which are considered to be a serious threat to biodiversity. Our aim was to determine the spatial distribution of Chenopodium ficifolium, a species demonstrating strong confinement to large river valleys in Central Europe and an indicator of annual pioneer nitrophilous vegetation developing on river banks, which are considered to be of importance to the European Community. Additionally, the habitat preferences of the species were analysed. Differences in the richness and abundance of species diagnostic for riverside habitats, as well as the contribution of resident and invasive alien species in vegetation plots along three rivers differing in terms of size and anthropogenic impact were also examined. Finally, the effect of invaders on the phytocoenoses typical for C. ficifolium was assessed. The frequency of C. ficifolium clearly decreased with an increasing distance from the river. Among natural habitats, the species mostly preferred the banks of large rivers. The vegetation plots developing on the banks of the three studied rivers differed in total species richness, the number and cover of resident, diagnostic and invasive alien species, as well as in species composition. Our research indicates that abiotic and anthropogenic factors are the most significant drivers of species richness and plant cover of riverbank vegetation, and invasive alien plants affect this type of vegetation to a small extent.

  9. Pollinator networks, alien species and the conservation of rare plants: Trinia glauca as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalheiro, L.G.; Barbosa, E.R.; Memmott, J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Despite the essential role of pollination in the maintenance of many rare plant species, conservation management plans rarely consider the service of pollination. 2. This study identifies the main pollinators of a rare English plant species, Trinia glauca (Apiaceae), and provides recommendations

  10. Plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, S.; Framatome, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad

  11. Production of alien chromosome additions and their utility in plant genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Breeding programs aiming at transferring desirable genes from one species to another through interspecific hybridization and backcrossings often produce monosomic and disomic additions as intermediate crossing products. Such aneuploids contain alien chromosomes added to the complements of the

  12. Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gorgens, AHM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available were made by combining the results of hydrological experiments, conducted to assess the effects of afforestation with alien trees on water resources, with an ecological understanding of the spread and establishment of invasive trees. The forecasts were...

  13. Invasions by alien plants in the Czech Republic: a quantitative assessment across habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytrý, M.; Pyšek, Petr; Tichý, L.; Knollová, I.; Danihelka, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 77, - (2005), s. 339-354 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : habitat invasibility * alien species * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.545, year: 2005

  14. Costs and benefits of biological control of invasive alien plants: case studies from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species can have significant negative environmental and economic impacts. Such species are often controlled biologically by means of introducing host-specific insects or pathogens that can reduce the species' invasive potential...

  15. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  16. The time lag between introduction and escape from cultivation of alien woody plant species decreases with polyploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brändle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The time between introduction of an alien species and escape from cultivation shows considerable variation among species. One hypothesis to explain this variation of the time lag invokes the evolution of genotypes adapted to the conditions of the new environment. Here, we analyse the variation in time lags among 53 alien woody plant species in Germany. Accounting for the effects of time since introduction, growth form (trees versus shrubs, biogeography and taxonomic isolation (presence or absence of a native congener in the adventive area we found that the time lag decreases with increasing polyploidization. By contrast, the haploid chromosome number was not significantly related to the time lag. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that recent genome duplication events are important for a fast escape from cultivation of an alien woody plant species. We suggest that a large number of duplicated chromosomes increase the partitioning of the genome and hence the average rate of recombination between loci facilitating the formation of adaptive genotypes.

  17. Black, Grey and Watch Lists of alien species in the Czech Republic based on environmental impacts and management strategy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pergl, Jan; Sádlo, Jiří; Petrusek, A.; Laštůvka, Z.; Musil, J.; Perglová, Irena; Šanda, R.; Šefrová, H.; Šíma, J.; Vohralík, V.; Pyšek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-37 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028; GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasions * alien species * policy Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  18. National-scale strategic approaches for managing introduced plants: insights from Australian acacias in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Wilgen, BW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A range of approaches and philosophies underpin national-level strategies for managing invasive alien plants. This study presents a strategy for the management of taxa that both have value and do harm. Insights were derived from examining Australian...

  19. A preliminary assessment of the extent and potential impacts of alien plant invasions in the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne B.R. Witt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a preliminary list of alien plant species in the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem in East Africa. The list is based on broad-scale roadside surveys in the area and is supplemented by more detailed surveys of tourist facilities in the Masai-Mara National Reserve and adjoining conservancies. We encountered 245 alien plant species; significantly more than previous studies, of which 62 (25% were considered to have established self-perpetuating populations in areas away from human habitation. These included species which had either been intentionally or accidentally introduced. Of the 245 alien plants, 212 (including four species considered to be native to the region were intentionally introduced into gardens in the National Reserve and 51 (24% had established naturalised populations within the boundaries of these tourism facilities. Of the 51 naturalised species, 23 (11% of the 212 alien species were recorded as being invasive within the ecosystem, outside of lodges and away from other human habitation. Currently, the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem is relatively free of widespread and abundant invasive alien plants, with a few exceptions, but there are extensive populations outside of the ecosystem, particularly to the west, from where they could spread. We address the potential impacts of six species that we consider to pose the highest risks (Parthenium hysterophorus, Opuntia stricta, Tithonia diversifolia, Lantana camara, Chromolaena odorata and Prosopis juliflora. Although invasive alien plants pose substantial threats to the integrity of the ecosystem, this has not yet been widely recognised. We predict that in the absence of efforts to contain, or reverse the spread of invasive alien plants, the condition of rangelands will deteriorate, with severe negative impacts on migrating large mammals, especially wildebeest, zebra and gazelles. This will, in turn, have a substantial negative impact on tourism, which is a major economic activity

  20. Alien plants in checklist and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.; Rejmánek, M.; Webster, G. L.; Williamson, M.; Kirschner, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2004), s. 131-143 ISSN 0040-0262 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/03/1216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : alien * biological invasions * standard floras Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.752, year: 2004

  1. Effects of alien woody plant invasion on the birds of Mountain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-04-18

    Apr 18, 1989 ... alien A. cyclops is apparently enhanced by dispersal of the seeds by frugivorous birds (Glyphis, Milton & .... Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks (Con- over 1971) was used to assess the significance of ...... Towards a theory of continental species diversities: bird distributions over mediterranean ...

  2. Survival rates in the Czech Republic of introduced plants known as wool aliens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2005), s. 567-576 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/00/1443 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : wool aliens * survival rate * naturalization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  3. Plants species of the Central European flora as aliens in Australia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Phillips, M. L.; Murray, B. R.; Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Chytrý, M.; Kühn, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), s. 465-482 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alien species * introduction history * Australia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2010

  4. Recovery of South African fynbos vegetation following alien woody plant clearing and fire: implications for restoration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holmes, PM

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of fynbos vegetation after invasion by dense stands of alien trees, and clearing by either 'burn standing’,’ fell and burn', or 'fell, remove and burn' treatments, was investigated in two watersheds in the Western Cape Province, South...

  5. Preventing a new invasive alien plant from entering and spreading in the Euro-Mediterranean region: The case study of Parthenium hysterophorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunel, S.; Panetta, D.; Fried, G.; Kriticos, D.; Prasad, R.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Shabbir, A.; Yaacoby, T.

    2014-01-01

    Parthenium or famine weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is an annual plant originating from the Americas, which is a major invasive alien plant in almost all continents. While the deleterious impacts of the species on agriculture, human and animal health have been well documented, information on the

  6. Invasion success of alien plants: do habitat affinities in the native distribution range matter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejda, Martin; Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Sádlo, Jiří; Chytrý, M.; Jarošík, Vojtěch

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2009), s. 372-382 ISSN 1466-822X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:Evropská komise(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * casual aliens * Central Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.913, year: 2009

  7. Alien species pathways to the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Verónica Toral-Granda

    Full Text Available Alien species, one of the biggest threats to natural ecosystems worldwide, are of particular concern for oceanic archipelagos such as Galápagos. To enable more effective management of alien species, we reviewed, collated and analysed all available records of alien species for Galápagos. We also assembled a comprehensive dataset on pathways to and among the Galápagos Islands, including tourist and resident numbers, tourist vessels, their itineraries and visitation sites, aircraft capacity and occupancy, air and sea cargo and biosecurity interceptions. So far, 1,579 alien terrestrial and marine species have been introduced to Galápagos by humans. Of these, 1,476 have become established. Almost half of these were intentional introductions, mostly of plants. Most unintentional introductions arrived on plants and plant associated material, followed by transport vehicles, and commodities (in particular fruit and vegetables. The number, frequency and geographic origin of pathways for the arrival and dispersal of alien species to and within Galápagos have increased over time, tracking closely the increase in human population (residents and tourists on the islands. Intentional introductions of alien species should decline as biosecurity is strengthened but there is a danger that unintentional introductions will increase further as tourism on Galápagos expands. This unique world heritage site will only retain its biodiversity values if the pathways for invasion are managed effectively.

  8. Alien species pathways to the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Mandy; Izurieta, Juan Carlos; Araujo, Eddy; Cruz, Marilyn; Zander, Kerstin K.; Izurieta, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Alien species, one of the biggest threats to natural ecosystems worldwide, are of particular concern for oceanic archipelagos such as Galápagos. To enable more effective management of alien species, we reviewed, collated and analysed all available records of alien species for Galápagos. We also assembled a comprehensive dataset on pathways to and among the Galápagos Islands, including tourist and resident numbers, tourist vessels, their itineraries and visitation sites, aircraft capacity and occupancy, air and sea cargo and biosecurity interceptions. So far, 1,579 alien terrestrial and marine species have been introduced to Galápagos by humans. Of these, 1,476 have become established. Almost half of these were intentional introductions, mostly of plants. Most unintentional introductions arrived on plants and plant associated material, followed by transport vehicles, and commodities (in particular fruit and vegetables). The number, frequency and geographic origin of pathways for the arrival and dispersal of alien species to and within Galápagos have increased over time, tracking closely the increase in human population (residents and tourists) on the islands. Intentional introductions of alien species should decline as biosecurity is strengthened but there is a danger that unintentional introductions will increase further as tourism on Galápagos expands. This unique world heritage site will only retain its biodiversity values if the pathways for invasion are managed effectively. PMID:28902860

  9. Analyzing the social factors that influence willingness to pay for invasive alien species management under two different strategies: eradication and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llorente, Marina; Martín-López, Berta; Nunes, Paulo A L D; González, José A; Alcorlo, Paloma; Montes, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Biological invasions occur worldwide, and have been the object of ecological and socio-economic research for decades. However, the manner in which different stakeholder groups identify the problems associated with invasive species and confront invasive species management under different policies remains poorly understood. In this study, we conducted an econometric analysis of the social factors influencing willingness to pay for invasive alien species management under two different regimes: eradication and prevention in the Doñana Natural Protected Area (SW Spain). Controlling for the participation of local residents, tourists and conservationists, email and face-to-face questionnaires were conducted. Results indicated that respondents were more willing to pay for eradication than prevention; and public support for invasive alien species management was influenced by an individual's knowledge and perception of invasive alien species, active interest in nature, and socio-demographic attributes. We concluded that invasive alien species management research should confront the challenges to engage stakeholders and accept any tradeoffs necessary to modify different conservation policies to ensure effective management is implemented. Finally, our willingness to pay estimates suggest the Department of Environment of Andalusian Government has suitable social support to meet the budgetary expenditures required for invasive alien species plans and adequate resources to justify an increase in the invasive alien species management budget.

  10. Alien plants in urban nature reserves: from red-list species to future invaders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Jarošik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban reserves, as other protected areas, are aimed at preserving species richness but the conservation effort in these protected areas is complicated by a high proportion of alien species. We examined which environmental factors determine the representation of alien species in 48 city reserves of Prague, Czech Republic, distinguishing between archaeophytes, i.e. alien species introduced since the beginning of Neolithic agriculture up to 1500 A. D., and neophytes, i.e. modern invaders introduced after that date, with the former group separately analysed for endangered archaeophytes (listed as C1 and C2 categories on national red list. Archaeophytes responded positively to the extent of arable land that was in place at the time of the reserve establishment, and to a low altitudinal range. Neophytes, beside soil properties responded to recent human activities proxied by current proportion of built-up area in the reserves. Endangered archaeophytes, besides the same affinity for past arable land as other archaeophytes, were supported by the presence of current wasteland habitats in the reserve. This suggests that for endangered archaeophytes it might have been difficult to adapt to changing agricultural practices, and ruderal wasteland might act as a refugium for them. From the viewpoint of conservation, ruderal habitats of nature reserves thus can be more important than was previously though. Forty-six of the 155 neophytes recorded in the reserves are classified as invasive. The reserves thus harbour 67% of the 69 invasive neophytes recorded in the country, and particularly warning is that among the most invasive species are many shrubs and trees, a life form that is known to account for widespread invasions with high impacts. Our results thus strongly suggest that in Prague nature reserves there is a warning potential for future invasions.

  11. A casual alien plant new to Mediterranean Europe: Ceiba speciosa (Malvaceae in the suburban area of Palermo (NW Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasta, Salvatore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abiotic and biotic characteristics of the first sites where floss silk tree behaves as a casual alien plant in the Mediterranean Europe are described. The species was probably first planted in botanical gardens of southern France few decades before mid XIX century. It was introduced in Palermo in 1896, a city which appears to match very well its climatic requirements. According to the available information on its biology and ecology in both its original and secondary range, the floss silk tree should not become an invasive alien plant in the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, several gaps need to be filled in order to increase our understanding of future trends of Ceiba speciosa in southern Europe, in particular, the eventual role of pollinators and seed dispersers outside the species’ natural range.Se describen las caracteristicas abióticas y bióticas de los primeros sitios del mediterráneo europeo donde el árbol palo borracho se encuentra creciendo como especie alóctona casual. Con respecto a la historia de su introducción, esta especie fue probablemente plantada en los jardines botánicos del sur de Francia unos pocos decenios antes de la mitad del siglo XIX. En 1896, sin embargo, fue introducida en Palermo, ciudad que parece satisfacer muy bien sus requerimientos climáticos. De acuerdo con la información disponible, tanto dentro como fuera de su área de distribución natural, el palo borracho no debería convertirse en planta invasora en el mediterráneo. Sin embargo, algunos vacíos de información deben ser completados antes de establecer su potencial invasor de una manera definitiva, particularmente, el posible papel de agentes polinizadores y dispersores fuera del área de distribución natural de la especie.

  12. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented.

  13. Radiation situation and irradiation level in forest workers in places of timber works in alienation zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Z.V.; Karachov, Yi.Yi.; Berezhna, T.Yi.; Kuchma, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The radiation hygienic situation in the forest plots and dose load of the personnel at timber works in the alienation zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant was evaluated.It has been revealed that the density of contamination of the forest soil at the areas of timber works was 155.4-447.3 kBq centre dot m 2 . Maximum year equivalent dose on the lungs and total dose of external and internal irradiation in the forest workers in the zone of alienation during the work at the areas were about 40% of the values of the respective dose limits for the population of B category

  14. Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: a sum­mary based on the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this publication is to provide an overview of the species identity, invasion status, geographical extent, and abundance of alien plants in South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho, based on field records from 1979 to the end of 2000. The dataset is all the species records for the study area in the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA database during this time period. A total of 548 naturalized and casual alien plant species were catalogued and invasion was recorded almost throughout the study area. Most invasion, in terms of both species numbers and total species abundance, was recorded along the southern, southwestern and eastern coastal belts and in the adjacent interior. This area includes the whole of the Fynbos and Forest Biomes, and the moister eastern parts of the Grassland and Savanna Biomes. This study reinforces previous studies that the Fynbos Biome is the most extensively invaded vegetation type in South Africa but it also shows that parts of Savanna and Grassland are as heavily invaded as parts of the Fynbos. The Fabaceae is prominent in all biomes and Acacia with 17 listed species, accounts for a very large proportion of all invasion. Acacia mearmii was by far the most prominent invasive species in the study area, followed by A. saligna, Lantana camara, A. cyclops, Opuntia ficus-indica. Solarium mauritianum, Populus alba/xcanescens, Melia azedarach, A. dealbata and species of Prosopis.

  15. An approach to the development of a national strategy for controlling invasive alien plant species: The case of Parthenium hysterophorus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Terblanche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species require co-ordinated strategic management if negative impacts are to be effectively avoided. Here we describe a strategy for the management of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae in South Africa. P. hysterophorus is an annual herb native to tropical America, which has become invasive in over 30 countries. The strategy sets goals for (1 the prevention of spread to new areas; (2 local eradication of isolated populations; (3 containment in areas where eradication is not possible; and (4 actions to protect assets where containment is no longer an option. We developed both a national strategy to set policy and to monitor progress towards goals at a national level and an implementation plan to set goals and timeframes for their achievement at local levels. It is not clear, at this stage, whether or not the goals of the strategy are achievable because implementation will face many challenges arising from ecological features of the target plant, social and cultural practices that will influence management, inadequate levels of funding and multiple political considerations. Our strategy proposes regular assessment using high-level indicators, a practice that is widely recognised as essential but seldom implemented at a national scale. Because the outcomes are uncertain, it is vital that regular monitoring of outcomes should be instituted from the start, so that both appropriate adjustments can be made to the strategy and lessons for the implementation of similar strategies elsewhere can be derived.

  16. The role of habitat factors in successful invasion of alien plant Acer negundo in riparian zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Piotr; Sikorska, Daria

    2016-04-01

    thickness (r2=0,35 i r3=0,35) become limiting factors to the plants development. The diversity of shoot age increases with the bars age (r=0,78), but the new emerging shoots are suckers rather than newly established seedlings. The removal of ash-leaved maple in the early development stage is ineffective as this is a period when high number of seedlings develop. The removal at the later stage leads to damage done to sensitive herbaceous vegetation which is developed by then. Management of the invasive ash-leaved maple should be held on sand bars older than 10 years, the moment the competition of other trees and shrubs reduces the establishment of new seedlings. Removal of trees of diameter bigger than 10 cm will impair the plants expansion with minimal damage done to the habitat.

  17. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  18. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  19. Habitat Modeling of Alien Plant Species at Varying Levels of Occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Brown

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution models of invasive plants are very useful tools for conservation management. There are challenges in modeling expanding populations, especially in a dynamic environment, and when data are limited. In this paper, predictive habitat models were assessed for three invasive plant species, at differing levels of occurrence, using two different habitat modeling techniques: logistic regression and maximum entropy. The influence of disturbance, spatial and temporal heterogeneity, and other landscape characteristics is assessed by creating regional level models based on occurrence records from the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis database. Logistic regression and maximum entropy models were assessed independently. Ensemble models were developed to combine the predictions of the two analysis approaches to obtain a more robust prediction estimate. All species had strong models with Area Under the receiver operator Curve (AUC of >0.75. The species with the highest occurrence, Ligustrum spp., had the greatest agreement between the models (93%. Lolium arundinaceum had the most disagreement between models at 33% and the lowest AUC values. Overall, the strength of integrative modeling in assessing and understanding habitat modeling was demonstrated.

  20. Universal Alienation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harvey

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a debate between David Harvey, Michael Hardt and Toni Negri. It takes Marx’s bicentenary as occasion for an update of his concept of alienation. The paper asks: how are we to interpret universal alienation and from whence does it come? Marx radically reformulated the concept of alienation in the Grundrisse. The humanism of the early Marx can be re-rooted and reconceptualised in the scientific mode proposed in the Grundrisse. In the Grundrisse, the universality of alienation is specific to capitalism’s historical evolution. Today, alienation exists almost everywhere. It exists at work in production, at home in consumption, and it dominates much of politics and daily life. Such trends intensify through the application of information technologies and artificial intelligence. Widespread alienation has resulted in Occupy movements as well as right-wing populism and bigoted nationalist and racist movements. Donald Trump is the President of alienation. The circulation of capital as totality consists of the three key moments of production, circulation and distribution. A lot of contemporary economic struggles are now occurring at the point of realisation rather than at the point of production. Protests are therefore today often expressions of broad-based discontent. Our future is dictated by the need to redeem our debts. Under such conditions democracy becomes a sham. The big question is what forms of social movement can help us get out of the state-finance nexus. The theory of objective alienation along with an understanding of its subjective consequences is one vital key to unlock the door of a progressive politics for the future.

  1. Alien Abductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Joe

    2000-03-01

    Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

  2. Characteristic of lipid metabolism and state of free-radical processes in workers of 30-km alienation zone at Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayalo, P.P.; Chobot'ko, G.M.; Palamar, L.A.; Kolesnik, L.L.; Kuznetsov, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    The study involved 54 men aged 35-50 working in 30 km alienation zone at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant. Blood serum and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation indices were estimated. Investigation of peroxidation processes in the erythrocytes allowed to reveal changes in glutation system, they being characterized by its amount elevation against the background of glutation transferase activity increase both in the persons, working in the 30 km zone, and in those from 'Ukryttia' Establishment

  3. The prioritisation of invasive alien plant control projects using a multi-criteria decision model informed by stakeholder input and spatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, G G; Le Maitre, D C; O'Farrell, P J; van Wilgen, B W

    2012-07-30

    Invasions by alien plants are a significant threat to the biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide. The South African Working for Water program was established to address this problem. It needs to formulate objective and transparent priorities for clearing in the face of multiple and sometimes conflicting demands. This study used the analytic hierarchy process (a multi-criteria decision support technique) to develop and rank criteria for prioritising alien plant control operations in the Western Cape, South Africa. Stakeholder workshops were held to identify a goal and criteria and to conduct pair-wise comparisons to weight the criteria with respect to invasive alien plant control. The combination of stakeholder input (to develop decision models) with data-driven model solutions enabled us to include many alternatives (water catchments), that would otherwise not have been feasible. The most important criteria included the capacity to maintain gains made through control operations, the potential to enhance water resources and conserve biodiversity, and threats from priority invasive alien plant species. We selected spatial datasets and used them to generate weights that could be used to objectively compare alternatives with respect to agreed criteria. The analysis showed that there are many high priority catchments which are not receiving any funding and low priority catchments which are receiving substantial allocations. Clearly, there is a need for realigning priorities, including directing sufficient funds to the highest priority catchments to provide effective control. This approach provided a tractable, consensus-based solution that can be used to direct clearing operations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe based on herbarium and literature records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe’s casual, naturalised and invasive alien plant species were analysed with regard to their habit, origin, mode or purpose of introduction and their invasion status in the country. This alien flora of 391 taxa belonged to 239 genera and 73 families, corresponding to 6.6% of the total flora of Zimbabwe. Of these, 153 (39.1% plant species were casual aliens, 154 (39.4% were naturalised and 84 (21.5% were invasive species. Most invasions in terms of numbers of alien species were in the central and eastern parts of the country. Asteraceae (53 species, Poaceae (48 species and Fabaceae sensu lato (49 species families were prominent in all the floristic regions of the country. Annual and perennial herbaceous species formed the majority of life forms of the casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora of Zimbabwe. Genera with the highest number of alien species were Ipomoea with nine species, Acacia and Euphorbia with eight species each, Chenopodium and Senna with seven species each, Eucalyptus with six species, Oenothera, Physalis and Solanum with five species each. More than 49.6% of the alien plants in Zimbabwe originated primarily from South, Central and North America, followed by Europe (24.6%, Asia (23.8%, Africa (10.5% and Australasia (5.9%.Conservation implications: This research provides baseline information and historical invasion patterns of casual, naturalised and invasive alien flora in Zimbabwe. This inventory is a crucial starting point in trying to understand and initiate the management of biological invasions. This is also important for monitoring new introductions and management of existing alien plants in Zimbabwe.

  5. Plant life management at Loviisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hytoenen, Y.; Savikoski, A.

    1998-01-01

    IVO, Power Engineering Ltd. has developed a company-wide approach to plant life management. The first stage of plant life management comprises operational and maintenance histories, design and plant inspection data using advanced computer systems. The life of the plant can be controlled by maintenance, refurbishment and inspection programs, and by varying the method of plant operation. On-line monitoring is needed, and cost control and training must be taken into account if the life of the plant is to be managed efficiently. Identifying the life-limiting factors is essential at Loviisa. It has been concentrated on the aging in the form of materials degradation due to fatigue, erosion, corrosion, radiation and thermal effects. Certain other life-limiting factors are also mentioned

  6. Alien plant invasions in tropical and sub-tropical savannas: patterns, processes and prospects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foxcroft, L. C.; Richardson, D. M.; Rejmánek, M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 12 (2010), s. 3913-3933 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : savannas * plant invasions * world Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.474, year: 2010

  7. Multitrophic effects of calcium availability on invasive alien plants, birds, and bird prey items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince D' Amico; Greg Shriver; Jake Bowman; Meg Ballard; Whitney Wiest; Liz Tymkiw; Melissa. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain alters forest soil calcium concentrations in two ways: (1) hydrogen ions displace exchangeable calcium adsorbed to soil surfaces, and (2) aluminum is released to soil water by acid rain and displaces adsorbed calcium. This increases the absorption of aluminum by plant roots, and decreases the absorption of calcium, causing calcium to be more readily leached...

  8. New records of alien vascular plants from Marion and Prince Edward Islands, sub-Antarctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, N.J.M.; Smith, V.

    1999-01-01

    A survey was made of the distribution of introduced vascular plants on Marion and Prince Edward Islands. The results of this survey were compared to results of previous surveys (1965/66, 1975, 1981, 1989). Four new introductions to Marion Island have taken place, three of which involved species that

  9. Genetic effects of prolonged combined irradiation of laboratory animals in Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savtsova, Z.D.; Vojejkova, Yi.M.; Dzhaman, N.Yi.; Yudyina, O.Yu.; Yindik, V.M.; Kovbasyuk, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged combined (external and internal) irradiation of mice in the r zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant caused hereditary disturbances physiological defects in the posterity irrespective of the fact if one or both parents were irradiated. The most favourable indices were observed in F2 posterity of the both exposed parents

  10. Reduced glutathione as a persistence indicator of alien plants of the Amelancheir family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Dolgova

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It was proved that glutathione is an important indicator of the vegetation condition and persistence. According to the amount of glutathione the studied mespilus species are adapted to the environmental conditions. Increase of the glutathione amount is caused by some abiotic factors, e.g. temperature. Some differences of the glutathione content may be explained by the plants species patterns.

  11. Impact of invasions by alien plants on soil seed bank communities: emerging patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gioria, Margherita; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 132-142 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * impact * soil seed bank Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.606, year: 2014

  12. Alien plants in urban nature reserves: from red-list species to future invaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Kadlec, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2011), s. 27-46 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * nature reserve * threatened species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. Alien plants in temperate weed communities: Prehistoric and recent invaders occupy different habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Chytrý, M.; Kropáč, Z.; Tichý, L.; Wild, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2005), s. 772-785 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/00/1443 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * agricultural weeds * residence time Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.506, year: 2005

  14. Using life strategies to explore the vulnerability of ecosystem services to invasion by alien plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicente, J.; Pinro, A.; Araujo, M.; Lomba, A.; Randin, C.; Guisan, A.; Honrado, J.; Verburg, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive plants can have different effects on ecosystem functioning and on the provision of ecosystem services, with the direction and magnitude of such effects depending on the service and ecosystem being considered, but also on the life strategies of the invaders. Strategies can influence

  15. Invasive alien plants in South Africa: how well do we understand the ecological impacts?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Richardson, DM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available challenge for South African ecologists is to address the twin issues of skills development and social transformation, to ensure that adequate and relevant ecological expertise is maintained to meet future research and management needs. Formal collaboration...

  16. Efficacy of the stem powder of an invasive alien plant, Chromolaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... insecticidal activities of C. odorata stem powder and further suggests its usage as an ... insecticides in the management of C. maculatus infestation in Nigeria and elsewhere. ..... efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica), false.

  17. Naturalized alien flora of the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Essl, Franz; Lenzner, Bernd; Dawson, Wayne; Kreft, Holger; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Antonova, Liubov A.; Barcelona, Julie F.; Cabezas, Francisco J.; Cárdenas, Dairon; Cárdenas-Toro, Juliana; Castaño, Nicolás; Chacón, Eduardo; Chatelain, Cyrille; Dullinger, Stefan; Ebel, Aleksandr L.; Figueiredo, Estrela; Fuentes, Nicol; Genovesi, Piero; Groom, Quentin J.; Henderson, Lesley; Inderjit,; Kupriyanov, Andrey; Masciadri, Silvana; Maurel, Noëlie; Meerman, Jan; Morozova, Olga; Moser, Dietmar; Nickrent, Daniel L.; Nowak, Pauline M.; Pagad, Shyama; Patzelt, Annette; Pelser, Pieter B.; Seebens, Hanno; Shu, Wen Sheng; Thomas, Jacob; Velayos, Mauricio; Weber, Ewald; Wieringa, Jan J.; Baptiste, María P.; Kleunen, Van Mark

    2017-01-01

    Using the recently built Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database, containing data on the distribution of naturalized alien plants in 483 mainland and 361 island regions of the world, we describe patterns in diversity and geographic distribution of naturalized and invasive plant species,

  18. Egg morphology, laying behavior and record of the host plants of Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851), a new alien species for Europe (Hemiptera: Ricaniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elisabetta; Stroiński, Adam; Lucchi, Andrea

    2015-11-17

    The exotic planthopper, Ricania speculum (Ricaniidae) was recently detected in Liguria, in northern Italy, and recorded as a first alert for Europe. The first morphological description of eggs and laying behavior are given. Eggs are inserted into the woody tissue of a wide range of different host plants in such a unique manner among native and alien planthoppers of Italy that it can be used to describe the prevalence and diffusion of the species in new environments, though in the absence of juveniles and/or adults. In addition, the paper lists the host plants utilized for egg laying and describes the eggs.

  19. Maps of the level of invasion of the Czech Republic by alien plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytrý, M.; Wild, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Tichý, L.; Danihelka, Jiří; Knollová, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 3 (2009), s. 187-207 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:Evropská komise(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * distribution * mapping Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.638, year: 2009 http://www.preslia.cz/P093Chytry.pdf

  20. Comparing impacts of alien plants and animals in Europe using a standard scoring system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumschick, S.; Bacher, S.; Evans, T.; Marková, Zuzana; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Vaes-Petignat, S.; van der Veer, G.; Vila, M.; Nentwig, W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2015), s. 552-561 ISSN 0021-8901 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * ecological impact * plants and animals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.196, year: 2015

  1. Introduction bias affects relationships between the characteristics of ornamental alien plants and their naturalization success

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maurel, N.; Hanspach, J.; Kühn, I.; Pyšek, Petr; van Kleunen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 12 (2016), s. 1500-1509 ISSN 1466-822X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : exotic plants * propagule pressure * residence time Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.045, year: 2016

  2. The opportunity cost of not utilising the woody invasive alien plant species in the Kouga, Krom and Baviaans catchments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulile Vundla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the opportunity costs of using woody invasive alien plants (IAPs for value-added products by estimating the net economic return from the value-added industries in South Africa. By 2008, IAPs were estimated at the national level to cover an area of 1 813 million condensed hectares in South Africa. A market has formed around their use for value-added products (VAP like charcoal, firewood and timber in the Kouga, Kromme and Baviaans River catchments in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The net economic return from these value-added industries was estimated for the purpose of several management scenarios, and was then used to estimate the opportunity costs if they were not used. A system dynamics model was used to value and analyse the Net Present Value of clearing in the study area and to estimate the opportunity cost of the non-use of VAP. The study showed that the inclusion of VAPs in the project would yield higher net present values for clearing. The findings from this study suggest that a cofinance option of the total economic returns from VAP for clearing costs is the best management scenario for reducing the costs of clearing and maximising the net economic returns from clearing. The net economic returns of VAPs by 2030 are estimated at R23 million without the co-finance option and R26 million with the option. The cumulative net income from VAPs with co-financing over the period of valuation is estimated to be R609 million.

  3. Costs and benefits of biological control of invasive alien plants in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ba se d on w ate r pr od uc tio n, w ild flo we r ha rv es t, hik er vis ita tio n, ecotourism ,endemi cspecie san dgeneti cstorage . Valu ewa s US$ 3millio n (wit hn o managemen to falie n plants) ,an... is the most important), and on poverty alleviation (through the employment of disadvantaged people in rural areas). Currently, WfW has an annual operating budget of approxi- mately R500 million, and the way in which this budget is subdivided provides...

  4. Regional climate model downscaling may improve the prediction of alien plant species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyan; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Gao, Wei; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2014-12-01

    Distributions of invasive species are commonly predicted with species distribution models that build upon the statistical relationships between observed species presence data and climate data. We used field observations, climate station data, and Maximum Entropy species distribution models for 13 invasive plant species in the United States, and then compared the models with inputs from a General Circulation Model (hereafter GCM-based models) and a downscaled Regional Climate Model (hereafter, RCM-based models).We also compared species distributions based on either GCM-based or RCM-based models for the present (1990-1999) to the future (2046-2055). RCM-based species distribution models replicated observed distributions remarkably better than GCM-based models for all invasive species under the current climate. This was shown for the presence locations of the species, and by using four common statistical metrics to compare modeled distributions. For two widespread invasive taxa ( Bromus tectorum or cheatgrass, and Tamarix spp. or tamarisk), GCM-based models failed miserably to reproduce observed species distributions. In contrast, RCM-based species distribution models closely matched observations. Future species distributions may be significantly affected by using GCM-based inputs. Because invasive plants species often show high resilience and low rates of local extinction, RCM-based species distribution models may perform better than GCM-based species distribution models for planning containment programs for invasive species.

  5. Plant life management in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1998-01-01

    The life management in Hungary is in an early stage. The preparation of a suitable database, development of maintenance systems and education of the plant and consultant staff is essential. The Act of Nuclear Safety, the introduction of the 10 years periodic safety review system (periodic licence extension) is a good basis for life management. At the same time the economic changes in the country make the life management difficult. Presently most important task is to prepare the technical environment and the methodology for NPP Life management, and within a few years, when the economy would be consolidated, a real life management will be performed

  6. Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Fukano

    Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis (EICA predicts that when alien plants are free from their natural enemies they evolve lower allocation to defense in order to achieve a higher growth rate. If this hypothesis is true, the converse implication would be that the defense against herbivory could be restored if a natural enemy also becomes present in the introduced range. We tested this scenario in the case of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed - a species that invaded Japan from North America. We collected seeds from five North American populations, three populations in enemy free areas of Japan and four populations in Japan where the specialist herbivore Ophraella communa naturalized recently. Using plants grown in a common garden in Japan, we compared performance of O. communa with a bioassay experiment. Consistent with the EICA hypothesis, invasive Japanese populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited a weakened defense against the specialist herbivores and higher growth rate than native populations. Conversely, in locations where the herbivore O. communa appeared during the past decade, populations of A. artemisiifolia exhibited stronger defensive capabilities. These results strengthen the case for EICA and suggest that defense levels of alien populations can be recuperated rapidly after the native specialist becomes present in the introduced range. Our study implies that the plant defense is evolutionary labile depending on plant-herbivore interactions.

  7. Alien species, agents of global change: ecology and management of the gypsy moth in North America as a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold

    2003-01-01

    Through out evolutionary history, water and land barriers served to isolate the world's biota into distinct compartments With the advent of greater human mobility and world trade, these barriers are breaking-down and alien species are increasingly being transported into new habitats. Many alien species have had devastating impacts on their environment resulting in...

  8. Do alien plant species profit more from high resource supply than natives? : A trait-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, Alejandro; Olff, Han

    Aim Previous studies comparing conditions of high- versus low-resource environments have pointed at differences in key traits that would allow aliens to perform better than natives under high-resource conditions. We generalize and test the robustness of this idea by exploring how trait

  9. On the island biogeography of aliens: a global analysis of the richness of alien plant and bird species on oceanic islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blackburn, T. M.; Delean, S.; Pyšek, Petr; Cassey, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 7 (2016), s. 859-868 ISSN 1466-822X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plants * birds * island invasions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.045, year: 2016

  10. Nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorive, P.; Berthe, J.; Lafaille, J.P.; Eussen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several definitions can be given to the design life of a nuclear power plant just as they can be attributed to the design life of an industrial installation: the book-keeping life which is the duration of the provision for depreciation of the plant, the licensed life which corresponds to the duration for which the plant license has been granted and beyond which a new license should be granted by the safety authorities, the design life which corresponds to the duration specified for ageing and fatigue calculations in the design of some selected components during the plant design phase, the technical life which is the duration of effective technical operation and finally the economic life corresponding to the duration of profitable operation of the plant compared with other means of electricity production. Plant life management refers to the measures taken to cope with the combination of licensed, design, technical and economical life. They can include repairs and replacements of components which have arrived to the end of their life due to known degradation processes such as fatigue, embrittlement, corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal ageing. In all cases however, it is of great importance to plan the intervention so as to minimise the economic impact. Predictive maintenance is used together with in-service inspection programs to fulfil this goal. The paper will go over the methodologies adopted in Belgium in all aspects of electrical, mechanical and civil equipment for managing plant life. (author)

  11. Plant invasions in mountains: Global lessons for better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.L.; Khuroo, A.A.; Loope, L.L.; Parks, C.G.; Pauchard, A.; Reshi, Z.A.; Rushworth, I.; Kueffer, C.

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are one of few ecosystems little affected by plant invasions. However, the threat of invasion is likely to increase because of climate change, greater anthropogenic land use, and continuing novel introductions. Preventive management, therefore, will be crucial but can be difficult to promote when more pressing problems are unresolved and predictions are uncertain. In this essay, we use management case studies from 7 mountain regions to identify common lessons for effective preventive action. The degree of plant invasion in mountains was variable in the 7 regions as was the response to invasion, which ranged from lack of awareness by land managers of the potential impact in Chile and Kashmir to well-organized programs of prevention and containment in the United States (Hawaii and the Pacific Northwest), including prevention at low altitude. In Australia, awareness of the threat grew only after disruptive invasions. In South Africa, the economic benefits of removing alien plants are well recognized and funded in the form of employment programs. In the European Alps, there is little need for active management because no invasive species pose an immediate threat. From these case studies, we identify lessons for management of plant invasions in mountain ecosystems: (i) prevention is especially important in mountains because of their rugged terrain, where invasions can quickly become unmanageable; (ii) networks at local to global levels can assist with awareness raising and better prioritization of management actions; (iii) the economic importance of management should be identified and articulated; (iv) public acceptance of management programs will make them more effective; and (v) climate change needs to be considered. We suggest that comparisons of local case studies, such as those we have presented, have a pivotal place in the proactive solution of global change issues. ?? International Mountain Society.

  12. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  13. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables

  14. Managing BWR plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianni, P.W.; Kiss, E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that extending the useful life of a large nuclear plant can be justified with very high cost benefit ratio. In turn, experience with large power plant systems and equipment has shown that a well-integrated and -managed plan is essential in order to achieve potential economic benefits. Consequently, General Electric's efforts have been directed at establishing a life extension plan that considers alternative options and cost-effective steps that can be taken in early life, those appropriate during middle life, and those required in late life. This paper briefly describes an approach designed to provide the plant owner a maximum of flexibility in developing a life extension plan

  15. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  16. Plant management in concurrent engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubensack, D.; Malvache, P.; Valleix, P.

    1997-01-01

    The ImagIn project consist in a method and a set of computer tools apt to bring perceptible and assessable improvements in the operational safety of a nuclear plant. Its aim is to design an information system that would maintain a highly detailed computerised representation of a nuclear plant, in its initial state and throughout its in-service life. It is not a tool to drive or help driving the nuclear plant, but a tool that manages concurrent operations that modify the plant configuration in a very general way (maintenance for example). The configuration of the plant, as well as rules and constraints about it, are described in a object-oriented, knowledge database, which is built using a generic ImagIn meta-model based on the semantical network theory. An inference engine works on this database and is connected to reality through interfaces to operators and captors on the installation; it verifies constantly in real-time the consistency of the database according to its inner rules, and reports eventual problems to concerned operators. A special effort is made on interfaces to provide natural and intuitive tools (using virtual reality, natural language, voice recognition and synthesis). A laboratory application on a fictive but realistic installation already exist and is used to simulate various test and scenari. A real application is being constructed on SILOE, an experimental reactor of the CEA. (authors)

  17. Egg-laying by the butterfly Iphiclides podalirius (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae on alien plants: a broadening of host range or oviposition mistakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu, C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iphiclides podalirius is an oligophagous butterfly which feeds on plants of the Rosaceae family. In 2002 and 2005 in NE Spain, we recorded for the first time oviposition on two alien plant species, Cotoneaster franchetii and Spiraea cantoniensis. To ascertain if this unusual behaviour represents a broadening of host range or, alternatively, an oviposition mistake, larval performance on the new plants was investigated in the laboratory and compared with performance on the most common host plants used in the study area. Although larval performance on common hosts differed to some extent, the use of a wide range of plants of different quality at population level may in fact respond to the so-called “spreading of risk” strategy in variable environments. On the other hand, larval performance and survival to adulthood were so low on the two new hosts that our observations probably represent a case of maladaptive oviposition behaviour. This may be due to an evolutionary lag between the newly introduced plants and the insect, although other possible explanations are also taken into account.

  18. Cross-scale modelling of alien and native vascular plant species richness in Great Britain: where is geodiversity information most relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph; Field, Richard; Boyd, Doreen

    2016-04-01

    We assess the scale-dependency of the relationship between biodiversity and novel geodiversity information by studying spatial patterns of native and alien (archaeophytes and neophytes) vascular plant species richness at varying spatial scales across Great Britain. Instead of using a compound geodiversity metric, we study individual geodiversity components (GDCs) to advance our understanding of which aspects of 'geodiversity' are most important and at what scale. Terrestrial native (n = 1,490) and alien (n = 1,331) vascular plant species richness was modelled across the island of Great Britain at two grain sizes and several extent radii. Various GDCs (landforms, hydrology, geology) were compiled from existing national datasets and automatically extracted landform coverage information (e.g. hollows, valleys, peaks), the latter using a digital elevation model (DEM) and geomorphometric techniques. More traditional predictors of species richness (climate, widely-used topography metrics, land cover diversity, and human population) were also incorporated. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) models were produced at all grain sizes and extents for each species group and the dominant predictors were assessed. Models with and without geodiversity data were compared. Overarching patterns indicated a clear dominance of geodiversity information at the smallest study extent (12.5km radius) and finest grain size (1x1km), which substantially decreased for each increase in extent as the contribution of climatic variables increased. The contribution of GDCs to biodiversity models was chiefly driven by landform information from geomorphometry, but hydrology (rivers and lakes), and to a lesser extent materials (soil, superficial deposits, and geology), were important, also. GDCs added significantly to vascular plant biodiversity models in Great Britain, independently of widely-used topographic metrics, particularly for native species. The wider consideration of geodiversity alongside

  19. Waste management in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortreuil, M.

    1982-01-01

    This lecture will give a survey of the French policy for the management of wastes in reprocessing plants. In consideration of their radioactivity, they must be immobilized in matrix in such a manner that they are stored under optimal safety conditions. A general review on the nature, nucleide content and quantity of the various wastes arising from thermal nuclear fuel reprocessing is given in the light of the French plants UP1 at Marcoule and UP2 at La Hague. The procedures of treatment of such wastes and their conditioning into inert packages suitable for temporary or terminal storage are presented, especially concerning the continuous vitrification process carried out for fission product solutions. The requirements of each option are discussed and possible alternative solutions are exposed. (orig./RW)

  20. Knowledge, Norms and Preferences for Tamarisk Management in the Green and Colorado River Corridors of the Colorado Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, E. Clay

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research exists regarding invasive alien plant species including impacts to native ecosystems and efficacy of control methods on public lands and river corridors. Many studies have identified the need for more research regarding the social implications of invasive alien species management. More specifically, additional research is needed regarding the impacts of invasive alien plant management on the Colorado Plateau to river-based recreation experiences. It is important for public ...

  1. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  2. The coregulator Alien

    OpenAIRE

    Papaioannou, Maria; Melle, Christian; Baniahmad, Aria

    2007-01-01

    Alien has characteristics of a corepressor for selected members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily and also for transcription factors involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Alien mediates gene silencing and represses the transactivation of specific NHRs and other transcription factors to modulate hormone response and cell proliferation. Alien is a highly conserved protein and is expressed in a wide variety of tissues. Knockout of the gene encoding Alien in mice is em...

  3. Nuclear Plant Integrated Outage Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstberger, C. R.; Coulehan, R. J.; Tench, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of an emerging concept for improving nuclear plant outage performance - integrated outage management. The paper begins with an explanation of what the concept encompasses, including a scope definition of the service and descriptions of the organization structure, various team functions, and vendor/customer relationships. The evolvement of traditional base scope services to the integrated outage concept is addressed and includes discussions on changing customer needs, shared risks, and a partnership approach to outages. Experiences with concept implementation from a single service in 1984 to the current volume of integrated outage management presented in this paper. We at Westinghouse believe that the operators of nuclear power plants will continue to be aggressively challenged in the next decade to improve the operating and financial performance of their units. More and more customers in the U. S. are looking towards integrated outage as the way to meet these challenges of the 1990s, an arrangement that is best implemented through a long-term partnering with a single-source supplier of high quality nuclear and turbine generator outage services. This availability, and other important parameters

  4. An integrated approach to plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredlund, L.

    1998-01-01

    Plant life is no longer determined by components, almost everything can be replaced. A plant life management program should aim at actions and replacements being performed at the right time. In order to manage this there is need for experience feedback systems, a plant specific risk study and safety upgrades. (author)

  5. Costs, benefits and management options for an invasive alien tree species: the case of mesquite in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wise, RM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available and management options for an invasive alien tree species: The case of mesquite in the Northern Cape, South Africa R.M. Wise1?, B.W. van Wilgen2 and D.C. Le Maitre2 1 CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, GPO Box 284, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia . 2 Centre for Invasion... determined the net economic impact of mesquite in arid parts of South Africa today and for a range of plausible future scenarios, and identified the pivotal factors driving these outcomes. Our assessment was based on a thorough review of the beneficial...

  6. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Brenda S. Smith; Edward A. Vasquez; Roger L. Sheley

    2010-01-01

    Land managers have long identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework for designing restoration strategies, especially where invasive plants dominate. A holistic, ecologically based, invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes, and adaptive management into a successional...

  7. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. Volume 36

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP) is the Nation's only federally authorized research program directed to develop technology for the management of non-indigenous aquatic plant species...

  8. The coregulator Alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Maria; Melle, Christian; Baniahmad, Aria

    2007-11-30

    Alien has characteristics of a corepressor for selected members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily and also for transcription factors involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Alien mediates gene silencing and represses the transactivation of specific NHRs and other transcription factors to modulate hormone response and cell proliferation. Alien is a highly conserved protein and is expressed in a wide variety of tissues. Knockout of the gene encoding Alien in mice is embryonic lethal at a very early stage, indicating an important evolutionary role in multicellular organisms. From a mechanistic perspective, the corepressor function of Alien is in part mediated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, Alien seems to modulate nucleosome assembly activity. This suggests that Alien is acting on chromatin not only through recruitment of histone-modifying activities, but also through enhancing nucleosome assembly.

  9. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  10. The zone of alienation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagorski, A.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after the nuclear disaster, people still live and die in Chernobyl. Thousands of people continue to live and work there. Roughly 500 have moved back into their old homes inside the alienation zone. Fewer than half still alive. Medical researchers in the area insist that immune systems are weakened by doses of radiation far lower than previously thought. However, an European Union sponsored study concluded that Chernobyl's toll has been exaggerated. Thus, while 760 children in the contaminated area have developed thyroid cancer, only three have died as a result. Yet in and around Chernobyl, people carry on their lives and the Ukrainian Government says it can't afford to close the plant without billions of dollars in Western aid. ills

  11. The zone of alienation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagorski, A.

    1996-04-23

    Ten years after the nuclear disaster, people still live and die in Chernobyl. Thousands of people continue to live and work there. Roughly 500 have moved back into their old homes inside the alienation zone. Fewer than half still alive. Medical researchers in the area insist that immune systems are weakened by doses of radiation far lower than previously thought. However, an European Union sponsored study concluded that Chernobyl`s toll has been exaggerated. Thus, while 760 children in the contaminated area have developed thyroid cancer, only three have died as a result. Yet in and around Chernobyl, people carry on their lives and the Ukrainian Government says it can`t afford to close the plant without billions of dollars in Western aid. ills.

  12. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidziński, Artur; Mędrzycki, Piotr; Kołaczkowska, Ewa; Ciurzycki, Wojciech; Marciszewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency-Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.-and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest's models' quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors' importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an 'explanation jump' at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant's hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion.

  13. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Obidziński

    Full Text Available Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1 assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2 comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency-Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.-and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest's models' quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors' importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an 'explanation jump' at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant's hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion.

  14. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mędrzycki, Piotr; Kołaczkowska, Ewa; Ciurzycki, Wojciech; Marciszewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency–Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.–and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest’s models’ quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors’ importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an ‘explanation jump’ at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant’s hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion. PMID:27992516

  15. The significance of plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrddin Davies, L.

    2000-01-01

    The paper carries a definition and describes Plant life and plant life management. It also describes the procedures and defines the categorisation of components giving examples and referring to key components. Examples of 'good practice and guidance' are given for the establishment and implementation of plant life management programmes. A description is given of recent and current IAEA activities under the aegis of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management (IWG-LMNPP). Some of the future activities in this field are described. (author)

  16. Chemistry management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Katsumi; Maeda, Katsuji

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the chemistry management in the nuclear power plants has been changing from the problem solution to the predictive diagnosis and maintenance. It is important to maintain the integrity of plant operation by an adequate chemistry control. For these reasons, many plant operation data and chemistry analysis data should be collected and treated effectively to evaluate chemistry condition of the nuclear power plants. When some indications of chemistry anomalies occur, quick and effective root cause evaluation and countermeasures should be required. The chemistry management system has been developed as to provide sophisticate chemistry management in the nuclear power plants. This paper introduces the concept and functions of the chemistry management system for the nuclear power plants. (author)

  17. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  18. Plant risk status information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.J.; Ellison, B.C.; Glynn, J.C.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIMS) is a PC program that presents information about a nuclear power plant's design, its operation, its technical specifications, and the results of the plant's probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in a logically and easily accessible format. PRISIMS provides its user with unique information for integrating safety concerns into day-to-day operational decisions and/or long-range management planning

  19. The Alien University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    2018-01-01

    - they are alien. The conditions of universities today is not one of crisis and upheaval, as with the postmodern universities, it is one of night travel and exile. The alien university leaves behind the epistemological skirmishes of the postmodern university with all its rhetoric and knowledge activism. Thinking...... in the alien university is a move into a whirlpool of nothingness, a “nocturnal space”, where “[d]arkness fills it like a content; it is full, but full of the nothingness of everything.” (Levinas, 2001, p.53). In the alien university thinking is not situated, and instead of rhizomes, and assemblages of thought......, there is merely an imposing and nightly “swarming of points.” (ibid.). There is no place for the alien university, and exactly this exile of thought makes possible the move beyond postmodernism and the mentality of political crisis. The alien university is not in the future as such, but it is not entirely...

  20. Information management systems improve advanced plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, R.S.; Serafin, S.A.; Leckley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering tools are proving invaluable in both the design and operation of nuclear power plants. ABB Combustion Engineering's Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) features a computerized Information Management System (IMS) as an integral part of the design. The System 80+IMS represents the most powerful information management tool for Nuclear Power Plants commercially available today. Developed by Duke Power Company specifically for use by nuclear power plant owner operators, the IMS consists of appropriate hardware and software to manage and control information flow for all plant related work or tasks in a systematic, consistent, coordinated and informative manner. A significant feature of this IMS is that it is primarily based on plant data. The principal design tool, PASCE (Plant Application and Systems from Combustion Engineering), is comprised of intelligent databases that describe the design and from which accurate plant drawings are created. Additionally the IMS includes, at its hub, a relational database management system and an associated document management system. The data-based approach and applications associated with the IMS were developed, and have proven highly effective, for plant modifications, configuration management, and operations and maintenance applications at Duke Power Company's operating nuclear plants. This paper presents its major features and benefits. 4 refs

  1. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  3. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnasco, S; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cerello, P G; Saiz, P

    2003-01-01

    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Storage Element and Computing Element), and act as interface nodes between the systems. An EDG Resource Broker is seen by the AliEn server as a single Computing Element, while the EDG storage is seen by AliEn as a single, large Storage Element; files produced in EDG sites are registered in both the EDG Replica Catalogue and in the AliEn Data Catalogue, thus ensuring accessibility from both worlds. In fact, both registrations are required: the AliEn one is used for the data management, the EDG one to guarantee the integrity and...

  4. [Effects of alien species Robinia pseudoacacia on plant community functional structure in hilly-gully region of Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Duo Ju; Wen, Zhong Ming; Zhang, Jing; Tao, Yu; Zeng, Hong Wen; Tang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of the introduction of Robinia pseudoacacia on the functional structure of plant communities, we selected paired-plots of R. pseudoacacia communities and native plant communities across different vegetation zones, i.e., steppe zone, forest-steppe zone, forest zone in hilly-gully region of Loess Plateau, China. We measured several functional characteristics and then compared the functional structures of R. pseudoacacia and native plant communities in different vegetation zones. The results showed that the variation of the functional traits across different vegetation zones were consistent in R. pseudoacacia community and native plant community, including leaf carbon concentration, leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf phosphorus concentration, specific leaf area, and leaf tissue density. The leaf carbon concentration, leaf nitrogen concentration, and specific leaf area of the R. pseudoacacia community were significantly higher than those of the native plant community. The trend of change that the functional diversity indices, i.e., FR ic , FE ve , FD iv , FD is , Rao of the R. pseudoacacia community and the native plant community with vegetation zones were different. The introduction of R. pseudoacacia enhanced the plant community functional diversity in the forest zone but reduced community functional diversity in the steppe zone.

  5. Computer-assisted power plant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, D.

    1990-01-01

    Operating a power plant and keeping it operational is ensured by a multiplicity of technical management subtasks which are cross referenced and based on an extensive inventory of descriptive and operational plant data. These data stocks are still registered in an isolated mode and managed and updated manually. This is a labor intensive, error prone procedure. In this situation, the introduction of a computer-assisted plant management system, whose core is a data-base of assured quality common to all activities, and which contains standardized processing aids fully planned for the subtasks occurring in the plant, is likely to achieve a considerable improvement in the quality of plant management and to relieve the staff of administrative activities. (orig.) [de

  6. BALTICA III. Plant condition and life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P.

    1995-01-01

    The BALTICA III, International Conference on Plant Condition and Life Management was held on June 6 - 8, 1995 on board Silja Serenade on its cruise between Helsinki - Stockholm and at the Forest Lake Hotel Korpilampi in Espoo. BALTICA III provides forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practise. This is the second volume of the publications, which contain the presentations given at the BALTICA III, Plant Condition and Life Management. A total of 45 articles report recent experience in plant condition and life management. The conference focuses on recent applications that have been demonstrated for the benefit of safe and economical operation of power plants. Practical approach is emphasised, including the presentations that aim to provide insight into new techniques, improvements in assessment methodologies as well as maintenance strategies. Compared to earlier occasions in the BALTICA series, a new aspect is in the applications of knowledge-based systems in the service of power plant life management. (orig.)

  7. Computerized management of plant intervention tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remacle, J.; Quoidbach, G.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of 'computerized management' of plant intervention tasks was developed by TRACTEBEL in 1983 for the Belgian power plants of ELECTRABEL. The main objective of the 'Computerized Management of Plant Intervention Tasks' is to help the staff of a nuclear or a conventional power plant in planning, organizing, and carrying out any (preventive or corrective) maintenance task. It consists of a group of interconnected functional modules acting on a unique and homogeneous data base. A short description of 3 modules is given, i.e., the 'User' Module, the 'Equipment' Module and the 'Periodic Procedure' Module. (Z.S.)

  8. Alienation from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascher, Tina; Hagenauer, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Two studies aimed at understanding the time course of alienation from school and school factors that may influence alienation from school during early adolescence. In Study 1, 434 students from grade 5-8 participated (cross-sectional design). In Study 2, we followed 356 students from grade 6-7 (longitudinal design). The results confirm the…

  9. Survey and documentation of the potential and actual invasive alien plant species and other biological threats to biodiversity in Awash National Park, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebsebe DEMISSEW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Awash National Park (ANP Ethiopia, todocument Invasive Alien Species (IAS and to assess the spread of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. A total of 64 sample plots were laid systematically along the altitudinal gradient of 750 to 1916 m.Potential IAS were recorded. IAS which may threaten biodiversity of the park includes species such as Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br., Parkinsonia aculeata L., Senna occidentalis (L. Link, Datura ferox L. and Xanthium strumarium L. Except P. juliflora and P. hysterophorus, all others were not recorded in Ethiopia as IAS. P.juliflora was recorded in three plots with cover of 1% to 10%. P. juliflora was also found spread in different parts of the park particularly following the route of cattle movement. P. hysterophoruswas recorded in and around nine sample plots. Plot 46, 47 and 48 werehighly infested by P. hysterophorus which covered more than 60, 70 and 80% of the ground layer respectively. C. grandiflora was recorded in 11 plots with cover ranging from 1% to 35%. In view of all the natural as well as anthropogenic threats to the biodiversity of the Park, the ANP is at high risk. The rich biodiversity needsimmediate management intervention.

  10. Configuration management of plant modifications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritsch, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of nuclear power plant operation, regulatory pressure, and the large numbers of people required to operate and support the stations, the control of plant modifications at these plants needs to be expanded and improved. The aerospace and defense industries, as well as the owners or operators of large energy projects have established configuration management programs (CMPs) to control plant design changes. These programs are composed of well-defined functions for identifying, evaluating, recording, tracking, issuing, and documenting the established baseline conditions, as well as required changes to these baseline conditions. The purpose of this paper is to describe a recommended CMP for plant modifications consisting of a computerized data base installed on the utility's computer to provide a central storage of plant design and operations data necessary to control the following activities as they are affected by plant design changes: training; record management; operations; maintenance; health physics; planning/scheduling; procurement/inventory control; outage management (including modifications); and emergency response

  11. How many marine aliens in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN; http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu/, an inventory of marine alienspecies in Europe was created by critically reviewing existing information in 34 global, European, regional and national databases. In total, 1369 marine alien species have been reported in the European seas (including 110 cryptogenic and 139 questionable species; this is a substantial increase from the 737 species previously reported in 2009 based on the DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe; http://www.europe-aliens.org dataset. Most of the reported species were invertebrates (63.3%, followed by chromists (13.7%, vertebrates (11.6%, and plants (10.1%. Mollusca is the most numerous phylum, followed by Arthropoda, Chordata, and Annelida. Thecountries with the highest reported numbers of marine alien species were Israel, Turkey, Italy, France, Egypt and Greece. A reporting bias is evident as efforts for monitoring and reporting alien species vary among countries.

  12. Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (2nd edition): checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Danihelka, Jiří; Sádlo, Jiří; Chrtek, Jindřich; Chytrý, M.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kaplan, Zdeněk; Krahulec, František; Moravcová, Lenka; Pergl, Jan; Štajerová, Kateřina; Tichý, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2012), s. 155-255 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasive plants * checklist * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  13. Alien plants introduced by different pathways differ in invasion success: unintentional introductions as a threat to natural areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pergl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 9 (2011), e24890 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * pathways * naturalization and invasion Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  14. Invasive alien organisms in South West Africa/Namibia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, CJ

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The greatest threat of invasion of alien species of plants and animals is posed by species which originate from similar arid habitats in other parts of the world. In general the smaller the number of individuals of an alien species introduced...

  15. Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural production in the tropics: ... and yields, marker assisted selection breeding, to develop new uses for agricultural products, to facilitate early maturation and to improve food and feed ...

  16. Better plant performance through better management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    A forum convened by the IAEA discussed key aspects and current issues of nuclear power plant operations management in depth. Among the topics addressed were the following: the roles and responsibilities of the operating organization, operations management, and the regulatory body; performance objectives and operational procedures and practices, and potential conflict among plant safety, reliability, and economic operation; advances in day-to-day operation; maintenance and quality control; and shaping of the proper attitudes toward safety

  17. Quality management in nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.; Ehrnsperger, K.

    2001-01-01

    Quality assurance and therefore quality management are essential preconditions for the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. On the basis of the rules of the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss KTA 1401 the quality management in the former Bayernwerk AG and the Bayernwerk Kernenergie GmbH as well as in the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Auftragnehmerbeurteilung within the VGB Technical Association of Large Power Plant Operators is described. (orig.) [de

  18. Management strategies for nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    More competitive energy markets have significant implications for nuclear power plant operations, including, among others, the need for more efficient use of resources and effective management of plant activities such as on-line maintenance and outages. Outage management is a key factor for safe, reliable and economic plant performance and involves many aspects: plant policy, coordination of available resources, nuclear safety, regulatory and technical requirements, and all activities and work hazards, before and during the outage. The IAEA has produced this report on nuclear power plant outage management strategies to provide both a summary and an update of a follow-up to a series of technical documents related to practices regarding outage management and cost effective maintenance. The aim of this publication is to identify good practices in outage management: outage planning and preparation, outage execution and post-outage review. As in in the related technical documents, this report aims to communicate these practices in such a way that they can be used by operating organizations and regulatory bodies in Member States. The report was prepared as part of an IAEA project on continuous process improvement. The objective of this project is to increase Member State capabilities in improving plant performance and competitiveness through the utilization of proven engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA

  19. British plants as aliens in New Zealand cities: residence time moderates their impact on the beta diversity of urban floras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricotta, C.; Rapson, G. L.; Asmus, U.; Pyšek, Petr; Kühn, I.; La Sorte, F. A.; Thompson, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2017), s. 3589-3599 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * urban sites * beta diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  20. Management of fungal plant pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arya, Arun; Perelló, Analía Edith

    2010-01-01

    .... Amidst growing concerns about the environment and food security, the development of management strategies that minimize crop losses and promote sustainable agriculture is increasingly important...

  1. Policy alienation and work alienation: Two worlds apart?

    OpenAIRE

    Tummers, Lars; Thiel, Sandra; Steijn, Bram; Bekkers, Victor

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The notion of work alienation has been fascinating scholars and practitioners for a long time. In recent years, a related concept has been developed in the public administration discipline: policy alienation, which examines the alienation of public professionals from the policy they have to implement. In this paper, our goal is to study the distinctiveness (or similarity) of work alienation and policy alienation. Furthermore, we examine a number of effects of work and pol...

  2. Ageing management in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.; Reiner, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany, the term 'ageing management' comprises several aspects. A demand for a special ageing monitoring programme is not explicitly contained in the regulations. However, from the Atomic Energy Act and its regulations results the operator's obligation to perform extensive measures to maintain the quality of the plant and the operating personnel working in the plant. From this point of view, comprehensive ageing management in German nuclear power plants has taken place right from the start under the generic term of quality assurance. (author)

  3. INVENTORY OF THE INVASIVE ALIE N PLANT SPECIES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI S UDARMIYATI T JITROSOEDIRDJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the alien plant species in Indone sia based on the existing references and herbarium specimens concluded that 1936 alien plant species ar e found in Indonesia which belong to 187 families. Field studies should be done to get the complete figur es of alien plant species in Indonesia. Based on the existing figures of the plant species, the invasive alien plant species can be iden tified, followed by studies on the assessment of losses, biology, management and their possible utilizations. Alien plant species are imported to Indonesia for cultivation, collection of the botanical garden, as experimental plants or other curiosities. Aside from plants purposely imported, there are also introduced plant propagules conta-minating imported agricultural products. These alien plant species can be beneficial or have a potential of being invasive. The alien cultivated species consisted of 67% of the total number. More than half of the cultivated plants are ornamental plants. Some of th e species are naturalized or escaped from cultivation and become wild and invasive. Some other natura lized species, adapted well without any problems of invasion. There are 339 species or 17% of the species r ecorded as weeds. The highest record of weeds is found in the family of Poaceae (57 species, follo wed by Asteraceae (53 species and Cyperaceae (35 species. There are 6 families having more than 10 species of weeds: Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. Three families have more than 100 species: Asteraceae 162 species, Poaceae 120 species, and Papillionaceae 103 species. Five species of aquatic and 20 species of terrestrial plants considered as important alien plant species in Indonesia were identified and some of their distributions noted

  4. Computerized management of plant intervention tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quoidbach, G.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the 'Computerized Management of Plant Intervention Tasks' is to help the staff of a nuclear or a conventional power plant or of any other complex industrial facility (chemical industries, refineries, and so on) in planning, organizing, and carrying out any (preventive or corrective) maintenance task. This 'Computerized Management of Plant Intervention Tasks' is organized around a data base of all plant components in the facility that might be subjected to maintenance or tagout. It allows to manage, by means of intelligent and configurable 'mail service', the course of the intervention requests as well as various treatments of those requests, in a safe and efficient way, adapted to each particular organization. The concept of 'Computerized Management' of plant intervention tasks was developed by BELGATOM in 1983 for the Belgian nuclear power plants of ELECTRABEL. A first implementation of this concept was made at that time for the Doel NPP under the name POPIT (Programming Of Plant Intervention Tasks). In 1988, it was decided to proceed to a functional upgrade of the application, using advanced software and hardware techniques and products, and to realize a second implementation in the Tihange NPP under the name ACM (Application Consignation Maintenance). (author)

  5. Nuclear power plants management from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Three mile island and Chernobyl accidents developed a change for the operation and management of nuclear power plants. The present articles studies the state of the art the management of NPPs, the foundation of INPO and WANO and the future of operation in NPPs

  6. Plant Betterment as Anticipated Measure For Plant Life Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    A lot of modifications have been made since critically on each of the 28 standardized 900 MW class PWR units in France. Most of this technical upgrading was accomplished to facilitate operation, improve availability, or bring the unit design in line with evolving regulatory requirements, but a substantial part of the modifications was dedicated to Plant Life Management. As part of the program launched by EDF for plant life management, this paper introduces the Frustum's contribution for plant betterment and enhancement of reactor operation concurrently to ensure or extend plant service life. The solutions contemplated in this field are provided to reduce the frequency of unexpected reactor trip occurrences, to mitigate their negative effects or to smooth off the reactor operation and thus the magnitude of associated transients. The lifetime evaluation of NPP is basically an economical exercise, which tries to determine how long the operation of the plant will remain competitive, taking into account the long term perspective maintenance costs. There cannot be any conflict between lifetime and safety considerations, based upon the pituitary requisite that the safety requirement must be met at any time of the operation. Plant life management needs a consistent approach that can not be improvised on a case by case basis. Instead, it must be kept in mind from the very beginning of unit operation. This is the sense of the backfitting and technical upgrading carried out in France for the PWRs of the 900 MW class. It is thanks to this necessary anticipation that plant life will be actually managed, giving benefit both from the standpoint of availability and from that of the service lives of sensitive components. Substantial savings will thus be obtained

  7. Play against alienation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2018-01-01

    At the dawn of industrial modernity, in late eighteenth century, a shadow lay over Europe. Sensitive artists and intellectuals described the atmosphere as an encounter with something fremd – foreign, strange, alien. Karl Marx later introduced the term Entfremdung (estrangement, alienation......) into social philosophy. After being applied to the sphere of industrial class struggle, the concept was revitalized by philosophers of the Frankfurt School and again by the cultural revolt of 1968. Later on, however, the concept was dropped, even among critical philosophers. Was ‘alienation’ maybe too far...... from practical life? Wasn’t alienation contradicted by happy consumerist capitalism?...

  8. Management of fungal plant pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arya, Arun; Perelló, Analía Edith

    2010-01-01

    ... and W.J. Rogers 78 vvi Contents 8 Sustainable Management of Rice Blast (Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr): 50 Years of Research Progress in Molecular Biology S. Nandy, N. Mandal, P.K. Bhowmik, M...

  9. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.; Rumble, E.; Rodwell, E.

    2001-01-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  10. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, J [Duke Engineering and Services, Marlborough, MA (United States); Rumble, E; Rodwell, E [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  11. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, J. [Duke Engineering and Services, Marlborough, MA (United States); Rumble, E.; Rodwell, E. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  12. Knowledge management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal, C. de la; Barasoain, F.; Buedo, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to show the importance of knowledge management from different perspectives. In this first part part of the article, the overall approach that performs CNAT of knowledge management is described. In the second part, a specific aspect of knowledge management in ANAV, tacit knowledge transfer is showed. finally, the third part discusses the strategies and actions that are followed in CNCO for knowledge management. All this aims to show an overview of knowledge management held in the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  13. Changing concepts in plant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramler, K.

    1997-01-01

    Rising competitive pressure caused by deregulation, and overcapacities in the German market, require further potentials for rationalization to be exploited in the electricity generation sector. Competitive pressure affects the economics of electricity generation from uranium not only because of the special political burden to be shouldered by nuclear power, but also because of the change in funding the German hard coal mining industry. Especially those electricity utilities which used to ensure stable prices by generating baseload electricity from nuclear power at cost effective prices now are forced to meet the changed political and economic boundary conditions at short notice. It is already becoming evident that record achievements in availability and annual output, which used to be successful characteristics of German nuclear power plant operation, will no longer be sufficient as the only factors ensuring success in a competitive electricity market. In addition to safety and availability of plants, it is increasingly economic performance which is becoming important. On the road to cost-optimized structures and processes, it is absolutely essential that thinking be changed both on the higher, strategic and on the operative levels. In plant operation, potentials for cost reduction must be exploited chiefly in the field of maintenance. Here, the underlying philosophy must be changed from engineering-orientedness to cost optimization. The road to success leads through more or less drastic strategic and planning changes. Important areas on the way are planning and control of maintenance and revision. (orig.) [de

  14. Development of Information Management System for Plant Life Cycle Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byon, SuJin; Lee, SangHyun; Kim, WooJoong

    2015-01-01

    The study subjects are S. Korean NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) construction projects. Design, construction, operations companies have different nuclear power plant construction project structures, and each company has its own Information Management System. In this study, the end user developed an Information Management System early in the project, and developed a management structure that systematically integrates and interfaces with information in each lifecycle phase. The main perspective of Information Management is moving from the existent document-centric management to the data-centric management. To do so, we intend to integrate information with interfaces among systems. Integrated information management structure and management system are essential for an effective management of the lifecycle information of nuclear power plants that have a lifespan over as much as 80 years. The concept of integration management adopted by the defence, ocean industries or various PLM solution providers is important. Although the NPP project has application systems in each key lifecycle phase, it is more effective to develop and use PLIMS in consideration of the interface and compatibility of information among systems. As an initial study for development of that integrated information management structure, this study is building the system and has interfaced it with a design-stage system

  15. Development of Information Management System for Plant Life Cycle Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byon, SuJin; Lee, SangHyun; Kim, WooJoong [KOREA HYDRO and NUCLEAR POWER CO. LTD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The study subjects are S. Korean NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) construction projects. Design, construction, operations companies have different nuclear power plant construction project structures, and each company has its own Information Management System. In this study, the end user developed an Information Management System early in the project, and developed a management structure that systematically integrates and interfaces with information in each lifecycle phase. The main perspective of Information Management is moving from the existent document-centric management to the data-centric management. To do so, we intend to integrate information with interfaces among systems. Integrated information management structure and management system are essential for an effective management of the lifecycle information of nuclear power plants that have a lifespan over as much as 80 years. The concept of integration management adopted by the defence, ocean industries or various PLM solution providers is important. Although the NPP project has application systems in each key lifecycle phase, it is more effective to develop and use PLIMS in consideration of the interface and compatibility of information among systems. As an initial study for development of that integrated information management structure, this study is building the system and has interfaced it with a design-stage system.

  16. AliEn: ALICE environment on the GRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnasco, S; Betev, L; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cirstoiu, C; Grigoras, C; Hayrapetyan, A; Harutyunyan, A; Peters, A J; Saiz, P

    2008-01-01

    Starting from mid-2008, the ALICE detector at CERN LHC will collect data at a rate of 4PB per year. ALICE will use exclusively distributed Grid resources to store, process and analyse this data. The top-level management of the Grid resources is done through the AliEn (ALICE Environment) system, which is in continuous development since year 2000. AliEn presents several original solutions, which have shown their viability in a number of large exercises of increasing complexity called Data Challenges. This paper describes the AliEn architecture: Job Management, Data Management and UI. The current status of AliEn will be illustrated, as well as the performance of the system during the data challenges. The paper also describes the future AliEn development roadmap

  17. AliEn: ALICE Environment on the GRID

    CERN Multimedia

    Bagnasco, S; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cirstoiu, C; Grigoras, C; Hayrapetyan, A; Harutyunyan, A; Peters, A J; Saiz, P

    2007-01-01

    Starting from mid-2008, the ALICE detector at CERN LHC will collect data at a rate of 4PB per year. ALICE will use exclusively distributed Grid resources to store, process and analyse this data. The top-level management of the Grid resources is done through the AliEn (ALICE Environment) system, which is in continuous development since year 2000. AliEn presents several original solutions, which have shown their viability in a number of large exercises of increasing complexity called Data Challenges. This paper describes the AliEn architecture: Job Management, Data Management and UI. The current status of AliEn will be illustrated, as well as the performance of the system during the data challenges. The paper also describes the future AliEn development roadmap.

  18. Automated plant, production management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, V. I.; Belov, V. I.

    1984-12-01

    The development of a complex of tasks for the operational management of production (OUP) within the framework of an automated system for production management (ASUP) shows that it is impossible to have effective computations without reliable initial information. The influence of many factors involving the production and economic activity of the entire enterprise upon the plan and course of production are considered. It is suggested that an adequate model should be available which covers all levels of the hierarchical system: workplace, section (bridgade), shop, enterprise, and the model should be incorporated into the technological sequence of performance and there should be provisions for an adequate man machine system.

  19. Alien Noise Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Full FEXT Cancellation. Expectation Maximization based Algorithms. Partial Cancellation. Optimal Choice of what to Cancel and what not to! Alien Noise Cancellation. Efficient Crosstalk channel estimation. In addition:

  20. Parental Alienation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Torun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Children who have been programmed by one parent to be alienated from the other parent are commonly seen in the context of child-custody disputes. Its primary manifestation is the child’s campaign of denigration against a parent, a campaign that has no justification. It is said to result from a combination of a programming (brainwashing parent’s indoctrinations and the child’s own contributions to the vilification of the targeted parent. Many evaluators use the term parental alienation syndrome to refer to the disorder engendered in such children. However, there is significant controversy going on about the validity of parental alienation syndrome. The purpose of this article has been to describe and help to differentiate parental alienation syndrome and abuse for mental health professionals working in the field, and discuss the arguments about the validity of this syndrome.

  1. Poverty-Exploitation-Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Martin

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how knowledge derived from the discipline of economics can be used to help shed light on social problems such as poverty, exploitation, and alienation, and can help decision makers form policy to minimize these and similar problems. (DB)

  2. Waste management plan - plant plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudet, F.

    2008-01-01

    The author summarizes the nuclear activity of the Pierre Fabre Research Institute (sites, used radionuclides, radioprotection organisation), indicates the applied regulation, gives a brief analytical overview of the waste collection, sorting and elimination processes, of the management process for short period wastes and for long period wastes, and of the traceability and control procedures. He briefly presents some characteristics of the storing premises

  3. Development of JOYO Plant Operation Management Expert Tool (JOYPET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michino, Masanobu; Terano, Toshihiro; Hanawa, Mikio; Aoki, Hiroshi; Okubo, Toshiyuki

    2000-03-01

    The Operation and Maintenance Support Systems for JOYO are being developed, with the aim of ensuring the stable and safe operation of JOYO and improving operational reliability of future FBR plants. Plant Operation Management Expert Tool named JOYPET had been developed as one of the Operation and Maintenance Support Systems, which helps plant operation management. The following functions were developed and applied. (1) Papers management (Plant status management) function for maintenance activities, (2) Isolation management support function for plant operation, (3) Automatically drawing function of plant operation schedule, (4) Isolation judgment function for plant operation. By use this system, the plant management of JOYO was able to improved reliability and reduced manpower. (author)

  4. The alien paradox.

    OpenAIRE

    Tugby, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Platonism delivers a theory of possibility that is distinct from both Lewisian modal realism and ersatz modal theories. By putting the topic of alien properties at centre stage in our modal theorizing, a strong preliminary case for platonism can be made. A puzzle about alien properties is created by modern truthmaker theory and some plausible assumptions about properties and existence. But this puzzle is one that platonism is able to solve in a simple and conservative way.

  5. Clearing a Path Towards Effective Alien Invasive Control: the Legal Conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Patterson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Alien invasive plants pose significant ecological, social and economic challenges for South Africa. These species threaten South Africa’s rich biodiversity, deplete our scarce water resources, reduce the agricultural potential of land, cause soil erosion and intensify flooding and fires. According to recent estimations, over eight percent of land in South Africa has been invaded by these species and at current rates of expansion their impact could double in the next fifteen years. In an attempt to curb the impending crises, the South African government has promulgated eleven national and various provincial laws which contain mechanisms for regulating the different threats posed by alien invasive plants. Certain of these laws are framework in nature while the majority are sectoral and aimed at regulating these species for one of the following four main purposes: biodiversity conservation; water conservation; agricultural management; and fire risk management. The responsibility for administering these laws spans four national departments, nine provincial environmental authorities, provincial conservation authorities, numerous local and statutory authorities. This fragmented regime, coupled with the adoption of a command and control approach to regulation, has proven inept in effectively regulating the spread of alien invasive plants in South Africa. This reality led the previous Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Mr Valli Moosa, to call for the development of a “coherent legislative framework … streamlined along the lines of the principles endorsed by the Convention on Biological Diversity”. This article critically analyses the government’s attempts to develop such a “coherent legislative framework” to regulate alien invasive plants in light of recent legislative reform. It is divided into two parts. Part one critically considers South Africa’s current laws of relevance to alien invasive plants with specific emphasis on

  6. Differential population responses of native and alien rodents to an invasive predator, habitat alteration and plant masting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Keita; Miyashita, Tadashi; Hashimoto, Takuma; Tatara, Masaya; Abe, Shintaro

    2013-12-22

    Invasive species and anthropogenic habitat alteration are major drivers of biodiversity loss. When multiple invasive species occupy different trophic levels, removing an invasive predator might cause unexpected outcomes owing to complex interactions among native and non-native prey. Moreover, external factors such as habitat alteration and resource availability can affect such dynamics. We hypothesized that native and non-native prey respond differently to an invasive predator, habitat alteration and bottom-up effects. To test the hypothesis, we used Bayesian state-space modelling to analyse 8-year data on the spatio-temporal patterns of two endemic rat species and the non-native black rat in response to the continual removal of the invasive small Indian mongoose on Amami Island, Japan. Despite low reproductive potentials, the endemic rats recovered better after mongoose removal than did the black rat. The endemic species appeared to be vulnerable to predation by mongooses, whose eradication increased the abundances of the endemic rats, but not of the black rat. Habitat alteration increased the black rat's carrying capacity, but decreased those of the endemic species. We propose that spatio-temporal monitoring data from eradication programmes will clarify the underlying ecological impacts of land-use change and invasive species, and will be useful for future habitat management.

  7. Waste management in MOX fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, V.

    1982-01-01

    After a short description of a MOX fuel fabrication plant's activities the waste arisings in such a plant are discussed according to nature, composition, Pu-content. Experience has shown that proper recording leads to a reduction of waste arisings by waste awareness. Aspects of the treatment of α-waste are given and a number of treatment processes are reviewed. Finally, the current waste management practice and the α-waste treatment facility under construction at ALKEM are outlined. (orig./RW)

  8. Waste management at the Ardennes power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    In 1976, the SENA (with the participation of EDF, CEA and CEC in the framework of a research program on the management and storage of radioactive wastes) has developed an industrial pilot plant for the encapsulation of wastes in thermosetting polyester resins. The industrial putting in operation of the plant will enable most of the wastes from the nuclear station to be processed. The quality of products will be improved and the volume and processing cost reduced

  9. Plant life management (PLIM) in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, Jan; Steudler, Daniel; Thoma, Kurt; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Utility Working group for ageing Management (AM) presented their programme for the first time at the PLIM/PLEX 93. In the meantime the key guideline documents have been prepared and the most so called S teckbrief - files for Safety Class 1 (SC1) are issued. The 'Steckbrief' file is a summary of the component history and includes the results of the Reviews performed and measures taken or planned to counteract ageing mechanisms. The scope of these activities does not only serve the important aspect of reliable plant service but also facilitates component and plant life extension feasibility. The older plants have been operated now for up to 30 years, so PLEX will become a more important topic for Swiss NPP. It is very encouraging, that there is an official memorandum of the Swiss authority with the clear statement, that they could not identify any technical reason, why the older plants should not extend their design life of 40 years for at least 10 and the younger for 20 years. The result of this is that a well established Ageing Management Programme (AMP) provide a good basis for Plant Life Extension (PLEX), e.g. the Swiss AMP has to be seen as a PLIM. (author)

  10. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables

  11. Effective inventory management for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, I.S.

    1985-01-01

    Effective inventory management plays a major role at nuclear power plants toward achieving a high level of availability in a cost-effective manner. It enables maintenance personnel to obtain the correct parts easily, when needed, and in satisfactory condition to perform as intended. In addition, appropriate controls and documentation ensure parts are being used in the correct equipment application. The following elements of inventory management will help achieve plant availability goals: (1) appropriate inventory levels, (2) preapproved procurement requirements, (3) storage maintenance, (4) documentation of parts, and (5) control of computer data base

  12. Advanced water chemistry management in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, V.; Sigon, F.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced water management based on low external impact cycle chemistry technologies and processes, effective on-line water control and monitoring, has been verified to improve water utilization and to reduce plant liquid supply and discharge. Simulations have been performed to optimize system configurations and performances, with reference to a 4 x 320 MWe/once-through boiler/AVT/river cooled power plant, to assess the effectiveness of membrane separation technologies allowing waste water reuse, to enhance water management system design and to compare these solutions on a cost/benefit analysis. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Distribution Integrity Management Plant (DIMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Jerome F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This document is the distribution integrity management plan (Plan) for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 192, Subpart P Distribution Integrity Management Programs (DIMP) for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan was developed by reviewing records and interviewing LANL personnel. The records consist of the design, construction, operation and maintenance for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. The records system for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System is limited, so the majority of information is based on the judgment of LANL employees; the maintenance crew, the Corrosion Specialist and the Utilities and Infrastructure (UI) Civil Team Leader. The records used in this report are: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) 7100.1-1, Report of Main and Service Line Inspection, Natural Gas Leak Survey, Gas Leak Response Report, Gas Leak and Repair Report, and Pipe-to-Soil Recordings. The specific elements of knowledge of the infrastructure used to evaluate each threat and prioritize risks are listed in Sections 6 and 7, Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization respectively. This Plan addresses additional information needed and a method for gaining that data over time through normal activities. The processes used for the initial assessment of Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization are the methods found in the Simple, Handy Risk-based Integrity Management Plan (SHRIMP{trademark}) software package developed by the American Pipeline and Gas Agency (APGA) Security and Integrity Foundation (SIF). SHRIMP{trademark} uses an index model developed by the consultants and advisors of the SIF. Threat assessment is performed using questions developed by the Gas Piping Technology Company (GPTC) as modified and added to by the SHRIMP{trademark} advisors. This Plan is required to be reviewed every 5 years to be continually refined and improved. Records

  14. DNA-based identification of invasive alien species in relation to Canadian federal policy and law, and the basis of rapid-response management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon G; Hanner, Robert H; Borisenko, Alex V

    2016-11-01

    Managing invasive alien species in Canada requires reliable taxonomic identification as the basis of rapid-response management. This can be challenging, especially when organisms are small and lack morphological diagnostic features. DNA-based techniques, such as DNA barcoding, offer a reliable, rapid, and inexpensive toolkit for taxonomic identification of individual or bulk samples, forensic remains, and even environmental DNA. Well suited for this requirement, they could be more broadly deployed and incorporated into the operating policy and practices of Canadian federal departments and should be authorized under these agencies' articles of law. These include Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Transport Canada, Environment Canada, Parks Canada, and Health Canada. These efforts should be harmonized with the appropriate provisions of provincial jurisdictions, for example, the Ontario Invasive Species Act. This approach necessitates that a network of accredited, certified laboratories exists, and that updated DNA reference libraries are readily accessible. Harmonizing this approach is vital among Canadian federal agencies, and between the federal and provincial levels of government. Canadian policy and law must also be harmonized with that of the USA when detecting, and responding to, invasive species in contiguous lands and waters. Creating capacity in legislation for use of DNA-based identifications brings the authority to fund, train, deploy, and certify staff, and to refine further developments in this molecular technology.

  15. The economics of landscape restoration: Benefits of controlling bush encroachment and invasive plant species in South Africa and Namibia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, William

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bush encroachment and alien plant invasions alter the composition and/or balance of species in natural ecosystems and impact biodiversity, land productivity and water availability. Therefore, the appropriate control and management of bush...

  16. Energy Management in Industrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bruneo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid vision imposes a new approach towards energy supply that is more affordable, reliable and sustainable. The core of this new vision is the use of advanced technology to monitor power system dynamics in real time and identify system in stability. In order to implement strategic vision for energy management, it is possible to identify three main areas of investigation such as smart generation, smart grid and smart customer. Focusing on the latter topic, in this paper we present an application specifically designed to monitor an industrial site with particular attention to power consumption. This solution is a real time analysis tool, able to produce useful results to have a strategic approach in the energy market and to provide statistic analysis useful for the future choices of the industrial company. The application is based on a three layers architecture. The technological layer uses a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN to acquire data from the electrical substations. The middleware layer faces the integration problems by processing the raw data. The application layer manages the data acquired from the sensors. This WSN based architecture represents an interesting example of a low cost and non-invasive monitoring application to keep the energy consumption of an industrial site under control. Some of the added value features of the proposed solution are the routing network protocol, selected in order to have an high availability of the WSN, and the use of the WhereX middleware, able to easily implement integration among the different architectural parts.

  17. Remanent life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, J.; Gomez Santamaria, J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of life in the nuclear power plants is very special. The main aceptions are: design life, economic life and useful life. The good management of NPP will do the prolongation of the life in the NPP. The remanent of management life summarizes certain activities in order to prolong the lifetime of the NPP. This article presents the activities of the RML program, the technological program and its benefits

  18. Management of radioactive waste from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwar Raj

    2010-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of both fissile and fertile components back into appropriate reactor systems is an integral part of three stage nuclear energy programme of India. Different steps involved in processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are decladding, dissolution and recovery of fissile and fertile materials. Reprocessing of SNF is a complex process involving handling of large quantity of radioactive materials and processing chemicals. There are three reprocessing plants in operation in the country at Trombay, Tarapur and Kalpakkam. Out of these plants, Trombay reprocessing plant is engaged in reprocessing of SNF from research reactors and other two plants are processing of SNF from PHWRs. A facility is being built for reprocessing of thorium based spent fuel at BARC, Trombay based on the experience of pilot plant scale. Like other industrial activities of nuclear fuel cycle, fuel reprocessing facilities too generate various types of radioactive waste streams. These are generated in all the three physical forms namely solid, liquid and gas. These waste streams are primarily categorized on the basis of concentration of radionuclides, their half lives and toxicity. Management of these wastes aims at (a) recovery and recycle of useful materials, (b) concentration and confinement of radioactivity in inert and stable matrices, (c) minimization of final waste volume for disposal, (d) decontamination of effluents following ALARA principle and (e) minimization of radioactive discharge to the environment. The present paper outlines the salient features of management of different types of radioactive waste generated in reprocessing plants handling SNF from research reactors and PHWR

  19. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  20. Policy alienation and work alienation: Two worlds apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); S. van Thiel (Sandra); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The notion of work alienation has been fascinating scholars and practitioners for a long time. In recent years, a related concept has been developed in the public administration discipline: policy alienation, which examines the alienation of public professionals from the policy

  1. Policy alienation and work alienation: Two worlds apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); S. van Thiel (Sandra); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe notion of work alienation has been fascinating scholars and practitioners for a long time. In recent years, a related concept has been developed in the public administration discipline: policy alienation, which examines the alienation of public professionals from the policy they have

  2. 8 CFR 211.5 - Alien commuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alien commuters. 211.5 Section 211.5 Aliens...: IMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS § 211.5 Alien commuters. (a) General. An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.... An alien commuter engaged in seasonal work will be presumed to have taken up residence in the United...

  3. Options in dealing with marine alien species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.; Sneekes, A.C.; Foekema, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species can have strong impact on the local ecosystem, not only substantial impact on the local ecosystem, but also on economy and human health. This review on marine alien species outlines aspects of prevention, eradication and control strategies. When managing invasive species, prevention

  4. Risk management method for small photovoltaic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirova Milena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is necessary for achieving the goals of the organization. There are many methods, approaches, and instruments in the literature concerning risk management. However, these are often highly specialized and transferring them to a different field can prove difficult. Therefore, managers often face situations where they have no tools to use for risk management. This is the case with small photovoltaic plants (according to a definition by the Bulgarian State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission small applies to systems with a total installed power of 200 kWp. There are some good practices in the energy field for minimizing risks, but they offer only partial risk prevention and are not sufficient. Therefore a new risk management method needs to be introduced. Small photovoltaic plants offer plenty of advantages in comparison to the other renewable energy sources which makes risk management in their case more important. There is no classification of risks for the exploitation of small photovoltaic systems in the available literature as well as to what degree the damages from those risks could spread. This makes risk analysis and evaluation necessary for obtaining information which could aid taking decisions for improving risk management. The owner of the invested capital takes a decision regarding the degree of acceptable risk for his organization and it must be protected depending on the goals set. Investors in small photovoltaic systems need to decide to what degree the existing risks can influence the goals previously set, the payback of the investment, and what is the acceptable level of damages for the investor. The purpose of this work is to present a risk management method, which currently does not exist in the Bulgaria, so that the risks and the damages that could occur during the exploitation of small photovoltaic plants could be identified and the investment in such technology – justified.

  5. Plant lifetime management and research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, K.; Nagayama, M.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of nuclear power generation has been increasing in Japan. Because the lower generation cost and more stable fuel supply, in comparison with the case of fossil plants, are beneficial to Japan which has scarce natural resources. In addition, nuclear power generation is expected to help reduce carbon dioxide emission which causes global warming. In these circumstances, the safe and stable operations of nuclear power plants are of prime importance, and the frequency of unscheduled shutdown has been kept low in Japan as a result of thorough periodic inspections supported by aging management. This paper covers the development process of the aging management program and related research programs in The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO). KEPCO runs 11 nuclear power units (PWR). A Table shows the commencement date of commercial operation and operating hours for each unit. The early plants, such as Mihama-2 Unit, have been operated for more than 100,000 hours and are in the phase of aging management. Accordingly, we have been conducting aging management programs since 1987. in order to identify age-related degradation and work out countermeasures.The aging management programs have ensured safe and stable operation of nuclear power plants. Each result of the lifetime assessment has provided the information which helps establishing maintenance programs. For example, the result of the lifetime assessment has been reflected to the intervals of overhaulings and inspections, and the replacement timing of some components. In the future activities of aging management should be revised and should focus lifetime assessment on components which provoke difficulties in inspections because of high radiation exposure or high inspection cost

  6. Biomagnetic monitoring of particulate matter (PM through leaves of an invasive alien plant Lantana camara in an Indo-Burma hot spot region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India falling under an Indo-Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. Phyto-sociolology of invasive weeds has been performed and results revealed that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter (SPM as well as respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM in ambient air of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India. Bio-magnetic monitoring through plant leaves has been recognised as recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter (PM science. We aimed to investigate that whether magnetic properties of Lantana camara leaves may act as proxy of PM pollution and hence an attempt towards it's sustainable management. Magnetic susceptibility (χ, Anhyste reticremanent magnetization (ARM and Saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM of Lantana camara plant leaves were assessed and concomitantly correlated these magnetic properties with ambient PM in order to screen this invasive plant which may act as proxy for ambient PM concentrations. Results revealed high χ, ARM, SIRM of Lantana camara leaves and moreover, these parameters were having significant and positive correlation with ambient SPM as well as RSPM. Therefore, present study recommended the use of Lantana camara as bio-magnetic monitor which may further have sustainable management implications of an invasive plant.

  7. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve

  8. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve

  9. Footprints of alien technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2012-04-01

    If alien civilizations do, or did, exist, their technology will impact their environment. Some consideration has been given to the detection of large-scale astro-engineering, such as Dyson spheres. However, a very advanced technology might leave more subtle footprints requiring sophisticated scientific methods to uncover. We must not overlook the possibility that alien technology has impacted our immediate astronomical environment, even Earth itself, but probably a very long time ago. This raises the question of what traces, if anything, might remain today. I shall consider the possibilities of biological, geological and physical traces, and suggest ways that we might search for them.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives

  12. Plant life management study of Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Already more than twenty-five years have passed since the first commercial LWR plant went into operation in Japan. In this situation, MITI and 3 electric utilities (Tokyo Electric Power Company, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc, Japan Atomic Power Company) have started a plant life management (PLM) study from 1994 to evaluate the long-term integrity of major systems, structures and components of aged LWR plants and ensure the safe, steady and highly reliable long-term operation. It consists of two phases: part 1 study and part 2 study. The part 1 study started in 1994 and focused on seven typical safety-related components. The part 1 study reports were made public in 1996. The part 2 study started in 1997. In this study we reviewed not only safety-related components but also plant reliability related components. The part 2 study reports were opened to the public in February 1999. This paper shows a summary of the part 2 study and our future PLM program. (author)

  13. Modern plant management in the competitive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B.; Franke, U.; Freitag, J.U. [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Forced by the deregulation of the energy market and the big drop of electricity prices E.ON Kraftwerke was completely reorganised. Small, flexible units that are focussed on their key tasks were formed. Costs for electricity generation in our plants were reduced. Power plants that are currently not economically efficient are temporarily shut down. Power plants that are permanently not economically efficient are totally shut down. We have now reached a point at which energy prices slowly start to rise again. With our new plant management organization we have a lasting effect on further successfully operating power plants and a positive development of our company. Looking into the future does not create fear about what to do but positive believe that we will soon start new projects. This is the fundament for a stable, successful power plant company. (orig.) [German] Unter dem erheblichen Kostendruck, dem alle Energieversorger derzeit ausgesetzt sind, wurde die Aufbauorganisation von E.ON Energie grundlegend veraendert. Bei E.ON Kraftwerke wurden durch die Schaffung kleiner, flexibler Einheiten und eine klare Konzentration auf das Kerngeschaeft die Kosten fuer die Stromerzeugung in den eigenen Anlagen deutlich gesenkt. Die Auslastung vorhandener wirtschaftlicher Bloecke ist durch die Konservierung von derzeit nicht wirtschaftlichen bzw. durch die Stillegung langfristig nicht wirtschaftlicher Anlagen erheblich verbessert worden. Nachhaltig wurde damit eine Betriebsfuehrungsstrategie entwickelt, die den Bestand und eine positive Entwicklung der Kraftwerksgesellschaft sichert. (orig.)

  14. Spatial Downscaling of Alien Species Presences using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Moustakas, Aristides

    2017-07-01

    Large scale, high-resolution data on alien species distributions are essential for spatially explicit assessments of their environmental and socio-economic impacts, and management interventions for mitigation. However, these data are often unavailable. This paper presents a method that relies on Random Forest (RF) models to distribute alien species presence counts at a finer resolution grid, thus achieving spatial downscaling. A sufficiently large number of RF models are trained using random subsets of the dataset as predictors, in a bootstrapping approach to account for the uncertainty introduced by the subset selection. The method is tested with an approximately 8×8 km2 grid containing floral alien species presence and several indices of climatic, habitat, land use covariates for the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece. Alien species presence is aggregated at 16×16 km2 and used as a predictor of presence at the original resolution, thus simulating spatial downscaling. Potential explanatory variables included habitat types, land cover richness, endemic species richness, soil type, temperature, precipitation, and freshwater availability. Uncertainty assessment of the spatial downscaling of alien species’ occurrences was also performed and true/false presences and absences were quantified. The approach is promising for downscaling alien species datasets of larger spatial scale but coarse resolution, where the underlying environmental information is available at a finer resolution than the alien species data. Furthermore, the RF architecture allows for tuning towards operationally optimal sensitivity and specificity, thus providing a decision support tool for designing a resource efficient alien species census.

  15. Study on risk management for operation of nuclear generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    Reputation loss is regarded as a management issue because it impacts to business and industries significantly. Reputation management is one of the approach both business and public organizations. Application of reputation management for nuclear plant management is discussed. (author)

  16. Plant lifetime management at Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jorge; Garcia, Piedad

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained during the development and implementation of the Jose Cabrera NPP Lifetime Management Program according to the methodology applied in the Plant. The implementation of the Lifetime Management Program began in 1995 with the elaboration of the annual revision document 'Lifetime Management Plan', which describes the level of development of the Lifetime Management activities, the results that have been obtained during the implementation of the Program, and the schedule of the upcoming activities. The drawing up of a weighted list of 135 important components and the elaboration of 17 dossiers integrating the ageing mechanisms analysis and its corresponding evaluation, control and mitigation methods, were the result of the activities completed during 1996. A group of 62 component/degradation phenomena pairs with a high degradation risk classification has been considered within the scope of the activity 'Assessment of Maintenance Practices. Improvement Proposal', performed by the plant during 1997 and the first term of 1998 in parallel with other Lifetime Management related activities. The results obtained within this activity have revealed for the components included in the scope of the assessment that the associated degradation phenomena are practically covered by the current maintenance, inspection and testing practices. Recommendations and improvements of the maintenance practices have been particularly proposed from a technical, supporting, proceeding and documentary point of view, and currently an analysis is being made in relation to the feasibility of implementing them at the Jose Cabrera NPP. (author)

  17. Asco 2044 nuclear power plant: management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Pellejero, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Due to their complexity and involvement in safety related matters, Nuclear Power Plants have highly reliable management organisations where safety is top priority. To achieve this, there are many elements specific to this type of organisation that are available and which are integrated within a Management System that comprises the necessary measures to ensure and adequate level of safety in the facility, in such a way that it promotes continual improvement, a strengthening of the safety culture and good results in this field. (Author).

  18. Nuclear power plant reliability database management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslin, Th.; Aufort, P.

    1996-04-01

    In the framework of the development of a probabilistic safety project on site (notion of living PSA), Saint Laurent des Eaux NPP implements a specific EDF reliability database. The main goals of this project at Saint Laurent des Eaux are: to expand risk analysis and to constitute an effective local basis of thinking about operating safety by requiring the participation of all departments of a power plant: analysis of all potential operating transients, unavailability consequences... that means to go further than a simple culture of applying operating rules; to involve nuclear power plant operators in experience feedback and its analysis, especially by following up behaviour of components and of safety functions; to allow plant safety managers to outline their decisions facing safety authorities for notwithstanding, preventive maintenance programme, operating incident evaluation. To hit these goals requires feedback data, tools, techniques and development of skills. The first step is to obtain specific reliability data on the site. Raw data come from plant maintenance management system which processes all maintenance activities and keeps in memory all the records of component failures and maintenance activities. Plant specific reliability data are estimated with a Bayesian model which combines these validated raw data with corporate generic data. This approach allow to provide reliability data for main components modelled in PSA, to check the consistency of the maintenance program (RCM), to verify hypothesis made at the design about component reliability. A number of studies, related to components reliability as well as decision making process of specific incident risk evaluation have been carried out. This paper provides also an overview of the process management set up on site from raw database to specific reliability database in compliance with established corporate objectives. (authors). 4 figs

  19. Nuclear power plant reliability database management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslin, Th [Electricite de France (EDF), 41 - Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (France); Aufort, P

    1996-04-01

    In the framework of the development of a probabilistic safety project on site (notion of living PSA), Saint Laurent des Eaux NPP implements a specific EDF reliability database. The main goals of this project at Saint Laurent des Eaux are: to expand risk analysis and to constitute an effective local basis of thinking about operating safety by requiring the participation of all departments of a power plant: analysis of all potential operating transients, unavailability consequences... that means to go further than a simple culture of applying operating rules; to involve nuclear power plant operators in experience feedback and its analysis, especially by following up behaviour of components and of safety functions; to allow plant safety managers to outline their decisions facing safety authorities for notwithstanding, preventive maintenance programme, operating incident evaluation. To hit these goals requires feedback data, tools, techniques and development of skills. The first step is to obtain specific reliability data on the site. Raw data come from plant maintenance management system which processes all maintenance activities and keeps in memory all the records of component failures and maintenance activities. Plant specific reliability data are estimated with a Bayesian model which combines these validated raw data with corporate generic data. This approach allow to provide reliability data for main components modelled in PSA, to check the consistency of the maintenance program (RCM), to verify hypothesis made at the design about component reliability. A number of studies, related to components reliability as well as decision making process of specific incident risk evaluation have been carried out. This paper provides also an overview of the process management set up on site from raw database to specific reliability database in compliance with established corporate objectives. (authors). 4 figs.

  20. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the design documentation. An important objective of a configuration management program is to ensure that accurate information consistent with the physical and operational characteristics of the power plant is available in a timely manner for making safe, knowledgeable, and cost effective decisions with confidence. Currently, the nuclear industry and governmental organizations are showing an increasing interest in the implementation of this process as an effective way of limiting configuration errors and related risks. In this report the necessary attributes of a good operational CM are identified. It is recognized and emphasized that a CM is one aspect of the overall management system. Nevertheless, this is an important part of managerial activity focused on the compliance of knowledge of the plant personnel, plant documentation and records with the state of the plant technology. The concepts developed in this report present a basic approach to CM, taking into

  1. The legitimacy of alien rulers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Christine; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit; Irwin, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In the modern world, alien rulers are generally perceived to lack legitimacy. Political legitimacy is important because it is thought to be the principal alternative to coercive institutions. Little empirical evidence supports these claims, however. We devise a laboratory experiment that isolates...... alienness from other ruler characteristics. The experiment tests whether alien rulers have less legitimacy than native rulers, and whether the ability to punish compensates for this disadvantage. Using American and Israeli college student samples, we find that alien rulers receive less compliance than...... native rulers, and that the ability to punish does not allow alien rulers to “catch-up” with native rulers....

  2. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  3. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K.

    1998-01-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  4. Solvent management in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, B.; Germain, M.; Puyou, M.; Rouyer, H.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent management in large capacity reprocessing plant is studied to limit production of organic wastes. Chemical processing increases life time of solvent. Low pressure distillation allows the recycling of TBP and diluent at a low activity level. Besides heavy degradation products are eliminated. For the safety the flash point of distillated diluent increases slightly. Tests on an industrial scale started in 1985 and since more than 500 cubic meters were treated [fr

  5. CANDU plant life management - An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    An integrated approach to plant life management has been developed for CANDU reactors. Strategies, methods, and procedures have been developed for assessment of critical systems structures and components and for implementing a reliability centred maintenance program. A Technology Watch program is being implemented to eliminate 'surprises'. Specific work has been identified for 1998. AECL is working on the integrated program with CANDU owners and seeks participation from other CANDU owners

  6. Ageing and plant life management software Comsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nopper, H.; Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, W. [Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH (SNP), Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cost-effective power generation is becoming more important as the prices charged by power producers in the energy market continue to fall. To ease the cost situation there is a growing demand for innovative maintenance management methods which allow power plants to be economically operated over their entire lifetime. The purpose of a systematic ageing and plant life management program is to allow the lifetime of plant components to be planned, and to indicate when a component has reached the end of its effective lifetime before it fails. Another important function of such programs is to increase the availability of power plants as they age, and to enable implementation of a targeted maintenance strategy in terms of its economic and technical effect. Implementation of such programs requires the existence of detailed information concerning the status of the components as well as their operating conditions. Based on this information, an understanding of how the relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms work enables a prediction to be made concerning component lifetime. Advanced software programs provide such predictions at reasonable cost across all systems. (author)

  7. Ageing and plant life management software Comsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopper, H.; Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, W.

    2001-01-01

    Cost-effective power generation is becoming more important as the prices charged by power producers in the energy market continue to fall. To ease the cost situation there is a growing demand for innovative maintenance management methods which allow power plants to be economically operated over their entire lifetime. The purpose of a systematic ageing and plant life management program is to allow the lifetime of plant components to be planned, and to indicate when a component has reached the end of its effective lifetime before it fails. Another important function of such programs is to increase the availability of power plants as they age, and to enable implementation of a targeted maintenance strategy in terms of its economic and technical effect. Implementation of such programs requires the existence of detailed information concerning the status of the components as well as their operating conditions. Based on this information, an understanding of how the relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms work enables a prediction to be made concerning component lifetime. Advanced software programs provide such predictions at reasonable cost across all systems. (author)

  8. Bureaucracy and Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wayne K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Using surveys of the professional staffs of 41 secondary schools, this study examines the relationship between two aspects of bureaucratic structure (centralization and formalization) and two sorts of alienation (from work and expressive relations). It then compares the results with similar studies of social studies of social welfare agencies. (JW)

  9. Aliens and atheism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Sergio; de Muynck, Willem; Virginia; Peerally, Abed; Tyler, David; Stephen

    2014-11-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com blog post "Aliens and atheists" (2 October, http://ow.ly/CQzu4), about a survey that found that atheists are more likely than religious people to believe that life exists on other planets.

  10. Aging management review for license renewal and plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinckel, M.A.; Young, G.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: United States nuclear power plants are initially licensed for a period of 40-years. The 40-year term, which was established by the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s, is believed to be based on engineering judgement and is consistent with the typical amortization schedule for purchasing fossil power plants. Under 10 CFR Part 54, the license renewal rule, additional terms of 20-years may be obtained through the preparation of a license renewal application that must be reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The license renewal rule requires that applicants perform ageing management reviews on passive long-lived structures and components to demonstrate that ageing will be managed during the period of extended operation (i.e., additional 20 years of operation). ageing of active components, which are excluded from 10 CFR Part 54, is accomplished through the Maintenance Rule, 10 CFR Part 65, using performance-based monitoring. The license renewal rule, 10 CFR Part 54, was initially published in 1991. After significant interaction with the nuclear industry from 1991 through 1994, the NRC revised the rule in 1995 to focus on passive long-lived structures and components. In 1998, the first two applications for license renewal were submitted to the NRC by Baltimore Gas and Electric for the two-unit Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant and by Duke Energy for the three-unit Oconee nuclear power plant. In March 2000, the NRC approved the application for the two-unit Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant for an additional 20 years. Two months later, the NRC approved the renewal of the operating licenses for the three-unit Oconee nuclear station. The NRC completed these reviews in a timely, predictable, and stable manner. As of February 2002, the NRC has approved renewal of operating licenses for eight nuclear units and has applications under review for 15 more units. Twelve additional companies have notified the NRC of their intention to seek

  11. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today.

  12. Quality management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, D.A.; Hille, F.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the various approaches to quality management and the progressive development from traditional quality assurance (QA) concepts through integrated and performance based quality management systems to total quality management. Experience has shown that in many cases the traditional implementation of QA in nuclear power plant life-cycle activities has resulted in limited benefits. The paper outlines the advantages of developing an integrated quality management system, which, besides satisfying the QA standards, focuses on the performance of an organization. This reflects the approach implicit in the proposed revisions of the IAEA QA standards (code and guides). Such a quality management system provides the framework within which processes are controlled to meet the business objectives and is capable of accommodating easily new requirements, such as environmental management. An integrated quality management system should not be focused specifically on regulatory (and hence nuclear safety) issues, but should constitute the whole management system of the organization, of which safety and the environment are of course important elements. The paper gives a practical example of this approach implemented company wide. This approach is similar to other approaches in place or being developed by many Foratom members. The paper also lists the components of total quality management, which is considered to constitute the future direction for the nuclear power industry. The quality management system is the primary vehicle to meet the fundamental objectives, but total quality can only be realized by developing the full potential of people through team work in order to continuously improve the system and the performance of the organization by focusing on internal as well as external customers. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 2 tab

  13. Identifying barriers to effective management of widespread invasive alien trees: Prosopis species (mesquite) in South Africa as a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shackleton, RT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available and in some cases improve the benefits that some invasive species can provide. This study assesses the barriers that hinder the effective management of widespread tree invasions, drawing insights from a case study of invasions of Prosopis species (mesquite...

  14. Rare Plants of the Redwood Forest and Forest Management Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Sholars; Clare Golec

    2007-01-01

    Coast redwood forests are predominantly a timber managed habitat type, subjected to repeated disturbances and short rotation periods. What does this repeated disturbance mean for rare plants associated with the redwood forests? Rare plant persistence through forest management activities is influenced by many factors. Persistence of rare plants in a managed landscape is...

  15. Are invasive aliens a real threat to biodiversity in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has abundant biodiversity, but also many invasive alien species, especially plants and fish, that can transform ecosystems. Invading alien trees and shrubs impact on fynbos and threaten up to a quarter of the nation's plant species...

  16. Managing nuclear waste from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von

    1994-01-01

    National strategies to manage nuclear waste from commercial nuclear power plants are analyzed and compared. The current strategy is to try to operate a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to dispose storage at a centralized facility or next to nuclear power plants. If either of these is pursued now, the analysis assumes that a repository will be built in 2100 for waste not subsequently put to use. The analysis treats various uncertainties: whether a repository at Yucca Mountain would be licensed, possible theft and misuse of the waste, innovations in repository design and waste management, the potential availability of a cancer cure by 2100, and possible future uses of nuclear waste. The objectives used to compare alternatives include concerns for health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and direct economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs to electricity ratepayers, federal government responsibility to manage nuclear waste, and implications of theft and misuse of nuclear waste. The analysis shows that currently building an underground repository at Yucca Mountain is inferior to other available strategies by the equivalent of $10,000 million to $50,000 million. This strongly suggests that this policy should be reconsidered. A more detailed analysis using the framework presented would help to define a new national policy to manage nuclear waste. 36 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  17. Management of nuclear power plants lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutin, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The factors influencing the management of the service life of nuclear power plants can be of various types and the 'heaviest' ones have to be managed through robust and explicit approaches involving all actors. However, the mastery of the service life starts with the mastery of the technical problems, in particular the physical aging of the facilities. This mastery requires to foresee and anticipate the problems and thus a good understanding of the phenomena involved. This article presents: 1 - the general problem of service life management: lifetime concept, situation of French power plants, service life management policy; 2 - aging mechanisms: embrittlement of steel under irradiation, swelling of materials, thermal aging, fatigue, stress corrosion, aqueous corrosion of metals, corrosion-erosion, mechanisms of concrete degradation, mechanisms of elastomers and polymers degradation, wear; 3 - non-replaceable parts: reactor vessel, containment building; 4 - replaceable parts: cables, instrumentation and control system, core internals, primary loop piping, auxiliary primary piping, pressurizer, primary pump, steam generator tubes, other Ni-Cr-Fe alloy parts, secondary loop piping, turbine, alternator; 5 - non-technical aspects: perenniality of the industrial support, evolution of safety requirements, public acceptance, economical aspects, knowledge and information systems; 6 - situation in foreign countries: status of the world nuclear park, lifetime notion in foreign countries, situation in the USA. (J.S.)

  18. Managing the first nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    Energy is essential for national development. Nearly every aspect of development - from reducing poverty and raising living standards to improving health care, industrial and agricultural productivity - requires reliable access to modern energy resources. States may have different reasons for considering starting a nuclear power project to achieve their national energy needs, such as: lack of available indigenous energy resources, the desire to reduce dependence upon imported energy, the need to increase the diversity of energy resources and/or mitigation of carbon emission increases. The start of a nuclear power plant project involves several complex and interrelated activities with long duration. Experience shows that the time between the initial policy decision by a State to consider nuclear power up to the start of operation of its first nuclear power plant is about 10 to 15 years and that before specific project management can proceed, several key infrastructure issues have to be in place. The proper management of the wide scope of activities to be planned and implemented during this period represents a major challenge for the involved governmental, utility, regulatory, supplier and other supportive organizations. The main focus is to ensure that the project is implemented successfully from a commercial point of view while remaining in accordance with the appropriate engineering and quality requirements, safety standards and security guides. This publication is aimed at providing guidance on the practical management of a first nuclear power project in a country. There are many other issues, related to ensuring that the infrastructure in the country has been prepared adequately to ensure that the project will be able to be completed, that are only briefly addressed in this publication. The construction of the first nuclear power plant is a major undertaking for any country developing a nuclear power programme. Worldwide experience gained in the last 50 years

  19. Advanced chemistry management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Katsuji; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Nagasawa, Katsumi

    2000-01-01

    Chemistry control in a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant has a close relationship with radiation field buildup, fuel reliability, integrity of plant components and materials, performance of the water treatment systems and radioactive waste generation. Chemistry management in BWR plants has become more important in order to maintain and enhance plant reliability. Adequate chemistry control and management are also essential to establish, maintain, and enhance plant availability. For these reasons, we have developed the advanced chemistry management system for nuclear power plants in order to effectively collect and evaluate a large number of plant operating and chemistry data. (author)

  20. CANDU plant life management - An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlebois, P.; Hart, R.S.; Hopkins, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Commercial versions of CANDU reactors were put into service starting more than 25 years ago. The first unit of Ontario Hydro's Pickering A station was put into service in 1971, and Bruce A in 1977. Most CANDU reactors, however, are only now approaching their mid-life of 15 to 20 years of operation. In particular, the first series of CANDU 6 plants which entered service in the early 1980's were designed for a 30 year life and are now approaching mid life. The current CANDU 6 design is based on a 40 year life as a result of advancement in design and materials through research and development. In order to assure safe and economic operation of these reactors, a comprehensive CANDU Plant Life Management (PLIM) program is being developed from the knowledge gained during the operation of Ontario Hydro's Pickering, Bruce, and Darlington stations, worldwide information from CANDU 6 stations, CANDU research and development programs, and other national and international sources. This integration began its first phase in 1994, with the identification of most of the critical systems structures and components in these stations, and a preliminary assessment of degradation and mechanisms that could affect their fitness for service for their planned life. Most of these preliminary assessments are now complete, together with the production of the first iteration of Life Management Plans for several of the systems and components. The Generic CANDU 6 PLIM program is now reaching its maturity, with formal processes to systematically identify and evaluate the major CSSCs in the station, and a plan to ensure that the plant surveillance, operation, and maintenance programs monitor and control component degradation well within the original design specifications essential for the plant life attainment. A Technology Watch program is being established to ensure that degradation mechanisms which could impact on plant life are promptly investigated and mitigating programs established. The

  1. Water management and productivity in planted forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Nettles

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As climate variability endangers water security in many parts of the world, maximizing the carbon balance of plantation forestry is of global importance. High plant water use efficiency is generally associated with lower plant productivity, so an explicit balance in resources is necessary to optimize water yield and tree growth. This balance requires predicting plant water use under different soil, climate, and planting conditions, as well as a mechanism to account for trade-offs in ecosystem services. Several strategies for reducing the water use of forests have been published but there is little research tying these to operational forestry. Using data from silvicultural and biofuel feedstock research in pine plantation ownership in the southeastern USA, proposed water management tools were evaluated against known treatment responses to estimate water yield, forest productivity, and economic outcomes. Ecosystem impacts were considered qualitatively and related to water use metrics. This work is an attempt to measure and compare important variables to make sound decisions about plantations and water use.

  2. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA assists the management of organizations responsible for Nuclear Power Plant Projects with significant delays with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. Several Member States have Nuclear Power Plant Projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules shows large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Solving the special difficulties related with a delayed NPP project is problematic and dependent on the particular country situation. However it is not regarded as an isolated national problem but as a significant issue with a number of difficulties shared by several Member States. The IAEA collects information and supports the management of delayed NPP projects by identifying main common issues, gathering available experience and addressing specific needs. On this background the IAEA is in the position to provide unique impartial assistance based upon best international practices. This enables Member States to maintain readiness for resuming the project construction when the conditions permit and to strengthen management's abilities for the completion of the project. The IAEA's service is tailored to the needs and requirements of the requesting organization, implemented on-site by international experts and addresses areas such as project control measures, human resources, updating to technological and regulatory requirements, project data, nuclear safety review, physical protection and nuclear security and preparation to resume project construction and operation

  3. Considering plant life management influences on new plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, R.F.; Choy, E.; Soulard, M.; Nickerson, J.H.; Hopwood, J.

    2003-01-01

    After operating successfully for more than half their design life, owners of CANDU reactors are now engaging in Plant Life Management (PLiM) activities to ensure not only life attainment, but also life extension. For several years, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) has been working with domestic and offshore CANDU utilities on a comprehensive and integrated CANDU PLiM program that will see existing CANDU plants successfully and reliably operate through their design life and beyond. To support the PLiM program development, a significant level of infrastructure has been, and continues to be, developed at AECL. This includes the development of databases that document relevant knowledge and background to allow for a more accessible and complete understanding of degradation issues and the strategies needed to deal with these issues. As the level of integration with various project, services and R and D activities in AECL increases, this infrastructure is growing to encompass a wider range of design, operations and maintenance details to support comprehensive and quantitative assessment of CANDU stations. With the maturation of the PLiM program, these processes were adapted for application to newer plants. In particular, a fully integrated program was developed that interrelates the design basis, operations, safety, and reliability and maintenance strategies, as applied to meet plant design goals. This has led to the development of the maintenance-based design concept. The various PLiM technologies, developed and applied in the above programs with operating stations, are being modified and tailored to assist with the new plant design processes to assure that ACR- Advanced CANDU Reactor meets its targets for operation, maintenance, and lifetime performance. Currently, the ACR, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), is being designed with features to increase capacity factors, to reduce the risk of major equipment failures, to improve access to key components

  4. Training for operators and plant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverge, J.; Moroni, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    For many years, EDF has been making a lot of efforts to develop and to provide appropriate training to each of the different categories of personnel who participate in nuclear power plants operation and maintenance. With regard to training related to incidents and accidents management, if is important, among others, to make the difference between training of personnel on shift (plant operating teams and safety engineers) and training of personnel who makes up the emergency response teams that would be called upon in the event of a nuclear accident. Because of different origins, different backgrounds and especially different functions if an accident occurs on a unit, these two populations need completely different trainings. The training that EDF provides to these two categories of personnel is presented separately in the following pages. In both cases, links between functions to be sustained and characteristics of the training are tried to be shown. In conclusion, general perspectives on training evolution in EDF are given. 8 refs

  5. 22 CFR 41.71 - Transit aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit aliens. 41.71 Section 41.71 Foreign... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Transit Aliens § 41.71 Transit aliens. (a) Transit aliens—general. An alien is classifiable as a nonimmigrant transit alien under INA 101(a) (15) (C) if the consular officer is satisfied...

  6. 8 CFR 232.3 - Arriving aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arriving aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 Arriving aliens. When a district director has reasonable grounds...

  7. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for Temporary...

  8. 8 CFR 1244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 1244.4 Section 1244.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien...

  9. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1) Aliens...

  10. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236...

  11. Captured by Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2000-03-01

    Captured by Aliens is a long and twisted voyage from science to the supernatural and back again. I hung out in Roswell, N.M., spent time with the Mars Society, met a guy who was figuring out the best way to build a spaceship to go to Alpha Centauri. I visited the set of the X-Files and talked to Mulder and Scully. One day over breakfast I was told by NASA administrator Dan Goldin, We live in a fog, man! He wants the big answers to the big questions. I spent a night in the base of a huge radio telescope in the boondocks of West Virginia, awaiting the signal from the aliens. I was hypnotized in a hotel room by someone who suspected that I'd been abducted by aliens and that this had triggered my interest in the topic. In the last months of his life, I talked to Carl Sagan, who believed that the galaxy riots with intelligent civilizations. He's my hero, for his steadfast adherence to the scientific method. What I found in all this is that the big question that needs immediate attention is not what's out THERE, but what's going on HERE, on Earth, and why we think the way we do, and how we came to be here in the first place.

  12. Performance management for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    Fuel was loaded to Unit 3 of the second power plant in May 2010. The Second Operation Division stepped in the operation stage from production preparation and commissioning and exploration of performance management was started. By means of performance evaluation, a closed loop of performance management was formed, staff enthusiasm improved, and potential capability inspired through evaluation, analysis and improvement. The performance evaluation covers attitude, skill, efficiency, performance, teamwork sense, cooperation, etc. Quantitative appraisal was carried out through 31 objective indicators of the working process and results. According to the evaluation results and personal interviews, indicators were modified. Through the performance evaluation, positive guidance is provided to the employees to promote the development of employees, departments and the enterprise. (authors)

  13. Spatial Downscaling of Alien Species Presences Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Daliakopoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit assessments of alien species environmental and socio-economic impacts, and subsequent management interventions for their mitigation, require large scale, high-resolution data on species presence distribution. However, these data are often unavailable. This paper presents a method that relies on Random Forest (RF models to distribute alien species presence counts at a finer resolution grid, thus achieving spatial downscaling. A bootstrapping scheme is designed to account for sub-setting uncertainty, and subsets are used to train a sufficiently large number of RF models. RF results are processed to estimate variable importance and model performance. The method is tested with an ~8 × 8 km2 grid containing floral alien species presence and several potentially exploratory indices of climatic, habitat, land use, and soil property covariates for the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece. Alien species presence is aggregated at 16 × 16 km2 and used as a predictor of presence at the original resolution, thus simulating spatial downscaling. Uncertainty assessment of the spatial downscaling of alien species' occurrences was also performed and true/false presences and absences were quantified. The approach is promising for downscaling alien species datasets of larger spatial scale but coarse resolution, where the underlying environmental information is available at a finer resolution. Furthermore, the RF architecture allows for tuning toward operationally optimal sensitivity and specificity, thus providing a decision support tool for designing a resource efficient alien species census.

  14. Alienation, authenticity and the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    While many commentators have held that the concept "alienation" is of crucial importance when attempting to understand human existence, others have held that it is an inherently empty concept that we should abandon. In this article, I refute the latters' charge by showing that each conception of "alienation" is underpinned by a normative ontological conception of the preferable, or authentic, self and show that the concept "alienation" has ethical, existential and socio-political uses. From this I conclude that, when properly understood, the concept "alienation" can provide us with vital insights into human existence.

  15. Management of the Tobruk power station and seawater desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homann, H J

    1983-01-01

    BBC and two consortium firms provided, for one year, the management personnel for operation and maintenance of the power and seawater desalination plant in Tobruk, Libya, constructed under the leadership of BBC. The plant organisation was established at site in cooperation with the client. Following thorough training, the client's staff took over plant management after one year according to contract.

  16. Nuclear power plant life management and longer-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This book, prepared by NEA member country experts, contains data and analyses relevant to nuclear power plant life management and the plants' extended, longer-term operation (LTO). It addresses technical, economic and environmental aspects and provides insights into the benefits and challenges of plant life management and LTO. It will be of interest to policy makers and senior managers in the nuclear power sector and governmental bodies involved in nuclear power programme design and management. The data and information on current trends in nuclear power plant life management will be useful to researchers and analysts working in the field of nuclear energy system assessment. (authors)

  17. Use of radiation to transfer alien chromosome segments to wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can accomplish the transfer of genetic information from species so distantly related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) that their chromosomes pair very little, if at all, with those of wheat, even in the absence of the homoeologous-pairing suppressor Ph1. In a successful transfer, the alien segment must almost always replace a homoeologous wheat segment, but radiation induces translocations largely at random; therefore automatic selection in favor of desirable translocations must be provided if the size of the project is to be kept within reasonable limits. Pollen selection will occur if seeds or plants monosomic for both an alien chromosome and one of its wheat homoeologues are irradiated. Making the plants also deficient for Ph1 may increase the number of suitable transfers. High-frequency occurrence of the desired alien character in M2 head-rows from plants grown from irradiated seed can identify favorable transfers with little cytological work. Irradiation of plants shortly before meiosis, using them to pollinate ditelosomics or double ditelosomics for the wheat arm or chromosome concerned, and cytologically examining offspring which have the alien character can not only identify the desirable transfers, but also reveal the lengths of the alien segments involved

  18. Towards site-specific management of invasive alien trees based on the assessment of their impacts: the case of Robinia pseudoacacia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sádlo, Jiří; Vítková, Michaela; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-34 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Robinia pseudoacacia * plant invasion * management strategies Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  19. AliEn: ALICE Environment on the GRID

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    AliEn is the GRID middleware used by the ALICE collaboration. It provides all the components that are needed to manage the distributed resources. AliEn is used for all the computing workflows of the experiment: Montecarlo production, data replication and reconstruction and organixed or chaotic user analysis. Moreover, AliEn is also being used by other experiments like PANDA and CBM. The main components of AliEn are a centralized file and metadata catalogue, a job execution model and file replication model. These three components have been evolving over the last 10 years to make sure that the satisfy the computing requirements of the experiment, which keep increasing every year.

  20. Design basis reconstitution and configuration management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Cook, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a method by which all plants (those under construction, as well as those in operation) can benefit from a formal, step-by-step approach to data capture, storage, and retrieval for use throughout the plant life cycle. To demonstrate the viability and in-practice success of a single three-dimensional Configuration Management database, the specific capabilities of one such system are discussed in detail: the Plant Configuration Management System (PLANT/CMS). (orig.)

  1. Brechtian Alienation in Videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Joseph Dunne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Immersion is constantly being broken in video games via the intrusion of mechanics and features that cause no end of distraction, breaking the player’s engagement in both the game’s narrative and in the gameplay. Yet these breaks are an integral part of games, whether through loading, saving or any other mechanical system that detracts from the playing the core game. These aren’t analysed as thoroughly as they could be in current game academia. However Bertolt Brecht’s “Verfremdungseffekt”, or distancing effect, provides a much needed foundation in the analysis of these sections within games that provoke a feeling of alienation.

  2. Better management of alien species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pergl, Jan; Genovesi, P.; Pyšek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 531, č. 7593 (2016), s. 173-173 ISSN 0028-0836 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasions * EU * policy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  3. Comprehensive School Alienation Program, Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This document presents guidelines developed by the Hawaii State Department of Education's Comprehensive School Alienation Program to consolidate and strengthen the delivery of services to alienated students. It is intended to assist district staff, school administrators, and project personnel in planning and implementing program activities and…

  4. Alienation, Exploitation, and Connected Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E. Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Believes that social educators must respond to alienation in society that is the cause of disconnections among people when trying to build a stronger democracy. Examines the idea of alienation within society and addresses how social educators can keep their values as they teach. (CMK)

  5. Life management of SG for WWER plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunov, N. B.; Dragunov, Yu. G.; Banyuk, G. F.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, 252 steam generators (SG) of horizontal type are in operation at WWER plants constructed by the Russian designs. In connection with end of the specified service life of the reactor plant equal to 30 years the activities are performed on service life extension of the main equipment including the SG. At some Units, throughout the design service life of SG there were problems resulting in necessity of SG replacement. At the same time the SGs at some Units are in successful operation above the design service life. This report deals with the peculiarities of operation of the horizontal SGs and the problems to be highlighted as the most important for service life extension. The main component to determine possibility for SG service life extension is the SG tubing. As the operating experience shows it is water chemistry of the secondary circuit that is the main factor influencing operability of the SG tubing. Therefore, differences in water chemistry organization leads to significant differences in operability of the SG tubing at various Units and in some cases within one Unit. Owing to the fact that the cases of water chemistry disturbance and the process of tubes fouling with the corrosion products of the main condensate system are not excluded, the damages continue to occur. Tube integrity shall be inspected by eddy current method using the various instrument complexes. This method has certain disadvantages but allows to estimate the degree and direction of degradation processes. The results of eddy current test (ECT) can be used to determine the plugging criterion for defective tubes. The significant number of defective tubes at some Units makes a choice of the plugging criterion to be an important problem, on which solution the SG safety, reliability and service life depends. The report deals with directions of activities in service life management for the SG at WWER plants. Main activities are improvement of water chemistry and non-destructive tests.(author)

  6. A survey of plants and plant products traditionally used in livestock health management in Buuri district, Meru County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuubi Martin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up till now, nomadic communities in Africa have been the primary focus of ethnoveterinary research. Although mainly arable and/or mixed arable/pastoral farmers, Ameru of central Kenya are known to have a rich history of ethnoveterinary knowledge. Their collective and accumulative ethnoveterinary knowledge (EVK is likely to be just as rich and worth documenting. The aim of the study was to document and analyse the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the Ameru. Methods Non-alienating, dialogic, participatory action research (PAR and participatory rural appraisal (PRA approaches involving 21 women and men aged between 50 and 79 years old were utilized. A combination of snowball and purposive sampling methods were used to select 21 key respondents. The methods comprised a set of triangulation approach needed in EVK for non-experimental validation of ethnoknowledge of the Ameru. Results A total of 48 plant species distributed in 26 families were documented with details of diseases/ill-health conditions, parts of plants used and form of preparation and administration methods applied to different animal groups. Of these families, Fabaceae had the highest number of species (16.67%, followed by Solanaceae (12.5%, Asteraceae and Euphorbiacea (each comprising 8.33%, Lamiaceae (6.25%, Apocynaceae and Boraginaceae (each comprising 4.17%, while the rest of the 19 families, each was represented by a single plant species. About 30 livestock diseases/ill-health conditions were described, each treated by at least one of the 48 plant species. Most prevalent diseases/ill-health conditions included: - anaplasmosis, diarrhea, East Coast fever, pneumonia, helminthiasis, general weakness and skin diseases involving wounds caused by ectoparasites. Conclusion The study showed that there was a rich knowledge and ethnopractices for traditional animal healthcare amongst the Ameru. This study therefore provides some groundwork for elucidating the efficacy of

  7. An integrated reliability management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Shimokawa, H.; Matsushima, H.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility in the nuclear field of the Government, utilities and manufactures has increased in the past years due to the need of stable operation and great reliability of nuclear power plants. The need to improve the reliability is not only for the new plants but also for those now running. So, several measures have been taken to improve reliability. In particular, the plant manufactures have developed a reliability management system for each phase (planning, construction, maintenance and operation) and these have been integrated as a unified system. This integrated reliability management system for nuclear power plants contains information about plant performance, failures and incidents which have occurred in the plants. (author)

  8. Interspecific competition between alien and native congeneric species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Serrano, H.; Sans, F. X.; Escarré, J.

    2007-01-01

    A good way to check hypotheses explaining the invasion of ecosystems by exotic plants is to compare alien and native congeneric species. To test the hypothesis that invasive alien plants are more competitive than natives, we designed a replacement series experiment to evaluate interspecific competition between three Senecio species representing the same bushy life form: two alien species ( S. inaequidens and S. pterophorus, both from South Africa) and a native species from the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula and Maghreb ( S. malacitanus). While S. inaequidens is widespread throughout western Europe and is expanding towards the south of Spanish-French border, the geographical distribution of the recently introduced S. pterophorus is still limited to north-eastern Spain. Plants from each species were grown in pure and in mixed cultures with one of their congeners, and water availability was manipulated to evaluate the effects of water stress on competitive abilities. Our results show that the alien S. inaequidens is the most competitive species for all water conditions. The native S. malacitanus is more competitive that the alien S. pterophorus in water stress conditions, but this situation is reversed when water availability is not limiting.

  9. Managing Siting Activities for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to ''seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world''. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The introduction of nuclear power brings new challenges to States - one of them being the selection of appropriates sites. It is a project that needs to begin early, be well managed, and deploy good communications with all stakeholders; including regulators. This is important, not just for those States introducing nuclear power for the first time, but for any State looking to build a new nuclear power plant. The purpose of the siting activities goes beyond choosing a suitable site and acquiring a licence. A large part of the project is about producing and maintaining a validated

  10. Managing Siting Activities for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to ''seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world''. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The introduction of nuclear power brings new challenges to States - one of them being the selection of appropriates sites. It is a project that needs to begin early, be well managed, and deploy good communications with all stakeholders; including regulators. This is important, not just for those States introducing nuclear power for the first time, but for any State looking to build a new nuclear power plant. The purpose of the siting activities goes beyond choosing a suitable site and acquiring a licence. A large part of the project is about producing and maintaining a validated

  11. Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tsukasa; Aoki, Masataka; Shimura, Takao; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Koike, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

  12. Alien Marine Species in the Mediterranean - the 100 ‘Worst Invasives’ and their Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. STREFTARIS

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of marine alien species have been described as invasive or locally invasive in the Mediterranean because of their proliferation, and/or their geographical spread and/or impact on native populations. Based on that information and on the documented impact they have on the biodiversity and socioeconomics of the basin, a preliminary list of the 100 ‘worst’ Invasive Alien Species (IAS in the Mediterranean has been produced and presented in this work along with details on their impact. Emphasis is given to their impact on socioeconomics (fi sheries/aquaculture, health & sanitation, infrastructure & building, documented for 43 species. Such selection of the ‘worst’ IAS was diffi cult and controversial and is expected to attract much attention and scientifi c criticism since not only can the documentation of the impact of IAS be controversial, but also their inventory can be biased towards the effort and resources devoted to the study of the impact of certain species/taxonomic groups. Thus, while marine plants (phytobenthos and phytoplankton are fairly well studied, less attention has been paid to the impact of vertebrates and even less to invertebrates. Nevertheless, the list highlights the need for continued research on the issue (monitoring aliens and their impact for an integrated ecosystem based management approach over the entire area. The preliminary list can provide the basis for selecting indicator species within the Mediterranean and thus be the common ground to build cooperation about IAS within countries in the region.

  13. Framatome ANP worldwide experience in ageing and plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, B.; Nopper, H.

    2004-01-01

    The deregulation of the power generation industry has resulted in increased competitive pressure and is forcing operators to improve plant operating economy while maintaining high levels of plant safety. A key factor to meet this challenge is to apply a comprehensive plant life management (PLIM) approach which addresses all relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms regarding the safety concept, plant components and documentation, plant personnel, consumables, operations management system and administrative controls. For this reason, Framatome ANP has developed an integrated PLIM concept focussing on the safety concept, plant components and documentation. Representative examples for plant wide analyses are described in the following. The results of the analyses support the plant owner for taking the strategic decisions, involved in plant life extension (PLEX). (orig.)

  14. 8 CFR 245a.32 - Ineligible aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 245a.32 Section 245a.32 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT LIFE Act Amendments Family Unity Provisions § 245a.32 Ineligible aliens. The...

  15. [The influencing factors on alienation in high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Sook

    2004-02-01

    This study was performed to identify the influencing factors on alienation among high school students. Data was collected by questionnaires from 550 students of academic and vocational high schools in G city. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. The scores of alienation among students in financially lower middle class and lower class were higher than those of the upper middle class students, resulting in significant differences(F=6.87, p=.00). A sense of alienation showed a significantly negative correlation with the scores of responding parenting style(r=-.32), family cohesion(r=-.33), school attachment(r=-.51), academic performance(r=-.34), peer relationships(r=-.38), self-control (r=-.43), and social skills(r=-.33). The most powerful predictor of alienation among high school students was school attachment and the variance explained was 26%. A combination of school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance account for 40% of the variance in alienation among high school students. This study suggests that school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance are significant influencing factors on alienation in high school students. Therefore, nursing strategy is needed to manage these revealed factors.

  16. Defining a regional approach for invasive plant research and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven R. Radosevich; Bryan A. Endress; Catherine G. Parks

    2005-01-01

    Invasive plants are now recognized as a serious threat to most extensive management systems, such as forests, meadows, deserts, and riparian areas [1-3]. Vitousek et al. [3] described exotic plant invasion as a significant element of global environmental change because exotic plants can alter primary productivity, decomposition, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and natural...

  17. The role of alienation in mental hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, D J; Miller, I W; Magaro, P A

    1977-01-01

    A scale that assesses alienation was constructed from seven previously reported scales and administered to 74 psychiatric inpatients for whom behavioral and demographic data also were compiled. Factor analysis of alienation items yielded no major factors, which suggests that the construct is not unitary. A rotated factor matrix of alienation scores and behavioral and demographic variables showed that alienation does not account for a major proportion of variance in life history variables or current interpersonal functioning. Regression analysis indicated that alienation scores were predicted poorly from other variables. Moreover, alienation scores were poor predictors of length of hospitalization, which indicates that alienation has little power to account for relative severity of deviance.

  18. Six sigma management and its application in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weihua; Tong Lili

    2007-01-01

    Six sigma management mode is presented. The feasibility, necessity and the steps to extend six sigma in nuclear power plant are addressed. Nuclear power plant can eliminate or decrease human errors through importing six management concept, the 'zero disfigurement' quality and operation can achieved, decreasing accident risk and realizing safety operation. (authors)

  19. Plant genetic resources management in Ghana: Some challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant genetic resources management in Ghana: Some challenges in legumes. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... The Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute, serving as the national gene bank of Ghana, together with other stakeholders, had made strenuous efforts in managing the legume genetic resources in ...

  20. Alien flora of Turkey: checklist, taxonomic composition and ecological attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Uludag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an updated checklist of the alien flora of Turkey with information on its structure. The alien flora of Turkey comprises 340 taxa, among which there are 321 angiosperms, 17 gymnosperms and two ferns. Of the total number of taxa, 228 (68% are naturalized and 112 (32% are casual. There are 275 neophytes (172 naturalized and 103 casual and 61 archaeophytes (52 naturalized and 9 casual; four species could not be classified with respect to the residence time. In addition, 47 frequently planted taxa with a potential to escape are also listed. The richest families are Asteraceae (38 taxa, Poaceae (30, Fabaceae (23 and Solanaceae (22. As for the naturalized alien plants, the highest species richness is found in Asteraceae (31 taxa, Poaceae (22, Amaranthaceae (18 and Solanaceae (15. The majority of alien taxa are perennial (63.8% of the total number of taxa with this life history assigned, including those with multiple life histories, annuals contribute 33.8% and 2.4% are biennial aliens. Among perennials the most common life forms are phanerophytes, of which 20.3% are trees and 12.6% shrubs; woody vines, stem succulents, and aquatic plants are comparatively less represented. Most of the 340 alien taxa introduced to Turkey have their native ranges in Americas (44.7% and Asia (27.6%. Of other regions, 9.1% originated in Africa, 4.4% in Eurasia, 3.8% in Australia and Oceania and 3.5% in the Mediterranean. The majority of taxa (71.9% were introduced intentionally, whereas the remaining (28.1% were introduced accidentally. Among the taxa introduced intentionally, the vast majority are ornamental plants (55.2%, 10.0% taxa were introduced for forestry and 6.7% as crops. Casual alien plants are most commonly found in urban and ruderal habitats (40.1% where naturalized taxa are also often recorded (27.3%. Plants that occur as agricultural weeds are typically naturalized rather than casual (16.0% vs 7.1%, respectively. However, (seminatural

  1. Measurement of alienation among adolescents:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayce, Signe Boe; Kreiner, Svend; Trab Damsgaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    Background Psychological alienation is an important concept in the study of adolescents’ health and behavior but no gold standard for measuring alienation among adolescents exists. There is a need for new scales with high validity for use in adolescent health and social research. The purpose...... and differential item functioning. However, only to a limited degree, which could be accounted for using GLLRM. Thus the scales fitted GLLRMs and can therefore be considered to be essentially construct valid and essentially objective. Conclusion The three alienation scales appear to be content and face valid...

  2. Distributing radiation management system of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihoya, Eiichi; Akashi, Michio

    1999-01-01

    The importance of radiation management for nuclear facilities including nuclear power plants has increased as the general public understanding has progressed, and necessary information for management must be processed exactly and quickly. In nuclear power plants, radiation management is performed by each individual operation, and collected information is managed by the system of each operation. The distributing radiation management system has been developed aiming to use a general-purpose LAN and make quick and efficient use of information managed by individual operations. This paper describes the system configuration and functions. (author)

  3. Hazardous waste management plan, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1984-06-01

    All SRP waste storage, disposal, and recycling facilities that have received hazardous waste, low-level radioactive hazardous waste (mixed waste) or process waste since 1980 have been evaluated by EPA standards. Generally the waste storage areas meet all applicable standards. However, additional storage facilities currently estimated at $2 million and waste disposal facilities currently estimated at $20 million will be required for proper management of stored waste. The majority of the disposal facilities are unlined earthen basins that receive hazardous or process wastes and have or have the potential to contaminate groundwater. To come into compliance with the groundwater standards the influents to the basins will be treated or discontinued, the basins will be decommissioned, groundwater monitoring will be conducted, and remedial actions will be taken as necessary. The costs associated with these basin actions are not completely defined and will increase from present estimates. A major cost which has not been resolved is associated with the disposal of the sludge produced from the treatment plants and basin decommissioning. The Low-Level Radioactive Burial Ground which is also a disposal facility has received mixed waste; however, it does not meet the standards for hazardous waste landfills. In order to properly handle mixed wastes additional storage facilities currently estimated at $500,000 will be provided and options for permanent disposal will be investigated

  4. Integrated construction management technology for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Hisako; Miura, Jun; Nishitani, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-01

    The improvement and rationalization of the plant construction technology has been promoted in order to shorten the construction period, to improve the quality and reliability, and especially to reduce construction costs. With the recent remarkable advances of computer technology, it is necessary to introduce an electronic information technology (IT) into the construction field, and to develop a business process. In such a situation, Hitachi has developed and applied integrated construction support system, which is consistent among design, production and construction. This system has design information and schedule information made electronically as a basic database, and characterizes with project management function based on that information. By introduction of this system, electronic processing of information and reduction of paperwork has enabled high efficiency and standardization of on-site indirect work. Furthermore, by collaboration with the civil company, electrical data exchange has been carried out and developed techniques to improve the interface between mechanical and civil work. High accuracy of construction planning and unification of schedule data have been achieved, and consequently, rework and adjustment at the job site have been greatly reduced. (author)

  5. Invasive Plant Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McCracken, Kitty [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Invasive non-native plant species have become one of the greatest ecological threats across the country and around the world. Actively managing incursions of invasive plants is crucial to maintaining ecosystems, protecting natural resources, and ensuring proper function of facilities and their support infrastructures, power lines and other utility rights-of-way (ROWs), communications structures, roadways, and waterways. Invasive plants can threaten cultural resources, public and private properties, forests, wetlands, and other natural areas through increased risks of fire and storm damage, as well as decrease native plant diversity, particularly disrupting vital habitats of threatened and endangered species, both plant and animal. In 2000, the Federal Plant Protection Act came into effect. Under this Act, federal agencies are required to develop and coordinate an undesirable plants management program for control of invasive plants on federal lands under each agency’s respective jurisdiction. The agency must adequately fund the undesirable plants management program using an Integrated Pest Management Plan. Additionally, each agency is required to implement cooperative agreements with local and state agencies, as well as other federal agencies, to manage undesirable plants on federal lands under the agency’s jurisdiction. The US Department of Energy (DOE) takes its responsibility for addressing invasive and undesirable plant issues very seriously. Many DOE sites have programs to control invasive pest plant species. DOE has taken a proactive stance toward invasive plant control, and the Invasive Plant Management Plan— created to meet regulatory requirements of federal laws, executive orders, presidential memos, contracts, and agreements on DOE’s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)—has been in effect since 2004. This document represents the second revision of this plan.

  6. Ecological economic simulation model of mountain fynbos ecosystems - dynamics, valuation and management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Higgins, SI

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Mountain fynbos ecosystems in South Africa are threatened by alien plant invasions and by a lack of funding for effective management of these invasions. This paper develops an ecological-economic argument for the effective management of plant...

  7. Design basis reconstitution and configuration management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The major design requirements of nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures are found in the plant's licensing commitments documented in the Final Safety Analysis Report and in the technical specification commitments of the plant. These specifications consider the original design and its degradation by in-service use. Before a nuclear power plant begins operation, the plant systems, structures, and organizational elements are functionally arranged to operate in a particular way. This functional arrangement is specified by the plant's design requirements and is called its configuration. The paper discusses configuration management and information management for configuration management. The management of large amounts of information and the various information systems associated with nuclear generating facilities is an ever-growing challenge for utilities. Plant operations involve a complex interrelation among data elements, especially in relation to design modifications and operational changes. Consequently, the operation of these data systems is interrelated and, as a result, redundant data items may exist. Thus, in view of the need to control and manage the plant configuration baseline, managers are striving to streamline their information management programs, which usually involves the integration of data-base systems

  8. Real-time information support for managing plant emergency responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.G.; Lord, R.J.; Wilkinson, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident highlighted the need to develop a systematic approach to managing plant emergency responses, to identify a better decision-making process, and to implement real-time information support for decision-making. The overall process management function is described and general information requirements for management of plant emergencies are identified. Basic information systems are being incorporated and future extensions and problem areas are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. South African Regulatory Framework for Nuclear Power Plant Life Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbebe, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the regulatory approach to plant life management (PLiM) adopted by the National Nuclear Regulator (NNR) in South Africa, the licensing basis and regulatory requirements for Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS),operational programmes ensuring continued safe operation, issues related to the ageing of the plant, and the requirements for spent fuel as well as radioactive waste management. The paper will further present insights from the Periodic Safety Review (PSR) and Long Term Asset Management. (author)

  10. Biological control of alien and invasive species in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvitti, Maurizio; Moretti Riccardo; Lampazzi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural production in Europe faces many challenges including limited availability of water, nitrogen input and fossil fuels. It is necessary, therefore, to identify methods of production and new technologies to increase the efficiency of the primary systems, guaranteeing amount of food, quality, safety and eco-sustainability . One of the most important aspects, though often undervalued in relation to the food chain, is the adversity of biological management of agricultural crops due to pests, pathogens or fitomizi with potential invasive already present in the territory or of recent origin alien. In this context, two main objectives should be implemented at the same time reduce production losses and protect the agro-ecosystem. To meet these expectations, as of January 1, 2015 all farms in the European Union countries are bound to the application of the Integrated Defense principles, as indicated by the Directive on the sustainable use of plant protection products (128/09 / EC) .In response to this and other new entomological emergencies plant health and medical-veterinary entomologist researchers of the Laboratory sustainable management of Agro-Ecosystems in ENEA, have directed their research towards the development of innovative systems for the sustainable control of invasive species of insects is in the agricultural sector that health. [it

  11. Queering alienation in digital media

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Marx’s concept of alienation, particularly as articulated in Dallas Smythe’s audience-commodity thesis, is central to critical studies of the political economy of digital media and its exploitation of user labour. However, in its application within critical studies of Internet economies, the concept often becomes limited to alienation from ‘species-being’ or autonomous self-actualisation. Drawing on mostly queer, but also some feminist, critiques this paper seeks to challenge this application...

  12. Long-term ecology resolves the timing, region of origin and process of establishment for a disputed alien tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmshurst, Janet M; McGlone, Matt S; Turney, Chris S M

    2015-08-26

    Alien plants are a pervasive environmental problem, particularly on islands where they can rapidly transform unique indigenous ecosystems. However, often it is difficult to confidently determine whether a species is native or alien, especially if establishment occurred before historical records. This can present a management challenge: for example, should such taxa be eradicated or left alone until their region of origin and status are clarified? Here we show how combining palaeoecological and historical records can help resolve such dilemmas, using the tree daisy Olearia lyallii on the remote New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands as a case study. The status of this tree as native or introduced has remained uncertain for the 175 years since it was first discovered on the Auckland Islands, and its appropriate management is debated. Elsewhere, O. lyallii has a highly restricted distribution on small sea bird-rich islands within a 2° latitudinal band south of mainland New Zealand. Analysis of palaeoecological and historical records from the Auckland Islands suggest that O. lyallii established there c. 1807 when these islands were first exploited by European sealers. Establishment was facilitated by anthropogenic burning and clearing and its subsequent spread has been slow, limited in distribution and probably human-assisted. Olearia lyallii has succeeded mostly in highly disturbed sites which are also nutrient enriched from nesting sea birds, seals and sea spray. This marine subsidy has fuelled the rapid growth of O. lyallii and allowed this tree to be competitive against the maritime communities it has replaced. Although endemic to the New Zealand region, our evidence suggests that O. lyallii is alien to the Auckland Islands. Although such 'native' aliens can pose unique management challenges on islands, in this instance we suggest that ongoing monitoring with no control is an appropriate management action, as O. lyallii appears to pose minimal risk to

  13. Development of JOYO plant operation management expert tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michino, Masanobu; Sawada, Makoto [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1995-03-01

    Operation and maintenance support systems for JOYO are being developed in order to keep the stable and safe operation of JOYO and to improve operational reliability of future FBR plants. As one of the systems, an operation support system named JOYPET has been developing and applied. The system supports the plant management works of JOYO which are necessary for much manpower and knowledge of the plant. The plant management of JOYO was able to improve its reliability and reduce manpower by using this system. As a final step, a judgment function based on the accumulated plant management rule of JOYO will be developed and applied. The function judges the plant condition which allows to start the maintenance works or not. (author).

  14. Some Paths Towards Psychotic Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Franco

    2017-12-01

    In this paper I use the term alienation to describe the mind's detachment from psychic reality and its withdrawal into an alien world that leads to progressive dehumanization. In spite of this phenomenon having a psychodynamic nosography and descriptive models that effectively reveal it in detail, mental alienation is still mysterious and unsettling, especially when it manifests all of a sudden in clinical work. Alienating withdrawal into sensory fantasizing, which causes increasing loss of contact with human reality, is often preceded by a long period of time spent in a dissociated world that has gradually replaced psychic reality. However, prior to the human world being completely replaced by the alien world, both worlds coexisted for a considerable length of time in the patient's mind. My hypothesis is that the dissociation from psychic reality that underlies the future state of psychotic alienation occurs in psychic withdrawal that begins in infancy. This mental state is particularly obvious in small children who constantly live in a fantasy world.

  15. Proposed classification of invasive alien plant species in South Africa: towards prioritizing species and areas for management action

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available suitable habitat that could result in increased range and consequences in the next few decades. We describe the derivation of lists that contain 117 major invaders (categorized into groups based on geographical range and abundance) and 84 emerging invaders...

  16. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF ALIEN SPECIES INVASIVENESS: AN AID TO ASSESSING RIPARIAN VEGETATION CONDITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many riparian areas are invaded by alien plant species that negatively affect native species composition, community dynamics and ecosystem properties. We sampled vegetation along reaches of 31 low order streams in eastern Oregon, and characterized species assemblages at patch an...

  18. Master plan: Guntersville Reservoir Aquatic Plant Management. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, Congress provided funding to start a five-year comprehensive project to manage aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir, to be jointly implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). TVA serves as the overall project coordinator and is the lead agency for this project. Known as the Joint Agency Guntersville Project (JAGP), the project will test and demonstrate innovative management technologies, and incorporate the most effective technologies into a comprehensive aquatic plant management plan for Guntersville Reservoir. The JAGP is intended to serve as a National Demonstration Project for aquatic plant management. As part of this JAGP, the Master Plan for Aquatic Plant Management for the Guntersville Reservoir Project, Alabama-Tennessee is authorized by Corps Contract Number DACW62-90-C-0067.

  19. Germination Response of Four Alien Congeneric Amaranthus Species to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Hua; Lv, Shuang-Shuang; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Fu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China. The data were used to create three-parameter sigmoid and exponential decay models, which were fitted to cumulative germination and emergence curves. The results showed higher maximum Germination (Gmax), shorter time for 50% germination (G50) and the rapid slope (Grate) for Amaranthus blitum (low-invasive) and A. retroflexus (high-invasive) compare to intermediately invasive A. spinosus and A. viridis in all experimental regimes. It indicated that germination potential does not necessarily constitute a trait that can efficiently distinguish highly invasive and low invasive congeners in four Amaranthus species. However, it was showed that the germination performances of four amaranth species were more or less correlated with their worldwide distribution area. Therefore, the germination performance can be used as a reference indicator, but not an absolute trait for invasiveness. Our results also confirmed that superior germination performance in wide environmental conditions supplementing high seed productivity in highly invasive A. retroflexus might be one of the reasons for its prolific growth and wide distribution. These findings lay the foundation to develop more efficient weed management practice like deep burial of seeds by turning over soil and use of tillage agriculture to control

  20. Countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants out of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Some investigations on countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants were begun since beginning of 1990s under cooperation with Ministry of International Trade and Industry and all electric power companies under consideration of recent state on abroad and at concept of preventive conservation implementation against the plant life management. As a result, the Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Kansai Electric Power Company and the Japan Atomic Power Company settled each program on countermeasure to plant life management of the Fukushima-1 Power Plant, the Mihama-1 Power Plant and the Tsuruga-1 Power Plant, respectively, which were reported to the Atomic Energy Safety Commission to issue on February, 1999, after deliberation in the Adviser Group of Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Such investigations on countermeasure to the plant life management are also conducted out of Japan in parallel to those in Japan, which contain programs reflecting states of operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants and atmosphere around atomic energy in each country. Here were described on some present states of the countermeasures to plant life management in U.S.A., France, Germany, Sweden, England and so forth. (G.K.)

  1. Some aspects of configuration management at Nuclear Power Plant Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heruc, Z.; Podhraski, M.

    2000-01-01

    Configuration Management (CM) objectives at Neck are to ensure consistency between Design Requirements, Physical Plant Configuration and Configuration Information. Software applications, supporting Design Change, Work Control and Document Control Processes, are integrated in one module-oriented Management Information System (MIS). From configuration management perspective, Master Equipment Component List (MECL) database is the central MIS module. Through a combination of a centralized database and process migrated activities (modifications, plant operation, maintenance, document control etc.), it is encored that the CM principles and requirements (accurate, current design dana matching plant's physical configuration while complying to applicable requirements), are followed and fulfilled. (author)

  2. Crisis management with applicability on fire fighting plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F. V.; Voicu, I.; Dumitrescu, L. G.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a case study for a crisis management analysis which address to fire fighting plants. The procedures include the steps of FTA (Failure tree analysis). The purpose of the present paper is to describe this crisis management plan with tools of FTA. The crisis management procedures have applicability on anticipated and emergency situations and help to describe and planning a worst-case scenario plan. For this issue must calculate the probabilities in different situations for fire fighting plants. In the conclusions of paper is analised the block diagram with components of fire fighting plant and are presented the solutions for each possible risk situations.

  3. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  4. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S; Auerkari, P [eds.; VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1999-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  5. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  6. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  7. Managing meiotic recombination in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, T.G.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Crossover recombination is a crucial process in plant breeding because it allows plant breeders to create novel allele combnations on chromosomes that can be used for breeding superior F1 hybrids. Gaining control over this process, in terms of increasing crossover incidence, altering crossover

  8. Ancient aliens on mars

    CERN Document Server

    Bara, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Best-selling author and Secret Space Program researcher Bara brings us this lavishly illustrated volume on alien structures on Mars. Was there once a vast, technologically advanced civilization on Mars, and did it leave evidence of its existence behind for humans to find eons later? Did these advanced extraterrestrial visitors vanish in a solar system wide cataclysm of their own making, only to make their way to Earth and start anew? Was Mars once as lush and green as the Earth, and teeming with life? Did Mars once orbit a missing member of the solar system, a "Super Earth” that vanished in a disaster that devastated life on Earth and Venus and left us only the asteroid belt as evidence of its once grand existence? Did the survivors of this catastrophe leave monuments and temples behind, arranged in a mathematical precision designed to teach us the Secret of a new physics that could lift us back to the stars? Does the planet have an automated defense shield that swallows up robotic probes if they wander int...

  9. Development of management system for plant repairing work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    In the fast breeder reactor, ''Monju'', in order to conduct nuclear plant repairing works securely and effectively, development of a computer system to assist management business on plant repairing work was begun on 1993. The system has been applied to about 5,000 times of operational management through past four times of plant inspection and to daily inspections and maintenance, and is daily used at working places of ''Monju'' such as issue/management of about 110,000 times of operational prohibition tag in isolated management. And, by automation of issue/management on working sheets and operational prohibition tag and others conducted hitherto by hand, the management business has been largely rationalized. (G.K.)

  10. Chlorophyll Meters Aid Plant Nutrient Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    On December 7, 1972, roughly 5 hours and 6 minutes after launch, the crew of Apollo 17 took one of history s most famous photographs. The brilliant image of the fully illuminated Earth, the African and Antarctic continents peering out from behind swirling clouds, came to be known as the Blue Marble. Today, Earth still sometimes goes by the Blue Marble nickname, but as the satellites comprising NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) scan the planet daily in ever greater resolutions, it is often the amount of green on the planet that is a focus of researchers attention. Earth s over 400,000 known plant species play essential roles in the planet s health: They absorb carbon dioxide and release the oxygen we breathe, help manage the Earth s temperature by absorbing and reflecting sunlight, provide food and habitats for animals, and offer building materials, medication, and sustenance for humans. As part of NASA s efforts to study our own planet along with the universe around it, the Agency s EOS satellites have been accumulating years of valuable data about Earth s vegetation (not to mention its land features, oceans, and atmosphere) since the first EOS satellite launched in 1997. Among the powerful sensors used is the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites. MODIS sweeps the entire Earth every few days, beaming back information gathered across 36 bands of visible and infrared light, yielding images that let scientists track how much of Earth is green over the course of seasons and years. Monitoring the density and distribution of vegetation on Earth provides a means of determining everything from the impact of natural and human-induced climate change to the potential outbreak of disease. (Goddard Space Flight Center and U.S. Department of Defense researchers have determined, for example, that vegetation density can be used to pinpoint regions of heavy rainfall in Africa regions ripe for outbreaks of rainfall

  11. PlantDB – a versatile database for managing plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruissem Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in plant science laboratories often involves usage of many different species, cultivars, ecotypes, mutants, alleles or transgenic lines. This creates a great challenge to keep track of the identity of experimental plants and stored samples or seeds. Results Here, we describe PlantDB – a Microsoft® Office Access database – with a user-friendly front-end for managing information relevant for experimental plants. PlantDB can hold information about plants of different species, cultivars or genetic composition. Introduction of a concise identifier system allows easy generation of pedigree trees. In addition, all information about any experimental plant – from growth conditions and dates over extracted samples such as RNA to files containing images of the plants – can be linked unequivocally. Conclusion We have been using PlantDB for several years in our laboratory and found that it greatly facilitates access to relevant information.

  12. Plant specific severe accident management - the implementation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, R.

    1999-01-01

    Many plants are in the process of developing on-site guidance for technical staff to respond to a severe accident situation severe accident management guidance (SAMG). Once the guidance is developed, the SAMG must be implemented at the plant site, and this involves addressing a number of additional aspects. In this paper, approaches to this implementation phase are reviewed, including review and verification of plant specific SAMG, organizational aspects and integration with the emergency plan, training of SAMG users, validation and self-assessment and SAMG maintenance. Examples draw on experience from assisting numerous plants to implement symptom based severe accident management guidelines based on the Westinghouse Owners Group approach, in Westinghouse, non-Westinghouse and VVER plant types. It is hoped that it will be of use to those plant operators about to perform these activities.(author)

  13. Severe accident management guidance for third Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Changsong

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the background, document structure and the summaries of Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) for Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (TQNPP), and also introduces briefly some design features and their impacts on SAMG. (authors)

  14. Safety principles and design management of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Qirui; Cheng Pingdong

    1997-01-01

    The basic safety consideration and detailed design principles in the design of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant is elaborated. The management within the frame setting up by 'safety culture' and 'quality culture'

  15. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of hypertension in the Maritime region of Togo. Holaly E. Gbekley, Simplice D. Karou, Gnatoulma Katawa, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Komlan Batawila, Yaovi Ameyapoh, Jacques Simpore ...

  16. Valves maintenance management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trost, J.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation of Europe's power market will force nuclear power plant operators to introduce extensive cost-cutting measures in order to be able to compete within this new environment. The optimization of plant outages provides considerable potential for raising plant availability but can also lower operating costs by reducing expenditure on maintenance. Framatome ANP GmbH, in cooperation with plant operators is currently developing new and improved service concepts which can have a major effect on the way in which maintenance will be performed in the future. The concepts encompass optimization of the overall sequence from planning in advance to the individual measures including reduction of the scope of maintenance activities, identification of cost cutting potential and bundling of maintenance activities. (Author)

  17. COMSY - A Software Tool for Aging and Plant Life Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, Andre; Nopper, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    A Plant-wide and systematic Aging and Plant Life Management is essential for the safe operation and/or availability of nuclear power plants. The Aging Management (AM) has the objective to monitor and control degradation effects for safety relevant Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) which may compromise safety functions of the plant. The Plant Life Management (PLM) methodology also includes aging surveillance for availability relevant SSCs. AM and PLM cover mechanical components, electrical and I and C systems and civil structures All Aging and Plant Life Management rules call for a comprehensive approach, requiring the systematic collection of various aging and safety relevant data on a plant-wide basis. This data needs to be serviced and periodically evaluated. Due to the complexity of the process, this activity needs to be supported by a qualified software tool for the management of aging relevant data and associated documents (approx. 30 000 SSCs). In order to support the power plant operators AREVA NP has developed the software tool COMSY. The COMSY software with its integrated AM modules enables the design and setup of a knowledge-based power plant model compatible to the requirements of international and national rules (e.g. IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-2.12, KTA 1403). In this process, a key task is to identify and monitor degradation mechanisms. For this purpose the COMSY tool provides prognosis and trending functions, which are based on more than 30 years of experience in the evaluation of degradation effects and numerous experimental studies. Since 1998 COMSY has been applied successfully in more than fifty reactor units in this field. The current version 3.0 was revised completely and offers additional AM functions. All aging-relevant component data are compiled and allocated via an integrated power plant model. Owing to existing interfaces to other software solutions and flexible import functions, COMSY is highly compatible with already existing data

  18. Knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschnick, F.; Engelhardt, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes background, objectives and select conceptual components of knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The concept focuses on the transfer of personal practice experience within and between nuclear power plants. The conceptual insights embrace aspects of knowledge content, structure, KM processes, organization, cooperation, culture, persuasion, leadership, technology, infrastructure, business impact and resilience. Key challenges are discussed, and related advice is provided for KM practitioners with similar endeavours in the field of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (author)

  19. Major diseases of ornamental plants and their management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.A.; Zakria, M.; Sohail, F.

    2003-01-01

    Major diseases of ornamental plants are caused by infections agents (biotic) or non-infectious (abiotic) agents. Infectious agents are bacteria, fungi, nematodes and virus. Non infectious agents are nutritional imbalances, environmental stresses and chemical toxicities. Grouping of the diseases has been done on symptomatology basis. Disease management in ornamental plants has been described through cultural practices, chemical and other control strategies. (author)

  20. Public and private roles in plant health management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    World-wide, government institutions play an important role in the management of plant health. This paper develops a conceptual framework in which suppliers and demanders jointly determine the optimal level of plant health in a hypothetical market. Next this paper argues that this market falls short

  1. Severe accident management at South Africa's Koeberg plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, R.P.; Wolvaardt, F.P.; Holderbaum, D.F.; Lutz, R.J.; Taylor, J.J.; Hodgson, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Between the middle of 1993 and the end of 1995, Westinghouse and Eskom implemented plant specific Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs) at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant in South Africa. Prior to this project, Koeberg, like many plants, had emergency operating procedures which contain guidance for plant personnel to perform preventive accident management measures in event of an accident. There was, however, no structured guidance on recovery from an event which progresses past core damage -mitigative accident management. The SAMGs meet this need. In this paper, the Westinghouse approach to severe accident management is outlined, and the Koeberg implementation project described. A few key issues which arose during implementation are discussed, including plant instrumentation, flooding of the reactor pit, organisation and training of the Technical Support Centre staff, and impact of SAMG on risk. The means by which both generic and plant-specific SAMG have been validated is also summarised. In the next few years, many LWR owners will be implementing SAMG. In the U.S. all plants are in the process of developing SAMG. The Koeberg project is believed to be the first plant specific implementation of the WOG SAMG worldwide, and this paper has hopefully provided insights into some of the implementation issues for those about to undertake similar projects. (author)

  2. Management of radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NE.1.26, 'Safety Operation of Nuclear Power Plants', as expressed in the section 13, specifically in the subsection 13.4, relatives to the management of radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

  3. Risk management and risk assessment of novel plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Søborg, Inge; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2008-01-01

    and definitions to be used in determining novelty of a plant food and also propose a safety assessment approach for novel plant food with no or limited documented history of safe consumption. A 2-step management procedure is recommended for a smooth introduction of fruits and vegetables; first to establish...

  4. Tele-maintenance 'intelligent' system for technical plants result management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concetti, Massimo; Cuccioletta, Roberto; Fedele, Lorenzo; Mercuri, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    The management of technical plant for productivity and safety is generally a complex activity, particularly when many plants distributed in the territory are considered (i.e. the more and more frequent case of outsourced plants maintenance by specialized companies), granted quality and cost results are required (i.e. the case of some rather innovative contract solutions) and the technology involved is heterogeneous and innovative (i.e. electro-mechanical plants). In order to efficiently achieve the above aims an 'intelligent' maintenance-management system for the distant monitoring and controlling by a remote control center has been developed. The so-called GrAMS (granted availability management system) system is conceived to give to organizations involved in technical-industrial plants management the possibility to tend to a 'well-known availability' and 'zero-failures' management. In particular, this study deals with the diagnostic aspects and safety level of technical plants (such as elevators, thermo-technical plants, etc.), and with the involvement of ad hoc designed software analysis tools based on neural networks and reliability indicators. Part of the research dealing with the tele-maintenance intelligent system has been financed by the Italian High Institute for Safety (ISPESL) and led to the development of a pre-industrial prototype whose realization and testing is here described

  5. Safety in waste management plants: An Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar, P.; Ozarde, P.D.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Assurance of safety of public and plant workers and protection of the environment are prime objectives in the design and construction of Waste Management Plants. In India, waste management principles and strategies have been evolved in accordance with national and international regulations and standards for radiation protection. The regulations governing radiation protection have a far-reaching impact on the management of the radioactive waste. The wastes arise at each stages of the fuel cycle with varying chemical nature, generation rate and specific activity levels depending upon the type of the facility. Segregation of waste based on its chemical nature and specific activity levels is an essential feature, as its aids in selection of treatment and conditioning process. Selection of the process, equipment and materials in the plant, are governed by safety consideration alongside factors like efficiency and simplicity. The plant design considerations like physical separation, general arrangement, ventilation zoning, access control, remote handling, process piping routing, decontamination etc. have major role in realizing waste safety. Stringent quality control measures during all stages of construction have helped in achieving the design intended safety. These aspects together with operating experience gained form basis for the improved safety features in the design and construction of waste management plants. The comprehensive safety is derived from adoption of waste management strategies and appropriate plant design considerations. The paper briefly brings safety in waste management programme in India, in its current perspective. (author)

  6. Recovery of endemic dragonflies after removal of invasive alien trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samways, Michael J; Sharratt, Norma J

    2010-02-01

    Because dragonflies are very sensitive to alien trees, we assessed their response to large-scale restoration of riparian corridors. We compared three types of disturbance regime--alien invaded, cleared of alien vegetation, and natural vegetation (control)--and recorded data on 22 environmental variables. The most significant variables in determining dragonfly assemblages were percentage of bank cover and tree canopy cover, which indicates the importance of vegetation architecture for these dragonflies. This finding suggests that it is important to restore appropriate marginal vegetation and sunlight conditions. Recovery of dragonfly assemblages after the clearing of alien trees was substantial. Species richness and abundance at restored sites matched those at control sites. Dragonfly assemblage patterns reflected vegetation succession. Thus, initially eurytopic, widespread species were the main beneficiaries of the removal of alien trees, and stenotopic, endemic species appeared after indigenous vegetation recovered over time. Important indicator species were the two national endemics (Allocnemis leucosticta and Pseudagrion furcigerum), which, along with vegetation type, can be used to monitor return of overall integrity of riparian ecology and to make management decisions. Endemic species as a whole responded positively to restoration, which suggests that indigenous vegetation recovery has major benefits for irreplaceable and widespread generalist species.

  7. Plant life management (XVO). Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solin, J.

    2001-02-01

    Experimental and analytical research is being carried out in an industrially oriented project dealing with on estimating and managing lifetime of critical structural components in energy industry. The research topics included systematic component lifetime management, lifetime of pressure bearing components, piping vibrations and integrity management, management of materials ageing, non-destructive inspection, water chemistry, oxide films and their role in service reliability and build-up of activity levels, stress corrosion cracking in Inconel welds, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking of core components, development of crack growth testing methods as well as the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking. The main results of the first project year are summarised in this report. (orig.)

  8. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANTS ON DECAYING WOOD AND ON TREE-FALL DISTURBANCES IN FORESTS IN THE KARKONOSZE MTS (SUDETEN, SW POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Staniaszek-Kik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three invasive anthropophytes, i.e. two vascular plants Digitalis purpurea L. and Impatiens parviflora DC. as well as one moss Orthodontium lineare Schwägr, were recorded on decaying wood and tree-fall disturbances (pit-mound-root plate complex. It contributes only 1.9% to the flora of analyzed habitats (1.1% of moss flora, 2.9% of vascular plant flora and 3.5% of neophytes known in Sudeten Mts. They grew, sporadically and with a low frequency, on 3.5% of studied objects (on 3.1% of decaying logs and stumps and 5.6% of tree-fall disturbances in all types of forest communities in the area of Karkonosze National Park and in the vicinity. Nowadays, invasive neophytes do not pose a threat to diversity of endangered epixylic flora. Described habitats seem to be resistant to penetration by anthropophytes.

  9. Which factors affect the success or failure of eradication campaigns against alien species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Pluess

    Full Text Available Although issues related to the management of invasive alien species are receiving increasing attention, little is known about which factors affect the likelihood of success of management measures. We applied two data mining techniques, classification trees and boosted trees, to identify factors that relate to the success of management campaigns aimed at eradicating invasive alien invertebrates, plants and plant pathogens. We assembled a dataset of 173 different eradication campaigns against 94 species worldwide, about a half of which (50.9% were successful. Eradications in man-made habitats, greenhouses in particular, were more likely to succeed than those in (semi-natural habitats. In man-made habitats the probability of success was generally high in Australasia, while in Europe and the Americas it was higher for local infestations that are easier to deal with, and for international campaigns that are likely to profit from cross-border cooperation. In (semi- natural habitats, eradication campaigns were more likely to succeed for plants introduced as an ornamental and escaped from cultivation prior to invasion. Averaging out all other factors in boosted trees, pathogens, bacteria and viruses were most, and fungi the least likely to be eradicated; for plants and invertebrates the probability was intermediate. Our analysis indicates that initiating the campaign before the extent of infestation reaches the critical threshold, starting to eradicate within the first four years since the problem has been noticed, paying special attention to species introduced by the cultivation pathway, and applying sanitary measures can substantially increase the probability of eradication success. Our investigations also revealed that information on socioeconomic factors, which are often considered to be crucial for eradication success, is rarely available, and thus their relative importance cannot be evaluated. Future campaigns should carefully document

  10. Alienness: Rapid Detection of Candidate Horizontal Gene Transfers across the Tree of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Rancurel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is the transmission of genes between organisms by other means than parental to offspring inheritance. While it is prevalent in prokaryotes, HGT is less frequent in eukaryotes and particularly in Metazoa. Here, we propose Alienness, a taxonomy-aware web application available at http://alienness.sophia.inra.fr. Alienness parses BLAST results against public libraries to rapidly identify candidate HGT in any genome of interest. Alienness takes as input the result of a BLAST of a whole proteome of interest against any National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI protein library. The user defines recipient (e.g., Metazoa and donor (e.g., bacteria, fungi branches of interest in the NCBI taxonomy. Based on the best BLAST E-values of candidate donor and recipient taxa, Alienness calculates an Alien Index (AI for each query protein. An AI > 0 indicates a better hit to candidate donor than recipient taxa and a possible HGT. Higher AI represent higher gap of E-values between candidate donor and recipient and a more likely HGT. We confirmed the accuracy of Alienness on phylogenetically confirmed HGT of non-metazoan origin in plant-parasitic nematodes. Alienness scans whole proteomes to rapidly identify possible HGT in any species of interest and thus fosters exploration of HGT more easily and largely across the tree of life.

  11. The role of NOSA five-star management system for occupational management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qin

    2011-01-01

    The occupational safety management of nuclear power plant is developed towards integrated management, risk management, process management, all-round and full staff participation. Appropriate management method integrated with nuclear power plant safety, health and environmental protection could be organically combined with the nuclear safety operation management system, and could jointly lay a solid foundation for building up good nuclear safety culture. NOSA five-star management system is such a kind of risk management based on safety, health and environmental management system, with an aim to protect the personal safety. The concepts of NOSA management and nuclear safety culture are coincident, with strong workability, and meeting the need of nuclear power plant occupational safety management. Adopting NOSA five-star management system and keeping continuous improvement is one of the effective ways to improve the level of occupational safety management of nuclear power plant. It can be organically combined with nuclear safety operation management system and continuously improved safety culture to play an important role in improving the safety and economics of nuclear power plant. (author)

  12. Environmental management systems implemented in the Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, R.; Fernandez Guisado, M. B.; Hortiguela, R.; Bustamante, L. F.; Esparza, J. L.; Villareal, M.; Yague, F.

    2013-01-01

    The companies that own the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants, aware of social concern and in the context of a growing demanding environmental legislation, have a permanent commitment to the electricity production based on the principles of a maximum respect for the environment, safety, quality, professionalism and continuous improvement. In order to minimize the environmental impact of their plants they have implemented and Environmental Management System based on the ISO 14001 Standard. They minimize the environmental impact by identifying the significant environmental aspects and defining the corresponding objectives. This article describes the referred environmental management systems and their environmental objectives, as applied and defined by the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  13. Role of organizational leadership in plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohindra, R.K.; Chou, Q.B.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear power plant (NPP) operational trend shows that the plants of the same design and brought to service about the same time demonstrate a wide range of life time operational performance. Based on years of performance assessment experience from various types of industry audits, it can be seen that there is a strong relationship between organizational leadership and the good performing plants. A review based on this relationship is provided to suggest important characteristics needed in management and leadership team for an organization to have a successful life management program in a NPP. The required characteristics and attributes are discussed in the following three important organizational elements: Environment, People and Process

  14. A basis for sound management-plant-operator interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    Sound management-plant-operator interface is based on the application of suitable quality assurance principles. Quality assurance can aptly be termed ''putting priority and emphasis where such are due''. Accordingly, the application of suitable quality assurance principles achieves the all-important combination of both safety and production. Neither of these is mutually exclusive of the other, and both together establish the prime foundation for long-term nuclear power plant operation. This paper presents the application of suitable quality assurance principles to the management, the plant, the operators, and the interface between them. (author)

  15. 8 CFR 1214.2 - Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in pending immigration proceedings. 1214.2 Section 1214.2 Aliens and... NONIMMIGRANT CLASSES § 1214.2 Review of alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons; aliens in...

  16. Management for nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture covers management aspects which have an immediate bearing on safety and identifies the objectives and tasks of management which are required for safe operation of a nuclear power plant and is based on the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau. (orig./RW)

  17. Development of chemistry management for Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Kazuaki; Sato, Junichi; Maeda, Katsuji; Nagasawa Katsumi; Hashiura, Sintaro

    2000-01-01

    Onagawa nuclear power plant developed a system for chemistry management of prevention and preservation of power plant. It is able to early detection of data change for prevention of plant. The system supports management of chemical custodian and consists of four parts such as management of water quality of plant , management of liquid waste, management of vapor waste and estimation of performance of chemical equipment. The system has three functions: management of operation, estimation of omen and examination of origin. The function of management of operation supports the routine inspection of chemical custodian by increasing efficiency of analytical and process data collection, practical use of data,, accuracy of data and rapid analysis. Estimation function of omen observes data fetched via online during 24 hr, indicates the small primary change and determines the origins. Examination function of origin supports their quick correspondences at accident and certificates the detailed origins. Histories of development of the system, business systemization, system construction, system functions are explained.The diagram of background of system development, system construction, management functions, verification of analytical data, automatic continuos monitoring diagram, screen of detection of abnormal phenomena, classified diagram of origins for change of water quality in reactor were developed. (S.Y.)

  18. Managing invasive plants in natural areas: Moving beyond weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega

    2009-01-01

    Exotic invasive plants present one of the greatest challenges to natural resource management. These weeds can alter entire communities and ecosystems, substantially degrading important ecosystem services such as forage for wild and domestic herbivores, water and soil quality, recreational values, and wildlife habitat. Traditionally, weed management in natural areas has...

  19. Major Co-localized QTL for Plant Height, Branch Initiation Height, Stem Diameter, and Flowering Time in an Alien Introgression Derived Brassica napus DH Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusen Shen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant height (PH, branch initiation height (BIH, and stem diameter (SD are three stem-related traits that play crucial roles in plant architecture and lodging resistance. Herein, we show one doubled haploid (DH population obtained from a cross between Y689 (one Capsella bursa-pastoris derived Brassica napus intertribal introgression and Westar (B. napus cultivar that these traits were significantly positively correlated with one another and with flowering time (FT. Based on a high-density SNP map, a total of 102 additive quantitative trait loci (QTL were identified across six environments. Seventy-two consensus QTL and 49 unique QTL were identified using a two-round strategy of QTL meta-analysis. Notably, a total of 19 major QTL, including 11 novel ones, were detected for these traits, which comprised two QTL clusters on chromosomes A02 and A07. Conditional QTL mapping was performed to preliminarily evaluate the genetic basis (pleiotropy or tight linkage of the co-localized QTL. In addition, QTL by environment interactions (QEI mapping was performed to verify the additive QTL and estimate the QEI effect. In the genomic regions of all major QTL, orthologs of the genes involved in phytohormone biosynthesis, phytohormone signaling, flower development, and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis were proposed as candidate genes. Of these, BnaA02g02560, an ortholog of Arabidopsis GASA4, was suggested as a candidate gene for PH, SD, and FT; and BnaA02g08490, an ortholog of Arabidopsis GNL, was associated with PH, BIH and FT. These results provide useful information for further genetic studies on stem-related traits and plant growth adaptation.

  20. Transparency and efficiency through plant operations management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladage, L.

    2001-01-01

    Plant operations management systems, being IT application systems, provide integral support of the business processes making up plant operations management. The use of plant operations management systems improves mutually interdependent factors, such as high economic performance, high availability, and maximum safety. Since its commissioning in 1988, the Emsland nuclear power station (KKE) has been run with the IBFS plant operations management system. The work flow management system (WfMS), a module of IBFS, is described as an example of job order processing. IBFS-WfMS is to optimize all processes, thus cutting costs and ensuring that processes are run and documented reliably. Assessing the savings effect achieved through the use of IBFS-WfMS clearly reveals the savings in work/time achieved by the system. These savings are quoted as approx. 4 minutes and DM 10, respectively, per working step, which corresponds to several dozens of manyears or several million DM per annum in the KKE plant under consideration. This result can be extrapolated to other plants. (orig.) [de

  1. Improvement of nuclear power plant management applying the lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Active managment participation is a common thread among nuclear power plants with superior performance. Plants that benefit from the hands-on attention of senior managers are typically more reliable and can be expected to have higher margins of safety. There are numerous ways in which utilities are promoting management involvement in the day-to-day operations of their nuclear plants. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations' (INPO) Plant Performance Indicator Program provides utilities with data in key performance areas, allowing management to monitor performance and concentrate on areas needing attention. Utilities are also setting ambitious short and long-term goals in several performance areas. This increased management attention to nuclear plant operations is reflected in improved nuclear plant performance across the coutry. For instance, over the past five years, the number of significant events per unit has declined, unplanned automatic scrams have been reduced, equivalent availability is about the same (however, many units and the industry median has improved) and collentive radiation exposure and volume of low-level waste shipped per unit are both showing a decreasing trend. (author)

  2. Nuclear plant life cycle management implementation guide. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliter, G.E.; Negin, C.A.

    1998-11-01

    Nuclear power plants, as baseload suppliers of electricity, are major corporate assets. As the nuclear industry enters its fourth decade as a major producer of clean electricity, the structure of the utility industry is undergoing a historical landmark transition from economic deregulation to a competitive, market-driven industry. An integral part of competition is to manage the operation of the key asset, the plant, in the long term, thereby enhancing its long-term profitability. Life cycle management (LCM) is a well-known technical-economic decision-making process for any large industrial facility. LCM optimizes the service life of a facility and maximizes its life-cycle asset value. LCM integrates aging management (maintaining the availability of costly-to-replace components and structures) with asset management (plant valuation and investment strategies that account for economic, performance, regulatory, and environmental uncertainties). LCM involves predicting maintenance, repair, and other capital costs for a nuclear unit far into the future, as well as planning and managing strategic issues such as waste disposal, fuel storage, decommissioning, and public acceptance. This Life Cycle Management Implementation Guide introduces the reader to the LCM concept and its benefits, describes the elements and activities associated with an LCM program (most of which already exist in all plants), gives an overview of asset and aging management, and provides key references related to life cycle management for nuclear power plants. It also summarizes the major elements of life cycle management required for license renewal or, for newer plants, keeping open the option of license renewal

  3. Quality management for nuclear power plants in Germany. Track 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieter, Brosche; Ehrnsperger, K.

    2001-01-01

    An essential requirement for the safety of nuclear power plants is the quality assurance which for example is fixed also in the German safety criteria for nuclear power plants as the first principle of prime importance and also fixed in the technical rules for nuclear power plants. Quality assurance must be performed in all phases of the lifetime of a nuclear power plant and also all partners for example suppliers, operators, experts and authorities are involved in the quality assurance process. All activities in connection with quality assurance are summarized in an integrated quality assurance system or quality assurance management. (author)

  4. Catalogue of alien animal species in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šefrová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalogue of alien animal species registered in the Czech Republic, with data on their origin, date on the first observation, way of introduction (accidental, deliberate, spontaneous, invasive status (casual, non-invasive, post-invasive, invasive, habitat (eusynanthropic, urban, agricultural, natural, trophic requirements and possible influences (plant or stored-product pest, biodiversity influence. In total 595 species are listed, i.e. 1.8% of the fauna of this country; of these, 22 species of molluscs (8.8% of the local fauna, 451 spp. of arthropods (1.5%, 383 spp. of insects (1.4%, and 55 spp. of vertebrates (9.2%. Among the registered species, 248 spp. (41.8% are confined to closed and heated spaces by their occurrence, and 287 spp. have become naturalized (48.2%. Of these 113 spp. are considered invasive (19% of alien spp.. 65 spp. (10.9% of aliens are pests of stored products, 84 spp. (14.1% are parasites of important animals, 53 spp. (8.9% are pests of plants grown in heated rooms (above all, glasshouses, 28 ssp. (4.7% are agricultural or forest pests, and 39 spp. (6.6% may influence local biodiversity. The origin of the naturalized alien species is mostly in North America (70; 24.4%, the Mediterranean (61; 21.3%, E Asia (44; 15.4%, Central and SW Asia (43; 15%, and S or SE Asia (30; 10.5%.

  5. Plant life management. Progress for structural integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solin, J.

    2003-03-01

    A joint project cluster of industry, VTT and other R and D suppliers is dealing with managing of lifetime of critical structures and components in energy and process industry. The research topics include systematic component lifetime management, data management, integrity and lifetime of pressure bearing components, non-destructive inspection, interactions of coolant and materials, environmentally assisted cracking and ageing of reactor internals. This Symposium is a compilation of selected papers describing an intermediate status of the projects after three years of research and development. (orig.)

  6. Effect of the internet commerce on dispersal modes of invasive alien species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Knops, Johannes M H; Moroń, Dawid; Sutherland, William J; Kuszewska, Karolina; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The spread of invasive alien plants has considerable environmental and economic consequences, and is one of the most challenging ecological problems. The spread of invasive alien plant species depends largely on long-distance dispersal, which is typically linked with human activity. The increasing domination of the internet will have impacts upon almost all components of our lives, including potential consequences for the spread of invasive species. To determine whether the rise of Internet commerce has any consequences for the spread of invasive alien plant species, we studied the sale of thirteen of some of the most harmful Europe invasive alien plant species sold as decorative plants from twenty-eight large, well known gardening shops in Poland that sold both via the Internet and through traditional customer sales. We also analyzed temporal changes in the number of invasive plants sold in the largest Polish internet auction portal. When sold through the Internet invasive alien plant species were transported considerably longer distances than for traditional sales. For internet sales, seeds of invasive alien plant species were transported further than were live plants saplings; this was not the case for traditional sales. Also, with e-commerce the shape of distance distribution were flattened with low skewness comparing with traditional sale where the distributions were peaked and right-skewed. Thus, e-commerce created novel modes of long-distance dispersal, while traditional sale resembled more natural dispersal modes. Moreover, analysis of sale in the biggest Polish internet auction portal showed that the number of alien specimens sold via the internet has increased markedly over recent years. Therefore internet commerce is likely to increase the rate at which ecological communities become homogenized and increase spread of invasive species by increasing the rate of long distance dispersal.

  7. Effect of the internet commerce on dispersal modes of invasive alien species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lenda

    Full Text Available The spread of invasive alien plants has considerable environmental and economic consequences, and is one of the most challenging ecological problems. The spread of invasive alien plant species depends largely on long-distance dispersal, which is typically linked with human activity. The increasing domination of the internet will have impacts upon almost all components of our lives, including potential consequences for the spread of invasive species. To determine whether the rise of Internet commerce has any consequences for the spread of invasive alien plant species, we studied the sale of thirteen of some of the most harmful Europe invasive alien plant species sold as decorative plants from twenty-eight large, well known gardening shops in Poland that sold both via the Internet and through traditional customer sales. We also analyzed temporal changes in the number of invasive plants sold in the largest Polish internet auction portal. When sold through the Internet invasive alien plant species were transported considerably longer distances than for traditional sales. For internet sales, seeds of invasive alien plant species were transported further than were live plants saplings; this was not the case for traditional sales. Also, with e-commerce the shape of distance distribution were flattened with low skewness comparing with traditional sale where the distributions were peaked and right-skewed. Thus, e-commerce created novel modes of long-distance dispersal, while traditional sale resembled more natural dispersal modes. Moreover, analysis of sale in the biggest Polish internet auction portal showed that the number of alien specimens sold via the internet has increased markedly over recent years. Therefore internet commerce is likely to increase the rate at which ecological communities become homogenized and increase spread of invasive species by increasing the rate of long distance dispersal.

  8. Effect of the Internet Commerce on Dispersal Modes of Invasive Alien Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Moroń, Dawid; Sutherland, William J.; Kuszewska, Karolina; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The spread of invasive alien plants has considerable environmental and economic consequences, and is one of the most challenging ecological problems. The spread of invasive alien plant species depends largely on long-distance dispersal, which is typically linked with human activity. The increasing domination of the internet will have impacts upon almost all components of our lives, including potential consequences for the spread of invasive species. To determine whether the rise of Internet commerce has any consequences for the spread of invasive alien plant species, we studied the sale of thirteen of some of the most harmful Europe invasive alien plant species sold as decorative plants from twenty-eight large, well known gardening shops in Poland that sold both via the Internet and through traditional customer sales. We also analyzed temporal changes in the number of invasive plants sold in the largest Polish internet auction portal. When sold through the Internet invasive alien plant species were transported considerably longer distances than for traditional sales. For internet sales, seeds of invasive alien plant species were transported further than were live plants saplings; this was not the case for traditional sales. Also, with e-commerce the shape of distance distribution were flattened with low skewness comparing with traditional sale where the distributions were peaked and right-skewed. Thus, e-commerce created novel modes of long-distance dispersal, while traditional sale resembled more natural dispersal modes. Moreover, analysis of sale in the biggest Polish internet auction portal showed that the number of alien specimens sold via the internet has increased markedly over recent years. Therefore internet commerce is likely to increase the rate at which ecological communities become homogenized and increase spread of invasive species by increasing the rate of long distance dispersal. PMID:24932498

  9. Interaction Effects of Students, Drugs and Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Woodrow, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effect of students, drugs, and alienation in a large university, i.e., the linkages of both social and political alienation with drug behavior. The interaction terms which composed these forms of alienation were evaluated as to their comparative ability to produce drug behavior. (Author)

  10. 33 CFR 125.25 - Aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 125.25 Section 125.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT....25 Aliens. Alien registration records together with other papers and documents which indicated the...

  11. 22 CFR 62.27 - Alien physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alien physicians. 62.27 Section 62.27 Foreign... Provisions § 62.27 Alien physicians. (a) Purpose. Pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange... Foreign Medical Graduates must sponsor alien physicians who wish to pursue programs of graduate medical...

  12. School Alienation: A Construct Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaj, Julia; Scharf, Jan; Grecu, Alyssa; Hadjar, Andreas; Hascher, Tina; Marcin, Kaja

    2017-01-01

    Early identification of school alienation is of great importance for students' educational outcomes and successful participation in society. This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a newly developed assessment instrument, the School Alienation Scale (SALS), to measure school alienation among primary and secondary school students.…

  13. Policy alienation of public professionals: the effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractNowadays, many public professionals face identification problems towards public policies they have to implement; that is, they experience policy alienation. We conceptualize policy alienation, starting from the sociological concept of alienation and showing how this can be used in the

  14. Quality management for nuclear power plant operation: A manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The experience from well operated nuclear power plants shows that achievement of safe, reliable and economic performance is closely related to a strong commitment and involvement by the management personnel. A system of controls is necessary to ensure that satisfactory quality in operation is achieved and maintained over the long term. The key to achieving and assuring quality lies in the ability of management to define performance objectives and to ensure that significant safety and reliability problems are prevented or detected early and resolved. This Manual has been developed by the IAEA to assist plant managers in fulfilling their responsibility with regard to the control and direction of quality and of quality assurance activities in nuclear power plant operation. It emphasizes quality objectives for nuclear power plant operation and indicates the way in which a quality system based on quality assurance principles as established in the IAEA NUSS documents can be used by managers to accomplish these objectives. Since the Manual is mainly directed at management personnel, it is presented in the form of short highlighted practices complemented by typical examples of forms and procedures. Since not all the activities under the heading of quality in operation could be covered in a single document, the activities selected for this Manual comprise those where it was felt that practical advice is generally needed. A pragmatic document useful for direct application by plant managers was the envisaged objective

  15. Risk management: A tool for improving nuclear power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This technical document on risk management as a tool for improving nuclear power plant (NPP) operations is part of an ongoing project on management of NPP operations in a competitive environment. The overall objective of this project is to assist the management of operating organizations and NPPs in identifying and implementing appropriate measures to remain competitive in a rapidly changing business environment. Other reports developed through this project have identified overall strategies and techniques that NPP operating organization managers can use to succeed in more competitive energy markets. For example, in IAEA-TECDOC-1123, Strategies for Competitive Nuclear Power Plants, one of the most important strategies identified was integrated risk management. This publication provides a recommended structure for risk management along with examples of how NPP operating organizations are using this tool to help them integrate safety, operational and economic related risks in a changing business environment

  16. A structured approach to individual plant evaluation and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopp, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    The current requirements for the performance of individual plant evaluations (IPE's) include the derivation of accident management insights as and if they occur in the course of finalizing an IPE. The development of formal, structured accident management programs is, however, explicitly excluded from current IPE requirements. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is following the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) efforts to establish the framework(s) for accident management program development and plants to issue requirements on such development at a later date. The Commonwealth Edison program consists of comprehensive level 2 PRA's which address the requirements for IPE's and which go beyond those requirements. From the start of the IPE efforts, it was firmly held, within Edison, that the best way to fully and economically extract a viable accident management program from an IPE was to integrate the two efforts from the start and include the accident management program development as a required IPE product

  17. Discussion on management of decommissioning funds for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hailiang

    2013-01-01

    Decommissioning funding is one of the major issues with regard to the policy and management of nuclear power. This paper describes current status of decommissioning of nuclear power plants in some foreign countries and narrates the practices in these countries on the estimation of decommissioning cost, the retrieval and management of decommissioning funds, and the guarantee of fund sufficiency. Based on a brief analysis of the status of decommissioning funding management for nuclear power plants in China, suggestions on tasks or activities needed to be carried out at present in the field of decommissioning funding are proposed. (authors)

  18. Prototype equipment status monitor for plant operational configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVerno, M.; Trask, D.; Groom, S.

    1998-01-01

    CANDU plants, such as the Point Lepreau GS, have tens of thousands of operable devices. The status of each operable device must be immediately available to plan and execute future changes to the plant. Historically, changes to the plant's operational configuration have been controlled using manual and administrative methods where the status of each operable device is maintained on operational flowsheets located in the work control area of the main control room. The operational flowsheets are used to plan and develop Operating Orders (OOs) or Order-to-Operate (OTOs) and the control centre work processes are used to manage their execution. After performing each OO procedure, the operational flowsheets are updated to reflect the new plant configuration. This process can be very time consuming, and due to the manual processes, can lead to the potential for time lags and errors in the recording of the current plant configuration. Through a cooperative research and development program, Canadian CANDU utilities and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, the design organization, have applied modern information technologies to develop a prototype Equipment Status Monitor (ESM) to address processes and information flow for efficient operational configuration management. The ESM integrates electronic operational flowsheets, equipment databases, engineering and work management systems, and computerized procedures to assess, plan, execute, track, and record changes to the plant's operational configuration. This directly leads to improved change control, more timely and accurate plant status information, fewer errors, and better decision making regarding future changes. These improvements to managing the plant's operational configuration are essential to increasing plant safety, achieving a high plant availability, and maintaining high capability and capacity factors. (author)

  19. Plant Hormesis Management with Biostimulants of Biotic Origin in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernandez, Marcela; Macias-Bobadilla, Israel; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G; Romero-Gomez, Sergio de J; Rico-Garcia, Enrique; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V; Alvarez-Arquieta, Luz de L; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo

    2017-01-01

    Over time plants developed complex mechanisms in order to adapt themselves to the environment. Plant innate immunity is one of the most important mechanisms for the environmental adaptation. A myriad of secondary metabolites with nutraceutical features are produced by the plant immune system in order to get adaptation to new environments that provoke stress (stressors). Hormesis is a phenomenon by which a stressor (i.e., toxins, herbicides, etc.) stimulates the cellular stress response, including secondary metabolites production, in order to help organisms to establish adaptive responses. Hormetins of biotic origin (i.e., biostimulants or biological control compounds), in certain doses might enhance plant performance, however, in excessive doses they are commonly deleterious. Biostimulants or biological control compounds of biotic origin are called "elicitors" that have widely been studied as inducers of plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The plant response toward elicitors is reminiscent of hormetic responses toward toxins in several organisms. Thus, controlled management of hormetic responses in plants using these types of compounds is expected to be an important tool to increase nutraceutical quality of plant food and trying to minimize negative effects on yields. The aim of this review is to analyze the potential for agriculture that the use of biostimulants and biological control compounds of biotic origin could have in the management of the plant hormesis. The use of homolog DNA as biostimulant or biological control compound in crop production is also discussed.

  20. Lifetime management research trend of Kori-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Jeong, I. S.; Hong, S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    KEPRI launched the Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study(II) for the management of the latter half life of Kori-1. Main goal of LCM-IV study is the detail evaluation of main equipment life and establishment of aging management based on LCM-IV result. The result of LCM-IV on the kori-1 confirmed the technical and economical feasibility of life extension beyond the design life. Owing to absence of The regulatory policy for the life extension in korea, LCM-IV will focus on the minimum study which is essential for the actual lifetime management for the old nuclear power plant. License renewal study is expected after the establishment of Regulatory policy about the life extension of nuclear power plant. LCM trend in korea and abroad, result of technical and economical feasibility study and summary of LCM-IV is described on this paper

  1. Quality management in an international nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brion, J.; Crustin, J.

    1975-01-01

    SNR (Schneller Natriumgekuehlter Reaktor) is the fast reactor power plant being erected at Kalkar, Federal German Republic. Quality management in this project is a contractual obligation. Quality management is subdivided into quality engineering, set of actions performed before manufacturing, and quality control, set of material controls performed during fabrication. The two successive phases of the quality management are presented. The difficulties and improvment possibilities are discussed [fr

  2. Tianwan nuclear power plant operation and management practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yingbing

    2010-01-01

    Tianwan Nuclear Power Station is a high-tech cooperation project in nuclear sector in the spirit of promoting the political relationship, economic trading and international strategic partnership between China and Russia. It was listed as one of the key nuclear projects to be constructed during the 'Ninth Five-Year' Plan. In this article the author summarizes and feedbacks the practices of operation management in Tianwan Nuclear Power Station in 7 aspects of safety culture construction, operation team building, daily operation management, operation document management, plant chemistry control and management, solid, liquid and gaseous waste management and control of operation performance indicators. (author)

  3. Global hotspots and correlates of alien species richness across taxonomic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Wayne; Moser, Dietmar; van Kleunen, Mark; Kreft, Holger; Pergl, Jan; Pysek, Petr; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Lenzner, Bernd; Blackburn, Tim M.; Dyer, Ellie; Cassey, Phillip; Scrivens, Sally-Louise; Economo, Evan P.; Guenard, Benoit; Capinha, Cesar; Seebens, Hanno; Garcia-Diaz, Pablo; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Garcia-Berthou, Emili; Casal, Christine; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Fuller, Pam; Meyer, Carsten; Essl, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Human-mediated transport beyond biogeographic barriers has led to the introduction and establishment of alien species in new regions worldwide. However, we lack a global picture of established alien species richness for multiple taxonomic groups. Here, we assess global patterns and potential drivers of established alien species richness across eight taxonomic groups (amphibians, ants, birds, freshwater fishes, mammals, vascular plants, reptiles and spiders) for 186 islands and 423 mainland regions. Hotspots of established alien species richness are predominantly island and coastal mainland regions. Regions with greater gross domestic product per capita, human population density, and area have higher established alien richness, with strongest effects emerging for islands. Ants and reptiles, birds and mammals, and vascular plants and spiders form pairs of taxonomic groups with the highest spatial congruence in established alien richness, but drivers explaining richness differ between the taxa in each pair. Across all taxonomic groups, our results highlight the need to prioritize prevention of further alien species introductions to island and coastal mainland regions globally.

  4. A vegetação secundária em um fragmento florestal urbano: influência de exóticas invasoras na comunidade vegetal. Secondary vegetation in a urban forest remnant: alien species influence on plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cristina Pereira Muniz de SOUZA

    2016-06-01

    urbanization. However, some small reserves protected by laws still sustain natural vegetation remnants.This work was developed in one of these reserves the Alberto Löfgren State Park – PEAL. We aimed to detect the successional stage of secondary vegetation of PEAL and check the influence of alien species in the successional process.We conducted a phytosociological survey in a 4.8 ha continuous forest patch, where 30 plots of 20 x 20 m were randomly distributed and individual shrubs and trees with a perimeter at breast height – PBH ≥ 15 cm were sampled. A total of 121 species (35 exotic, belonging to 102 genera and 44 families were recorded. Eleven species were categorized as endangered. The Shannon diversity and the Pielou equability indexes were 3.38 and 0.70 respectively, and the total density was 1,400 ind.ha-1. Half of the 12 species of highest importance value was alien species. We concluded that PEAL has a high degree of biological invasion, which may cause serious damage to the natural succession process in areas under recovery. In order to prevent the spread of alien species into the natural forests of Cantareira Range, we recommend the adoption of an integrated program that includes the alien species control and regional native species enrichment if needed. In this work we indicated the exotic species that should be managed first in order to restore the ecological sucession.

  5. State of Washington Aquatic Plant Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    endothall (DMA salt); and herbivorous fish, insects , and pathogens. 4. Comments Received from Public Review of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement...SNYIAOWMNWAL MANWULATION UIONOGC SSUCTION DREDGE HAND RUMOVA HOTTON SHADING WATER LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS HERBIVOROUS FIS1H INSECTS , PAT1OGIENS, ETC. set...the control of acuatic plants. 52 4. PROBABLE IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION ON~ THE ENVIRON4MENT 4.01 Impacts on Air Quality, Noise and Traffic. 4.01.1

  6. Management of nuclear power plants for safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture covers management aspects which have an immediate bearing on safety and identifies the objectives and tasks of management which are required for safe operation of a nuclear power plant and is based on the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau. This lecture - discusses the factors to be considered in structuring the operating organization, the support to be provided to plant management, the services and facilities needed and the management system for assuring the safety tasks are performed - describes the responsibilities of plant management and operating organization - outlines the requirements for recruitment, training and retraining as well as qualification and authorization of personnel - describes the programmes for maintenance, testing, examination, inspection, radiological protection, quality assurance, waste management, fuel management, emergency arrangement and security - describes the development of plant operating procedures including procedures to protect the personnel - outlines the requirements for initial and subsequent operation - describes the importance for evaluation and feedback of operating experience - describes the procedures for changes in hardware, procedures and set points - outlines the information flow and the requirements in reference to records and reports. (orig./RW)

  7. Motor life management at Gentilly 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, L.; Renaud, P.; Marcotte, P.

    2002-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's Gentilly 2 CANDU Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) located on the St. Lawrence River about 150 kms NE of Montreal Quebec Canada, is completing its second full decade of commercial operation. Since the original design life of 30 years is fast approaching, Hydro Quebec (HQ) is positioning itself proactively, to ensure plant operation for the original design life as well implementing a plant life management program to achieve a plant life extension to 50 years. All components in a nuclear plant are affected by ageing during the plant service life. This affects the availability, reliability, and safety of the plant operation and could affect the plant service life. However, if a life management program (LMP) is implemented; the ageing mechanisms can be understood and monitored, and their effects can be controlled and even mitigated. Among other vital equipment in the plant, the station motors are being examined to determine what has to be done to ensure that the motors do not contribute negatively to the plant operating plan. Gentilly 2 NPP has almost 900 motors of various configurations. Their size ranges from 0.1 HP to 9000 HP. A distribution of quantity at different horsepower levels is given. This paper will describe the plant's motor history, method of operation, and proposed future changes required to ensure effective life management of the motors. Up to the present time, Gentilly 2 NPP staff has had very good experience with plant motor operation and reliability. Nevertheless, indications from other industry motor experiences indicate that this favourable trend is unlikely to continue. A plant motor life management strategy as outlined in this paper, based on condition based maintenance in combination with traditional types of maintenance, can help to ensure protection against unexpected plant motor problems and help to ensure achievement of motor design life and beyond. Although nothing will ever replace a thorough visual inspection for discovering

  8. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  9. Economics and policies of nuclear plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, H.

    1998-01-01

    NEA provides an opportunity for international exchange of information on the economics and policies of nuclear plant life management for governments and plant owners. The NEA Secretariat is finalising the 'state-of-the-art report' on the economics and policies of nuclear plant life management, including the model approach and national summaries. In order to meet power supply obligations in the early 2000, taking into account energy security, environmental impact, and the economics of nuclear power plants whose lives have been extended, initiatives at national level must be taken to monitor, co-ordinate, and support the various industry programmes of nuclear plant life management by integrated and consistent policies, public acceptance, R and D, and international co-operation. Nuclear power owners should establish an organisation and objectives to carry nuclear plant life management in the most economic and smoothest way taking into consideration internal and external influences. The organisation must identify the critical item and the ageing processes, and optimise equipment reliability and maintenance workload. (author)

  10. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1999-07-01

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  11. Alien species recorded in the United Arab Emirates: an initial list of terrestrial and freshwater species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritpal Soorae

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is documented on the alien terrestrial and freshwater species in the United Arab Emirates. To address this, an assessment of terrestrial and freshwater alien species was conducted using various techniques such as a questionnaire, fieldwork data, networking with relevant people, and a detailed literature review. The results of the initial assessment show that there are 146 alien species recorded in the following seven major taxonomic groups: invertebrates 49 species, freshwater fish five species, amphibian one species, reptiles six species, birds 71 species, mammals six species and plants eight species. To inform decision makers a full list of the 146 species identified in this assessment is presented. 

  12. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eMuller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these ‘urban plantings’ are typically designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant ‘ecological values’ by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban centre of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region over two, six week sampling periods characterised by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation, plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity.Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly - likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context.

  13. Radioactive waste management for German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, R.; Methling, D.; Sappok, M.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany, back-end fuel cycle provisions must be made for the twenty nuclear power plants currently run by utilities with an aggregate installed power of 23.4 GWe, and the four nuclear power plants already shut down. In addition, there are the shut down nuclear power plants of the former German Democratic Republic, and a variety of decommissioned prototype nuclear power plants built with the participation of the federal government and by firms other than utilities. The nuclear power plants operated by utilities contribute roughly one third of the total electricity generation in public power plants, thus greatly ensuring a stable energy supply in Germany. The public debate in Germany, however, focuses less on the good economic performance of these plants, and the positive acceptance at their respective sites, but rather on their spent fuel and waste management which, allegedly, is not safe enough. The spent fuel and waste management of German nuclear power plants is planned on a long-term basis, and executed in a responsible way by proven technical means, in the light of the provisions of the Atomic Act. Each of the necessary steps of the back end of the fuel cycle is planned and licensed in accordance with German nuclear law provisions. The respective facilities are built, commissioned, and monitored in operation with the dedicated assistance of expert consultants and licensing authorities. Stable boundary conditions are a prerequisite in ensuring the necessary stability in planning and running waste management schemes. As producers of waste, nuclear power plants are responsible for safe waste management and remain the owners of that waste until it has been accepted by a federal repository. (orig./DG) [de

  14. Total data management in the La Hague reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthion, Y.; Perot, J.P.; Silie, P.

    1993-01-01

    Due to the complexity of a spent fuel reprocessing plant and its nuclear characteristics, the operators must have real-time access to updated information on many subjects. To meet these requirements effectively, Cogema has installed a number of diversified data processing systems linked by a communications network called Haguenet. The whole system forms the La Hague Total Data Management System (TDMS) which performs a full range of functions, namely production data management, maintenance data management, technical documentation and miscellaneous. Some examples of the main process data management applications implemented within the La Hague TDMS are briefly described (nuclear materials and waste follow-up, analytical data management, operating procedures management and site inspection management). Also presented are some examples of the maintenance-related systems implemented within the La Hague TDMS (diagnostic assistance system, software maintenance center, maintenance interventions demand and spare parts data management). (Z.S.)

  15. Plant life management of the ACR-1000 Concrete containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrishami, H.H.; Ricciuti, R.; Elgohary, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ageing of reinforced concrete structures due to service conditions, aggressive environments, or accidents may cause their strength, serviceability and durability to decrease over time. For a new plant, a Plant Life Management (PLiM) program should start in the design process and then continues through the plant operation and decommissioning. Hence, PLiM must provide not only Ageing Management program (AMP) but also provide requirements on material characteristic and design criteria as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the Plant Life Management (PLiM) strategy for the concrete containment structure of the ACR-10001 (Advanced CANDU Reactor) designed by AECL. The ACR-1000 is designed for a 100-year plant life including 60-year operating life and an additional 40-year decommissioning period. The approach adopted for the PLiM strategy of the concrete containment structure is a preventive one, key areas being: 1) design methodology, 2) material performance and 3) ageing management program. During the design phase, in addition to strength and serviceability, durability, throughout the service life and decommissioning phase of the ACR-1000 structure, is a major consideration. Factors affecting durability design include: a) concrete performance, b) structural application, and c) consideration of environmental conditions. In addition to addressing the design methodology and material performance requirements, a systematic approach for the ageing management program for the concrete containment structure is presented. (authors)

  16. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  17. Phyloecology of urban alien floras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricotta, C.; La Sorte, F. A.; Pyšek, Petr; Rapson, G. L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Thompson, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2009), s. 1243-1251 ISSN 0022-0477 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : urban aliens * biological invasions * phylogenetic similarity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.690, year: 2009

  18. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  19. Highly invasive alien plant Reynoutria japonica Houtt. represents a novel source for pharmaceutical industry - evidence from phenolic profile and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božin Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reynoutria japonica is on the IUCN list of the Worlds’100 worst invasive species, but it is also, especially its rhizome, an integral part of traditional chinese medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of selected phenolic compounds in rhizome, stems, leaves and inflorescence methanol extracts of this plant, their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity. The chemical profile of the examined extracts was obtained by a high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro assays on DPPH, OH and NO radicals were used to estimate antioxidant potential and Ellman’s method was applied for the determination of anticholinesterase activity. Leaves and rhizome extracts were found to be rich in rosmarinic and chlorogenic acid, and selected flavonoids. Resveratrol was exclusively present in rhizome and stems extracts. All the investigated extracts expressed certain antioxidant activity, where leaves extract was the most active. However, rhizome extract was the strongest inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. These findings indicate that there is a possibility of R. japonica exploitation for the isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds used in pharmaceutical and food industry.

  20. Viewpoint of utilities regarding fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    The engagement of utilities in nuclear power requires them to engage in an increasing amount of fuel management activities in order to carry out all the tasks involved. Essentially, these activities involve two main areas: The procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; and in-core fuel management. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be borne by the utilities. Today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The fuel management activities of the utilities are analysed with respect to organizational, technical, safeguarding, and financial aspects. The active participation of the utilities in fuel management helps to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during its whole life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be ensured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or, on a larger scale, of a power plant system, i.e. activities by utilities to minimize fuel-cycle effects on the environment, which include optimization of fuel behaviour, and radiation exposure to the public and personnel; and technical and economic evaluations by utilities of out- and in-core fuel management. (author)

  1. Soil Management Plan for the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Construction activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant have often required the excavation or other management of soil within the facility. Because some of this soil may be contaminated, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) adopted specific policies to ensure the proper management of contaminated or potentially contaminated soil at the plant. Five types of contaminated or potentially contaminated soil are likely to be present at the Y-12 Plant: Soil that is within the boundaries of a Comprehensive Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Area of Contamination (AOC) or Operable Unit (OU); Soil that contains listed hazardous wastes; Soil that is within the boundaries of a RCRA Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU); Soil that contains polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS); Soil that contains low-level radioactive materials. The regulatory requirements associated with the five types of contaminated soil listed above are complex and will vary according to site conditions. This Soil Management Plan provides a standardized method for managers to determine the options available for selecting soil management scenarios associated with construction activities at the Y-12 Plant

  2. Nuclear power plant life management in a changing business world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the end of 1999, there were 348 nuclear power plants connected to the grid in OECD Member countries, representing a total capacity of 296 GWe and generating some 24% of their electricity. One third of these nuclear power plants had been in operation for over 20 years. The demand for electricity throughout OECD countries is increasing steadily but the construction of new nuclear power plants has become increasingly difficult. Many utilities would like to keep existing nuclear power plants operating for as long as they can continue to function safely and economically because. extending the lifetime of nuclear power plants is a substitute to constructing new plants. Therefore, nuclear plant life management (PLIM) has been carried out in many OECD Member countries and has played a very important role in the nuclear generation field. Nuclear power plant owners seek to economically optimise the output from their plants, taking into consideration internal and external influences, as well as equipment reliability and maintenance workload. Nuclear power plant life management and extension is generally an attractive option for utilities supplying electricity because of its low marginal cost and low investment risk. PLIM has become an important issue in the context of changing business circumstances caused by regulatory reform of the electricity market. Specifically, the economic aspect of PLIM has become an important focus in the competitive electricity market. The international workshop on 'Plant Life Management in a Changing Business World' was hosted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) in co-operation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) in Washington, DC, on 26-27 June 2000. Some 50 senior utility executives and policy makers from 12 Member countries, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the European Commission (EC) attended the meeting. The objective of the workshop was to examine the status of

  3. Improvements of radioactive waste management at WWER nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This report is part of a systematic IAEA effort to improve waste management practices at WWER plants and to make them consistent with the current requirements and standards for safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The report reviews the wet and dry solid waste management practices at the various types of WWER nuclear power plants (NPP) and describes approaches and recent achievements in waste minimization. Waste minimization practices in use at western PWRs are reviewed and compared, and their applicability at WWER plants is evaluated. Radioactive waste volume reduction issues and waste management practices are reflected in many IAEA publications. However, aspects of waste minimization specific to individual WWER nuclear power plant designs and WWER waste management policies are not addressed extensively in those publications. This report covers the important aspects applicable to the improvement of waste management at WWER NPP, including both plant-level and country-level considerations. It is recognized that most WWER plants are already implementing many of these concepts and recommendations with varying degrees of success; others will benefit from the included considerations. The major issues addressed are: - Review of current waste management policies and practices related to WWERs and western PWRs, including the influence of the original design concepts and significant modifications, liquid waste discharge limits and dry solid waste clearance levels applied in individual countries, national policies and laws, and other relevant aspects affecting the nature and quantities of waste arisings; - Identification of strategies and methods for improving the radioactive waste management generated in normal operation and maintenance at WWERs. This report is a composite (combination) of the two separate initiatives mentioned above. The first draft report was prepared at the meeting 26-30 May 1997 by five consultants. The draft was improved during an

  4. Plant life management processes and practices for heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.-S.; Cleveland, J.; Clark, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    In general, heavy water reactor (HWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) owners would like to keep their NPPs in service as long as they can be operated safely and economically. Their decisions are depending on essentially business model. They involve the consideration of a number of factors, such as the material condition of the plant, comparison with current safety standards, the socio-political climate and asset management/ business planning considerations. Continued plant operation, including operation beyond design life, called 'long term operation, depends, among other things, on the material condition of the plant. This is influenced significantly by the effectiveness of ageing management. Key attributes of an effective plant life management program include a focus on important systems, structure and components (SSCs) which are susceptible to ageing degradation, a balance of proactive and reactive ageing management programmes, and a team approach that ensures the co-ordination of and communication between all relevant nuclear power plant and external programmes. Most HWR NPP owners/operators use a mix of maintenance, surveillance and inspection (MSI) programs as the primary means of managing ageing. Often these programs are experienced-based and/or time-based and may not be optimised for detecting and/or managing ageing effects. From time-to-time, operational history has shown that this practice can be too reactive, as it leads to dealing with ageing effects (degradation of SSCs) after they have been detected. In many cases premature and/or undetected ageing cannot be traced back to one specific reason or an explicit error. The root cause is often a lack of communication, documentation and/or co-ordination between design, commissioning, operation or maintenance organizations. This lack of effective communication and interfacing frequently arises because, with the exception of major SSCs, such as the fuel channels or steam generators, there is a lack of explicit

  5. [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), Safety Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S M [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), Karachi (Pakistan)

    1997-12-01

    The present regime for CANDU safety management in Pakistan has evolved in line with contemporary international practice, and is essential adequate to ensure the continued safety of KANUPP and other future CANDU reactors, as confirmed by international reviews as well. But the small size of Pakistan nuclear power program poses limitations in developing - expert judgment in analysis of in-service inspection data; and own methodology for CANDU safety analysis.

  6. [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), Safety Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The present regime for CANDU safety management in Pakistan has evolved in line with contemporary international practice, and is essential adequate to ensure the continued safety of KANUPP and other future CANDU reactors, as confirmed by international reviews as well. But the small size of Pakistan nuclear power program poses limitations in developing - expert judgment in analysis of in-service inspection data; and own methodology for CANDU safety analysis

  7. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  8. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D. [MDC-Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  9. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K.

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  10. Managing ageing of Karachi nuclear power plant (KANUPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoda, M. Qamrul; Jamal-ur-Rahman

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Karachi Nuclear power Plant (KANUPP), a 137 MWe CANDU plant, was built on a turn-key basis by the Canadian General Electric (CGE) in the late sixties. The plant with a design life of thirty years went into commercial operation in October, 1972. After nearly three decades of operation, KANUPP like all other plants has faced the problem of equipment ageing and obsolescence. KANUPP has been striving hard to combat these problems with the assistance from IAEA, COG and WANO. During early eighties IAEA expert missions were called at KANUPP on various safety issues and on their recommendations various projects such as Safe Operation of KANUPP, Technical Upgradation Project, Balancing, Modernization and Rehabilitation project were initiated to combat equipment ageing and obsolescence. KANUPP has made substantial progress in the implementation of the tasks under these projects and the operating life of the plant is expected to be extended by 15 years. Three IAEA expert missions were invited at KANUPP during 1999-2000 to carry out assessment of the ongoing activities related to plant ageing management. On the basis of their recommendations an ageing Management Programme has been formally established at KANUPP to manage age-related degradation of plant systems, structures and components important to safety and to ensure that the required safety functions are available for the extended life of the plant. Being close to completion of its nominal design life in October 2002, KANUPP has already applied to Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority for renewal of operating license. This paper briefly describes the activities related to ageing management of KANUPP to fulfil the requirement for its continued operation beyond its design life. (author)

  11. Strengthening of nuclear power plant construction safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the warning of the Fukushima nuclear accident, and analyzes the major nuclear safety issues in nuclear power development in China, problems in nuclear power plants under construction, and how to strengthen supervision and management in nuclear power construction. It also points out that the development of nuclear power must attach great importance to the safety, and nuclear power plant construction should strictly implement the principle of 'safety first and quality first'. (author)

  12. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS

  13. Exploring Aspects of Strategic Management for a Small Plant Bakery

    OpenAIRE

    Leary, PA; Bell, GA; Thomson, EM

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the use some aspects of strategic management in order to inform a small plant bakery. We briefly review key theories underpinning business strategy and its implementation. A small plant bakery in the UK was analysed, identifying its Critical Success Factors (CSF) and Key Performance Indicators (KPI) comparing these with previous periods and other successful bakery businesses. Furthermore, the case study strategy is used to guide this research. We seek to determine if criti...

  14. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-06-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS.

  15. Probabilistic safety assessment in nuclear power plant management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) techniques have been widely used over the past few years to assist in understanding how engineered systems respond to abnormal conditions, particularly during a severe accident. The use of PSAs in the design and operation of such systems thus contributes to the safety of nuclear power plants. Probabilistic safety assessments can be maintained to provide a continuous up-to-date assessment (Living PSA), supporting the management of plant operations and modifications

  16. Program change management during nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushart, Sean; Kim, Karen; Naughton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Decommissioning a nuclear power plant is a complex project. The project involves the coordination of several different departments and the management of changing plant conditions, programs, and regulations. As certain project Milestones are met, the evolution of such plant programs and regulations can help optimize project execution and cost. This paper will provide information about these Milestones and the plant departments and programs that change throughout a decommissioning project. The initial challenge in the decommissioning of a nuclear plant is the development of a definitive plan for such a complex project. EPRI has published several reports related to decommissioning planning. These earlier reports provided general guidance in formulating a Decommissioning Plan. This Change Management paper will draw from the experience gained in the last decade in decommissioning of nuclear plants. The paper discusses decommissioning in terms of a sequence of major Milestones. The plant programs, associated plans and actions, and staffing are discussed based upon experiences from the following power reactor facilities: Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant, Yankee Nuclear Power Station, and the Haddam Neck Plant. Significant lessons learned from other sites are also discussed as appropriate. Planning is a crucial ingredient of successful decommissioning projects. The development of a definitive Decommissioning Plan can result in considerable project savings. The decommissioning plants in the U.S. have planned and executed their projects using different strategies based on their unique plant circumstances. However, experience has shown that similar project milestones and actions applied through all of these projects. This allows each plant to learn from the experiences of the preceding projects. As the plant transitions from an operating plant through decommissioning, the reduction and termination of defunct programs and regulations can help optimize all facets of

  17. Horticultural markets promote alien species invasions: an Estonian case study of herbaceous perennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Ööpik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardening is a popular pastime, but commercial horticulture is responsible for the introduction of alien species and contributes to invasions in a variety of ways. Although an extensive international literature is available on plant invasions, it is still important at the national level to examine the influence of local factors. Accordingly, 17 nurseries in Estonia that cultivated and sold perennial alien species were selected, and a list of species and prices was compiled. The relationships between species status, and factors such as their abundance in the wild were examined statistically. A qualitative list of the nationally problematic species among herbaceous perennials was also completed. A total of 880 taxa were recorded, of which 10.3% were native and 89.7% alien. In all, 87.3% of the alien species were still confined to cultivated areas. The ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the taxa were described, and lists of the families of casual, naturalised and invasive aliens were provided. Both native and increasing wild alien species have a very similar profile on the market. Alien species that are less expensive, widely available and have more cultivars per species on the market are also more likely to escape. The invasive status and abundance of escaped aliens in an area increases with residence time. In general, socio-economic factors create new and reflect previous propagule pressures from commercial horticulture, which continuously increase the likelihood of alien species surviving and invading new areas. Our findings suggest that these national socio-economic market-related factors explain much of the invasiveness of various perennial ornamental species, and therefore regional and national authorities urgently need to regulate and control the ornamental plant trade to diminish the risk of new invasions.

  18. Dna c-values of 20 invasive alien species and 3 native species in south china

    OpenAIRE

    Gong Ni; Wang Yu-Tao; Björn Lars Olof; Li Shao-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated fields and forests in South China are experiencing serious damage due to invasive alien plants. We investigated the relation between DNA C-values and invasiveness. The DNA C-values of 23 species ranged from 0.39 pg to 3.37 pg. Herbs, perennials and native species had higher mean DNA C-values than shrubs, annuals and invasive alien species. DNA C-values decreased with increasing invasiveness. Paederia scandens, a harmful native species, has the lo...

  19. Chemistry indices for long term plant health management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galt, K.J.; Cerisier, S.D.M.; Caris, N.B.

    1998-01-01

    Eskom's Koeberg Nuclear Power Station has maintained and reported on the WANO Chemistry Performance Index for a number of years. Because of the masking effects of multiple averaging, the value of the Index was questionable. The modified WANO Chemistry Performance Indicator, introduced recently, was considered an improvement. However, it was felt that it is too general to adequately address the long-term plant health management needs of a specific plant; a more tailored, plant-specific indicator is needed. A system of indices for measuring and managing long-term plant health at Eskom's 10 large fossil-fired power stations had been developed in 1996. The major success of these indices in improving plant performance management lay in their inclusion in station performance contracts. The Fossil Chemistry Index was based on the original WANO Chemistry Performance Index and suffered from the same shortcomings. Consequently, a major revision of this index was initiated to address these deficiencies. The objectives set for the revised common indicator were that target and limit values from Eskom Chemistry Standards should be incorporated, that the masking effect of multiple averaging be minimised or eliminated, that weighting factors be introduced to reflect the relative importance of selected parameters, that conditioning chemical effectiveness be monitored, and that ranges of values be accommodated. In tandem with this revision, there was requirement to include Koeberg in the reporting of long term plant health indicators. Instead of developing completely separate chemistry indicators for fossil and nuclear plant. A commonality of approach to Long Term Plant Health indicators was sought. This has resulted in a single indicator determination, with parameter selection, limit values, and target values providing the required plant specificity. (J.P.N.)

  20. Nuclear power plant information management system 'NUPIMAS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, M.; Saruyama, I.; Kurokawa, Y.; Kayano, M.; Katto, S.

    1980-01-01

    NUPIMAS is an interactive computer graphic system used for the design of pipings of nuclear power plant and the production of their drawings. Data on piping, duct, cable tray, equipment and building are stored in the computer and the following conversational-mode design works are performed online by means of graphic display, plotter and others: (1) Piping route study and interference check. (2) Modification of piping route and specifications. (3) Semi-automatic design of low-temperature piping supports. As the result of these design works the following drawings and lists are produced and interactively refined by computer: (1) Composite drawings. (2) Piping assembly drawings and shop drawings. (3) Bill of material. (4) Welding procedure instruction. (5) Duct route drawings (Isometric and 3-plane views). (6) Shop and assembly drawings of supports, etc. This system is already in practical use, obtaining good results. (author)

  1. Radwastes management in Qinshan Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huan; Ling Kechi; Wang Qingrong; Luo Jingfan

    1987-01-01

    The source terms input used as the basic data for designing the radwaste treatment systems of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant [300 MW(e)] is presented. The classification of radioactive liquid wastes, off-gases and solid wastes, and their treatment techniques, as well as on-site storage facilities for solid wastes are described. For liquid waste, the method of filtration-evaporation-ion exchange will be used as the main treatment technique. For off-gas, Holdup-decay treatment will be used. For evaporator concentrates, indrumsolidification method with normal domestic portland cement will be used. The assessment of impact of effluents to environment at normal operation of the NPP is also made. The results show that it will be safe for inhabitants nearby during normal operation and it can meet the requirements of national standard ''Regulation of Radiation Protection''

  2. Information Technology for Nuclear Power Plant Configuration Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Configuration management (CM) is an essential component of nuclear power plant design, construction and operation. The application of information technology (IT) offers a method to automate and ensure the timely and effective capture, processing and distribution of key nuclear power plant information to support CM principles and practical processes and procedures for implementation of CM at nuclear power plants. This publication reviews some of the principles established in IAEA-TECDOC-1335, 'Configuration Management in Nuclear Power Plants.' It also recaps tenets laid out in IAEA- TECDOC-1284, 'Information Technology Impact on Nuclear Power Plant Documentation' that supports CM programmes. This publication has been developed in conjunction with and designed to support these other two publications. These three publications combined provide a comprehensive discussion on configuration management, information technology and the relationship between them. An extensive discussion is also provided in this publication on the role of the design basis of the facility and its control through the CM process throughout the facility's lifetime. While this report was developed specifically for nuclear power plants, the principles discussed can be usefully applied to any high hazard nuclear facility

  3. Selection, competency development and assessment of nuclear power plant managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This publication provides information on proven methods and good practices with respect to the selection, development and assessment of nuclear power plant (NPP) managers. The report is organized into four sections, a glossary, two appendices, and several annexes. The Introduction (Section 1) provides the framework for the report. Section 2 describes how appropriate management competencies can be used for the selection, development and assessment of NPP managers, including: -Selection which includes recruitment, promotion and succession management. -Management development programmes including formal training, job rotation, on the job training, mentoring, and outside assignments. -Assessment of individual performance. Section 3 describes a systematic process for identifying the competencies needed by NPP managers. This section culminates in a set of suggested core competencies for NPP managers which are further expanded in Appendix A. The annexes included provide specific examples of competency-based management selection, development, and assessment programmes in several Member States. -Annex A is one method to organize and display competencies. -Annex B is an example of using competencies for selection of first line managers. -Annex C is an example of using management competencies for succession management. -Annexes -H are examples of management development programmes. -Annexes I and J are examples of management assessment programmes. A glossary of terms is provided at the end of the report to explain the use of some key terms explain the use of some key terms

  4. Nuclear power plant personnel training process management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjona Vazquez, Orison; Venegas Bernal, Maria del Carmen; Armeteros Lopez, Ana L.

    1996-01-01

    The system in charge the management of the training process personnel from a nuclear power plant was designed taking into account all the requirements stated in the training guide for nuclear power plant personnel and their evaluation, which were prepared by the IAEA in 1995 in order to implement the SAT in the training programs for nuclear plant personnel. In the preparations of formats and elements that shape the system, account has been taken of the views expressed in such a guide, in some other bibliography that was consulted, and in the authors own opinion mainly with regard to those issues which the guide does not go deeper into

  5. Managing Environmentally-Assisted Fatigue in U. S. Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear plants in the United States were originally licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for 40 years of operation, but most of these plans have or are planning on renewing their license to 60 years. Plants are required by federal law to manage the aging effects of systems, structures and components in the scope of license renewal. One of the aging effects is environmentally-assisted fatigue of the primary system vessels and piping. This article discusses the strategies that U. S. utilities have utilized in order to safety NRC concerns with respect to fatigue damage in nuclear plants. (Author)

  6. Aging and Plant Life Management with the Software Tool COMSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopper, Helmut; Rossner, Roland; Zander, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of PLEX, a systematic and efficient ageing and plant life management system is becoming more and more important to ensure a safe and economical power plant operation in spite of continuous plant ageing. For the methodical implementation of PLIM and PLEX strategies, AREVA NP has developed the software tool COMSY. This knowledge-based program integrates degradation analysis tools with an inspection data management system. COMSY provides the capability to establish a program guided technical documentation by utilizing a virtual plant model which includes information regarding thermal hydraulic operation, water chemical conditions and materials applied for mechanical components. It provides the option to perform a plant-wide screening for identifying system areas, which are sensitive for degradation mechanisms typically experienced in nuclear power plants (FAC, corrosion fatigue, IGSCC, Pitting, etc.). If a system area is identified as being susceptible to degradation, a detailed analysis function enables the condition-oriented service life evaluation of vessels and piping systems in order to localize and conservatively quantify the effect of degradation. Based on these forecasts with COMSY, specific strategies can be developed to mitigate the effect of degradation and inspection activities can be focused on degradation sensitive areas. In addition, a risk-informed assessment tool serves to optimize inspection activities in respect to degradation potential and the associated damage consequence. After an in-service inspection is performed for a distinct location, the inspection data is to be evaluated according to generally accepted procedures. For this purpose an integrated inspection data management system module provides standardized, interactively operated evaluation functions. The key inspection results are transmitted as feedback in respect to the as-is condition of the component. Subsequently, all further life evaluations of the associated

  7. Configuration management of modifications to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capano, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines Configuration Management (CM), which is a method of monitoring and controlling a power plant's data base to ensure that the data base remains consistent and reflects the physical characteristics of the plant. Myriad changes are imposed on power plant systems by regulatory requirements, operations, and administrative needs. This paper outlines the elements a CM program requires to track and assess the impacts of those changes on the data base, and to make necessary revisions. The paper notes several instances where CM has been used successfully, describes several practical applications of CM, and discusses potential cost savings that can be realized from these applications

  8. Regulatory Risk Management of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Glenn R.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory risk reflects both the likelihood of adverse outcomes during regulatory interactions and the severity of those outcomes. In the arena of advanced nuclear power plant licensing and construction, such adverse outcomes may include, for example, required design changes and construction delays. These, in turn, could significantly affect the economics of the plant and the generation portfolio in which it will operate. In this paper, the author addresses these issues through the lens of risk management. The paper considers various tools and techniques of regulatory risk management, including design diversity and hedging strategies. The effectiveness of alternate approaches is weighed and recommendations are made in several regulatory contexts. (author)

  9. Nuclear power plant life management. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Presently, an area of major interest of the IAEA is the management of the nuclear power plant (NPP) life cycle from concept development to decommissioning and disposal, with the primary objective of maximising the return on investment in nuclear facilities through efficient operation of NPPs. 441 NPPs, with a capacity of about 350GW(e) supplied 16% of global electricity in 2002. Of these, about 300 NPPs have been in operation for 15 years or more and these older units with partially or fully amortized capital costs have proven to be the most profitable. Moreover, there are no significant safety or economic reasons not to continue the operation of well managed NPPs over a longer period and consequently the issues of plant life management and license extension are receiving increasing emphasis in many countries. Forecasts of nuclear power growth over the next two decades range from 350GW(e) in the worst case to 500GW(e) in the best case. This will need additional personnel and expansion of the infrastructure in the developing countries, particularly as much of the new demand growth is forecast to take place outside the countries where most of the existing infrastructure resides. All aspects of NPP life cycle management are addressed by the IAEA and are briefly described in these proceedings. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (TWG-LMNPP) recommended, during its regular meeting in February 1999, that the IAEA should consider holding a symposium on this subject area in 2002. This TWG-LMNPP Proposal was approved and, this symposium was held, attended by 138 participants from 32 Member States and 2 international organizations. The objectives of the symposium were as follows: Emphasise the role of NPP life management programmes in assuring a safe and reliable NPP operating cycle; Identify progress in methodological and technological developments for managing ageing processes and understanding ageing mechanisms; Provide a forum for

  10. The System 80+ Standard Plant Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, R.S.; Bryan, R.E. [ABB Combuions Engineering Nuclear Systems (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Historically, electric nuclear power plant owners, following the completion of construction and startup, have been left with a mountain of hard-copy documents and drawings. Hundreds of thousands of hours are spent searching for relevant documents and, in most cases, the documents found require many other documents and drawings to fully understand the design basis. All too often the information is incomplete, and eventually becomes obsolete. In the U.S., utilities spend millions of dollars to discover design basis information and update as-built data for each plant. This information must then be stored in an easily accessed usable form to assist satisfy regulatory requirements and to improve plant operating efficiency. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Systems (ABB-CE) has an active program to develop a state-of-the-art Plant Information Management System (IMS) for its advanced light water reactor, the System 80+TM Standard Plant Design. This program is supported by ABB's Product Data Management (PDM) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) efforts world wide. This paper describes the System 80+ plant IMS and how it will be used during the entire life cycle of the plant. (author)

  11. The System 80+ Standard Plant Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, R.S.; Bryan, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Historically, electric nuclear power plant owners, following the completion of construction and startup, have been left with a mountain of hard-copy documents and drawings. Hundreds of thousands of hours are spent searching for relevant documents and, in most cases, the documents found require many other documents and drawings to fully understand the design basis. All too often the information is incomplete, and eventually becomes obsolete. In the U.S., utilities spend millions of dollars to discover design basis information and update as-built data for each plant. This information must then be stored in an easily accessed usable form to assist satisfy regulatory requirements and to improve plant operating efficiency. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Systems (ABB-CE) has an active program to develop a state-of-the-art Plant Information Management System (IMS) for its advanced light water reactor, the System 80+TM Standard Plant Design. This program is supported by ABB's Product Data Management (PDM) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) efforts world wide. This paper describes the System 80+ plant IMS and how it will be used during the entire life cycle of the plant. (author)

  12. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    1978. " Ecotoxicology of aquatic plant communi- ties," Principles of Ecotoxicology , SCOPE Report 12, Chapter 11, pp 239-255. [Heavy metals, Pollutants...Phragmites communis and Equisetum limosum were cultivated . They found plant-plant influences depend on soil type. Typha latifolia, S. A2 lacustris, and

  13. Research on reliability management systems for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Nobuo

    2000-01-01

    Investigation on a reliability management system for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has been performed on national and international archived documents as well as on current status of studies at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), US NPPs (McGuire, Seabrook), a French NPP (St. Laurent-des-Eaux), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industries (CRIEPI), and power plant manufacturers in Japan. As a result of the investigation, the following points were identified: (i) A reliability management system is composed of a maintenance management system to inclusively manage maintenance data, and an anomalies information and reliability data management system to extract data from maintenance results stored in the maintenance management system and construct a reliability database. (ii) The maintenance management system, which is widely-used among NPPs in the US and Europe, is an indispensable system for the increase of maintenance reliability. (iii) Maintenance management methods utilizing reliability data like Reliability Centered Maintenance are applied for NPP maintenance in the US and Europe, and contributing to cost saving. Maintenance templates are effective in the application process. In addition, the following points were proposed on the design of the system: (i) A detailed database on specifications of facilities and components is necessary for the effective use of the system. (ii) A demand database is indispensable for the application of the methods. (iii) Full-time database managers are important to maintain the quality of the reliability data. (author)

  14. Construction techniques and management methods for BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yohji; Tateishi, Mizuo; Hayashi, Yoshishige

    1989-01-01

    Toshiba is constantly striving for safer and more efficient plant construction to realize high-quality BWR plants within a short construction period. To achieve these aims, Toshiba has developed and improved a large number of construction techniques and construction management methods. In the area of installation, various techniques have been applied such as the modularization of piping and equipment, shop installation of reactor internals, etc. Further, installation management has been upgraded by the use of pre-installation review programs, the development of installation control systems, etc. For commissioning, improvements in commissioning management have been achieved through the use of computer systems, and testing methods have also been upgraded by the development of computer systems for the recording and analysis of test data and the automatic adjustment of controllers in the main control system of the BWR. This paper outlines these construction techniques and management methods. (author)

  15. Invasive alien species – framework for the identification of invasive alien species of EU concern

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Helen; Schonrogge, Karsten; Dean, Hannah; Peyton, Jodey; Branquart, Etienne; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Copp, Gordon; Stebbing, Paul; Kenis, Marc; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Essl, Franz; Schindler, Stefan; Brunel, Sarah; Kettunen, Marianne; Mazza, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered to be one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, particularly through their interactions with other drivers of change (MEA 2005, GBO 2011). In recent years the European Commission (EC) has intensified their commitment to provide a comprehensive, problem-oriented, well-balanced and manageable solution to IAS in Europe. The text of a European Union (EU) Regulation is expected to be adopted soon. A core component of the Regulation is a list of “IAS o...

  16. Comparison of Plant Life Management Approaches for Long Term Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kisig

    2012-01-01

    Plant life management can be defined as the integration of ageing and economic planning to maintain a high level of safety and optimize operations. Many Member States have given high priority to long term operation of nuclear power plants beyond the time frame originally anticipated (e. g. 30 or 40 years). Out of a total of 445 (369 GWe) operating nuclear power plants, 349 units (297 GWe) have been in operation for more than 20 years (as of November 2011). The need for engineering support to operation, maintenance, safety review and life management for long term operation as well as education and training in the field is increasingly evident. In addition the Fukushima accident has rendered all stake holders even more attentive to safety concerns and to the provision of beyond safety measures in the preparation and scrutiny of applications for operational design life extensions. In many countries, the safety performance of NPPs is periodically followed and characterized via the periodic safety review (PSR) approach. The regulatory The regulatory review and acceptance of the PSR gives the licensee the permission to operate the plant for up to the end of the next PSR cycle (usually 10 years). In the USA and other countries operating US designed plants, the license renewal application is based on the five pre-requisite requirements and ageing management programme for passive long life system structure and components(SSCs) and active systems is adequately addressed by the maintenance rule (MR) requirements and other established regulatory processes. Other Member States have adopted a combined approach that incorporates elements of both PSR and additional LRA specific requirements primarily focused on time limited ageing analysis. Taking into account this variety of approaches, the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) initiated work for collecting and sharing information among Member States about good practices on plant life management for long term operation in

  17. Sampling alien species inside and outside protected areas: Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Aristides; Voutsela, Anneta; Katsanevakis, Stelios

    2018-06-01

    Data of alien species presences are generally more readily available in protected than non-protected areas due to higher sampling efforts inside protected areas. Are the results and conclusions based on analyses of data collected in protected areas representative of wider non-protected regions? We address this question by analysing some recently published data of alien plants in Greece. Mixed effects models were used with alien species presences in 8.25 x 8.25 km cells as dependent variable and the percentage of protected area, as well as the agricultural and artificial land cover types richness (as indicators of human presence) as independent variables. In addition, the spatial cross-correlation between the percentage of protected area and alien species richness was examined across scales. Results indicated that the percentage of protected area per cell is a poor predictor of alien species richness. Spatial analysis indicated that cells with higher percentage of protected areas have slightly less alien species than cells with lower percentage of protected areas. This result is likely to be driven by the overall negative correlation between habitat protection and anthropogenic activities. Thus, the conclusions deduced by data deriving from protected areas are likely to hold true for patterns of alien species in non-protected areas when the human pressures are accounted for.

  18. Sampling alien species inside and outside protected areas: Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Aristides; Voutsela, Anneta; Katsanevakis, Stelios

    2018-06-01

    Data of alien species presences are generally more readily available in protected than non-protected areas due to higher sampling efforts inside protected areas. Are the results and conclusions based on analyses of data collected in protected areas representative of wider non-protected regions? We address this question by analysing some recently published data of alien plants in Greece. Mixed effects models were used with alien species presences in 8.25×8.25km cells as dependent variable and the percentage of protected area, as well as the agricultural and artificial land cover types richness (as indicators of human presence) as independent variables. In addition, the spatial cross-correlation between the percentage of protected area and alien species richness was examined across scales. Results indicated that the percentage of protected area per cell is a poor predictor of alien species richness. Spatial analysis indicated that cells with higher percentage of protected areas have slightly less alien species than cells with lower percentage of protected areas. This result is likely to be driven by the overall negative correlation between habitat protection and anthropogenic activities. Thus, the conclusions deduced by data deriving from protected areas are likely to hold true for patterns of alien species in non-protected areas when the human pressures are accounted for. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilities' view on the fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities engagement in nuclear power requires an increasing amount of fuel management activities by the utilities in order to meet all tasks involved. These activities comprise essentially two main areas: - activities to secure the procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; - activities related to the incore fuel managment. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be realized by the utilities. Starting in the past, today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The scope of utilities' fuel management activities is analyzed with respect to organizational aspects, technical aspects, safeguarding aspects, and financial aspects. Utilities taking active part in the fuel management serves to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during the whole plant life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be assured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or on a larger scale of a power plant system, i.e., utility activities to minimize the effects of fuel cycle on the environment, which includes optimization of fuel behaviour, radiation exposure to public and personnel, and utility technical and economic evaluations of out- and incore fuel management. These activities of nuclear power producing utilities in the field of nuclear fuel cycle are together with a close cooperation with fuel industry as well as national and international authorities a necessary basis for the further utilization of nuclear power

  20. Three essential management processes of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Tunfeng

    2010-01-01

    The paper takes the operation and management of Qinshan NPP Phase II as an example, focusing on the implementation of the essential process from the following three aspects the NPP production organization, training, examination and authorization for safety-related personnel, and financing budge management. A better understanding and implementation of the essential process will enable nuclear power plants to effectively control the nuclear safety from the most fundamental managerial level. (author)